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ENVI 5505 Biophysical Dimensions of Resource and Environmental Management Course Description - Winter 2011 School for Resource and Environmental Studies Faculty of Management Dr. Tony Walker Time and Location Time: Place: Classes are scheduled Thursdays, beginning January 13th, 2010, 13:00-16:00 pm Room 1016, Rowe Management Building, 6100 University Avenue

Goal The goal of this course is to introduce students in the Master of Resource and Environmental Management (MREM) program to the biophysical considerations, approaches and tools involved in the management of natural resources and environmental issues. The course will engage students in case-based, problemsolving learning intended to understand how biophysical information can contribute to effective decisions regarding natural resource use and environmental risks. In addition, students will learn the techniques and tools which are currently used to incorporate biophysical information into decision-making. Through critical analysis, students will realize the value and the limitations of biophysical sciences in preparing management strategies and making resource and environmental management decisions. Although lectures will be presented by professors and guest lecturers, students will be expected to investigate the techniques, tools and cases on their own and contribute extensively to the discussions in class, in fact, leading the discussions. Definition For purposes of this course, the term biophysical refers to the physical, chemical and biological attributes and processes that describe the natural environment. In essence, they are the building blocks of ecosystems. These will include the important roles of fauna and flora, critical habitats, Species at Risk (SAR), insects and birds in distribution of seeds and pollination, energy flows, nutrient flows, material cycling, scavengers and decomposers, habitat characteristics, carrying capacity, water filtration by wetlands, genetic diversity (biodiversity), community structure, attributes such as the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the food webs of coastal bays and physical, chemical and biological processes such as photosynthesis, acclimation, decomposition, predation, symbiosis, eutrophication, reproduction, succession and erosion of geological structures to list a few. Note that this list is not meant to be exhaustive. Management techniques and tools A large number of techniques and tools have been developed to assist in the application and interpretation of biophysical information in resource and environmental management decisions. These include state of the environment reporting, environmental effects monitoring (EEM), ecological footprint analysis, environmental impact assessment (EIA), life cycle analysis (LCA), material and energy balances, design for environment, ecological risk assessment (ERA), land use planning, environmental labeling, environmental management system (EMS) certification, environmental site assessment (ESA), environmental remediation, green building design, dynamic modeling, spatial and gap analysis, and adaptive assessment and management. The course will consider the application of these tools to resource and environmental issues such as extraction of mineral resources, aquaculture lease siting, forest management, management of land-based sources of marine pollution, ecotourism development, climate protection, pollution prevention and ecoefficiency, water resource management and energy development. Where possible case study examples will be presented in lectures to better illustrate these biophysical and environmental management tools. Students should note that it is not possible in a course of 13-15 weeks duration to address all resource and environmental management issues and tools. Guest lecturers will present cases that demonstrate use of

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biophysical tools or the incorporation of biophysical information in management tools. Students will have an opportunity to investigate other management tools and present case studies that demonstrate their use. If you are aware of other tools and would like to present a case demonstrating their use, please contact Dr. Tony Walker. Cases Integration with ENVI 5205 and ENVI 5500: This course is offered simultaneously with two other courses in the MREM program. These three courses focus concurrently on common case studies so as to provide case-based examples of socio-political, biophysical, and law/policy dimensions and their integration. The cases change from year to year, although they will reflect current and local resource and environmental management issues. Cases will be circulated in Week 1 and assigned in Week 2. The specific environmental and resource cases that will be explored in depth with vary from year to year but have included moose management in Cape Breton, managing gold mining impacts in Nova Scotia, water resource management in King's County, aquaculture management in Saint Margaret's Bay, the Sydney Tar Pond remediation, tidal energy in Minas Basin, basalt mining in southwestern Nova Scotia, and invasive forest pests in HRM. In 2011, the five (or six) cases will be: A B C D E F Coyote Issue in Nova Scotia Potable Water Food Security Biosolids to Energy Tidal Power Proposed open-net salmon Farm in St. Mary's Bay, Nova Scotia (potential 6th case)

Course Text There is no specific course text; articles and materials on specific techniques, tools and cases are identified where appropriate. In most cases, these will involve references to websites and specific articles on the web and scientific journal or book articles. Guest lecturers In past course offering guest lecturers have included the following: · · · · Peter Bush ­ Geographic approaches to Ecosystem Management Nathan Pellitier ­ Use of LCA within resource management - fishery Dr. Lucia Funning ­ Coastal Zone Management Andrea Doucette ­ Newpage's Forest Management program

A range of guest lecturers will be selected for the winter 2011 ENVI 5505 course that will be invited to talk about their areas of expertise in Environmental Management that relate to biophysical components of natural resources. Guest lecturers will comprise of experts from academia, industry and government (e.g., Peter Geddes - Nova Scotia Department of Environment (NSE); Dan Utting ­ Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources (NSDNR); James Boxall ­ Dalhousie; Blair Pardy ­ Parks Canada; Paul Boudreau ­ Dalhousie Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management). Course instructor ENVI 5505 will be coordinated by Dr. Tony Walker ([email protected]). Dr. Walker is a Senior Environmental Scientist with Dillon Consulting Limited and has over 19 years experience in environmental management and scientific research as well more recent consulting experience for government, resource, construction and defence sector clients. Dr. Walker has conducted a wide variety of environmental management tasks including: environmental impact assessments (EIA), ecological risk assessments, a one year secondment to Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) working as a senior environmental advisor to the Department of National Defence (DND on a suite of natural resorce projects.

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Other professors, cross and adjunct appointed faculty of the School as well as guest lecturers will participate in presenting tools and cases throughout the semester. The guest lecturers are selected to expand the range of topics, management strategies and tools addressed in the course. Method of evaluation for (MREMs) assignments The method of evaluation for (MREMs) assignments will mirror similar grading issued by the instructors teaching the Socio-Political Dimensions (SPD), and Legal and Policy Dimensions (LPD) courses. Detailed descriptions of assignments will be circulated separately. All written assignments for this course must be submitted on OWL (using .doc). Use the following: Times New Roman 12 point font; 2.5 cm margins; page numbers in bottom right corner; surname in top right corner; title of assignment and title of topic in bold and centred at the top of the page; single-space all text (double-space between each citation in the reference section); and use APA 6th edition format for all referencing. Assignments submitted that do not conform to these uniform standards will be rejected. Assignment 1: One paper of 2000-2400 words (5-6 pages), single spaced supplemented by appendices in font size 12 on a topic linked to a biophysical technique / tool. Students have the opportunity to select the topic. This is the paper that will be critiqued by your classmate as part of the `discussant' assignment'. In addition the student will also need to be prepared to give a short (5 min) introduction to the topic as part of group workshops that will occur during the semester. The date of this `presentation' will be determined once the whole class has picked a topic. (February 17) ­ 30% Individual Analysis - Individual papers discussing the biophysical dimensions of the cases A through E/F. Papers should be independently written. Relate the concepts from the literature to the case so it helps you understand and explain what's going on in your case. See this as an exercise in becoming an expert on the theme so you can contribute strongly to your team presentations and report. You may also use some of the text from this paper for the team report, if appropriate. Expected length: 1200-1500 words (approximately 2 pages, excluding references, tables, appendices). (March 17) ­ 10% Presentation (Focused Peer Teaching) Class presentations and discussions on biophysical dimensions of the cases A through E/F. Teams should be prepared to lead discussion. You will have 60 minutes to complete this peer-teaching exercise. You may wish to develop power point slides to guide some/all aspects of your peer-teaching exercise. You may wish to use multi-media or employ various teaching/learning activities. You may wish to assign readings or other preparatory tasks in advance of your peer-teaching exercise. At the end of your peer-teaching exercise, the floor will open for questions for 20 minutes. One week prior to your assigned teaching date, you are to submit a 1-2 page outline of your teaching topics and activities (if you are creating power point slides, these must also be submitted in electronic format). The following categories will be used to grade the quality of this assignment: Evidence of original thinking; demonstration of analytic and synthetic ability; grasp of subject matter; awareness of literature and its breadth; communication and presentation of information. A grading rubric has been developed that will evaluate the following: Preparedness; Content; Comprehension; Enthusiasm (while speaking); Clarity; Time Management; and Professional Conduct. This peer-teaching exercise is worth 20% of your grade. The instructor will assign 10% to the group collectively and 10% to each individual. Therefore, it can be expected that not everyone in the group will receive the same grade. (March 17, 24, and 31) ­ 20% Assignment 4: Presentation of Integrated Analysis - Full presentations integrating biophysical with socio-political and legal dimensions of case A through E/F. Presentations will be open to the public and should be approximately one hour in length. All team members are

Assignment 2:

Assignment 3:

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expected to participate in the presentation and the question period. Each member's ability to respond to questions will be evaluated; therefore, you should formulate a plan for sharing the floor. The three course professors will collectively determine your group's grade. All presentations will be held on April 15 (April 15) ­ 10% Assignment 5: Written Report of Integrated Analysis - Jointly authored FINAL team report integrating biophysical with socio-political and legal dimensions of case A through E/F utilizing the attached questions as a guide (approx 40 - 50 pages double-spaced in font size 12 covering all three dimensions). An opportunity will be provided for self and team evaluation. Prepare a jointly authored report describing your approach, methods, results etc. Develop a plan related to the preparation of the report, including who will write which sections, what illustrative materials should be prepared and who will prepare these, and who will serve as editor of the overall manuscript. Discuss and agree on order of authorship (this can be a very difficult issue if not addressed early and openly). The three course professors will collectively determine your group's grade. (April 18) ­ 30%

Method of evaluation (Individuals) assignments The method of evaluation for individuals' assignments will mirror similar grading issued by the instructors teaching the Socio-Political Dimensions (SPD), and Legal and Policy Dimensions (LPD) courses.

NOTE THAT · This course involves an individual class presentation and written assignment on a management strategy or technique and its use in a case study other than the cases that form the basis of the group activity. · The role of discussant is to constructively comment on the management concept or tool, case study and the biophysical dimensions presented with an emphasis on aspects or dimensions that might have been missing. In addition the discussant should raise a question or topic for general discussion. The discussant will have no more than 5 minutes to respond to the presentation. As a contribution to the case study analysis, this course also requires each student to prepare an individual paper focused on one or more biophysical attributes or processes associated with the case study which their group is investigating. The attribute or process should, of course, be relevant to the content of the course as described at the beginning of the outline. This paper should include: o A short literature review relating particularly to the attribute or process o A link between the case and the literature o Analysis of the role of the attribute or process in understanding this particular case. o Conclusions about the importance of the attribute or process and the degree to which it has been addressed in attempting to understand the biophysical underpinnings of the case. This individual paper should be in the range of 1200-1500 words (approximately 2 pages, excluding references, tables, appendices). It is anticipated that preparation of this paper will assist in the development of the team presentations. A draft paper is due on March 17 if students wish to have any feedback before the final class presentations.

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The final jointly authored (group) paper is expected to provide some background on the case study, synthesizing what is currently known. This provides the reader with the context. However the point of the exercise is to assess: · what is known · what is missing (information, stakeholders, etc), · what are the strengths and weaknesses of the current knowledge base and state of management of the issue, · whether there are opportunities that haven't been pursued, · what barriers remain to be overcome and,

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what challenges continue to exist.

We are hopeful that with a fresh look at these issues, you may be able to shed some new light on the management of these issues! The list of questions that was circulated with the course outline at the beginning of term was intended to provide some guidance for the paper as well as the workshop. Grades will be based on both individual and group contributions. As indicated above, these will be determined by individual short papers, group discussions and presentations, team papers and confidential self and team assessments. The three professors will be involved in grading the jointly authored team reports. Class Schedule The course will be offered as one 3 hour class per week supplemented by group work where necessary. Readings Please note that beyond those listed, in order to keep this class dynamic and up-to-date many of the readings will be provided a week in advance of the class. This is to ensure that we can discuss topics using applicable and timely context as issue arise. Each session will generally include a presentation by the instructor / or guest lecture, and an in-class activity/discussion session. When possible, time will be allotted in some classes to facilitate group organization and scheduling. The final workshop will link three courses in addressing the biophysical, the socio-political and the legal dimensions of each of the five cases. That workshop is expected to be a full day event. Previous workshops have been viewed very positively as learning experiences by most of those who participated and were well received by the audience. January 6 (No Class Week 1) January 13 (Week 2) Topic: Introduction to the Course (Ice-breaker for the class participants and lecturer) Introduction to the course reviewing its relationship to the Socio-Political Dimensions (SPD), and Legal and Policy Dimensions (LPD) courses. A brief introduction to the case study concept and those cases selected for the course. Introduction of the various tools/techniques students can choose to discuss for their individual papers. On-line video: Story of Cap and Trade - http://www.storyofstuff.com/capandtrade/ Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · Andrew J. Constable, William K. de la Mare, David J. Agnew, Inigo Everson, and Denzil Miller. Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) ICES J. Mar. Sci. (2000) 57(3): 778-791 doi:10.1006/jmsc.2000.0725 http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/3/778.full.pdf+html · Environmental Management Tools - www.gdrc.org/uem/e-mgmt/e-mgmt.html · Walker, T.R., Habeck, O., Karjalainen, T.P., Virtanen, T., Solovieva, N., Jones, V., Kuhry, P., Pomonorov, V.I., Mikkola, K., Nikula, A., Patova, E. Crittenden, P.D., Young, S.D., Ingold, T. (2006) Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russian. Ambio. 35(5): 220-228. Class Discussion: Discussion of general biophysical terms and parameters; introduction to biophysical techniques and tools for resource and environmental management; Discussion of different management perspectives. January 20 (Week 3) Topic: Regional Management How to Manage Natural Resources? Applications of anecdotal ecological knowledge to natural resource management (traditional ecological knowledge, local knowledge, green mapping, community-based management)

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Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · Basics of Environmental Assessment from the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Website: http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=B053F859-1#1 · Nova Scotia Environmental Assessment - Highway 113 Project (read the Executive Summary, List of Acronyms, Section 9 Environmental Effects Assessment ­ sub-sections 9.6 - 9.11, pages 130-194) http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/ea/highway113/Hwy113.2009.EA.Report.pdf · Guide to Addressing Wildlife Species and Habitat in an EA Registration Document http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/ea/docs/EA.Guide-AddressingWildSpecies.pdf Guest lecture: TBA Class Discussion: Complexity of managing resources Students will also identify which management tool / technique and case they will choose for their individual paper in class and their "workshop date" will be assigned. January 27 (Week 4) Topic: Predictive Tools: Environmental Impact Assessments An introduction to performing Environmental Assessments in the context of assessing biophysical components Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · ESA - www.peo.on.ca/Guidelines/Environmental_Site_Guide.pdf · ESA - www.atl.ec.gc.ca/press/00-02-17_esa_backgrounder.html · ESA - www.sysco.ns.ca/environmental.htm · White paper on Environmental Site Assessments & Due Diligence http://www.aesac.ca/whitepaper.shtml Guest lecture: TBA Class Discussion: How would we assess biophysical components and scope VECs as part of a Highway EA? February 3 (Week 5) Topic: Regulatory Tools Environmental Site Assessments and Ecological Risk Assessment An introduction to performing Environmental Site Assessments in the context of addressing the regulatory framework associated biophysical components. Some examples will be illustrated of ESA's performed on federal properties in Atlantic Canada Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · Virtanen et al. (2002). Satellite image analysis of human caused changes in the tundra vegetation around the city of Vorkuta, north-European Russia. Environmental Pollution. 120(3):647-658. · Walker, T.R., Crittenden, P.D., Young, S.D., Prystina, T. (2006) An assessment of pollution impacts due to the oil and gas industries in the Pechora basin, north-eastern European Russia. Ecological Indicators. 6(2): 369-387. Guest lecture: Peter Geddes, Nova Scotia Department of Environment Class Discussion: How are Human and Ecological Risk Assessments used in ESA's? What biophysical components would need to be assessed at different ESA's location sites? February 10 (Week 6) Topic: Geographic approaches to Ecosystem Management Spatial management (spatial variability of biodiversity as an indicator of ecosystem health, eco-system integrity management, use of spatial tools, remote sensing as an ecosystem management tool) Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · Environmental Effects Monitoring ­ http://www.ec.gc.ca/eseeeem/default.asp?lang=En&n=4CDB9968-1 · Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring: Experiences with Pulp and Paper and Metal Mining Regulatory Programs - http://www.springerlink.com/content/u0t4946w427t50k8/fulltext.pdf · Walker, T. R., Crittenden, P. D., Dauvalter, V. A., Jones, V., Kuhry, P., Loskutova, O., Mikkola, K., Nikula, A., Patova, E. Pomonorov, V. I., Pystina, T. Rätti, O., Solovieva, N., Stenina, A., Virtanen, T., Young, S. D. (2009) Use of multi-indicators over broad spatial scales to show

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anthropogenic impacts: multidisciplinary research in the Pechora Region, north-eastern European Russia. Ecological Indicators. 9: 765-779. · Integrated Resource Management - http://www.gov.ns.ca/NATR/irm/introduction.html#definition · The Role of Adaptive Management as an Operational Approach for Resource Management Agencies - Johnson, B. L. 1999. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 8. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol3/iss2/art8/ Guest lecture: TBA Class Discussion: Discussion about the use and application of geographic information tools (e.g. remote sensing, GIS, Satellite tags in the environmental management of natural resources) February 17 (Week 7) Topic: Integrative techniques and tools: Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) Environmental effects monitoring, integrated resource management, adaptive resource management Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · Ecological Footprint o www.ecologicalfootprint.org/ o www.sustainablescale.org/ConceptualFramework/UnderstandingScale/MeasuringScale/E cologicalFootprint.aspx o www.iisd.ca/consume/mwfoot.html · LCA - Five Winds International (2009). Tools and Concepts for Environmental Sustainability: Tools and Concepts for Environmental Sustainability - Life Cycle Assessment. Available for download at: http://www.fivewinds.com/publications/publications.cfm Guest lecture: TBA Class Discussion: What are the challenges likely to be encounted when conducting EEM programs in areas where there are other potentially impacting projects or developments? Deliverable: Individual Paper (Assignment 1) February 21-25 Winter Break - No Classes (Week 8) March 3 (Week 9) Topic: Integrative techniques and tools - Ecological Footprint and LCA Ecological footprint and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Supporting Readings (Suggested Readings Prior to the Class for General Discussion): · Harbour Water Quality Sampling Program http://www.halifax.ca/harboursol/waterqualitydata.html · http://www.halifax.ca/harboursol/documents/ea_screening_report_001.pdf · http://www.halifax.ca/harboursol/WhatistheHarbourSolutionsProject.html · Walker, T.R., Grant, J., Archambault, M-C. (2006) Accumulation of marine debris on an intertidal beach in an urban park (Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia). Water Quality Research Journal of Canada. 41(3): 256-262. · Dr. Bill Li of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography has developed a presentation of the data, showing the trends in fecal coliform bacteria in Halifax Harbour from 2004-2009. His document (PDF format) is available at the following link: http://www.mar.dfompo.gc.ca/science/ocean/BedfordBasin/HHWQMP/FecalColiforms.pdf Guest lecturer: Dan Mazerolle, Ph.D. Monitoring Ecologist, Fundy National Park of Canada Deliverable: Critical Review of Student Paper March 10 (Week 10) Topic: Use of biophysical information in decision-making in Halifax Harbour Halifax Harbour, one of the best deepwater, ice-free ports in the world, has been polluted by over 181,000,000 L/day of untreated water, both sanitary and storm wastewater. Conditions in the harbour deteriorated over time, but only now are the citizens of the Halifax Region finally seeing a Halifax Harbour solutions strategy being implemented. The Halifax Harbour Solutions project has been designed to eliminate the flow of raw sewage and other contaminants into the world-famous Halifax Harbour.

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Presentation of Case Studies Class presentations will be staggered such that the student teams will not present the three perspectives (e.g., biophysical, socio-political and legal dimensions) on the same week. Week March 14-18 (week 10) March 21-25 (week 11) March 28 - April 1 (week 12) Socio-Political AB CD E(F) Legal E(F) AB CD Biophysical CD E(F) AB

March 17 (Week 11) · Presentation and discussion of the biophysical dimensions of Case studies C and D led by student teams Deliverable: Independent Paper Related to Case Study and Group Case Studies (Assignment 2 & 3) March 24 (Week 12) · Presentation and discussion of the biophysical dimensions of Case E (and F if applicable) led by student team · Presentation and discussion of individual term projects (if applicable) Deliverable: Group Case Studies (Assignment 3) March 31 (Week 13) · Presentation and discussion of the biophysical dimensions of Case studies A and B led by student teams Deliverable: Group Case Studies (Assignment 3) April 7 (Week 14) · Wrap Up and Course Evaluations April 14/15 (Week 15) · FINAL WORKSHOP: Combined full day workshop involving an integrated perspective on the biophysical, socio-political and legal dimensions of the five cases. Each of the cases will be explored in turn identifying key issues, lessons learned and ways of avoiding similar problems in the future. The workshop will conclude with recommendations for improving the practice of resource and environmental management in the 21st century. Deliverable: (Assignment 4) Deliverable: FINAL REPORT DUE APRIL Monday 18 (Assignment 5)

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Case Study A: Coyotes in Nova Scotia In late October 2009, a young woman was attacked and fatally injured by two or more coyotes (Canis latrans) while hiking alone in Cape Breton Highlands National Park. This fatality appears to have been only the second death as a result of a coyote attack recorded in North America in recent decades. The unique nature of this fatality is thrown into further relief when one considers that over the decade from 1998 to 2008, there appear to have been only 24 human-coyote interactions resulting in any injury to humans (mostly scratches and bites) across all of Canada. Despite the highly unusual nature of this tragedy, over the intervening year Nova Scotians have become unusually sensitive to the presence of coyotes in our landscape. Otherwise casual sightings and encounters with coyotes are now being reported in the media with great frequency and organizations and local governments are calling for action to be taken to do something about the coyote "problem". Tension regarding negative human-coyote interaction increased further when a coyote bit a camper sleeping outside her tent in a campground in Cape Breton Highlands National Park in August 2010. Part of what seems to have contributed to heightened public concern amongst Nova Scotians regarding the presence of coyotes is the fact that they are relatively recent arrivals to the province and as such we have not yet become comfortable with their presence. Originally a species native to western North America, over the 20th Century, coyotes steadily extended their range eastward, likely arriving in this province in the mid1970s. Their presence was first confirmed when an individual was first trapped in 1977. By 1981, however they had spread as far as Northern Cape Breton Island and seemingly are now present throughout the province. Current best estimates suggest that there are approximately 8,000 coyote across all of Nova Scotia though little research has been conducted on their abundance, distribution or life histories in the province. Their success is understandable, however, given their reproductive and foraging plasticity, their general success in highly altered, human dominated landscapes and the absence of any other large nonhuman predator in the environment (while wolves (Canis lupes) were native to what is now Nova Scotia, they were extirpated centuries ago while lynx (Lynx canadensis) in Nova Scotia likely number less than 500 individuals and are largely restricted to northwestern Cape Breton Island). In response to public pressure to address the coyote issue in some way, in May of 2010, the Provincial government introduced a $20 coyote pelt incentive ­ essentially a $20 subsidy for each coyote pelt recorded by Nova Scotia trappers during the regular trapping season. This bounty (by any other name) was introduced despite extensive experience and research from other parts of North America that clearly indicate that bounties and related culling techniques (poisoning programmes etc) are largely ineffective as a means of controlling coyote populations over the medium term. While the first trapping season with the bounty in place is not over (it runs from Oct 15th to March 31st), the Province projects that up to 4,000 coyotes are likely to be killed by trappers this season, approximately double the typical previous annual average.

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Case Study B: Potable Water Water is one of our most important natural resources but drinking water in Canada is at risk of contamination from a wide range of microbiological, chemical and radiological contamination. A troubling example is the thousands of chemicals and hundreds of pesticides never properly assessed in Canada for potential health and ecological impacts. Canada still permits the use of dozens of pesticides that are banned in other countries due to potential health threats. The risks facing Canadians are more than theoretical. For example, Health Canada estimates unsafe drinking water causes 90,000 illnesses and 90 deaths every year. However, protection of drinking water has improved in recent years through updates to Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality standards; although there are still regulatory deficiencies threatening drinking water safety, particularly of drinking water quality in First Nations communities. Only four Canadian provinces and territories require advanced drinking water treatment (e.g. filtration); and only four have adopted drinking water quality standards that meet or exceed the non-binding Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality and close to half of Canadian jurisdictions lack mandatory testing for chemical contamination. In Nova Scotia, approximately 60% of the population receives treated drinking water from central groundwater or surface water supplies operated by municipal water utilities. Municipal water utilities are responsible for the delivery of water in accordance with provincial standards and for meeting their requirements for due diligence. Conversely, approximately 46% of Nova Scotians rely primarily on groundwater from dug or drilled wells for their private potable drinking water supply. Private well owners are responsible for ensuring that their wells are constructed to provincial standards and for testing their water regularly to confirm that it is free of any natural or man-made impurities. The Nova Scotia's Department of Environment (NSE) has recently developed several water resource management practices that seek to balance the needs of all competing water users with the health and integrity of Nova Scotia's aquatic ecosystems. Good, clean, and abundant water is essential for people and for the environment to survive. It is also critical for many of the activities that help communities and ecosystems thrive. The Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines have recently been updated: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/water-eau/2010-sum_guideres_recom/sum_guide-res_recom-eng.pdf A useful report, "Water 2 Proof Canada's Drinking Water Report Card" is available here: http://www.ecojustice.ca/publications/reports/waterproof-2/attachment The province of Nova Scotia has produced a road map for water resource management in Nova Scotia and is available on their website: http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/water.strategy/docs/WaterStrategy_Water.Resources.Management.Strate gy.pdf

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Case Study C: Food Security in Nova Scotia During the 1996 World Food Summit, a widely accepted conceptual definition of food security emerged: "when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." Reliable access to food, sufficient availability of nutritious food, and satisfactory food quality represent the three pillars of food security. Issues of food (in)security have historically resided in the global south. But with a growing human population, stress on natural resources, imports and exports, and now a rapidly changing climate, these issues are developing worldwide. Canada is experiencing changes and challenges to its food security. While these challenges are largely being experienced in the North, the rest of Canada is not immune. Nova Scotia is rich in natural resources, particularly its aquaculture. People have thrived here for a very long time; current oral history and archaeological evidence suggest human presence for over 11,000 years. The province is well known for its abundance in viable agriculture lands, orchards, and dairy farms - just think of blueberry farms, sweet honeycrisp apples, and local cheese factories, and don't forget our resident breweries and vineyards! However, using a standardized tool known as the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB), the Participatory Food Costing Working Group of the Nova Scotia Food Security Network (funded, in part, by Health Canada and the Nova Scotia Department of Health Promotion and Protection) found that "since 2002, there has been an almost 18% increase in the cost of the food basket for a household of two adults and two children. Results have also consistently demonstrated that the cost of a basic nutritious diet is higher in rural areas and in smaller grocery stores versus the cost in urban areas and larger stores". In the last few decades, migration in Nova Scotia is similar to that found across Canada: people are moving from rural to urban environments. Most urban-dwellers do not grow their own food anymore (in fact, many do not know where their food comes from); rather they purchase it from the grocery store. Those who cannot afford to buy their own, seek alternative means, through food banks, soup kitchens, food coupons, school breakfast and/or lunch programs, and informal food sharing networks. More recently, we are seeing a `slow food' movement (here and abroad), increased demand for `certified organic' and `pesticide-free' produce, community gardens, local farmers' markets, and urban chicken coops. FAO. (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. World Food Summit 13-17 November, 1996. Rome. Ford, J. D., and Berrang-Ford, L. (2009). Food security in Igloolik, Nunavut: an exploratory study. Polar Record, 45(234): 225-236. Nova Scotia Food Security Network. (2009). Participatory Food Costing Working Group. Retrieved from http://nsfoodsecurity.org/working.php (accessed December 31, 2010). For an interesting `made in Nova Scotia' workbook about community action for food security, see: http://partcfood.msvu.ca/index.htm For a useful government website for details on food in Nova Scotia, see: http://nsfoodsecurity.org/working.php For an academic initiative on food security in Nova Scotia, see: http://www.msvu.ca/en/home/aboutus/mediacentre/mediareleases/Dr_Patricia_Williams.aspx

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Case Study D: Biomass to Energy in Nova Scotia Nova Scotia, like so many political jurisdictions both sub-national and national, has committed itself to a future dominated by sustainable energy. What that means differs in each jurisdiction. Invariably, though, it means finding ways to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and increase reliance on renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar and water power. Demand reduction and increased efficiency of energy use are also part of the package. Biomass energy is part of Nova Scotia's sustainable energy picture. While all organisms, both living and recently dead, are part of the biomass of the world, the biomass-to-energy discussion concentrates attention on trees and grasses. Forest biomass - defined here as all above-ground tree parts - has been used for energy production - heat and light - for millennia. Chunk firewood still has a prominent role in home heating (and some cooking) in Nova Scotia, particularly in rural areas. Wood-based pellets are made in the province and burned both in home appliances and in district heating and electricity-generating facilities. Hog fuel (i.e. ground-up tree parts like bark and slash) finds its way into boilers generating process steam and electricity. Both wood pellets and hog fuel are exported from Nova Scotia for use in European electricity-generating plants. From recent media coverage, it is clear that Nova Scotians are wary of a strong expansion of the use of forest biomass for energy. Fears are that all above-ground tree parts (in full-tree logging) will be removed from forest sites, and clear cutting will be expanded. The future of biomass for energy in Nova Scotia is really uncertain. Some people support strong and rapid developments, particularly business interests that would like to generate electricity and sell it into the provincial grid. Others suggest a moratorium on burning biomass to create electricity. Are either of these futures reasonable? What middle roads might make sense? What implications do various strategies have for economic, environmental and social values? An incisive policy analysis would go a long way to helping Nova Scotia make a sensible decision on how to proceed with biomass for energy.

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Case Study E: Tidal Power Electricity Generation in the Bay of Fundy The NS Environmental Goals and Sustainable Prosperity Act (EGSPA) mandates province-wide greenhouse gas emission reductions of 10% below 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require a ~5-7 million tonne reduction in carbon emissions between 2010 and 2020 based on current projections. In support of achieving this goal, the province has committed to a process that would see 25% of provincewide electricity generated from renewable sources by 2015. A promising and potentially major source of renewable electricity generation capacity available to Nova Scotia is the tides of the Bay of Fundy. Although human use of tidal energy has a relatively long history dating to at least to the 12th century in Europe, it has never emerged as a major component in the electricity sector. According to one estimate, however, the total capacity of tidal power is estimated at one billion kilowatts, or ten times Canada's current electrical output. The Bay of Fundy has attracted the attention of potential tidal power developers because of the very high tidal amplitude and flow rates that occur in parts of the bay that result from its unique physiography and oceanography. Tidal ranges can be as high as 16 meters at the upper end of Bay in the Minas Basin and Cumberland Basin. One report (www.canadianencyclopedia.ca) notes that a mill powered at least in part by the tides was established at Port Royal in 1607. However, it wasn't until the mid-1980s that Fundy tidal power was harnessed to generate electricity when a tidal barrage and generating station were built at Annapolis Royal at the confluence of the Annapolis River and Annapolis Basin. The tidal barrage and station were originally designed to demonstrate the capability of a particular turbine but they continue to contribute to the renewable energy mix of Nova Scotia. Over the late 1980s and early 1990s proposals for larger tidal barrages in Minas Basin were considered. However, environmental impacts predicted by models were determined to be too significant to proceed. Over the last few years as energy prices and concern regarding greenhouse gas emissions have increased, many new technologies have emerged designed to take advantage of tides and tidal currents. Developers of these technologies have promoted a range of economic, environmental and social advantages but few have been tested, let alone deployed, in real world conditions. Given the resource potential in the Bay of Fundy and the Province's interest in seeing new renewable electricity generation capacity built, in 2009 it established the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Facility, a grid-connected in-stream tidal energy test facility in the Minas Passage (see: http://fundyforce.ca/). This four-berth facility is set up to allow technology developers, regulators and scientists evaluate the efficacy of new in-stream tidal generating technologies and their capacities. To date, three technologies have been selected for testing with the first, an Irish designed open-centre turbine being deployed from November, 2009 to December, 2010. While data recovery and testing of the prototype is ongoing, initial reports indicate that although the unit seemed to fare well at the bottom of the Minas Passage, all twelve of its turbine blades had been destroyed. It would appear that the tidal flows in this are of the Bay are far stronger than designers had imagined. Additional issues and challenges to be addressed as tidal technologies are tested include the vulnerability of marine life to turbine strike, turbine vulnerability to rocks and boulders entrained in the tidal flow and potentially increasing concerns amongst fishermen related to loss of fishing opportunities and income.

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Case Study F ­ A proposed open-net salmon farm in St. Mary's Bay (potential 6th case) Last summer, Kelly Cove Salmon Ltd applied to the federal and Nova Scotia provincial governments to locate two new salmon farms in St. Marys Bay, immediately adjacent to Long Island, Digby County. Kelly Cove, the farming division of New Brunswick-based Cooke Aquaculture (http://www.cookeaqua.com/), currently operates a number of salmon farms in Nova Scotia including a site adjacent to Brier Island, near the two proposed farms. The two new farm sites would together cover an area of approximately 84 hectares and in combination would have the capacity to produce approximately a million salmon annually at full production, making them the largest salmon farms in the province, should they go ahead. Over the late summer and fall, public consultation meetings were held in communities in the vicinity of the proposed farms. These meetings attracted a great deal of public attention from diverse segments of society including members of the Bear River First Nation. Concerns regarding the farm sites vary but include apprehension regarding potential pollution, interference with the local lobster fishery (the waters around Digby neck and the Islands together with St. Mary's Bay are some of the richest lobster fishing grounds in the world) and possible impacts on cetaceans. Last winter, a group of MREM students undertook a review of the challenges and opportunities associated with the development and management of aquaculture in Nova Scotia as one of the five group projects undertaken that term. Their work was very high level and considered a breadth of issues and the full range of species and culture systems currently employed in the province. Their results should provide a solid, though partial foundation from which to explore the biophysical, socio-political and law and policy aspects if these proposed new salmon farm sites.

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MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND TOOLS Sign-up sheet for individual report topics related to concepts/ tools: · Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) · Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) · Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA) · Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) · Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) · Species at risk (SAR) assessment · Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) · Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) · Developing Management Plans for Biophysical Components · Land Use Planning · Adaptive environmental assessment and management · Integrated Resource Management (IRM) · Coastal Area Planning And Management · Community-Based Natural Resource Management · River Basin Management · Urban Environmental Analysis · State of the environment reporting · Pollutant Release Inventories · Environmental Labeling · Biodiversity Conservation · Forest Stewardship Certification · Marine Stewardship Certification · Eco-regional Assessment · Coastal Vulnerability Assessment · Integrated Pest Management --- ----------------------------Academic Integrity ­ Standard Wording for Syllabi and Course Materials In general: The commitment of the Faculty of Management is to graduate future leaders of business, government and civil society who manage with integrity and get things done. This is a non-negotiable in our community and it starts with your first class at Dalhousie University. So when you submit any work for evaluation in this course or any other, please ensure that you are familiar with your obligations under the Faculty of Management's Academic Integrity Policies and that you understand where to go for help and advice in living up to our standards. You should be familiar with the Faculty of Management Professor and Student Contract on Academic Integrity and it is your responsibility to ask questions if there is anything you do not understand. Dalhousie offers many ways to learn about academic writing and presentations; so that all members of the University community may acknowledge the intellectual property of others. Knowing how to find, evaluate, select, synthesize and cite information for use in assignments is called being "information literate." Information literacy is taught by Dalhousie University Librarians in classes and through online tutorials. See Researching Ethically tutorial at http://infolit.library.dal.ca/tutorials/Plagiarism/ Do not plagiarize any materials for this course. Further guidance on what constitutes plagiarism, how to avoid it, and proper methods for attributing sources, please see http://plagiarism.dal.ca/Student%20Resources/

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Please note that Dalhousie University now subscribes to Turnitin.com, a computer based service that checks for originality in submitted papers. Any paper submitted by a student at Dalhousie University may be checked for originality to confirm that the student has not plagiarized from other sources. Plagiarism is considered a very serious academic offence that may lead to loss of credit, suspension or expulsion from the University, or even the revocation of a degree. It is essential that there be correct attribution of authorities from which facts and opinions have been derived. At Dalhousie, there are University Regulations which deal with plagiarism and, prior to submitting any paper in a course, students should read the Policy on Intellectual Honesty contained in the Calendar or on the Dalhousie web site at: http://www.registrar.dal.ca/calendar/ug/UREG.htm#12 Furthermore, the University's Senate has affirmed the right of any instructor to require that student papers be submitted in both written and computer readable format, and to submit any paper to a check such as that performed by Turnitin.com. As a student in this class, you are to keep an electronic copy of any paper you submit, and the course instructor may require you to submit that electronic copy on demand. Copies of student papers checked by this process will be retained by TurnitIn.com. Finally: If you suspect cheating by colleagues or lapses in standards by a professor, you may use the confidential email: [email protected] which is read only by the Assistant Academic Integrity Officer. Resources Books related to environmental and resource management are held in the Killam Library. Please note that this is not intended as an exhaustive list. The list consists of relevant books that have been obtained by the Library since 2002. Abbasi, S. The Theory and Practice of Environmental Impact Assessment. Discovery. Angelstam et al. Targets and Tools for the Maintenance of Forest Biodiversity. Blackwell Artiola, J.F. et al. Environmental Monitoring and Characterization. Elsevier. Bissonette and Storch. Landscape Ecology and Resource Management. Island Press. Burgman,M. Risks and Decisions for Conservation and Environmental Management. CUP. Busch and Trexler. Monitoring Ecosystems: Interdisciplinary Approaches.Island Press. Dalal-Clayton, B. Strategic Environmental Assessment. Earthscan Publishing. Dale, Virginia. Ecological Modeling for Resource Management. Springer-Verlag. Ewert,A.W. et al. Integrated Resource and Environmental Management. CABI. Field and Raupach. Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate and the Natural World. Island Press. Gibson, R.B. Sustainability Assessment. Earthscan Publishing. Gunderson and Pritchard. Resilience and Behavior of Large-Scale Systems. Island Press. Hicks, R. Ecology and Management of Central Hardwood Forests. John Wiley and Sons. Jackson, M.C. Systems Approaches to Management. Plenum. Korakandy.R. Coastal Zone Management. Kalpaz. Kumar, H.D. Sustainablity and Management of Aquaculture and Fisheries. Daya. Lawrence, D.P. Environmental Impact Assessment. Wiley. Lindenmayer and Franklin. Towards Forest Sustainability. Island Press. Linnerooth-Bayer. Transboundary Risk Management. Earthscan Publishing. Liu and Taylor. Integrating Landscape Ecology into Natural Resource Management. CUP. McPherson and Destefano. Applied Ecology and Natural Resource Management. CUP. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis Report. Island Press. Mitchell, B. Resource and Environmental Management in Canada, 3rd ed. OUP. Monserud, R.A. et al. Compatible Forest Management. Kluwer Scientific. Newman and Unger. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology. 2nd ed. CRC Press. Parikh and Datye. Sustainable Management of Wetlands: Biodiversity and Beyond. Sage India. Piegorsch and Bailer.Analyzing Environmental Data. Wiley. Postel and Richter. Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature. Island Press. Raison, J.K. et al. Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management. OUP.

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Ramachandran and Ramesh. Freshwater Management. Capital. Rethy, P.et al. Forest Conservation and Management. Publisher unknown. Roseland. M. Eco-City Dimensions: Healthy Communities, Healthy Planet. New Society Publishers. Russo.M.V. Environmental Management: Readings and Cases. Houghton Mifflin. Sayer, J.A. Forests in Landscapes: Ecosystem Approaches to Sustainability. Earthscan Publishing. Shipely, J.B. Aquatic Protected Areas as Fisheries Management Tools. American Fisheries Society. Singh, B.K. Biodiversity, Conservation and Management. Mangal Deep. Smith, K. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. 4th ed. Routledge. Smith and Maltby. Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity. IUCN. Therivel, R. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Action. Earthscan Publishing. Thomas and Duff. Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas. IUCN. Thompson, Dixon. Tools for Environmental Management. New Society Publishers. Van den Bergh et al. Spatial Ecological-Economic Analysis for Wetland Management. CUP. Wescoat and White. Water for Life: Water Management and Environmental Policy. CUP. Wiersma,G.B. Environmental Monitoring. CRC Press. Other sources of information on environmental and resource management concepts and tools Spatial techniques and tools: Spatial analysis, river basin management, urban environmental management www.gomoos.org/ www.trentu.ca/cemc http://srmwww.gov.bc.ca/gis/ www.fmf.ca/pa_GIS.html http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~edp/esguide/start.html Information techniques and tools: Pollutant release inventories, eco-labeling, state of the environment reporting. www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri/npri_home_e.cfm www.cec.org/files/pdf/POLUTANTS/23march02_wrkshp_summary-E.pdf www.gen.gr.jp/pdf/pub_pdf01.pdf www.environmentalchoice.com www.gov.ns.ca/enla/pubs/soer www.sustreport.org/resource/reports.html www.environmentalindicators.com/htdocs/PDF/Report/pdf Modeling techniques and tools: www.uneptie.org/pc/pc/tools/ecodesign.htm www.usgbc.org/LEED/publications.asp www.moea.state.mn.us/berc/dfetoolkit.cfm http://dfe-sce.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/home_e.html www.pre.nl/eco-indicator99/default.htm Technical workbook on environmental management tools for decision analysis www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/TechPublications/TechPub-14/1-RUEA1.asp Environmental assessment www.gdrc.org/uem/e-mgmt/e-mgmt.html

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Management Questions to Assist in Preparing for the Final Paper and Workshop 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. What key problems or events led people to come together to make recommendations or decisions? What segments of the area population are affected? Who are the stakeholders? What motivates the various stakeholders? What are three major decisions concerning the project or activity that have been made up to this point in time? Why is each of these decisions important? What issue(s) did each major decision address? What groups/individuals were most important in focusing attention on each of those problems or events? What specific steps were taken in reaching the three most important decisions identified earlier? Were any formal methods or approaches used in defining the problem, assessing it or mitigating it? What role did technical information play in the assessment, mitigation or decision-making process? Which groups, if any, were most influential in introducing decision topics and guiding the process? What kind of risk information was used during decision-making? What specific events or factors helped and hindered efforts to reach the three most important decisions identified in response to Question 2? What particular barriers or problems were encountered during the decision-making process? How were the above barriers addressed or overcome? How would changes in available information (e.g., from monitoring and further studies) affect the decisions that have been made? How would changes in economic conditions affect decisions? How would changes in regulatory requirements affect those decisions? How would changes in political conditions affect decisions?

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