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THE STORMY SIXTIES

Kennedy and Foreign Policy

Khrushchev

intimidates Kennedy at first

meeting Russians build Berlin Wall to block exodus of East Germans to West "Flexible Response"-use of military options instead of relying on Nukes -increase $ on conventional forces -Special Forces-Green Berets

Vietnam

U.S.

supports corrupt Diem Government Kennedy orders increase in "Military Advisors"

CUBA

Bay

of Pigs-U.S. supports invasion by anticommunist exiles-1961 Invasion fails-Kennedy looks weak Russia installs nuclear missiles in Cuba-Oct. 1962 "Naval Quarantine" of Cuba-leads to "nuclear chicken" Russia backs down-U.S. agrees to pull nuclear missiles from Turkey

Bay of Pigs

Cuban missile crisis

Range of missiles

Civil Rights

Freedom

Riders US Marshalls sent to protect James Meredith-Kennedy sends troops to insure desegregation of U. of Mississippi 1963-Kennedy calls racial question a "Moral Issue" Aug 1963- MLK "I have a dream speech" Kennedy's Civil Rights bill goes nowhere

Freedom Rider Bus

The Johnson Presidency

Nov.

11, 1963 Kennedy assassinated VP Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in 1964-Civil Rights Act passed banned racial discrimination in private facilities open to the public "Great Society"-domestic reform proposals: Education-Head Start Health Care-Medicare, Medicaid "War on Poverty"

CIVIL RIGHTS

"Freedom

Summer" voter-registration in the south--tear gas and death Johnson passes Voting Rights Act of 1965-outlaws literacy tests and allows federal oversight of voter registration 1965 Watts riot-outrage over police brutality 31 blacks and 3 whites dead 1000 injured Hundreds of buildings burned

Malcolm

X Black Panthers-black power-some want economic equality-some stressed uniqueness and separatism Riots in Newark, NJ and Detroit-1967 MLK Assassinated April 4, 1968

VIETNAM

Gulf

of Tonkin Resolution-Aug 1964 Congress gives `blank check" to Johnson to use force in Vietnam 1965- Bombing raids start over N. Vietnam "Rolling Thunder" End of 1965- 185,000 American troops-will increase to 500,000 by 1968

Vietnam

DRAFT Protests

increase LBJ orders CIA (foreign intelligence) to spy on domestic antiwar activists Tet (Vietnamese New Year) Offensive Military defeat but political victory for N. Vietnam LBJ will not run for the Presidency in 1968

Election of 1968

Democrats-Senator

Eugene (Clean Gene) McCarthy and Senator Robert Kennedy (both anti-war) against VP Herbert Humphrey-pro war Republican-Richard Nixon-pro war, moderate on domestic policy American Independent Party-George Wallace (segregation now!), the spoiler

Election

June

5, Robert Kennedy assassinated Aug 1968-Democratic Convention in Chicago "Police Riot" Humphrey nominated by Dems

Election results

Nixon

wins with 43% of popular vote to Humphrey's 42% Wallace takes five states in the deep south

CULTURAL UPHEAVAL

Disillusioned

young people took a negative attitude toward authority (distrust of authority part of American culture) "Don't trust anyone over 30" "Tune in, turn on, drop out" Birth-control pill-leads to (exaggerated) sexual revolution Stonewall Inn riot-police brutality on Gays Increase use of drugs

Weathermen-underground terrorist group

3 P's of the 1960's 1. large POPULATION of youth 2. PROTESTS 3. PROSPERITY

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