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Corrosive Materials

Corrosive Materials

DOT ­ Liquids or solids that can cause visible damage to human tissue or steel on contact.

Corrosive Materials

Corrosives are divided into two general categories: 1. Acids 2. Bases

Corrosive Materials

Acids are hydrogen ion atoms that are missing and electron. H+

Corrosive Materials

Bases are a hydrogen ­ oxygen molecule (OH) that has an additional electron called a hydroxide ion. OH-

Corrosive Materials

To neutralize acids and bases: H+ + OH- = HOH (or H2O)

Corrosive Materials

Important terms to remember: Concentration: Percentage of the substance in water.

Corrosive Materials

Important terms to remember: Strength: The number of H+ ions in the compound. The more H+ ions ­ the stronger the acid. The fewer H+ ions ­ the weaker the acid.

Corrosive Materials

To measure the concentration of acids, a pH scale is used. The small p stands for "power of" and the capital H stands for hydrogen.

Corrosive Materials

The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 From 0 to 6 is acidic. 7 is neutral. From 8 to 14 is caustic (base)

Acids

Acids are subdivided into two groups: 1. Organic 2. Inorganic Which of these would be a flammable acid?

Acids

Common acids: 1. Perchloric 2. Sulfuric 3. Formic 4. Hydrocyanic 5. Nitric 6. Acetic HClO4 H2SO4 HCOOH HCN HNO3 CH3COOH inorganic inorganic organic organic inorganic organic

Acids

Common acids: Others include phosphoric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric Clue ­ acids end in "ic"

Acids

Typical chemical reaction involving an acid and a base: HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O + heat This reaction is so fast that the water turns to steam and can cause spattering of the acid and/or a steam explosion.

Bases

Bases are also known as: alkalines or caustics and have the general properties of acids.

Bases

The most common bases are: 1. Sodium hydroxide 2. Potassium hydroxide 3. Ammonium Hydroxide NaOH KOH NH4OH

Notice the ending of the chemical formula ­ "OH" (hydroxide)

Corrosive Materials

Corrosive hazards: (a few) Vapors and gases can penetrate clothing. May be an oxidizer ­ spontaneous ignition of combustibles May be extremely poisonous May be flammable Some may even explode ­ picric acid

Corrosive Materials

Exposure to corrosives: Burning around eyes, nose, and mouth Nausea and vomiting Difficulty in breathing or swallowing ­ coughing Localized burning or skin irritation

Corrosive Materials

Exposure to corrosives: Acids ­ generally cause pain Bases ­ produce a greasy or slick felling to the skin. A break down of fatty tissue into soap!

Corrosive Materials

Exposure to corrosives: Deterioration, melting, or discoloration of equipment could be a big clue that a corrosive material is present.

Corrosive Materials

Emergency response procedures: It may be critical to identify the corrosive and it's properties. Then base your "immediate concern" and "primary objective" on those hazards.

Corrosive Materials

Remember that corrosive materials may be: 1. Oxidizer 2. Flammable 3. Reactive - to water, to other extinguishing agents, and to other substances 4. Poisonous 5. Explosive

Corrosive Materials

Emergency response procedures: Generally ­ Spill or leak; no fire: Immediate concern ­ contain spill Primary objective ­ shut off flow

Corrosive Materials

Emergency response procedures: Generally ­ Spill or leak; on fire: Immediate concern ­ protect exposures Primary objective ­ contain spill

Corrosive Materials

Emergency response procedures: other activities to consider ­ Identify material and it's properties Contain Prevent ignition Evacuation Complete personal protection Notify proper authorities

Corrosive Materials

Emergency response procedures: other activities to consider ­ Special protective clothing? Keep acids and bases separated Prevent oxidizers from coming in contact with combustibles or organic substances Isolate & deny entry Do not dilute

Corrosive Materials

Emergency response procedures: other activities to consider ­ Do not neutralize Keep material out of sewers, water ways, and drainage systems Dike runoff water from exposure protection Smoke contains corrosive gases

Corrosive Materials

The Halogens "Halon Family" Most common: 1. Fluorine 2. Chlorine 3. Bromine 4. Iodine

Halogens

All halogens are corrosive. Gases and vapor are heavier than air and may react with water ­ insoluble.

Halogens

Halogens will combine violently with most substances. They can be chemically combined with other elements ­ called halogenated material.

Halogens

Halogenated hydrocarbons: 1. Insecticides ­ DDT 2. Cleaning fluids 3. Refrigerants ­ freon 4. Fumigants ­ methyl bromide 5. Fire extinguishing agents - Halon

Corrosive Materials

Sometimes the less done by the fire department at an incident involving corrosive materials (or other chemical emergencies) the better.

REVIEW

Define Corrosive: Liquids or solids that can cause visible damage to human tissue or steel on contact.

REVIEW

List five (5) common acids: 1. Perchloric 2. Sulfuric 3. Formic 4. Hydrocyanic 5. Nitric 6. Acetic 7. Hydrochloric 8. Hydrofluoric 9. phosphoric

REVIEW

List Three (3) common bases: 1. 2. 3. Sodium hydroxide NaOH Potassium hydroxide KOH Ammonium hydroxide NH4OH

REVIEW

List the four (4) members of the halon family: 1. 2. 3. 4. Fluorine F Chlorine Cl Bromine Br Iodine I

REVIEW

Describe emergency procedures for incidents involving corrosives: Spill or leak, no fire: IC ­ contain (prevent ignition if flammable) PO ­ shut off flow

REVIEW

Describe emergency procedures for incidents involving corrosives: Spill or leak, on fire: IC ­ protect exposures PO ­ contain spread (shut off flow)

Corrosive Materials

The End

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