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POPULAR MUSIC, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY

COURSE HANDBOOK SOCIOLOGY HONOURS SEMESTER 2 2008-09 Convenor: Nick Prior Course code: uo4143

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Popular Music, Technology and Society

Course Code: U04143 Semester 2, 2008/09 Venue: Room, B.01 Chrystal Macmillan Building Time: 11.10am1pm Subject and School: Sociology Honours, School of Social and Political Studies

Course Convenor: Nick Prior Room, 6.20, Chrystal Macmillan Building Office Hours: Thursdays, 10am-12pm. 0131 6503991 [email protected]

Course Summary

Popular music is one of the primary leisure and entertainment resources in late modern society and understanding links between technology, music and everyday life is an attractive way to exercise the sociological imagination. The course offers a representative selection of ways of studying popular music from a broadly cultural sociological perspective that attunes itself to the question of technology. It will be based on a mix of theoretical and empirical approaches to popular music's sociotechnical organisation and its active role in ordering everyday life. The aim is to assess how music is created and consumed in increasingly complex networks of culture, examine the changing sites and locales that situate or circulate musical forms and describe the challenges faced by music sociology as it grapples with an increasingly digitalised and globalised social and technological landscape.

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Objectives

1) To engage students in debates around popular music and its mediation and deepen their understanding of music as a social force. 2) To demonstrate how structural correspondences between music, technology and social formations arise and change over time. 3) To discuss how contemporary issues central to the production and consumption of popular music shed light on these changes. 4) To provide an understanding of relevant theoretical debates and issues.

Outcomes

By the end of the course students should be able to: 1) Evaluate a range of concepts and approaches within cultural sociology to the development of popular music. 2) Critically assess accounts of technological innovation in changing forms of musical production and consumption. 3) Recognise the formation of popular music genres as a social accomplishment dependent on micro and macro social processes. 4) Assess the relevance of theory in understanding the impact of popular music on everyday life. 5) Recognise and comment on issues raised by the digitalisation of popular music, such as changing practices of music making and listening. 6) Critically reflect on their own experiences of popular music as producers or consumers.

Format

Two hour sessions comprised of 1 hour lecture and 1 hour of discussion, group work or workshops. Workshops and discussions will be based on materials and experiences students bring to the class.

Assessment and Due Dates

The course is assessed by two compulsory components: 1) 1,500 word essay, worth 25% of total course mark (see page 27 for title). Due date: Monday 23rd February 2009, 12 noon. 2) Long essay, of between 3,500-4,000 words, worth 75% of total course mark (see page 28 for titles). Due date: Friday 24th April, 2009, 12 noon.

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Readings, Activities and Seminar Questions

Each week you will be expected to read two articles provided in the reading pack in preparation for the class. These are listed in the reading boxes. For some sessions you will be expected to carry out an additional task that feeds into the seminar discussions. These are indicated in the activity boxes. Seminar questions will be provided during the class. You can add these yourselves during class, in the seminar boxes.

Textbooks

There is no single textbook that covers the whole of the course, but here are a few that are designed as introductory texts in popular music studies and cover some relevant content. They are all available from the library or are on order. · · · · · · · · · · ·

The Popular Music Studies Reader, edited by Andy Bennett, Barry Shank and Jason Toynbee, London: Routledge, 2006. Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music / Consuming Technology, Paul Théberge, Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, 1997. Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture, Timothy D. Taylor, London: Routledge, 2001. The Auditory Culture Reader, Michael Bull and Les Back (eds), Oxford: Berg, 2003. Cultures of Popular Music, Andy Bennett, Maidenhead: Open University, 2001. Making Popular Music: Musicians, Creativity and Institutions, Jason Toynbee, London: Arnold, 2000. Studying Popular Music Culture, Tim Wall, London: Hodder Arnold, 2003. Music in Everyday Life, Tia DeNora, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Performing Rites: Evaluating Popular Music, Simon Frith, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Popular Music in Theory: An Introduction, Keith Negus, Cambridge: Polity, 1996. Popular Music and Society, Brian Longhurst, Cambridge: Polity, 1995.

Journals

Here is a selection of relevant journals, some dedicated to popular music, others containing articles on technology, media, culture and society. They are all available in the library, either as hard copy or in electronic form.

Journal of Popular Music Popular Music Music Week [this is a business digest of developments in the music industry] Cultural Sociology [journal presently on order, check for updates] Scottish Music Review Poetics Information, Communication and Society Theory, Culture and Society First Monday: http://firstmonday.org/

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Audio: Listening Posts

Students will be expected to engage with musical forms, styles and genres. You should keep a database of articles, examples and clips, for instance via a database / tagging site like del.ico.us (http://delicious.com/). A recommended list of listening ("Listening Posts" in the blue boxes) will sometimes be combined with the readings, but you should explore your own and others' music collections, attend live music events and clubs, use Internet archives such as YouTube for access to musical performances and clips and keep your ears to the ground.

Course at a Glance

1) Introduction: Popular Music's Mediations 2) Technology and Popular Music 3) Human After all? The Voice in Popular Music 4) Becoming a Band: Scenes, Networks and the Creative Process 5) Music and Everyday Life 6) Keeping it Real: Performance, Gigs and the Live Experience 7) OK Computer: Sampling, Simulation and Software 8) Decks are Different: Dance Music, Turntablism and the DJ 9) From Bits to Hits: Video Games and Popular Music 10) iPod Therefore I Am: Consumption, Digitalisation and the Personal Stereo

Reading List and Week by Week Readings

The following section represents a fairly extensive list of articles, books and other materials, organised by lecture and session. Please do not be intimated by the list. You are only required to read two articles from the yellow boxes per week. The supplementary readings are designed to be consulted during the writing of the essays.

WebCT

There is a webCT page for this course located on the webCT pages in your "MyEd" portal (www.myed.ac.uk). If you are registered for the course you will automatically have access. Lecture slides, web-links and other resources will be added during the course. Important announcements regarding the course will also be posted here.

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WEEK-BY-WEEK CONTENT AND READINGS * denotes essential reading material available on WebCT WEEK 1) Introduction: Popular Music's Mediations The introduction will outline the field of concerns, introducing sociological conceptualisations of music, social change and modernity. It will describe historical formations of the popular, including the emergence of post-war youth and rock `n' roll, counter-cultural ideology and pop rebellion. An engagement with Richard A. Peterson's work on the advent of rock music will open up questions around the organisation of pop and the structuration of the record industry, whilst definitional struggles over "sound", "noise", "technology", "music", "popular" will set up key terms in the course. Two central concepts will be introduced: "field" and "mediation" as ways of getting at how popular music is formed and made available, especially in complex, highly technologised, global societies like ours. The Listening Post Bill Haley; Elvis Presley; Little Richard; Bing Crosby; BB King; Chuck Berry; Bob Dylan; The Rolling Stones; The Beatles.

READINGS

* Richard A. Peterson, 1990, "Why 1955? Explaining the Advent of Rock Music", Popular Music, vol. 9. No. 1: pp. 97-116. * Simon Frith, 1988, "The Industrialisation of Music", Music for Pleasure: Essays in the Sociology of Pop, Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 11-23.

Supplementary Readings

Terry Bloomfield, 1991, "It's Sooner Than You Think, or Where are We in the History of Rock Music?", New Left Review, I/190, Nov-Dec: pp. Available at: http://www.newleftreview.org/?page=article&view=1657 Andy Bennett, 2001, Cultures of Popular Music, Maidenhead: Open University Press, chapter 1, "Post-War Youth and Rock `N' Roll", pp. 7-23. Tim Wall, 2003, Studying Popular Music Culture, London: Hodder Arnold, chapter 2, "Industries and Institutions": pp. 67-120. Richard Middleton, 1990, Studying Popular Music, Buckingham: Open University Press, chapters 1, 2 and 3. John Williamson and Martin Cloonan, 2007, "Rethinking the Music Industry", Popular Music, vol. 26, no. 2: pp. 305-322. Jason Toynbee, Making Popular Music: Musicians, Creativity and Institutions, London: Arnold, chapter 1, "Market: the Selling of Soul(s)": pp. 1-33.

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Georgina Born, "On Musical Mediation: Ontology, Technology and Creativity", Twentieth-Century Music, vol. 2, no. 1: pp. 7-36. Antoine Hennion, 2003, "Music and Mediation: Toward a New Sociology of Music", in The Cultural Study of Music, Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (eds), London: Routledge: pp. 80-91. Pierre Bourdieu, 1990, The Field of Cultural Production, Cambridge: Polity, chapter 1, "The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed": pp. 29-73. Howard Becker, 1982, Art Worlds, Berkeley: University of California Press, chapter 1, "Art Worlds and Collective Activity": pp. 1-39. Howard Becker, 2006, "A Dialogue on the Ideas of `World' and `Field'", Sociological Forum, 21: pp. 275-286. Available at: http://home.earthlink.net/~hsbecker/world.htm

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WEEK 2) Technology and Popular Music Popular music and technology are inseparable. Developments we associate with the rise of popular musical forms are always already tales of technology. This session will introduce students to historical and contemporary material on music production, recording and processing. It will outline basic theoretical approaches to technology and society, introduce students to innovations in music technology and show how these disturb ideologies of authenticity, livenesss and creativity. Historical material may cover: early sound techniques, sound proofing, noise abatement and urban modernity; the rationalisation of the studio; experiments with tape and musique concrete; the significance of users; the case of the Moog synthesizer and the Roland TB303 drum machine.

The Listening Post Thomas Edison, "Mary Had a Little Lamb"; Pierre Schaeffer, "Etude aux Chemins de Fer"; Wendy Carlos, "Switched on Bach"; The Beatles, "Here Comes the Sun"; Phuture, "Acid Trax"; Oval, "Systemisch"; Ryoji Ikeda, "Dataplex".

READINGS

* Andrew Goodwin, 1992, "Rationalization and Democratization in the New Technologies of Popular Music", in James Lull (ed), Popular Music and Communication, 1992, London: Sage. * Simon Frith, 1986, "Art Versus Technology: The Strange Case of Popular Music", Media, Culture and Society, vol, 8: pp. 263-79.

Supplementary Readings (sub-ordered by theme)

Theories of Technology and Society Donald Mackenzie and Judy Wajcman (eds), The Social Shaping of Technology, Buckingham: Open University Press. Graeme Kirkpatrick, 2008, Technology and Social Power, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Daniel Lee Kleinman, 2005, Science and Technology in Society, Oxford: Blackwell, chapter 1, "Science is Political/Technology is Social: Conerns, Concepts, and Questions", pp. 1-14. David Bell, 2006, Science, Technology and Culture, Maidenhead: Open University Press, chapters 3 and 4. Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds), 1989, The Social Construction of Technological Systems, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, Part 1. Walter Benjamin, 1936, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction", in Illuminations, 1999, London: Jonathan Cape, pp. 211-244.

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Friedrich Kittler, 1999, Gramophone, Film, Typewriter, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Don Ihde, 1990, Technology and the Lifeworld, Bloomington and Indiana: Indiana University Press. Don Ihde, 2002, Bodies in Technology, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Nelly Oudshoorn and Trevor Pinch (eds), (2003) Users Matter, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, Introduction and chapters 1, 2 and 12. Bruno Latour, 2005, Reassembling the Social, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Part 1. Jonathan Sterne, 2003, "Bourdieu, Technique and Technology", Cultural Studies, vol. 17, no. 3/4: pp. 367-389. Popular Music and Technology: General Readings Paul Théberge, 1997, Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music/Consuming Technology, Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press, Introduction and chapter 4. Timothy D. Taylor, 2001, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture, London: Routledge, Evan Eisenberg, 2005, The Recording Angel: Music, Records and Culture From Aristotle to Zappa, New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Michael Chanan, 1995, Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and its Effects on Music, London: Verso. Hans-Joachim Braun (ed.), 2002, Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century, Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press. Mark Katz, 2004, Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, London: University of California Press, chapter 1: pp. 8-47. David L. Morton Jr., 2004, Sound Recording: The Life Story of a Technology, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner (eds), 2004, Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, New York and London: Continuum, chapters 21-25 "Music in the Age of Electronic (Re)production": pp 113-164. René Lysloff and Leslie C. Gay, Jr (eds), 2003, Music and Technoculture, Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, chapters 2, 4, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 and Afterword. Simon Frith, 2002, Performing Rites: Evaluating Popular Music, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 11, "Technology and Authority", pp. 226-248.

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Richard Middleton, 1990, Studying Popular Music, Buckingham: Open University Press, chapter 3, "'Over the Rainbow'? Technology, Politics and Popular Music in an Era Beyond Mass Culture": pp. 64-100. Steve Jones, 1992, Rock Formation; Music, Technology and Mass Communication, London: Sage, chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4. Popular Music and Technology: Case Studies Nick Prior, 2008, "Putting a Glitch in the Field: Bourdieu, Actor Network Theory and Contemporary Music", Cultural Sociology, 2: 3, 2008: pp 301-319. Jonathan Sterne, 2003, The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction, Durham and London: Duke University Press. Peter Shapiro (ed.), 2000, Modulations: A History of Electronic Music, New York: Caipirinha Publications. Emily Thompson, 2004, The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900-1933, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco, 2002, Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Steve Waksman, 1999, Instruments of Desire: The Electric Guitar and the Shaping of Musical Experience, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

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WEEK 3) "Human After All"? The Voice in Popular Music The voice is conventionally heard as containing the life of the person, part of their essence. Pop singers are heard as personally expressive, where the body's character and presence is communicated through the "grain" of the voice. This session looks at questions of vocality, embodiment and technology. How did the microphone and amplification allow singers to express and audiences to hear differently? Why do we hear the voice as "natural" despite its technologisation? To what extent do modern studio techniques such as pitch shifting and vocoding unsettle gender categories and the status of the body? How useful are concepts like "cyborg" in understanding deconstructions of the natural in contemporary pop?

The Listening Post Frank Sinatra, "My Way"; Billie Holiday, "Strange Fruit"; Bing Crosby, "White Christmas"; "Kraftwerk, Man Machine; Peter Frampton, "Do You Feel Like We Do"; Daft Punk, Homework; Björk, Medúlla; Cher, "Believe"; Britney Spears, "Piece of Me"; Ginuwine, "Pony"; Kid Beyond, Amplivate.

READINGS

* Roland Barthes, 1977, "The Grain of the Voice", in Image, Music, Text, London: Flamingo, pp. 179-189. * Kay Dickinson, 2001, "'Believe'?: Vocoders, Digital Women and Camp", Popular Music, vol. 20, no. 3: pp 333-347.

Supplementary Readings

Ian Penman, 2002, "On the Mic: How Amplification Changed the Voice for Good", in Undercurrents: The Hidden Wiring of Modern Music, London: Continuum, pp. 25-34. Alexander Weheliye, 2002, "'Feenin': Posthuman Voices in Contemporary Black Popular Music", Social Text, vol. 20, no. 2. David Bell, 2006, Science, Technology and Culture, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 74-78. Simon Frith, 1996, Performing Rites, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 6, "The Voice": pp. 183- 202. Michael Chanan, 1995, Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and its Effects on Music, London: Verso, chapters 5 and 7. Don Ihde, 2007, Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound, Part IV, "Voice", pp. 147-181. Michel Chion, 1999, The Voice in Cinema, New York: Columbia University Press, Allen S. Weiss, 2002, Breathless: Sound Recording, Disembodiment, and The Transformation of Lyrical Nostalgia, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press,

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N. Katherine Hayles, 1999, How We Became Post-Human, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, chapters 1 and 11. Donna Haraway, 1991, Simians, Cyborgs and Women: the Reinvention of Nature, London, Free Association, chapter 8, "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century": pp. 149-181. Lucy A. Suchman, 2007, Human-Machine Reconfigurations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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WEEK 4) Becoming a Band: Scenes, Networks and the Creative Process How do bands, styles and genres form? This session will explore the interplay between micro processes of interaction, social networks and the collective creative process. It will introduce students to Small's concept of "Musicking" and show how spatial and socio-technical dynamics impact upon the emergence of urban scenes and styles. It will explore genre formation as a key process of popular music culture and show how divisions of labour in music making map onto processes of identity formation, including urban, national and gender identities. Bringing the existence of music making and the formation of creative networks up to date, the idea of "virtual scenes" will be introduced. ACTIVITY: MUSIC GENRES Find out as much as you can about a particular musical genre, style or scene (see case study box for examples). When, how and where did it form? Be prepared to present this material to your seminar group. Emphasis must be on how scenes, styles or genres are influenced by the social milieu, social and regional networks, technologies and practices. The Listening Post Student led, dependent on chosen case study. Possible case studies include: Chicago blues; the "Liverpool Sound"; grunge; Bristol and "trip hop"; women in Punk; glitch electronica; "Madchester"; hip hop; New Orleans jazz; dubstep; bassline; reggae; ska; techno; Britpop; Jpop; Goth; rave; nu rave; acid house; salsa; riot grrrl; emo; post-rock; skate punk; Detroit techno; amateur music making in local towns.

READINGS

* H. Stith Bennett, 1980, "The Realities of Practice", in Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin (eds), 1990, On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word, London: Routledge, pp. 221-237. * Jason Toynbee, 2000, Making Popular Music, New York: Arnold, chapter 2, "Making up and Showing Off: What Musicians Do": pp. 34-67.

Supplementary Readings

Christopher Small, 1988, Musicking: The Meanings of Performing and Listening, Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, "Prelude: Music and Musicking", pp. 118. Nick Prior, 2008, "Putting a Glitch in the Field: Bourdieu, Actor Network Theory and Contemporary Music", Cultural Sociology, 2: 3, 2008: pp 301-319. Keith Negus, 1999, Music Genres and Corporate Cultures, London: Routledge, chapters 1 and 10. Mavis Batyon, 1988, "How Women Become Musicians", in Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin (eds), 1990, On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word, London: Routledge, pp. 238-257.

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Sara Cohen, 2007, Decline, Renewal and the City in Popular Music Culture: Beyond the Beatles, Aldershot: Ashgate. Andy Bennett, 2001, Cultures of Popular Music, Maidenhead: Open University Press. Ben Thompson, 1998, Seven Years of Plenty, London: Victor Gollancz. Sheila Whiteley, Andy Bennett and Stan Hawkins (eds), 2004, Music, Space and Place: Popular Music and Cultural Identity, Aldershot: Ashgate. Andy Bennett, Barry Shank and Jason Toynbee, The Popular Music Studies Reader, London: Routledge, Parts 2 and 3. Thomas Swiss, John Sloop and Andrew Herman (eds), 1998, Mapping the Beat: Popular Music and Contemporary Theory, Oxford: Blackwell. Andy Bennett and Richard A. Peterson (eds), 2004, Music Scenes: Local, Translocal, and Virtual, Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. Ruth Finegan, 1989, The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town, Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, chapters 1, 2, 3 and 10. Pierre Bourdieu, 1990, The Logic of Practice, Cambridge: Polity. Sarah Thornton, 1995, Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital: Cambridge: Polity Press, chapters 1 and 2. Robert Stebbins, 1976, "Music Among Friends: The Social Networks of Amateur Musicians", in Popular Music: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies, edited by Simon Frith, 2004, London: Routledge. Robert Stebbins, 1979, Amateurs: On the Margin Between Work and Leisure, London: Sage. Charles Leadbeater and Paul Miller, 2004, "The Pro-Am Revolution: How Enthusiasts are Changing our Economy and Society", Demos. Available at: http://www.demos.co.uk/files/proamrevolutionfinal.pdf

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WEEK 5) Music Consumption in Everyday Life Sociologists have conventionally viewed the consumption of music as a product of the consumer's social background, or "cultural capital", in a hierarchy of taste cultures. Bourdieu's influence on sociological studies of the musical "habitus" is fundamental to this type of work. However, sociologists have begun to rethink the adequacy of this work and particularly its reluctance to deal with the aesthetic and affective dimensions of culture. This session pursues a central claim: that music is a mechanism for the management of everyday life; it is therefore an expressive, vital force that helps order the social and the emotional. From domestic settings to social memory, romantic encounters to collective occasions, bottom up approaches to music can show us the mundane ways music engages with self and memory. Be prepared to reflect on your own feelings, tastes and interactions with music.

READINGS

* Tia DeNora, 2000, "Music as a Technology of Self", chapter 3 of Music and Everyday Life, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: pp. 46-74. * Tak Wing Chan and John H. Goldthorpe, 2007, "Social Stratification and Cultural Consumption: Music in England", European Sociological Review, vol. 23, no. 1: pp. 1-19.

Supplementary Readings

Antoine Hennion, 2007, "The Things That Hold Us Together: Taste and Sociology", Cultural Sociology, vol. 1, no. 1: 97-114. Tia DeNora, 2004, "Historical Perspectives in Music Sociology", Poetics, 32: pp. 211221. Antoine Hennion, 2008, "Listen!", Music and Arts in Action, vol. 1, June: 36-45. Simon Frith, 2003, "Music and Everyday Life", chapter 7 of The Cultural Study of Music, Martin Clayton, Trevor Herbert and Richard Middleton (eds), London: Routledge: pp. 92-101. Julian Tanner, Mark Asbridge and Scot Wortley, 2008, "Our Favourite Melodies: Musical Consumption and Teenage Lifestyles", British Journal of Sociology, vol. 59, no. 1: 117-144. Richard A. Peterson and Roger M. Kern, 1996, "Changing Highbrow Taste: From Snob to Omnivore", American Sociological Review, vol. 61, October: pp. 900-907. Bernard Lahire, 2008, "The Individual and the Mixing of Genres: Cultural Dissonance and the Self-Distinction", Poetics, 36: pp. 166-188. Michael Bull, 2000, Sounding out the City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life, Oxford: Berg, Part 1.

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Brian Longhurst, 1995, Popular Music and Society, Carmbridge: Polity, Part III, "Audience". Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel, 1964, "The Young Audience", in On Record, edited by Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin, pp. 27-38. John Connell and Chris Gibson, 2003, Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity and Place, chapter 9, "Aural Architecture: the Spaces of Music", pp. 192-220. Pierre Bourdieu, 1982, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, chapter 3, "The Habitus and the Space of LifeStyles": pp. 169-225. Tim Wall, 2003, Studying Popular Music Culture, London: Hodder, Part 4, "Audiences and Consumption", pp. 165-210. Simon Frith, 1996, Performing Rites, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Part III, "Why Music Matters", pp. 249-280.

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WEEK 6 IS A READING WEEK

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Catch up on any reading and listening that you haven't done yet. Reread key essays, articles, books, especially from the first two weeks. Write your short essay: deadline Monday 23rd February 2009, 12 noon. In advance of next week's session, attend a live gig and make some notes (see activity box below).

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WEEK 7) Keeping it Real: Performance, Gigs and the Live Experience Live music presents a special case for sociological analysis. Its perceived immediacy, presence and resonance amongst audiences, its "aura", is dependent upon a great deal of social, cultural and technological "work". This session will look at various aspects of the live gig, from theorisations of performance to the micro rituals of attendance, from the resurgence of live festivals to the spatial organisation of the live setting. Why are live performances so seductive? To what extent is "listening" itself a performance? What happens when gigs go wrong? The Listening Post Have a scour through footage on YouTube showing iconic live performances from Bob Dylan, Jimmy Hendrix, The Who, The Sex Pistols, Led Zeppelin, Pet Shop Boys, Madonna, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Kraftwerk.

ACTIVITY: THE GIG

1) Go along to a gig. It can be a small, local event or something larger like a festival. 2) Use this experience to critically interrogate the gig's production and reception: how the gig is structured, the social rituals, the organisation of the space, the management of boundaries, the role of technologies, the interactions between band/audience, within the band, within the audience, how "liveness" is performed. Refer to the readings to prompt your ideas. 3) Take a notepad and/or make mental notes before, during and after the gig. Be prepared to talk to others about your findings in class.

READINGS

* Philip Auslander, 1996, "Liveness: Performance and the Anxiety of Simulation", in the Popular Music Studies Reader, edited by Andy Bennett, Barry Shank and Jason Toynbee, 2006: London: Routledge, pp. 85-91. * Simon Frith, 1996, Performing Rites, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 10, "Performance", pp. 203-225.

Supplementary Readings

Simon Frith, 2007, "Live Music Matters", Scottish Music Review, vol. 1, no. 1. Available at: http://www.scottishmusicreview.org/index.php/SMR/article/view/9/8 Mark Duffett, 2003, "Imagined Memories: Webcasting as a `Live' Technology and the Case of Little Big Gig", Information, Communication and Society, vol. 6, no. 3: pp. 307-325.

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Jason Toynbee, 2000, Making Popular Music: Musicians, Creativity and Institutions, New York: Arnold, "Performance ­ theatre and process", "Performance ­ loud, clear and interrupted", pp. 53-65. Christopher Small, 1998, "Postlude: Was it a Good Performance and How Do You Know?", in Musicking, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, pp. 207-222. John Richardson, 2005, "'The Digital Won't Let Me Go': Constructions of the Virtual and the Real in Gorillaz' `Clint Eastwood'", Journal of Popular Music Studies, vol. 17, no. 1: 1-29. Wendy Fonorow, 2006, Empire of Dirt: The Aesthetics and Rituals of British Indie Music, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. Timothy Dowd, Kathleen Liddle and Jenna Nelson, 2004, "Music Festivals as Scenes: Examples from Serious Music, Womyn's Music, and SkatePunk", in Music Scenes: Local, Translocal, and Virtual, Andy Bennett and Richard A. Peterson (eds), 2004, Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. Jacques Derrida, 1974, Of Grammatology, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Theodore Gracyk, 2007, Listening to Popular Music, or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Led Zeppelin, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

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WEEK 8) "OK Computer": Sampling, Simulation and Software Recent innovations in digital technologies have transformed practices of music making. This session will describe recent technological developments such as MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) and VST (Virtual Studio Technology) within a social and historical perspective, attending to the multiple ways the digital unsettles conventional assumptions about originality, authorship and spatiality. It will ask to what extent the availability of software studios represent a "democratisation" of the means of cultural production, point to the various ethical problems of sampling (from copyright to colonialism) and explore the possibility that established models of cultural production need to be rethought in the light of digitalisation.

The Listening Post Afrika Bambaataa; M/A/R/R/S; Bomb the Bass; DJ Shadow; Wu Tang Clan; Fat Boy Slim; Gorillaz; Aphex Twin; Autechre, Matthew Herbert, Found, Timbaland.

READINGS

* Andrew Goodwin, 1988, "Sample and Hold: Pop Music in the Digital Age of Reproduction", Critical Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 3: pp. 34-49. * Nick Prior, 2008, "OK Computer: Mobility, Software and the Laptop Musician", Information, Communication and Society, vol. 11, no. 7: pp. 912-932.

Supplementary Readings

Timothy D. Taylor, 2001, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture, London: Routledge, chapters 1 and 2. Paul Théberge, 1997, Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music / Consuming Technology, Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, chapters 1, 4 and 6. Paul Théberge, 2004, "The Network Studio: Historical and Technological Paths to a New Ideal in Music Making", Social Studies of Science, vol. 35, no. 5: 759-781. John Richardson, 2005, "'The Digital Won't Let Me Go': Constructions of the Virtual and the Real in Gorillaz' `Clint Eastwood'", Journal of Popular Music Studies, vol. 17, no. 1: 1-29. René T. A. Lysloff and Leslie C. Gay, Jr. (eds), 2003, Music and Technoculture, Middletown, CT.: Wesleyan University Press, chapters 2, 3, 4 and 15. Michael D. Ayers (ed.), Cybersounds: Essays on Virtual Music Culture, New York: Peter Lang. David Hesmondalgh, 2006, "Digital Sampling and Cultural Inequality", Social and Legal Studies, vol. 15, no. 1: pp. 53-75. Tara Rodgers, 2003, "On the Process and Aesthetics of Sampling in Electronic Music Production", Organised Sound, vol. 8, no. 3: pp. 313-320.

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Kembrew McLeod, 2005, "Confessions of an Intellectual (Property): Danger Mouse, Mickey Mouse, Sonny Bono, and My Long and Winding Path as a Copyright ActivistAcademic", Popular Music and Society, vol. 28, no. 1: pp. 79-93. David Beer and Barry Sandywell, 2005, "Stylistic Morphing: Notes on the Digitalisation of Contemporary Music Culture", Convergence, vol. 11, no. 4: pp. 106121 [Copy NP]. Robert Fink, 2005, "The Story of ORCH5, or, the Classical Ghost in the Hip-Hop Machine", Popular Music, vol. 24, no. 3: pp. 339-356. Mark Katz, 2004, Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, Berkeley: University of California Press, chapter 7, "Music in 1s and 0s: The Art and Politics of Digital Sampling", pp. 137-157. David Beer and Roger Burrows, 2007, "Sociology and, of and in Web 2.0: Some Initial Considerations", Sociological Research Online, vol. 12, no. 5. Available at: http://www.socresonline.org.uk/12/5/17.html David Beer, 2008, "Making Friends with Jarvis Cocker: Music Culture in the Context of Web 2.0", Cultural Sociology, vol. 1, no. 2: pp. 222-241. Greg Hainge, 2007, "Vinyl is Dead, Long Live Vinyl: The Work of Recording and Mourning in the age of Digital Reproduction", Culture Machine: The Journal, no. 9. Available at: http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/81/68 Jan Marontate, 2005, "Digital Recording and the Reconfiguration of Music as Performance", American Behavioural Scientist, vol. 48, no. 11: pp. 1422-1438. Timothy Warner, 2003, Pop Music ­ Technology and Creativity: Trevor Horn and the Digital Revolution, Aldershot: Ashgate. Peter Manning, 2004, Electronic and Computer Music, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Part IV. Kodwo Eshun, 1998, More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction, London: Quartet Books.

SEMINAR QUESTIONS 1)

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WEEK 9) "Decks are Different": Dance Music, Turntablism and the DJ From informal curator to superstar, the role of the DJ signifies shifts in the way music is socially organised and performed. This session looks at the historical emergence of the DJ in afroCaribbean, American and European cultures and the misuse of the turntable as a musical instrument. Inspecting the techniques and cultural position-takings of the DJ raises interesting questions regarding analogue vs digital formations, authenticity and originality. To what extent does the DJ represent the death of the author-artist? Is the DJ a collector, producer, conductor or listener? How do struggles over the status of vinyl signify discourses of craft and nostalgia? The Listening Post Grandmaster Flash; Lee "Scratch" Perry; Jazzy Jeff; Frankie Knuckles; Christian Marclay; Juan Atkins; Carl Craig; Derrick May; Carl Cox; Jeff Mills; Paul Oakenfold.

READINGS

* Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, 1999, "Planet Rock", chapter 10 of Last Night a DJ Saved My Life, pp. 254-287. * Mark Katz, 2004, "The Turntable as Weapon: Understanding the DJ Battle", chapter 6 of Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 114-136.

Supplementary Readings

Dave Haslam, 1997, "DJ Culture", chapter 13 of The Clubcultures Reader: Readings in Popular Cultural Studies, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 168-179. Andy Bennett, 2001, Cultures of Popular Music, Maidenhead: Open University Press, chapter 8, "Contemporary Dance Music and Club Cultures", pp. 118-135. Christian Marclay and Yasunao Tone, "Record, CD, Analog, Digital", chapter 49 of Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner (eds), London: Continuum, pp. 341-347. Rebekah Farrugia and Thomas Swiss, 2005, "Tracking the DJs: Vinyl Records, Work, and the Debate over New Technologies", Journal of Popular Music Studies, vol. 17, no. 1: pp. 30-44. Tony Langlois, 1992, "Can You Feel It? DJs and House Music Culture in the UK", Popular Music, vol. 11, no. 2: pp. 229-238. Charles Mudede, 2003, "The Turntable", Ctheory, article a126, available at: http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=382 Simon Reynolds, 1999, Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture: London: Routledge.

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Jason Toynbee, 2000, "Dance Music: Business as Usual or Heaven on Earth", chapter 5 of Making Popular Music: Musicians, Creativity and Institutions, pp. 130162. Hillegonda Rietveld, 1998, This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies, Aldershot: Ashgate. Timothy D. Taylor, 2001, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture, London: Routledge, pp. 195-200. Ulf Poschardt, 1998, DJ Culture, London: Quartet Books. Simon Reynolds, 1999, Generation Ecstasy, London: Routledge. Sarah Thornton, 1995, Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital: Cambridge: Polity Press. David Toop, "Iron Needles of Death and a Piece of Wax", 2000, in Modulations: A History of Electronic Music, Peter Shapiro (ed.), 2000, New York: Caipirinha Publications. Peter Shapiro, 2002, "Deck Wreckers: The Turntable as Instrument", in Undercurrents: The Hidden Wiring of Modern Music, London: Continuum, pp. 163180.

SEMINAR QUESTIONS 1)

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WEEK 10) From Bits to Hits: Music and Video Games In the early days of gaming, 8bit music was defined by its lo-fi quality and lack of variety. Today, famous orchestras, bands and singers are commissioned to write pieces of music specially for games. In some countries, video game soundtracks are amongst the top selling albums. Meanwhile, the sounds of the 8bit chip are making a techno-nostalgic return in pop songs across genres whilst games such as Guitar Hero are making for a more intimate connection between popular music and digital play. This session will examine the birth and development of this new form and medium for music. It will discuss the importance of gaming in contemporary culture, show how shifts in the status afforded to game music is more than a technical matter, examine the new wave of 8bit sounds in popular music culture such as "chiptunes", "Bitpop" and "Game Boy music" and identify a current of rhythm action games that potentially blur the boundaries between production and consumption. The Listening Post 1) Music from games: PacMan; Super Mario Bros; The Legend of Zelda; Katamari Damacy; Dragon Quest; Sonic the Hedgehog; Grand Theft Auto; Rez; Street Fighter; Final Fantasy; Quake. 2) Music with games: contemporary 8bit music: Welle: Erdball; Printed Circuit; Freezepop; Tobiah; Receptors; Neotericz; Death By Television; Mr. Pacman; Nintendude; Crystal Castles; 8 Bit Mayhem; pixelh8. 3) Music as games: Guitar Hero; Rock Band; e-jay; Singstar; Lips; Rez.

READINGS

* Karen Collins, 2008, "Press Reset: Video Game Music Comes of Age", chapter 4 of Game Sound: An Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Video Game Music and Sound Design, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 63-84. * Holly Tesler, 2008, "The New MTV? Electronic Arts and `Playing' Music", chapter 1 of From Pac-Man to Pop Music, Karen Collins (ed.), Aldershot: Ashgate: pp. 13-26.

Supplementary Readings

Aphra Kerr, 2008, "Spilling Hot Coffee? Grand Theft Auto as Contested Cultural Product", chapter 1 of The Meaning and Culture of Grand Theft Auto: Critical Essays, Nate Garrrelts (ed.), London: McFarland: pp. 17-34. Douglas Brown, 2008, "Rez: An Evolving Analysis", Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media, May 25th 2008 http://blogs.arts.unimelb.edu.au/refractory/2008/05/24/rez-an-evolving-analysisdouglas-brown/ Karen Collins (ed.), 2008, From Pac-Man to Pop Music, Aldershot: Ashgate, especially introduction and chapter 10. Karen Collins, 2008, Game Sound: An Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Video Game Music and Sound Design, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

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Grethe Mitchell and Andrew Clarke, 2007, "Videogame Music: Chiptunes Byte Back?", Conference Paper, DiGRA (Digital Games Research Association), 2007. Available at: http://www.digra.org/dl/db/07311.12224.pdf Matthew Belinkie, 1999, "Video Game Music: Not Just Kid's Stuff", Video Game Music, http://www.vgmusic.com/vgpaper.shtml Jon Dovey and Helen W. Kennedy, 2006, Game Cultures: Computer Games as New Media, Maidenhead: Open University Press, chapter 1, "Play, Technology and Culture", pp. 22-42. Henry Jenkins, 2006, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, New York and London: New York University Press, "Introduction", pp. 1-24. Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin, 2000, Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, chapter 4, "Computer Games", pp. 88-13. J. Patrick Williams, Sean Q. Hendricks and W. Keith Winklery (eds), 2006, Gaming as Culture: Essays on Reality, Identity and Experience in Fantasy Games. J. Patrick Williams and Jonas Heide Smith (eds), 2007, The Players' Realm: Studies on the Culture of Video Games and Gaming, London: McFarland. Steven E. Jones, 2008, The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies, London: Routledge. David B. Nieborg and Joke Hermes, 2008, "What is Game Studies Anyway", European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 11, no. 2: pp. 131-146. Edward Castronova, 2005, Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games, London: University of Chicago Press.

The Meaning and Culture of Grand Theft Auto: Critical Essays, Nate Garrrelts (ed.), London: McFarland.

SEMINAR QUESTIONS 1)

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WEEK 11) "iPod Therefore I Am": Digitalisation, Urbanism and the Personal Stereo Talk of a new musical economy is based on the assumption that digital formats and practices have become the new orthodoxy. From illegal downloads to mobile phone ring tones, digital radio to the rise of the CD, digital technologies seem to be transforming where, what and how we consume music. This session will address the personal and public dimensions of digital music consumption. It will consider what the rise of the personal stereo and MP3 player mean for the rhythms and experiences of urban life, examine contemporary practices of music collecting and ask to what extent the rise of the MP3 represents a disintermediation of the music industry. ACTIVITY: SEMINAR In the week leading up to this session, keep an impressionistic diary of your experience with personal MP3 players. Think about where, when and how you listen to music and whether the MP3 player changes these aspects. How do you manage your mood with music? How does it structure your experience of the city, your thoughts and emotions in transit, your routines and habits?

Readings * Michael Bull, 2007, "Sounding Out Cosmopolitanism: iPod Culture and Recognition", chapter 3 of Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban Experience, London: Routledge: pp. 24-37. * Michael Bull, 2000, "Filmic Cities and Aesthetic Experience", chapter 7 of Sounding Out the City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life, Oxford: Berg, pp. 85-96.

Supplementary Readings

Dylan Jones, 2005, "Journey to the Centre of the iPod", chapter 19 of iPod Therefore I Am: A Personal Journey Through Music, London: Phoenix. Tia DeNora, "Music and the Body", chapter 4 of Music in Everyday Life, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75-108. Michael Bull, 2007, Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban Experience, London: Routledge. Michael Bull, 2005, "No Dead Air! The iPod and the Culture of Mobile Listening", Leisure Studies, vol. 24, no. 4, October 2005: pp. 343-355. Sophie Arkette, 2004, "Sounds Like City", Theory, Culture and Society, vol. 21, no. 1: pp. 159-168.

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Gabriel Cosentino, 2006, "'Hacking' the iPod: A Look Inside Apple's Portable Music Player", chapter 9 of Cybersounds: Essays on Virtual Music Culture, Michael D. Ayers (ed.), New York: Peter Lang. Steven Levy, 2007, The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture and Coolness, London: Simon and Schuster. John Ryan and Michael Hughes, 2006, "The Fate of Creativity in the Age of SelfProduction", chapter 11 of Cybersounds: Essays on Virtual Music Culture, Michael D. Ayers (ed.), New York: Peter Lang. Jean-Paul Thibaud, 2003, "The Sonic Composition of the City", chapter 18 of The Auditory Culture Reader, Michael Bull and Les Back (eds), Oxford: Berg, pp. 329342. Andrew Leyshon, 2003, "Scary Monsters? Software Formats, Peer-to-Peer Networks, and the Spectre of the Gift", Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 21, pp. 533-558. Marcus Breen, 2004, "The Music Industry, Technology and Utopia: an Exchange Between Marcus Breen and Eamonn Forde", Popular Music, vol. 23, no. 1: pp. 7989. Leander Kahney, 2005, The Cult of iPod, San Francisco: No Starch Press, especially chapter 2, "New Listening Habits". Jonathan Sterne, 2006, "The mp3 as Cultural Artifact", New Media and Society, vol. 8, no. 5: pp. 825-842. David Hesmondalgh, 2007, "Digitalisation, Music and Copyright", CRESC Working Paper Series, no. 30. Available at: http://www.cresc.ac.uk/publications/documents/wp30.pdf Steven Johnson, 1997, Interface Culture: How New Technology Transforms the Way We Create and Communicate, New York: Basic Books. Evan Eisenberg, 2005, The Recording Angel: Music, Records and Culture From Aristotle to Zappa, New Haven: Yale University Press, "Finale Quasi Una Fantasia", pp. 217-240.

SEMINAR QUESTIONS 1)

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SHORT ESSAYS

Your short essay is due: Monday 23rd February 2009, 12 noon. Please submit TWO PAPER COPIES to Sue Renton (room 1.09 CMB) plus an ELECTRONIC COPY through WebCT by the same deadline ­ full details on electronic submission can be found in the "Course Administration" folder on WebCT. There is a choice of two questions. Answer one of the following:

1) With reference to a single example from the history of music technology, show how a sociological analysis of popular music might benefit from an examination of the role of technology.

Possible examples: microphones, sound proofing materials, the electric guitar, the recording studio, the synthesizer, the drum machine, the jukebox, the CD, the iPod, the computer, the turntable, the computer, MIDI.

2) With reference to a single genre, style or scene, show how a sociological analysis of popular music might benefit from an examination of what Bourdieu calls "the field" of cultural production.

Possible case studies include: Chicago blues; the "Liverpool Sound"; grunge; Bristol and "trip hop"; women in Punk; glitch electronica; "Madchester"; hip hop; New Orleans jazz; dubstep; bassline; reggae; ska; techno; Britpop; J-pop; Goth; rave; nu rave; acid house; salsa; riot grrrl; emo; post-rock; skate punk; Detroit techno; amateur music making in local towns. Word Count: Essays should be 1,500 words, excluding bibliography (essays much longer or shorter will be penalised). Please specify word count. Do not put your name or matriculation number on the front of the essay, only your Exam Number. Readings for this essay should be based, predominantly, on the first 5 weeks of the course. Please consult individual weeks for relevant literatures and use your initiative to find other readings.

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LONG ESSAYS

Your long essay is due: Friday 24th April, 2009, 12 noon. Please submit TWO PAPER COPIES to Sue Renton (room 1.09 CMB) plus an ELECTRONIC COPY through WebCT by the same deadline ­ full details on electronic submission can be found in the "Course Administration" folder on WebCT. If you would like to cover a topic not present here please discuss an alternative title with me.

1) "The industrialisation of music can't be understood as something that happens to music since it describes a process in which music itself is made" (Frith, 1988: 12). Discuss. 2) Assess the claim that the history of popular music is inseparable from the history of technology. 3) Write a sociological account of the voice in popular music. 4) How do popular music genres form? 5) How is popular music implicated in the constitution and maintenance of the self? 6) What's so special about "live" music? 7) How significant has the rise of digital technologies been to the production of popular music? 8) To what extent does the rise of the DJ transform our notions of authorship, authenticity and the audience in popular music? 9) To what extent and how are video games transforming the production and consumption of popular music? 10) "For the first time in history the majority of citizens in Western culture possess the technology to create their own private mobile auditory world wherever they go" (Bull, 2007: 4). Discuss.

Word Count: Essays should be 4,000 words, excluding bibliography (essays much longer or shorter will be penalised). Please specify word count. Do not put your name or matriculation number on the front of the essay, only your Exam Number. Readings. Please consult individual weeks for relevant literatures and use your initiative to find other readings.

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