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Ernesto Galarza Commemorative Lecture

Resolana: A Chicano Pathway to Knowledge

Third Annual Lecture 1988

Stanford Center for Chicano Research Stanford University

Ernesto Galarza Commemorative Lecture

Presented by

Tomas Atencio Associate Director of the Southwest Hispanic Research Institute University of New Mexico

Third Annual Lecture


^&. ornas Atencio has long been recognized for his 01 strong and distinctive sense of how culture and knowledge must be grounded in their local settings. His originality and wealth of experience led to his selection as the speaker in the third annual Ernesto Galarza lecture sponsored by the Stanford Center for Chicano Research. We are indebted for their fine choice to the selection committee whose members were Jerry Lopez (chair). Professor of Law; James Leckie, Professor of Engineering; Carlos Munoz, Professor of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley; Jose Padilla, Director, California Rural Legal Assistance; Robert Trujillo, Curator for Mexican American Collections; Armando Valdez, Associate Director, SCCR, and Richard Valencia, Professor of Education, University of California, Santa Cruz. Atencio has challenged the notion that culture and knowledge find their highest form in ancient Athens and western Europe. Instead he proposes the resolana, a conversation among men, as an equally powerful form of wisdom, indeed one that offers more insight for Hispano populations in particular and Americans in general than conventional Eurocentric models. He forcefully argues that in our post-industrial age of information, such oral forms (including those of women. Native Americans, and Afro-Americans) offer the potential of playing a leading role in reorienting and renewing knowledge and culture for all Americans. As an intellectual whose message emanates from his local setting, Atencio fits well within the tradition of Ernesto Galarza whose memory these lectures honor. Ernesto Galarza was a nationally recognized intellectual, a community leader, and an activitist scholar. His work was associated with Stanford from his graduate studies in Latin American history to his work with a community health center in Alviso and his founding of a bilingual program in San Jose. Galarza did not fit the usual molds; he worked as a poet, an organizer, a writer of children's stories, a leading figure in the Organization of American States, and an author of scholarly tomes. Throughout he worked toward the betterment of Chicano workers. He took pride in his culture and never doubted his identity. We hope these lectures serve to renew his vision for ourselves and others yet to come.


Renato Rosaldo Director, SCCR


Activism and Intellectual Struggle in the Life of Ernesto Galarza

Richard Chabran Chicano Studies Research Center University of California, Los Angeles

rnesto Galarza was a man of stature. He was a man of conviction and action. He was recognized both within the Chicano community and, as witnessed by his nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize, internationally. He knew his mission in life and pursued it with a rare precision and determination. Yet Don Ernesto was also a humble man of letters. This small tribute in no way pretends to be comprehensive; our intention is to provide an outline of his life and work, and provide a glimpse of the person behind these actions. Don Ernesto often opened his speeches to congressional committees and foundations by stating that he was of Mexican origin. He was born in Jalcocotan, Nayarit, Mexico on August 15, 1905. His early years were spent in that small village where he was always attuned to the rhythms of life and nature. Perhaps the rhythm of the countryside was the well-spring to which he would consistently return as an older child and adult. These important early moments were to be changed by historical forces already at work. The rise of the Mexican revolution signaled the movement of many families north to the United States; Ernesto, his mother, aunt, and uncles were part of this movement. His family finally settled in Sacramento, California, where Ernesto assisted his family during the harvest season as a farmworker while he attended Lincoln Elementary and Sacramento High School. As a youth he became


involved with the labor movement. Although he had not initially planned to further his education, he was encouraged by a teacher to attend Occidental College. He received a scholarship to attend college and returned to Sacramento during the summer to work as a farm laborer and cannery worker. After graduating from Occidental, he attended Stanford University where he received his Master's degree in History and Political Science. After his graduation, he married Mae Taylor in 1929. They were to have two children. From Stanford, Ernesto attended Columbia University where he received a fellowship to complete his graduate training. Between 1932 and 1936 Don Ernesto and his wife served as co-principals and then as owners of Gardner School, a private school in Jamaica, Long Island, known for its commitment to progressive education. While working at the Gardner School, Don Ernesto finished his graduate coursework. He was awarded his Ph.D. in Economics in 1947. By this time, we can clearly see major areas of motivation had already been formulated and acted upon. Don Ernesto's goal was to improve the living conditions of working-class Latinos. He saw education, research, and organization as the principle vehicles to accomplish that goal. He saw education not as an end unto itself, but as necessary to pursue his larger goal. He saw the need to change established educational philosophy and curriculum in schools. These motivating forces, goals, and vehicles remain constant throughout his later work. During the 1950's, Galarza became a familiar face in congressional hearings where he exposed the abuses of the Bracero Program and the socioeconomic status of Mexican Americans. His attacks on the Bracero Program accelerated. He realized that "unionization was futile while the Bracero Program remained". The National Farm Labor Union was renamed the National Agricultural Workers Union (NAWU) in 1956. By that time, Galarza had become discouraged by

the symbiotic relationship between agribusiness, government bureaucrats, and organized labor, and he decided to fight against it. In late 1955 Galarza received money from the Fund for the Republic to write a report on the Bracero Program. This report, Strangers in the Field, had immediate impact. Government officials in favor of the Bracero Program sought to discredit Galarza. The report, however, was given national press and was a serious blow to the Bracero Program. In 1964, he completed Merchants of Labor, an analysis of the Bracero program. The first printing was selfpublished. He moved to Los Angeles where he worked for one year as an Economic and Opportunity Agency officer. This move was significant in another respect: it signaled his work with his Mexican American Urban populations. Don Ernesto would focus his organizing efforts on the Mexican urban working-class population for the remainder of his life. Another major activity at that time was teaching at colleges and universities. He was a professor at the University ofNotre Dame, San Jose State University, and the Universities of California at San Diego and Santa Cruz. He often referred to himself as a migrant academic. He once said of tenure, "If I stay here much longer than three quarters, I'll feel that I am sinking roots into a cemetery". Yet the academic atmosphere allowed Don Ernesto to continue writing principally on farm labor. He authored Spiders in the House and Workers in the Field (1970). Barrio Boy (1971), Mexican Americans in the Southwest (1969), and Farmworkers and Agribusiness (1977). Galarza's community work continued in Oakland where he compiled a report on the economic status of the Mexican American community there. This report served as the building block for the current Spanish Speaking Unity Council, which is a community development corporation in that area. In approximately 1966, his concern for the urban plight of Mexican Americans drew him to Alviso, a small Mexican community north of San Jose. Alviso

had become a community threatened by the metropolis. Teachers often visited Galarza to discuss the educational problems of students. Besides acting as a formal and informal consultant, Galarza began writing books for children. He called these the Colleccion Mini Libros. He was trying to fill a need voiced by many teachers. All but one of the books in the collection were self-published. Another of Galarza's major efforts concerning education was the establishment of the Studio Laboratory. The Lab's primary mission was to develop alternative education methods for students. Its major effort was to work with teachers to develop new curricula. Don Ernesto was convinced that teachers had to retrain in order to become more sensitized to student needs. The Lab was funded by both private and local public sources, including the San Jose School District. The Laboratory was considered too progressive for the district, which initiated its own bilingual education program with other districts, that became known as the Bilingual Consortium. Galarza and those who had worked with the Lab decided to monitor the new Consortium. He charged that it was being unresponsive to the community and student needs and was more interested in getting more funds

than in the education of youth. Galarza, together with concerned community members, developed the Community Organization to Monitor Education (COME). COME exposed the lack of community input in the Bilingual Consortium and its use of ineffective methods and curriculum. Galarza, with the assistance of COME, published Temas Escolares, a kind of white paper on the Bilingual Consortium. Galarza detested the way bilingual education had been co-opted. He also detested the manner in which a few Latinos became co-opted into the bureaucracy. Ernesto Galarza was known as an activist, scholar, and organizer. He was a model to many who sought to improve the conditions of working-class Chicanos in the U. S. His initial work with foreign policy issues in Latin America provided the base for his wellknown work on farm labor. His interest in literature combined his ties to nature and his belief in the need for relevant education. There is a consistent pattern of values and ideals--a strong humanistic orientation and a dream of a better world--in much of his writing. Those of us who had the pleasure and honor of working with Don Ernesto Galarza also witnessed his intellectual vigor, his sense of action, his belief in change, his life of praxis, his humanity and humility.


Tomas Ybarra-Frausto Professor of Spanish and Portuguese

ne of the founding texts of contemporary Chicano Literature, Tomas Rivera's.. .y no se lo trago la tierra (And the Earth Did Not Part), opens with the following narrative sequence: Siempre empezaba todo cuando oia que alguien Ie llamaba por su nombrepero cuando uolteaba la cabeza a ver quien era el que Ie llamaba, daba una vuelta entera y asi quedaba donde mismo. Por eso nunca podia acertar ni quien Ie llamaba ni por que, y luego hasta se Ie olvidaba el nombre que Ie habian llamado. Pero sabia que el era a quien llamaban. Una uez se detuvo antes de dar la vuelta entera y Ie entrb miedo. Se dio cuenta de que el mismo se habia llamado. (These things always began when he would hear someone call him by name. He would turn around to see who was calling, always making a complete turn, always ending in the same position and facing the same way. And that was why he could never find out who it was that was calling him, nor the reason why he was being called. He would even forget the name that he had heard. Once he stopped himself before completing the turn, and he became afraid. He found out that he had been calling himself.) This call to self confronts individuals and groups at significant junctures in their human trajectory. For those of my generation involved in the sociopolitical thrusts of the Chicano mouimiento of the mid-nineteen sixties, the personal and collective reflections about identity, historical destiny

and cultural heritage generated a multi-faceted Cultural Reclamation Project--a concerted effort by Chicano scholars, intellectuals and community activists to denounce and eradicate external configurations of Chicano experience that focused on cultural essentiality and determinism. New revisions of self were encoded in art forms presenting fluid, dynamic and historically derived versions of Chicano identity and culture. Visual artists joined writers, dancers, musicians and filmmakers in an alternative arts movement that while responding to the values of a heterogeneous community, also stressed such collective goals as the recuperation and validation of vernacular expressions, the affiliation of art and politics and the articulation of a bilingual bicultural sensibility. The Cultural Reclamation Project aimed not simply to reclaim traditions but to reinterpret them in ways that would allow for class and regional variation as well as historical change. A persistent admonition was to integrate cultural production to the texture of lived experience, to produce interpretation and analysis anchored in patterns of everyday life. Every latino community harbors respected practioners of traditional arts and sciences such as poetas and curanderos. Usually elders, they maintain alive ancient rites and systems of belief and knowledge. The most venerable retainers of these ancestral practices are affectionately anointed with the title of m'aestro (a), a designation connoting authority, experience and wisdom. M'aestros(as) are the human embodiment of the values, decorum and ethos of the community. They maintain, transmit and transform the core life practices that constitute and configure a distinctive

Chicano perspective and way of life. Ernesto Galarza, whose memory we honor today, was such a m'aestro, an organic intellectual who extended his imagination outward to the social predicaments of his community and his time. His legacy of engaged scholarship and civic responsibility is echoed and paralleled in the social activism and academic research of today's honored guest and commemorative speaker. Dr. Tomas Atencio. Assuredly a m'aestro within this legacy of sabios de la comunidad (keepers of community wisdom). Professor Atencio has labored unceasingly to create systems of thought and organize knowledge into strategies for human empowerment. Mining the discursive, aesthetic and philosophic traditions of the oncianos in the pueblitos of northern New Mexico, Tomas Atencio has conscientiously investigated the interaction of folk knowledge and social transformation. Moving beyond a salvage paradigm, Professor Atencio has conceptualized provocative social visions that interface vanguard theories of cultural analysis and traditional patterns of Chicano life. His ongoing research at the Hispanic Cultural Center of the University of New Mexico posits the reciprocity of institutionalized and folk knowledge. Rooting his theoretical preoccupations with utilitarian concerns of cultural change, conversion and survival. Professor Atencio has uncovered and released subjugated knowledge systems as constituent elements of a resilient and flexible contemporary Chicano culture in process. Today he will share his particular process of thought and action; please join me in welcoming un m'aestro de adeveras--(a teacher in the true sense of the word)--Tomas Atencio.

Resolana: A Chicano Pathway to Knowledge

Tomas Atencio

n^&. he theme of this lecture, the emancipation and democratization of knowledge, is embedded in the Galarza legacy, for the work of la Academia de la Nueva Raza, which makes up the substance of this presentation, was supported and encouraged by Ernesto Galarza. In a 1976 interview published in the last Academia issue of El Cuaderno (de vez en cuando), Ernesto Galarza shared his thoughts on education and social change with Estevan Arellano, editor, and Antonio Lujan, Academia Asociado from Las Cruces, New Mexico. This presentation examines these concerns and reflects specifically on the impact of social change on the Hispanic community as we enter the Information Age. The response of Chicano Fellows at Stanford University to our work also is critically linked to Academia's history. Armando Valdez filmed our community's vanishing traditions and life styles; Stanford established el Oro de la Uniuersidad; and Jose Padilla, then an undergraduate student at Stanford, conducted an Academia oral history project in Brawley, California, his home town. The Stanford Center for Chicano Research is therefore a natural place for this Resolana in honor of Ernesto Galarza. The term Resolana derives from a real place--a space of smoothly tamped earth on the south side of a building or plaza. This place, protected on all sides from breezes, allows the south wall to receive the rays of the sun. "For generations, in fall, winter and spring, the village men-- resolaneros--spent countless hours talking. Protected from the wind and spurred on by the sun they talked about many things. At times they


impart skills and scientific knowledge, engaged in idle gossip or made sharp, it did not have a humanistic body of satirical comments about some event knowledge contexted within our or occurrence of village interest. They culture and experience. Moreover, related cuentos, chistes, dichos, and Chicanos, in our search for indigenous they joked and laughed about the tragiroots, appropriated Indian identity; it comedy of life's paradoxes. They offered us an alternative world view lamented the death of a compahero or and different epistemological foundamade wry observations about villagers tions and therefore another way of who passed by. And in the sun-filled understanding human experience. area of la resolana they reached into Resolana creates a relevant body of their memories and found ways to susknowledge by integrating critical tain and strengthen life and to realize everyday life experience with other a sense of plenitude" (T. Atencio and knowledge. Consuelo Pacheco, 1981). The bringing together of everyday Resolana, an actual place and space, life experience with the knowledge of is the communications center in tradiother intellectual achievements retional villages where men come quires dramatic adjustments in the together. Expanding on the idea that university. The creation of practical Resolana is a place where the sun knowledge, i.e., reflects off the knowledge for sowalls, we proDialogue uncovers and interposed that in the cial action, deResolana, men, mands the same prets human experience and zeal that forged women and chilbrings about an understanding the development dren reflect on of life in the community. This their experiences of scientific knowprocess creates a body of by talking to each ledge (Habermas, knowledge, understood within other in a place of 1973; Gadamer, that experience and related to light. A statement 1988). Moreover, universal knowledge expressed that expresses the the university in other cultural and intellecessence and meanneeds to link with tual achievements. ing of this concept the community in a is the Papago Inreciprocal relationdian view of comship that is bound munication: "The sun shining on by the necessity to democratize everything and everybody is seeing knowledge as the developed world everything as it is at the same time." moves from an Industrial Society to a "Resolana," and the Papago view of Communications Society. communication were appropriated by I propose Resolana is a path towards la Academia de la Nueva Raza and conopen knowledge, and in this lecture I ceptualized as a process that recalls will examine the development of and releases memories people have Resolana as a concept and will discuss about their experiences. Dialogue units relevance to Hispanos in a Comcovers and interprets human exmunications Society. perience and brings about an understanding of life in the communiThe quest for la resolana as a ty. This process creates a body of metaphor for this process started when knowledge, understood within that exI lost my intellectual innocence. The perience and related to universal loss of innocence came when I, a colknowledge expressed in other cultural lege student majoring in philosophy, and intellectual achievements. realized that philosophical, or classical, The need for Resolana became eviknowledge was elitist; it wasn't really dent during the Civil Rights Movement for everybody and it was believed not when Chicanos demanded access to to derive from everyday life experience educational opportunities. We became and action. Furthermore, philosophical aware, however, that although the knowledge was hostage to colleges and established educational system could universities. Yet, I was fascinated by

Socratic (Platonic) Academia, especialsociety giving birth to the values that ly the use of language and words in in turn guided behavior within these dialogue and discourse as a way to institutions. Values and the institutions were interlocked with each other. communicate and understand. The irony was that the symposia where this These values and norms underpinned dialogue had taken place had created the structures that gave them birth. a body of knowledge which today conValues such as competition, institutes the knowledge I perceived to be dividualism, and progress were difhostage to the university. Nonetheless, ficult for me to incorporate as guides to my life, since they were in conflict I realized the process of discourse could be used to create knowledge from with the beliefs and commitments of everyday life that was contexted within traditional people in the villages of nora particular experience--my own. thern New Mexico where I was born Reflecting about life in the villages of and raised. There was no way for me, northern New Mexico, I wondered I concluded, to penetrate the dominant whether the men and women there did social structures unless I changed my the same thing as the symposia parvalues--my culture. But if, on the other ticipants of Ancient Greece. I recalled hand, I wanted my own values to be afthe older men and women talking firmed and to flourish I had to rename at length about the world, if not religion, morality, reconstruct it. At about the same time that politics, witchcraft, Naming the love, death, conflict world from my my views about classical and reflecting on historical and culknowledge were forming, I was issues that also tural experience wrestling to make sense of a concerned Plato in became my vocadominant society whose values his writings. But tion. Personal exI could not easily accept, and there were no perience and eduthis made it difficult for me to books in the library cation provided adjust in the social world in written by them. the tools to work which I lived. Reflecting on my Even the Mexican towards that goal. own experience, I concluded and Spanish inI was trained in that the social structures-- tellectual legacies social work to social, political and economic were not to be practice psychoinstitutions--that shaped my found in the phianalytically-orientlosophy section, ed casework. In existence were impairments to other words, I conmuch less the New my fulfillment as a Chicano. sidered the mMexico Hispanic experience. fluence of unconAt about the same time that my scious forces on development patterns in discerning and explaining behavior. views about classical knowledge were At first that was not necessarily releforming, I was wrestling to make sense vant in my job as a child welfare of a dominant society whose values I worker in northern New Mexico. I could not easily accept, and this made listened as people relayed more than it difficult for me to adjust in the social their misfortunes. They told me about world in which I lived. Reflecting on the difficult but pristine existence in my own experience, I concluded that the beautiful mountain valleys where the social structures--social, politithey had survived as subsistence cal and economic institutions-- farmers and stock raisers, but they also that shaped my existence were conveyed the visions of any parent, impairments to my fulfillment as and shared feelings about their pains, a Chicano. their fears of death and views about imCommitted more to an understanmortality. These people talked about ding of values and the superstructure their beliefs in virtues and values, than to an understanding of the strucabout God and the power of santos, tures themselves, I saw the social, and demons. Stories of fiestas and political and economic institutions of

influenced my perspective on witchcraft, fantasies and dreams were knowledge during my college days, openly shared, in verse, dichos, cuencould be la Resolana Chicana. tos, adeuinanzas, and mplatica (inforThis was in 1963, and the intervenmal discourse). They expressed ining years were important in many dividual as well as communal respects. As an administrator of a proknowledge about northern New Mexgram for migrant workers, I saw ico society. They demonstrated that university trained and supervised clinical approaches to interviewing teachers teaching Mexican and were not only relevant to an understanMexican-American farmworkers how ding of the psychosocial development to read English from books that had of an individual, but become useful in been developed for first graders of the understanding the community's general population. During that period, cultural and spiritual development. universities opened their doors to The idea of listening to stories, cuenChicano students and I wondered if the tos, and oral history came together same insensitivity would prevail in inthrough another personal experience. troducing Chicano college students to Storytelling was close to my own upthe world of knowledge. The need for bringing, since my father, a man in his a culturally and socially contexted late sixties when I was a child, rebody of knowledge counted tales about and a method for his father and its transmission grandfather, taking One sunny winter day I took was imperative; the me back to the my uncle's papers to la time for Resolana early 1800s in Resolana, the place. In la New Mexico. Thus, had come. Resolana that day, men as my social In 1968, Padre gathered around and examined work experience Luis Jaramillo, the old documents with intense stimulated my inFacundo Valdez interest. They shared informaterest in docuand I agreed that tion and knowledge about their menting people's we needed an inversion of life in Embudo. At stories, I turned to tellectual center to that point it made sense that build a Chicano my uncle, the last the Academia Socratica, which living Atencio male body of knowledge of my father's from the everyday had influenced my perspective generation, to life experience of on knowledge during my colreconstruct the people. With an arlege days, could be la Resolana stories I had heard rogant naivete we Chicana. from my father. announced that One day he gave our body of me a bundle of papers that had been knowledge would grow from the in the family for generations. Among barrios of the Southwest, from the them were deeds, last wills and mining towns in the Rocky Mountains testaments, and other papers. The and the desert foothills of Arizona, oldest, dated 1776, was a will pertainfrom the farm labor camps across the ing to Embudo, now called Dixon, and west and Midwest, from the penitensigned by a magistrate in Santa tiaries, and from the mountain villages Cruz de la Canada, the Alcaldia of northern New Mexico, our home. headquarters. I chose the name for the fledgling One sunny winter day I took my unCenter: la Academia de Aztldn. Aztlcle's papers to la Resolana, the place. an, the legend that the Aztecs had In la Resolana that day, men gathered originated somewhere in the around and examined the old Southwest and its interpretation that documents with intense interest. They Chicanes--descendants of the Aztec-- shared information and knowledge symbolized the return, had captivated about their version of life in Embudo. the imaginations of young Chicano acAt that point it made sense that the tivists. Aztlan gave many Chicanos a Academia Socrdtica, which had spiritual grounding in the New World.

Academia's idea of discourse and It was not European, and the idea furdialogue in a symposium setting and thermore was loaded, by intent, with integrate it eclectically into our own political implications. In political work. The analogy used to explain this terms, the return ideally implied the process was the act of removing a rubtaking of the Southwest by its heirs: ber glove by uolteando el guante. PlacChicanos. Indian heritage served as an ing the gloved hand before you and anchor for a new identity for Mexican yanking the glove from the open end, and Spanish Americans. Those who the glove is reversed, or turned inside accepted this interpretation of history out. The glove does not change form and myth were Chicano. but it does point in the opposite direcFrom a broader humanistic perspection. The Socratic Academia turned intive, we who were establishing this side out is la Resolana Chicana. Center were Chicano, because, accorAs this project was in progress, I ding to Padre Jaramillo, "American served as consultant to a barrio mensociety had left us no choice." Our vision, asserted Jaramillo, goes beyond: tal health program in San Antonio, Texas under the auspices of the Mex"We are not Spanish. We are not Mexican American Unity Council. Mariano icans. .. .We are not Americans. We are Aguilar, its director, had the insight to much more than the sum total of all suggest that the these. We are la healing element in Nueua Raza... The Our vision, aserted Jaramillo, their community destiny of man is goes beyond: "We are not was el oro de barbeyond the sum Spanish. We are not Mexicans. rio. Aguilar's contotal of all men." tribution to the (Jaramillo, 1970) . . .We are not Americans. We Jaramillo was sayemerging Resolana are much more than the sum ing that we must was the term el oro total of all these. We are la strive for a new del barrio. DescribNueva Raza.. .The destiny of ed as the wisdom of humanity that man is beyond the sum total of tears down all class the people by all men." and racial barriers. Academia, the conThat is la Nueva cept of el oro del Raza. And hence, barrio subsumed the four parameters, or methods, La Academia de Aztlan became known as La Academia de la Nueva Raza. Aztlalready in use by Academia as an would remain an important part of Resolana's pathway to knowledge. They are: personal history, oral la Academia, as it was of all Chicano history, folklore, and art. According to Movement activities. Aguilar, within el oro del barrio were Why Academia? the healing powers of a community. Although Resolana was already emerging as a parallel to the Socratic For Academia, el oro del barrio had locked within it the knowledge and Academia, Academia seemed a more wisdom of the people. When released, appropriate name. The Socratic Academia was a major influence in my this wisdom would lead to a new college days. Moreover, Academia was awareness and understanding of our a well-known name and concept in lives, plenitude, and ultimately to a Spanish speaking countries, as an inNew Humanity--La Nueva Raza. Personal history, oral history, tellectual endeavor. As we affirmed the need for indigenous structures and folklore and folk music and art became processes for uncovering and underavenues to understand human exstanding the memories of human perience in northern New Mexico. The understanding and meaning of the experience, Resolana became Acacontent of this material was achieved demia's pathway to knowledge. through platica, or, in other words, The first step in Academia's journey discourse and dialogue in the process towards creating a contexted body of of documentation through either of the knowledge was to borrow the Socratic four paths. Discourse and discussions

northern New Mexican street language continued in subsequent analysis it was malisidndola. It was comamong the collectors and in the sharmunication with full integrity in the ing of the material among the various message occurring in a reciprocal excontributors who had given us similar change of words and meaning. As information. understanding is fully achieved, "the The specific steps involved in sun is shining on everything and documentation are explained as everybody is seeing everything as it is follows: the dialogue between a tutor, at the same time." The spiral of or collector, and a contributor engagthought and action progressed from ed both individuals in a creative prothe more rational and verbal to the less cess of thought and action. This rational and nonverbal--from words to dynamic relationship begins by reflecno words, from the rational to the inting on a deed, or action, under discustuitive. Ultimately, those involved in sion in the personal history, oral the dialogue would be SEEING--the history, or folklore that is being way of the mystic. documented. I assumed the content of The spiral of thought and action an oral history or folklore was based on operates at two levels: the micro spiral an actual occurrence--something and the macro spiral. The micro spiral that happened--that may have refers to individual been generalized documentation inor embellished Personal history, oral history, volving the tutor by subsequent and the conreporters of the folklore and folk music and art tributor; the macro event. Whether the became avenues to understand spiral refers to exstory was factual or human experience in northern change of ideas and not, was not imporNew Mexico. The understaninformation by tant. Our concern ding and meaning of the several individuals was to reflect content of this material was who come together critically on the inachieved through platica, or, because they have dividual's percepin other words, discourse and contributed similar tions, whether dialogue in the process of these were mental information in the documentation through either images or sensory individual collecof the four paths. experiences. Upon tion. Material from reflection, the the macro spiral meaning of that acbecomes "objeccount, within a historical context, was tified" knowledge--knowledge that is revealed and led to subsequent action committed to print or adapted to other media and is disseminated. Once "obby the participants in the dialogue. That action could be manifested exterjectified", this knowledge logically nally or remain within the mind as an becomes material for further reflection intended or conceived action. In either at a wider spiral of thought and action. case, it is action that results from The micro dimensions produce selfreflection on a previous action. Subseknowledge; the macro creates practical quent action, in turn, becomes knowledge. The difference between material for reflection again. This these two kinds of knowledge will be discussed later on. creative process gives birth to a dynamic spiral of thought and action. Resolana is a pathway to knowledge As more was uncovered, the collecthat derives from a transactional relator and contributor became dynamicaltion between thought and action in the ly linked in a closer understanding of everyday life of people. Next I will give each other's information and an interpretive framework that deals knowledge. Language diminished in with the origins and the content of importance as a tool for understanding knowledge and its immediate practical as the individuals moved from a raapplicability in cultural action. tional to a more intuitive mode. In The initial interpretative framework street language, it was snapeando. In grew out of my social work and

the land and keep people living on it. mental health experience and training. Those modes of intervention respondI made the assumption that the coned to the material utility of land, to the tent of information conveyed through social dimensions, and to the spiritual personal history, oral history, folklore meaning of land. and art represented not only social and cultural action, but also uncovered the preconscious forces and images not Using a naturalistic code and Einsteinian language, Luis Jaramillo took readily apprehended by the individual the concept of the preconscious and client or social worker. These the appearance of its elements in preconscious dimensions can be discerned by examining and culture and drew the analogy that understanding behavior, social expresEnergy is to Matter as Myth (the preconscious) is to Culture. In the sions such as language, and cultural naturalistic code, electrons and proproductions that convey beliefs and tons constitute a web of interacting ideas as well as levels of consciousness. What was revealed to me in discourse relationships that manifest in matter, or what I observed in people's behavior with the speed of light multiplied by itself as the constant. The speed of light became my starting points. In other determines the status of energywords, I began with the empirical, the becoming-matter. rational, and the verbal. What would As a mental health consultant, Appropriate indetermine the relationship of myth to tervention could I identified social structures only occur if I, as culture in the that were related to land, such a social worker, cultural code? The as Acequia Commissions, and understood the closest concomiworked to strengthen them. dynamics of the tant within the Acequia Commissions deterpreconscious, their logic of the analogy mine and manage the allocathat I could identify social manifestation of irrigation water. Such tions and their was consciousness intervention mechanisms, I meanings to peo(i.e., consciousness argued, could reestablish a ple. For example, I of mental images sense of solidarity as well as noticed that the and consciousness preserve the land and keep peosense of belonging of sensory informaple living on it. and the idea of tion) and exhomeland, deeply perience. In the imbedded in the myth-culture code, people's consciousness, was somehow Jungian-like images, in a reciprocal intied to the land, to nature, and that the teraction with the environment, appear loss of land was intertwined with famiin culture as consciousness integrates ly cohesion or its breakdown. I had to these images and sensory information have a more global understanding of with everyday life experience. Images life and not merely take for truth what are given life by the same primordial was obviously revealed in behavior. Inforce that is seen as energy and mattervention strategies then had to incorter in the natural world. Images are apporate the objective manifestations prehended by consciousness and are and the spiritual meanings not readigiven form. Such forms appear in ly identified in everyday life. culture as symbols in the visual arts, As a mental health consultant, I i.e., the serpent eating its tail, or in identified social structures that were legends that attempt to explain exrelated to land, such as Acequia Comistence and the life cycle (Neumann, missions, and worked to strengthen 1954), and as values and norms that them. Acequia Commissions deterguide behavior and action. mine and manage the allocation of irriHow the images flowing out of the gation water. Such intervention mechprimal force appear in culture, either anisms, I argued, could reestablish a as belief, statements, or action, sense of solidarity as well as preserve depends on what takes place when the

social world of experience and the arbureaucratized, and interpersonal relachetypes intersect and what meaning tionships become truncated. In the is given by consciousness as they Academia publication of Entre Verde become integrated in the social world. Y Seco, to which I will refer in detail I will attempt to explain how images, later on, these examples come alive. or archetypes, become integrated in The more myth becomes concrete in culture in the narrative below. culture, and the dynamic relationship Sensory stimuli and mental images between the two is severed, the more make up the information that is apthe social world becomes wrenched prehended by consciousness. The profrom its divine source. cessing of this information by conThe relationship of myth and culture sciousness occurs in a dynamic prois reflected in the stories people tell of cess of apprehending and responding. their experiences, in cultural action, More specifically, the meaning atand in the roles individuals play in tributed by consciousness to the insociety. It is possible to identify interacting of images and sensory infordividuals who have heightened levels mation from the natural world, causes of consciousness that connect them to humans individually and in groups to mythical elements. Among them are respond to that awareness. Conthe curandera (healer) or arbolaria (shaman), the sciousness of something, is awarepriest and the The relationship of myth and santero. There is ness. Viewing this culture is reflected in the also the hero and from a social stories people tell of their exanti- hero. Viewed perspective, some through other of the responses periences, in cultural action, that occur at this socio-cultural and in the roles individuals stage are legends frameworks, some play in society. It is possible to of these individuals that serve to exidentify individuals who have plain life, the could be labeled heightened levels of conas deviant. Seen development of sciousness that connect them values to guide the through the myth/ to mythical elements. Among individual in relacultural continthem are the curandera tion to others, the uum, they are (healer) or arbolaria (shaman), creation of norms considered gifted the priest and the santero. because of their by which to behave, recurring link to the divine. patterns of beIn Academia, we havior, and the development of looked at the Picaro, a rogue who plays language and symbols that facilitate the archetypical role of an anti-hero. In communication with each other and this role the picaro retains a sense of that assure survival. I proposed, for expersonal freedom by choosing to be ample, that values as virtues and the marginal within an ordered society commitment to "care" emerge early in whose inauthenticity he clearly the development of consciousness in understands and chides. He rejects the Individuals or groups intuitively close order of society but consciously uses to the primordial images. Gradually, his wits to get from it what he needs. reason becomes a characteristic of conThe picaresque character, immortalizsciousness and the more reason is aped in Spanish literature in the sixplied in understanding human exteenth century and introduced to istence, the more primordial images Academia by Alberto Lovato, became become hidden in the knowledge that a category in my own work in mental explains and guides the social world; health to explain certain behavior consequently, culture becomes conwithin our cultural context. crete: virtues become instrumental Psychosocially this behavior would be values, care is institutionalized, norms interpreted as deviant, but the picaro are rigidified, laws are codified, is a profound character who constantthe social world becomes more ly reminds us that personal freedom

The uncovering and understanding has its price: an ordered life within of information with a contributor is society is paid by relinquishing this facilitated and enhanced in dialogue by freedom. Estevan Arellano's novel, the knowledge and skill of the interInocencio, follows the life of a New viewer. In this interaction both parties Mexico village picaro. The narrative reach a mutual understanding and depicts a person que ni siembra, ni learn from each other through the exescarda, y siempre se come el me/or change of information. It was clear at elote (he neither plants nor hoes but the outset of our documentation proalways eats the best ear of corn). gram that some of the material being The socio-cultural equation and the documentation and reflection of el oro documented had already been critically analyzed by the contributors, and del barrio are linked in these ways. Through the myth/culture framework, the dialogue facilitated reflection. The re/ran, dicho, or proverb shows one understands the origins and meanthat the information being ing of knowledge disclosed through the documentation process; the documendocumented has undergone critical tation process can discern whether reflection. The proverb, a way of communication often used by the tradimythic elements and social experience tional resolanero, is a statement that are in balance in a given culture. conveys distilled Thought and action theoretically observations and can be used in reflections about The proverb, a way of comhuman experience. community as a munication often used by the It is generally used critical sociotraditional resolanero, is a therapy that serves as a remache statement that conveys disto strengthen or (rivet), which sumtilled observations and reflecreestablish a marizes concisely tions about human experience. and concretely the dynamic relationIt is generally used as a elements of the ship between myth remache (rivet), which summessage. To exand culture, that is. marizes concisely and conto create myth in press doubt or cretely the elements of the the everyday life of cynicism about message. people. something, people The actual usually say, "Noes documentation of el leon como to pinthe community's experience unweaves tan. " When contributing to someone or unravels the way consciousness proelse's project where there is no cesses mental images and sensory inreciprocity, the common saying is, "El formation into knowledge that then que Ie da pan al perro ajeno, pierde becomes imbedded in culture. Beginel pan y pierde el perro." To describe ning with what is revealed through ignorance among the many and culture, dialogue discloses the enlightenment by a few in a social memories of experience and in critical situation, the saying is, "En la ciudad reflection through interpersonal inde los ciegos el tuerto es rey." New teraction moves the process of management implementing its own understanding to a higher level of conagenda would be described as "Nuevos sciousness. It is visualized as an upreies nuevas leyes." About the Welfare ward spiral towards awareness (selfstate, the observer is likely to say, "ni knowledge) and respond-ability, the te mata ni te mantiene." About losing capability to respond to what one one's rights as a result of dependence becomes aware of. Respond-ability on a benevolent master, the dicho is, grows with practical knowledge which "El que mantiene manda." Parables helps explain social phenomena and or short stories, Cuentos moralejos, serves in making ethical decisions. It commonly used by elders to give adcan be an aid in removing impairments vice, consejos, to the younger generato freedom and fulfillment. In Paulo tion, are nonabrasive ways of comFreire's word: conscientizacion. municating. Indirectas, (oblique

messages) are highly skilled and subThis publication returned to the tle ways of conveying a message that community its residents' own account of human experience in their native tests the mental acuity of both the language, something never done in the sender and the receiver of the message. region, and it laid bare the contradicAcademia sought to communicate and enlighten the community about tions of life. Through this awareness the social contradictions affecting our emerged a unity of purpose for political lives and to raise a consciousness of action and theoretical freedom and human fulfillment. Moreover, this was our life situation. The documented Academia's first effort to use practical material was reviewed, and from it twelve categories were selected which knowledge to understand the impact accounted for almost all the documenand meaning of social change and to apply it in the making of ethical tation Academia had at that time. decisions. Themes such as land, family, religion, From a theoretical perspective, Enjustice, values, and health, among others, were chosen. Verbatim vignettre Verde y Seco embodies the mental images and sensory information intes composed of information about tegrated by consciousness from which land, for example, were abstracted then grows the knowledge that confrom the material. All vignettes about stitutes the fabric the same topic of culture. The were returned to The woman, in her early sevenmethod used in contributors, each compiling the getting the other's ties and mother of four, tells: "I material for Entre material as well as never knew a doctor in my Verde y Seco is an his or hers. Conchildbearing years--for any of tributors were then example of the use my children. La partera, the brought together of Resolana for midwife, una viejita, a little old tracing the origins to discuss each woman, would deliver us, she of knowledge from other's work--the nursed us to health by holding the meaning given macro spiral of us to a strict forty day dieta--a thought and action to mythic images period of time when we did went into play. and sensory infornothing. We were kept still and This served to mation. Thus, undisturbed, quiet as brooding reflect critically on these vignettes hens. one another's condisclose the mythic tributions and elements inteknowledge, within grated with exa group. Although it was not a goal of perience as they appear in culture. the group sessions, consensual validaFinally, Entre Verde y Seco shows that tion was also achieved, as a culturally Resolana can be a diagnostic tool in contexted body of knowledge began to evaluating the status of the form. myth/culture relationship in a parThe vignettes were arranged by topic ticular society. to be published in a book and returned to the community. The book was The woman, in her early seventies edited by alternating the sequence of and mother of four, tells: "I never knew a doctor in my childbearing years--for vignettes between those that described the "good" (the verde) and the any of my children. La partera, the "bad" (the seco) of life. The first midwife, una viejita, a little old vignette about land, for example, woman, would deliver us, she nursed depicted the beauty of life on the land, us to health by holding us to a strict and the next described how the land forty day dieta--a period of time when was lost through unjust political we did nothing. We were kept still and maneuverings. This showed the ups undisturbed, quiet as brooding hens. and the downs, the green and the dry She nurtured us with lots of atole, of life. Hence the book was titled piloncillo, chaquegue with milk, and Entre Verde y Seco. boiled eggs."

and bunched up, I thin them. The Life and death converged in one tomatoes and cabbage I transplant far place during childbirth. An older man from their little brothers so they may who had lost his first wife and child in thrive and grow beautifully Then all childbirth tells it this way: "The summer long I spend my days hoeing, partera would prepare a birthing room by sprinkling it, sweeping it and placweeding, irrigating and building little ing a sheep pelt--una salea--on the earthen mounds to fortify the growing earthen floor and hanging a rope from plants until they are ready to yield their fruits." the viga. She would order the husband She adds, "the farmer and his or her to heat water outside and called el tenedor--the holder--a man who work are at the mercy of God and of the weather that He may determine for would assist the partera. When the that season. Not always are things the woman was ready to deliver, she way we plan and hope they will be. entered the birthing room, knelt on the What happened this year we did pelt and pulled on the rope. The tenedor helped by exerting mild not expect." "Rain and hail storms destroyed all pressure on the woman's back with his we had planted. All that was left were knee until the baby was born." the stems and stalks with small tat"In the adjoining room the hustered leaves hangband danced to San Ramon," the ing there. And we worked so hard, patron saint of But the weather and the and it was beautiful stillbirth. The destiny of the crops were not all but all was lost. dance is a way of left to chance. As in childbirth getting in touch Well, God gave and where San Ramon was the inwith the Creator God took away. tercessor, in the toil of the land of life, through And we must acfor subsistence other santos a spiritual incept the good forwere summoned to intercede in tercessor, to assure tune with the misthe farmer's behalf. "In the a normal and safe fortune. Nothing of summer," another person said, delivery. Santos, our crop was left, "we would celebrate the Feast much as katchinas but God never fails. of the Virgin Mary. in the Indian comHe will see to it that munity, serve as we are fed. We are intercessors with dependent on His will, and if we have faith. He will prosupernatural forces; they also serve as social mediators and personal supvide. God's power can cause the beaten porters. Sometimes the desired harand tattered plants to sprout and yield mony with the forces that sustain life in abundance." was not achieved. At the threshold of But the weather and the destiny of life, death triumphed. the crops were not all left to chance. As The sanctity of life was seen not onin childbirth where San Ramon was ly in humans but in all of nature. In the intercessor, in the toil of the land describing how she raised her own for subsistence other santos were sumfood, an elderly woman recounts in moned to intercede in the farmer's detailed description her relationship behalf. "In the summer," another perwith the land. son said, "we would celebrate the Feast "When the days get longer and of the Virgin Mary. Early in the mornwarmer in the early spring," she said, ing, all together, young and old, we "I pay someone to plow and to clean would take the Virgin in procession the ditches and make the furrows. trampling through the fields, without Then, with my hoe I level the beds so even causing any damage to the that they look neat and clean, make wheati" This was in preparation for the straight rows where I dig small holes summer. When times were dry, "we and there lay the seeds. Then I irrigate would take the Santos (San Ysidro) in until the sprouts show. If the plants of procession through the fields," praying chile or tomatoes emerge in little heaps for rain.

This was a life of innocence and simof our brows; hence we no longer feel ple faith--a reflection of the openness the satisfaction of having done to myth--to primal energy. Fulfillment something useful and meaningful. We do not feel the soul of the earth because and freedom were harmonious relationships with nature and an accepit has become a disgrace to soil tance of destiny. ourselves with its dust. We no longer In the social world there were good recognize the miracle--the milagro--of times and bad times as well. "People food, because we have not bent our in years past," another woman said, bodies over a plant to care for it or to "would help each other. In the sumpluck its fruits. Neither do we feel the mer, neighbors would join to mud humility nor the nobility of being plaster each other's houses. They human because we neither do the most would invite themselves to hoe and irsublime nor the most base of things. rigate the neighbors' plots. In the fall, We are satisfied with a life of leisure; they harvested their crops together and with a life of no pain." at night would chuck piles of corn and "Why has life changed?" We ask. tie ristras of red chile while they told "Strangers--foreigners have come to stories, jokes and shared the news of our lands with their own styles and the day." That was the green of human manners of being.. .We have believed experience. But what they said reciprocity was because we still gradually replaced have some faith "People in years past," another with formal exin people." In woman said, "would help each change of goods an ironic twist other. In the summer, and services. That this observer conneighbors would join to mud was the dry. cludes: "Semos plaster each other's houses. "In earlier days," tan buenos que They would invite themselves reflected a 90 year pa nada semos to hoe and irrigate the old man, "we had buenos. We are so neighbors' plots. In the fall, men of honor; togood that we are they harvested their crops day I don't think good for nothing." together and at night would we have any. In Another way of chuck piles of corn and tie those days one saying it is: virtues ristras of red chile while they man would ask as moral values are another, 'amigo, told stories, jokes and shared useless as instrulend me two dollars mental values. the news of the day." That was and I will pay you But, "what else the green of human experience. when the sun sets.' do you want?" he At dusk the man ponders: "Tenemos would return the two dollars, because corazon bueno y sano. We have a the word was honored. Not so today. sense of well-being and wholeness in The word of honor is useless. Instead our hearts." we have complicated documents. PeoDespite this fundamental commitple no longer trust." ment to virtues as moral values, strugReflecting more profoundly about gle for fulfillment in the social and these changes, this man offers an expolitical domain persisted. The native planation. "The true value of things confronted the intruder. In El Trovo del has been exchanged for a promise-- Cafe y el Atole, a debate in verse coman anticipated life in the future. Our monly used in New Mexican platicas communities and the activities of and declamations of years past, coffee everyday life have become alienated advances his argument of superiority because our sustenance and our arrogantly: possessions have been purchased and "Yo soy el Cafe. have not derived from an intimate relaCon aziicar soy sabroso. tionship among each other and with Tambien con carries fritas, nature. We no longer pay for the y con sopapilla generosos harvest that sustains us with the sweat con bollitos uictorioso

wife's labor were carved from wood by y en puntos bien arreglados men who were known as santeros. bien paresco en las mesas They were the community's artists con huevos estrellados." who expressed through the santo senAtole, the indigenous food deriving timents of suffering and meaning of an from corn, significantly rooted in isolated community in a harsh enthe Indian creation myth answers vironment. Santos were the social assertively: mediators among people and the sym" Yo tambien soy el Atole; bols of the religious and mythical deciendo del maiz; dimensions that opened the way for y te pondre mis parados; humans to communicate with the que bien mantengo a mi gente supernatural. These men gave the con tortillas enchiladas, community the sacred objects for its con mesquite bien tostado. rites and rituals. Ahora te dare noticias As art, santos are reproductions and Cafe por comprarte a ti ya no se alcanzan pa camizas." representations of European statues but carved in a rather fixed and conThe journey, full of conflicts and contradictions, joy and pain, must come tained style that was not idiosyncratic and did not look European. Santos, to an end. The storyteller, the listener, seen by some as all must die as many who told crude replicas of The journey, full of conflicts the European these stories have statues, were already died. Death and contradictions, joy and is our shadow--la "bonitos", pretty, pain, must come to an end. The dona Sebastiana-- to the native comstoryteller, the listener, all the Seco of life, but munity and remust die as many who told we must confront flected a certain these stories have already died. her, and as another level of aesthetic Death is our shadow--la dona man in Santa Fe consciousness. Sebastiana--the Seco of life, said: "think about Weavers, engaged but we must confront her, and her at least three in a strictly utilias another man in Santa Fe times a day," lest tarian endeavor, afsaid: "think about her at least we miss living an firm their sensitivithree times a day," lest we miss authentic life. ty towards beauty. living an authentic life. In the tradition of My grandmother the Pious Fraternidescribed the hard ty of the Brothers of work behind the Light--the Penitente--the departed loom weaving blankets for sale to supbrother bids farewell through the port the family. With a smile she voices of his surviving brothers who reflected on the beautiful labores-- sing: designs--that were incorporated into a "De la nada fui formado, piece. "Eran muy hermosos!" She la tierra me ha producido. exclaimed. La tierra me ha sustentado, Academia's work in the arts focused a la tierra estoy rendido. on heightening awareness of IndoAdios por ultima uez Hispano culture and the presence of que me ven sobre la tierra. myth through the indigenous arts, in Ya me echan en el sepulcro, stimulating an aesthetic consciousness que es mi casa verdadera." in the community, and in fostering And so ends one leg of the journey creative expression among individuals. as we go back to nature, our true home. This was done through village art exhibits during the patron saint feast day. The images of the virgin Mary, of the This afforded Academia an opportunicrucified Christ, of San Ysidro that peoty to observe and reflect, in a slightly ple took in procession through the different way than in the verbal and fields, and San Ramon to whom an audio documentation, on the arts as anxious husband danced during his symbols that mirrored human ex-

perience and mythical images. In our shape one's existence. The more one search for practical knowledge, we becomes aware of the past and the path by which one has come to the prenoticed that all wood pieces, whether sent, the more one affirms oneself as statues or paintings, (bultos or a person within a social and cultural retablos) were perceived as santos. A santo was bonito, pretty, if it was a context. By knowing both the conducive pathways and the impairments reasonable reproduction of traditional to personal growth and development, santos. If it varied from the accepted the individual can consciously conduct style, it was curioso, (exciting attenhis or her life in a way that leads tion). If it was a bulto but the image was not that of a santo, it was curioso, towards plenitude within a social conbut different, implying idiosyncrasy, or text. Knowledge and awareness of self and the capability to respond apa peculiar disposition. Idiosyncratic propriately to whatever that awareness work is often known as curioso. If not stimulates in one's consciousness lead very exciting yet idiosyncratic, the work could be known as a chuchuluco, to communal fulfillment. or whimsical. Fine work such as weavEntre Verde y Seco suggests that the culture from which the information ing that was tightly and neatly woven came nurtures a dynamic relationship was simply known as fino. Fine between myth technical work and culture and with exciting patResolana is a creative process reveals a fear of terns and colors losing it in the were hermosos-- of building knowledge. It does face of its steady beautiful. not build scientific knowledge erosion by social Reflection on art that leads to technology; rather work, that not only change. Self-knowit creates practical knowledge disclosed meanledge is a pathway applicable in social action. Its for achieving and ingful structures ultimate role in society is to sustaining such a related to myth and help humans make decisions relationship. to the social world, and achieve plentitude. Practical knowgave us an inledge created digenous language through Resolana and a nomenclature for describing and criticizing, from describes, explains, and helps us to within, art produced in a traditional understand observed cultural and social phenomena; it explains and society. This has become particularly helps us to understand culture through important as the Chicano cultural renaissance has attracted the attention its productions; this corpus of knowledge becomes the basis for makof the dominant society. The dominant paradigms for criticizing our cultural ing ethical decisions. Detailed descripproductions are still not contextualiztions and comprehensive explanations ed in our experience. Native art of existing phenomena, including therefore has had to be placed within cultural productions, have predictive the framework of the dominant sociecapabilities. If one knows the past and ty for criticism. the present well enough, it is possible to predict the future. The capability to Resolana is a creative process of predict implies that intervention is building knowledge. It does not build possible to direct the anticipated event. scientific knowledge that leads to Thus, the possibility of intervention technology; rather it creates practical based on advanced knowledge makes knowledge applicable in social action. the democratization of knowledge imIts ultimate role in society is to help perative. Criticism of cultural produchumans make decisions and achieve tions provides explanations of art work plenitude. Resolana brings to light selfthat derives from the Hispano exknowledge and practical knowledge. perience and leads to the understanSelf-knowledge is a process of ding of the culture in which its symbols discovering the forces and factors that are imbedded.

social structures of the information age Practical knowledge and selfrequire superstructures, i.e., values knowledge come together in the moral and philosophical orientations, difdomain. Authentic self-knowledge ferent from those of the industrial results in appropriate responses to epoch. If this is so, and I believe it to achieve personal and communal be, then Indo-Hispano culture has a plenitude. By the same argument, the significant contribution to make. more accessable practical knowledge In the next section I will examine the is, the better prepared the individual Indo-Hispano experience in the Inforand the community are to respond apmation Age and Resolana as a tool propriately to conditions that impair human freedom and fulfillment. to achieve the democratization The most important moral issues of knowledge. facing contemporary society are the The Communications Revolution, a allocation of world resources to feed defining feature of the post-modern and care for people, the environment period, will affect the Hispano comand its increasing ecological immunity in a significant way. Hispanics balance, and world peace. Overwhelmare rapidly becoming the largest ing as these global issues might be to minority in the United States; they are the individual, they become personal concentrated in urat the decisionban areas; in agmaking level and in Practical knowledge and selfgregate terms, they the political arena: are of low sociowhen our choices knowledge come together in economic status; as voters are exerthe moral domain. Authentic and they increascised in the election self-knowledge results in apingly are providing booths; when one propriate responses to achieve labor for the rising has to decide personal and communal whether to join a service industries. plenitude. By the same arguThis picture consocial movement; ment, the more accessable and when personal jures images of the practical knowledge is, the betchoices in everylatter part of the ter prepared the individual and day life have to nineteenth and the the community are to respond be made. Such beginnings of the appropriately to conditions that deliberations retwentieth century impair human freedom and quire knowledge-- when Eastern and knowledge of the Southern Eurofulfillment. implications of pean immigrants geopolitical decito this country sions, knowledge of values that are crowded into the cities and through rooted in human experience, their labor fed the emerging industrial knowledge of values as virtues that establishment. A cursory view of that have sustained traditional societies. scene shows that White Ethnic imThe availability of knowledge to the migrants provided a major part of the citizenry at large and more specificallabor for America's Industrial Revoluly to racial and ethnic groups and to tion. Although part of a large the underclass becomes even more imunderclass, they gradually cut their portant as we enter the information path into the mainstream of American age. Moreover, knowledge and a society. As a consequence, many heightened consciousness of our tradisevered their cultural roots, lost their tions and their relevance to the conlanguages and today they constitute a temporary world are as important. For large part of middle class America. example, pre-industrial values and I suggest, therefore, that we examine their meaning uncovered in the early the relationship of Hispanos to the work of Academia seemed consistent Communications Revolution by way of with what futurists were describing as an analogy that is neither a hypothesis compatible with a post industrial socienor a proposition. For the purpose of ty (Masuda, 1981). The emerging this analogy I will disregard the very

established and growing middle class important distinctions among the that includes many professionals, various groups of people of Spanish business, and political leaders that origin in this country and of the several White Ethnics did not initially have as cultures that constitute the White they adjusted to their adopted country. Ethnic immigrant community of the last century. Having said that, I sugSecondly, because of the radical gest that Hispanos in the United changes from industry to high States today are in the same relationtechnology, the work place and the role of labor in a Communications Society ship to the Communications Revoluare also changing. Thirdly, the proxtion that White Ethnics were to the Industrial Revolution in America. imity to Mexico and other Latin countries account for certain characteristics The Industrial Revolution in America thrived under a capitalist among latinos absent in the White Ethnic community. Finally, most mode of production where income futurists contend that knowledge derived principally from labor and rent. Because of their numbers, social rather than money will be the basis of exchange in the Communications Age. status, and concentration in urban These four factors are likely to play areas. White Ethnics provided much of significant roles for Hispanos in the Inthe labor. Thus, it makes sense to view formation Age. The the White Ethnic established middle immigrants' relaI suggest that Hispanos in class is in an adtionship to invantageous posidustrialization in the United States today are tion to offer politiAmerica principalin the same relationship to cal and economic ly as one of labor. the Communications Revoluleadership to the Due to their numtion that White Ethnics were Hispanic combers, social status, to the Industrial Revolution munity as we enter and concentrations in America. the Information in urban areas, and Age; service jobs Hispanos' propenand the "Hispanisity to provide the zation" of labor will affect the role of labor for the service industries today, Hispanos, I believe, are in a similar organized labor as a political force in relationship to the Communication a post-industrial society. Hispano Revolution. In addition to a labor social and cultural characteristics may help sustain Hispanic links to relationship, there are other roots. Finally, the importance of similarities. knowledge in the Information Age In support of this argument, I cite the indicates we must look at Hispanos in results of a survey conducted by the L.A. Times Poll for the Southwest the Communications Society from Voter Registration Project in San Anthe perspective of KNOWLEDGE-- knowledge builders and knowledge tonio, Texas that disclosed that Hispanics adhere to values such as the consumers--rather than simply as labor. In the ensuing discussion I work ethic (1985), much as earlier immigrants did. Viewed against the will examine only the prospective backdrop of the White Ethnic's role in role of knowledge in the Hispano labor, the resulting social mobility, and experience. their values, it is logical to assume that Returning to the core of the analogy, Hispanics will follow a similar path to I suggest that the Communications the mainstream of American society-- Revolution is bringing Hispanos to the assimilation. Concurrently they will threshold of opportunity and to the lose their cultural mooring. brink of cultural extinction. If, on the On the other hand, there are at least one hand, Hispanos and other peoples four exceptions to be considered in with a heritage of marginality do not comparing the two groups: in the accommodate appropriately and learn midst of a large and growing to use the technology of the Comunderclass of Hispanics, there is a well munications Revolution and have

Arts in the United States) the most access to information and knowledge, widely known. In addition, Hispanics the gap between the "haves" and the are linking to the communications and "have-nots" will grow and we will have knowledge industries within the inbeen by-passed by the new trend. On dustrial society mode. In other words, the other hand, ifHispanics assimilate indiscriminately, we will sever our they are marketing and selling information. cultural roots. Closer scrutiny of this emerging picThis is how I view this scenario ture reveals that the threats to our developing. It is evident that informacultural existence are embodied in the tion and knowledge are controlled by a rising knowledge-elite whose opportunity itself. They are the most difficult to address, because opportunieconomic power grows from the industrial base; on the labor side, a much ty is fickle, and it offers alternatives to a culture that has survived rooted to its larger service sector creates the jobs for source simply because it was missed the rest of the population. Information and knowledge available through the by Industrial Society. If this opportuniestablished media are distilled and ty is taken without awareness of the distorted to conform to the ideology of implicit contradictions, which are too many to discuss fully here, Hispanos those in control of the transfer of information. Individuals may embrace the and social and super structural Closer scrutiny of this emergvestiges of an Inethnic groups that appropriately link dustrial Society, ing picture reveals that the to the Communicawrenching the threats to our cultural extion Revolution will culture from its istence are embodied in the ophave access to myth at a most inportunity itself. They are the factual information appropriate time. most difficult to address, and critical knowTo lose our culture because opportunity is fickle, ledge and thus will at a time when preand it offers alternatives to a thrive; those who industrial values culture that has survived are not in the are deemed to be rooted to its source simply stream of the inforsignificant for the because it was missed by Inmation age, at best larger society dustrial Society. will provide the would be ironic menial labor for the and ill-advised. service industries Resolana, I sugand will be deprived of essential inforgest, is one way of disarming the threat mation and knowledge to participate in and of adapting appropriately to the decision-making. Hispanics as a group opportunity. are likely to fall in the latter category unless we take positive and drastic Resolana was created to build a body action, soon. of knowledge from the everyday life exIt is clear, however, that Hispanos are perience of people that would lead to taking advantage of opportunities in a new awareness of their origins and various areas. The most obvious moveof the conditions that impaired perment is in the political arena where the sonal and communal fulfillment. Enprofound demographic changes are a compassed in the awareness-creating principal factor, but one can begin to endeavor are the capabilities and tools see Hispanos' emerging impact in film to remove any impairments to and other aspects of mass media and plenitude. culture. Within the last few years Resolana is a metaphor for creating several Hispanic-produced and directed knowledge. The term derives from a films have been released, and there are place where men talked and reflected several new national Hispanic publicaon their experience; we generalized the tions. Various art exhibits of Hispano idea to the larger community and have art have attracted national attention, developed a process for men, women, with the Corchoran exhibit (Hispanic and children to tap their ancestral

of the dominant society. The micro and memories through a dynamic interacmacro spirals of thought and action in tion of thought and action and to reflect the documentation of the everyday life on their everyday life experience. From experience became avenues to raise the social interaction of people moving consciousness and to link these beliefs towards a higher consciousness and with cultural action and thus recreate awareness that sustains the dynamic myth in our everyday life. This relationship between culture and resulted in methods for community myth, we build a body of knowledge psychosocial therapy within an ethnic that is applicable to everyday life deciframework. sions and that also contributes to the sustenance of the mythculture relaThought and action and the content that this dynamic interaction revealed tionship. The knowledge that flows was transformed in Academia into an from the day-to-day life of the comemerging body of knowledge that exmunity, understood in terms of the plained social change and its meaning larger world and the knowledge that it generates, is interpreted within the to people; we learned about the comframework of recurring transpersonal munity structure of reciprocity and developed a nomenclature for expresspatterns, archetypes, that are found in ing the meaning of art and other literature and philosophy of other cultural producintellectual and tions in our tradicultural advancetional community. ments. Because of In specific terms, Resolana We learned of the these charactermay serve Hispanos at the family's imporistics, Resolana threshold of a Communications tance in the promises to demoSociety in the same way it servtransmission of cratize knowledge ed participants in la Academia knowledge and at this critical trande la Nueva Raza's learning values of the past sition to a Comand documentation program. munications Socieand affirmed its Initially we began to rename significance as a ty. It also offers to our own world, starting with unmask the hidden link to the future. Resolana itself as a way to threats inherent More important build knowledge from our for an informain the new opporexperience. tion society, the tunities. analysis of material In specific terms, Resolana may and its return to the community in print to highlight the serve Hispanos at the threshold of a Communications Society in the same contradictions in human existence created an awareness and led to unity way it served participants in la in community action. This endeavor Academia de la Nueva Raza's learning supports the idea that knowledge and documentation program. Initially created from the community and interwe began to rename our own world, starting with Resolana itself as a way preted within the context of a larger body of information develops a captive to build knowledge from our experience. In examining tradition, audience and an interested readership--conditions necessary to Resolana uncovered Indo-Hispano mobilize people to action to sustain values and patterns of relationship to nature, to humans, and to the superfreedom. This supports the thesis that natural that we deemed appropriate for knowledge is democratized by creating the Information Age. We understood it out of the everyday life experience of our heritage in terms of the larger those who will use it. In today's world Resolana can exworld by identifying recurring transpersonal patterns specific to our amine tradition to identify the source culture that are common to all of recurring patterns in human relacultures. This placed the knowledge tionships, determine their meaning derived from our experience on equal and relevance, and guide us towards a link with the ultimate source; it can footing with the legitimate knowledge

raise consciousness of self within a affiliates and from satellites conveying cultural and social context and discern news services information. The first is the path towards communal and indone by documenting community's everyday life experiences utilizing the dividual fulfillment; and it can build Resolana methodologies, through onknowledge from everyday life experience that will explain social site participant observation, and by phenomena and cultural productions. way of survey research gathering data Such knowledge will lead to informed around specific issues and interests. The second source is tapped to build social and political action and can lay bare the contradictions of accepting opcomputerized databases of information portunity that might sever one's ethnic specific to Hispanics in general, roots; it will create contexted Hispanics in politics, Hispanics and natural resources, Hispanics and Latin knowledge that, as I have already pointed out, is imperative in making and Central American relations, and ethical and political decisions. other critical issues that may surface Since formal institutions have from time to time. neither the mission, commitment, nor As in the method described in detail the tools to create knowledge and earlier, the specific information flowing disseminate it, especially to minorities, from the community is analyzed to unas is required in a cover the salient Communications themes generated Since formal instituttions have Society, univerfrom the material sities, in particular, itself. As in the neither the mission, commitmust make dracompilation of Enment, nor the tools to create matic adjustments tre Verde y Seco, knowledge and disseminate it, as we enter the Inthe material is especially to minorities, as is reformation Age. analyzed, synquired in a Communications Resolana is an thesized and distillSociety, universities, in paralternative educaed by contributors ticular, must make dramatic tional model, conand scholars. adjustments as we enter the Inceivably one that These themes are formation Age. Resolana is an can operate within understood in relaalternative educational model, a university settionship to the conceivably one that can ting, for creating larger body of inforoperate within a university setknowledge from mation accessed social relations. It ting, for creating knowledge through the elecalso is a vehicle for tronic medium and from social relations. taking knowledge are interpreted to those who norwithin the context mally would not have it. of recurrent themes that are part of the As in la Academia de la Nueva Raza, knowledge of the arts, humanities and administratively Resolana can be social sciences traditionally transmittransformed to Learning-Documented by universities. tation Centers (LDC). They can either To ensure that the knowledgeoperate within educational institubuilding enterprise is kept vital and tions, other formal institutions of dynamic, the Resolana process is taken knowledge such as "think tanks," in to the telephone wire and systems of churches, and or in informal settings. communication via interactive comIn the university, LDCs call for the inputer networks that link the various stitutionalizing of the interaction betLearning and Documentation Centers ween the university and the Hispanic that are part of a larger system. Within community around the tri-part mission each center databases are constructed of universities --instruction, research, of specified areas of topical or regional and community services. interest. In New Mexico, for example, LDCs are built upon data retrieved land and water and the relationship of from at least two sources: community the Hispanic community to the radicalinteraction by LDC scholars and ly changing demographic picture is of

to modern technology, our youth ingreat concern and would form a cluster teract socially and across generational of interest among people who would lines if the Communications Society is discuss and interpret information to lead to human fulfillment. The famiderived from the community in relaly, the social link to the past as well as tionship to information garnered from to the future, must be preserved. It is a newsnet satellite. Each Center could the most logical structure for social inthen have its own symposia, or face-toteraction across generations. If social face Resolana, around its specific ininteraction does not occur or be susterests and insights, and from time to tained, the results will be as disastrous time inter-Center face-to-face as if our youth neglect to learn modem Resolanas could be held among those thematic clusters or communities of intechnology. If Hispanos do not heed the warnings terest. Those macro spirals of thought that there is a post-industrial revoluand action would become material for tion coming, they will be denied the documentation via video and used for true opportunities offered by a Comsubsequent dialogue and education, to munications Society. On the other be placed on-line and accessible for hand, if we relate ourselves apthose interacting with the system. It propriately to the Communications becomes culturally contexted Revolution from knowledge. From the perspective of there it is inknowledge, the tegrated into eduTo ensure that the knowledgefuture may be cational curricula building enterprise is kept vital brighter. Knowand is returned to and dynamic, the Resolana proledge is a way the community cess is taken to the telephone through radio, to equality and wire and systems of comtelevision, symjustice. munication via interactive This ideal will posia and publicacomputer networks that link lead to full integritions. Knowledge the various Learning and ty in the message, becomes democraDocumentation Centers that and will keep "the tized. are part of a larger system. light shining on And as a step to everything at the insure that this emerging knowsame time and everyone seeing everything as it is." ledge does not become hostage to particular LDCs, personal as well as elecHowever money will need to be Intronic links should be maintained with vested to make the idea a reality. If something like this is not done, satellite LDCs in local areas and naknowledge will continue hostage, and tional groups who wish to interact with the dream of the Nueva Raza will rethe system and exchange their knowledge and information. main a unrealized vision. Democracy will have failed. This may be established in Chicano Studies and Research Centers imIf we are to keep alive and vital mediately by utilizing the existing Ernesto Galarza's legacy of Knowledge and Care by gathering data, building resources of universities, but it will not be sustained and have the desired impractical knowledge, and applying it to pact unless Hispanos and other peoples create and sustain a just society, we with a legacy ofmarginality get a basic must not be tantalized by the opporand classical education and become tunity nor destroyed by the threat of the Communications Revolution. La computer literate. They must learn the basic tools of communications and Resolana suggests a way of linking computation, be exposed to the great Myth with Culture by means of works of philosophy and literature, and technology, a process of Myth-Tech learn to use the computer as our which may be the way to a postindustrial spiritualism as the basis for ancestors used the tools appropriate for their society and their times. It is imsurvival and another step towards la perative, moreover, that as they adapt Nueva Raza.


Adevinanzcis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Riddles. Alcaldia ..........Jurisdiction in New Mexico Spanish colonial period. Atole . . . . . . . . . . . . . B l u e cornmeal gruel prepared with water or milk. Barrio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neighborhood. Bultos . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three dimensional wood carving, usually of a santo. B o n i t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pretty. Compahero ... .Comrade, companion or friend. Consejos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A d v i c e . C u e n t o ( s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short story. Curioso ...........Exciting attention. Chaquegue...........Cornmeal gruel, prepared with oil and salt. Chistes...........................Jokes. Chu.chu.luco .......Idiosyncratic craft or art work that is also curioso. Dicho............... Proverb or saying. Dieta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet, in this paper referring to a forty day period of abstinence. Fino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine, as in silk. H e r m o s o s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beautiful. Indirecta............Oblique message. Moralejo .........Pertaining to moral. Niieua Raza . . . . . . . . . . New Humanity. Platica ............Everyday, informal discourse, talking. Piloncillo...............Crust of sugar. Santo . . . Hand carved wooden image of a saint. Remache . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet, used here to describe an affirmative concise statement. Refrdn.......Another word for dicho. R i s t r a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chile. Retablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Painting made of wood, usually of a santo. Viga . . . . . . . . . Round beam supporting the roof.

Literal Translation of Dichos

No es el leon como lo pintan. The lion is not as it is described. E( que Ie de pan alperro ajeno pierde el pan y pierde el perro. He who feeds the neighbor's dog loses the food and loses the dog. En la ciudad de los reyes el tuerto es rey. In the city of the blind the one-eyed man is king. Nuevos reies, nuevas leies. New kings, new laws. Ni te mata ni te mantiene. It neither sustains you nor kills you. El que mantiene manda. He who supports you controls you.

El Trouo del Cafe "Yo soy el Cafe. Con aziicar soy sabroso. Tambien con carnes fritas, y con sopapilla generosos con bollitos uictorioso y en puntos bien arreglados bien paresco en las mesas con huevos estrellados."

"And I am gruel, a proud descendant of corn, ready to declare war on you, for I nourish and sustain my people with tortillas based in chiles, broiled until well done on fires of mesquite wood. Now, let the whole world know that my people squander their money saved to buy clothing just to have you." Alabado.

"De la nadafuiformado, la tierra me ha producido. La tierra me ha sustentado, a la tierra estoy rendido. Adios por ultima uez que me ven sobre la tierra. Ya me echan en el sepulcro, que es mi casa verdadera."

"I am coffee. With sugar I am delicious. When served with meat and fried bread, I'm in demand by all, and alongside little bread rolls on elegant tables neatly displayed, I look distinguished next to colorful fried eggs."

E; Trouo del Atole "Yo tambien soy el Atole, deciendo del maiz, y te pondre mis parados, que bien mantengo a mi gente con tortillas enchiladas, con mesquite bien tostado. Ahora te dare noticias Cafe por comprarte a ti ya no se alcanzan pa camizas."

"I was formed whole from no substance, Earth gave my life its ground. Earth gave my life its substance and to earth I am forever bound. This is my last farewell, no longer will I upon this earth be found. I am going to the grave, my true home and final resting place."


Entre Verde Y Seco, compiled and edited by Estevan Arellano, Tomas Atencio, Antonio Medina, Alejandro Jerry Lopez and Arturo Tenorio. Art work by Alberto Baros. Introduction by Tomas Atencio (Dixon, NM: La Academia de la Nueva Raza, 1972) Tomas Atencio and Consuelo Pacheco, "The Concept ofResolana," Agenda, 1981. Tomas Atencio. "La Academia de la Nueva Raza: El Oro del Barrio," El Cuaderno (de Vez en Cuando), 1972. Robert R. Brischetto and Annette A. Avina. 1985. "How Hispanics View Poverty and the Poor." Southwest Voter Registration Education Project. San Antonio, Texas. Hans-Georg Gadamer. 1988. Truth and Method. New York: Crossroad. Jurgen Habermas, 1973, Theory and Practice. Translated by John Viertel. Boston: Beacon Press. Luis Jaramillo, "A Modern Parable: Too Late Your Tears," El Cuaderno (de Vez. en Cuando), 1970. Yoneji Masida, "Computopia." 1981. in The Information Technology Revolution. Edited by Tom Forester. Cambridge Mass.: The MIT Press, p.p. 620-634. Erich Neumann. 1954. The Origins and History of Consciousness. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Academia Asociados, New Mexico:

Estevan Arellano, Ellen Arellano, Amos Atencio, Tomas Atencio, Alberto Baros, Luis Jaramillo, Francisco "Kiko" Larranaga, Alejandro "Jerry" Lopez, Alberto Lovato, Antonio Lujan, E.A. Mares, Vicente Martmez, Dorotea Martmez, Antonio Medina, Consuelo Pacheco, Arcenio "Gonito" Sanchez, Lorenzo Valdez, Facundo Valdez, Cleofes Vigil, Frances Vigil.

Identified Contributors to Entre Verde Y Seco: Maria Gallegos, Luz Lopez, Cleofes Vigil Documentors for Entre Verde YSeco: Manuel Archuleta, Estevan Arellano, Tomas Atencio, Larry Cockrell, Alfredo Delgado, Eddie Duran, Dwight Duran, Francisco "Kiko" Larraniaga, Jerry Lopez, Joaquin Lujan, Antonio Medina, David Montoya, Consuelo Pacheco, Clarence Romero, Jose Tenorio, Mary Ann Tenorio,

Academia Asociados, San Antonio, Texas:

Phoenix, Arizona: Miguel Montiel Brawley, California: Jose Padilla SupportThe publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza were supported by grants from the United Presbyterian Church, USA, and the Lutheran Church of America.

Jesus "Chista" Cantu, Rudy "Diamond" Garcia, David Mercado Gonzaies, Tito Villalobos Moreno, Rogelio "El Pelon" Mercado, Jose Maria "Chema" Saenz.


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