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The Bright Future of High Resolution Satellite-Will Aerial Photogrammetry Become Obsolete

Eckardt, Börner, Lehmann [email protected], phone: +49 30 67055 539 Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics Department Optical Sensorics and Electronics

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 1

Outline Current optical high end high resolution technology High resolution optical satellite EO-Programs Commercial space segments Data fusion with AIS and radar sensors HiROS High Resolution Optical Satellite System Examples for real time 3D change detection Conclusion

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 2

Current optical high end high resolution technology

LAUNCH: DEPLOYMENT: MISSION DURATION: SERVICING MISSION 1: SERVICING MISSION 2: SERVICING MISSION 3A: SERVICING MISSION 3B: SERVICING MISSION 4:

0,16 0,14 0,12 0,1 GS [m] SD 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0 02 0 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 Orbit [km]

April 24, 1990 from space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) f h ttl Di (STS 31) April 25, 1990 Up to 20 years December 1993 February 1997 December 1999 February 2002 May 2009

f : F#: F# D

57.6 m 24 / PAN 2.4 m

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High resolution optical satellite EO-Programs EO Programs

Current Status Announced Future Programs Not Announced Future Programs (Budget not defined & Time Schedule not clear) UK Spain Canada SAT 50 cm US CIVIL Government

EOS Series LandSat Series:LDCM 10 m KH-12/5: 10 cm / 5 cm?

15-20 Satellites 0.5 m GSD

Germany

RapidEye 6.5 m

Italy SAT 50 cm

SEOSAT 2.5 m ESA Sat 50 cm SAT 50 cm

Surrey France Mini-Sats TopSat 2.86 m SPOT-5 2.5 m Pleiades 1&2 0 7 m 0.7 DMC 1&2 4m AlSat1&2 2.5 m Helios 1&2 1 m RALCOM4 80 cm SAT 50 cm

SAT 50 cm

RUSSIA

Resurs- DK KOSMOS IKI 50 cm 1m 1m

Kazahkstan

Morocco MORCO TubSat SAT 50cm KAZSAT UAE SAT 50 cm Thuraya SAT 50cm Egypt EgyptSat-1 S SAT 50cm

Japan

ADEOS ALOS 2.5m IGS SAT 50 cm

US Commercial

IKONOS-2 1 m Orbview-3 1m GeoEye-1(OrbView-5) 0.41 m

Mexico 50 cm

Algeria Al i

DigitalGlobe

QuickBird 0.6 m WorldView-1 0.45 m WorldView-2 0.5 m

ALSAT-1 Nigeria Thailand ALSAT-2 2.5 m NigeriaSat-1 THEOS 2.5 m SAT 50 cm SAT 50cm India Israel IRS Cartosat-2 1m EROS-B 0.7 m IRS-P5 Carosat-1 2.5 m EROS-A 1.9 m SAT 50cm OPTSAT-3000

China 4 m PAN 1 m Pan SAT 50 cm

Korea

KOMPSAT-1 6.6 m KOMPSAT-2 1 m KOMPSAT-3 0.7 m SAT 50 cm

Taiwan Australia

FormoSat 2 FormoSat-2 Follow-on 2m-2.5m FormoSat-2 2m-2.5m SAT 50cm

Chile Chil

Argentina

SAC-C 35m FASat-Allta ChileSat 2.5 m NASA/CONAE SAT 50 cm

Brazil

MECO series SAT 50 cm

Brazil/China

CBERS 3&4 5 m

Turkey

Göktürk-1 0.5 m Göktürk 2 2.5 Göktürk-2 2 5 m Göktürk-3 1 m ­ 0.5 m

SAT 50 cm

Peru 50 cm

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Commercial or dual use optical space segments

WV1: 0.5 m GSD

Geo Eye 0.41 m GSD

WV2 0.5 m GSD

Pleiades 1 m GSD

Example DLR Proposal p p RapidEye 6.5 m GSD HiROS 0 5 GSD 0.5

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Example: HiROS design goals p g g

Main key parameter of the optical HiROS payload Revisit, actuality and imaging time (any area worldwide shall be scanned within 24 h by one of the

satellites) t llit )

Size of imaging area (36...60 km x 36...60 km) Target recognition (high color resolution, 3D capability) Special data products for MIL and security applications Data processing time minimization

3 Satellite System with 0.5 m GSD PAN 05

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HiROS a End to End system p p y proposal

Options: ( ) Auto Indetif. of Ships, ( ) Night Vision IR, ( ) Real time Image Access p (1) p , (2) g , (3) g

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HiROS Key Parameter y

HiROS-Std Orbit [km] GSD Aperture [m] VIS Spectral Stereo Views TDI-Direction Nr. Nr Pixel PAN Nr. Pixel MS Line Rate [kHz] MTF SNR 490...685 490 685 0.5...0.7 0.75 0 75 R,G,B,NIR

-30°,-10°,0°, +10°,+ 30°

HiROS-MR

HiROS-HR

bidirectional 24,000 24 000 6,000 14 > 12 % > 200* 200

(* at 20 % albedo, (30 ° sun angle, 30 ° view angle), 10:30 Berlin)

20 %

x

30 °

30 °

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Mission characteristics of HiROS

Long Life Time: Resolution: PAN MS 5 years 0.5 0 5 m GSD 2 m GSD (Red, Green, Blue, NIR)

High Revisit Time: any p g y point on Earth every day y y Polar SSO (490 km, 7063 m/s, LTDN 10:30) 3 satellite constellation (120° spacing) High duty cycle 10 min per orbit High Agility / Operability One- Pass Stereo Imaging (along track viewing angle of 0°, +/- 10°, +/- 30°) Wide Area Imaging ( five strips of 12 km swath in flight all directions) swath, Multi Point Imaging (Multiple small area coverage in one path) High Down Link Capability Steerable X ­ b d antenna (600 Mbit/s encrypted) St bl band t Mbit/ t d) Simultaneous downlink & imaging Option [I]: IR MIR & TIR: GSD 5 m Option [II]: Automatic Identification of Systems (Coded telecommunication) Opt o [ ] a a d Uplink to Geo Communication Satellites (2 min for 12 x 12 qkm after imaging) Option [III]: Ka-Band Up Co u cat o Sate tes ( o q a e ag g

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High resolution optical satellite system (Std. HiROS) g p y ( )

Satellite Characteristics

Mass: Launcher: L h 820 kg (dry mass 750 kg) single launch (Rockot, VEGA...) i l l h (R k t VEGA ) multiple launch (Soyuz 2 ­ 1b) 380 W average

Power: P

High Pointing Accuracy & Stability:

Accuracy of orientation w/o ground control points: +/- 2..4 m Orientation relative to Nadir +/- 30° pitch / +/- 40° roll Stereo Angle along track 0°, +/- 10°, +/- 30° 0 10 30 Cross track 0° to 90° during one path LoS accuracy (Jitter Stability): 0.07 arcs / 4.83 ms Co-registration between IR and HR VIS: 1/3 Pixel of IR detector = 0.7 arcs

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HiROS ­ Instrument performances p

Mass: 190 kg g Power: 110 W Panchromatic Channel: 0.5 m GSD 450nm ­ 900nm Multi spectral Channels: 2 m GSD 450 ­ 520, 520 ­ 600, 630 ­ 690, 760 ­ 900 nm Option IR Channel: MIR GSD: TIR GSD: Swath Width MTF SNR: Dynamic Range: Selectable TDI Stages: g Line Rate: 5m 5m > 12 km > 13 % > 200* > 1:5000 (14 bit ADC) 1, 8, 32, 64 , , , 0.5...14.5 kHz PAN / 0.5...3.6 kHz MS

* Sun angle 30° view angle 30° albedo 20%,10:30 Berlin

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Focal plane development

FPA R-Power

CC

MTF [CT] : 52 % MTF [LT] : 53 % rms noise [wc] 16 LSB (40 °C) S ( Channel SNR >1024 EGSE Instrument SNR 200* Line Rate: 14 kHz

* Sun angle 30° view angle 30° albedo 20%,10:30 Berlin

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M-Power o e

Maritime Surveillance & Reconnaissance

Automatic Identification System AIS

© AMVER

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Current Status

Ship Monitoring only in costal zones areas possible

no global monitoring available no global traffic coordination possible

Very limited technical equipment existing to track the ship traffic in open ocean areas to find out position and the vector of velocity (INMARSAT, VMS, ..)

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Example of Data fusion p

DLR Study: Needs for on board classification and feature based data fusion

Radarsat-1 S d d 6 R d 1 Standard 11 Aug 2006 04:58 04 58 UTC

Correlated VDS/AIS /

No AIS

No AIS

No AIS

© Kongsberg PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 15

Optional Payload AIS DLR Micro Sat. Mission p y

Small Payload with high additional information ships for larger Systems Receiver: Mass less 1kg, Dimensions: 170 x 250 x 50 mm Antenna: Helix DLR-RY Pre Curser Activities Development of a nano satellite (AISat) for global Monitoring of see traffic Planed Launch 1Q/ 2010 on PSLV

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HiROS Ground Segment - Overview g

Tasking

DLR Ground Station Weilheim

HiROS-Data

Mobile Stations

DLR Realtime Processing Center Neustrelitz

DLR Data Center DLR Data Validation Center

DLR Control Center

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Ground Segment ­ Dataflow g

Tasking

HiROS-Data

HiROS

Receiving and Processing

Users Distribution Product Generation

Realtime Delivery y Catalogue Archiving

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Detection Advantage of SAR Satellites Identification Advantage of Optical Satellites g g p

50 cm Resolution

Better weather With Heavy Fog

Funnel

Bridge deck at stern

Pipelines

1 Meter Resolution

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Dual Use Applications pp

Spectral Bloom

Sukhoi SU-47 "Berkut" (Experimental Fighter)

Possible flight preperations Note: Two fuel trucks in place Pair of J-7 Interceptor Fighter Aircraft

TU-160 Blackjack Bombers Engels Air Base, Russia

QuickBird [I], 0.6 Q i kBi d [I] 0 6 m GSD

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3D Images of Beijing (WV1, accuracy: x&y 50 cm, z 10 cm)

Status: Change detection 3D HiROS data Product is 1 h after received data available Goal (1): Data processing at ground segment in real time Goal (2): Data processing on Board Road Map

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Why we are so optimistic regarding the real time solution? y p g g

Example: Airborne and Satellite data (MFC and WV)

Example: Driver assistance systems

Same SGM algorithm by 1 k x 1 k stereo images 25 Hz will be used 2011 in S-MB

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3D Images with facade of Beijing (WV1, accuracy: x&y 50 cm, z 10cm)

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Las Vegas WV1 data 50 cm GSD (accuracy: x&y 50 cm, z 25cm) g ( y y , )

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Kauai, Island near Hawai, WV1 50 cm GSD (accuracy: x&y 50 cm, z 25cm) , , ( y y , )

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Optics/SAR for UN Emergency Response Flooding in Bolivia, Feb 2008 p g y p g ,

Das Bild k ann nicht angezeigt werden. Dieser Computer v erfügt möglicherweise über zu wenig A rbeitsspeicher, um das Bild zu öffnen, oder das Bild ist beschädigt. Starten Sie den Computer neu, und öffnen Sie dann erneut die Datei. Wenn weiterhin das rote x angezeigt wird, müssen Sie das Bild möglicherweise löschen und dann erneut einfügen.

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 26

Das Bild k ann nicht angezeigt werden. Dieser Computer v erfügt möglicherweise über zu wenig A rbeitsspeicher, um das Bild zu öffnen, oder das Bild ist beschädigt. Starten Sie den Computer neu, und öffnen Sie dann erneut die Datei. Wenn weiterhin das rote x angezeigt wird, müssen Sie das Bild möglicherweise löschen und dann erneut einfügen.

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 27

CHAD

Refugees Leaving Chad for Cameroon

Cameroon

Chad

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 28

HiROS Higher Level Data Products g

Processing

Spaceborne DSM of 1 m accuracy from QuickBird

Changed DSM for analysis of under ground activities of the nuclear facilities in Isfahan/Iran

mass events

Automatic car detection Capabilities Highways and traffic ways detection

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 29

Conclusion

1) Current digital airborne systems are working in a range of 5 cm ­ 1m GSD 2) Commercial satellites are working in a range 50 cm ­ 6.5 m GSD 3) HiROS constellation 24 h revisit time any area (10 Orbits: whole Germany ca. 3-5 days in 3D) 4) Minimal tasking 5-2 min before imaging (45 min standard, 5-2 min via patch antenna) 5) Fast data access 2 min after imaging via ( ) g g (Ka-Band) communication satellite ) 6) Processing time of 1000 km2 in ca. 1 h (25 CPU's) near future real time 7) MR and HR satellite systems could not be used because of current law 8) System life time between 5 and 10 years 9) Data fusion between airborne / UAV systems of 1 25 cm GSD radar and high 1-25 GSD, resolution optical satellites for local and global applications Today and in the near future space- and airborne / UAV systems are complementary

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Data fusion product of airborne and terrestrial Sensors

Data fusion of airborne camera, LIDAR and panoramic camera Accuracy x, y, z better 5 cm Geo 3D VR Application Goal: sensor systems space- global 50 cm [GSD] and airborne local 1-25 cm [GSD] space 1 25

PHOWO 09.09.2009, Page: 31

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