Read Microsoft PowerPoint - DiLullo DL Slides v.FINAL ANCHORAGE.ppt text version

SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

is funded principally through a grant of the

SPE FOUNDATION

The Society gratefully acknowledges those companies that support the program by allowing their professionals to participate as Lecturers. And special thanks to The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for their contribution to the program.

SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

Low-cost, Non-invasive, Remote Pipeline and Well Inspection Technologies

Alberto Di Lullo Eni E&P Division SPE ­ Italian Section

Eni S.p.A. - E&P Division

WHAT IS MEANT HERE FOR "INSPECTION"

Information about the space available to flow (i.e. the pipe from the point of view of the fluid)

Changes in the effective Diameter profile e.g. deposits, valves, wall thickness Presence of interfaces (G/L, L/L) created by stratification of the fluids

FLOW ASSURANCE WAX PLUGS

FLOW ASSURANCE ASPHALTENES

FLOW ASSURANCE EMULSIONS

FLOW ASSURANCE DEFINITION Flow Assurance guarantees the achievement of the life-time production targets of a lifting and transportation system by predicting, preventing and solving problems directly originated by the behavior of the transported substances (gases, liquids, solids) either as single phases or in multiphase conditions

WHY FLOW ASSURANCE NEEDS MONITORING

WE NEED FLOW ASSURANCE MONITORING BECAUSE: · Solutions may reduce the rate of problems or may create new problems · Cost reduction leads to progressive optimizations, which must be validated · Some problems may affect Pipeline Integrity or impede intelligent pigging · Some problems require really expensive interventions, which must be optimized

PRESENTATION AGENDA

Overview

· Contexts needing pipeline and tubing inspection · Limitations of Steady­State Monitoring Techniques · Alternatives to Steady­State Techniques · Transient based inspection technologies · Field applications and examples · Conclusions

STEADY­STATE MONITORING Different states, same measurements DISTRIBUTED vs CONCENTRATED RESTRICTIONS

15" ID 5km deposit 0.5" thick Thin 90% obstruction

Induce the SAME additional P

Deposit volume = 73 m3 Deposit volume = 0.5 m3

QUANTITY AND POSITION OF DEPOSITS CANNOT BE ESTIMATED

STEADY­STATE MONITORING Different states, same measurements SENSITIVITY in DETECTING DEPOSITS

15" ID 5km deposit 0.5" thick Thin 90% obstruction

Induce a SMALL additional P (<0.5 bar)

Equivalent causes: Q < +5% < 20% ... T...

UNCERTAINTY HIDES THE EFFECT OF SLOWLY GROWING RESTRICTIONS

STEADY­STATE MONITORING Different states, same measurements SENSITIVITY in DETECTING DEPOSITS

20.5 20.0

19.5

P [bar]

19.0

Q+5%

18.5

18.0

Q­5%

17.5 17.0 0.00

Minimum volume of deposits practically detectable

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

160.00

180.00

200.00

Volume of deposits [m3] uniform over 5km

STEADY­STATE MONITORING Different states, same measurements DEPOSITS WITHOUT PHASE-DIAGRAM PREDICTABILITY

Sand

Ineffective chemicals

Unexpected bottoms

THE PRESENCE AND QUANTITY OF UNPREDICTABLE DEPOSITS MUST BE GENUINELY DETECTED

PRESENTATION AGENDA

Overview

· Contexts needing pipeline and tubing inspection · Limitations of Steady­State Monitoring Techniques · Alternatives to Steady­State Techniques · Transient based inspection technologies · Field applications and examples · Conclusions

ALTERNATIVES TO STEADY­STATE TECHNIQUES? TWO POSSIBILITIES · ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE NOISE Noise with no change of production conditions Potentially applicable for continuous monitoring · ANALYSIS OF FLOWRATE TRANSIENTS Transients create waves which "explore" the line Need for temporary changes in production conditions

ALTERNATIVES TO STEADY­STATE TECHNIQUES? PRO'S and CON'S OF THE TWO POSSIBILITIES · PASSIVE NOISE PRO: Works under normal production CON: Applicable to very short pipelines (<200m?) · FLOWRATE TRANSIENTS PRO: Applicable to long wells and pipelines CON: Temporary change of flow conditions Passive noise not discussed here, but might deserve more exploration

PRESENTATION AGENDA

Overview

· Contexts needing pipeline and tubing inspection · Limitations of Steady­State Monitoring Techniques · Alternatives to Steady­State Techniques · Transient based inspection technologies · Field applications and examples · Conclusions

TRANSIENT-BASED INSPECTION CONCEPT

Processing Unit Pressure sensor

Flow rate Transient

INSPECTION ACCOMPLISHED BY:

1) GENERATING A FAST FLOW RATE TRANSIENT 2) MEASURING THE RESULTING PRESSURE EVOLUTION 3) ANALYZING THE DATA

MEASURING PRESSURE IN ONE POINT AND NOT MEASURING FLOWRATE

TRANSIENT: EXAMPLE OF A REAL MEASUREMENT

Stop discharge

Well Head

Q

time

1675m

3 " 1/2 (74.2mm ID)

THP [bar]

time

3.6s 3.6s 4.0s

3820m

2 " 7/8 (59.0mm ID)

FTHP

444m

EXPLOITATION OF FLOW RATE TRANSIENTS

Theory Correct modeling Simulation software

Pressure sensors Accurate at high P Fast response EXPLOITING TRANSIENTS

Inverse problem From P data to profile of variables along pipe

PATENTED

Data acquisition In the field with operators Portable and reliable tools

TRANSIENT­BASED MEASUREMENTS EXECUTION TRANSIENTS EXPLOITATION REQUIRES STRONG INTERACTION WITH PLANT OPERATORS: · Transients must be produced by somebody's hands: he/she has to learn how

Can you learn Tango by exchanging e-mails ?

·

There is no "standard plant" Application flexibility is mandatory Operator's understanding is mandatory

TRANSIENT­BASED, REMOTE INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

TBI

Transient Based Inspection

(In Eni, we call it PRIMEFLO)

PRESENTATION AGENDA

Overview

· Contexts needing pipeline and tubing inspection · Limitations of Steady­State Monitoring Techniques · Alternatives to Steady­State Techniques · Transient based inspection technologies · Field applications and examples · Conclusions

TBI DEMONSTRATED PERFORMANCE

DEMONSTRATED APPLICABILITY

Pipes Geometry Type Diameter Viscosity Length Oil Gas Tubing, Pipeline, Sealine Any (H, V, sloped, winded...) Oil, Gas, Emulsions (no G/L flowing regimes!) 1/6" ­ 32" from gas to 600 cP (*) 200 m ­ 530 km 3 m ­ 530km

(*) Field demonstrated, not technology limit

TRANSIENTS DISPERSION EXAMPLE OF OIL PIPELINE (530km) Signal dispersion (width): negligible broadening after a 1060km trip

Equally true for OIL and GAS pipelines

x10

0.00 -0.20 dP/dt [bar/s] -0.40 -0.60 -0.80 -1.00 -20 -10 0 Time [s] 10 20

0.00

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

-0.10 980

990

1000 Time [s]

1010

1020

USEFUL TRANSIENTS TYPES AND METHODS

Qout

Sudden discharge

Sudden immission time

ANY TRANSIENT WILL PROVIDE USEFUL INFORMATION

time

Qin Qout Start discharge Stop discharge

(BUT NOT IDENTICAL INFORMATION !) AS LONG AS IT IS

Qin Qout Start immission Stop immission time Qin

FAST AND SHARP

TBI SENSITIVITY DEMONSTRATED SENSITIVITY Light crude with = 2 cP 350'000 m far from sensor, ¼" / 24" diameter change Heavy crude with = 600 cP 300 m far from sensor, " / 16" diameter change

P Distance from sensor

Pipeline

TECHNOLOGY SCOPE

TBI can detect, localize and estimate:

Changes in the effective Diameter profile e.g. deposits, obstructions, restrictions, ... Presence of interfaces (G/L, L/L) created by stratification of the fluids Changes in composition or properties of the transported fluids

TBI LIMITATIONS CASES WITH LIMITED APPLICABILITY · Gas lines:

Need to shut-in long lines on both sides Can only localize sharp restrictions, obstructions and interfaces

· Multiphase lines and wells:

Never applicable in presence of flow After shut-in: in wells: wait for fluids stratification in lines: pressurize with liquid Limited to localize (almost) complete obstructions

TBI LIMITATIONS CASES WITH LIMITED APPLICABILITY · Leaks:

No definitive conclusions Probably applicable only with: very low P between inside and outside, to avoid critical flow across the leak (hydrostatics may prevent this) rather big holes, e.g. like a coin THEFT of hydrocarbons

LOW­COST, LOW­RISK, REMOTE AND FAST TBI ATTRIBUTES:

· Remote: only access to the ends of the pipe is necessary no "walking" along the line · Fast: measurements does not require long flow stabilization and production is affected for about 5s/km (oil lines) and 15s/km (gas) · Low risk: nothing is introduced in the line, no excavations, no installation, etc. · Low cost: see above + low cost instrumentation

TBI APPLICATION OIL WELL INSPECTION

Well Head

Oil well losing productivity Deposits of unknown nature, localization (tubing/reservoir) and distribution Plan best remedial technique and verify its effectiveness

?

TBI APPLICATION OIL WELL INSPECTION

TBI measure Internal diameter profile

Well Head

Before acid job

TBI APPLICATION OIL WELL INSPECTION

Deposits actually removed by the acid job

0 -500 -1000 -1500 Depth [m] -2000 -2500 -3000 -3500 -4000 -4500 -5000 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Deposits thickness [mm]

Well Head

Diagnosis: Inorganic scales (no asphaltenes no fines)

TBI APPLICATION OIL WELL INSPECTION

TBI measure Internal diameter profile

Well Head

Before acid job

After acid job

TBI APPLICATION TO GAS WELLS Fluid stratification: interface localization Completion and wireline operations control Compositional changes tracking

Gas Well

The speed of wave propagation enables the detection of interfaces and of changes in several parameters

700m 734m Gasoline Water 1090m 1160m Sand

The velocity of the flow rate waves is as a function of P, T and composition

E.g. "Acoustic Velocities in Petroleum Oils", Zhijing Wang et al., JPT, Feb 1990, p.192-200

TBI APPLICATION TO AN OIL SEALINE

Production platform

40.0

LOCATE STUCK PIG (OBSTRUCTING)

CUT 1

Onshore terminal

-110.0

20.0

LOCATED PIG

CUT 2

-111.0

0.0

sea level

-112.0 -113.0 -114.0 -115.0 9800 10000 10200

-20.0

Profondità (m)

-40.0

-60.0

10400

Stop by waxposition Pig deposits was lost

10600 10800 11000 11200

11400

-80.0

-100.0

-120.0

FINAL SOLUTION cut and substitute a pipeline section

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000

-140.0

Lunghezz a della Sealine (m)

TBI APPLICATION TO PIG TRACKING Estimate pig arrival time and monitor its trip when other tracking techniques not applicable

2.00 0.00 -2.00 -4.00 -6.00 Signal [a.u.] -8.00 -10.00 -12.00 -14.00 -16.00 -18.00 -20.00 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Line Lenght [%] 8.41.13 9.49.57 11.37.49 13.22.26 15.10.51 18:44:56 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Curves artificially separated for the sake of clarity

(grey) Difference due to the deposits removed by the pig

Pig traveling direction

Progressive pig positions

PRESENTATION AGENDA

Overview

· Contexts needing pipeline and tubing inspection · Limitations of Steady­State Monitoring Techniques · Alternatives to Steady­State Techniques · Transient based inspection technologies · Field applications and examples · Conclusions

ECONOMIC CONCLUSIONS Since its first Eni field application (Dec 2000), TBI impact has been evaluated. Several million US$ savings on OPEX (reduction of repair and intervention costs, optimization of well cleaning jobs, reduction of time­to­action) Several thousands bbl of oil production NOT delayed or lost

TBI FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

WHAT'S NEXT FOR TBI­LIKE TECHNOLOGIES: · APPLY TO PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION (e.g. gas condensate wells) · TUBING + PIPELINE MONITORING · NEAR-WELL FORMATION DAMAGE MONITORING · MULTIPHASE FLOWING SYSTEMS

TECHNICAL CONCLUSIONS OVERALL TECHNICAL MESSAGE FROM TBI: Often very easy to gain precious information from annoying shutdowns or flowrate changes GENERATE "CULTURAL" ACCEPTANCE OF TRANSIENTS AS MONITORING TOOLS: Never apply transients without asking which information they could provide Stop just "tuning simulations" and start to "measure through simulations" Thank you for your attention

Information

Microsoft PowerPoint - DiLullo DL Slides v.FINAL ANCHORAGE.ppt

42 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

878103