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The Toulmin Model

Claim: The conclusion of the argument or the statement the speaker wishes the audience to believe. Grounds: The foundation or basis for the claim, the support. Warrant: The reasoning that authorizes the inferential leap from the grounds to the claim. Backing: The support for the warrant. Modality: The degree of certainty with which the advocate makes the claim. Rebuttal: Exceptions that might be offered to the claim Examples of the Toulmin Model: Claim: The Ravens will win the Superbowl this year. QUESTION: What are you basing that claim on? Grounds: They have the best defense in the league. QUESTION: Why does the fact that they have the best defense lead you to believe that the team with the best defense will win? Warrant: The team with the best defense has won each of the last five years. QUESTION: How can you make this claim?

O'Donnell ­ Argumentation ­ SPCH 209 ­ UMW UNCG University Speaking Center, 22 McIver Building Underground, 256-1346 For more resources check out our Website http://speakingcenter.uncg.edu

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Backing: The team with the best defense has won each of the last five years. QUESTION: How sure are you that the Ravens will win the Superbowl? Modality: The probability that the Ravens will win the Superbowl is 80 percent. QUESTION: If you are so confident that the Ravens will win the Superbowl then why don't you mortgage the house and place a huge bet? Rebuttal: Anything could happen. The Ravens defense might have a lot of injuries.

O'Donnell ­ Argumentation ­ SPCH 209 ­ UMW UNCG University Speaking Center, 22 McIver Building Underground, 256-1346 For more resources check out our Website http://speakingcenter.uncg.edu

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