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Activity: Making a Pop Can Traveller (Grade 5 ­ Forces Acting on Structures and Mechanisms) Fundamental Concept: Structure and Function ­ the relationship between the function or use of a natural or human-made object and the form that the object takes Literacy Connection: Cause and effect - an outline of events or actions linked to their consequences Have students follow the steps below to make a Pop Can Traveller. Once they have had a chance to use it, have them identify all the different forces involved in making the can move. Then have them examine cause-and-effect relationships by making changes to a single part to see how it affects how the Traveller moves. Materials needed: elastic band; straw or wooden skewer; empty pop can with hole punched in bottom; bead large enough to "peek" above the rim of the can when placed in the hollow of the can's bottom; 2 pieces of popsicle stick; tape; small wire hook (e.g., bent paperclip) Procedure

Communicating: Cause and Effect Students change one aspect of their Traveller (e.g., number of winds of the stick, length of stick, use of rubber bands on can to increase friction). They then describe the effect their change has on the way the Traveller moves. Safety Take care to avoid contact with the sharp edge of the can opening. Wear goggles when working with elastic bands.

Fundamental Concept: Structure and Function ­ the relationship between the function or use of a natural or humanmade object and the form that the object takes Literacy Connection: Cause and effect - an outline of events or actions linked to their consequences

Activity: Shifting Weight in Paper Planes (Grade 6) Airplane designers and pilots must pay close attention to how weight is distributed in their aircraft if they are to take off, fly, and land safely. In this activity, students will move a paperclip weight to see how a shift in weight affects the flight of a paper airplane. Procedure 1. Have students make a paper airplane using a design similar to that below. Their design should have a central "body" to which a paperclip can be fastened and moved along.

2. Students make 3 "test flights" without a paperclip attached. They record their observations as to how well the plane flew and how far it traveled. 3. Students attach a paperclip to the front of the plane and make 3 new flights, recording their observations each time. 4. Students slide the paperclip 1 cm towards the back of the plane, and repeat Step 3. 5. Step 4 is repeated a number of times, each time sliding the paperclip 1 cm further back. Communicating: Cause and Effect Students make several cause-and-effect statements (either in sentence form or in point-form in a chart) regarding their experiment. Some samples might be: a) What was the effect of not using a paperclip? b) What was the effect of having a paperclip at the front of the plane? c) What was the effect of having a paperclip near the back of the plane?

d) What paperclip position made the plane fly the best? Extension: Students can investigate the effect of paperclip weights with paper planes of other designs, or of changing other aspects of this plane (e.g., wing angle, wing size, use of flaps on the wings). They can also begin to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of some of the designs (forms) of the airplanes on the websites below. Websites to investigate: http://www.paperairplanes.co.uk/planes.php http://www.zurqui.com/crinfocus/paper/airplane.html http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2768368762284821227

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