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POVERTY STATISTICS/ INDICATORS FOR SRI LANKA

Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was initiated and prepared by Mrs. D. B. P. S. Vidyaratna, Director I of this department to fulfill the data needs of Sri Lanka for the preparation of the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Regional Poverty Profile. Identification of data sources, coordination with the divisions/ departments to obtain necessary data and editing was done by her with the assistance of Miss. W. J. Nigamuni Senior Statistician of this department. The information in respect of various subject matter areas was supplied by the respective divisions of the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS). All other information contained in this profile was supplied by the branch offices maintained in different Government Departments and Ministries and other Institutions. Following major contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Land Resources Statistics Director and staff Agriculture and Environment Division of DCS Director and staff National Accounts Division of DCS Director and staff Sample Survey Division of DCS Director and staff Census Division of DCS Deputy Director and staff Research and Special Studies Division of DCS Senior Statistician and staff Trade and Services Division of DCS

Production/ Income, Savings and Investment, Productivity, Global integration, Fiscal Policy Statistics Labour and Employment, Poverty Inequality and Hunger Statistics

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Population Statistics

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Malnutrition/ Household level Environment Statistics

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Trade Statistics

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Population, Birth, Death rates Statistics

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Senior Statistician and staff of statistical branch of Register General's Department Senior Statistician and staff of statistical branch of Ministry of Human Resource Development, Education and Cultural Affairs Deputy Director and staff of statistical branch of Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Welfare Senior Statistician and staff of statistical branch of Ministry of Environment an Natural Resources

Education Statistics

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Health Statistics

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Land and Forest, Air and Water Pollution, Threatened species Statistics

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Contributions made by following Divisions of DCS/ Institutions are also gratefully appreciated. Women in decision making Statistics Acting Deputy Director and staff Demography & Social Statistics Division of DCS Director and staff Industries and Construction Division of DCS Director and staff Price and Wages Division of DCS Director and staff of statistics branch of Central Bank of Sri Lanka Acting Deputy Director and staff of statistics branch of Labour Department

Economic level of Environment Statistics

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Price Statistics

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Standard of Living Statistics

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Minimum Wages Statistics

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Motor Traffic Statistics

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Statistician and staff of statistics branch of Department of Motor Traffic

Miss. Inoka Randeniya, Coding Clerk, computer typeset the report with meticulous accuracy and high degree of competence. Her willingness and patience shown in making numerous revisions done to the manuscript and undertaking all secretarial task is appreciated. Contributions made by the staff of the Publications Division of DCS is also appreciated. Mr. H.A. Samarasinghe, Head of the Printing Division and his staff printed this report.

CONTENTS

Page No.

ABOUT THE DATA SOURCES DEFINITION OF INDICATORS INDICATORS AT NATIONAL/ SECTOR Part A. Macro perspective

01 03 04 06 08 10 14 18 19

A1. Population and employment dynamics A2. Natural resource endowment A3. Social conditions A4. Economic performance A5. Environment conditions A6. Gender and development A7. Rural, urban comparison A8. Global integration A9. Institutions and policies

I

Part B.

Disaggregated perspective

22 23 24 25 25 26

B1. Number of households below poverty line for livelihood categories B2. Trends in poverty by industry of principle income earner B3. Number of households below poverty line across educational attainments of the head of the households B4. Trends in poverty measured by ethnicity B5. Trends in poverty by region B6. Trends in poverty by district

INDICATORS AT PROVINCE/ DISTRICT

(Except for Northern and Eastern Provinces) A1. Population and employment dynamics A2. Social conditions A3. Household level environment A4. Gender and development A5. Population dynamics (sectors and zones) 27 30 32 34 37

INDICATORS AT NORTHERN AND EASTERN PROVINCES

A1. Population and employment dynamics 41

II

About the data sources

Major data sources used in the compilation of these indicators are described below.

Census of Population and Housing - 2001

Population census is defined as the process of collecting, compiling and publishing, demographic, economic and social data pertaining to all persons in the country. Geographical coverage: Census, 2001 was carried out completely in 18 districts. These include all the 17 districts in Western, Central, Southern, North Western, North Central, Uva and Sabaragamuwa provinces and Ampara district in Eastern province. In Jaffna, Mullativu and Kilinochchi districts no enumeration was done. In Mannar district, out of 5 Divisional Secretariat (D.S) Divisions only one was enumerated partially. In Vavuniya district, out of 4 D.S. Divisions, one was enumerated completely and 2 were enumerated partially. In Batticaloa district, out of 12 D.S.Divisions, 5 were enumerated completely and 6 were enumerated partially. In Trincomalee district out of 11 D.S. Divisions, 7 were enumerated completely and 2 were enumerated partially. Total enumerated population accounts for 94 percent of the total population of Sri Lanka. Periodicity: Once in 10 years

Census of Agriculture ­ 2002

Census of Agriculture is a large-scale countrywide operation to collect and derive quantitative statistical information on the structure of the agriculture sector of the country. Agriculture Census is taken in Sri Lanka once in ten years. The most recent Census of Agriculture of Sri Lanka was conducted during August - October 2002.

III

Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Once in 10 years

National Accounts

The compilation of National Economic Accounts for Sri Lanka was started during early 1950's by the Department of Census and Statistics. The National Accounts estimates are compiled based on the UN - guidelines given in the System of National Accounts (SNA). Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Annually

Household Income and Expenditure Survey ­ 2002

This Survey is the fifth in the series of Income and Expenditure Surveys conducted by DCS. This was conducted in twelve m onthly rounds from January 2002 to December 2002. Geographical coverage: All the areas of the country except districts in Northern and Eastern Provinces Periodicity: Once in 5 years

IV

Household Income and Expenditure Survey ­ 2002/03 (Northern and the Eastern Provinces)

Census of Population and Housing ­ 2001 provides the sampling frame for the household surveys. However, for Northern and the Eastern Provinces a complete sampling frame is not available. Therefore the information given in this survey does not properly represent the area as a whole. Geographical coverage: (1) Eastern Province The lists of units are available in all the 3 Districts Ampara, Trincomalee and Batticaloa except for few isolated Grama Niladhari Divisions. (2) Northern Province The list of units which could be used for sample selection purposes are generally available as follows, i. in all of the Divisional Secretariat Divisions (DSDD) in Jaffna District except for Thenamarachchy, Valikamam North and Vadamarachchy East and Delft DSDDD. ii. in all of the DSDD in Vavuniya District except for Vavuniya North DSD. iii. in "Mannar Town" DSD only but not in other 4 DSDD in Mannar District. Further no lists of units are available for the Killinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts at all.

Trade Statistics

Information on External Trade is collected, processed and disseminated by the Statistics division of the Customs Department, through an annual publication. Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Annually

V

Educational Statistics

The main source of education statistics is the annual School Census carried out by the Statistics branch of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. It collects information on schools, teachers, pupils, physical resources etc. Besides, information on educational institutions such as Pirivenas and Teacher Training Colleges are also collected. Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Annually

Vital statistics

Statistics pertaining to births, deaths, marriages, divorces and population are complied and published by the Statistics branch of the Registrar General's Department in its annual reports. Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Annually

Health statistics

The main source of health statistics is the Annual Health Bulletin compiled by the Statistics branch of the Ministry of Health Nutrition and Welfare. The information are based on the annual returns sent by the hospital staff using administrative records to the statistics branch. Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Annually

VI

Quarterly Labour Force Survey

The Sri Lanka Quarterly Labour Force Survey was designed to measure the levels and trends of employment, unemployment and labour force in Sri Lanka. Geographical coverage: It covers (at present), all districts except all the districts in Northern and Eastern Provinces Periodicity: Each quarter

Quarterly Labour Force Survey 2002 (Northern and the Eastern Provinces)

In the recent past the Department of Census and Statistics was unable to conduct Household Surveys in the areas under the Northern and the Eastern Provinces due to the unavailability of a proper sampling frame. (A proper sampling frame should consist of the list of all housing units and other units in the area concerned) A listing of units was carried out also in the Northern and the Eastern Provinces prior to the Census of Population and Housing 2001 and these listings are available for sampling purposes for the certain geographical domains of Northern and the Eastern Provinces. Geographical coverage: (1) Eastern Province Lists of units are available in all the 3 Districts Ampara, Trincomalee and Batticaloa except for few G.N. Divisions. (2) Northern Province The lists of units which could be used for sample selection purposes are generally available (except for few isolated G.N. Divisions) i. in all of the D.S. Divisions in Jaffana District except for Tenamarachchy D.S. Division, ii. in all of the D.S. Divisions in Vavunia District except for Vavunia North D.S. Division and iii. in 'Mannar Town' D.S. Division only but not in other 4 D.S. Divisions in Mannar District. Further no lists of units are available for Killinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts at all.

VII

Demographic and Health Survey 2000

The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2000, is the third in the series of such surveys conducted by the DCS. This survey collected information on health and nutrition status of children, access to water and sanitation, and demographic characteristics of the people living in these areas. Geographical coverage: All districts except Districts in North and Eastern Provinces Periodicity: Once in 6 years

Demographic and Health Survey ­ 2001 (Northern and Eastern Provinces)

Demographic and Health Survey, conducted in the Northern and Eastern Provinces, was completed with the assistance o UNICEF to bridge f the information gap, in the health sector of these areas.

Prices Statistics

Information related to prices is collected, processed and disseminated by DCS. Statistics collected/compiled, include Retail and Producer prices, Colombo Consumers' Price Index (CCPI), Greater Colombo Consumers' Price Index (GCPI), Sri Lanka Consumer Price Index (SLCPI) and inflation rate. The CCPI is the country's official cost of living component of the wages of both the government and private sector employees and to measure the rate of inflation. Geographical coverage: All the districts except Mannar, Mulativu, Kilinochchi for price statistics Periodicity: Monthly

VIII

Industrial Statistics

The scope of Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is to cover all activities categorized under the three industry divisions, namely Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing and Electricity, Gas and Water of the International Standard Industrial Classification of the United Nations. State owned industrial establishments, industries coming within the preview of Board of Investment (BOI) and private sector establishments with 5 or more persons engaged, have been covered in this survey. Geographical coverage: Entire country Periodicity: Annually

IX

Definition of Indicator

Terms Adult literacy rate Arable land

Definition Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Child immunization measures the percentage of vaccination coverage of children under one year of age for immunising against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT). Child mortality rate is the probability that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of women who are practicing, or whose sexual partners are practicing, any form of contraception. It is usually measured for married women ages 15-49 only. Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 populations estimated at midyear. Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 populations estimated at midyear. Debt service is the sum of principle repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services. Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 and older than 64--to the workingage population--those ages 15-64. For example, 0.7 means there are 7 dependents for every 10 working-age people. Exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).

Child immunisation rate Child mortality rate Contraceptive prevalence rate Crude birth rate Crude death rate Debt services Dependence ratio

Exchange rate

X

Expenditure Exports External debt

Total expenditure includes both current and capital expenditures. It does not include government lending or repayments to the government or government acquisition of equity for public purposes. Exports represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They exclude labour and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. External debt is debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. It is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private non-guaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. I is the sum of t equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. Fresh water resources refer to total renewal resources, broken down between internal flows (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country and river flows from other countries. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Gross domestic investment includes investment on land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption).

Foreign direct investment

Fresh water resources GDP

GDP growth rate GDP per capita GDP per capita in PPP Gini index Gross capital formation Gross domestic investment

Gross domestic savings

XI

Gross enrollment ratio Head count poverty ratio ­ national poverty rate Imports

Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They exclude labour and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. Inflation as measured by the wholesale price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Total labour force comprises people who meet the ILO definition of the economically active population. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. Labour productivity is annual output per labour. Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under five whose height for age is less than minus two standard deviations from the median for the international reference population ages 0 to 59 months.

Infant mortality rate Inflation rate ­ consumer price index Inflation rate ­ GDP deflator Inflation rate ­ wholesale price index Interest rate spread Labour force Labour productivity Life expectancy at birth Malnutrition under 5

XII

Maternal mortality rate Money supply (M2)

Net enrollment ratio Nominal interest rate Official Development Assistance or foreign aid

Maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die from pregnancy-related causes during pregnancy and childbirth per 100,00 live birth. Money supply (M2) comprise the sum of currency outside banks, demand deposits other than those of the central government, and the time, savings, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government. Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of the number of children of official school age (as defined by the national education system) who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Nominal interest rate is the lending interest rate not adjusted for inflation. Official development assistance and net official aid record the actual international transfer by the donor of financial resources or of goods or services valued at the cost to the donor, less any repayments of loan principal during the same period. Grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee are included, as are loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent, and technical cooperation and assistance. Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Portfolio investment flows are net and include non-debt-creating portfolio equity flows (the sum of country funds, depository receipts, and direct purchases of shares by foreign investors). Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator. Revenue includes all revenue to the central government from taxes and nonrepayable receipts (other than grants), measured as a share of GDP. Terms of trade are the ratio of the export price index to the corresponding import price index. Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates. Trade balance relates to the difference between value of exports and value of imports. Unemployment refers to the share of the labour force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Urbanisation rate is the percentage of population living in urban areas compared to total population.

Population density Portfolio investment Real interest rate Revenue Terms of trade Total fertility rate Trade balance Unemployment Urbanisation rate

XIII

Indicators at National/ Sector

PART A: POVERTY PROFILE - A MACRO PERSPECTIVE Table A1: POPULATION AND EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS S.N. Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total population Population growth rate Crude birth rate Crude death rate Total fertility rate Population Density Urbanization rate Cities over a million population Population composition Young (0-14 years) Working (15-64 years) Old (Ages 65+) Dependence ratio Sex ratio at birth Labour force (3) Employment by economic activity (3) Agriculture, forestry & fishery Industry Services 14 15 16 Unemployment (3) Average hours worked per week Minimum wage (4) Unit Millions % per 1000 people per 1000 people Birth per women Persons per sq. km. % of total population No % of total population % of total population % of total population % of working population No. of males per 1000 females Millions 1970 12.5 2.1 29.4 7.5 4.3 200 22.4 (1971) Nil 41.9 54.5 3.6 83.5 1040 4.5 (1971) 50.1 (1971) 12.8 (1971) 37.1 (1971) 18.7 (1971) 1980 14.7 1.8 28.4 6.2 3.9 235 21.5 (1981) Nil 39.0 56.8 4.2 76.1 1043 5.6 (1981) 45.9 (1980/81) 18.5 (1980/81) 35.6 (1980/81) 15.3 (1980/81) 15.21 1 1990 16.3 1.4 19.9 5.7 2.5 259 2000 18.4 1.3 17.6 5.8 1.9 295 Latest Year Data Year 19.3 * 2003 1.2 * 2002 19.1 * 2002 5.8 * 2002 307 14.6 (1) (2) 1 26.6 67.0 6.4 49.3 1044 7.1 2003 2001 2001 2003 2003 2003 2003 2002 2002 Data source RGO RGO RGO RGO RGO RGO CPH CPH RGO RGO RGO RGO RGO CPH/ LF

Nil 35.2 60.5 4.3 65.3 1045 6.0

NA 35.2 60.5 4.3 65.3 1054 6.8

10 11 12 13

% of total employed % of total employed % of total employed % of total LF Hours per week Rupees per day

46.8 37.5 15.7 15.9

36.0 23.6 40.3 7.6 38.5 94.04

34.5 22.4 43.1 8.8 41.5 111.17

2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

CPH/ LF/ SA CPH/ LF/ SA CPH/ LF/ SA LF LF LD

41.12

(1) (2)

Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely In the 2001 urban sector comprises of all municipal and urban councils only (3) Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces (4) Minimum wages - Sri Lanka Rupees (Rs.)

*

Provisional

Sources: RGO - Registrar General's Department CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 1971, 1981, 2001, Department of Census and Statistics LF - Labour Force Surveys, Department of Census and Statistics SA - Statistical Abstract, Department of Census and Statistics LD - Labour Department

2

Table A2: NATURAL RESOURCE ENDOWMENT S.N. Items A 1 2 Land resources Land area Land Use Pattern Arable land Food crops Cash crops Plantation and permanent crops Forest area Arable land per capita Arable land by farm size categories Small (< 1 ha.) Medium ( 1.0 - 5.0 ha) Large (> 5.0 ha) Distribution of arable land Small (< 1 ha.) Medium ( 1.0 - 5.0 ha) Large (> 5.0 ha) Distribution of arable land Small (< 1 ha.) Medium ( 1.0 - 5.0 ha) Large (> 5.0 ha) Proportion of irrigated land to total land under agriculture Average Rainfall (1)

(1)

Unit sq. km. % of land area % of arable land % of arable land % of land area % of land area ha. ha/family ha/family ha/family % of agri. household % of agri. household % of agri. household % of arable land % of arable land % of arable land % mm

1982 65610 11.8 10.5 1.0 14.8 26.8 0.05 0.09 0.26 0.04 61.7 35.9 2.4 15.6 70.7 13.7 27.8 1841.07

Latest Year Data Year 65610 15.0 14.0 1.0 11.1 0.04 0.09 0.23 0.04 61.6 35.6 2.8 15.0 70.0 15.0 36.1 1747.6 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

Data source SA Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture Agriculture SA

3 4

5

6 7

Average Rainfall = Average of 8 - 9 stations over 12 months period

Sources: SA - Statistical Abstract, Department of Census and Statistics Agriculture - Census of Agriculture of Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics

3

Table A3: SOCIAL CONDITIONS S.N. Items A 1 2 B 1 2 3 Education Net enrollment ratio Adult literacy rate Health Child mortality rate (under 5 mortality) Infant mortality rate Child immunization rate Unit % - Age (6-10 years) % 78.5 (1971) 69.1 47.5 6.8 (1973) 11.5 (1973) 1.4 87.2 (1981) 44.6 34.4 56.0 45.7 0.6 75.6 24.5 19.3 86.0 86.2 0.3 82.1 7 20.8 13.3 104.5 104.2 NA 96.0 54 1970 1980 1990 2000 95.7 (1996) Latest Year Data source Data Year 96.4 2002 90.7

(1)

LF CPH

2001

4 5 6 C 1 2 3 4

Maternal mortality rate Birth attended by skilled health personnels (2) Prevalence of HIV - Adults Poverty, Inequality and Hunger Head-count poverty ratio - national poverty line %

(3)

Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births % one year children (DPT3) (Diphtheria Per Tosis 3rd dose) % one year children (OPV3) (Oral Polio Vaccine 3rd dose) Per 1000 live births % of birth No

RGO/ DHS 11.2 2002 RGO 95.4 2003 Epidimiology unit/MOH 96.3 2003 Epidimiology unit/MOH 0.3 1997 RGO 84.5 2002 Health 50 2002 Health 22.7 2002 5.1 2002 0.47 2002 4.8 2002 52.8 2002 HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES

Poverty gap index national poverty line Gini Index (3) Share of income Lowest 20% Highest 20%

(3)

% % 0.43

26.1 28.8 (1990/91) (1995/96) 5.6 6.6 (1990/91) (1995/96) 0.47 5.2 5.4 (1990/91) (1995/96) 51.3 50.3 (1990/91) (1995/96) 34.7 (1976) 6.6 (1976) 36.6 (1980/82) 12.1 (1980/82) 23.8 (1993) 15.5 (1993) 37.7 (1993) 13.5 14 29.4

(3)

% %

(3) (4)

5

Prevalence of malnutrition under 5 Height for age (stunted) Weight for height (wasted) Weight for age (underweight)

% % %

DHS/ Health DHS/ Health DHS/ Health

4

S.N. Items D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Standard of Living Telephone (5) Radio (6) (7) Television set (7) Car Two wheeler Personal computers Daily news paper E-mail/ Internet users Total no. of tractors (four wheel + two wheel tractors) Total no. of tractors (four wheel + two wheel tractors)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Unit per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 people per 1000 agricultural operators per 100 sq. km. of arable land

1970

1980 4 92 2 8.1 5.4 27

1990 7 153 54 9.6 23.0 18

2000 62 296 114 12.6 45.2 23 2

Latest Year Data source Data Year 95 2002 CB CB CB MTD MTD CB CB Agriculture Agriculture

7.0 1.6

9.1 2003 52.5 2003 25 2002 4 2002 (8) 2002 78 1210 (8) 2002

Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely Percentage of hospital births except for 2000 which is from DHS 2000 Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces Reference population aged 3 - 59 months Includes cellular and wireless local loop telephones from 2000 onwards Based on licenses issued Radios and Televisions are not licensed from year 2001 Number of tractors used in agriculture are not available separately

Sources: LF - Labour Force Surveys, Department of Census and Statistics CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 1971, 1981, 2001, Department of Census and Statistics RGO - Registrar General's Department DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 1987, 1993 and 2000, Department of Census and Statistics Health - Medical statistics Unit, Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Welfare HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 1990/91, 1995/96, 2002, Department of Census and Statistics CB - Central Bank Report - 2002, Central Bank of Sri Lanka MTD - Motor Traffic Department Agriculture - Census of Agriculture of Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics 5

Table A4: ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE S.N. Items A 1 2 3 4 Production/Income GDP GDP per capita GDP per capita in PPP Sectoral composition of GDP Agriculture Industry Service GDP growth rate Per capita GDP growth rate Sectoral GDP growth Agriculture Industry Service Price Inflation rate - consumer price index Inflation rate - wholesale price index Inflation rate - GDP deflator (Base:1998=100) Trade Total export Total import Trade deficits Export composition Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Manufactures Unit Million $ US $ US $ % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % 1970 2380 189.0 1980 4134.2 280.5 1990 7935.8 467.0 2000 16543 854.0 3460 16.0 28.5 55.5 6.0 4.2 2.2 8.4 5.9 6.2 1.7 111.3 Latest Year Data Year 16415 864.0 3180 15.1 29.0 55.9 4.0 2.5 2.3 3.3 4.8 6.3 3.1 136.1 2002 2002 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2002 Data source Na. Acc. Na. Acc. CB* Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. DCS DCS Na. Acc.

5 6 7

34.7 20.6 44.7 4.2

26.2 29.8 44.0 5.7 3.8 1.6 4.4 9.0 26.1 33.7

22.9 27.3 49.8 6.2 5.1 8.8 8.0 4.1 21.5 22.2

% % % % % %

3.6 9.0 2.6 5.9

B 1 2 3 C 1 2 3 4

Million $ Million $ Million $ % of total exports % of total exports % of total exports % of total exports

5309 6301 -992 19.8 0.4 0.5 65.3

4699 6106 -1406 20.1 0.7 0.3 60.6

2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

Customs Customs Customs Customs Customs Customs Customs

6

S.N. Items 5 Import composition Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals Manufactures Export to other SAARC Countries Import from other SAARC Countries Savings and Investment Gross domestic savings (GDS) Gross domestic investment (GDI) Savings-Investment Gap Sources of investment Private investment Public investment Foreign direct investment Productivity Incremental capital output ratio (ICOR) of the economy Labour productivity (total) Agriculture Industry Services Paddy productivity in agriculture

Unit % of total imports % of total imports % of total imports % of total imports % of total imports % of total export % of total import % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDI % of GDI % of GDI %

1970

1980

1990

2000 11.8 2.1 9.2 8.3 56.1 2.8 11.2

Latest Year Data Year 12.7 2.2 13.8 9.6 49.4 5.4 15.5 20.12 22.6 -1.63 81.38 11.15 7.7 5.6 2518 1104 3259 3264 6000 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

Data source Customs Customs Customs Customs Customs Customs Customs Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc.

6 7 D 1 2 3 4

13.49 32.8 19.31 76.16 23.10 1.3 4.6

15.20 20.7 -5.51 74.63 23.79 4.8 3.3

19.65 26.1 -6.43 82.62 14.83 8.9 4.5 2622 1166 3167 2622 6000

E 1 2

3

US $ US $ US $ Mt./ha

Sources: Na. Acc. - National Accounts of Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics CB* - Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka DCS - Prices and Wages Division, Department of Census and Statistics Customs - Sri Lanka Customs

7

Table A5: ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS S.N. Items A 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 4 5 C 1 2 3 D 1 2 3 4 5 Land and forest National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary etc. Fertilizer issues (wholesale) Average annual deforestation Air and Water Pollution Total carbon dioxide emission Per capita carbon dioxide emission Particulate matters Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Threatened species Mammals Birds Higher plants Household Level Environment Access to improved sanitation facilities (1) HHs with access to potable water (1) HHs with access to sewerage connection (1) HHs with access to Electricity (1) Road traffic Vehicle population Operated Km millions (road transport public sector) Municipal solid waste collection / disposal rate Unit % of land area MT % Million metric ton Metric ton Microgram per Cu. M. Microgram per Cu. M. Microgram per Cu. M. Total species No. No. No. 1980 1990 2000 13.0 529,531 -1.6 33.63 1.8 74 0.008 0.04 34 61 627 Latest Year Data Year 13.7 657,054 2002 2002 Data source MENR CB MENR MENR MENR MENR MENR MENR MENR MENR MENR

433,061

437,129

% of households % % % Million vehicle per Km.

No.

72.6 75.4 72.6 68.2 337382 517 819343 245 1706382 387 40 2073869 397 2003 2002

DHS DHS DHS DHS MTD CB MENR

6

% of total municipal waste

8

S.N. Items E 1 Economic Level of Environment Sources of electricity Hydropower Oil Wind 2 Transport infrastructure Total road network (2) Railways

(1) (2)

Unit

1980

1990

2000

Latest Year Data Year

Data source

GWh GWh GWh

3605 (2002) 3200 (2002) 4 (2002) 10447 1457 11485 1463

3704 3904 3

2003 2003 2003

DCS DCS DCS

Km Km

11650 1449

2002 2003

SA SA

Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces A and B roads only

A Roads - All roads within the network Trunk Roads connecting the national capital with the provincial capitals and also connecting these capitals with one another. Also included are other major roads. (all roads paved and bitumen surfaced with carriage way between 24ft. to 36ft. and platform with 36ft. to 56ft.) B Roads - Main roads connecting other important towns and also providing important links within the trunk route system (metalled and bitumen with a small percentage graveled.) Sources: MENR - Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources CB - Central Bank Report - 2002, Central Bank of Sri Lanka DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 2000, Department of Census and Statistics MTD - Motor Traffic Department DCS - Industries and Construction Division, Department of Census and Statistics SA - Statistical Abstract, Department of Census and Statistics

9

Table A6: GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT S.N. Items A 1 Education Adult literacy rate Male Female 2 Net enrolment ratio Male Female B 1 Health Life expectancy at birth Male Female 2 Child mortality rate (under 5 mortality) (2) Boys Girls 3 Infant mortality rate (2) Boys Girls Unit 1970 1980 1990 2000 Latest Year Data Year Data source

% %

85.6 (1971) 70.9 (1971)

91.1 (1981) 83.2 (1981) 95.6 (1996) 95.7 (1996)

92.3 (1) 89.2 (1)

2001 2001

CPH CPH

% - Age (6-10 years) % - Age (6-10 years)

97.1 95.6

2002 2002

LF LF

Years Years

64.1 (1971) 66.9 (1971)

67.2 (1981) 72.1 (1981) 49.2 (1987) 34.4 (1987) 39.5 (1987) 24.7 (1987)

69.5 (1991/96) 74.2 (1991/96) 38.4 (1993) 26.7 (1993) 30.8 (1993) 20.0 (1993)

70.7 (1996/01) 75.4 (1996/01) 24.3 17.3

71.7 (1) 76.4 (1)

2001 2001

CPH/ Health CPH/ Health DHS DHS

Per 1,000 live births Per 1,000 live births

Per 1,000 boys Per 1,000 girls

22.6 15.6

DHS DHS

10

S.N. Items 4 Prevalence of HIV - Adults Male Female Prevalence of malnutrition under 5 Boys Girls Employment Labour force participation rate (2) Male Female 2 Employment by economic activity (2) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery Male Female Industry (3) Male Female Service (4) Male Female

Unit % % % of boys % of girls

1970

1980

1990 6 1

2000 34 20 11.9 15.3

Latest Year Data Year 26 24 2002 2002

Data source Health Health DHS DHS

5

C 1

% of male working age % of female working age

68.5 (1971) 26.0 (1971)

66.8 (1980/81) 25.8 (1980/81)

65.3 (1993) 33.1 (1993)

67.2 33.9

67.9 33.6

2002 2002

CPH/ LF CPH/ LF

% of total employed % of total employed

46.8 (1971) 61.9 (1971) 12.8 (1971) 12.4 (1971) 40.4 (1971) 25.7 (1971)

44.1 (1980/81) 51.0 (1980/81) 19.0 (1980/81) 17.5 (1980/81) 36.9 (1980/81) 31.5 (1980/81)

33.3 41.6

31.8 40.0

2002 2002

CPH/ LF CPH/ LF

% of total employed % of total employed

22.4 26.2

21.5 24.3

2002 2002

CPH/ LF CPH/ LF

% of total employed % of total employed

44.3 32.2

46.7 35.7

2002 2002

CPH/ LF CPH/ LF

11

S.N. Items 3 D 1 2 3 E 1 Nominal wage rate index for agricultural workers (78 December = 100) Women in decision making Seats in parliament held by women Women in government at ministerial level (cabinet ministers) Female professional and technical workers Poverty and Hunger Head-count poverty ratio - national poverty line (2) Male headed household Female headed household 2 Nutrition status of children (7) Height for age Male Female Weight for height Male Female

Unit

1970 29.3

1980 153.6

1990 517.2

2000 1142.7

Latest Year Data Year 1269.2 2002

Data source CB

% of total % of total ministers % of total workers

3.9

4.1 (1977) 3.8 13.6 (5)

5.3 (1989) 3.8 19.8 (6)

4.4 8.9 3.1 22.9 (6)

2001 2001/ 2003 1998

Handbook on sex Handbook on sex CP&SGSE

% %

29.1 (1995/96) 27.5 (1995/96)

23.0 21.5

2002 2002

HIES HIES

% of boys % of girls

22.7 (1993) 25.1 (1993) 15.6 (1993) 15.4 (1993)

11.9 15.3

2000 2000

DHS DHS

% of boys % of girls

15.1 12.6

2000 2000

DHS DHS

12

(1) (2)

Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces (3) Industry Manufacturing, Construction, Mining and Quarrying, Electricity, Gas and Water supply

(4)

Services Wholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Motor Vehicles, Motorcycles and Personal and Household Goods, Hotels and Restaurants, Transport, Storage & Communication, Financial Intermediation and Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities, Public Administration and Defence, Compulsory Social Security, Education, Health and Social work, Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities, Private Households with Employed Persons, Miscellaneous Labour Work, Extra Territorial Organizations and bodies, Industries not adequately described

(5) (6)

The classification of occupations used in this census was based on the (ILO) 1960 - revision The classification of occupations used in this census was based on the (ISCO) 1988 - revision (7) Reference population aged (3 - 59) months Sources: CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 1971, 1981 and 2001, Department of Census and Statistics DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 1987, 1993 and 2000, Department of Census and Statistics Health - Medical statistics Unit, Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Welfare LF - Labour Force Surveys, Department of Census and Statistics CB - Central Bank Report - 2002, Central Bank of Sri Lanka Handbook on sex - Disaggregated data Sri Lanka, Ministry of Women's Affairs CP&SGSE - Census of Public and Semi-Government Sector Employment (Private sector is not included), Department of Census and Statistics HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 1995/96, 2002, Department of Census and Statistics

13

Table A7: RURAL URBAN COMPARISON S.N. Items A 1 Population Total Population Rural Urban 2 Total fertility rate (2) Rural Urban B 1 Education Adult literacy rate Rural Urban C 1 Health Child mortality rate (2) Rural Urban 2 Infant mortality rate (2) Rural Urban Per 1,000 live births Per 1,000 live births 29.7 (1993) 26.2 (1993) 24.0 (1993) 20.8 (1993) 18.6 17.3 DHS DHS Unit 1970 1980 1990 2000 Latest Year Data Year Data source

Million Million

9.8 (1971) 2.8 (1971)

11.6 (1981) 3.2 (1981) 2.9 (1987) 2.3 (1987) 2.3 (1993) 2.4 (1993) 1.8 2.1

14.4 (1) 2.5 (1)

2001 2001

CPH CPH

Birth per rural women Birth per urban women

DHS DHS

% of rural population % of urban population

76.2 (1971) 86.2 (1971)

85.4 (1981) 93.4 (1981)

90.3 (1) 93.0 (1)

2001 2001

CPH CPH

Per 1000 live births in rural areas Per 1000 live births in urban areas

17.4 14.9

DHS DHS

14

S.N. Items 3 Immunization rate (2) Colombo metro Other urban Rural Estate D 1 Employment Labour force participation rate (2) Rural Urban 2 Average hours worked per week (2) Rural Urban Poverty, Inequality and Hunger Head-count poverty ratio - national poverty line (2) Rural Urban Estate

Unit

1970

1980

1990

2000

Latest Year Data Year

Data source DHS DHS DHS DHS

% of children 5 years of age % of children 5 years of age % of children 5 years of age % of children 5 years of age

79.4 (1993) 72.6 (1993) 79.6 (1993) 80.4 (1993)

79.9 82.2 81.5 71.4

% of rural working age % of urban working age

48.3 (1971) 46.9 (1971)

46.8 (1980/81) 45.2 (1980/81)

51.2 44.9

51.0 46.0

2002 2002

CPH/ LF CPH/ LF

Hours per week Hours per week

41.0 45.2

2002 2002

LF LF

E 1

% of rural population % of urban population % of estate population

29.4 (1990/91) 16.3 (1990/91) 20.5 (1990/91)

30.9 (1995/96) 14.0 (1995/96) 38.4 (1995/96)

24.7 7.9 30.0

2002 2002 2002

HIES HIES HIES

15

S.N. Items 2 Poverty gap index - national poverty line

(2)

Unit

1970

1980

1990

2000

Latest Year Data Year

Data source

Rural Urban Estate 3 Squared poverty gap index - national poverty line (2) Rural Urban Estate 4 Gini Index (2) Rural Urban Estate Prevalence of malnutrition under 5 (2) Rural Urban Share of income (2) Lowest 20% Rural Urban Estate Highest 20% Rural Urban Estate

% of rural population % of urban population % of estate population

6.3 (1990/91) 3.7 (1990/91) 3.3 (1990/91)

7.2 (1995/96) 2.9 (1995/96) 7.9 (1995/96)

5.6 1.7 6.0

2002 2002 2002

HIES HIES HIES

% of rural population % of urban population % of estate population

2.0 (1990/91) 1.8 (1990/91) 0.9 (1990/91) 0.38 0.44 0.27 0.42 0.62 0.25

2.5 (1995/96) 0.9 (1995/96) 2.5 (1995/96)

1.8 0.5 1.8

2002 2002 2002

HIES HIES HIES

0.45 0.48 0.34 12.8 7.9

2002 2002 2002

HIES HIES HIES DHS DHS

5

% of rural children % of urban children

6

% % % % % %

5.0 4.9 7.1 50.9 53.9 40.6

2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES

16

S.N. Items F 1

Unit

1970

1980

1990

2000

Latest Year Data Year

Data source

2

Household Level Environment Access to improved water sources (2) Rural % of HHs Urban % of HHs Access to improved sanitation facilities (2) Rural Urban

(1) (2)

74.6 97.5

DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS

% of HHs % of HHs

72.6 86.9

Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces

Sources: CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 1971, 1981 and 2001, Department of Census and Statistics DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 1987, 1993 and 2000, Department of Census and Statistics LF - Labour Force Surveys, Department of Census and Statistics HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 1990/91, 1995/96, 2002, Department of Census and Statistics

17

Table A8: GLOBAL INTEGRATION S.N. Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Exports Imports Total trade Foreign direct investment Foreign direct investment Total external debt Total external debt Portfolio investment Portfolio investment Net Official Development Assistance or official aid Aid per capita Aid to gross capital formation ratio Aid to imports of goods and services Aid to central government expenditure Inbound tourists (arrivals) International tourism Receipt Private Remittance Unit % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP Million $ % of GDP Million $ % of GDP Million $ % of GDP Million $ $ % % % Thousand Million Rs. Million $ 1970 20.6 23.8 -3.2 1980 25.8 49.6 -23.9 1990 25.0 33.8 -8.9 33 0.4 5783 72.0 10.0 0.13 479.0 28.1 28.5 15.3 44.9 2000 33.5 44.2 -10.7 173 1.2 9031 54.5 -45 -0.39 200.8 10.4 4.6 2.4 9.7 400.4 19095 1160 Latest Year Data Year 28.6 2002 37.2 2002 -8.6 2002 230 2002 1.6 2002 9291 2002 56.1 2002 25 2002 0.27 2002 179.7 2002 9.4 2002 4.8 2002 2.5 2002 11.4 2002 393.2 2002 23724 2002 1287 2002 Data source Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. Na.Acc. CB CB CB

265 16.1

1667 41.4

Sources: Na.Acc. - National Accounts of Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics CB - Central Bank Report - 2002, Central Bank of Sri Lanka

18

Table A9: INSTITUTIONS AND POLICIES S.N. Items A 1 2 3 4 Fiscal policy Revenue Expenditure Fiscal deficits Revenue composition Tax revenue Non-tax revenue Expenditure composition Current expenditure Capital expenditure Public health expenditure Public health expenditure per capita Public education expenditure Public education expenditure per capita Military expenditure Military expenditure Military expenditure per capita Expenditure on Defence Ministry Recurrent expenditure Capital expenditure Debt services (debt and interest payments) Debt services (debt) Debt services (debt) Unit 1970 1980 1990 2000 Latest Year Data Year 17.4 21.7 4.3 14.7 0.8 13.0 2.5 1.3 11.5 1.8 15.3 2.9 22.4 25.2 41,140 9,073 4.7 8.3 788 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 Data source

% of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of GDP % of total GDP $ year % of total GDP $ year % of GDP % of central government expenditure $ year Million Rs. Million Rs. % of GDP % of export $ year (Million)

20.3 28.6 -8.3 14.5 3.2 18.7 5.7 1.60 3.1 3.3 6.3 0.6 5.5 1.2

20.7 20.3 0.4 18.6 2.1 9.7 7.6 1.1 3.0 1.7 4.8 0.9 4.2 2.4

21.6 22.4 -0.8 19.2 2.4 13.2 4.9 1.1 5.0 2.0 9.1 3.2 14.1 14.7

17.1 19.6 -2.5 14.8 0.4 14.1 3.7 1.4 11.9 1.9 15.9 4.9 34.9 42.0 41,479 10,956 5.9 6.6 953

Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. SA SA Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc.

5

6 7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14

4.0 12.9 167

5.2 17.2 416

19

S.N. Items B 1 2 3 4 C 1 2 D 1 Monetary and Financial Policy Growth in money supply (M2) Nominal interest rate Real interest rate Interest rate spread Trade and Exchange Rate Exchange rate Terms of trade Institutions Education institutions Primary school Primary and secondary school Secondary University Health Institutions Hospitals bed Physicians Inpatient admission rate Average length of stay in hospital Contraceptive prevalence rate

Unit

1970

1980

1990

2000

Latest Year Data Year 13.6 18.0 9.9 (8.4 30.0) 95.66 103.5 2002 2002 2002 2002

Data source

% % % %

31.9 20.0 2.2

19.1 15.0 -5.2 (5.0 28.0)

13.0 25.0 18.3 (8.4 30.0) 75.78 101.1

Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc. Na. Acc.

Currency per unit of US$ %

2002 2002

CB CB

2

No. No. No. No. No. No. per 1000 people % of population Days % of women ages 15-49

4 8 9 455 480 691 39,173 43,389 41,871 0.15 0.13 0.15 15.7 15.5 14.7 4.4 41.0 57.8 66.1 (1975) (1982) (1993)

13 558 57,027 0.41 20.7 3.8 70

2,590 6,892 347 13 576 59,144 0.49 21.8 3.4

2002 2002 2002 2004 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

Education Education Education UGC Health Health Health Health Health WFS/ CPS / DHS

20

Sources: Na. Acc. - National Accounts of Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics SA - Statistical Abstract, Department of Census and Statistics CB - Central Bank Report - 2002, Central Bank of Sri Lanka Education - Ministry of Human Resource Development, Education and Cultural Affairs UGC - University Grant Commission Health - Medical statistics Unit, Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Welfare WFS - World Fertility Survey - 1975 CPS - Contraceptive Prevalence Survey - 1982 DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 1993 and 2000, Department of Census and Statistics

21

PART B: POVERTY PROFILE - DISAGGREGATED PERSPECTIVE Table B1: Number of Households Below Poverty Line for Livelihood Categories S.N. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 B 1 2 3 4 5 6 C 1 2 3 4 5 6 D Livehood category Rural Self-employed (1) Regular wage and salaried HHs Causal workers Others (2) Female headed HHs All rural HHs Urban Self-employed (1) Regular wage and salaried HHs Causal workers Others Female headed HHs All urban HHs Estate Self-employed (1) Regular wage and salaried HHs Causal workers Others Female headed HHs All estate HHs Total Self-employed (1) Regular wage and salaried HHs Causal workers

(2) (2)

Unit Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000) Number of HHs (in 1000)

2002 178 463

NA

Data source HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES

47 134 688 6 22

NA

3 8 31

(3)

52

NA

(3)

9 56 187 538

NA

1 2 3 4 Others (2) 5 Female headed HHs 6 All total HHs NA - Category not available

(1) (2)

50 151 775

Includes Employers and Own account workers Includes - Source of income of the principle earner is 'Cash receipt' or 'income in kind' (not employed) (3) Sample size is not enough Source: HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002 (Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces), Department of Census and Statistics 22

Table B2: Trends in poverty by industry of principle income earner S.N. A 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 C 1 2 3 D 1 2 3

(1)

Income earner by industry Rural Agriculture Non-agriculture Other (1) Urban Agriculture Non-agriculture Other (1) Estate Agriculture Non-agriculture Other (1) National Agriculture Non-agriculture Other (1)

Unit % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs

2002 Non poor Poor 76.9 81.5 72.8 90.8 93.5 95.4 71.6 74.8 77.3 76.9 83.2 76.7 23.1 18.5 27.2 9.2 6.5 4.6 28.4 25.2 22.7 23.1 16.8 23.3

Data Source HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES

Other - Source of income of the principle earner is 'Cash receipt' or 'income in kind' (not employed)

Source: Source: HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002 (Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces), Department of Census and Statistics Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002, Department of Census and Statistics

23

Table B3: Number of Households Below Poverty Line Across Educational Attainment of the Head of the HHs Data S.N. Poor by educational level Unit 2002 source A Rural 1 Illiterate (No schooling) Number of HHs (in 1000) 86 HIES (1) 2 Number of HHs (in 1000) 336 HIES Upto Class 5 (upto grade 5) 3 Class 6 - 8 (grade 6 - 8) Number of HHs (in 1000) 146 HIES 4 Class 9 - 10 (above grade 9 & below degree) Number of HHs (in 1000) 118 HIES (2) 5 Graduate and above Number of HHs (in 1000) HIES B Urban 1 Illiterate (No schooling) Number of HHs (in 1000) 4 HIES (1) 2 Number of HHs (in 1000) 15 HIES Upto Class 5 (upto grade 5) 3 Class 6 - 8 (grade 6 - 8) Number of HHs (in 1000) 7 HIES 4 Class 9 - 10 (above grade 9 & below degree) Number of HHs (in 1000) 6 HIES (2) 5 Graduate and above Number of HHs (in 1000) HIES C Estate 1 Illiterate (No schooling) Number of HHs (in 1000) 11 HIES (1) 2 Number of HHs (in 1000) 31 HIES Upto Class 5 (upto grade 5) 3 Class 6 - 8 (grade 6 - 8) Number of HHs (in 1000) 8 HIES (2) 4 Class 9 - 10 (above grade 9 & below degree) Number of HHs (in 1000) HIES (2) 5 Graduate and above Number of HHs (in 1000) HIES D Total 1 Illiterate (No schooling) Number of HHs (in 1000) 102 HIES (1) 2 Number of HHs (in 1000) 381 HIES Upto Class 5 (upto grade 5) 3 Class 6 - 8 (grade 6 - 8) Number of HHs (in 1000) 162 HIES 4 Class 9 - 10 (above grade 9 & below degree) Number of HHs (in 1000) 129 HIES (2) 5 Graduate and above Number of HHs (in 1000) HIES

(1) (2)

(grade 5) - 6 years of schooling Sample size is not enough

Source: HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002 (Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces), Department of Census and Statistics

24

Table B4: Trends in Poverty measured by Ethnicity S.N. 1 2 3 4 Sinhala Sri Lanka Tamil Indian Tamil Sri Lanka Moors Ethnic group Unit % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh 2002 Poor Non-poor 18.9 81.1 22.1 77.9 20.8 79.2 21.2 78.8 Data source HIES HIES HIES HIES

Table B5: Trends in Poverty by Region S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Western Central Southern North Western North Central Uva Sabaragamuwa Region (Province) Unit % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh 2002 9.2 20.8 23.6 22.3 18.1 31.8 28.9 Data source HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES

Source: HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002 (Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces), Department of Census and Statistics

25

Table B6: Trends in Poverty by Districts Data source HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES HIES

S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Colombo Gampaha Kalutara Kandy Matale Nuwara Eliya Galle Matara Hambantota Kurunegala Puttalam Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Badulla Moneragala Ratnapura Kegalle

Region (District)

Unit % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh % of poor hh

2002 5.0 9.2 17.7 20.9 24.5 18.2 21.7 23.2 27.8 21.2 24.5 17.2 20.1 31.5 32.4 30.1 27.5

Source: HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002 (Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces), Department of Census and Statistics

26

Indicators at Province/ District

(Except for Northern and Eastern provinces)

Table A1: POPULATION AND EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS Table A1 Nuwara Eliya 16.3 5.1 29.6 65.7 4.7 52.2 971 0.3 63.2 8.4 28.4 5.4 45.6

Gampaha

Sri Lanka

Colombo

Western

Central

1 Crude birth rate (1) 2 Crude death rate 3 Population composition (2) Young (0-14 years) Working (15-64 years) Old (Ages 65+) 4 Dependence ratio (2) 5 Sex ratio (2) 6 Labour force (3) 7 Employment by economic activity (2) Agriculture, forestry & fishery Industry Services 8 Unemployment (3) 9 Average hours worked per week (3)

per 1000 people per 1000 people % of total population % of total population % of total population % No. of males per 1000 females Millions % of total employed % of total employed % of total employed % of total LF Hours per week

2002 2002 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002

19.1 5.8

27.0 9.0 22.0 71.4 6.6 40.1 1031 0.9 2.0 28.3 69.7 9.1 46.0

12.6 5.0 23.6 70.0 6.4 42.9 946 0.9 4.6 41.2 54.2 8.2 43.1

15.2 5.8 24.9 66.9 8.2 49.5 964 0.5 17.9 26.8 55.3 9.8 41.3

22.8 6.9 27.3 66.7 6.0 49.9 940 0.5 18.8 21.1 60.1 11.6 43.8

979 7.1

8.8 41.5

8.9

8.9

27

Matale 19.5 5.0 26.4 68.0 5.6 47.1 988 0.2 39.3 16.5 44.2 7.6 46.9

Kandy

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Kalutara

Table A1 (Contd.) North - Western Anuradhapura North-Central Polonnaruwa 20.0 4.9 29.4 66.3 4.3 50.8 1088 0.2 55.9 10.7 33.4 11.7 38.5 Hambantota Kurunegala

Southern

S.N.

Items

Unit

1 Crude birth rate (1) 2 Crude death rate 3 Population composition (2) Young (0-14 years) Working (15-64 years) Old (Ages 65+) 4 Dependence ratio (2) 5 Sex ratio (2) 6 Labour force (3) 7 Employment by economic activity (2) Agriculture, forestry & fishery Industry Services 8 Unemployment (3) 9 Average hours worked per week (3)

per 1000 people per 1000 people % of total population % of total population % of total population % No. of males per 1000 females Millions % of total employed % of total employed % of total employed % of total LF Hours per week

19.1 6.8 27.2 64.3 8.5 40.4 938 0.4 30.1 20.3 49.6 8.8 42.7

18.7 5.8 27.7 63.7 8.6 41.2 933 0.3 38.3 20.2 41.5 11.0 41.1

12.8 4.0 29.2 63.8 7.0 40.2 989 0.2 44.3 17.7 38 13.3 40.0

17.1 6.3 26.0 67.5 6.5 48.1 965 0.7 31.8 21.3 46.9 7.9 43.1

Puttalam 19.9 4.8 30.2 64.5 5.3 55.0 974 0.3 24.9 26.5 48.6 7.5 44.3

Matara

Galle

20.7 5.5 29.4 66.2 4.4 51.1 1029 0.4 55.6 8.6 35.8 7.1 42.3

10.6

7.8

8.4

28

Table A1 (Contd.) Sabaragamuwa Data source RGO RGO CPH CPH CPH CPH CPH AR of LF CPH CPH CPH AR of LF LF

Moneragala

Badulla

1 Crude birth rate (1) 2 Crude death rate 3 Population composition (2) Young (0-14 years) Working (15-64 years) Old (Ages 65+) 4 Dependence ratio (2) 5 Sex ratio (2) 6 Labour force (3) 7 Employment by economic activity (2) Agriculture, forestry & fishery Industry Services 8 Unemployment (3) 9 Average hours worked per week (3)

(1) (2)

per 1000 people per 1000 people % of total population % of total population % of total population % No. of males per 1000 females Millions % of total employed % of total employed % of total employed % of total LF Hours per week

23.1 5.3 29.7 65.0 5.3 53.8 979 0.5 55.2 8.2 36.6 6.3 40.8

17.2 3.1 32.1 63.7 4.2 57.0 1025 0.2 63.2 8.4 28.4 5.2 39.3

19.2 5.3 27.8 66.1 6.1 51.3 1016 0.5 46.8 20.5 32.7 9.2 46.5

6.0

9.8

According to the place of registration and not according to place of residence Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely (3) Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces

Sources: RGO - Registrar General's Department CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 2001, Department of Census and Statistics AR of LF- Annual Report of Labour Force - 2002, Department of Census and Statistics LF - Labour Force Survey, Department of Census and Statistics 29

Kegalle 13.0 5.6 25.6 66.7 7.7 49.9 951 0.4 23.9 24.0 52.1 10.6 41.4

S.N.

Items

Unit Uva

Ratnapura

Table A2: SOCIAL CONDITIONS Nuwara Eliya 81.7 23 0.40 6.2 45.1 30 0.48 4.7 53.4 Anuradhapura

Gampaha

Sri Lanka

Colombo

Central

A 1 B 1 2 3

Education Adult literacy rate (1) Poverty, Inequality and Hunger Head-count poverty ratio - national poverty line (2) Gini Index (2) Share of income (2) Lowest 20% Highest 20% Table A2 (Contd.)

% % % % %

2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 22.7 0.47 4.8 52.8

93.6 6 0.46 5.2 51.4

95.3 11 0.44 5.7 49.9

92.8 20 0.43 5.1 48.6

90.9 25 0.50 4.7 54.7

North - Western

North-Central

Matale 88.1

Kandy

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Kalutara

Western

Southern

A 1 B 1 2 3

Education Adult literacy rate (1) Poverty, Inequality and Hunger Head-count poverty ratio - national poverty line (2) Gini Index (2) Share of income (2) Lowest 20% Highest 20% % % % % % 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 92.9 26 0.43 5.8 50.2 89.8 27 0.43 5.7 49.2 89.1 32 0.40 5.4 46.2 91.9 25 0.46 5.3 51.2 90.9 31 0.47 5.1 52.3 90.6 20 0.43 5.5 48.7 89.9 24 0.40 6.0 46.1

30

Puttalam

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Polonnaruwa

Hambantota

Kurunegala

Matara

Galle

Table A2 (Contd.) Sabaragamuwa

Badulla

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year Uva

A 1 B 1 2 3

Education % 2001 84.0 85.8 87.2 91.3 CPH Adult literacy rate (1) Poverty, Inequality and Hunger Head-count poverty ratio - national % 2002 37 37 34 32 Official (2) Poverty poverty line (2) % 2002 0.46 0.56 0.41 0.43 HIES Gini Index (2) Share of income Lowest 20% % 2002 5.6 3.6 5.4 5.1 HIES Highest 20% % 2002 51.7 60.8 47.9 47.8 HIES (1) Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely

(2)

Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces

Sources: CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 2001, Department of Census and Statistics Official Poverty - Official Poverty Line for Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002, Department of Census and Statistics

31

Data source

Moneragala

Ratnapura

Kegalle

Table A3 : HOUSEHOLD LEVEL ENVIRONMENT

Central

1 2 3 4 5 6

With safe drinking water (1) With latrine facilities (1) (2) Used firewood for cooking (1) Used tile/ cement/ wood for floor (1) Used tile/ asbestos for roof (1) Used brick/ cement etc. for walls (1)

% of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

95.8 87.6 32.0 95.4 77.1 87.0

91.0 96.8 65.7 91.3 83.0 80.8

84.1 96.1 81.5 88.0 84.1 76.0

82.9 96.0 85.1 75.8 63.2 82.7

Matale

Kandy

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

79.4 95.9 92.4 60.7 64.0 70.8

Table A3(Contd.) North - Western Anuradhapura North-Central Polonnaruwa 76.7 93.4 94.9 67.0 73.4 74.8 Hambantota Kurunegala

Southern

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

1 2 3 4 5 6

With safe drinking water (1) With latrine facilities (1) (2) Used firewood for cooking (1) Used tile/ cement/ wood for floor (1) Used tile/ asbestos for roof (1) Used brick/ cement etc. for walls (1)

% of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

81.8 96.3 85.6 82.9 88.0 74.1

78.2 97.6 89.0 77.7 88.7 77.0

87.9 96.3 94.9 66.2 76.4 73.5

85.9 92.8 94.8 70.8 69.3 73.4

Puttalam

Matara

Galle

92.5 83.0 88.3 83.0 62.1 66.1

32

Nuwara Eliya 68.8 82.3 88.8 68.3 34.4 78.0 83.5 86.7 91.7 57.5 71.2 70.5

Gampaha

Sri Lanka

Colombo

Kalutara

Western

Table A3(Contd.) Sabaragamuwa

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year Badulla Uva

1 2 3 4 5 6

With safe drinking water (1) With latrine facilities (1) (2) Used firewood for cooking (1) Used tile/ cement/ wood for floor (1) Used tile/ asbestos for roof (1) Used brick/ cement etc. for walls (1)

(1) (2)

% of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

68.6 94.2 92.2 64.3 64.6 71.0

64.6 91.3 95.0 51.3 75.3 62.9

58.6 95.8 94.3 70.7 73.2 66.7

69.8 96.0 94.1 74.1 72.6 75.9

CPH CPH CPH CPH CPH CPH

Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely Including not having a toilet but sharing with another household

Source: CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 2001, Department of Census and Statistics

33

Data source

Moneragala

Ratnapura

Kegalle

Table A4: GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT Table A4 Nuwara Eliya 87.1 76.6 63.8 47.5 56.8 72.1 8.5 8.1 34.7 19.8

Kalutara

Western

Central

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Gampaha

Sri Lanka

Colombo

A 1

B 1

2

Education Adult literacy rate (1) Male Female Employment Labour force participation rate (2) Male Female Employment by economic activity (1) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Male Female Industry Male Female Services Male Female

% %

2001 2001

94.0 93.1

95.6 94.9

93.4 92.3

92.8 89.0

90.2 86.0

% of male working age % of female working age

2002 2002

67.9 33.6

65.8 28.7

69.0 31.1

66.0 30.1

65.8 28.9

69.9 36.3

% of employed males % of employed females % of employed males % of employed females % of employed males % of employed females

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

2.3 1.5 25.7 34.7 72.0 63.8

5.8 1.8 33.4 58.2 60.8 40.0

17.0 20.0 24.3 33.0 58.7 47.0

16.7 24.7 19.7 25.1 63.6 50.2

37.7 43.5 16.1 17.5 46.2 39.0

34

Matale

Kandy

Table 4 (Contd.) North - Western Anuradhapura 92.3 88.9 70.3 39.2 54.2 58.8 7.8 10.6 38.0 30.6 North-Central

Southern

A 1

B 1

Education Adult literacy rate (1) Male Female Employment Labour force participation rate (2) Male Female Employment by economic activity (1) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Male Female Industry Male Female Services Male Female

% %

2001 2001

93.7 92.2

91.5 88.2

91.4 86.8

93.4 90.6

91.6 90.2

Puttalam

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

% of male working age % of female working age

2002 2002

66.1 32.4

64.4 31.7

68.3 28.7

69.9 35.6

68.4 28.9

72.9 23.1

2

% of employed males % of employed females % of employed males % of employed females % of employed males % of employed females

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

27.3 36.2 19.0 23.1 53.7 40.7

35.3 44.9 20.0 20.9 44.7 34.2

48.0 33.8 15.7 23.5 36.3 42.7

32.7 29.4 19.8 25.5 47.5 45.1

27.2 17.6 24.9 31.7 47.9 50.7

58.4 47.9 9.1 16.2 32.5 35.9

35

Polonnaruwa 90.9 88.8

Hambantota

Kurunegala

Matara

Galle

Table A4(Contd.) Sabaragamuwa

Moneragala

Badulla

A 1

B 1

Education Adult literacy rate (1) Male Female Employment Labour force participation rate (2) Male Female Employment by economic activity (1) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Male Female Industry Male Female Services Male Female

(1) (2)

% %

2001 2001

88.1 80.2

88.0 83.6

89.4 85.0

93.0 89.6

Kegalle

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year Uva

Ratnapura

CPH CPH

% of male working age % of female working age

2002 2002

73.0 58.0

69.6 52.2

68.5 32.4

67.0 31.4

AR of LF AR of LF

2

% of employed males % of employed females % of employed males % of employed females % of employed males % of employed females

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

49.9 64.2 9.1 6.5 41.0 29.3

62.6 64.5 15.0 7.9 22.4 27.6

43.3 54.9 22.1 16.6 34.6 28.5

23.2 26.1 38.6 29.6 38.2 44.3

CPH CPH CPH CPH CPH CPH

Data are given only for 18 districts where the Census of Population and Housing - 2001 was carried out completely Excluding Northern & Eastern provinces

Sources: CPH - Census of Population and Housing - 2001, Department of Census and Statistics AR of LF- Annual Report of Labour Force - 2002, Department of Census and Statistics

36

Data source

Table A5: POPULATION DYNAMICS Table A5 Colombo metro

Sri Lanka

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Other urban

1 2 3

Total fertility rate

Birth per women (15 49 yrs.) Ever married women who are aware of % AIDS Ever married women who are aware of % mother to child transmission of AIDS Prevalence of malnutrition of children aged 3 - 36 months Height for age (stunted) Weight for height (wasted) Weight for age (under weight) Low birth weight < 2.5 kg Received colostrum Vaccinazation All children 12 - 23 months of age - % immunized BCG DPT 3+4 Polio 3+4 Measles Full coverage Doctor/ Govt. nurse/ family health worker/ assistant during delivery Delivery in hospital or nursing home

1995/ 2002 2000 2000

1.9 90.3 67.1

1.9 94.9 73.0

2.1 95.9 75.5

1.8 93.5 69.6

Estate 2.4 39.7 17.7 30.9 13.7 43.2 20.8 65.7 100.0 97.2 94.4 86.1 86.1 83.6 81.7

4

5 6 7

% % % % %

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

11.7 13.9 26.7 16.7

7.2 10.3 17.0 14.9 83.1

6.0 8.2 22.4 11.6 78.1

8 9

% % % % % % %

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

99.8 98.0 98.2 94.2 93.5

100.0 100.0 100.0 91.2 91.2 98.9 100.0

100.0 100.0 98.2 94.6 94.6 98.1 98.5

37

Rural 10.8 15.2 26.9 17.0 77.0 99.7 99.4 98.3 95.5 94.4 96.8 98.3

Table A5(Contd.) Data source 2.3 DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6

1 2 3

Total fertility rate

Birth per women (15 49 yrs.) Ever married women who are aware of % AIDS Ever married women who are aware of % mother to child transmission of AIDS Prevalence of malnutrition of children aged 3 - 36 months Height for age (stunted) Weight for height (wasted) Weight for age (under weight) Low birth weight < 2.5 kg Received colostrum Vaccinazation All children 12 - 23 months of age - % immunized BCG DPT 3+4 Polio 3+4 Measles Full coverage Doctor/ Govt. nurse/ family health worker/ assistant during delivery Delivery in hospital or nursing home

1995/ 2002 2000 2000

1.9

1.8

2.0

1.9

1.9

1.7

4

5 6 7

% % % % %

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

7.2 10.3 17.0 14.9 83.1

8.8 13.2 20.2 9.4 83.6

14.3 10.2 26.2 20.8 70.9

10.4 17.0 26.3 12.7 78.4

15.2 11.2 33.0 22.2 75.1

12.2 18.4 28.6 20.2 70.4

8 9

% % % % % % %

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

100.0 100.0 100.0 91.2 91.2 98.9 100.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0

97.8 97.8 97.8 97.8 97.8 97.5 98.4

100.0 100.0 100.0 91.1 91.1 95.3 96.8

100.0 99.0 95.3 90.6 86.8 93.6 94.4

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.0 98.0

100.0 97.6 95.1 97.6 95.1 92.2 93.3

Source: DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 2000, Department of Census and Statistics

38

Zone 7 12.2 23.7 36.7 15.5 71.2

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Table A5(Contd.) Colombo Metro

Sri Lanka

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Household level environment 10 With safe drinking water (1) 11 With latrine facilities 12 Neonatal mortality (NN) Post neonatal mortality (PNN) Infant mortality Child mortality (under 5 mortality) 13 Electricity Radio TV Refrigerator Bicycle Motor cycle Car/ van Tractor Other vehicle % of hh % of hh Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 75.6 93.9 13.9 5.3 20.8 68.2 79.1 61.5 23.3 39.5 14.0 6.2 2.3 3.4 99.4 99.8 95.9 95.2 9.1 5.8 14.9 17.3 88.7 85.8 78.2 52.7 33.4 14.4 16.5 0.6 5.4 74.8 95.0 13.5 3.9 17.4 18.6 66.6 79.5 60.3 18.0 43.6 15.1 4.1 2.8 3.1 25.2 72.3 (31.0) (16.5) (47.5) (51.6) 31.0 58.2 30.8 2.2 12.3 1.5 1.9 0.8 0.7

39

Estate

Urban

Rural

Table A5(Contd.) Data source DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6

Household level environment 10 With safe drinking water (1) 11 With latrine facilities 12 Neonatal mortality (NN) Post neonatal mortality (PNN) Infant mortality Child mortality (under 5 mortality) 13 Electricity Radio Television Refrigerator Bicycle Motor cycle Car/ van Tractor Other vehicle

(1)

% of hh % of hh Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births Per 1000 live births % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh % of hh

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

7.3 2.9 10.2 13.1 90.5 86.4 80.5 56.6 27.1 13.0 18.2 0.3 5.1

7.5 2.5 10.0 10.0 85.2 83.9 77.4 40.0 45.3 24.9 9.6 0.6 4.8

6.8 4.6 11.4 13.7 75.8 81.0 58.4 19.2 54.0 15.2 4.6 2.0 3.1

23.2 3.1 26.3 27.9 62.9 78.1 58.2 17.8 47.4 15.9 4.9 3.7 3.1

12.4 8.0 20.5 22.7 59.1 74.5 51.0 11.2 10.9 4.5 2.8 1.0 2.3

(22.7) (4.5) (27.3) (27.3) 53.7 76.3 54.9 11.7 71.0 16.3 2.5 12.6 3.0

Safe drinking water = protected well+ tube well + main line + bowser Figures within parenthesis are based on fewer than 500 cases Source: DHS - Demographic and Health Survey - 2000, Department of Census and Statistics Note: Zone 1 - Colombo metropolitan areas consisting some urban areas in Colombo and Gampaha Districts Zone 2 - Colombo feeder areas Zone 3 - South Western coastal low lands Zone 4 - Lower South Central hill country excluding districts with a concentration of estates Zone 5 - South Central hill country with a concentration of estates Zone 6 - Irrigated Dry Zone with a major irrigation schemes Zone 7 - Rain fed Dry Zone 40

Zone 7 18.3 11.0 29.3 30.5 34.2 73.3 52.1 7.3 63.0 12.9 1.2 3.2 2.7

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Indicators at Northern and Eastern Provinces

Table A1: POPULATION AND EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS Table A1 Trincomalee Data source RGO RGO DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS Killinochchi Batticaloa 23.5 4.5 North and East Mullaitivu

1 2 3

Crude birth rate (1) Crude death rate Population composition Young (0-14 years) Male

per 1000 people per 1000 people

2002 2002

14.1 4.6

23.5 5.1

17.9 2.9

23.1 5.8

26.6 7.3

19.3 4.1

Ampara

Mannar

Jaffna

Urban

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Vavunia

North

Rural

East

24.7 4.7

% of total male 2001 population % of total female population 2001

35.6

Female

32.0

Working (15-64 years) Male

% of total male 2001 population % of total female population 2001

59.7

Female

63.8

Old (Ages 65+) Male Female

% of total male 2001 population % of total 2001 female

4.7 4.2

41

Table A1(Contd.) Trincomalee Data source DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS Killinochchi Batticaloa 2.5 North and East Mullaitivu

4

Dependency ratio Male

Female

5

Sex ratio

% of working 2001 male population % of working 2001 female population No.of male per 2001 1000 female 2001

67.5

56.7

1071

Birth per women (15-49 yrs.) 7 Ever married women who are aware of % AIDS 8 Women who are aware of mother to % child transmission of AIDS 9 Prevalence of malnutrition of children aged 3 - 59 months Weight for age (under weight) % Male % Female % 10 Low birth weight < 2.5 kg %

6

Total fertility rate

2.6

2.1

2.6

3.0

2.8

2.6

2.2

Ampara 44.1 22.7

Mannar

Jaffna

Urban

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Vavunia

North

Rural

East

2.6

2001 2001

66.9 52.6 73.8 49.0

2001 2001 2001 2001

46.2 47.1 46.0 50.2 42.3 25.7 28.3 25.4

43.1

38.3

50.6

53.2

44.7

30.5

12.7

38.8

24.3

30.5

42

Table A1(Contd.) Trincomalee Data source DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS DHS BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E Killinochchi Batticaloa 100.0 85.2 85.2 78.9 78.9 68.6 96.6 28.4 North and East Mullaitivu

11 Vaccinazation All children 1 - 59 months of age - % immunized BCG DPT 3+4 Polio 3+4 Measles Full coverage 12 Received assistance at delivery from doctor, nurse or midwife 13 Male headed household Female headed household 14 With safe drinking water (2) 15 With sanitary latrine (water seal) facilities 16 Employment by economic activity (3) Agriculture, forestry & fishery Manufacturing Construction Other (5)

% % % % % % % % % of hh % of hh

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

99.2 83.7 82.4 78.3 74.5 80.6

99.8 87.8 89.6 85.7 83.9 88.3

99.1 83.1 81.4 77.3 73.3 79.7 81.0 19.0 88.1 46.5

97.5 83.9 82.8 78.0 73.5 95.6

100.0 85.9 85.9 83.9 83.9 61.6

98.0 92.2 92.2 88.3 88.3 97.7

98.8 100.0 80.0 84.7 79.9 79.5 76.4 77.5 71.8 69.0 80.2 86.4

79.0 21.0 89.7 99.1 48.2 58.6

94.1 79.0

100.0 70.9

97.8 71.0

89.0 52.7

Ampara

Mannar

Jaffna

Urban

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Vavunia

North

Rural

East

74.1 25.6

% of total employed % of total employed % of total employed % of total employed

2002 2002 2002 2002

39.1(4) 9.6 (4) 3.9 (4) 47.3 (4)

38.5 10.5 4.9 46.2

43

Table A1(Contd.) Trincomalee Data source BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E BLFS N&E HIES HIES Killinochchi Batticaloa North and East Mullaitivu

17 Unemployment Male

% of total LF

2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002

13.0 (4) 6.9 (4) 31.5 (4) 33.8 (4) 54.6 (4) 15.7 (4) 6.1 (4)

15.9 9.3 38.0 40.3 63.6 18.0 4.6

% of total male LF Female % of total female LF 18 Labour force participation rate % of total working age Male % of male working age Female % of female working age 19 Technical and associate professional % of total workers 20 Share of income Lowest 20% % Highest 20% %

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

2002 2002

4.1 (4) 51.5 (4)

4.7 50.2

According to the place of registration and not according to place of residence Safe drinking water = protected well + tube well + main line+ bowser Exclude uncleared areas and welfare centers Only North part Wholesale and Retail Trade and Repair of Motor Vehicals etc. and Personal and Household Goods, Public Administration, Defence and Compulsory Social Security, Education, Health & Social work, Other community, Social and personal service activities, Hotels and Restaurants, Transport, Storage and Communication, Financial Intermediation and Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities, Private Households with Employed Persons, Miscellaneous Labour work, Minning & Quarrying, Electricity,Gas and Water supply, Extra Teritorial Organizations & bodies, Industries not adequately described

Sources: RGO - Registrar General's Department DHS - Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Survey - 2001, Northern and Eastern Provinces, Department of Census and Statistics BLFSN&E - Bulletin of Labour Force Statistics of Northern and Eastern Provinces - 2002, Department of Census and Statistics HIES - Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2002/03, conducted in Northern and Eastern Provinces, Department of Census and Statistics 44

Ampara

Mannar

Jaffna

Urban

S.N.

Items

Unit

Year

Vavunia

North

Rural

East

Areas covered in Bulletin of Labour Force Statistics of Northern & Eastern Provinces - 2002

(1) Eastern Province Lists of units are available in all the 3 Districts Ampara, Trincomalee and Batticaloa except for few G.N.Divisions. (2) Northern Province The lists of units which could be used for sample selection purposes are generally available (except for few isolated G.N.Divisions) (i) in all of the D.S.Divsions in Jaffna District except for Thenamarachchy D.S.Division, (ii) in all of the D.S.Divisions in Vavuniya District except for Vavuniya North D.S.Division and (iii) in "Mannar Town" D.S.Division only but not in other 4 D.S.Divisions in Mannar District. Further no lists of units are available for Killinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts at all.

Areas covered in Household Income & Expenditure Survey - 2002/03, in Northern & Eastern Provinces

(1) Eastern Province The lists of units are available in all the 3 Districts Ampara, Trincomalee and Batticaloa except for few isolated Grama Niladhari Divisions. (2) Northern Province The list of units which could be used for sample selection purposes are generally available as follows, (i) In all of the Divisional Secretariat Divisions (DSDD) in Jaffna District except for Thenamarachchy, Valikamam North and Vadamarachchy East and Delft DSDDD. (ii) In all of the DSDD in Vavuniya District except for Vavuniya North DSD. (iii) In "Mannar Town" DSD only but not in other 4 DSDD in Mannar District. Further no lists of units are available for the Killinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts at all.

45

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