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Africa & Asia, No 5, 2005, pp 142-156 Dept of Oriental and African Languages, Göteborg University

ISSN 1650-2019

Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe (Tanzania) -- Kumbukumbu za kupigania Uhuru Uhehe (Tanzania)

Karsten Legère

Department of Oriental and African Languages Göteborg University [email protected]

This paper presents three texts in Swahili and Hehe.1 These texts are transcripts of interviews which were made by the author of this paper (in those days he worked as an Associate Professor at the University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Kiswahili) in September and October 1984 in Iringa Region of the United Republic of Tanzania as part of the research project "The role of Swahili and other Tanzanian languages in the struggle for independence". The research project was funded by the Research and Publications Committee of the University of Dar es Salaam whose generous support for conducting field research in various parts of Mainland Tanzania is gratefully acknowledged. Results of the field research were published as an article in 1987 (Legère 1987). However, it was not possible within the limited scope of the paper to present data that were relevant for particular research areas. Accordingly, it was deemed important to make the interviews available in due time. Although many years have meanwhile elapsed since the interviews have taken place, it is felt that the data have not become outdated so far, as no other project with a similar research topic is reported from Iringa Region. The focus of the text material enclosed below is on illustrating how and where Swahili as the medium of the TANU party which waged the independence struggle in then Tanganyika was used. In addition, the role of the Hehe language in

The 1967 population census (URT 1971) recorded a total of 386 686 Hehe people, of whom 270 267 resided in Iringa Region.


Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe


addressing a rather homogeneous speech community as well as the position of English transpires from the texts. Several songs in Hehe were recorded. Together with songs in Swahili these songs were an important catalyst that linked well known historical events and Hehe traditions to the political reality of the preindependence years. In doing so, Hehe people were made aware of the foreign discriminatory domination that was imposed on them by the Germans and subsequently the British trusteeship administration. The interviewees are Peter Siyovelwa, Mzee Makongwa and Maulid Mtengela. Peter Siyovelwa was in the 1970ies a minister (responsible for national security), at the time of the interview a member of the National Executive of the Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM), currently (February 2005) he is the Chairman of the Iringa District Council. Mzee Makongwa and Maulid Mtengela were both TANU and CCM veterans in those days. They were among those who were committed to spreading the message about TANU's struggle for independence to village people who had almost no access to information about events and the development outside their area. P. Siyovelwa mainly discusses the contribution of particular Hehe songs to creating a political awareness of the foreign rule. Based on historical facts, in particular the heroic resistance of Hehe people under Mukwava's reign to German colonialism he refers to some songs whose message is subsequently described. Mzee Makongwa was requested by the interviewer to imitate a situation where he had to address Hehe people telling them about TANU, Nyerere and the latter's visit to the United Nations as well as explaining them how important it is to join the party. The simulated speech includes also a description of the non-violent strategy that has been adopted by TANU. Finally, M. Mtengela spoke about the use of Swahili, English and Hehe in pre-independence years. The competence in English is related to its (then) high status that made few people feel superior to others. The widespread use of Swahili is noted, while Hehe, although being the mother tongue of the dominant speech community played a rather subordinate role in the political mobilization campaign before independence. The recordings were transcribed and, where necessary, translated into Swahili by P. C. M. Mgaya, then a second year B.A. student of the University of Dar es Salaam. The Hehe part of the manuscript including the translation was thoroughly revised by Dr. Joshua Madumulla (Associate Professor, Department of Kiswahili) in February 2005. Prof. Madumulla's contribution to finalizing the text edition is gratefully acknowledged. It should be borne in mind that Hehe like many other Tanzanian languages does not have a standard orthography. Accordingly, the written version of the Hehe texts is based on the Swahili orthography. Given the lack of research on the sound

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inventory of the Hehe language, one must be aware of the tentative character of the transcription. However, in an attempt to compensate this inconsistency, parts of the interviews are available as sound files on the web.2 Anybody who is interested in the authentic Hehe texts is advised to listen to the webside sound files (the texts printed below are slightly modified, hence there is not always a 100 percent identity of text and recording). REFERENCES Legère, Karsten. 1987. Kiswahili na lugha nyingine katika harakati za kudai Uhuru Tanganyika (1945-1961). Kiswahili, 54 (1/2), pp 152-166. Moffett, J. P. (Ed.) 1958. Handbook of Tanganyika. Second edition. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer. URT (United Republic of Tanzania). 1971. 1967 Population census, 3: demographic statistics. Dar es Salaam: Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development Planning.


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Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe




Wahehe wakati wa kudai uhuru waliimba nyimbo za zamani ambazo ziliwakumbusha historia ya Wahehe. Wimbo mmojawapo kati ya hizo ni: Yavee peyigwa, twawene isenga. Yavee peyigwa, twawene isenga mulipala. Yavee peyigwa, twawene ingunda. Yavee peyigwa, twawene ingunda mukaye. Tafsiri ya Kiswahili: Alipokuwa anaanguka, tulimwona ng'ombe. Alipokuwa anaanguka, tulimwona ng'ombe uani. Alipokuwa anaanguka, tulimwona njiwa. Alipokuwa anaanguka, tulimwona njiwa ndani ya nyumba. Huo ni wimbo unaoashiria kuanguka kwa utawala wa Wahehe. Dalili za kuanguka kwa ufalme wa Wahehe zilionyeshwa na kurudi kwa ng'ombe waliokuwa malishoni, wakikimbilia nyumbani kujificha. Njiwa nao waliokuwa wakirukaruka nje walikimbilia majumbani. Hii ilikuwa ni dalili ya kuanguka kwa ufalme wa Wahehe. Wimbo mwingine ulioimbwa ni: Mulanyavila, nene ndifwete inguwo. Mulanyavila, nene ndifwete inguwo ya ngwembe. Tafsiri ya Kiswahili: Msiniloge, mimi nimevaa ngozi. Msiniloge, mimi nimevaa ngozi ya ngao.

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Maana yake: Msiniguse wala hamtanidhuru, kwa vile nimevaa ngozi ya ngao (ngwembe) ambayo huvaliwa ili kujikinga na maadui. Hamtanidhuru, hamtanidhuru, maana nimevaa nguo ya kujilinda. Nyimbo nyingine iliyoimbwa ilikuwa ni fumbo la kuwasema Waingereza (na Wajerumani pia). Mfano: Iyange, iyange yina magulu melu, inyama nitu. Iyange, iyange yina magala melu, inyama nitu. Tafsiri ya Kiswahili: Yangeyange, yangeyange ana miguu myeupe, nyama nyeusi. Yangeyange, yangeyange ana manyoya meupe, nyama nyeusi. Maana yake: Yangeyange ni ndege wanaonekana weupe, kwa sababu miguu yao ina rangi nyeupe na mwili wao umefunikwa na manyoya meupe. Hivyo huonekana weupe sana. Sasa, wimbo huu unasema kuwa msimwone ndege huyo mweupe, lakini nyama yake nyeusi. Hii ilikuwa kuwasema Waingereza (Wazungu) ambao rangi yao ni nyeupe, lakini mioyo yao ni myeusi (nyama nyeusi hapa ina maana ya moyo mbaya). Walitumia meno "nyeusi" kuashiria ubaya. Toka zamani Wahehe walikuwa mashujaa, na ushujaa wao mara nyingi ulikuwa ni wa kupinga - kupinga mambo ya watu wengine, 3 hasa wale watu ambao walifikiria wengine wangekuja kuwatawala; si Wazungu tu, bali hata Waafrika wenzao. Sasa sisi tulipokuwa tunadai uhuru, tulikuwa tunawaambia watu mifano ya zamani na namna Mkwawa alivyopinga sana kutawaliwa, kama alivyopingana na makabila mbalimbali ya Uhehe. Kwa hiyo watu walikuwa wanajaribu kusikia au kuelewa vizuri kwamba kwa hakika tulikuwa tunadai kama kile alichokuwa akidai Mkwawa, hakina tofauti. Baada ya maelezo marefu walikuwa wanaimbiwa wimbo unaohusiana na ndege wa hapa Tanzania, au tuseme Iringa hasa, wanaoitwa mbungu (tai). Ndege hawa ni wa ajabu sana. Huwa akifa mnyama porini, popote pale hata kwenye msitu, wenyewe huota usiku na kujua kuwa mnyama amekufa mahali fulani. Asubuhi na mapema huenda na kukusanyika mahali hapo penye mzoga wa mnyama. Wakikutana pale, kila mmoja hunyofoa nyama ya mzoga na kula na kurukaruka juu ya mzoga kwa kufurahia mlo huo. Kutokana na uwezo huo wa ndege hao, hata viongozi wa Uhehe katika harakati za kuendesha kampeni za kudai uhuru walikuwa


The sound file starts here.

Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe


wakiwaambia watu kuwa wamekwisha ota kuwa wako tayari kupata Uhuru, lakini hatuwezi kupata Uhuru huu bila ya kukusanyika pamoja kama wanakusanyika wale ndege. Tuwe pamoja kama wale ndege ambao wanakusanyika kwenda kula mnyama pale. Wimbo huu ulikuwa unasema: Peyilelela, peyilelela, Peyilelela imbungu pa nyama. Tafsiri ya Kiswahili: Anapokwenda, anapokwenda, Anapokwenda tai penye nyama. Maana yake: Unapowaona mbungu (tai) wakiruka na kurandaranda pale juu pana mzoga na wanajitayarisha au wanategemea kula yule mnyama. Huu wimbo ulikuwa unawaambia watu kuwa tunapokaa au kukusanyika hapa na kuelimishana, tunategemea (tuna matumaini makubwa) kupata Uhuru kama walivyotegemea wale ndege kula mzoga. Wakati wa kuimba wimbo huu watu walikuwa wakipiga makofi na kuitikia peyilelela, imbungu pa nyama. Wakati huo watu wengine walikuwa wakicheza mchezo unaoitwa kiduo na kutembeatembea huku na kule. Huu ulitumika ili kuwashawishi na kuwapa hamasa watu kudai uhuru. Huu ni wimbo wa zamani. Wimbo ufuatao uliimbwa wakati TANU imepevuka (uliimbwa na wenyeji wa wilaya ya Iringa): TANU, TANU yitavale, TANU, TANU, TANU, TANU yitavale. Tafsiri ya Kiswahili: TANU, TANU itawale, TANU, TANU, TANU, TANU itawale. Wimbo huu ulikuwa unaomba kuwa hakuna chama kingine kitakachotawala Tanganyika ila ni TANU tu. Hii ilikuwa kwa sababu wakati huo kilianza kuibuka chama kingine kilichoitwa Congress ambacho kilikuwa bado hakijajulikana sana kwa watu. Baada ya kujulikana ndipo walipoimba wimbo huo na kuomba kuwa TANU ndiyo itawale. Pia wimbo huo ulikuwa unathibitisha kuwa TANU ni chama peke kitakachoweza kutawala. Ndiyo maana walikuwa wakiimba. Wimbo huu uliandamana na makofi na baadhi ya watu walicheza (walidua kiduo).

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Pefisile pala, ukuva Avahehe uluhuma idaha ve vanu vakali. Vivonige ukutigila vavene hela vevahwanite ukuleka vovatavale avayavo. Vavene hela vevina wunu ukulutila avangi mbevali vevalimunyi, nda kuvee kutali kwii. Inoo, pefisile, pevakongine amalungu amolofu. Pe vakusa vapulikise, ndivangu ukutigila: Nyela, Kamwene? Vakwidikisa (vitigila): Kamwene. Munogage? Twivanofu.

Nikifika pale, kwa kuwa Wahehe toka zamani walikuwa watu wakali. Walijiona kuwa wenyewe tu ndio wanaofaa kuweza kuwatawala wenzao. Wenyewe tu ndio walio na utu kuliko wengine wote walioko ulimwenguni, hata kuwa mbali wapi. Sasa nikifika, walipokusanyika makundi mengi. Wanapokuja wasikilize, naanza kwa kusema: Jamani, hamjambo? Wanaitikia (wanasema): Hatujambo. Wazima? [Hamjambo?] Wazima. [Hatujambo.]

Nyevayetu, mukapulike ukutigila chama Wenzetu, mlisikia kuwa (kwamba) cha TANU kokili chekisaka tuteme chama cha TANU kiko kinachotaka tujitawale nchini humu? munyi umu? Vita: Nambi, situlapulika haa. Nuyive muyetu yu fisile. Tusile, tupulikise. Hwehwe yetusile, tuusiige, tuvalongele nyevayetu ukuva iTANU yisaka mbetuli munyi iyi tuve pamwinga, tulonganile kumwi sambi Avangelesa avikalite ipa Wanasema: Hapana, hatujasikia hata. Ndiyo maana mwenzetu amekwishafika. Tumekuja, tusikilize. Sisi tuliofika, tumekuja, tuwaambie wenzetu kuwa TANU inataka wote katika nchi hii tuwe pamoja, tuseme pamoja kusudi Waingereza ambao

Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe


uluhuma idaha, ino vina imyaka machumi gatayi, tuvasuke ukuta, nyevayetu, inoo mwikalite lulo. Tusuke inyi iyi pedee neng'uni - iyi yetu. Iva vaasiige hela, vaasiige ipa pevawene, twivagaya ngufu. Inoo ineng'uni tuhumite lumwi ukuta tuteme munyi umu. Avangelesa vahwanite vahege. Vahwanite vahege kita kutova hute, kita kuhoma mugoha. Vahwanite vahege petwikong'isee pamwinga mbetuli, mbetuli twivanyanyi ya muTanganyika. [Pe peyitambulwa Tanganyika uwakati uwoo.] Apulika hela, ukuva avayetu vakulukagula kwevahumige, ukutigila avanu, pevali pamwinga suvawesa, pevilonganila pamwii. Ukulonganila kumwinga kunofu hilo ukulutila umunu pe iyena. Umunu pe iyena peibita akitigile ndisaka ikitunga, sipata haa. Wisaka ikitunga pe wiyena! Supata haa. Inoo nyenye pe mwidikise, nyenye, yemuli kon,o ene kweLulanga, ene kweMuhanga, ene kwiya, ukuva mulonga, mwi vanya kwIlinga kuBoma, hwehwe ye twipwali, ulukani uloo tuli lumwi, tumulongele Umungelesa: Mwituma umunu yumwinga hela ndawe twamutumite Nyelele abite kuAmelika. Akapilwike, neke atulongele ukutigila Vaamelika, inyi mbeyili ya Umoja wa Mataifa vatwidikise ukuva hwehwe tuhwanite tupate iyinyi iyi, mladi tevalage pamwinga hela. Ikinu

wamekaa hapa sasa zamani, karibu wana miaka makumi manne [arobaini], tuwaombe kuwa nyinyi, wenzetu, sasa mmekaa vya kutosha. Tuombe nchi hii hivi leo - hii yetu. Hawa walikuja tu, walikuja hapa walipoona, hatuna nguvu. Sasa leo tunataka kwa pamoja kuwa tujitawale nchini humu. Waingereza wanaweza kutoka. Wanaweza kutoka bila kupiga bunduki, bila kuchoma mkuki. Wanaweza kutoka [kuondoka] wote tukikusanyana [ukikusanyika] pamoja, wote wenye nchi ya Tanganyika. [Ilikuwa bado inaitwa Tanganyika wakati huo.] Atasikia tu, kwa kuwa wenzetu wanajua walikotoka, kusema kuwa watu, wakiwa pamoja huwawezi, wanaposema pamoja. Kusema pamoja ni kuzuri zaidi kuliko mtu akiwa peke yake. Mtu akiwa peke yake, anapokwenda kusema anataka kitu fulani, hawezi kupata. Unataka kitu ukiwa peke yako! Hupati hata kidogo. Sasa ninyi mkikubali, ninyi, mlioko huku, kama ni Lulanga, kama Muhanga, kama wapi, maana mtasema, ninyi wa Iringa mjini, sisi tuliopo hapa, jambo hilo tuko pamoja, tumwambie Mwingereza: Mnamtuma mtu mmoja tu kama tulivyokwisha mtuma Nyerere aende Amerika [Marekani]. Amerudi, ametuambia kuwa Wamarekani, nchi yote ya Umoja wa Mataifa wametukubalia kuwa sisi nchi hii tunaweza kuipata, almuradi tu tuwe pamoja. Na kinachotuweka tuwe

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ikikutuleka tuvee pamwii che iki [ndisonola ikadi ya TANU ndikuvalagila]. Ndita: Mukuyiwona iyi? Iyi mukuyiwona? Vita: Tukuyiwona. Mukukiwona iki? Iki kinu kikomi hilo. Iki kichene chekikutuvika hwehwe pamwii; tuve pamwinga na vanya kuDayisalama na kwe kuvelaga. Pede na kuDayisalama vinaso. Avanu pede yevakategwe ikadi ndawe mukusiwona isi. Isi umumage guli mumu, ihute yiyi na yindege yili mumu. Inoo dena twisuka mutulongele ukuva mwitawe. Tuusile na kadi - sili baha. Pe mwikalite wunifu, kila munu ikadi (ye) tukumupela yineng'uni. Viwusaa: Silingi silinga? Hwehwe ikadi isi. Silingi machumi na sivilii. Haa! Ndaa, si kinu, lulo hela! Twita: Ee, lulu hela! Yi kadi yiyi hela? Ndita: Ee, yi yi hela. Aa, si kinu. Basi, vivanga ukusonola amapesa mumifuko, yula, manyage mu ... Kila munu gakali afungite. Tayali, umukalani vetu yali baho ivanga ukuvandika amatawa. Apangi avanu mbevali ve vakee vakong'ine vahwanite ukwingila kimunyi kimwi. Vivanga ukutegula ikadi setuketulesile.

pamoja, ni hiki [nachomoa kadi ya TANU na kuwaonyesha]. Ninasema: Mnaiona hii? Hii mnaiona? Wanasema [wanaitikia]: Tunaiona. Mnaiona hii? Hiki kitu kikubwa sana. Hiki ndicho kinachotuweka sisi pamoja; na tuwe pamoja na wa Dar es Salaam na wa wapi. Hivi Dar es Salaam wanazo. Watu tayari wamekwishachukua kadi kama mnavyoziona hizi. Hizi kisu kimo humuhumu, bunduki hii hii na hata ndege imo humu humu. Kwa hiyo sasa tunaomba mtuambie kuwa mko tayari. Tumekuja pamoja na kadi - ziko hapa. Kama mko tayari, kila mtu, kadi (yake) tutampa leo hii hii. Wanauliza: Shilingi ngapi? Sisi kadi hizi. Ni shilingi kumi na mbili. Haa! Hapa, si kitu, hilo tu! Tunasema: Ndiyo, na iwe hivyo! Ni kadi hii tu? Nasema: Ndiyo, ni hii tu. Aa, siyo kitu. Basi, wanaanza kuchomoa fedha mifukoni, yule, sijui mwenye .... Kila mtu aliyokuwa ameandaa. Tayari karani wetu aliyepo anaanza kuwaandika majina. Pengine watu wote waliokuwa wamekusanyika wanaweza kuingia siku moja. Wanaanza kuchukua kadi tulizozileta.

Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe


Vawusigee lumwilumwi ukutigila inoo hwehwe tutema ndawuli pe twivagaya hute? Twita: Ihute yetu hwehwe yiyi. Twivagaya magulusi!

Waliuliza - moja kusema (kuwa) sasa sisi tutajitawala namna gani tusipokuwa na bunduki? Tunasema: Bunduki yetu sisi ni hii hii. Hatuna ndege.

Twita: Indege yiyi, gwe mugoha gwetu. Tunasema: Ndege hii hii, ndiyo silaha yetu. Inoo mbona Mukwava pevingilige Avagelemani, ali na hute. Eategite ihute nzolofu kuLugalo - inoo hwehwe ihute sili kwii? Mbona Mukwava ali na migoha? Twita: Hwehwe uloo tukakanite ukuvelaga pakwita idanda nalamu, idanda ya munu. Nyelele akatige: Nyenye mukong'ane pamwi. Nye vany'Ilinga mwikale kw'Ilinga. Sitwibita mukwihoma uko, ndaa. Nyeva kw'Ilinga, mwikale kw'Ilinga, avanya Dayisalama, vikale kuDayisalama; avanya Tobola vikale kuTobola; kila vanu kwekovali vategule ikadi sisi hela, sisi. Basi, lukwilye. Kugaya mugoha, ndaa. Nachene, avanu avolofu hilo kwa ing'ani isi vavelige visela hilo. Nachene, Nyelele e ahele mbaka kuAmelika. Nyelele ahele kuAmelika pa mwaka 1956. Eahele pa mwaka 1955 pa kutala, neke abite kangi pa mwaka 1956. Hele akalonge: Ulunu lulu, na vavala vamwidikise. Sasa mbona Mkwawa walipokuwa wanaingia Wajerumani, alikuwa na bunduki. Alikuwa ametega bunduki nyingi Lugalo - sasa sisi bunduki ziko wapi? Mbona Mkwawa alikuwa na mikuki? Tunasema: Sisi hilo tumekwishakataa, maana yake kumwaga damu ni jambo gumu, damu ya mtu. Nyerere amesema: Ninyi mkusanyike pamoja. Ninyi wa Iringa mkae Iringa. Hatuendi kupigana huko, hapana. Wa Iringa, mukae Iringa, wa Dar es Salaam wakae Dar es Salaam, wa Tabora wakae Tabora; watu wote walioko wachukue kadi hizi tu, hizi. Basi, inatosha. Hakuna mkuki, hapana. Kweli, watu wengi zaidi kwa mambo haya walikuwa wanaelewa kwa kiasi kiikubwa. Hili kweli, Nyerere alikwenda mpaka Marekani. Nyerere alikwenda Marekani mwaka 1956. Alikwenda mwaka 1955 mara ya kwanza, halafu akaenda tena mwaka 1956. Alikwenda akasema: Jambo hili hata wale wamekwishalikubalia.

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Vatige: Nachene, veve sogole - inyi yenyuu muteme. Nangi tutige: Tuvalongele ukuta na hwehwe twe va ny'Ilinga tuhwanite, tutemite. Pe tutemite kw'Ilinga vatemite kuDayisalama, vatemite inyi mbeyili. Kwa ing'aani isoo hela savelige sikwila hilo; na avanu vahosige ukuta chetwisaka, ukuvelaga naa Mukwava ye ali atemite inyi iyii; si lunda lunu lugenzi nda. Pe tutige, mbetuli tuvee pamwii, tuteme. Si lwakuta wusugu hela, ukuta munu hela ivangye hela ulukani ulu. Ulukani ulu lukahumite kwii? Lukahumite kwa Nyelele Twatumilige hilo ukutigila Nyelele yumwene yakalesile ing'ani isi na yuhwehwe twidikise, tuwene mumwene. Na yunyenye mwidikise ukuta nachene, swe, tuvee kimwii - kinu kimwii. Inoo nditigila, uloo lukwilye.

Wamesema: Kweli, wewe uendelee nchi yenu mutawale. Ndiyo maana tumesema: Tuwaambie kuwa lazima na sisi wa Iringa tutaweza, tutawale. Tukijitawala Iringa, wajitawale wa Dar es Salaam, wajitawale nchi yote. Kwa mambo hayo tu yalikuwa yakiwatosheleza sana; na watu walikuwa wanafikiria kuwa tunachotafuta, maana yake hata Mkwawa ameshatawala nchi hii, siyo kama kitu kigeni kweli. Tukisema, wote tuwe pamoja, tutatawala. Sio kusema ujanja tu, kuwa mtu tu ameanza tu jambo hili. Jambo hili limetokea wapi? Limetoka kwa Nyerere. Tulikuwa tunatumia zaidi kusema kuwa Nyerere ndiye aliyeleta mambo haya na sisi tumekubali, tumeona kweli. Na ninyi mkikubali kuwa kweli, basi, ili tuwe kimoja - kitu kimoja. Sasa nasema, hii inatosha.

Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe




Wimbo wa kwanza ambao ninaukumbuka ulisema hivi: Wewe ni mgeni, wewe ni mgeni. Kiitikio: Wewe ni mgeni, wewe ni mgeni. Toa nchi yetu kwa njia ya amani. Kwani hujasimuliwa. Wimbo wa pili: Ukijitia mbishi, ukijitia mbishi. Kiitikio: Ukijitia mbishi, ukijitia mbishi. Kamuulize nyani kilimani Kisa cha kuelezea: Umesitirika mwili na mkia pamoja, Nyuma limeota jangwa. Swali: Vizuri sana, na unakumbuka wimbo mwingine? Jibu: Wimbo mwingine ulikuwa wakati tunadai uhuru. Wakati huo kulikuwa kuna chama kingine ambacho ni cha Wakoloni - kinaitwa UTP. Kwa hiyo kulikuwa na mapambano kati ya UTP na TANU, nasi sisi wanaTANU tukatunga wimbo wa kuwapinga UTP kusudi wasiendelee, kwa kuwa wao ni chombo cha wakoloni. Tuliwaambia hivi: U. T. P. kila mara twawaambia: Mwingereza si mwenzetu. Bure mnajisumbua. Swali: Labda, Mzee, katika shughuli hizo za kutunga mashairi au nyimbo za kulaani ukoloni walitumia pia lugha ya Kihehe katika kuimba hizi nyimbo, au palikuwa na nyingine? Nadhani kwamba katika miaka ya hamsini

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ulikuwa wakati ambapo fuvu la Mkwawa lilirudishwa. Sasa sijui kama tukio hilo lilionyeshwa pia katika nyimbo, au kulikuwa na mashairi kama ishara ya kulaani ukoloni. Labda wakati ule historia ya Mkwawa ya mapigano na Mjerumani yalisimuliwa upya. Sijui kama lilirudishwa bila ya wimbo wa asili wa kisiasa. Jibu: Tukio la kurudisha fuu (fuvu) la babu yetu Mkwawa katika Wilaya yetu hii ya Iringa lilionekana kama ni jambo tu ambalo limekuja kwa wakati wake, kwamba fuu hili lilirudi Uhehe na kwenda kuzikwa katika nchi ya Uhehe ambako lilitoka. Lakini wanachama na wananchi wote, wala hawakuelewa hili jambo kwamba pengine linakuja kuturudisha nyuma katika juhudi yetu ya kudai Uhuru, au linatupeleka mbele. Wao walikaa mahali pamoja tu na jambo moja tu la kudai Uhuru. Kwa hakuna kitu chochote kingine ambacho kiliweza kusema kwamba labda sababu hii tunaweza tukarudi nyuma katika kudai Uhuru wetu.

Swali: Ndiyo, na kwa hiyo katika lugha ya Kihehe hamkuwa na nyimbo zozote za kulaani ukoloni. Unajua wakati mwingine wananchi walitumia lugha ya kikwao kuficha siri ya mawasiliano. Hii ilisaidia sana, kwa sababu Waingereza walikuwa na wakalimani ambao walikuwa wanafasili lugha. Sasa katika kutumia Kihehe... Tulipofika Njombe, walitueleza kwamba walitumia wakati mwingine lugha ya kikwao kuficha siri, tena lugha fasihi sana - lugha ambayo ilikuwa na maneno magumu sana kusudi hata wakalimani waliojua kidogo Kibena walikuwa hawapati maana. Kwa hiyo, sasa nauliza kama Kihehe katika harakati hizo kilipewa nafasi yoyote, kama kusaidiana katika harakati hizo. Jibu: Tuseme katika zile harakati, nyimbo nyingi zilitumika za Kiswahili na hata za Kihehe. Lakini sasa nasikitika - za Kihehe sijui - nimezisahau. Zilizokuwa zikiimbwa zaidi nilikuwa nazingatia tu wakati tukiimbaimba katika mambo ya kila siku.

Swali: Na tuseme kuwa hukumbuki walichokuwa wanaeleza katika nyimbo zile? Jibu: Siwezi, lakini nikikumbuka ni kwamba zaidi ilikuwa zinaimbwa kulaani mkoloni na kuwapa moyo watu waingie katika chama.

Swali: Na unajua namna zilivyosimulia kuhusu Mwingereza? Jibu: Ndiyo, kwa mfano: Chama cha TANU Tanganyika ee! Kiitikio: Chama cha TANU, chama cha TANU, Tanganyika!

Karsten Lègere · Records of the independence struggle in Uhehe


Chama cha TANU, Nyerere wee! Kiitikio: Chama cha TANU, chama cha TANU, Nyerere! Huu waliimba sana katika sehemu hii ya Mufindi. Swali: Je, kulikuwa na mazoea ya kuongea Kiingereza? Jibu: Mimi sikuwa na mazoea shuleni. Nilikuwa nimesoma tu kuruani nyumbani. Lakini tabia na desturi ya watu wa wakati ule jinsi nilivyokuwa naona, niliona ni kweli iko kasumba ya hawa wakoloni waliotutawala watu wanapenda na wangependa zaidi watumie lugha ya Kiingereza. Maana uliweza kuona dalili na tabia ya watu wanavyopenda, wanavyozungumza, ilikuwa mtu na mwingine - haidhuru wote ni Watanzania au Watanganyika kwa wakati ule, wakitembea njiani lazima wawe wanazungumza Kiingereza. Na kama mtu alizungumza kwa kutumia lugha ya kabila lake au Kihehe walionekana kuwa huyu ni mshamba. Au akizungumza Kiswahili, ataonekana kuwa huyu ni mtu ambaye hakuendelea. Lakini kama alizungumza Kiingereza, basi, kama walikuwa wanne au watano, basi, wanajisikia vizuri kama ni watu walioendelea sana. Kwa hiyo, hii nilijua kwamba ni kiburi ambacho wakoloni wanataka watu katika nchi hii wawe macho na lugha hii ya Kiingereza iote mizizi.

Swali: Tuseme kwamba kwa upande mwingine Wahehe katika Wilaya ya Mufindi ni wengi. Na wakati ule unajua Waingereza walisisitiza sana kuwa na vyama vya kikabila. Najua kwamba Mtemi Adamu Sapi alikuwa anaunga mkono siasa ya TANU. Lakini katika nchi hiyo ya Wahehe walikuwa na watu waliotaka kuhimiza lugha ya Kiswahili katika shughuli zao; kwa mfano Mzee Sapi, nilisoma hotuba yake katika LEGICO,4 alisema: Sisi tunataka Kiswahili. Pia wengine hawakupenda. Lakini umesema kuwa kulikuwa na watemi wadogo wadogo - ilikuwaje hawa? Hawa jamaa walifanya nini kwa upande wa lugha ya Kiswahili? Kiswahili kilibaguliwa au ilikuwaje? Jibu: Ahaa, tuseme hii kitu siwezi kueleza sana, ila nilikuwa nimepata habari kwamba kilianzishwa chama cha "HEHE DEMOCRACY" pale Iringa. Wakati huo wakiwepo Bwana Juliusi Mwasanyagi ambaye alikuwa kama rais wa chama hicho. Sasa sisi tulikuwa mbali - Mufindi, na habari za Kalenga kwani shughuli zote hizi zilikuwa zinaendeshwa Kalenga na Iringa. Hivyo hazikujitokeza sana mpaka zikafikia huku kwetu.

Swali: Na hukusikia chochote au hotuba ya chama hicho.


LEGICO = Legislative Council.

156 Africa & Asia, No 5, 2005


Hapana. Kibunga anaweza kujua, kwa sababu wakati ule yeye alikuwa ni diwani. Yeye yupo hapo Saadani.

Swali: Nani huyu Kibunga? Jibu: Stephen Kibunga alikuwa mbunge - akafukuzwa.

Swali: Kwa hiyo hakuna ishara yoyote. Jibu: Sikuona ishara yoyote.

Swali: Kwa hiyo lugha ya Kihehe haikutumika sana. Jibu: Ndiyo, haikutumika sana.

Swali: Na katika uchaguzi mkuu, wagombea viti vya LEGICO walikuwa wanatumia Kiswahili pia. Jibu: Ndiyo, walikuwa wanatumia Kiswahili

Swali: Na ulisema kwamba mara nyingine iliwabidi kueleza kwa Kihehe katika shughuli za vijijini. Jibu: Ndiyo, lugha hii mpaka leo inatumika.



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