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THE PROFILE OF THE STELLENBOSCH UNIVERSITY FIRST-YEAR STUDENT: PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH REPORT Draft 4 May 2008

BL Frick Centre for Teaching and Learning Stellenbosch University

First-year student profile research report (May 2008) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY First-year students at universities are often school leavers that enter the higher education system with an array of prior knowledge skills and attitudes obtained during their school careers. The quality of the academic experience and intensity of the high school curriculum affect success in postsecondary education. The best prepared high school learners are best positioned to do well in university. Lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes often lack insight into the academic backgrounds of first-year students towards whom the university curriculum is directed. In the South African context this problem is amplified by the introduction of a new National Curriculum Statement (NCS) within the Further Education and Training (FET) band (grades 10-12) in the past three years. Changes in the South African school system ­ in particular the changed NCS for the Further Education and Training band ­ have possible farreaching implications for higher education institutions as the mainstream first-year students from 2009 onwards may have different skills, knowledge and attitudes than their predecessors. Universities may have to adapt in a variety of ways to accommodate the new intake of first-year students. South African universities have been slow to adapt their own practices to the new educational dispensation at the school level, even though an institution such as Stellenbosch University has explicitly stated the importance of enhancing first-year success as an institution-wide priority. However, it may be difficult to effectively develop and implement first-year support systems and curricula without knowing the clientele at which it is aimed. The changes in clientele, coupled with policy and curriculum changes in the South African school system, necessitate that lecturers reflect on their academic offering ­ especially at the first-year level. A study was therefore conducted to investigate the current reality of first-year students, the new FET policy for schools, and the implementation of the new NCS at schools in the feeder area of Stellenbosch University. The primary aim of the project was to provide lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes with insight into the academic trends and practices of first-year students towards whom the university curriculum is directed, in order to enhance student success. The motivation for this project was the present focus on the first-year experience and success at Stellenbosch University and an acknowledgement that the curriculum changes in the FET (Schools) band will have implications for how we teach at Stellenbosch University. The question therefore arises: What are the current and future trends with regards to the profile of the first-year student at Stellenbosch University? A study was undertaken, aimed at capturing the trends regarding the future profile of the first-year student at Stellenbosch University from a variety of sources. A mixed method approach was used in the project, as it enabled the researchers to understand the beliefs, ideals, notions of reality, perceptions, values, actions and/or concerns of the various respondents. The study started by investigating the the first-year experience by means of a survey and follow-up focus groups with first-year students in selected modules in key faculties. This part of the study provided in-depth information on the reality of the general school system which moulds the majority of new entrants into the higher education system and these entrants' perceptions and concerns once they enter

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the higher education system. The new FET (Schools) policy and its implementation were investigated. A policy analysis of FET (Schools) policy documents for various subject areas was gained with the help of lecturers at the Department of Curriculum Studies (Stellenbosch University). The implementation of this policy formed the centre of a survey administered to pre-service teachers after their practice training in schools (2006) in order to provide insight into the current (Grades 10) and (at that stage) planned (Grade 11 and 12) new NCS. This preliminary study was followed by a more in-depth study of the new FET (Schools) policy in a number of feeder schools where PGCE students did their practice training during the third term of 2007 in a variety of subject areas. The PGCE students were trained as fieldworkers to obtain data within a specific setting (in a subject and Grade 10 or 11 class to which they had access, as Grade 12 had not been implemented at that stage). Data was generated from a variety of sources, including learners (by means of a survey), teachers (by means of a semi-structured interview), and class observations (facilitated by an observation schedule). The schools that participated included both schools from both previously advantaged and disadvantaged areas; public and private schools; both urban and semi-urban schools; and schools that varied in size (and therefore also varied class sizes within the schools). The teachers eventually included in the sample had varied levels of teaching experience. There are assumtions underlying the reported research that need to be clarified. Gay (1987: 86) defines an assumption as "any important `fact' presumed to be true but not actually verified". In this project it was assumed that: First-year students will have insight into how well they have been equipped to deal with the higher education environment. Lecturers at the Department of Curriculum Studies at the Education Faculty will be up to date with the latest curriculum developments in their curriculum specialisation areas. Teachers at the feeder schools would have sufficient knowledge of their subject curricula and have built rapport with their learner population to be able to convey the advantages their learners have and the challenges their learners commonly face when entering higher education. It is acknowledged that the new policy and curriculum for Grades 10-12 would have an influence on the students entering the higher education system from 2009 onwards. Therefore teachers at feeder schools were specifically questioned in this regard. The question could therefore be posed whether it was necessary to gain a pre-service teacher and student perspective on the profile of future students as they would not have experienced the planned new curriculum. The underlying assumption of this project is built on the premise that there are common factors that will influence students' transition from school to university, regardless of the school curriculum specifics of the time. This project provides a foundation on which future studies in this area can be built. Pre-service teachers in the Postgraduate Certificate in Education programme would have gained a level of expertise in their chosen subject area, which would enable them to understand the basic concepts underlying the new NCS. The curriculum statements, learning programme guidelines and subject assessment guidelines for the specific subject (which they had studied in their various curriculum

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specialization modules in the PGCE) were used as a background to both the broad interview questions and observation framework provided. The results of this research project were specifically related to the Stellenbosch University context and was therefore not generalised to other settings. Other limitations include time and funding. It would be beneficial if the research could be repeated over time in order to gain a longitudinal view of the development and changes in the implementation of the new NCS. The urgency of the information and the available resources for the project, however, did not make such an endeavour feasible. It is furthermore acknowledged that the new NCS was only implemented from 2006 onwards and that participating learners were not able to comment on its implications on their academic preparedness and future success. The university does, however, need to be pro-active in planning for the future intake of students and one way of achieving this insight is to also investigate current trends in the profile of their clientele. This limitation is therefore stated and acknowledged. Follow-up studies in future are recommended to continue investigating the phenomenon of student preparedness for higher education studies. The results of the survey and focus group discussions conducted to investigate the current reality of first-year students on the Stellenbosch University main campus concurred with existing knowledge on the first-year experience. The results suggest that even though first-year students may perceive a module as relatively difficult, they did not expect to fail. Reality contradicts this notion as the failure rate in first-year modules seem to be higher if compared to respondents' expected performance1. Current first-year students noted various teaching and learning related aspects which could influence accessibility within a module, which can be summarised as follows: Even though the words and terms the lecturer uses, as well as the language used in class did not seem to be major obstacles to accessibility, discipline-specific jargon could pose a problem if these concepts are totally new to the students' vocabulary or understanding. Class notes seemed to be generally accessible as learning materials, but a notable group of students found the prescribed textbooks difficult and therefore inaccessible. Some respondents also requested that the connection between prescribed textbooks and class notes be made clearer. The accessibility of textbooks in terms of facilitating learning in first-year classes may therefore be an aspect that may need consideration when planning the learning materials for a module. The data suggest that audio-visual resources are widely used as learning materials in first-year classes and were deemed as valuable learning materials by the respondents. Coherence and visibility of learning materials seemed to be an issue for some respondents. Comments were received on the poor visibility of audio-visual resources, with reference to the colour and handwriting on overhead transparencies and a small font used on PowerPoint slides. WebStudies seemed to play a facilitating role in making class notes more accessible and ­ if the notes are made available before a class ­ helped the students who did not have well-developed note-taking skills.

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Although the results only reflect the students' perceptions, they can help us to understand what and why first-year students succeed or fail.

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Mathematical calculations (where applicable) were not seen as inaccessible by the majority of respondents in the current first-year survey. The perceived fast pace at which lecturers progressed through the work within a module seemed to pose difficulties for first-year students. Respondents indicated that they struggled to keep up and once they fell behind, found it difficult to regain a position where they were up to date.

Some respondents indicated that they found the volume of work daunting and as a result could not easily keep abreast with their studies. The difference between school and university standards (even in the previous school curriculum) were mentioned as a possible factor that could hamper the accessibility of university modules, as the standards at university were perceived to be much higher than these respondents experienced at school.

The respondents that commented on lecturing as an accessibility issue found it difficult to simultaneously take notes and follow the lecturer (which may relate to the perceived fast pace, volume of work, and notetaking skills).

Tutorials featured as a central theme and comments related to the necessity of trained tutors, issues related to the lack of coherence between lectures and tutorials, and the need for support for students who lacked the necessary foundation for a module.

Assessment was noted and some first-year students felt they were not adequately prepared in class to be successful in assessment opportunities. Some respondents requested previous question papers to help them prepare for assessment. A request was also received for memoranda to be placed on WebStudies, so that it was easily accessible and a student could learn where mistakes were made during assessment.

Logistics received limited (but noteworthy) attention. Adequate space in large classes was noted as a perceived problem. The current timetable was also noted as a potential issue, as the time lapse between lectures was perceived as problematic by some respondents who would have liked a more evenly distributed lecture load within a particular module throughout the week.

The new FET (Schools) policy and NCS announces a new era in South African schools. For the first time a nationally standardised policy and curriculum in South Africa. This standardisation makes it possible for lecturers to have a grasp of the academic background of first-year students arriving from all over South Africa to study at Stellenbosch University. When looking critically at the implementation of the new NCS (Grades 10-12), it is important to understand that curriculum is not a static entity and that it evolves constantly over time. This initial investigation into the implementation of the new NCS (Grades 10-12) is therefore context and time dependent and may change as lessons are learnt and changes are made in the implementation process. It will therefore be important for lecturers to remain abreast of these developments in order to understand the knowledge, skills and attitudes first-year students may have acquired during their school careers in the FETband as it may change from time to time. It is recommended that a close link be fostered between lecturers and programme planners within the first-year context and lecturers in the relevant curriculum specialisation areas at the Department of Curriculum Studies within the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University. Input from the subject advisers of the Western Cape Education Department may also be valuable.

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The interview and observation data suggest that the new NCS (Grades 10-12) has aimed to standardise curriculum through a national policy which had not previously existed in the studied context and have lead teachers to reconsider their education practices and learning material. This study provided useful insights in terms of how teachers adopt and adapt the new curriculum in their particular subject areas. However, the reported practices in schools seem to indicate that the actual interpretation and implementation of curricula differs as a result of teacher ability and aptitude, the access schools have to resources, and the academic background of learners. Teachers in this study seem to have a varying capacity to innovate and renew. Therefore it can be expected that a hybrid curriculum consisting of both old and new elements will result in schools and feed into higher education. First-year students who have come through this new curriculum may therefore vary in the extent to which they are able to realise the outcomes envisioned by the new NCS (grades 10-12). It can therefore be expected that the school system will deliver learners with varying preparedness for study in higher education. These learners will most probably bring an interesting array of skills with them into higher education. The new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) seems to focus less on content knowledge, but emphasises the holistic development of the learner. The ability to work in a group, source information and access a variety of media sources, take part in interactive discussions, and using a computer to complete tasks form part of this holistic approach to learner development. However, it would be imprudent to assume that all learners entering higher education as first-year students have mastered these skills equally well. The data suggests that learners use and combine various sources to inform and help prepare them for life in adulthood. If the university environment is able to sustain at least some of the support structures that learners evidently utilise in their quest for success, they may be able to help the first-year student adapt into the new academic environment. The new era in South African school education, which is capped by the new NCS (Grades 10-12), have lead teachers to reconsider their education practices and learning material. Teachers in this study, however, seem to have a varying capacity to innovate and renew. Therefore it can be expected that a hybrid curriculum consisting of both old and new elements will result in schools and feed into higher education. First-year students who have come through this new curriculum may therefore vary in the extent to which they are able to realise the outcomes envisioned by the new NCS (grades 10-12). The questionnaire data suggests that the respondents ­ school learners in Grades 10 and 11 ­ were contextually aware citizens who have legitimate concerns about their futures amidst the rapidly changing global environment and challenges relating to South Africa in particular. Many learners want to use a university education as a passport to enter this world on a higher socio-economic level. They are worried about not finding employment, being disadvantaged in this regard, and not being able to make ends meet. University studies are seen as more of a vocational preparation than a resource for liberal development. However, these concerns do not seem to stifle their sence of confidence in the future and their excitement about entering adulthood. Learners themselves seem to be excited by prospects of future study, but they may not have realistic expectations of what traditional universities are able to offer them, and whether they will be able to meet the access demands of these institutions. Universities (and therefore lecturers) are faced with the challenge to

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foster this confidence and excitement whilst preparing students for the world of work. The data suggests that learners use and combine various sources to inform and help prepare them for life in adulthood. If the university environment is able to sustain at least some of the support structures that learners evidently utilise in their quest for success, they may be able to help the first-year student adapt into the new academic environment. What did we learn from these initiatives that could be of use to lecturers of particularly first-year modules? The following discussion suggests possible implications for teaching and learning in first-year classes in terms of access, curriculum design and assessment, teaching methods, and lecturer orientation. Access The responses from Grade 10-11 learners in the study suggest that not all learners are well-informed in terms of what a traditional university ­ such as Stellenbosch University ­ can offer them. Systems that inform learners upon application about access criteria and possible programmes are already in place via the normal application and registration systems. Various South African universities, including Stellenbosch University, are in the process of standardising and formalising higher education specific admission tests that may facilitate the identification of suitable university candidates from the applicants. A reconsideration of university admission requirements does not seem to be unique to South Africa, as Bakker (2001) reports on similar initiatives in France, Italy, Israel, The Netherlands, Slovania and the United States of America. Admission tests alone may, however, not be sufficient to facilitate effective learning and student throughput at especially the first-year level. Ideally, administrators, support staff and lecturers must share the responsibility of channelling and developing intellectual potential in the most appropriate academic direction. Lecturers will need to be aware of the apparent varying levels of discipline-specific knowledge and skills of the first-year students entering the system from the FET-band in 2009. First-year students who gain entry into the university system may not have had the same access to learning resources, school and home environments that are conducive to learning, computer facilities, as well as trained and capable teachers. They may therefore not have reached the envisioned outcomes of the NCS (Grades 10-12) in general, or those specified in the various learning areas and subjects, to the same extent in all cases. Lecturers may need to interpret the data obtained in admission tests, registration information (including demographics, school attended, performance in relevant school subjects ­ much of which can be obtained from class lists), and the Tracking System to know where a particular aggregate of first-year entrants may be lacking the necessary knowledge, skills and/or attitudes, and what their capabilities are. This may facilitate the design of appropriate curriculum and assessment opportunities. Curriculum design and assessment The new FET (Schools) policy informs the NCS for Grades 10-12. The rationale underpinning these educational reforms may lead to learners emerging from the school system with knowledge, skills and attitudes different to their predecessors. Lecturers may therefore have to reconsider the curriculum design and assessment in firstyear modules if the potential of these prospective students are to be realized.

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The new NCS provides a useful point of departure for lecturers of first-year modules. For the first time in South African history a nationally standardized curriculum exists at this level, which enables lecturers to know the content, learning outcomes, and assessment standards across the board for students coming from all South African provinces. This is a major advantage of the educational reforms that higher education institutions could use to their advantage. Policy provides the framework for practice. The NCS for Grades 10 ­ 12, however, leaves room for interpretation in its implementation in schools. As policy dictates practice to a varying extent, it was necessary to look at how teachers implement the new NCS at grassroots level. The main findings from this study suggest the following: Curriculum implementation is context-dependent. The school context often dictates what is possible in terms of curriculum implementation as the availability of resources (for example funding, transport, and infrastructure) and human capital (teachers) vary. Lecturers can therefore not assume that all first-year students from 2009 and onwards had access to all the possible learning materials, exposure to more extensive learning materials and opportunities than required by the National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12), or teachers who were able or willing to conform to the new national standards. The implementation of the new NCS for Grades 10 ­ 12 seems to be influenced by the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the teachers. Teachers' prior knowledge and experience are valuable assets in flexing the new NCS into a learning framework that is context-sensitive and digestible to a specific group of learners. However, it can also limit teachers' vision to incorporate new and innovative ways of teaching and learning. Lecturers may have to find mechanisms to determine where the gaps are in their first-year students' prior knowledge. Lecturers may have to provide opportunities for bridging the gaps left by teachers who either did not have time to address all the outcomes stipulated in the National Curriculum Statement (Grades 1012), or were not able or willing to facilitate learning that enabled learners to reach the intended outcomes for a particular grade/subject. The new NCS for Grades10 ­ 12 encompasses various relatively sensitive aspects that may be either foreign or morally questionable to teachers ­ the theory of evolution, multi-religious education, as well as HIV/Aids education that are included in the curricula of various subjects are examples ­ which may lead to teachers either omitting these components, or providing an individual interpretation of them. Lecturers may need to tread sensitively where these issues are concerned as students may already have been imprinted with a certain mind-set at school, or may not have had exposure to some of these aspects at all where teachers may have ignored addressing these components of the curriculum. The new NCS for Grades 10-12 seems to emphasise skills development rather than discipline-specific content. This notion is enforced by the move to Learning Fields from distinctly demarcated subjects in the previous curriculum. First-year students from 2009 onwards may therefore enter higher education with more skills-based competency (such as critical thinking, group work, and problem solving capabilities) than knowledge specific to a particular discipline. The challenge for university lecturers will lie in designing

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curricula that capitalize on these strengths, whilst introducing first-year students to content knowledge deemed as essential within a particular discipline. Eventually a hybrid curriculum emerges that includes elements of both previous and new curricula. It will take time for the new NCS for Grades 10 ­ 12 to phase into classrooms and filter through to higher education. Lecturers will need to be aware of not only the content, but also the approach, learning outcomes and assessment standards that underlie the subjects in the new NCS for Grades 10-12 relevant to their particular first-year modules. Assessment seems to take on a different colour in the FET (Schools) policy and the new NCS for Grades 10-12. The emphasis on skills development rather than content knowledge within the new NCS for Grades 10-12 also has an influence on assessment practices in schools. Group assessment, continuous assessment, frequent assessment, and task-based assessment are evident in the assessment strategies of teachers in all subjects. Lecturers of first-year modules may want to consider incorporating these approaches to assessment initially and where feasible to facilitate the transition from school to university in a gradual manner. First-year students emerging from the new school system may find the traditional assessment practices of universities unfamiliar and possibly difficult. They may particularly find it difficult to handle the large volumes of work that is presented and assessed at a first-year university level. Students may find it easier to succeed in modules structured for continuous assessment. The early assessment strategy implemented at Stellenbosch University may also help to ascertain whether students have problems in terms of coping with new forms of assessment. The educational reforms at the school level not only hold implications for curriculum design and assessment, but also imply a reconsideration of teaching methods. Teaching methods The new NCS for Grades 10 ­ 12 emphasizes the facilitation of interactive and participatory learning opportunities. Learners who have completed their schooling in this system may be well acquainted with the practice of group work and class discussions. Lecturers may want to take this into account when designing curricula and related class activities, but again first-year students may vary in the extent to which they had the opportunity to engage in such activities as teachers reportedly find it difficult to facilitate such forms of learning in especially large classes. Class sizes seem to vary amongst schools. Some first-year students may therefore be quite comfortable with large classes by the time they reach university. Other first-year students may have become accustomed to the individual attention and coaching made possible in smaller class groups, which may influence their capability for self-directed learning. These students may have particular needs for tutoring and mentoring and lecturers of first-year modules may be able to identify students with these needs accordingly.

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The data obtained from schools suggest that learners in the FET-band are being taught to search for information related to specific tasks. There seems to be an emphasis on electronic media, particularly the Internet, as well as popular printed media, such as newspapers and magazines. It does, however, seem that learners are not necessarily taught to critically evaluate the scholarly nature of these sources of information. Lecturers can therefore not assume that first-year students would have been introduced to academic sources beyond textbooks and that they are able to use the library effectively. First-year students may also not have well-developed academic literacy skills due to their limited exposure to scholarly literature. Specific attention may have to be paid to issues of plagiarism, as no accounts could be found in the data of teachers sensitising learners to these issues. Lecturer orientation Lecturers of first-year students cannot be expected to deal with changes in the student population without receiving the necessary support. Lecturer support may need to take on a flexible format, as student needs (and consequently the needs of the lecturer) may differ. The following aspects were identified as possible issues in which lecturer support systems could provide input in order to help lecturers: find resourceful ways of interpreting available background data on students, and integrating these findings to inform curriculum development, as well as teaching and assessment practices; establish relationships or networks with relevant subject advisors in the provincial Department of Education to keep up to date with curriculum changes in terms of content, learning outcomes and/or assessment standards; utilise early warning systems to determine the gaps in first-year students' knowledge, skills and attitudes, which may be easier to address if the inadequacies in particularly academic literacy and numeracy are known; be aware of certain emotive concepts that may elicit emotive responses (such as theories of evolution) and realise that even though these may be included in the NCS for Grades 10-12, are not necessarily handled in school classrooms the way the curriculum was intended to be presented to learners; identify concepts or jargon in a discipline not (adequately) addressed or explained in the National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) and finding ways of relating these concepts to what students already know; develop curricula and related assessment tools that help first-year students bridge the gap between school and university; development teaching methods that use more student-centred, interactive means of facilitating learning ­ also in large classes; development of facilitation skills that foster self-directed learning; effective use and training of mentors and/or tutors in the various disciplines as current first-year students emphasise the importance of these support systems; train students to critically evaluate sources of information and determine the scholarly nature of sources;

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help students integrate a variety of sources into a coherent whole, as the skills to integrate and systhesise information may not have been well-developed within the new NCS; explain the dangers of plagiarism to students and use available anti-plagiarist resources/software, as firstyear students may unknowingly plagiarise because they have not been exposed to the concept before; help students to develop efficient note-taking skills, as they may not have developed these skills at school; develop audio-visual resources that will facilitate learning, as teaching and learning practices in schools are becoming more and more centred around audio-visual resources; use electronic learning support structures and e-learning tools, as the majority of students would have had access and becom adept at using electronic media.

Lecturer support services at Stellenbosch University already address the majority of these issues. They may need to increase the emphasis on the contextualised nature of prior learning with which students enter higher education institutions, and the effect of this context on student learning. It is not envisioned that the new NCS (Grades 10-12) in the FET-band will produce first-year students from 2009 and onwards who will be totally different to their predecessors, or emerge as clones of the new system. Data generated in the school environment suggests that the status quo is being upheld in many schools as teachers may be slow to adapt to the new approaches promoted in the new FET (Schools) policy. However, distinct and inescapable features ingrained in these educational reforms at the school level will shape the university students of the future and can therefore not be ignored by lecturers. It is expected that the first-year student of 2009 and onwards will be a hybrid product of the previous and new school curricula. They will in some cases lack content knowledge, a self-directed learning orientation, and the ability to effectively handle large volumes of work at a fast pace. They may, however, be well-equipped in terms of skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, information retrieval, the use of technology, group work, and having a holistic perspective on how learning areas fit into a cohesive whole. The extent to which these skills have been developed may vary. Lecturers can therefore expect future first-year students to have a diverse profile and they will need to teach in an inclusive manner to meet the possibly diverse needs of their clientele.

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Content CHAPTER 1: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Introduction Motivation Problem formulation Research design Research methodology Research methods Defining the target population and sampling Ensuring rigorous research Data collection Data analysis Data presentation Assumptions and limitations Ethical considerations Conclusion CHAPTER 2: 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 Introduction First-year students' perceptions of preparedness in context Results and discussion: Questionnaire Results and discussion: Focus group discussions Conclusions CHAPTER 3: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 Introduction Structure and design features of the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) Outcomes-based education and the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) Assessment in the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) The kind of learner that is envisaged The kind of teacher that is envisaged Subject specific statements Accounting Geography History Languages Life Orientation Life Sciences FET (Schools) Policy Analysis 35 35 36 37 39 39 40 40 46 58 68 81 97 Current realities 12 12 13 29 33 Overview of the project 1 2 3 4 4 4 5 7 7 8 8 9 10 10

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3.7.7 3.7.8 3.7.9 3.8

Mathematical Literacy Mathematics Physical Sciences Conclusion CHAPTER 4: Implementation of the FET (Schools) Policy

115 118 126 136

4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3

Introduction Empirical study in schools Preliminary study (PGCE 2006) Study of the implementation of the FET (Schools) policy (PGCE 2007) Conclusions CHAPTER 5: Implications for higher education

138 138 138 144 196

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Introduction Access Curriculum design and assessment Teaching methods Lecturer support Conclusions REFERENCES ADDENDUM A: Nationally approved subjects that comply with the programme requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) ­ Group A ADDENDUM B: Nationally approved subjects that comply with the programme requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) ­ Group B ADDENDUM C: Specific information for Afrikaans ADDENDUM D: Specific information for English ADDENDUM E: Letter of introduction to FET teachers ADDENDUM F: Interview schedule for PGCE students ADDENDUM G: Observational schedule for PGCE students ADDENDUM H: Questionnaire for Grade 10/11 learners

197 197 198 200 202 203 205

215 216 219 225 232 234 238 242

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First-year student profile research report (May 2008) CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT 1.1 INTRODUCTION

The Centre of Teaching and Learning (CTL) commissioned a research project to investigate the present and future trends in terms of the academic profiles of first-year students at Stellenbosch University. The primary aim of the project is to provide lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes with insight into the academic trends and practices of first-year students towards whom the university curriculum is directed, in order to enhance student success. The project is divided into the following activities namely: A bibliographic review of the first-year experience in South Africa and internationally in terms of student preparedness. A survey amongst first-year students in selected first-year modules in key faculties to determine current trends in first-year student academic practices. The focus of the survey was on the students' perceptions of their preparedness for university studies and their experiences, not on lecturer performance. A qualitative analysis of focus group interviews held with first-year students in key faculties, within the above-mentioned selected modules and from different school backgrounds in order to determine current trends in first-year student perceptions and experiences. Input from lecturers at the Department of Curriculum Studies (SU) to provide a subject-specific analysis of the new policy and planned curriculum in order to determine the influence of the policy and curriculum on the profile of the future first-year intake. A survey amongst pre-service teachers in the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme at Stellenbosch University after their practice training (2006) to determine current trends in schools that could impact on first-years' transition from school to university. A study conducted with the help of PGCE students (2007) in a number of feeder schools during their practice training on the implementation of the new FET (Schools) policy within a variety of subject areas. It is clear from the above-mentioned activities that both current and future trends in the profile of the first-year student at Stellenbosch University were investigated. It is acknowledged that there will be a difference in the current and future profiles of first-year students as a result of policy and curriculum changes at the FET level, which may limit the extent to which current realities can be used to predict future trends. The current situation, however, does provide a valuable basis on which to build pro-active plans for the future. It is necessary to study present trends, since, as is well known in research on educational reform, policy is not uniformly implemented across all settings. It is expected that current practices will persist in many schools for many years to come. The outcome of the project is in the form of a resource for lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes to plan for the successful integration of first-year students into higher education.

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The research design is divided into the following parts: a motivation of the project based on previous research findings and relevant documentation; a general problem formulation that directs the research and provides conceptual definitions; and a discussion of the research design and research methodology. An explanation on how proposed data collection, data analysis and data presentation took place is included. The report also briefly addresses the main assumptions and limitations of the project, as well as ethical considerations that had to be taken into account. 1.2 MOTIVATION

The motivation for this project is the present focus on the first-year experience and success at Stellenbosch University and an acknowledgement that the curriculum changes in the FET band will have implications for how we teach at Stellenbosch University. The issues surrounding first-year success do not seem to be unique to the Stellenbosch context, as trends in local and international literature indicate a growing awareness of the first-year experience. Academic literature in the international arena directs attention to the importance of the first-year experience in academic planning, as well as teaching and learning (Cutright, 2002; Fleming, 2002; Geall, 2000; Grayson, 2003; Hendel, 2001; Hossler, Kuh & Olsen, 2001; Howe & Briguglio, 2006; Johnstone, 2001; Knight, 2002; Mandel & Evans, 2003; McCune, 2004; McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001; Meyer & Shanahan, 2004; Moffat, McConnachie, Ross & Morrison, 2004; Peat, Dalziel & Grant, 2001; Smith, 2003; Szafran, 2001, Vanderfaeillie, De Fever & Lombaerts, 2003; Zeegers & Martin, 2001). Nationally various studies (Bojuwoye, 2002; Fraser & Killen, 2003; Moore & Lewis, 2003) have also pointed to the importance of the first-year in further academic success. Stellenbosch University has explicitly stated the importance of enhancing first-year success as an institutionwide priority. The Stellenbosch University Education Management Plan 2003-2007 (2003) recognises the importance of effective support and sound academic practice especially in the first-year of academic study. Various initiatives have been launched under the umbrella of the First-year Academy and faculties are critically debating possible solutions to problems related to first-year success. The First-year Academy has launched various initiatives to try and improve first-year performance from 2006 and onwards. The initiatives centre on equipping first-year students with information and skills, training student counsellors as partners in the whole process, providing effective support, monitoring and feedback systems and conducting research to investigate and determine factors that influence first-year success. It is difficult to effectively develop and implement these systems without knowing the clientele at which it is aimed. It is therefore necessary to also consider the educational background of the students entering higher education. Various studies provide information on students entering the higher education system (Huyshamen, 2003; Iannelli, 2004; Laugkech, 2000; Legotlo, Maaga, Sebego, Van der Westhuizen, Mosoge, Nieuwoudt & Steyn, 2002; Lethoko, Heystek & Maree, 2001; Masitsa, 2004; Masitsa, Van Staden, De Wet, Niemann, Heyns,

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Brazelle & Niemann, 2004; Mji, 2002; Pillay, 2004; Singh, Mbokodi & Msila, 2004; Tell & McDonald, 2003; Tinklin, 2003; Toni & Oliver, 2004; Van der Merwe, 2004; Wömann, 2003; Worth, 2002). Studies furthermore indicate that higher education clientele have changed (Brennan, 2001; Chevaillier, 2002; Cross, 2004; Drost, 2002; Lowe & Cook, 2003; Murdoch, 2002; Patrick, 2001; Van Harmelen & Pistorius, 1998). The changes in clientele, coupled with policy and curriculum changes in the South African school system (Basson, 2004; Botha, McCrindle & Owen, 2003; Department of Education, 2002; Ferreira, 2004; Naidoo & Parker, 2005; Rambuda & Fraser, 2004; Swanepoel & Booyse, 2003; Wilmot, 2005), necessitate that lecturers reflect on their academic offering ­ especially at the first-year level. Stellenbosch University has not been the focus of similar studies. The need therefore exists to investigate current and future trends in the profile of the first-year student in the Stellenbosch University context. The importance of such an investigation is further highlighted by the policy and curricular changes at the FET level. The information gathered in the project will provide valuable information to first-year lecturers and the planners of foundation programmes. 1.3 PROBLEM FORMULATION

A number of research initiatives locally and abroad have identified and/or addressed the problems associated with the first-year experience (Chansarkar & Michaeloudis, 2001; Fenzel, 2001; Flisher, De Beer & Bokhorst, 2002; Kidwell, 2005; Lizzio & Wilson, 2004, Mäkinen, Olkinuora & Lonka, 2004; McInnis, 2001; Pancer, Pratt, Hunsberger & Alisat, 2004; Pitkethly & Prosser, 2001). Research also shows that the clientele for undergraduate studies in higher education has changed and will continue to do so in future (Brennan, 2001; Chevaillier, 2002; Cross, 2004; Drost, 2002; Lowe & Cook, 2003; Murdoch, 2002; Patrick, 2001; Van Harmelen & Pistorius, 1998). Changes in the South African school system with the introduction of outcomes-based education (OBE) have further changed the landscape through which potential university candidates have to travel before reaching tertiary education (Basson, 2004; Botha et al., 2003; Ferreira, 2004; Naidoo & Parker, 2005; Rambuda & Fraser, 2004; Swanepoel & Booyse, 2003; Wilmot, 2005). The low throughput rates in the first year of tertiary study reported in national and institutional statistics is an added area of concern for higher education institutions in South Africa (Ishengoma, 2002; Nair, 2002; Subotzky, 2003). Schutte and Steyn (2002) report on how lecturers experience these changes and issues. Planning for the future in tertiary education is necessary if the needs and demands of these candidates are to be met. It is therefore imperative to formulate a profile of the future clients of higher education (specifically Stellenbosch University) in order to plan and implement such plans effectively. This study focused on the aggregated trends of student preparedness and reported learning practices with respect to first-year students. It also aimed to indicate what type of student the future Grade 12 curriculum will deliver (with the first possible intake in 2009). A current and possible future profile of the Stellenbosch University first-year student is envisioned. The question therefore arises: What are the current and future trends with regards to the profile of the first-year student at Stellenbosch University?

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This central question leads to the following sub-questions: What are the major policy and curriculum changes that are currently being developed for implementation at the FET level (grades 10-12)? What are the implications of these changes for the academic preparedness of future first-year students? How will these changes influence the learning practices of first-year students entering the higher education system at Stellenbosch University? How do current first-year students experience the transition from school to university? Compiling a profile of current first-year students at Stellenbosch University entailed the analysis of present university data and student accounts of their first-year experience. Predicting future trends in student profiles requires an investigation of new policies and curricula at the FET level. 1.4 RESEARCH DESIGN

The study did not aim to simply measure and describe the attributes of the focal group; neither did it aim at changing the reality of this focal group. The study is therefore interpretive in nature, as it is aimed at capturing the current and future trends regarding the profile of the first-year student at Stellenbosch University from a variety of sources. Interpretive research moves beyond a mere description ­ its aim being to understand and explain the issues that are researched. Henning, Van Rensburg and Smit (2004: 9) refer to this as gaining "some insight into the lifeworld of the research participants, whose conceptual richness should be captured ­ in their accounts of their lived experience". The study describes the reality of new entrants into the specific higher education system in a holistic manner through the collection, analysis and reporting. It is necessary for the researcher(s) to utilise various approaches in generating data, as interpretive knowledge is often dispersed. Henning et al. (2004) advise researchers who work interpretively to source data from a variety of sources in order to understand a phenomenon. 1.5 1.5.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methods

A mixed method approach was used in the project, in accordance with the combination of quantitative and qualitative paradigms utilised to investigate the stated research problem. Gorard and Taylor (in Torrance, 2004) and Thomas (2003) promote the use of methods, as social phenomena tend to have multiple empirical appearances. A combination of methods can verify and generate theory, and confirm or explain the research issues investigated. The interpretive paradigm is well-suited to the use of qualitative methods in both the collection and analysis of data. These methods enable researchers to understand the beliefs, ideals, notions of reality, perceptions, values, actions and/or concerns of respondents (Henning et al., 2004). Relevant literature provided a theoretical

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background to the study. The current reality of the first-year experience was investigated by means of a survey and follow-up focus groups with first-year students in selected modules in key faculties. This part of the study provided in-depth information on the reality of the school system which moulds the majority of new entrants into the higher education system and these entrants' perceptions and concerns once they enter the higher education system. The new FET (Schools) policy and its implementation were investigated. A policy analysis of FET (Schools) policy documents for various subject areas was gained with the help of lecturers at the Department of Curriculum Studies (Stellenbosch University). The implementation of this policy formed the centre of a survey administered to pre-service teachers after their practice training in schools (2006) in order to provide insight into the current (Grades 10) and (at that stage) planned (Grade 11 and 12) new FET (Schools) policy. This preliminary study was followed by a more in-depth study of the new FET (Schools) policy in a number of feeder schools where PGCE students did their practice training during the third term of 2007 in a variety of subject areas. The PGCE students were trained as fieldworkers to obtain data within a specific setting (in a subject and grade 10 or 11 class to which they had access). Data was generated from a variety of sources, including learners (by means of a survey), teachers (by means of a semi-structured interview), and class observations (facilitated by an observation schedule). 1.5.2 Defining the target population and sampling

Babbie and Mouton (2001) describe a unit of analysis as that which the researcher examines in order to construct descriptions of all such units and to explain the differences among them. The unit of analysis determines the boundaries of a study (Henning et al., 2004). The unit of analysis in the research project differs according to the level under investigation and ranges between documentation, first-year students, teachers, preservice teachers and Grade 10 or 11 learners. Tuckman (1994) refers to defining the target population as systematically establishing boundary conditions that specify who will be included or excluded in the study. Gay (1987) adds that this definition should include the size and major characteristics of the target population. It is the first step in the sampling process and will depend on the variables that are investigated in the specific study (Tuckman, 1994 & Gay, 1987). The target population in this study include: A short survey in the form of a questionnaire was administered to all the students in six selected modules who attended class on the day the survey was administered to the particular class (as arranged with the particular lecturer). The particular modules represented key modules in the faculties of Arts and Social Sciences, Economic and Management Sciences, Engineering, the Sciences (including the Faculties of Science and AgriSciences), and Law. The key modules were selected from these faculties and were spread across entry requirements and included general and more professionally oriented modules. Class size, foundational nature of the module to key programmes and pass rate also influenced the module selection process. The following modules were selected in the various faculties:

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Table 1.1:

Modules included in the project Selected modules English 178 Financial Accounting 188 Engineering Mathematics 145 Biology 154 Physics 144 Private Law 171

Faculty Arts and Social Sciences Economic and Management Sciences Engineering General Sciences (including Faculties of Science and AgriSciences) Law

Faculty officers or representatives assisted in the selection of appropriate modules. Lecturers in the selected modules were contacted in advance to inform them about the project and to obtain their permission to access classes on appropriate times for administering the questionnaire. Tutorial or practical classes were used where possible, as these classes often have a higher attendance rate than lecture periods. The survey provided valuable background information that can be triangulated with the focus group results. A synthesis of the results of the survey was made available to the specific lecturer shortly after its completion. No raw data was, however, made available to lecturers in order to protect student confidentiality. Focus group discussions were conducted with first-year students within the above-mentioned six modules. The focus groups were conducted in the second semester of 2006 (with the 2006 intake of first-year students). It was planned that each focus group would contain six first-year students, although this was not possible in the eventual practice. The potential respondents for these focus groups within the key modules in the above-mentioned faculties were purposefully selected according to a matrix to include a variety of students representing different groups. Participants were selected according to gender, race, first language, school results and educational background. Participation was on a voluntary basis; therefore a list of possible substitutes was also compiled. The focus groups were organised outside formal class times, usually during lunchtime. The central time table was used to determine days when the particular group of students would not have a scheduled class over lunch. A purposive sample of lecturers from the Department of Curriculum Studies (Stellenbosch University) involved in teaching of various curriculum specialisation areas to pre-service teachers was drawn. These lecturers were asked to analyse the new FET (Schools) policy. The subjects targeted for initial policy analysis included Accounting, Geography, History, Languages (with a focus on Afrikaans and English), Life Orientation, Life Sciences, Mathematical Literacy, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences. A questionnaire was developed and administered to pre-service teachers registered for the Postgraduate Certificate in Education after the completion of their practice teaching in the third term of 2006. There were 88 students registered in this year for the specific programme, representing a variety of curriculum specialisation areas, including all the targeted subject areas. The questionnaire focused on pre-service teachers' perceptions of how the secondary school system prepares learners for tertiary study. The PGCE students of 2007 (N=94) we trained as fieldworkers to conduct a more in-depth study of the actual implementation of the new FET (Schools) policy during their practice training period in the third term. The project was integrated into practical research assignment for the module Introduction to Educational Research 172. These students again represented a variety of subject areas and visited a variety of feeder

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schools in the Western Cape. The schools were mostly within easy travelling distance of Stellenbosch, but included both rural and urban schools, private and public schools (the latter including ex-model C schools and schools within previously disadvantaged areas). 1.5.3 Ensuring rigorous research

A variety of strategies can ensure rigour within the interpretive paradigm of research. The following aspects were used to ensure rigour: Henning et al. (2004) emphasises the importance of a solid theoretical foundation in qualitative research, especially in the building of coherent and convincing argument. Arguments should be built on both the authority of respected researchers in the field, empirical evidence and the understanding of the phenomenon by the researcher. A variety of relevant research (nationally and internationally) was therefore sourced, reported and integrated into the research project. A reference group was been appointed for the project. This group served as a peer review group throughout the research process to monitor and give critical input into the project. The members of the reference group were Ms Liezel Frick (primary investigator and project manager), Dr Brenda Leibowitz (Director: Centre for Teaching and Learning, and primary supervisor of the project), Prof Charl Cilliers (Director: Centre for Student Counselling and development), Prof Eli Bitzer (Department of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education), Dr Antoinette van der Merwe (Deputy Director: Centre for Teaching and Learning), Ms Nicoline Herman (Senior Advisor: University teaching at the Centre for Teaching and Learning), Ms Susan van Schalkwyk (Advisor: Centre for Teaching and Learning). The reference group functioned as a resource and peer review group for all research components of the project. Meetings were scheduled to discuss progress and provide input as the project developed. A variety of data sources and methods of investigation were be utilised. The information from different data sources was used to triangulate the findings. The results from this specific project may not be generalised to schools or higher education institutions in general. The questionnaire administered to first-year students in selected modules was pilot tested with first-year students in the Education Faculty that were not involved in the selected modules. 1.6 DATA COLLECTION Literature and document sourcing A short survey questionnaire administered to all willing participants registered for the modules from which the focus groups were drawn Focus groups conducted with first-year students in foundational modules from the key programmes within selected faculties at Stellenbosch University Document analysis by lecturers in the Department of Curriculum Studies Questionnaires administered to pre-service teachers in the Postgraduate Certificate in Education after their practice teaching period in the third term of 2006

Data were collected by means of:

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Data collection within schools by means of a questionnaire administered to a purposefully selected group of learners (in a particular subject and a particular grade), an interview with the teacher who teaches this subject to the selected group of learners, and class observations within the specific context.

1.7

DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis was done on a qualitative and quantitative basis. Content analysis will be used to analyse the interview, questionnaire and focus group data in relation to the key research questions and sub-questions. The final themes apparent from the data are then presented as a pattern of related themes (Henning et al., 2004). A standard database from Stellenbosch University will be utilised for quantitative aggregated analysis. Quantitative analysis will be done by means of basic statistical analysis stipulated for each element of measurement, which can then be repeated within the same or similar databases. The measurements will include: An analysis of first-year students' school background by means of school categorisation, which will then be converted into number of students per category The frequency distribution of matric symbols per year of first-year intake The distribution of first-year students in terms of geographical origin (categorised according to SA province or international country of origin) The language preference of first-year students will be categorised and a ratio per first-year intake determined. This part of the project will be done in close collaboration with the First-year Academy in order to prevent duplication. The combination and interplay of qualitative and quantitative data analysis will lead to an integrated data presentation, which will be discussed henceforth. 1.8 DATA PRESENTATION

The data is presented in the format of a research report. The research report will be made accessible to academic support staff, deans, members of the Committee for Teaching and Learning, lecturers of first-year modules and the planners of foundational programmes at Stellenbosch University. The development of a web-based resource that will be more compact and user-friendly than the full research report is also envisioned. This component of the project will be developed as the project progresses and adapted accordingly.

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Components of the research has have been reported as a conference presentation and a poster. The research may lead to a further conference presentation. 1.9 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS

Gay (1987: 86) defines an assumption as "any important `fact' presumed to be true but not actually verified". In this project it is assumed that: Lecturers at the Department of Curriculum Studies at the Education Faculty will be up to date with the latest curriculum developments in their curriculum specialisation areas. Teachers at the feeder schools will have sufficient knowledge of their subject curricula and have built rapport with their learner population to be able to convey the advantages their learners have and the challenges their learners commonly face when entering higher education. Pre-service teachers in the Postgraduate Certificate in Education programme will have had experience in presenting curricula and interacting with learners in order to identify key aspects that contribute to the profile of a first-year student at university. First-year students will have insight into how well they have been equipped to deal with the higher education environment. It is acknowledged that the new FET policy and curriculum will have an influence on the students entering the higher education system from 2009 onwards. Therefore lecturers at the Department of Curriculum Studies, and teachers at feeder schools will specifically be questioned in this regard. The question could therefore be posed whether it is necessary to gain a pre-service teacher and student perspective on the profile of future students as they would not have experienced the planned new curriculum. The underlying assumption of this project is built on the premise that there are common factors that will influence students' transition from school to university, regardless of the school curriculum specifics of the time. This project provides a foundation on which future studies in this area can be built. Interpretive research is context dependent by nature (Henning et al., 2004). The results of this research project are specifically related to the Stellenbosch University context and are therefore not generalised to other settings. Other limitations include time and funding. It would be beneficial if the research could be repeated over time in order to gain a longitudinal view of the development and changes of the first-year profile. The urgency of the information and the available resources for the project, however, does not make such an endeavour feasible at present. It is furthermore acknowledged that the planned new curriculum at the FET level is only being implemented from 2006 and that participating learners, as well as first-year students at university were not able to comment on its implications on their academic preparedness and success. The university does, however, need to be pro-active in planning for the future intake of students and one way of achieving this insight is to also investigate current trends in the profile of their clientele. This limitation is therefore stated and acknowledged. Follow-up studies in

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future are recommended to continue investigating the phenomenon of student preparedness for higher education studies. 1.10 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Henning et al. (2004) and Gay (1987) stress the importance of the researcher's respect for the privacy and right to confidentiality of the respondents. No actual names of participants at whatever level of the project will be made public. No identifiable information of participants is disclosed in the research results or elsewhere. All data were handled confidentially and stored safely with the project manager. Only the project manager and official fieldworker(s) had access to the raw data. It was necessary to obtain the correct and sufficient permission to conduct the project within the university. Permission and a letter of reference were obtained from university authorities involved. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Director: Division of Research Development. 1.11 CONCLUSION

The project aimed to investigate the current and future trends in the profile of the first-year students at Stellenbosch University. The results shed light on the needs and demands of the future clientele of Stellenbosch University, which will facilitate planning and implementation of first year modules that facilitate first-year success. Chapter 2 of this research report focuses specifically on the current realities of first-year students at Stellenbosch University, as reported by the students themselves in the questionnaire and follow-up focus group discussions. Chapter 3 provides a policy analysis for the new FET (Schools) policy. The general policy statement is discussed, which is followed by a more in-depth analysis of the policy pertaining to specific subject areas (including Accounting, Geography, History, Languages, Life Orientation, Life Sciences, Mathematical Literacy, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences). Chapter 4 reports on the implementation of the FET (Schools) policy as reported in literature and through the empirical findings of the preliminary study with the 2006 PGCE students and the implementation study conducted by the PGCE class of 2007. Chapter 5 concludes the research report with a discussion of the implications of the research results for higher education. Issues such as access, curriculum design, teaching methods and lecturer support are addressed in particular.

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CHAPTER 2: CURRENT REALITIES 2.1 INTRODUCTION

The current reality of first-year students at Stellenbosch University was investigated as part of the study, as the perceptions of this group of respondents were seen to provide insightful information on the first-year experience in general. These students had not completed the new FET (Schools) curriculum and may therefore be prepared somewhat differently academically. However, it is foreseen that practices in schools that either facilitate or hamper preparedness for further study will not change altogether as a result of the new policy implementation. The results of this component of the study also helped target specific subject areas for policy analysis (which is discussed in greater depth in Chapter 3). A short survey (questionnaire) was administered to first-year students in selected modules during the second semester of 2006, which was followed by focus group discussions with purposefully selected respondents from these modules in the same time period. A short discussion of the methodology and results follow. 2.2 FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF PREPAREDNESS IN CONTEXT

A survey in the form of a self-administered questionnaire was developed to investigate first-year students' perceptions on their preparedness for further study. The questionnaire was pilot tested with ten first-year BEd students. The Faculty of Education was not included in the eventual sample of modules, and therefore these students did not have a chance of being included in the eventual sample population. Their feedback lead to minor adjustments before the questionnaire was finalized and administered. Six first-year modules were selected, including English 178, Financial Accounting 188, Engineering Mathematics 145, Biology 154, Physics 144, and Private Law 171. The particular modules represented key modules in the faculties of Arts, Economic and Management Sciences, Engineering, the Sciences (including the Faculties of Science and AgriSciences), and Law. The key modules were selected from these faculties and were spread across entry requirements and included general and more professionally oriented modules. Class size, foundational nature of the module to key programmes and pass rate also influenced the module selection process. Faculty officers or representatives assisted in the selection of appropriate modules. The survey provided valuable background information that can be triangulated with the focus group results. A synthesis of the results of the survey was made available to the specific lecturer shortly after its completion. No raw data was, however, made available to lecturers in order to protect student confidentiality. These reports are also not individually included in this research report, as the lecturers involved were assured that only the aggregated results of the study would be used in the eventual report. The questionnaire included all questions in both English and Afrikaans. The results of the closed questions (predetermined answer categories) were scanned in and the results analysed in Microsoft Excel. The answers to

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the open questions were transcribed into electronic format in Microsoft Word and analysed with the help of Atlas.ti computer software by means of basic content analysis. Potential respondents were selected for the focus group discussions from the same modules used for the questionnaire. The discussions were scheduled for lunch hour sessions within which the particular class group was not scheduled to have a class according to the central time table. The potential respondents were purposefully selected according to a matrix to include a variety of students representing different groups. Participants were selected according to gender, race, first language, school results and educational background. Participation was on a voluntary basis; therefore a list of possible substitutes was also compiled. Potential respondents were contacted by means of email, bulk sms, and individual telephone calls. Even though it was initially envisioned to include at least six respondents from a module, it proved to be difficult to obtain a representative and adequate number of respondents. An audio-tape recording of each focus group discussion was made and a scribe was employed to make additional notes during each session. The results of the questionnaire and the focus group discussion follow. 2.2.1 Results and discussion: Questionnaires and focus groups

The questionnaire included both closed and open questions. The closed questions provided quantifiable results that are presented as figures. The aggregated results of the content analysis for the open questions are included as descriptive discussions. All first-year students who attended class in the time pre-arranged with the responsible lecturer were asked to complete the questionnaire. Participation was voluntary and a cover sheet with information on the study was attached to the questionnaire. The researcher was responsible for the administration of the questionnaire in all the modules. The response rate was calculated by comparing the actual number of completed questionnaires received to the number of students registered for the particular module. Even though an even higher response rate would have been preferable, a representative sample in each of the modules was obtained. It has to be noted that the number of registered students per module vary considerably, as Table 2.1 indicates. Table 2.1 Module Biology 154 English 178 Engineering Mathematics 145 Financial Accounting 188 Physics 144 Private Law 171 Number of students registered per module in 2006 Number of registered students in 2006 584 1011 452 1244 237 313 Percentage of students who completed the questionnaire 53.42 36 34.29 40.27 45.15 60.06

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The majority of the selected modules are compulsory within the first-year programmes in the selected faculties, as figure 2.2 indicates.

17%

Compulsory Module of choice

83%

Figure 2.2:

Nature of module: compulsory or elective

The selected modules within the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences and in the faculty of Science are indicated as modules of choice by some respondents. The majority of first-year students within the selected modules therefore have to pass the specific module as a compulsory component of the academic programme for which they are enrolled. Respondents were asked how difficult they found the particular module according to predetermined response categories of very difficult, difficult, easy, or very easy. Figure 2.3 provides a visual outline of the respondents' perceived difficulty of the selected modules:

100 90 80 70 % of respondents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Biology 154 English 178 Engineering Mathematics 145 Financial Accounting 188 Physics 144 Private Law 171 Very difficult Difficult Easy Very easy

Figure 2.3

Perceived degree of difficulty

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Figure 2.3 indicates that the majority of respondents found the module for which they were registered difficult. In the case of Engineering Mathematics 145 the majority of the respondents found the module very difficult. The qualitative data, however, suggests that these respondents do not see the perceived difficulty as a negative aspect. They indicated that they expected the module to be difficult and especially took pride in succeeding in a module perceived as very difficult. The next question asked how respondents expected to perform in the particular module. The predetermined answer categories included an expected performance of 75%, 60-74%, 50-59%, 40-49%, or 39%. Figure 2.4 provides an overview of the respondents' perceptions of their expected performance in the particular modules where the questionnaire was administered.

100 90 80 % of respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Biology 154 English 178 Engineering Mathematics 145 Financial Accounting 188 Physics 144 Private Law 171 75% 60-74% 50-59% 40-49% 39%

Figure 2.4:

Respondents' perceptions of expected performance

Figure 2.4 indicates a predominance of expected performance in the 60-74% and 50-59% performance categories for all of the modules. The expected performance in the upper category of 75% is relatively evenly distributed amongst the modules, even though slightly less in the case of Private Law 171. Not a large percentage of respondents expect to fail in any of the modules. However, reality contradicts this notion as the failure rate in first-year modules seem to be higher if compared to respondents' expected performance. The next section of the questionnaire focuses on accessibility within modules and the questions posed pertained to specific aspects that may influence accessibility and possibly eventual success. General predetermined categories were supplied, including Very difficult ­ Totally inaccessible, Difficult ­ Inaccessible, Just right ­ Accessible, Easy ­ Too accessible, or Much too easy ­ Much too accessible. The two components of each category were included as to provide an explanatory element to what was meant in terms of accessibility. Figure

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2.5 provides information on the respondents' perception of the accessibility in terms of various aspects, including the words and terms used in classes, the language used in classes, the pace at which the module is presented, class notes, textbook, audio-visual resources, and mathematical calculations. In the last four categories a "not applicable to this module" category was included..

90 80 70 Percentage of respondents 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Words and terms Language used in class Pace at w hich module is presented Class notes Textbook Audio-visual Mathematical resources calculations

Very difficult - Totally inaccessible Difficult - Inaccessible Just right - Accessible Easy - Too accessible Much too easy - Much too accessible Not applicable to this module

Term s of accessibility

Figure 2.5:

Perceived accessibility of different aspects within first-year modules

The majority of students in each of the modules found the words and terms the lecturer used in class accessible. Only in the cases of Private Law 171 and Biology 154 was a level of inaccessibility beyond 20% noted. In the case of Private Law 171 this trend could be explained by the fact that no law subjects form part of the school curriculum in South Africa. The jargon associated with this particular module may therefore be foreign to many first-year students as they had not received a subject-specific foundation in school preparing them in particular for this module. It is interesting to note the relatively high degree of inaccessibility of words and terms used by the lecturer in Biology 154. It has to be noted that Biology as a school subject (now a component of Life Sciences in the new FET curriculum) is not a prerequisite for entry into Biology 154. A conversation with the lecturer and module co-ordinator revealed that students who did not have Biology as a school subject often struggled with the new terminology, which could explain some respondents' perception that the words and terms used by the lecturer in Biology 154 are difficult and therefore relatively inaccessible.

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The results indicate that the vast majority of students in all the modules found the language used in class accessible. The only case where the perceived inaccessibility exceeds 20% is Private Law 171. Again, a possible explanation could be that the law-related jargon integral to the module content could be foreign to students with no prior exposure to law as a discipline. It has to be noted that there are separate classes for English and Afrikaans in Biology 154, which could contribute to the respondents' positive perception of accessibility through language in the module. The pace at which a module is presented may also have an influence on accessibility. Respondents were therefore asked to indicate how accessible they perceived a module to be in terms of the pace at which the module was presented. The results indicate that although the pace seemed to be acceptable to respondents in the majority of the modules (except in the case of Engineering Mathematics 145 and Private Law 171). However, a significant percentage of respondents found the modules inaccessible as a result of the fast pace followed in the case of Biology 154 and Financial Accounting 188. In the case of Engineering Mathematics 145 and Private Law 171 accessibility of the modules seemed to be hampered by the fast pace at which the modules are presented. The results obtained in this question are notable, as it may contribute to understanding why firstyear students do not succeed. The accessibility of class notes (if used) was questioned. A "not applicable" category was added to the predetermined answer categories, as not all modules make use of class notes. Respondents in the majority of modules found the class notes accessible. There were only two modules where a significant percentage of respondents perceived the class notes as inaccessible (Biology 154 and Private Law 171). The responses showed that respondents' perceptions on the accessibility of the class notes in Private Law 171 varied. A total number of 101 respondents found the class notes inaccessible, while a total number of 82 respondents found the notes just right in terms of accessibility. The accessibility of class notes may therefore be a contributing factor in respondents' inability to succeed in Private Law 171. The distribution of responses presented in Figure 2.8 shows that the class notes in Biology 154 was accessible to a slight majority of respondents, although a significant number of students found the module inaccessible as a result of the class notes.

Respondents were asked whether they found the textbook accessible, if a textbook was used as learning material in the particular module. A "not applicable" category was added to the predetermined answer categories, as not all modules make use of prescribed text books. The majority of respondents seem to find textbooks accessible as learning materials in the modules where textbooks are used. However, significant percentages of respondents in the majority of selected modules indicated that they found the prescribed textbooks difficult and therefore inaccessible. The accessibility of textbooks in terms of facilitating learning in first-year classes may therefore be an aspect that may need consideration when planning the learning materials for a module. Audio-visual resources used in classes are also deemed as valuable learning materials. Respondents were asked whether these resources were perceived as accessible in the respective modules. A "not applicable" category was added to the predetermined answer categories, as it could not be assumed that all lecturers made

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use of audio-visual resources. The data suggest that lecturers in all the selected modules make use of audiovisual resources (even though some respondents particularly in Engineering Mathematics 145 and Financial Accounting 188 indicated the not applicable category). The majority of respondents in all the selected modules perceived the audio-visual resources as accessible. A significant percentage of respondents in private Law 171 did, however, find the audio-visual resources inaccessible. The qualitative data suggests that the overhead transparencies that were used in this particular module were perceived as inaccessible, particularly since the pace at which the module was presented, was also perceived as quite fast. The difficulty of mathematical calculations was investigated. It is acknowledged that not all modules include mathematical calculations and therefore a "not applicable" category was included. The data suggests that mathematical calculations do not form part of English 178 and Private Law 171, which is to be expected. Mathematical calculations in both Engineering Mathematics 145 and Physics 144 were perceived as difficult and therefore less accessible. The majority of respondents in Biology 154 and Financial Accounting 188 perceived the mathematical calculations as "just right", but it has to be noted that significant percentages of respondents in both these modules found the mathematical calculations difficult and therefore inaccessible. A number of general comments were made on accessibility. These comments can be categorised in terms of the module in general, the learning materials, lecturing, tutorials, assessment, and logistics. Comments on the accessibility of the modules in general focused on the perceived fast pace at which lecturers progressed through the relevant work within a module. Respondents indicated that they struggled to keep up and once they fell behind, found it difficult to regain a position where they were up to date. Some respondents also indicated that they found the volume of work daunting and as a result could not easily keep abreast with their studies. The difference between school and university standards were also mentioned as a possible factor that could hamper the accessibility of university modules, as the standards at university were perceived to be much higher than these respondents experienced at school. Learning materials featured in some general responses on the accessibility of the selected modules. Some respondents indicated that they would like to have all learning materials available on WebStudies, and some respondents even indicated that it would be helpful if these materials could be made available before classes so that they did not need to take notes in class. Krause, Hartley, James and McInnis (2005) indicate that first-year students in Australia are also increasingly using electronic resources to facilitate learning. Comments were received on the poor visibility of audio-visual resources, which reference to the colour and handwriting on overhead transparencies and small font on PowerPoint slides which were difficult to see and copy as notes. Some respondents also requested that the correspondence between prescribed textbooks and class notes be made clearer. Coherence in learning materials seemed to be an issue for some respondents.

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The respondents that commented on lecturing as an accessibility issue found it difficult to simultaneously take notes and follow the lecturer (which may relate to the perceived fast pace and high volume of work). Some respondents found the tempo of presentation too fast. Other comments on lecturing included a perceived lack of expertise and lecturing ability. Comments on the choice of language (Afrikaans or English) used by the lecturer were also received, although these particular comments had a relatively low frequency in the aggregated data. Tutorials featured as a central theme in general responses on module accessibility. Comments related to the necessity of trained tutors (and the perceived effect of the lack thereof), issues related to the lack of coherence between lectures and tutorials and the need for extra classes or support for students who lacked the necessary foundation for a module. Assessment was noted by some respondents as an issue that affected accessibility within the selected modules. These responses indicated that some respondents felt they were not adequately prepared in class to be successful in assessment opportunities. Some respondents requested previous question papers to help them prepare for assessment. A request was also received for memoranda to be placed on WebStudies, so that it was easily accessible and a student could learn where mistakes were made during assessment. Logistics received limited attention in the responses. Adequate space in large classes was noted as a perceived problem. The current timetable was also noted as a potential issue, as the time lapse between lectures was perceived as problematic by some respondents who would have liked a more evenly distributed lecture load within a particular module throughout the week. Respondents were asked how prepared they perceived themselves to be to succeed in the module in which they ware requested to complete the questionnaire. Respondents were asked to respond to the following statement: I was adequately prepared at school to succeed in this module. Predetermined answer categories were supplied, including strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, or strongly agree. Figure 2.12 provides an overview of the responses to the above-mentioned statement.

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40 Percentage of respondents 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree

Perceptions of preparedness to succeed

Figure 2.12:

Aggregated results of perceived adequacy of preparedness for the module

The data indicates a relatively even distribution amongst the answer categories for all the selected modules. The slightly higher percentages of respondents in some modules (such as Biology 154 and English 178) who agreed that school prepared them adequately to succeed in the specific modules could be attributed to the foundation provided in school within these specific subject areas on which students who had Biology and English as school subjects could build. The results of the focus group discussions and the questionnaire can be used for the purposes of triangulation, even though the questions were not identical2. Respondents were asked to comment on aspects in their school careers which they perceived as facilitating factors in their current success. The themes that emerged during the analysis of the data (of both the questionnaires and the focus groups) included aspects related to school in

2

These results triangulate well with the results found in the component of the study focused on PGCE students' perceptions on the

challenges school-leavers entering higher education have to face ­ as reported in Chapter 4. The themes that emerged from the perceived typical challenges first-year students have to face include challenges in terms of the specific study area, as well as general academic, social and individual challenges. Making the right choice of a study programme and adapting to the particular environment of a new discipline were challenges related to specific study areas. General academic challenges include expressing independent thought, the high level of writing skills expected, the decrease in individual attention received in some cases, and completing assignments where students are expected to individually search for information. The lack of summarized work at university level and the little repetition or revision that take place, could pose a challenge to first-year students who have become accustomed to these approaches at school. Coping with the fast pace and large volumes of work may cause added pressure. The little or no guidance on assessment may also pose a and some first-year students may be required to adapt their study methods or strategies in order to succeed, which may be difficult at the individual level. Some students may find it difficult to remain focused in a system where class attendance is not compulsory. The possible social challenges that were noted include adapting to a new environment and fitting in, coping with the relative anonymity on campus, finding a balance between academic and social life, and coping with the exposure to diverse people and ideas. Some first-year students may also have a lacking support system, which may inhibit their success. Individual challenges that were noted include becoming independent and self-disciplined, taking responsibility, staying up to date without supervision, and maintaining effective time management.

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general, similarities that were noted between the school and university environments, school subjects followed, skills acquired at school, and individual traits that were perceived to facilitate success in their current context at university. Academically schools are perceived to prepare learners for university by including work in curricula which is repeated or built upon at the university level. Elements within the school environment which were perceived to facilitate first-year students' chances for success include so-called "good teachers", fostering independence and freedom at university and encouraging learners to work hard. The perception was noted that private schools better equipped learners for university than public schools. Teachers also seem to have an influence on learners' perceptions of a university. Some participants noted that teachers created the perception that university is "very difficult and you don't get any guidance". These teachers encouraged their learners to work hard and be independent in the participants' experience. The compulsory class attendance at school, attending what was perceived as a so-called "good" school (in some cases with specific reference to private schools and double medium schools), having so-called "good" teachers, having the opportunity to complete A-level examinations at school and follow Additional Mathematics as a seventh subject were noted as possible aspects of school in general that were perceived to facilitate success in the first-year of university studies. The similarities that were noted between school and university included similarities in curriculum content, similar workloads (in contrast to earlier quantitative data that suggested some respondents did not find a correspondence between the workload at school and at university), and similar degrees of difficulty in particular subject areas (although this does not seem to be the rule either, if the related quantitative data on the perceived difficulty of modules are considered). Where school subjects were noted as facilitating current success, the subjects noted were usually related to the chosen discipline that was currently studied within the particular module. There were, however, exceptions. History as a school subject was noted as useful in the study of English and Law at university, as it encouraged critical thought and developed argumentative and writing skills. Skills acquired at school were perceived as valuable in achieving success as a first-year student. The noted skills include skills developed in the areas of: language listening reading essay writing numeric calculations class discussions analysis exercises note-taking in class

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critical thinking verbal communication debating time management study skills self-study group work.

Individual traits that were developed at school and that facilitated current success included diligence and hard work, self-discipline, independence, insight, and talent. Respondents were also asked to comment on aspects of their school careers that could hinder their current success as first-year students. The central themes derived from the data relate to aspects of school in general, curricular-specific aspects, assessment related aspects, the lack of skills development in certain areas, individual traits and adjustments and the perceived differences in the academic atmosphere between school and university. The difference in the academic atmosphere of the school and university environments is also noted to influence first-year transitions. The aspects that were noted as marked differences included a greater emphasis on selfstudy and study methods at university and the lack of individual attention. The perception that nothing is compulsory seems to lead to the perception that there is a lack of structure at the university level. Some participants indicated that they found large classes and the increased workload overwhelming. They were not used to the long hours ­ having class all day and catching up on their studies in the evenings. Some participants were not initially comfortable that they were expected to voice their own opinions. Language barriers sometimes occurred where classes weren't conducted in the home language of the student, or where learning materials were not available in the home language. Other participants indicated that they did not know what to expect in terms of assessment and that the eventual assessment seemed to be distinctly different to the type of assessment which they were accustomed to at school. Perceived hindrances to current success that stem from school in general include attending a monolingual school where bilingualism was not actively encouraged or developed. Perceived so-called "poor" teaching and "spoon feeding" were noted by some respondents as aspects that limited their current ability to succeed. Some respondents noted that the individual attention they received at school made it difficult for them to cope academically in large classes at university where students mostly do not receive individual attention. A limited number of respondents noted that they were distracted at school by their peers, which hindered their ability to learn at school and which now spill over to their ability to succeed at university. Other respondents noted the limited resources available at their schools as hindrances to their learning and current success. There were respondents who indicated that they had a limited choice of subjects at school, or made the wrong subject

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choices ­ which later hindered them from succeeding at university. A limited number of respondents indicated that the transition to Curriculum 2005 and outcomes-based education was disruptive in schools, which hindered learning. The curriculum-related aspects that were noted included a lack of coherence between school and university curricula and a change in terminology, which is sometimes emphasized by lecturers. This may confuse first-year students and even cause insecurity. Some respondents also noted a marked difference in the standard, volume and pace of work between school and university. Assessment featured in a number of responses and was also a theme that emerged in some discussions. Some respondents would value more lecturer input in preparing students for assessment. Fair assessment was noted as important and participants wanted to know in advance how marks would be awarded to a question. They wanted to understand the marking process and also valued feedback on assessment. Some respondents perceived that there were different expectations in terms of assessment at school and at university, which could lead to confusion and even failure. Some respondents also felt that they were not adequately prepared at school for the type of assessment that was expected of them at university. A lack of academic background was noted as hindrances to first-year success. Areas that were perceived to be lacking include: · · · · · · Academic writing Essay writing Grammar and spelling Vocabulary and terminology Oral presentation skills Study skills.

The individual traits that respondents perceive as hindrances to their success include laziness, and a lack of interest. In a limited number of responses a non-ideal study environment was noted as a hindrance to success. The individual adjustments that the participants mentioned as factors that could hamper the transition from school to university included a variety of complementary aspects. Some participants found the sudden increase in independence difficult and made specific reference to living independently away from home, having a lack of support (from significant others such as parents, teachers, peers), the perception that the university is seen as an "unsafe" environment, and coping with loneliness. Coming from a rural area where few learners progress to higher education sometimes contributed to feelings of isolation. Participants also indicated that shy people sometimes found it difficult to communicate in large groups, such as large classes and group discussions, while others indicated that they had not developed enough self-discipline to cope with academic independence. Some participants indicated that they perceived large classes as not healthy for academic and social development. Adjusting to life in a university residence was difficult for some of the participants. Living in close proximity with a

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stranger, diversity in terms of race and language, constant noise and distractions and the lack of set study times were perceived as factors that could influence first-year students' adjustment to university life. There was also a distinctly different group of students represented in the focus group discussions ­ those that had not directly progressed from school to university. These students either did a gap year after school, were mature students who had worked before commencing their studies, or were international students who had completed part of their studies abroad. These students indicated that they sometimes found it difficult to adjust to first-year classes and residence cultures that were the needs of students straight from school took precedence. The participants were asked how they coped with making these adjustments. A variety of responses were received. Some participants indicated that being positive about the differences helped them to cope. They indicated that they chose to stay open minded and tolerant of diverse people and ideas. In terms of language, the consensus can be summed up in the following participant's words, "don't fight the language, try to learn it." Some of the participants generally indicated that the initiation process for first-year students on campus helped them to meet people, make friends and orientate themselves, while others indicated that it did not have adequate focus on academic life. These respondents indicated that the initiation period created a misconception that university life entailed more social activities than academic rigour, which easily caused first-year students to underestimate their studies. By the time they realized their mistake, it was often too late to catch up on lost time. Support structures seemed to play an important role in coping with adjustment. Support from parents and siblings were noted as an important supportive influence. Support and encouragement from deans, lecturers and programme co-coordinators were welcomed and created a feeling of belonging. Some participants indicated that they found it helpful to set goals for themselves from the start and to establish a study routine. Taking a gap year elicited mixed responses. While some participants argued that a gap year helped them to gain clarity on their goals and direction in life, others felt that it was difficult to adjust back into an academic mode after such a long break from studying. The participants were asked what advice they would give to future first-year students. The participants indicated that they would tell prospective students to work consistently and not to fall behind, to attend classes, to be prepared to work hard, and to set achievable goals. Some participants indicated that a first-year student should not compare him-/herself with others, especially students in other programmes or faculties. Building a good relationship with lecturers and not being afraid to ask questions in class was noted as important advice to future students. Some participants indicated that future first-year students should learn to manage their time early on and to try and lead a balanced life. A balanced life in their opinion would entail becoming involved in student life, not losing your individuality, not being overly influenced by peer pressure. They were of the opinion that the student culture on campus created room for all individuals, even if some indicated that they sometimes found the campus culture slightly conservative and stifling. Ways in which students managed to keep their own identity whilst creating a feeling of belonging included finding friends that spoke their home language, but also making friends

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from other backgrounds. Participants seemed to find diversity a necessary aspect of campus life, but found maintaining their identity within their own cultures equally important. Participants indicated that adjustment took time and that a first-year student should be patient in coping with adjustments. Self-knowledge and perseverance were deemed an important attributes in facilitating first-year success. Researchers agree that interaction with lecturers is an important factor in student success. The discrepancy between what students expect and experience in terms of interacting with lecturers may partly be the result of large first-year classes that discourage such contact (Astin, 1993; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Tinto, 1993). The participants were asked what lecturers could do to help first-year students succeed academically. The themes that emerged from the discussions centred on lecturing style, teaching within specific disciplines, communication and technology use, assessment, module structures, curricula, learning materials, assessment, learning support, and logistics. Respondents perceived the lecturing style as an important factor in facilitating student learning. Interaction with students, making eye contact, approachability and an accommodating temperament were specific elements which featured in this theme. Lecturers' enthusiasm seemed to motivate students. The participants also indicated that lecturers who continuously tried to improve their teaching strategies would help first-year students to succeed academically. Teaching in the specific disciplines also received some attention in the discussions. Participants thought it important for lecturers to provide the bigger picture within and an introduction to a specific module. They also indicated that it was essential not to make assumptions about students' prior knowledge, but that it is important to support students in developing their own knowledge and opinions. One participant noted, "You don't expect lecturers to help you adjust, but you do expect the best academic support". This type of support seemed to entail supporting theory with examples students can relate to, the use of experiments, demonstrations and practical experiences. Adequate and high quality learning materials were also valued. Astin (1984) argues that lecturers should focus less on content and teaching methods and pay more attention to student behaviours in order to understand student motivation, as well as the time and energy student spend on the learning process. Facilitating student involvement is seen as a central element to enhancing learning. Peer interaction and collaborative learning is also noted as useful approaches to facilitating learning. Lecturing featured in a number of comments made by the respondents in this study. Some respondents who were in modules where different components of a module were presented by different lecturers indicated that having one lecturer throughout the module would be beneficial to their success. In other modules, where different class groups were taught by different lecturers, some respondents indicated that they would like to choose which lecturer's classes to attend. In this way the respondents indicated they could be taught by a lecturer whose

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teaching style best suited their own learning style. In general, interactive lectures, clear presentations, and enthusiastic lecturers were preferred. Communicative measures and the use of technology featured in some discussions. The use of WebStudies as a learning and assessment medium was promoted throughout. Some participants valued lecturers' use of email to communicate with their students. The suggestions in terms of module structure refer to a preference for semester rather than year modules. Some respondents also requested that module structures (the relationship between purpose and content) be explained more clearly and in-depth. The suggested curricular changes make specific reference to the relevance of topics and assignments that could be improved. Respondents made a number of suggestions in terms of improving learning materials. More and more specific class notes were requested which are made available on WebStudies. In some cases textbooks were perceived as inaccessible and improved textbooks that were more easily understandable were requested. A greater coherence between class notes and textbooks were also required. The language in which learning materials were supplied seemed to be problematic for some respondents. Especially primary materials (such as textbooks) that were not available in respondents' home languages were perceived as problematic. Some respondents indicated that aspects of assessment could be improved. Preparation for assessment in class and the use of preparatory examples on WebStudies were suggested of means to improve assessment results. Mock tests and making previous question papers and memoranda available were also seen as ways in which first-year students could be helped to succeed in the selected modules. Some respondents suggested increased learning support as a means to improve modules and by implication student success. More individual attention, a slower pace, more explicit instructions at the start of the first year, more time spent on difficult concepts, the increased use of examples, step-by-step solutions to problems, extra classes, mentoring programmes, the training of tutors and compulsory homework were suggested as ways in which learning support could be offered. The mentoring programmes available within faculties were generally welcomed. An increase in capacity for these programmes were suggested, as some students seemed to realize too late they needed to join a mentor group, and then got turned away due to a lack of capacity. The selection and training of appropriate mentors were emphasized, as well as the management of groups and group sizes. Some students thought peer learning could be encouraged more in mentoring groups and a greater focus in mentoring groups on study methods, time management skills, and preparation for assessment were also suggested. Some respondents noted that the counselor system [raadgewers] was not taken seriously in university residences, which limited the usefulness of the system.

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Participants' perceptions on what the university as an institution can do to help first-year students succeed academically were explored. A commonly noted response was that communication with students could be improved. Participants indicated that as first-year students they would have liked to receive more feedback on the access tests written at the start of the academic year. At registration, they thought more help was needed when first-year students had to make subject choices for which they were often ill-prepared. The participants indicated that they found it difficult to understand the University Calendar [Jaarboek] and that the name of module was not always indicative of its content. The explanation of modules was not always easily found or understood. An improved alignment of campus activities was suggested, including the timetable for tests and examinations, the introduction of a campus wide test week, and the improvement of timeslots for written tests. Some participants preferred evening tests, but traveling may be dangerous or inconvenient to others at these times. The only logistical suggestion related to classroom size. Respondents suggested that smaller classes be housed in smaller classrooms, as a large theatre hall could create a distanced and daunting atmosphere. In contrast, respondents in large classes requested more space and larger lecture halls. Longer library hours were requested. The provision of feedback on how general student complaints on campus are handled was also mentioned as an aspect that needed attention. The feasibility of some of these suggestions is debatable, but they are noteworthy as they inform the perceptions of first-year students. Insight into first-year students' perceptions may facilitate an understanding of their needs and an improved ability to plan modules accordingly in future. 2.3 CONCLUSION

The current reality of first-year students were investigated by means of a questionnaire and follow-up focus group discussions in selected first-year modules on the main campus of Stellenbosch University. The results suggest that even though first-year students may perceive a module as relatively difficult, they do not expect to fail. Reality contradicts this notion as the failure rate in first-year modules seem to be higher if compared to respondents' expected performance3. Current first-year students noted various teaching and learning related aspects which could influence accessibility within a module, which can be summarised as follows: Even though the words and terms the lecturer uses, as well as the language used in class did not seem to be major obstacles to accessibility, discipline-specific jargon could pose a problem if these concepts are totally new to the students' vocabulary or understanding. Class notes seemed to be generally accessible as learning materials, but a notable group of students found the prescribed textbooks difficult and therefore inaccessible. Some respondents also requested that the connection between prescribed textbooks and class notes be made clearer. The accessibility of textbooks in terms of facilitating learning in first-year classes may therefore be an aspect that may need consideration when planning the learning materials for a module. The data suggest that audio-visual resources are widely used as learning materials in first-year classes and were deemed as valuable learning materials by the respondents. Coherence and visibility of learning

3

Although the results only reflect the students' perceptions, they can help us to understand what and why first-year students succeed or fail.

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materials seemed to be an issue for some respondents. Comments were received on the poor visibility of audio-visual resources, with reference to the colour and handwriting on overhead transparencies and a small font used on PowerPoint slides. WebStudies seemed to play a facilitating role in making class notes more accessible and ­ if the notes are made available before a class ­ helped the students who did not have well-developed note-taking skills. Mathematical calculations (where applicable) were not seen as inaccessible by the majority of respondents in the current first-year survey. The perceived fast pace at which lecturers progressed through the work within a module seemed to pose difficulties for first-year students. Respondents indicated that they struggled to keep up and once they fell behind, found it difficult to regain a position where they were up to date. Some respondents indicated that they found the volume of work daunting and as a result could not easily keep abreast with their studies. The difference between school and university standards (even in the previous school curriculum) were mentioned as a possible factor that could hamper the accessibility of university modules, as the standards at university were perceived to be much higher than these respondents experienced at school. The respondents that commented on lecturing as an accessibility issue found it difficult to simultaneously take notes and follow the lecturer (which may relate to the perceived fast pace, volume of work, and notetaking skills). Tutorials featured as a central theme and comments related to the necessity of trained tutors, issues related to the lack of coherence between lectures and tutorials, and the need for support for students who lacked the necessary foundation for a module. Assessment was noted and some first-year students felt they were not adequately prepared in class to be successful in assessment opportunities. Some respondents requested previous question papers to help them prepare for assessment. A request was also received for memoranda to be placed on WebStudies, so that it was easily accessible and a student could learn where mistakes were made during assessment. Logistics received limited (but noteworthy) attention. Adequate space in large classes was noted as a perceived problem. The current timetable was also noted as a potential issue, as the time lapse between lectures was perceived as problematic by some respondents who would have liked a more evenly distributed lecture load within a particular module throughout the week.

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CHAPTER 3: FET (SCHOOLS) POLICY ANALYSIS 3.1 INTRODUCTION

In order to advise lecturers on curriculum design and assessment for the new aggregate of first-year students expected in 2009, a brief background on the structure of the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) may be necessary as it has changed significantly from the previous curriculum policy. The analysis of the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) documents leads us to consider changes in meaning and application of curricula. Firstly, it is important to note the change in meaning of a subject within the new policy for FET in schools. Previously, a subject was defined as a specific body of academic knowledge. Knowledge was often emphasized at the expense of skills, values and attitudes as a result of this narrow definition of a subject. Subjects were viewed by some as static and unchanging, with rigid boundaries and mainly Western notions of knowledge. In the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General), subject boundaries are blurred. Knowledge integrates theory, skills and values. Subjects are viewed as dynamic, always responding to new and diverse knowledge, including knowledge that traditionally has been excluded from the formal curriculum. A subject is broadly defined by Learning Outcomes, and not only by its body of content. In the South African context, the Learning Outcomes should, by design, lead to the achievement of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes. Learning Outcomes are defined in broad terms and are flexible, making allowances for the inclusion of local inputs. The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) is furthermore infused with indigenous knowledge systems into the Subject Statements. As many different perspectives as possible have been included to assist problem solving in all fields. 3.2 STRUCTURE AND DESIGN FEATURES OF THE NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT (GRADES 10-12) The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) consists of an Overview Document, the Qualifications and Assessment Policy Framework, and the Subject Statements. The subjects in the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) are categorised into Learning Fields. The new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) comprises three basic components, namely fundamental, core and elective learning. Fundamental learning will provide the knowledge and skills that are the foundation for all learning and includes language and communication, life skills and mathematical literacy. Core learning is concerned with the specific, core knowledge and competencies required for the completion of a particular qualification. Elective learning offers the learner the opportunity to complete additional, optional subjects, which may be of personal interest or professional relevance, or which provides access to a range of possible career and occupational choices. Learner choice is only limited by the need for coherence, adequate depth of learning, the requirements of further and higher learning, and work. This approach provides more flexibility. Various learning fields are included in the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General). A learning field is defined as a category or grouping of associated subjects and that facilitates the formulation of

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rules of combination for the Further Education and Training Certificate (General). A Learning Field is a category that serves as a home for cognate subjects, and that facilitates the formulation of rules of combination for the Further Education and Training Certificate (General). The demarcations of the Learning Fields for Grades 10 ­ 12 took cognisance of articulation with the General Education and Training and Higher Education bands, as well as with classification schemes in other countries. Although the development of the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) has taken the twelve National Qualifications Framework organising fields as its point of departure, it should be emphasized that those organising fields are not necessarily Learning Fields or `knowledge' fields, but rather are linked to occupational categories. The following subject groupings were demarcated into Learning Fields to help with learner subject combinations: Languages (Fundamentals); Arts and Culture; Business, Commerce, Management and Service Studies; Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology; Human and Social Sciences and Languages; and Physical, Mathematical, Computer, Life and Agricultural Sciences.

Learners are expected to select four subjects from Group A, namely two official languages, Mathematical Literacy or Mathematics, and Life Orientation, and a minimum of any three subjects from the elective components (see Addendum A). The first four subjects must include two (2) official languages, of which one must be on the Home Language level, and the other on either Home or First Additional Language level. One of these two languages must be the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) for the learner. A minimum of any three subjects are selected from Group B (see Addendum B), and of the minimum three required subjects, a maximum of two additional languages over and above the two official languages already chosen may be included. The time allocation specified for these learning field differ, with 4,5 hours per week allocated for the respective chosen languages, Mathematics or Mathematical Literacy; two (2) hours per week allocated to Life Orientation, and twelve (12) hours in total (3 x 4 hours) for the rest of the subjects. This calculates to a total of 27, 5 hours per week. The allocated 27, 5 hours per week may be utilised only for the minimum required NCS Grades 10-12 (General) subjects as specified above, and may not be used for any additional subjects added to the list of minimum subjects. Should a learner wish to offer additional subjects, additional time must be allocated for the offering of these subjects. 3.3 OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION AND THE NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT (GRADES 10-12) Outcomes-based education (OBE) forms the foundation for the curriculum in South Africa. OBE encourages a learner-centred and activity-based approach to education. A Learning Outcome is a statement of an intended result of learning and teaching. It describes knowledge, skills and values that learners should acquire by the end of the Further Education and Training band. The National Curriculum Statement builds its Learning Outcomes

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for Grades 10 ­ 12 on the Critical and Developmental Outcomes. The Critical Outcomes require learners to be able to: identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking; work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation and community; organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively; collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information; communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes; use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others; and demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation. The Developmental Outcomes require learners to be able to: reflect on and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively; participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities; be culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts; explore education and career opportunities; and develop entrepreneurial opportunities.

Integration is achieved within and across subjects and fields of learning. The integration of knowledge and skills across subjects and terrains of practice is crucial for achieving applied competence as defined in the National Qualifications Framework. Applied competence aims at integrating three discrete competences ­ namely, practical, foundational and reflective competences. In adopting integration and applied competence, the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) seek to promote an integrated learning of theory, practice and reflection. The learner emerging from the Further Education and Training band is expected to demonstrate achievement of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes. Subjects in the Fundamental Learning Component collectively promote the achievement of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes, while specific subjects in the Core and Elective Components individually promote the achievement of particular Critical and Developmental Outcomes. Learners completing the Further Education and Training band are also expected to: 3.4 have access to, and succeed in, lifelong education and training of good quality; demonstrate an ability to think logically and analytically, as well as holistically and laterally; and be able to transfer skills from familiar to unfamiliar situations. ASSESSMENT IN THE NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM STATEMENT (GRADES 10-12)

A variety of assessment approaches is envisioned within the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 1012), with the following standardized scales of achievement being specified (Table 3.1):

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TABLE 3.1: Scale of achievement for the National Curriculum Statement (Grades) Rating 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Code rating Outstanding achievement Meritorious achievement Substantial achievement Adequate achievement Moderate achievement Elementary achievement Not achieved Marks % 80-100 70-79 60-69 50-59 40-49 30-39 0-29

Learners will therefore be provided with the rating feedback, rather than the actual mark achieved at the end of a subject. The new National Senior Certificate (NSC) is of particular interest within the context of higher education. A National Senior Certificate will be issued to learners who comply with the following promotion requirements: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Obtained at least 40% in the required official language at Home Language level; Obtained at least 30% in the other required language on at least First Additional Language level as contemplated; Obtained at least 30% in Mathematical Literacy or Mathematics Obtained at least 40% in Life Orientation as contemplated in Obtained at least 40% in one of the remaining three subjects and at least 30% in two subjects; A condonation of a maximum of one subject per grade with a rating of `Not Achieved' will be allowed for either a fundamental or a core subject, and such a subject will be deemed to have been obtained with a rating of 30%, provided that a condonation is applied only once. (g) Learners who offer a Music programme from either the Associated Board of Royal Schools Practical Music Examination or Trinity College of London Practical Music Examination or Unisa Practical Music Examination, must obtain a rating of at least 65% for the Associated Board of Royal Schools Practical Music Examination, or at least 65% for the Trinity College of London Practical Music Examination, or at least 50% for the Unisa Practical Music Examination. Assessment Standards have been formulated for each outcome specified in each subject in the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12). Assessment Standards are criteria that collectively describe what a learner should know and be able to demonstrate at a specific grade. They embody the knowledge, skills and values required to achieve the Learning Outcomes. Assessment Standards within each Learning Outcome collectively show how conceptual progression occurs from grade to grade. A Learning Programme specifies the scope of learning and assessment for the three grades in the Further Education and Training band. It is the plan that ensures that learners achieve the Learning Outcomes as prescribed by the Assessment Standards for a

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particular grade. The Learning Programme Guidelines assist teachers and other Learning Programme developers to plan and design quality learning, teaching and assessment programmes. 3.5 THE KIND OF LEARNER THAT IS ENVISAGED

Of vital importance to our development as people are the values that give meaning to our personal spiritual and intellectual journeys. The Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy (Department of Education, 2001:9-10) states the following about education and values: Values and morality give meaning to our individual and social relationships. They are the common currencies that help make life more meaningful than might otherwise have been. An education system does not exist to simply serve a market, important as that may be for economic growth and material prosperity. Its primary purpose must be to enrich the individual and, by extension, the broader society. The kind of learner that is envisaged is one who will be imbued with the values and act in the interests of a society based on respect for democracy, equality, human dignity and social justice as promoted in the Constitution. The learner emerging from the Further Education and Training band must also demonstrate achievement of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes listed earlier in this document. Subjects in the Fundamental Learning Component collectively promote the achievement of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes, while specific subjects in the Core and Elective Components individually promote the achievement of particular Critical and Developmental Outcomes. In addition to the above, learners emerging from the Further Education and Training band must: have access to, and succeed in, lifelong education and training of good quality; demonstrate an ability to think logically and analytically, as well as holistically and laterally; and be able to transfer skills from familiar to unfamiliar situations.

These skills seem to be of international importance, as they are also valued by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (2002) and reported in the work of Baxter Magolda (2001, 2004). 3.6 THE KIND OF TEACHER THAT IS ENVISAGED

All teachers and other educators are key contributors to the transformation of education in South Africa. The National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) visualises teachers who are qualified, competent, dedicated and caring. They will be able to fulfil the various roles outlined in the Norms and Standards for Educators. These include being mediators of learning, interpreters and designers of Learning Programmes and materials, leaders, administrators and managers, scholars, researchers and lifelong learners, community members, citizens and pastors, assessors, and subject specialists.

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3.7 3.7.1

SUBJECT SPECIFIC STATEMENTS Accounting (Contact person: to be confirmed in 2008)

Background Accounting focuses on measuring performance, and processing and communicating financial information about economic sectors. This discipline ensures that ethical behaviour, transparency and accountability are adhered to. It deals with the logical, systematic and accurate selection and recording of financial information and transactions, as well as the compilation, analysis and interpretation of financial statements and managerial reports for use by interested parties. National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Accounting The subject Accounting develops learners' knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and ability to make meaningful and informed personal and collaborative financial decisions in economic and social environments. By engaging in Accounting, learners will be able to: Collect, select, record and/or capture, analyse and interpret financial and other relevant data in order to make informed decisions. Develop general and specific skills in accounting to integrate theory and practice and which could be used for compliance with generally accepted accounting practice. Present and/or communicate financial information effectively by using generally accepted accounting practice, developments and legislation. Develop and demonstrate an understanding of fundamental accounting concepts. Acquire skills, knowledge, attitudes and values that can contribute directly or indirectly to the improvement of standard of living, human development and productivity, and create opportunities for all. Relate skills, knowledge and values to real-world situations in order to ensure the balance between theory and practice, to enter the world of work and/or move to higher education, and to encourage selfdevelopment. Organise and manage own finances and activities responsibly and effectively. Apply principles to solve problems in a judicious and systematic manner in familiar and unfamiliar situations, thus developing the ability to identify and solve problems. Develop critical, logical, and analytical abilities and thought processes to enable them to apply these skills to current and new situations. Develop the necessary characteristics including: o o o o o o ethics; sound judgment; thoroughness; orderliness; accuracy; and neatness and presentability.

Deal confidently with the basic demands of an accounting occupation manually and/or electronically.

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The future learner The principles, concepts, skills, attitudes and values in Accounting articulate with business, economic, management, administration and financial outcomes in the General Education and Training band. These principles, concepts, skills, attitudes and values are recognised and broadened in the Further Education and Training band. The Learning Outcomes in the Further Education and Training band correspond directly with current learning in Higher Education and Training institutions, and form a base for learning in the Higher Education and Training band. Learning in this subject enables learners to continue with their studies in further and/or higher educational institutions and professional bodies, inter alia in the fields of financial, cost, managerial accounting and auditing. It also enables them to develop skills, knowledge, values and attitudes to pursue different career pathways. Teachers' access to information Many schools have information sessions regarding the implementation of FET and the different subject choices the learners have to face. The educators of these subjects had special training as to convey this information to the learners and to guide them in the choices they make for FET subjects that will be appropriate for their individual career choice. Not all schools have the same opportunities and perhaps the knowledge regarding informing learners about their subject choices within the FET Accounting curriculum. The implementation of the NCS could be successful. Secondary and tertiary education institutions need to link appropriate and relevant knowledge and requirements within Accounting. The content needs within different programmes should be clearly communicated between these institutions in order to deliver quality education to the learners and future students. Learning outcomes for Accounting: Learning Outcome 1: Financial Information The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the application of financial information according to generally accepted accounting practice and concepts. This Learning Outcome will equip learners with the necessary knowledge and skills to collect, analyse, organise, record and critically evaluate financial information from source documents up to final accounts and financial statements. Learners will be able to organise, apply and manage financial activities and data in a responsible and effective manner in their lives, community and economic environments. Learning Outcome 2: Managerial Accounting The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of managerial accounting, as well as the application thereof.

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The focus of this Learning Outcome is to equip learners with the ability to manage and report on activities by using specific management, organising and leadership skills. This Learning Outcome focuses on developing managerial, financial and communication skills to enable learners to manage themselves and their business activities responsibly and effectively. Learners will be able to interpret financial and managerial information so as to make informed decisions and communicate these decisions to the relevant stakeholders. Learning Outcome 3: Managing Resources The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the use of different financial and managerial control tools and strategies to manage resources in a responsible manner. Learners will be equipped with the skills to use financial and managerial tools and strategies to determine the financial impact on the management of resources. The focus of this Learning Outcome is to inculcate ethical behaviour with regard to the management of resources. The scope of Accounting This subject encompasses accounting knowledge, skills and values focusing on the financial, managerial and auditing fields. These knowledge, skills and values must address and underpin the constitutional goals of South Africa (e.g. legitimacy, accountability, accessibility, transparency and ethical behaviour). To meet the requirements of a multicultural and democratic environment financial accounting, cost and managerial accounting and auditing serve as a framework to capture the essence of Accounting and should be seen as progression for further development within this subject. This scope embraces the following features: Financial accounting Financial accounting includes the logical, systematic and accurate recording of financial transactions as well as the analysis, interpretation and communication of financial statements by understanding the fundamental concepts regarding basic accounting principles and practice. Managerial accounting Managerial accounting includes concepts such as costing and budgeting. It puts emphasis on the analysis, interpretation and communication of financial and managerial information for decision-making purposes. Tools in managing resources Tools in managing resources include basic internal controls and internal audit processes and code of ethics. This feature puts the emphasis on the knowledge, understanding and adherence to ethics in pursuit of human dignity, acknowledging human rights, values and equity, in financial and managerial activities. Refer to Table 3.2 for detail on the content in Accounting and Table 3.3 for the assessment standards in Accounting. .

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Table 3.2: Content for Accounting Learning Outcome 1: Financial Information Grade 10

Defining and explaining the accounting concepts for sole trader, with the emphasis on the accounting cycle and the GAAP principles. Identifying and completing the source documents, recording in the relevant subsidiary journal, posting to the ledger and drawing up the trial balance for a sole trader. Analysing and showing the effect of the all transactions of a sole trader on the accounting equation. Preparing the final accounts and financial statements of a sole trader, including some yearend adjustments. Explaining the need, purpose, principle and basic concepts of VAT.

Grade 11

Defining and explaining the accounting concepts for partnerships and non-profit organisations, with the emphasis on the accounting cycle and the GAAP principles. Identifying and recording the unique differences related to partnerships and clubs in the relevant subsidiary journal and posting to the ledger. Analysing and showing the effect of all transactions of partnerships and clubs on the accounting equation. Preparing bank reconciliation of a sole trader. Preparing and interpreting the final accounts and financial statements of a partnership and a club, including the yearend adjustments. Performing VAT calculations from invoices and receipts.

Grade 12

Defining and explaining the accounting concepts for manufacturing enterprises, close corporations and companies with the emphasis on the accounting cycle and the GAAP principles. Identifying and recording the unique differences related to close corporations and companies in the relevant subsidiary journal and ledger. Analysing and showing the effect of all transactions of close corporations and companies on the accounting equation. Analysing and interpreting the results of debtors, creditors and bank reconciliation statements. Preparing final accounts and financial statements, analysing and interpreting the financial statements of close corporations and companies, including the year-end adjustments. Analysing a company's published financial statements and audit report by way of a project. Applying VAT concepts related to VAT returns, and completing input, output and control VAT accounts from given information.

Learning Outcome 2: Managerial Accounting Grade 10

Distinguishing between financial and managerial accounting. Identifying basic cost concepts in the manufacturing environment. Explaining the different budget concepts and types of budgets.

Grade 11

Applying costing principles and cost behaviours in a manufacturing environment (material, labour and overheads) and recording in the ledger. Preparing and presenting a cash budget including estimates for revenue and expenditure, debtors and creditors for a sole trader.

Grade 12

Preparing, presenting, analysing and reporting on cost information and compiling a production cost statement. Analysing and interpreting projected income statements and cash budgets for a sole trader.

Learning Outcome 3: Managing resources Grade 10

Managing the resources of an informal business using indigenous bookkeeping systems and the formal bookkeeping system by comparing the two systems. Explaining salary and wages scales, calculating and recording salary and wage transactions in the subsidiary journals and ledger, taking the relevant contributions and deductions into consideration. Discussing and understanding the perpetual inventory system and recording transactions in the subsidiary journals and ledgers. Explaining the basic principles of the code of ethics as it applies mutually in an accountable and transparent way to all parties. Understanding internal control processes.

Grade 11

Calculating and recording depreciation, and the acquisition and disposal of assets using different methods of depreciation. Recording transactions in the subsidiary journals and ledgers utilising the periodic inventory system and comparing it to the perpetual inventory system with a focus on partnerships and clubs. Using different control tools to identify and analyse ethical behaviour applicable to the financial environment, with reference to accountability and transparency. Understanding internal audit processes.

Grade 12

Interpreting and reporting on the movement of assets in financial statements. Using different valuation methods to validate and calculate inventories. Discussing disciplinary and punitive measures to be applied for noncompliance to the code of ethics and the role of professional bodies, with reference to legislation and policies. Applying internal control and internal audit processes in a business environment with reference to the receipt of cash.

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Assessment standards for Accounting For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Table 3.3: Assessment standards for Accounting Learning Outcome 1: Financial Information

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the application of financial information according to generally accepted accounting practice and concepts.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Define and explain accounting concepts for sole trader up to financial statements. Within the context of the accounting cycle, identify and complete source documents, record the information in the subsidiary journals (books of first entry), post to the ledgers and draw up the trial balance of a sole trader manually and/or by using an accounting package. Analyse and show the effect of transactions on the accounting equation of sole traders. Prepare final accounts and financial statements of a sole trader. Explain basic VAT concepts

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Define and explain accounting concepts for partnerships and non-profit organisations. Within the context of the accounting cycle, record the unique information of a partnership and a club. Analyse and show the effect of transactions on the accounting equation of partnerships and clubs. Prepare a bank reconciliation statement. Prepare and interpret final accounts and financial statements of a partnership and a club.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Define and explain accounting concepts for manufacturing enterprises, close corporations and companies. Within the context of the accounting cycle, record the unique information for a company and close corporation. Analyse and interpret the influence of transactions on the accounting equation of close corporations and companies. Analyse and interpret bank, debtors and creditors reconciliations. Prepare final accounts and financial statements, analyse and interpret the financial statements of a close corporation and a company. Analyse published financial statements and audit reports of companies. Apply the principles of VAT in different situations.

Learning Outcome 2: Managerial Accounting

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of managerial accounting as well as the application thereof.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Distinguish between financial and managerial accounting. Identify basic cost concepts. Explain basic budget concepts.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply costing principles and cost behaviour in a manufacturing environment. Prepare and present a cash budget for a sole trader.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Prepare, present, analyse and report on cost information for a manufacturing enterprise by compiling a production cost statement. Analyse and interpret projected income statements and a cash budget for sole traders.

Learning Outcome 3: Managing resources

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and an understanding of the use of different financial and managerial control tools and strategies to manage resources in a responsible manner.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Interview persons who are using informal or indigenous bookkeeping systems to gather all information. Explain salary and wages scales and different contributions, and record in the subsidiary journals and ledger. Discuss the perpetual inventory system, record transactions in the subsidiary journals and post to the ledgers. Explain the code of ethics as it applies mutually in an accountable and transparent way to all parties in the financial environment. Demonstrate knowledge of internal control processes.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Calculate and record depreciation, the acquisition and disposal of assets. Record transactions in the subsidiary journals and ledgers utilising the periodic inventory system, and compare it with the perpetual inventory system. Identify and analyse ethical behaviour applicable to the financial environment with reference to accountability and transparency. Demonstrate knowledge of internal audit processes.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Interpret and report on asset disposal. Validate and calculate inventories with specific reference to the different inventory valuation methods. Discuss disciplinary and punitive measures to be applied for noncompliance to the code of ethics and the role of professional bodies. Apply internal control and internal audit processes in a business environment.

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Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 Suggested reading BISHOP, J.H. & MANE, F. 2005. Raising academic standards and vocational concentrators: Are they better off or worse off? Education Economics, 13(2): 171-187. BURGER, L., O'NEILL, C. & MAHADEA, D. 2005. The impact of previous knowledge and experience on the entrepreneurial attitudes of Grade 12 learners. South African Journal of Education, 25(2): 89-94. BYRNE, M. & FLOOD, B. 2005. A study of accounting students' motives, expectations and preparedness for higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29(2): 111-124. HORN, G. 2006. Educational solutions to improve the employability of senior high school learners. South African Journal of Education, 26(1): 113-128. IRANDOUST, M. & KARLSSON, N. 2002. Impact of preferences, curriculum, and learning strategies on academic success. Education Economics, 10(1): 41-48. JOSHI, P.L. & AL-BASTAKI, H. 2002. International accounting and the accounting curriculum: A survey of the perceptions of corporate chief accountants from Bahrain. Meditari Accountancy Research, 10: 109-129. LUBBE, D.S., RAUBENHEIMER, E. & BRITZ, R. 2000. Die noodsaaklikheid van rekeningkunde-opleiding vir prokureurs: Enkele empiriese bevindings. Meditari Accountancy Research, 8: 95-110. NORTH, E. 2002. A decade of entrepreneurship education in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 22(1): 24-27.

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3.7.2

Geography (Contact person: Mr Peter Beets, Department of Curriculum Studies, [email protected])

Background Geography is a science that studies physical and human processes and spatial patterns on Earth in an integrated way over space and time. It examines the spatial distribution of people and their activities, physical and human made features, ecosystems and interactions between humans, and between humans and the environment in a dynamic context. National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Geography Geography enables learners to explain processes and spatial patterns, to make well-informed judgments about changing environments and contexts, to think more critically and creatively about what it means to live sustainably, to recognise how values and attitudes influence and affect the environment, and to apply a range of geographical skills and techniques to issues and challenges in a rapidly-changing world. Geography in the Further Education and Training band aims to: develop tools and skills to research, interpret, analyse and make judgments based on the information gathered, thereby contributing to geographical literacy. These tools are central to the distinctive approach of Geography in order to understand physical and human patterns and processes on Earth. Informed decisions, important to the well-being of society and the environment, are based on a range of geographical skills. All these decisions involve the ability to acquire, arrange and use geographical information and to think systematically and critically about social and environmental issues and challenges. develop knowledge and critical understanding of the changing nature and interrelatedness of human existence and the environment over space and time. This creates a frame of reference for asking and answering geographical questions, identifying and solving problems, and evaluating the consequences of alternative solutions and possible actions. Geography is in the unique position of drawing together aspects of natural sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge systems in order to contribute to the understanding of spatial distribution, human-environment interactions, and sustainable development. prepare learners to become informed, critical and responsible citizens who can make sound judgments and take appropriate action that will contribute to equitable and sustainable development of human society and the physical environment. Geography prepares learners to become responsible and competent decision makers and agents, living and working in a complex world. It encourages them to challenge and address social and environmental injustices. Learners will be guided to develop attitudes and values that will encourage them to take appropriate action, where possible, to address social and environmental problems and injustices. The future learner Geography in the Further Education and Training band expands on the foundations developed in the General Education and Training band in the Social Sciences Learning Area with its emphasis on people, environment and people-environment relationships over space and time. The subject also builds on foundations laid in the

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study of physical processes, which were partly dealt with in the Natural Sciences Learning Area in the General Education and Training band. Geography provides a number of opportunities for additional education and training. Career links include amongst others, the following: aviation, cartography, earth sciences, eco-tourism, education and teaching, environmental management, geographical information systems, geology, land surveying, meteorology, nature conservation, remote sensing, rural and regional planning, urban planning, water and land affairs. These careers span the administration, planning and development, transport, commerce, industrial, mining and tourism sectors. Teachers' access to information Many schools have information sessions regarding the implementation of FET and the different subject choices the learners have to face. The educators of these subjects had special training as to convey this information to the learners and to guide them in the choices they make for FET subjects that will be appropriate for their individual career choice. Not all schools have the same opportunities and perhaps the knowledge regarding informing learners about their subject choices within the FET Geography curriculum. The implementation of the NCS could be successful. Secondary and tertiary education institutions need to link appropriate and relevant knowledge and requirements within Geography. The content needs within different programmes should be clearly communicated between these institutions in order to deliver quality education to the learners and future students. Learning outcomes for Geography: Learners in the General Education and Training band `learn by doing' as they explore their surroundings, engage in fieldwork, and access data and information from various sources. Learners in the Further Education and Training band continue with these activities, but should have a greater capacity for abstract thinking than the General Education and Training learners as they must apply concepts to a range of more complex challenges. In addition, a more advanced level of practical work and field-work will be demanded of them. The foundation for most of the skills listed (see Table 3.4) was laid in the General Education and Training band, and will be expanded in the Further Education and Training band. Using different investigative and enquiry methods, among others, these skills are developed in each of the three Learning Outcomes. These will form the basis for more specialised studies in certain fields of the Higher Education and Training band. The following is a guide to the general competencies expected of a Grade 12 learner:

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Table 3.4:

Skill Literacy Communication numeracy Geographical numeracy Graphicacy Field methods

Guide to the general competencies expected of a Grade 12 geography learner

Acquire geographical information Reading primary and secondary documents Listening skills Sampling Doing measurements, maps and imagery Spacial sampling Interpreting maps, graphs, arial photos, remotely-sensed imagery, photos and works of art Interviewing, observing, completing questionnaires, doing measurements e.g. Global Positioning Systems (GPS), making notes, taking photos, drawing maps and making sketches Organise geographical information Compiling research plans Reporting and writing essays Documenting data Presentation skills Doing descriptive statistics, conversions and indices Doing digital mapping and map projections Applying cartographic principles Drawing maps Constructing graphs Converting imagery Classifying and summarizing data Analyse geographical information Content analysis Critical reviews Seminar and debating skills Applying analytical statistics Applying GIS procedures and special statistics Using map statistics Making inferences from maps, graphs, photos Making inferences from field observations

Learning Outcomes for Geography Learning Outcome 1: Geographical skills and techniques (practical competence) The learner is able to demonstrate a range of geographical skills and techniques. This Learning Outcome is achieved when learners are able to demonstrate the competence to ask questions, acquire, organise and analyse information, and make judgments based on the information gathered (enquiry skills). This includes competence in map use and map skills (spatial skills and techniques), and the manipulation of (electronic) geographical databases. These geographical skills provide the necessary tools, techniques and procedures for learners to think geographically and construct geographical knowledge. Grade 10 Learners will be expected to use a range of geographical skills and techniques at a basic level in order to use and manipulate data and information. Furthermore, learners should demonstrate the skills of reporting findings and/or expressing an opinion. Grade 11 Learners will be expected to plan and structure a project/enquiry process using a range of different geographical skills and techniques at a more advanced level in order to use and manipulate data and information. Furthermore, learners should demonstrate the skills of reporting findings and/or taking a substantiated position. Grade 12 Learners will be expected to use a range of geographical skills and techniques in order to use and manipulate data and information. Furthermore, learners should demonstrate the skills to communicate and present findings/information reliably and accurately.

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Learning Outcome 2: Knowledge and understanding (foundational competence) The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of processes and spatial patterns dealing with interactions between humans, and between humans and the environment in space and time. This Learning Outcome is achieved when learners are able to demonstrate knowledge and a critical understanding of physical and human processes and the resultant patterns found in a variety of spatial contexts over time. Geography is in the unique position of bringing together aspects of natural sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge systems in order to contribute to the understanding of spatial distribution, human environment interactions, and sustainable development. Grade 10 Learners will be expected to demonstrate a basic operational knowledge of physical and human processes and the patterns which result from them, as well as the interactions between humans and the environment on a local and a global scale. Grade 11 Learners will be expected to demonstrate a basic understanding of physical and human processes and the patterns which result from them, as well as the interactions between humans and the environment on a local and a continental scale. Grade 12 Learners will be expected to demonstrate a fundamental knowledge of physical and human processes and the patterns which result from them, as well as the interactions between humans and the environment on local and a national scale. Learning Outcome 3: Application of skills and knowledge to practical issues and challenges (reflexive competence) The learner is able to apply geographical skills and knowledge to environmental issues and challenges, recognise values and attitudes, and demonstrate the ability to recommend solutions and strategies. This Learning Outcome is achieved when learners are able to demonstrate the competence to make sound judgments and take responsible and appropriate action that will contribute to the equitable and sustainable development of society and the environment. Geography encourages learners to recognise values and attitudes which influence issues, and also to develop values and attitudes to challenge and address socio-economic and environmental injustices. Grade 10 Learners will be expected to apply knowledge and skills to select and propose known solutions or strategies to manage local/continental problems, acknowledging the values, attitudes and knowledge systems which impact on the actions of those involved.

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Grade 11 Learners will be expected to apply acquired knowledge and skills in order to select appropriate procedures within given parameters to propose solutions or strategies to manage local or global problems, recognising the values, attitudes and knowledge systems which inform the actions of those involved. Grade 12 Learners will be expected to apply acquired knowledge and skills to propose solutions or strategies to manage local or national problems, adapt known/common solutions for different problems and contexts, recognising the values, attitudes and knowledge systems informing the actions of those involved. The scope of Geography The scope of Geography in the Further Education and Training band covers three major aspects of geographical studies: geographical skills and techniques (Learning Outcome 1); knowledge and understanding (Learning Outcome 2); and the application of skills and knowledge to practical issues and challenges (Learning Outcome 3). Each Learning Outcome is underpinned by Assessment Standards (eleven in each grade), which are supported by the content of the subject. Essential skills and techniques There are five broad, essential geographical skills and techniques (Learning Outcome 1): Asking questions: Geographers seek to understand and explain the interactions between humans, and between humans and the environment in space and time. This involves the ability and willingness to ask, speculate on, and answer questions related to Geography. Acquiring information: To answer questions, learners should start by gathering information from a range of sources in a variety of ways. The skills and methods involved in this process include locating and collecting information, observing and systematically recording information, reading and interpreting maps and other graphical representations, interviewing and executing general fieldwork skills. Organising information: Information is organised and displayed in ways that help with analysis and interpretation. Different types of information should be separated systematically and classified in visual or graphical forms (e.g. photographs, aerial photographs, graphs, cross-sections, climographs, diagrams, tables and maps). Information from documents or interview transcripts should be organised into pertinent quotes or statements, in a tabular or thematic form. Analysing information: Analysis involves establishing patterns, relationships and connections. It entails noting associations, similarities or differences between areas and/or phenomena, recognising patterns and drawing inferences from maps, graphs, diagrams, tables and other sources. Geographers also use statistical methods to identify trends, relationships and sequences. Observations can be synthesised into a meaningful interpretation by using important tools available in geographical analysis such as electronic (digital) databases and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

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Answering questions: Successful geographical enquiry culminates in the development of generalizations and interpretations based on the data collected, organised and analysed. Learners should be able to communicate clearly and effectively their findings/answers by presenting them in the best possible way. Each question answered, decision reached or problem solved leads to new issues and situations being investigated.

These skills and techniques should be integrated throughout all the Learning Outcomes for Geography and not treated as separate elements that are isolated from the content of Geography. Development and application of knowledge, understanding and skills The development of knowledge and understanding (Learning Outcome 2) and the application of knowledge and skills (Learning Outcome 3) to phenomena, issues and challenges are essential. Firstly, Geography studies how spatial patterns and processes affect the way people live and interact with the environment, how physical and human processes shape the environment, and how humans interrelate with the living and non-living environment. This aspect of Geography gives rise to questions such as `Where are things?', `Why are they there?', `What spatial patterns do they show?', and `What processes give rise to these patterns?' It further seeks to explain the character of places/regions and the distribution of people, features and events as they occur on the surface of the Earth. Secondly, Geography seeks to understand human-environment interactions. Human actions modify the environment at different scales. Likewise, the environment and the availability of resources in regions and places shape human activities and lifestyles, and ultimately their well-being. The availability of water, for instance, provides opportunities for people to develop a region in a particular way. This aspect of Geography raises concerns about the nature of these interactions and the physical and human processes which influence them. In addition, it is concerned about how people depend on, adapt to and modify environments, and gives consideration to the consequences of human actions. Thirdly, Geography is an applied science which seeks to apply skills and techniques, knowledge and understanding to issues and challenges in our immediate environments, and at a local, national, continental and global scale. These kinds of issues and challenges, no matter the scale, are often complex and are not easily solved. Geographers not only recognise the spatial and temporal dimensions of these issues and challenges, but also the values and attitudes that influence them. This encourages learners to develop critical perspectives to explain why these problems exist. In attempting to offer solutions to these kinds of issues, geographers apply principles such as those embodied in the concepts of sustainable development, sustainability, democracy, and social and environmental justice to offer appropriate solutions or strategies and to develop meaningful perspectives. In this way, Geography prepares learners to be active participants, informed citizens and responsible decision-makers. Learners will also be encouraged to recognise and appreciate values, attitudes and indigenous knowledge held by individuals and groups, to examine the consequences of their actions, and to make informed, logical decisions. The scope of Geography, as described, emphasises the integration of physical and human geography. In the past, these components of Geography have been treated as separate elements. However, a study of physical processes that influence soil erosion, for example, must consider how human activities on the land also

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contribute to the process. The geographer needs to know why soil erosion is occurring and should understand the social, political and economic circumstances that may cause people to influence the rate of soil erosion in a place or in the broader region. The integration of knowledge, understanding, skills and techniques is strengthened by approaching teaching and learning in Geography through regional or thematic studies. Regional studies should not only involve simple explanatory descriptions of parts of the world, but rather be a framework for applying all three Learning Outcomes of Geography. In this way learners come to understand the world as a set of interrelated elements that form a system. Geography encourages a deepening awareness and sense of place and region, which supports the concepts of nation building and the African Renaissance. Learners will become increasingly familiar with South Africa and its place within the African and global context. Thematic studies need to be conducted in the framework of different locations. Three different approaches are applied in thematic studies, namely: the systematic approach, which enables the geographer to understand phenomena (physical and human) and their resultant patterns and impacts in a systematic way (e.g. tropical cyclones, natural hazards, urbanization in a place or region). the systems approach, which enables the geographer to understand the wholeness of the environment and the interdependence of its individual components. Through this approach, physical systems (e.g. climatic systems) and human systems (e.g. settlement systems) in specific places and regions can be studied. the issues-based approach, which enables the geographer to focus on a specific issue in a natural, built or social environment in a locational (place or regional) context. A well-developed geographical understanding of these issues can result only from a process of enquiry in which questions are asked, evidence is examined and conclusions are reached. The enquiry method provides learners with ways of thinking critically and creatively about the problems or issues they study (e.g. the impact of HIV/AIDS on population dynamics, environmental quality, socio-economic disparities, hazards and disasters, poverty and resource management in a country). The content for Geography In this section content and contexts are provided to support the attainment of the Assessment Standards. The content indicated needs to be dealt with in such a way that the learner is assisted to progress towards the achievement of the Learning Outcomes. Content must serve the Learning Outcomes and not be an end in itself. The contexts suggested will enable the content to be embedded in situations that are meaningful to the learner and so assist learning and teaching. The teacher should be aware of and use local contexts, not necessarily indicated here, which could be more suited to the experiences of the learner. Content and context, when aligned to the attainment of the Assessment Standards, provide a framework for the development of Learning Programmes. The Learning Programme Guidelines give more detail in this respect.

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Notes: Themes that are indicated for each grade should be addressed in the context of the three Learning Outcomes for Geography. Each grade has an overall focus as indicated. To make teaching and learning meaningful, it is important to link the chosen scale to other scales (local, provincial, national, continental, global). Although a global (Grade 10) and continental (Grade 11) focus should be adopted, the connection to the South African (national) context remains of utmost importance. The study of these content selections at different scales will enhance the learners' ability to understand the spatial nature of geographical processes and patterns. Where possible, different themes should be approached by integrating physical and human geography. The development and use of skills and techniques form an integral part of the process of constructing knowledge in Geography. Therefore, it should be developed, applied and integrated in the teaching of all the content selections. Refer to Table 3.5 for detail on the content in Geography. Table 3.5: Content for Geography Grade 10

A. Geographical skills and techniques Using atlases: to familiarise and empower learners to use atlases on various themes as a rich source of spatially and nonspatially referenced data and information. Map use and map skills: these include reading and analysis of maps, orthophoto maps, oblique and vertical aerial photographs and graphical data, executing different techniques, for example: o map orientation (map position, types of grid reference); o different types of scales used on different maps and photos; o direction and true bearing; o map calculations (distance, area, gradient, vertical exaggeration); o drawing cross-sections and determining intervisibility; o map analysis and interpretation. Map projections: Lambert. Fieldwork: using local maps/photos; recording geographical information in the local area. Geographical Information Systems (GIS): o general concepts (e.g. systems, information systems, GIS, remote sensing); o geographical concepts (e.g. spatial objects, lines, points, nodes, scales [small versus large], resolution [spectral and spatial]).

Geography Content per Grade Grade 11

A. Geographical skills and techniques Using atlases: to familiarise and empower learners to use atlases on various themes as a rich source of spatially and non-spatially referenced data and information. Map use and map skills: includes reading and analysis of maps, orthophoto maps, aerial photographs and graphic data; executing different techniques, for example: o consolidation and more advanced application of map skills and techniques done in Grade 10 on topographical maps, aerial photos and orthophoto maps; o reading, analysis and interpretation of 1:50 000 topographical maps and orthophotos, integrating concepts done in content section. Map projections: Mercator. Fieldwork: using local maps/photos; recording geographical information in the local area. Functional elements of a GIS including: o data acquisition; o satellite remote sensing as a digital data source; o preprocessing; o data processing.

Grade 12

A. Geographical skills and techniques Using atlases: to familiarise and empower learners to use atlases on various themes as a rich source of spatially and nonspatially referenced data and information. Map use and map skills: includes reading and analysis of maps, orthophoto maps, aerial photographs and graphic data; executing different techniques, for example: o consolidation and more advanced application of map skills and techniques done in Grades 10 and 11 on topographical maps, orthophoto maps and aerial photos; o reading, analysis and interpretation on 1:50 000 topographical maps and orthophoto maps integrating concepts done in content section. Map projections: Gauss Conformal, Universal Transverse Mercator. Fieldwork: using local maps/photos and recording of information in the local area. Functional elements of a GIS including: o data management; o data manipulation and analysis, and spatial analysis; o product generation; o application.

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Table 3.5: Continued

B. Atmosphere: weather and climate Context: The World The atmosphere o composition and structure of the atmosphere; o heating of the atmosphere; o moisture in the atmosphere; o macro/meso weather systems over Africa; o the impact of weather systems on vegetation and human activities; o impact of humans on the atmosphere and weather (e.g. the ozone issue, global warming, acid rain, the greenhouse effect ­ use case studies from African states); o deserts: formation, distribution, arid processes and resultant landforms. C. The structure and changing landforms of the Earth Context: The World Gain an understanding of the time perspective within the geomorphical context. Internal forces: o plate tectonics, faulting and resultant landforms, earthquakes and vulcanism; o response of humans to these hazards and opportunities. External forces: o weathering and erosion: processes that shape the Earth's surface; o the influence of weathering and erosion on human activities; o the significance of the resultant landforms; o the impact (positive and negative) of humans on weathering and erosion processes. Rock types, formations, characteristics, uses and associated landforms. D. People and places: population Context: The World and Africa Key foci emphasising spatial distribution, processes and patterns include: o population movements: rural-urban migration, urbanisation; o population growth and density; o population distribution; o population explosion; o ageing population; o population control; o population policies; o rural depopulation; o population characteristics; o population pyramids. Key human-environment interactions, including: o population issues and dilemmas including poverty, racism, employment, conflicts, inequalities, HIV/AIDS and refugees; o gender issues. B. The significance of water masses Context: Africa and the World The hydrological cycle. Water masses of Africa: oceans, permanent ice, lakes, swamps, etc. Climate change: effects of El Niño and La Niña in Africa. Hazards (flooding and drought) and the response of humans. Oceans as a major source of moisture and oxygen for the atmosphere, protein food and energy supply. Role of oceans: climate control, world trade and as a source of food. Impact of humans on oceans (e.g. pollution, over-exploitation). Forms of exploitation and its impact on sustainable living (e.g. commercial and subsistence fishing, mining, dumping of waste). Coastal environments: natural forces ­ erosion, deposition. Hazards and environmental management of hydrological systems (e.g. rivers, coastal resource management). C. Ecosystems (biotic and abiotic components) Context: Africa and the World Concepts (e.g. biosphere, ecosystem, biome, food webs and chains). Ecological processes (e.g. energy flow, nutrient cycling, self-regulation). Soil processes, soil profile and soil forming factors. Human impact on ecosystems and the consequences. Vegetation regions in Africa: o distribution; o comparing different biomes; o human impact on different biomes. Environmental relationships (influence of climate, soil, topography, veld fires on biomes). D. Development and sustainability Context: Africa and the World Concepts of `development' and `sustainability' at global and national scales. Indicators of development (social or economic) and sustainability. Models and theories of development over time. Rural and urban development: successes and failures. The unevenness of development globally (North/South divide). Contrasting developed and developing countries in terms of indicators. Role of agriculture, industry, aid, globalisation in development using case studies. Gender issues related to development. Changing patterns of agriculture, industry, transport, trade and settlement. B. Climate and weather Context: South Africa and the World Global air circulation and resultant weather patterns. Changes in energy balance. Mid-latitude cyclones and associated weather patterns, and their impact on human activities in South Subtropical anticyclones and resultant weather over South Africa. Tropical cyclones and associated weather patterns; impact on human activities; precautionary strategies and disaster management. Synoptic weather maps and satellite image reading and interpretation. Climates at regional and local scale. Human-made climates (urban climate). Climate hazards and human response to these ­ risk and vulnerability. C. Fluvial processes and landforms Context: South Africa Fluvial processes ­ flowing water on the surface of the Earth: o river profiles; o superimposed and antecedent rivers; o drainage basins: characteristics, drainage patterns, importance and impact of humans; o catchment and river management. Topography associated with horizontal and inclined layers. Slopes: types, characteristics and significance for human activity. Mass movements and human responses. D. People and places: rural and urban settlement Context: South Africa and Africa With regard to processes and spatial patterns involved in rural and urban settlements: o settlement function, size and situation, density, hierarchy, services, (urban) profile; o population size, structure and patterns, land use characteristics, land use zones, the sphere of influence. Key human-environment interactions in rural settlements: o settlement issues: rural depopulation, closure of services, ageing of population, political influences, governance of rural settlements (local authorities, Agenda 21). Key human-environment interactions in urban settlements: o settlement issues: inner city problems, renewal, urban blight, congestion, pollution and land use conflict, standards of living, political influences; o post-modern urban settlements (changing urban centres), governance of urban settlements (local authorities, Agenda 21).

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Table 3.5: Continued

E. People and their organisations Context: The World and Africa This section emphasises human interactions with the environment that promote democratic processes, social justice, economic sustainability and peace. It provides opportunities for learners to develop a critical understanding of unequal distribution patterns and processes over space and time, and the resultant uneven development. It also introduces learners to processes of democratic dialogue and collaborative action for the attainment of shared values. Learners are encouraged to develop a common purpose in seeking viable solutions and appropriate management strategies for addressing inequalities in society and the environment. People organise themselves for action in different ways. Civic organisations (e.g. local pressure groups, non-governmental organisations). National organisations (e.g. political organisations). Continental organisations (e.g. SADC, NEPAD, AU). Global organisations (e.g. United Nations, multinationals, Oxfam, World Bank). Strategies by people, organisations and nations to address development problems. Application of development strategies in local context. E. People and their needs Context: Africa Resource use and management: o resources and their uses; o distribution and utilisation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources; o concepts of `resources exploitation', `resource depletion', `resource preservation', `resource conservation'; o extraction of raw materials, the conflicts and opportunities that are created; o land use conflicts in national parks; o the impact of values and attitudes of people affected. Energy use and management: o increasing demand for energy; o relative and changing importance of fossil fuels, nuclear power and alternative energy sources; o the environmental costs of energy provision; o causes and effects of energy production related to pollution; o causes and consequences of acid rain and the importance of international co-operation; o environmental effects of resource and energy consumption on world temperatures; o sustainable energy principles and approaches ­ consider new forms of energy and approaches to energy conservation Key sustainability-related strategies include: o rural: sustainable strategies to manage dwindling rural settlements, land reform and land redistribution, impact of HIV/AIDS and wars (refugees and displaced people) on rural settlement patterns. o urban: new towns, inner city renewal, self-help cities, urban planning, sustainable strategies to manage expanding centres, informal settlements

E. People and their needs Context: South Africa and the World Economic activities: o primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary economic activities; o influence of economic, physical, political, social factors; o perceptions of decision-makers on the location of industries and other economic activities; o impact of humans on the location of economic activities; o response of people to environmental and socio-economic injustices linked to economic activities; o impact of the change of location of economic activities on people; o importance and challenges of the informal sector in different contexts; o influence of globalisation on economies and change; o agriculture as an economic activity: special emphasis on southern Africa, food security, risks and vulnerability; o transport and trade. Water as a critical resource in South Africa: o availability of water; o distribution and supply of water to South African citizens; sustainable use and management of water.

Assessment standards for Geography For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate.

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Table 3.6: Assessment standards for Geography Learning Outcome 1: Geographical Skills and Techniques (practical competence)

The learner is able to demonstrate a range of geographical skills and techniques.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Identify issues and formulate questions for an investigation. Acquire information from fieldwork and a variety of other sources. Organise information graphically, pictorially and diagrammatically. Analyse information obtained from a variety of sources. Report findings in oral and/or written form.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Plan and structure a project or enquiry process. Acquire a variety of information from relevant primary and secondary sources which include fieldwork. Classify the acquired information according to different categories. Analyse information obtained from a variety of sources ­ including fieldwork data, 1:50 000 topographical maps, orthophoto maps and statistics. Report findings in written, oral and/or illustrative form.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Plan a geographical research project of limited extent in a familiar context. Integrate information from a variety of sources. Compare and contrast information from a variety of sources. Analyse the acquired information in order to answer the initial question. Substantiate findings in written, oral or illustrative form.

Learning Outcome 2: Knowledge and Understanding (foundational competence)

The learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of processes and spatial patterns dealing with interactions between humans, and between humans and the environment in space and time.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Describe processes and associated spatial patterns in places and regions. Identify similarities and differences in processes and spatial patterns between places or between regions. Describe the links between environmental problems and social injustices in a local and global context. Describe the interdependence between humans and the environment at different scales.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Explain processes and associated spatial patterns in a range of places and regions. Compare and contrast processes and spatial patterns between places and/or between regions. Examine issues and challenges arising from human and environment interactions in a local and continental context. Explain different measures of conserving the environment while addressing human needs in a variety of contexts.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Explain the influence of processes and associated spatial patterns in a range of places and regions. Account for the similarities and differences in processes and spatial patterns between places and between regions. Explore possible responses to issues and challenges arising from human and environment interactions in a local and national context. Examine different approaches used to sustain the environment that take into account different knowledge systems in a variety of contexts.

Learning Outcome 3: Application (reflexive competence)

The learner is able to apply geographical skills and knowledge to environmental issues and challenges, recognise values and attitudes, and demonstrate the ability to recommend solutions and strategies.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply skills and knowledge to a range of phenomena, issues and challenges at local and global scales. Identify different values and attitudes held by individuals and groups associated with processes, spatial patterns and human environment interactions at local and global scales.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply skills and knowledge to a range of phenomena, issues and challenges at local and continental scales. Examine the consequences of actions resulting from values and attitudes held by individuals and groups which influence processes, spatial patterns and humanenvironment interactions at a local and continental scale.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply skills and knowledge to a range of phenomena, issues and challenges at local and national scales. Examine values and attitudes held by individuals and groups associated with processes, spatial patterns and human environment interactions at local and national scales.

Methods of Assessment - Self-assessment - Peer assessment - Group assessment Methods of collecting assessment evidence - Observation-based assessment

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- Test-based assessment - Task-based assessment Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 Suggested reading BEETS, P. & LE GRANGE, L. 2005. Continuity and progression: The Achilles' heel of the National Curriculum Statement for Geography? South African Journal of Education, 25(3): 190-197. FAIRHURST, U.J., DAVIES, R.J., FOX R.C., GOLDSCHAGG, P., RAMUTSINDELA, M., BOB, U. & KHOSA, M.M. 2003. Geography: The state of the discipline in South Africa (2000-2001). South African Geographical Journal, 85(2): 81-89. LE GRANGE, L. & BEETS, P. 2005. Geography education in South Africa after a decade of democracy. Geography, 90(3): 267-277. TENGBEH, G.T. 2004. South Africa: An unknown country to its Geography students? South African Geographical Journal, 86(2): 76-84. WELLENS, J., BERARDI, A., CHALKLEY, B., CHAMBERS, B., HEALY, R., MONK, J. & VENDER, J. 2006. Teaching Geography for social transformation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 30(1): 117-131. WILMOT, D. 2003. The inception phase of a case study of outcomes-based education assessment policy in the Human and Social Sciences learning Area of C2005. South African Journal of Education, 23(4): 313-318. WILMOT, D. 2005. The development phase of a case study of outcomes-based education assessment policy in the Human and Social Sciences learning area of C2005. South African Journal of Education, 25(2): 69-76.

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3.7.3

History (Contact person: Mr Edward Smuts, Department of Curriculum Studies, [email protected])

Background History is the study of change and development in society over time and space. It also draws on archaeology, paleontology, genetics and oral history to interrogate the past. The study of History enables us to understand and evaluate how past human action impacts on the present and influences the future. A study of History builds the capacity of people to make informed choices in order to contribute constructively to society and to advance democracy. As a vehicle of personal empowerment, History engenders in learners an understanding of human agency. This brings with it the knowledge that, as human beings, learners have choices, and that they can make the choice to change the world for the better. National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for History A rigorous process of historical enquiry: encourages and assists constructive debate through careful evaluation of a broad range of evidence and diverse points of view; provides a critical understanding of socio-economic systems in their historical perspective and their impact on people; and supports the view that historical truth consists of a multiplicity of voices expressing varying and often contradictory versions of the same history. The study of History supports democracy by: engendering an appreciation and an understanding of the democratic values of the Constitution; encouraging civic responsibility and responsible leadership; promoting human rights, peace, and democracy; and fostering an understanding of identity as a social construct, preparing future citizens for local, regional, national, continental and global citizenship. As a vehicle for human rights, History: enables people to examine with greater insight and understanding the prejudices involving race, class, gender, ethnicity and xenophobia still existing in society and which must be challenged and addressed; and enables us to listen to formerly-subjugated voices, and focuses on the crucial role of memory in society. This comes particularly through an emphasis on oral history and an understanding of indigenous knowledge systems. History promotes non-discrimination, raises debates, confronts issues and builds capacity in individuals to address current social and environmental concerns.

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The future learner History in the Further Education and Training band further develops the foundations laid in the General Education and Training band, paying particular attention to the contested nature of History. In this band, learners build on the enquiry skills acquired in the General Education and Training band. The study of History provides a sound vocational preparation for a wide range of jobs and careers, including those which call for analysing and seeking solutions to many present-day problems. Training in historical study teaches one to analyse evidence, to organise ideas and to construct coherent arguments. The skills acquired enable those with an historical background to assess issues in the light of considerable and often conflicting amounts of data and to present complex sources of information accurately in writing or orally. By providing a breadth of vision that goes beyond narrow specialisations, historical study nurtures effective communication, which is an essential life and professional skill in the contemporary world. History qualifications can, therefore, lead to future careers in management and administration, marketing, public relations and the media. Because of their skills development capacity, history qualifications should be highly valued. Teachers' access to information Many schools have information sessions regarding the implementation of FET and the different subject choices the learners have to face. The educators of these subjects had special training as to convey this information to the learners and to guide them in the choices they make for FET subjects that will be appropriate for their individual career choice. Not all schools have the same opportunities and perhaps the knowledge regarding informing learners about their subject choices within the FET History curriculum. The implementation of the NCS could be successful. Secondary and tertiary education institutions need to link appropriate and relevant knowledge and requirements within History. The content needs within different programmes should be clearly communicated between these institutions in order to deliver quality education to the learners and future students. Learning outcomes for History: History in the Further Education and Training band has four Learning Outcomes. These outcomes are written separately, although they complement each other and must be used together. They also introduce teachers and learners in South Africa to a new vision of History teaching and learning in schools. The first three Learning Outcomes reflect the process by which historians (and learners) investigate the past. They develop historical enquiry, conceptual understanding and knowledge construction. The fourth Learning Outcome engages learners with issues around heritage. This outcome must not be seen as a separate component but needs to be closely linked to the other three. The Assessment Standards related to these Learning Outcomes broadly include issues related to human rights and indigenous knowledge systems.

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Learning Outcomes for History Learning Outcome 1: Enquiry Skills (Practical Competence) The learner is able to acquire and apply historical enquiry skills. Learning Outcome 2: Historical Concepts (Foundational Competence) The learner is able to use historical concepts in order to analyse the past. Learning Outcome 3: Knowledge Construction and Communication (Reflexive Competence) The learner is able to construct and communicate historical knowledge and understanding. Learning Outcome 4: Heritage (Reflexive Competence) The learner is able to engage critically with issues around heritage. The scope of History History is a field of study which encompasses the totality of human experience. It is a distinctive and well established discipline with its own methods, discourses and production of historical knowledge. Learners who study History use the insights and skills of historians. They analyse sources and evidence, and study different interpretations, divergent opinions and voices. By doing so, they are taught to think in a rigorous and critical manner about society. Their work draws on and influences all fields of human endeavour. This process is enriched by the application of historical imagination. Learners will increase their conceptual knowledge as a framework of analysis. Using this framework, they will interpret and construct historical knowledge and understanding and be encouraged to communicate this in a variety of ways. The skills, knowledge and understanding developed through the first three Learning Outcomes will be applied to issues of heritage (Outcome 4), which will lead them to appreciate and assist in conserving heritage sites. Until recently, the Western world really only valued logical, mathematical and verbal linguistic abilities and rated people as `intelligent' only if they were skilled in these ways of knowing. This dictated the way history was written and interpreted. Now people recognise that there is a wide diversity of knowledge systems through which people make meaning of the world in which they live. Indigenous knowledge systems in the South African context refer to a body of knowledge embedded in indigenous people's philosophical thinking and social practices that have evolved over thousands of years and that continue to evolve. No knowledge system is static, but is dynamic, growing and changing in contact with other knowledge systems. The History Subject Statement deliberately introduces the concept of indigenous knowledge systems to acknowledge the richness of the history and heritage of this country and its contribution as one of the sources of change to help transform the values of learners. Bringing in as many different perspectives as possible assists problem solving in all fields. The History content suggested for the Further Education and Training band builds on the content suggestions for the General Education and Training Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 (Schools). The content is centred on overall key questions for History, namely: How do we understand the world today?

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What legacies of the past shape the present?

In understanding our world today and the legacies that shaped our present, the broad themes of power alignments, human rights, issues of civil society and globalization were used in suggesting areas of content. Each grade opens with a broad survey of the world at the beginning of the period and closes with a summary of the changes that took place during the period studied. Refer to Table 3.7 for detail on the content in History. Table 3.7: Content for History Grade 10

What was the world like in the mid-fifteenth century? (What were the bases of power, power relations, technology, economy and trade?) · Africa (Songhay); · China (Ming); · India (Mogul); · Ottoman Empire; · the Americas; · How were European societies organised at this time? · How was Southern African societies (including Zimbabwe) organised in relation to the above societies? What was the impact of conquest, warfare and early colonialism in the Americas (Spain), Africa (Portugal, Holland) and India (France, Britain)? · What was the nature of the shifting dominance by Europe of the world ­ Portugal, Spain, Holland, England? · What was the nature of the emerging attitudes to race during this period (e.g. Sarah Baartman)? Slavery: · What was the connection between slavery and the accumulation of wealth during the Industrial Revolution? · What was the link between the Atlantic slave trade and racism? The quest for liberty: · How did the American War of Independence challenge the old basis of power? Who benefited? · The French Revolution and the ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity and individual freedom: What sort of liberty, equality and fraternity was involved? How did the ideas play out in the relationships between the French and other people (e.g. Africa, Haiti)? · The ending of slavery in British colonies (e.g. the Caribbean, the Cape Colony) and the USA: What brought about the ending of slavery? What economic causes were there (new needs of an industrializing economy)? How important was the role that slaves played in achieving their freedom? How much freedom did they obtain? · In terms of human rights, power and poverty, did American society change after

History Content per Grade Grade 11

What was the world like by 1850? · African state formations; · the Americas; · Europe; · Asia. Imperialism: · What was the nature of imperialism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? · What were the consequences of imperialism for Africa and Asia in terms of power relations and trade? · What was the link between imperialism and World War 1? · How did imperialism and colonialism entrench ideas of race ­ segregation, assimilation, paternalism? · How did imperialism dominate indigenous knowledge production? What were the range of responses to colonialism in Africa and Asia? · resistance ­ armed, passive, diplomacy; · other forms of response: * cultural, political, * trade unionism, identities, peasant movements, * nationalism in Africa and Asia (India). Challenges to capitalism: the Russian Revolution and the establishment of the communist state (MarxismLeninism and Stalinism). Crisis of capitalism: the Great Depression in the USA and its wider impact in terms of the emergence of fascist economies and states (e.g. Nazi Germany and Japan). What was the impact of pseudo-scientific racism and Social Darwinism on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (including the eugenics movement in the late nineteenth century and its impact on ideas of race and racism in Africa, the USA, Australia, Europe and particularly leading to genocide in Nazi Germany)? Competing nationalisms and identities in Africa: · the roots of Pan-Africanism to 1945; · the roots and nature of South African nationalisms and identities (African and Afrikaner nationalism, English jingoism,

Grade 12

What was the impact of the Cold War in forming the world as it was in the 1960s? · USSR/USA ­ creating spheres of interest; · What was the role of China? · areas and forms of conflict: Vietnam, Cuba, Angola, Middle East; · What role did the United Nations (UN) and other multi-lateral organisations such as the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) play in attempting to mediate conflict? How was uhuru realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1970s? · What were the ideas that influenced the independent states? · What types of states were set up? · What were the possibilities and constraints? · What was the impact of internal and external factors on Africa during this time? What forms of civil society protest emerged from the 1960s up to 1990? · 1960s: civil rights, disarmament, student movements, peace movements, Black Power movement, women's movements; · 1970s: Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa; · apartheid South Africa and Eastern Europe in the 1980s. What was the impact of the collapse of the USSR in 1989? · on South Africa; · on Africa: reflection and re-imagining the nation in the 1990s ­ a case study from Central, West or North Africa; · on the dominance of the USA. How did South Africa emerge as a democracy from the crises of the 1990s? · the crisis of apartheid in the 1980s; · the collapse of apartheid in South Africa ­ coming together of internal and external pressures; · how the crises were managed ­ conflict, compromise, negotiation, settlement, elections; · the Government of National Unity and the making of the new Constitution; · dealing with the past and facing the future; · new identities and the construction of

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Table 3.7: continued

the Civil War? Industrial Revolution: · How did the Industrial Revolution lay the foundations for a new world economic system? · How did the Industrial Revolution change society (mass education, trade unionism, civil movements)? What transformations occurred in Southern Africa between 1750 and 1850? How did the world change between 1450 and 1850? What are the constructed heritage icons from the period that are celebrated today? For example: · How and why has Great Zimbabwe become central to Zimbabwean nationalism? · What are the critical issues about humans on display (e.g. Sarah Baartman) and the way museums Depict humans? Indian and `coloured' identity); · impact of World War 2: How did the nature of the political quest for independence in Africa change from 1945 (radicalisation of Pan-Africanism)? · How does nationalism impact on the construction of heritage and identities? How unique was apartheid South Africa? · How was segregation a foundation for apartheid? · To what extent was apartheid in South Africa part of neo-colonialism in the post World War 2 world (1948-1960)? · How did apartheid entrench ideas of race? · What was the nature of resistance to apartheid during these decades, and how was this resistance part of wider resistance in the world to human rights abuses? How did the world change between 1850 and 1950? How has the South African past been publicly represented (e.g. in museums and monuments)? heritage. What do we understand by globalisation? · the global economy: new forms of capital (new poverty, new wealth), neo-colonialism (the role of the IMF, the World Bank, multilateral organisations, OPEC); · the information age; · globalisation of culture; · migration of people (e.g. refugees); · the position of Africa in the global world: constraints and initiatives (NEPAD, the African Union, SADC, the African Renaissance); · the responses and challenges to globalisation: localisation, extremism and movements of civil society (e.g. environmental movements); · How different is the world today from 1960? What are the ideologies and debates around the constructed heritage icons from the period? For example: · What are the ideologies and debates around South African heritage symbols and representations today? · How have the findings of paleontology, archaeology and genetics transformed the notions of race?

Assessment standards for History For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Learning Outcome 1: Enquiry Skills (Practical Competence) The learner is able to acquire and apply historical enquiry skills. In the Further Education and Training band, learners will be expected to raise questions about the past, identify issues relating to the past, and use a range of enquiry skills in order to extract and organise evidence from a variety of historical sources of information. By the end of the band, learners will be expected to demonstrate an ability to work independently, formulating enquiry questions and gathering, analysing, interpreting and evaluating relevant evidence to answer questions. Grade 10 Learners will be expected to raise questions about the past and use a range of enquiry skills in order to extract and organise evidence from a variety of historical sources of information. Grade 11 Learners will be expected to apply a range of enquiry skills to identify issues relating to the past, raise critical questions about these issues, and collect and analyse information and data.

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Grade 12 Learners will be expected to demonstrate an ability to work independently, formulating enquiry questions and gathering, analysing, interpreting and evaluating relevant evidence to answer questions. Learning Outcome 2: Historical Concepts (Foundational Competence) The learner is able to use historical concepts in order to analyse the past. Learners will be expected to work progressively towards acquiring an informed understanding of key historical concepts as a way of analysing the past. They will be expected to understand and explain the dynamics of change in the context of power relations operating in societies. They will also be expected to compare and contrast points of view/perspectives of the past and draw their own conclusions based on evidence. Grade 10 Learners will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of concepts relevant to the area of investigation and recognise that relations of power operate within societies. They will also be expected to develop the ability to identify perspectives and points of view in historical sources of information. Grade 11 Learners will be expected to use historical concepts to structure the study of the past. Analysis of the socioeconomic and political power relations operating within societies is an important aspect of the study of the past in this grade. Learners will be expected to identify and explain points of view or perspectives of peoples' actions and events in the past. Grade 12 Learners will be expected to have an informed understanding of key concepts as ways of analysing the past. They will be expected to understand and explain the dynamics of change in the context of power relations operating in societies. They will also be expected to compare and contrast points of view/perspectives of the past and to draw their own conclusions based on evidence. Learning Outcome 3: Knowledge Construction and Communication (Reflexive Competence) The learner is able to construct and communicate historical knowledge and understanding. In the Further Education and Training band learners will be expected to work with and draw conclusions from a variety of forms of data, and to synthesise information about the past in order to develop, sustain and defend an independent line of historical argument. They will be expected to communicate and present information reliably and accurately in writing and verbally.

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Grade 10 Learners will be expected to use acquired skills and knowledge to construct their own knowledge in the form of an historical argument and to express an opinion about the past based on evidence. They will be expected to communicate this in a variety of ways. Grade 11 Learners will be expected to develop an argument and to take a position based on available information, to discuss the issues and to reach a conclusion. They will be expected to produce a coherent presentation providing explanations for positions taken. Grade 12 Learners will be expected to synthesise information about the past to develop, sustain and defend an independent line of historical argument. They will be expected to communicate and present information reliably and accurately in writing and verbally. Learning Outcome 4: Heritage (Reflexive Competence) The learner is able to engage critically with issues around heritage. This Learning Outcome introduces learners to issues and debates around heritage and public representations, and they are expected to work progressively towards engaging with them. Links are drawn between different knowledge systems and the various ways in which the past is memorialised. Learners also investigate the relationship between paleontology, archaeology and genetics in understanding the origins of humans and how this has transformed notions of race. Grade 10 This Learning Outcome aims to engage learners critically with issues of heritage, public representations of the past and the conservation of heritage. Learners will also be expected to engage with issues around knowledge systems, including indigenous knowledge systems. Grade 11 This Learning Outcome aims to engage learners critically with issues of heritage and public representations of the past, and enables them to analyse public representations. It also introduces learners to the debates around knowledge systems and the understanding of human origins. Grade 12 This Learning Outcome introduces learners to the ideologies and debates around heritage and public representations, and explores ways in which the past is memorialised in different knowledge systems. Learners will also investigate the links between knowledge systems, paleontology and archaeology.

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For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Table 3.8 provides an overview of the assessment standards for History. Table 3.8: Assessment standards for History Learning Outcome 1: Historical Enquiry (Practical Competence)

The learner is able to acquire and apply historical enquiry skills.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Formulate questions within a topic under study. Identify and select sources of information from those provided to answer the question. Extract relevant information and data from the sources and organise it logically. Engage with sources of information to judge their usefulness for the task, based on criteria provided.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Identify issues within the topic under study (e.g. imperialism) and ask critical questions about the issues. Categorise appropriate/relevant sources of information provided to answer the questions raised. Analyse the information and data gathered from a variety of sources. Evaluate the sources of information provided to assess the appropriateness of the sources for the task.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Formulate questions to analyse concepts for investigation within the context of what is being studied (e.g. globalisation). Access a variety of relevant sources of information in order to carry out an investigation. Interpret and evaluate information and data from the sources. Engage with sources of information, evaluating the usefulness of the sources for the task, including stereotypes, subjectivity and gaps in the available evidence.

Learning Outcome 2: /Historical Concepts (Foundational Competence)

The learner is able to use historical concepts in order to analyse the past.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Explain historical concepts such as empire, liberty and democracy. Identify the socio-economic and political power relations operating in societies. Explain why there are different interpretations of historical events, peoples' actions and changes.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Use historical concepts such as imperialism, nationalism and fascism to structure information about a period or issue. Analyse the socio-economic and political power relations operating in societies. Explain the various interpretations and perspectives of historical events and why people in a particular historical context acted as they did.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Analyse historical concepts such as post colonialism, globalisation and socialism as social constructs. Examine and explain the dynamics of changing power relations within the societies studied. Compare and contrast interpretations and perspectives of events, people's actions and changes in order to draw independent conclusions about the actions or events.

Learning Outcome 3: Knowledge Construction and Communication (Reflexive Competence)

The learner is able to construct and communicate historical knowledge and understanding.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Understand and convert statistical information (data) to graphical or written information. Plan and construct an argument based on evidence. Use the evidence to reach a conclusion. Communicate knowledge and understanding in a variety of ways ­ written, oral, enactive and visual.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Handle and draw conclusions from quantitative data. Use evidence to formulate an argument and reach an independent conclusion. Use the evidence to substantiate the independent conclusions reached. Use appropriate means of communicating knowledge and understanding suited to a designated audience.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Identify when an interpretation of statistics may be controversial and engage critically with the conclusions presented by the data. Synthesise information to construct an original argument, using evidence from sources provided and independently accessed in order to support the argument. Sustain and defend a coherent and balanced argument with evidence provided and independently accessed. Communicate knowledge and understanding in a variety of ways including discussion (written and oral), debate, creating a piece of historical writing using a variety of genres, research assignments, graphics and oral presentation.

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Table 3.8: continued Learning Outcome 4: Heritage (Reflexive Competence)

The learner is able to engage critically with issues around heritage. Note: In this outcome, local history, heritage and public history are linked to sites, monuments, museums, oral histories and traditions, street names, buildings, public holidays and the debates around all of these.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Give an explanation of what is meant by heritage and public representations and of the importance of conservation of heritage sites and public representations. Explain what is meant by knowledge systems, including indigenous knowledge systems. Identify ways in which archaeology, oral history and indigenous knowledge systems contribute to an understanding of our heritage.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Analyse public representations and commemoration of the past (e.g. monuments and museum displays). Identify debates around knowledge systems. Analyse the significance of archaeology and paleontology in understanding the origins of humans.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Explain ideologies and debates around heritage issues and public representations. Compare the ways in which memorials are constructed in different knowledge systems (e.g. monuments, ritual sites including grave sites). Investigate the relationship between archaeology, paleontology and other knowledge systems in understanding heritage.

Methods of Assessment - Self-assessment - Peer assessment - Group assessment Methods of collecting assessment evidence - Observation-based assessment - Test-based assessment - Task-based assessment Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 Suggested reading Al-Haj, M. 2005. National ethos, multicultural education, and the new history textbooks in Israel. Curriculum Inquiry, 35(1): 47-71. BERTRAM, C. 2006. Knowledge, pedagogy and assessment in the old and new Further Education and Training History curriculum documents. Education as Change, 10(2): 33-51. DEMPSTER, E.R. & HUGO, W. 2006. Introducing the concept of evolution into South African schools. South African Journal of Science, 102(3/4): 106-112. EVANS, E. 2003. University history and school history. Fastforward: A Vision for School History, 110: 20-24. FURTADO, P. 2007. Asking big questions. History Today, 57(9): 2.

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KISBY, F. 2007. History that matters. History Today, 57(6): 40-41. LEE, P. & SHEMILT, D. 2003. A scaffold, not a cage: Progression and progression models in history. Teaching History, 113: 13-23. LEE, P. & SHEMILT, D. 2004. `I just wish we could go back in the past and find out what really happened': Progression in understanding about historical accounts. Teaching History, 117: 25-31. MARCUS, A.S. & STODDARD, J.D. 2007. Tinsel town as teacher: Hollywood film in the high school classroom. The History Teacher, 40(3): 303-330. NICHOLS, D. 2004. Crisis in the classroom. History Today, 54(8): 18-21. RAGLAND, R.G. 2007. Changing secondary teachers' views of teaching American history. The History Teacher, 40(2): 219-246. TARR, R. 2006. Using video in the history classroom. History Review, 54: 35-36. WATKIN, N. & AHRENFELT, J. 2005. Making a G&T cocktail: teaching about heritage through a cross-curricular inquiry. Teaching History, 118: 34-39. WILMOT, D. 2005. The development phase of a case study of outcomes-based education assessment policy in the Human and Social Sciences learning area of C2005. South African Journal of Education, 25(2): 69-76.

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3.7.4

Languages (Contact person for English: Prof Christa van der Walt, Department of Curriculum Studies, and for Afrikaans mr Richard Stanley, Department of Curriculum Studies,

[email protected],

[email protected] ­ please see Addendum C and Addendum D for more specific details on the National Curriculum Statements for Afrikaans and English) Background Language is a tool for thought and communication. It is through language that cultural diversity and social relations are expressed and constructed. Learning to use language effectively enables learners to think and acquire knowledge, to express their identity, feelings and ideas, to interact with others, and to manage their world. In view of the linguistic and cultural diversity of South Africa, its citizens must be able to communicate across language barriers and foster cultural and linguistic respect and understanding. The country's linguistic diversity is acknowledged and valued in the constitutional recognition of eleven official languages and the Language in Education Policy of additive multilingualism. Learners are obliged to include at least two official languages as Fundamental subjects and further languages may be taken as Core and/or Elective subjects. National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Languages In the General Education and Training Band, a thorough knowledge of the learners' home language is developed, which provides a sound base for learning additional languages. By the time learners reach Grade 10, they have experienced and explored additional languages and may have used an additional language for learning. The curriculum for the Further Education and Training band provides opportunities for learners to strengthen and develop their multilingual skills. As learners move through the grades, they are required to use language with increasing fluency, proficiency and accuracy in a broadening range of situations. They take greater responsibility for their own learning and apply their language skills in more challenging and complex ways. The range of literacies needed for effective participation in society and the workplace in the global economy of the twenty-first century has expanded beyond listening, speaking, reading, writing and oral traditions to include various forms such as media, graphic, information, computer, cultural, and critical literacy. The Languages curriculum prepares learners for the challenges they will face as South Africans and as members of the global community. The Further Education and Training curriculum enables all learners to meet many of the requirements of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes, including the following objectives: Broaden and deepen language competencies developed in the General Education and Training band, including the abstract language skills required for academic learning across the curriculum, and the aesthetic appreciation and enjoyment of texts, so that learners are able to listen, speak, read/view and write/present with confidence. These skills and attitudes form the basis for life-long learning. Use language appropriately in real-life contexts, taking into account audience, purpose and context.

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Express and justify their own ideas, views and emotions confidently in order to become independent and analytical thinkers. Use language and their imagination to represent and explore human experience. Through interacting with a wide range of texts, learners are able to reflect on their own lives and experiences and to consider alternative worldviews.

Use language to access and manage information for learning across the curriculum and in a wide range of other contexts. Information literacy is a vital skill in the `information age' and forms the basis for lifelong learning.

Use language as a tool for critical and creative thinking. This objective recognises that knowledge is socially constructed through the interaction between language and thinking. Express reasoned opinions on ethical issues and values. In order to develop their own value system, learners engage with texts concerning human rights and responsibilities such as the rights of children, women, the disabled, the aged and issues linked to race, culture, ideology, class, belief systems, gender, HIV and AIDS, freedom of expression, censorship and the environment.

Interact critically with a wide range of texts. Learners will recognise and be able to challenge the perspectives, values and power relations that are embedded in texts. Recognise the unequal status of different languages and language varieties. Learners will be able to challenge the domination of any language or language variety and assert their language rights in a multilingual society.

The future learner In the General Education and Training band, languages are dealt with in the Languages Learning Area; in the Further Education and Training band, the Languages Learning Field links with the SAQA organising field of learning: Communication Studies and Language. To ensure continuity, the same organising principles have been used as in the General Education and Training band: the language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing are the basis for the development of Learning Outcomes; and the use of a wide range of texts allows learners to explore personal, national and global issues and to construct developing knowledge of the world. The study of languages can lead to language-oriented careers such as journalism, translation, language teaching, marketing, advertising, diplomacy, and so on. However, it is clear that languages are the basis of all learning, not only in everyday life but also in the workplace. The development of entrepreneurship depends on the learner's language competency. In the highly competitive technological world, access for the learner is determined by communicative competency. Language is a gateway subject, which, if poorly taught, severely limits the learner's career options.

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Literacy is the basis for the completion of daily tasks and contributes to the life skills the learner needs to deal with the world. Language is a tool that can facilitate meaningful relationships with the people in the learner's immediate community, and the sensitivity with which language is handled determines the success or failure of many interpersonal relationships. Teachers' access to information Many schools have information sessions regarding the implementation of FET and the different subject choices the learners have to face. The educators of these subjects had special training as to convey this information to the learners and to guide them in the choices they make for FET subjects that will be appropriate for their individual career choice. Not all schools have the same opportunities and perhaps the knowledge regarding informing learners about their subject choices within the FET Languages curriculum. The implementation of the NCS could be successful. Secondary and tertiary education institutions need to link appropriate and relevant knowledge and requirements within Languages. The content needs within different programmes should be clearly communicated between these institutions in order to deliver quality education to the learners and future students. Learning outcomes for Languages: Learning programme guidelines for Languages Language levels Language learning in the Further Education and Training band includes all the official languages ­ Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Sepedi (Sesotho sa Leboa), Sesotho, Setswana, Siswati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga ­ as well as Sign Language, and can be extended to other languages endorsed by the Pan South African Language Board. The Subject Statements for Home, First Additional and Second Additional Languages may be versioned for approved non-official languages, and these languages may be offered as Core or Elective Components of the Curriculum. All languages can be offered at the following levels: Home Language: The learner's home language needs to be strengthened and developed so as to provide a sound foundation for learning additional languages. In the Further Education and Training band, all official South African languages have Home Language Learning Outcomes of a high, internationally-comparable standard. This is in line with the constitutional requirements of equal status for official languages. The cognitive level of the home language should be such that it may be used as a language of learning and teaching. Listening and speaking skills will be further developed and refined, but the emphasis at this level will be on developing the learners' reading and writing skills. First Additional Language: Learning a first additional language promotes multilingualism and intercultural communication. Learning Outcomes for First Additional Languages provide for levels of language proficiency that meet the threshold levels necessary for effective learning across the curriculum, as learners may learn

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through the medium of their First Additional Language in the South African context. This includes the abstract cognitive academic language skills required for thinking and learning. This applies to all official languages. There will be an equal emphasis on the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Second Additional Language: Learning a second additional language furthers multilingualism and intercultural communication. Although reading and writing skills will be developed, at this level the emphasis will be on developing listening and speaking skills. The level of the Second Additional Language should target improved interpersonal communication. In the Fundamental component of the Further Education and Training band, all learners must study two official languages, with one at Home Language and the other at either First Additional Language or Home Language level. One of the languages in the Fundamental component must be the Language of Learning and Teaching. In the Core and Elective components, official languages may be taken at Home Language, First Additional Language and/or Second Additional Language levels for learners who are particularly interested in languages and for the advancement of multilingualism. Learning Outcomes for Languages The scope and purpose are consolidated into four Learning Outcomes. Although these outcomes are listed separately, they should be integrated when taught and assessed. Learning Outcome 1: Listening and Speaking The learner is able to listen and speak for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts. Learners understand that speaking and listening are social activities that take place in particular contexts and for various purposes and audiences, and that oral genres and registers vary accordingly. They recognise and use appropriate oral genres and registers in a range of formal and informal contexts. Listening and speaking are central to learning in all subjects. Through effective listening and speaking strategies, learners collect and synthesise information, construct knowledge, solve problems, and express ideas and opinions. Critical listening skills enable learners to recognise values and attitudes embedded in texts and to challenge biased and manipulative language. Learning Outcome 2: Reading and Viewing The learner is able to read and view for understanding and to evaluate critically and respond to a wide range of texts. Well-developed reading and viewing skills are central to successful learning across the curriculum, as well as for full participation in society and the world of work. Learners develop proficiency in reading and viewing a wide range of literary and non-literary texts, including visual texts, for information. Learners recognise how genre and register reflect the purpose, audience and context of texts. Learners use a range of different reading and viewing strategies depending on their purpose for reading and the nature of the text. They make meaning from texts, identify values and assumptions and respond critically. Through reading and viewing, learners also explore and

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reflect on the interrelationship of their own existence with that of others. Reading literary texts provides learners with models for their own writing. Learning Outcome 3: Writing and Presenting The learner is able to write and present for a wide range of purposes and audiences using conventions and formats appropriate to diverse contexts. Writing is a powerful instrument of communication that allows learners to construct and communicate thoughts and ideas coherently. Frequent writing practice across a variety of contexts, tasks and subject fields enables learners to communicate functionally and creatively. The aim is to produce competent, versatile writers who will be able to use their skills to develop appropriate written, visual and multi-media texts for a variety of purposes. Learning Outcome 4: Language The learner is able to use language structures and conventions appropriately and effectively. Through interacting with a variety of texts, learners extend their use of vocabulary and correctly apply their understanding of language structures. They develop critical awareness of how values and power relations are embedded in language and how language may influence others. The scope of Languages Teaching and assessment of languages should make provision for inclusion of all learners, and strategies should be found to assist all learners to access or produce language texts. Some students experiencing barriers may not be able to attain some of the Assessment Standards as they are presented in the National Curriculum Statement. Thus the following should be taken into account: The terms `describe', `recount', `tell', `retell', `paraphrase', `talk', `say', `speak', `discuss', `explain', `ask' and `converse' should be understood as including all forms of verbal and non-verbal communication, including signed communication and communication aids. Similarly, the word `oral' includes sign language and any alternative communication methods which may be relevant. The terms `listen', `look', `read' and `view' include forms of communication such as lip-reading and watching sign language. Visually impaired learners may need materials and books in formats such as Braille, audio-tape, large print, tactile material and drawings. The concept `visualise' may be expressed physically. References to `read' include resources such as Braille and talking books. Assessment standards for Languages For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Table 3.9 proves a broad overview of these assessment standards.

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Table 3.9: Assessment standards for Languages Learning Outcome 1: Listening and Speaking

The learner is able to listen and speak for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate knowledge of different forms of oral communication for social purposes: o learn about and share ideas, show an understanding of concepts, comment on experiences, defend a position, make an unprepared response, tell a story; o initiate and sustain conversation by developing appropriate turn-taking conventions, filling in gaps and encouraging where appropriate; o give and follow directions and instructions accurately; o participate in group discussions by expressing own ideas and opinions and listening to and respecting those of others, while engaging with issues such as inclusivity and power relations, and environmental, ethical, socio-cultural and human rights issues; o use negotiation skills to reach consensus; o participate in panel discussions, debates, forums and formal meetings, following correct procedures; o introduce a speaker appropriately and offer a vote of thanks; o apply interviewing skills and report on findings. o demonstrate planning and research skills for oral presentations: o research a topic by referring to a range of sources; o organise material coherently by choosing main ideas and relevant details or examples for support; o identify and choose appropriate formats, vocabulary, and language structures and conventions; o prepare effective introductions and endings; o incorporate appropriate visual, audio and audio-visual aids such as charts, posters, photographs, slides, images, music, sound and electronic media. demonstrate the skills of listening to and delivery of fluent and expressive oral presentations: o identify and use rhetorical devices such as rhetorical questions, pauses and repetition; o use tone, voice projection, pace, eye contact, posture and gestures correctly and respond appropriately; o pronounce words without distorting meaning;

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate knowledge of different forms of oral communication for social purposes: o learn about and share ideas, show an understanding of concepts, comment on experiences, defend a position, make an unprepared response, tell a story; o initiate and sustain conversation by demonstrating appropriate turn-taking conventions, filling in gaps and encouraging where appropriate; o give and follow complex directions and instructions accurately; o interact effectively in group discussions by expressing own ideas and opinions, listening to and respecting those of others, and intervening to redirect focus while engaging with a range of issues such as inclusivity and power relations, and environmental, ethical, socio-cultural and human rights issues; o use negotiation skills to reach consensus; o participate in panel discussions, debates, forums and formal meetings, following correct procedures; o introduce a speaker appropriately and offer a vote of thanks; o apply interviewing skills and critically report on findings where appropriate. o demonstrate planning and research skills for oral presentations: o research a topic by referring to a range of sources; o organise material coherently by choosing main ideas and relevant and accurate details or examples for support; o identify and choose appropriate formats, vocabulary, and language structures and conventions; o prepare effective introductions and endings; o incorporate appropriate visual, audio and audio-visual aids such as charts, posters, photographs, slides, images, music, sound and electronic media. demonstrate the skills of listening to and delivery of fluent and expressive oral presentations: o use and evaluate rhetorical devices such as anecdotes, rhetorical questions, pauses and repetition; o use tone, voice projection, pace, eye contact, posture and gestures correctly and respond appropriately; o pronounce words without distorting meaning; o

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate knowledge of different forms of oral communication for social purposes: o learn about and share ideas, show an understanding of concepts, comment on experiences, defend a position, make an unprepared response, tell a story; o initiate and sustain conversation by demonstrating appropriate turn-taking conventions effectively, filling in gaps and encouraging where appropriate; o give and follow complex directions and instructions accurately; o interact effectively in group discussions by expressing own ideas and opinions, listening to and respecting those of others, and intervening to redirect focus while engaging with a range of issues such as inclusivity and power relations, and environmental, ethical, socio-cultural and human rights issues; o use negotiation skills to reach consensus; o participate in panel discussions, debates, forums and formal meetings, following correct procedures; o introduce a speaker appropriately and offer a vote of thanks; o apply interviewing skills and critically report on findings where appropriate. o demonstrate planning and research skills for oral presentations: o research a topic by referring to a wide range of sources; o organise material coherently by choosing main ideas and relevant and accurate details or examples for support; o identify and choose appropriate formats, vocabulary, and language structures and conventions; o prepare effective introductions and endings; o incorporate appropriate visual, audio and audio-visual aids such as charts, posters, photographs, slides, images, music, sound and electronic media. demonstrate the skills of listening to and delivery of fluent and expressive oral presentations: o use and evaluate rhetorical devices such as anecdotes, rhetorical questions, pauses and repetition; o use tone, voice projection, pace, eye contact, posture and gestures correctly and respond appropriately; o pronounce words without distorting meaning; o

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Table 3.9: continued

o demonstrate comprehension of oral texts by recording main and/or supporting ideas by making notes, checklists, summaries and/or by retelling and explaining; o listen critically and respond to questions for clarification. o demonstrate critical awareness of language use in oral situations: o use and evaluate appropriate styles and registers to suit purpose, audience, and context; o recognise and explain language varieties with growing understanding and appreciation; o identify and use persuasive techniques; o recognise arguments and assumptions and distinguish between facts and opinions; o make inferences and judgments and support with evidence; o recognise how meaning may be distorted by the deliberate inclusion or exclusion of information; o recognise and explain the effects of language forms such as technical language and jargon; o recognise the relationship between language and culture, and language and power; o recognise and challenge obviously emotive and manipulative language, bias, prejudice and stereotyping such as in propaganda and advertising. o demonstrate comprehension of oral texts by recording main and/or supporting ideas by making notes, checklists, summaries and paraphrases and/or by retelling and explaining; o listen critically and respond to questions for clarification demonstrate critical awareness of language use in oral situations: o use and evaluate appropriate styles and registers to suit purpose, audience and context; o recognise and explain language varieties with understanding and appreciation; o identify and use a wide range of persuasive techniques; o evaluate arguments and assumptions and distinguish between facts and opinions; o make inferences and judgments and motivate with evidence; o explain how meaning may be distorted by the deliberate inclusion or exclusion of information; o recognise and evaluate the effects of language forms such as technical language and jargon; o evaluate the relationship between language and culture, and language and power; o recognize and challenge subtle emotive and manipulative language, bias, prejudice and stereotyping such as in propaganda and advertising demonstrate comprehension of oral texts by recording main and/or supporting ideas by making notes, checklists, summaries and paraphrases and/or by retelling and explaining; listen critically and respond to questions for clarification.demonstrate critical awareness of language use in oral situations: use and evaluate appropriate styles and registers to suit purpose, audience and context; recognise and explain language varieties with understanding and appreciation; identify and use a wide range of persuasive techniques; evaluate arguments and assumptions, and distinguish between facts and opinions; make inferences and judgments and motivate with evidence; explain how meaning may be distorted by the deliberate inclusion or exclusion of information; recognise and evaluate the effects of language forms such as technical language and jargon; evaluate the relationship between language and culture, and language and power; recognise and challenge subtly emotive and manipulative language, bias, prejudice and stereotyping such as in propaganda and advertising

Learning Outcome 2: Reading and Viewing

The learner is able to read and view for understanding and to evaluate critically and respond to a wide range of texts.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate various reading and viewing strategies for comprehension and appreciation: o ask questions to make predictions; o skim texts to identify main ideas by reading titles, introductions, first paragraphs and introductory sentences of paragraphs; o scan texts for supporting details; o read fluently and attentively according to purpose and task; o summarise main and supporting ideas in point and/or paragraph form; o infer the meaning of unfamiliar words or images in selected contexts by using knowledge of grammar, word-attack skills, contextual clues, sound, colour, design, placement, and by using the senses; o reread, review and revise to promote understanding. explain the meaning of a wide range of written, visual, audio, and audio-visual texts: o find relevant information and detail in texts; o explain how selections and omissions in texts affect meaning;

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate various reading and viewing strategies for comprehension and appreciation: o ask questions to make predictions; o skim texts to identify main ideas by reading titles, introductions, first paragraphs and introductory sentences of paragraphs; o scan texts for supporting details; o read fluently and attentively according to purpose and task; o summarise main and supporting ideas in point and/or paragraph form; o infer the meaning of unfamiliar words or images in a range of contexts by using knowledge of grammar, wordattack skills, contextual clues, sound, colour, design and placement, and by using the senses; o reread, review and revise to promote understanding. evaluate the meaning of a wide range of written, visual, audio, and audio-visual texts: o find relevant information and detail in texts;

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate various reading and viewing strategies for comprehension and appreciation: o ask questions to make predictions; o skim texts to identify main ideas by reading titles, introductions, first paragraphs and introductory sentences of paragraphs; o scan texts for supporting details; o read fluently and attentively according to purpose and task; o summarise main and supporting ideas in point and/or paragraph form; o infer the meaning of unfamiliar words or images in a wide range of contexts by using knowledge of grammar, word-attack skills, contextual clues, sound, colour, design and placement, and by using the senses; o reread, review and revise to promote understanding. evaluate the meaning of a wide range of written, visual, audio, and audio-visual texts: o find relevant information and detail in texts; o analyse how selections and omissions in texts affect meaning;

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Table 3.9: continued

o distinguish between fact and opinion, and give own response; o recognise the difference between direct and implied meaning; o explain the writer's/narrator's/character's viewpoint and give supporting evidence from the text; o explain the socio-political and cultural background of texts; o analyse the effect of a range of figurative, rhetorical and literary devices such as metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, onomatopoeia, symbol, pun, understatement, wit, hyperbole, contrast, sarcasm, caricature, irony, satire, paradox, oxymoron, antithesis and anticlimax on the meaning of texts; o explain the writer's inferences and conclusions and compare with own; o interpret and evaluate familiar graphic texts; o give and motivate personal responses to texts. o explain how language and images may reflect and shape values and attitudes in texts: o identify and explain socio-cultural and political values, attitudes and beliefs such as attitudes towards gender, class, age, power relations, human rights, inclusivity and environmental issues; o explain the nature of bias, prejudice and discrimination. explore key features of texts and explain how they contribute to meaning (these features should never be dealt with in isolation): transactional and creative texts: o identify and explain the purpose, structure and language use in texts across the curriculum such as reports, procedures, retelling, explanations, expositions and descriptions; o identify and explain the impact of techniques such as the use of font types and sizes, headings and captions. literary texts: novel, short story, folklore/folk tale, short essay: o explain development of plot, subplot, conflict, character and role of narrator where relevant; o identify and explain messages and themes and relate them to selected passages in the rest of the text; o explain how background and setting relate to character and/or theme; o identify mood, time-line and ending. poetry: o explain how word choices, imagery and sound devices affect mood, meaning and theme; o explain how lines, stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm and punctuation affect meaning. drama and film study: o explain the link between dialogue and action, and the characters and theme; o analyse how selections and omissions in texts affect meaning; o distinguish between fact and opinion, and explain own response; o explain the difference between direct and implied meaning; o explain the writer's/narrator's/character's viewpoint and give supporting evidence from the text; o analyse and explain the socio-political and cultural background of texts; o analyse the effect of a wide range of figurative, rhetorical and literary devices such as metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, onomatopoeia symbol, pun, understatement, wit, hyperbole, contrast, sarcasm, caricature, irony, satire, paradox, oxymoron, antithesis and anticlimax on the meaning of texts; o evaluate the writer's inferences and conclusions and compare with own; o interpret and evaluate a range of graphic texts; o give and motivate personal responses to texts with conviction. o evaluate how language and images may reflect and shape values and attitudes in texts: o evaluate socio-cultural and political values, attitudes and beliefs such as attitudes towards gender, class, age, power relations, human rights, inclusivity and environmental issues; o analyse the nature of bias, prejudice and discrimination. explore and evaluate key features of texts and explain how they contribute to meaning (these features should never be dealt with in isolation): transactional and creative texts: o identify and explain the purpose, structure and language use in texts across the curriculum such as reports, procedures, retelling, explanations, expositions and descriptions; o identify and evaluate the impact of techniques such as the use of font types and sizes, headings and captions. literary texts: novel, short story, folklore/folk tale, short essay: o analyse development of plot, subplot, conflict, character and role of narrator where relevant; o interpret and evaluate messages and themes and relate them to selected passages in the rest of the text; o evaluate how background and setting relate to character and/or theme; o interpret mood, time-line, ironic twists and ending. poetry: o explain how word choices, imagery and sound devices affect mood, meaning and theme; o explain how lines, stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm and punctuation affect meaning. drama and film study: o distinguish between fact and opinion, and motivate own response; o explain the difference between direct and implied meaning; o analyse the writer's/narrator's/character's viewpoint and give convincing supporting evidence from the text; o analyse and explain the sociopolitical and cultural background of texts; o analyse the effect of a wide range of figurative, rhetorical and literary devices such as metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, onomatopoeia, symbol, pun, understatement, wit, hyperbole, contrast, sarcasm, caricature, irony, satire, paradox, oxymoron, antithesis and anticlimax on the meaning of texts; o evaluate the writer's inferences and conclusions and compare with own; o interpret and evaluate a wide range of graphic texts; o give and motivate personal responses to texts with conviction. o evaluate how language and images may reflect and shape values and attitudes in texts: o evaluate socio-cultural and political values, attitudes and beliefs such as attitudes towards gender, class, age, power relations, human rights, inclusivity and environmental issues; o analyse the nature of bias, prejudice and discrimination and how these affect meaning. explore and evaluate key features of texts and explain how they contribute to meaning (these features should never be dealt with in isolation): transactional and creative texts: o identify and explain the purpose, structure and language use in texts across the curriculum such as reports, procedures, retelling, explanations, expositions and descriptions; o identify and evaluate the impact of techniques such as the use of font types and sizes, headings and captions. literary texts: novel, short story, folklore/folk tale, short essay: o analyse development of plot, subplot, conflict, character and role of narrator where relevant; o interpret and evaluate messages and themes and relate them to selected passages in the rest of the text; o evaluate how background and setting relate to character and/or theme; o interpret mood, time-line, ironic twists and ending. poetry: o analyse how word choices, imagery and sound devices affect mood, meaning and theme;

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Table 3.9: continued

o explain plot, subplot, character portrayal, conflict and dramatic purpose; o identify dramatic structure and interpret stage directions. visual, audio and multi-media texts: film study, television and radio drama: o identify and explain message and theme and how they contribute to the text; o explain the use of visual, audio and audio-visual techniques such as the use of colour, subtitle, composition, dialogue, music, sound, lighting, editing, framing, styles of shot, camera techniques, camera movement, foregrounding and backgrounding. o analyse dialogue and action, and their relation to character and theme; o evaluate plot, subplot, character portrayal, conflict, dramatic purpose and dramatic irony; o interpret and explain dramatic structure and stage directions. visual, audio and multi-media texts: film study, television and radio drama: o identify and analyse message and theme and how they contribute to the impact of the text; o evaluate the impact of visual, audio and audio-visual techniques such as the use of colour, subtitle, composition, dialogue, music, sound, lighting, editing, framing, styles of shot, camera techniques, camera movement, foregrounding and backgrounding. o analyse how lines, stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm and punctuation affect meaning. o drama and film study: o analyse dialogue and action, and their relation to character and theme; o evaluate plot, subplot, character portrayal, conflict, dramatic purpose and dramatic irony; o interpret, explain and evaluate dramatic structure and stage directions. visual, audio and multimedia texts: o film study, television and radio drama: o identify and analyse message and theme and how they are woven into all aspects of the text; o evaluate the impact of visual, audio and audio-visual techniques such as the use of colour, subtitle, composition, dialogue, music, sound, lighting, editing, framing, styles of shot, camera techniques, camera movement, foregrounding and backgrounding.

Learning Outcome 3: Writing and Presenting

The learner is able to write and present for a wide range of purposes and audiences using conventions and formats appropriate to diverse contexts.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate planning skills for writing for a specific purpose, audience and context: o explain the requirements of different tasks; o identify the target audience and the specific purpose such as narrating, entertaining, persuading, arguing, explaining, informing, analysing, describing and manipulating; o identify and explain types of texts to be produced such as imaginative, informational, creative, transactional and multi-media; o decide on and apply the appropriate style, point of view and format of texts; o research topics from a variety of sources and record findings; o locate, access, select, organise and integrate relevant data from a variety of sources; o convert selected information from one form to another, such as from a graph to a paragraph; o develop coherent ideas and organise these by using techniques such as mind-maps, diagrams, lists of key words and flow-charts; o use a selection of visual and design elements appropriately. demonstrate the use of writing strategies and techniques for first drafts: o use main and supporting ideas from the planning process; · experiment with format and style for creative purposes;

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate planning skills for writing for a specific purpose, audience and context: o explain the requirements of advanced tasks; o identify the target audience and the specific purpose such as narrating, entertaining, persuading, arguing, explaining, informing, analysing, describing and manipulating; o identify and explain types of texts to be produced such as imaginative, informational, creative, transactional and multi-media; o decide on and apply the appropriate style, point of view and format of texts; o independently, research complex topics from a wide variety of sources and record findings; o locate, access, select, organise and integrate relevant data independently from a variety of sources; o convert a range of information from one form to another, such as from a graph to a paragraph; o develop coherent ideas and organise these by using techniques such as mind-maps, diagrams, lists of key words and flow-charts; o use a range of visual and design elements appropriately. demonstrate the use of advanced writing strategies and techniques for first drafts: o use main and supporting ideas effectively from the planning process; o experiment with format and style for creative purposes;

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: demonstrate planning skills for writing for a specific purpose, audience and context: o explain the requirements of advanced tasks; o identify the target audience and the specific purpose such as narrating, entertaining, persuading, arguing, explaining, informing, analysing, describing and manipulating; o identify and explain types of texts to be produced such as imaginative, informational, creative, transactional and multi-media; o decide on and apply the appropriate style, point of view and format of texts effectively; o independently, research complex topics from a wide variety of sources and record findings accurately; o locate, access, select, organise and integrate relevant data independently from a wide variety of sources; o convert a wide range of information from one form to another, such as from graphs to paragraphs; o develop coherent ideas and organise these by using techniques such as mind-maps, diagrams, lists of key words and flow-charts; o use a wide range of visual and design elements appropriately. demonstrate the use of advanced writing strategies and techniques for first drafts: o use main and supporting ideas effectively from the planning process;

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Table 3.9: continued

o identify and use a selection of stylistic and rhetorical devices appropriately such as figurative language, word choice, vivid description, personal voice and style, tone, symbols, colour, placement and sound; o use a variety of sentence types, and sentences of different lengths and structures; o apply paragraph conventions to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; o use conjunctions, pronouns and adverbs to ensure cohesion. reflect on, analyse, and evaluate own work, considering the opinion of others, and present final product: o use set criteria for overall evaluation of own and others' writing for improvement; o reflect on overall structure for improvement of coherence and cohesion; o reflect on whether content, style, register and effects are appropriate to purpose, audience and context; o sustain own point of view/perspective and arguments with growing confidence; o refine word choice and sentence and paragraph structure, and eliminate ambiguity, verbosity, redundancy, slang, offensive language, unnecessary jargon and malapropisms; o demonstrate sensitivity to human rights and social, cultural, environmental and ethical issues such as gender, race, disability, age, status, poverty, lifestyle, ethnic origin, religion, globalisation, HIV and AIDS and other diseases; o prepare a final draft by proofreading and editing; o present final draft paying attention to appropriate style such as a neatly presented text or a striking, colourful poster. o identify and use a range of stylistic and rhetorical devices appropriately such as figurative language, word choice, vivid description, personal voice and style, tone, symbols, colour, placement and sound; o use a wide variety of sentence types, and sentences of different lengths and structures effectively; o apply paragraph conventions correctly to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; o use conjunctions, pronouns and adverbs to ensure cohesion. reflect on, analyse, and evaluate own work, considering the opinion of others, and present final product: o use set criteria for overall evaluation of own and others' writing for improvement; o analyse overall structure for improvement of coherence and cohesion; o evaluate whether content, style, register and effects are appropriate to purpose, audience and context; o sustain own point of view/perspective and argument with confidence; o refine word choice and sentence and paragraph structure, and eliminate ambiguity, verbosity, redundancy, slang, offensive language, unnecessary jargon and malapropisms; demonstrate sensitivity to human rights, social, cultural, environmental and ethical issues such as gender, race, disability, age, status, poverty, lifestyle, ethnic origin, religion, globalisation, HIV and AIDS and other diseases; o prepare a final draft by proofreading and editing; o present final product paying attention to appropriate style such as a neatly presented text or a striking, colourful poster. o o experiment with format and style for creative purposes; o identify and use a wide range of stylistic and rhetorical devices appropriately such as figurative language, word choice, vivid description, personal voice and style, tone, symbols, colour, placement and sound; o use a wide variety of sentence types, and sentences of different lengths and structures for effect; o apply paragraph conventions correctly to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; o use conjunctions, pronouns and adverbs to ensure cohesion. reflect on, analyse, and evaluate own work, considering the opinion of others, and present final product: o use set criteria for overall evaluation of own and others' writing for improvement; o analyse overall structure for improvement of coherence and cohesion; o evaluate whether content, style, register and effects are appropriate to purpose, audience and context; o sustain own point of view/perspective and argument confidently and competently; o refine word choice and sentence and paragraph structure, and eliminate ambiguity, verbosity, redundancy, slang, offensive language, unnecessary jargon and malapropisms; o demonstrate sensitivity to human rights, social, cultural, environmental and ethical issues such as gender, race, disability, age, status, poverty, lifestyle, ethnic origin, religion, globalisation, HIV and AIDS and other diseases; o prepare a final draft by proofreading and editing; o present final product paying attention to appropriate style such as a neatly presented text or a striking, colourful poster.

Learning Outcome 4: Language

The learner is able to use language structures and conventions appropriately and effectively.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: identify and explain the meanings of words and use them correctly in a range of texts: o apply knowledge of a range of spelling patterns, rules and conventions, and compile a personal spelling list; o use common abbreviations and acronyms;

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: identify and explain the meanings of words and use them correctly in a wide range of texts: o apply knowledge of an increasing range of spelling patterns, rules and conventions for new and/or complex words, and compile a personal spelling list; o use a wide range of abbreviations and acronyms correctly;

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: identify and explain the meanings of words and use them correctly in a wide range of texts: o apply knowledge of a wide range of spelling patterns, rules and conventions for new and/or complex words, and compile a personal spelling list; o use a wide range of abbreviations and acronyms correctly;

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Table 3.9: continued

o use dictionaries and a thesaurus effectively for different purposes such as researching meanings, word origins and pronunciation; o apply knowledge of roots, prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of a range of words; o use gender, plurals and diminutives correctly; o use the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs correctly; o identify how languages borrow words from one another, how words change meaning with time, and how new words are coined; o distinguish between commonly confused polysemes, homophones and homonyms, and use them correctly in texts; o use selected synonyms, antonyms, paronyms and one word for a phrase correctly. use structurally sound sentences in a meaningful and functional manner: o identify parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, and use them accurately and meaningfully; o use verb forms and auxiliaries to express tense and mood accurately; o use negative forms correctly; o use subject, object, and predicate correctly and explain their functions; o use simple sentences appropriately and construct compound and complex sentences by using clauses, phrases, and conjunctions; o use active and passive voice appropriately in texts; o use direct and indirect speech correctly; o use correct word order and understand how word order can influence meaning; o use concord correctly; o use punctuation correctly and for specific purposes such as to clarify meaning, show grammatical relationships and add emphasis; o use figurative language such as idioms, idiomatic expressions and proverbs appropriately. develop critical language awareness: o identify denotation, connotation and implied meanings; o identify how implicit and explicit messages, values and attitudes reflect the position of the speaker/receiver/reader/viewer; o identify and challenge bias and stereotyping, emotive, persuasive and manipulative language, and produce alternative ways of expression. o use dictionaries and a thesaurus effectively for different purposes such as researching meanings, word origins and pronunciation; o apply knowledge of roots, prefixes and suffixes to determine the function and meaning of a range of words; o use gender, plurals and diminutives correctly; o use the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs correctly; o identify and explain how languages borrow words from one another, how words change meaning with time, and how new words are coined; o distinguish between commonly confused polysemes, homophones and homonyms, and use them correctly in texts; o use a range of synonyms, antonyms paronyms, and one word for a phrase correctly. use structurally sound sentences in a meaningful and functional manner: o identify and use parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs accurately and meaningfully; o use verb forms and auxiliaries to express tense and mood accurately; o use negative forms correctly; o use subject, object and predicate correctly and explain their functions; o use simple sentences appropriately and construct clear and effective compound and complex sentences by using clauses, phrases and conjunctions; o use active and passive voice appropriately and explain the function of each in texts; o use direct and indirect speech correctly and for required effect; o use correct word order and understand how word order can influence meaning; o use concord accurately; o use punctuation correctly and for specific purposes such as to clarify meaning, show grammatical relationships, add emphasis, or for rhetorical and stylistic effect; o use figurative language such as idioms, idiomatic expressions and proverbs appropriately. develop critical language awareness: o explain denotation, connotation and implied meanings; o analyse and explain how implicit and explicit messages, values and attitudes reflect the position of the speaker/receiver/reader/viewer; o identify and challenge bias and stereotyping, emotive, persuasive and manipulative language, and produce alternative ways of expression. o use dictionaries and a thesaurus effectively for different purposes such as researching meanings, word origins and pronunciation; o apply knowledge of roots, prefixes and suffixes to determine the function and meaning of a wide range of words; o use gender, plurals and diminutives correctly; o use the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs correctly; o identify and explain how languages borrow words from one another, how words change meaning with time, and how new words are coined; o distinguish between commonly confused polysemes, homophones and homonyms, and use them correctly in texts; o use a wide range of synonyms, antonyms, paronyms, and one word for a phrase correctly. use structurally sound sentences in a meaningful and functional manner: o identify and use parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs accurately and meaningfully; o use verb forms and auxiliaries to express tense and mood accurately; o · use negative forms correctly; o use subject, object, and predicate correctly and analyse their functions; o use simple sentences appropriately and construct clear and effective compound and complex sentences by using clauses, phrases and conjunctions correctly; o use active and passive voice appropriately and analyse the function of each in texts; o use direct and indirect speech correctly and for required effect; o use correct word order and understand how word order can influence meaning; o use concord accurately; o use punctuation correctly and for a wide range of purposes such as to clarify meaning, show grammatical relationships, add emphasis, or for rhetorical and stylistic effect; o use a wide range of figurative language such as idioms, idiomatic expressions and proverbs appropriately. develop critical language awareness: o analyse and explain denotation, connotation and implied meanings; o analyse and explain how implicit and explicit messages, values and attitudes reflect the position of the speaker/ receiver/reader/viewer; o identify and challenge subtle bias and stereotyping, emotive, persuasive and manipulative language, and produce and motivate alternative ways of expression.

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Methods of Assessment - Self-assessment - Peer assessment - Group assessment Methods of collecting assessment evidence - Observation-based assessment - Test-based assessment - Task-based assessment Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 Suggested reading ANTHONISSEN, C. 2006. On determining what counts while counting: Aspects of language testing where diversity is the standard. Per Linguam, 22(1): 39-54. BALLADON, F. 2006. The challenge of diversity: The national Curriculum Statement for foreign languages. Journal for Language Teaching, 40(2): 49-67. BANDA, F. 2003. `I can't really think in English': Translation as literacy mediation in multilingual/multicultural learning contexts. Per Linguam, 19(1 & 2): 66-89. BORG, S. 2007. Research engagement in English language teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23: 731-747. BREIDLID, A. 2003. Ideology, cultural values and education: The case of Curriculum 2005. Perspectives in Education, 21(2): 83-102. BRINDLEY, G. 1998. Outcomes-based assessment and reporting in language learning programmes: a review of the issues. Language Testing, 15(1): 45-85. DE BEER, E. 2004. `n Konstruktivistiese benadering tot die fasilitering van die jeugverhaal Dans op die rand van 'n krans (Elkarien Fourie). Literator, 25(3): 239-263. DE FRAINE, B., VAN DAMME, J., VAN LANDEGHEM, G. & OPDENAKKER, M.C. 2003. The effect of schools and classes on language achievement. British Educational Research Journal, 29(6): 841-859. DE KLERK, V. 2002. Part 2: The teachers speak. Perspectives in Education, 20(1): 15-27.

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HEUGH, K. 2006. Die prisma vertroebel: taalonderrigbeleid geïnterpreteer in terme van kurrikulumverandering. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, supplement: Moedertaalonderrig, 46(2): 63-76. HUGO, A. 2003. From literacy to literacies: preparing higher education in South Africa for the future. South African Journal of Higher Education, 17(2):.46-53. KRUGER, E. 2001. Die insluiting van 'n (multi-)kulturele komponent in die kurrikulum vir Afrikaans as addisionele taal. Literator, 22(3): 75-91. LATHA, R.H. 2002. The development of critical and cultural literacies in a study of Mariama Ba's So long a letter in the South African literature classroom. Literator, 23(3): 179-195. MADDOX, B. 2007. What can ethnographic studies tell us about the consequences of literacy? Comparative Education, 43(2): 253-271. MATJILA, D.S. & PRETORIUS, E.J. 2004. Bilingual and bilitarate? An exploratory study of Grade 8 reading skills in Setswana and English. Per Linguam, 20(1): 1-21. OGUNROMBI, S.A. & ADIO, G. 1995. Factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students. Library Review, 44(4): 50-57. PRETORIUS, E. & RIBBENS, R. 2005. Reading in a disadvantaged high school: Issues of accomplishment, assessment and accountability. South African Journal of Education, 25(3): 139-147. PRINSLOO, J. 2004. Examining the examination: The `worlding' of the matriculation language papers in KwaZulu-Natal. Perspectives in Education, 22(1): 81-97. SNYMAN, M. & HEYNS, D. 2004. Die inligtingsbehoeftes van Afrikaans T1-onderwysers. Mousaion, 22(2): 212229. VAN DEN BERG, G. 2004. The use of assessment in the development of higher-order thinking skills. Africa Education Review, 1(2): 279-294. VAN DYK, T.J. 2005. Towards providing effective academic literacy intervention. Per Linguam, 21(2): 38-51. WOLHUTER, C.C. 2002. `n Histories-opvoedkundige rekonstruksie van die geletterdheid van die SuidAfrikaanse bevolking: 'n eerste kartering. South African Journal of Education, 22(2): 125-131.

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3.7.5

Life Orientation (Ms Petro du Preez, Department of Curriculum Studies, [email protected])

Background Life Orientation is an inter-disciplinary subject that draws on and integrates knowledge, values, skills and processes embedded in various disciplines such as Sociology, Psychology, Political Science, Human Movement Science, Labour Studies and Industrial Studies. Life Orientation refers to the study of the self in relation to others and to society. A holistic approach is followed in Life Orientation, as it is concerned with the personal, social, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, motor and physical growth, and development of learners, as well as the way in which these dimensions are interrelated and expressed in life. The focus is the development of self-in-society, and this encourages the development of balanced and confident learners who will contribute to a just and democratic society, a productive economy, and an improved quality of life for all. Life Orientation guides and prepares learners for life, and for its responsibilities and possibilities. This subject addresses knowledge, values, attitudes and skills about the self, the environment, responsible citizenship, a healthy and productive life, social engagement, recreation and physical activity, and career choices. It equips learners to solve problems, to make informed decisions and choices, and to take appropriate actions to enable them to live meaningfully and successfully in a rapidly-changing society. Life Orientation equips learners to engage on personal, psychological, neuro-cognitive, motor, physical, moral, spiritual, cultural, socio-economic and constitutional levels, to respond positively to the demands of the world, to assume responsibilities, and to make the most of life's opportunities. It enables learners to know how to exercise their constitutional rights and responsibilities, to respect the rights of others, and to value diversity, health and well-being. Life Orientation promotes knowledge, values, attitudes and skills that prepare learners to respond effectively to the challenges that confront them as well as the challenges they will have to deal with as adults, and to play a meaningful role in society and the economy. National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Life Orientation Outcomes-based education is one of the NCS principles addressed by Life Orientation. The Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards describe what a learner should know and be able to demonstrate at the end of the educational year. Learners must be able to demonstrate their newly acquired skills, knowledge and values as specified in the Assessment Standards. These demonstrations are the result of effective learning. Learning Outcomes are broadly stated and flexible within the NCS, allowing the inclusion of local inputs. Assessment standards underpin the progression within the subject in that the learner identifies and plans an investigation, conduct the investigation and analyse the data. The learner will be able to access knowledge,

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make meaning of knowledge in Life Orientation and understand how Life Orientation knowledge is applied in everyday life. The future learner The kind of learner that is envisaged by the NCS is one who will act in the interest of a society, based on respect for democracy, equality, human dignity and social justice. Learners emerging from the Further Education and Training band must: have access to, and succeed in, lifelong education and training of good quality; demonstrate an ability to think logically and analytically, as well as holistically and laterally; be able to transfer skills from familiar to unfamiliar situations. apply newly acquired knowledge be able to solve problems in any situation through critical thinking and analysis be able to work together in teams

Careers and career choices Life Orientation broadens the range of career options for learners by being relevant and responsive to the employment prospects, higher education opportunities and entrepreneurship that exist beyond Further Education and Training. Life Orientation equips learners with the personal management skills necessary for success in additional and higher education, and in adult life. It prepares learners for careers in the following career fields, among others: education, the service industry, the caring professions (health and social sciences), safety and security, human resource development and management, sport and the fitness industry, media, and politics. Teachers' access to information Many schools have information sessions regarding the implementation of FET and the different subject choices the learners have to face. The educators of these subjects had special training as to convey this information to the learners and to guide them in the choices they make for FET subjects that will be appropriate for their individual career choice. Not all schools have the same opportunities and perhaps the knowledge regarding informing learners about their subject choices within the FET curriculum. The implementation of the NCS could be successful. Secondary and tertiary education institutions need to link appropriate and relevant knowledge and requirements within Life Orientation. The content needs within different programmes should be clearly communicated between these institutions in order to deliver quality education to the learners and future students.

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Learning outcomes for Life Orientation These guidelines assist teachers and other learning programme developers to plan and design quality learning, teaching and assessment programmes. Personal well-being

Personal well-being is central to fulfilling one's potential; it also enables learners to engage effectively in interpersonal relationships, community life and society. Many personal and social problems associated with lifestyle choices persist in the Further Education and Training phase. This area focuses on self-concept, emotional literacy, social competency and life skills. It seeks to deal with the realities of peer pressure, factors influencing quality of life, and the dynamics of relationships, as well as preparing learners for a variety of roles such as being an employee and employer, being a leader and following a leader, heading and participating in a household, and being a parent. This focus area addresses issues related to the prevention of substance abuse, diseases of lifestyle, sexuality, teenage pregnancy, sexually-transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS, and the promotion of personal, community, and environmental health. The inclusion of various perspectives (such as indigenous knowledge systems), could assist in problem solving on issues of personal and community wellbeing. Citizenship education

In a transforming and democratic society, personal and individual needs have to be placed in a social context to encourage acceptance of diversity and to foster commitment to the values and principles espoused in the Constitution. Discrimination on the basis of race, religion, culture, gender, age, ability and language, as well as issues such as xenophobia and other forms of discrimination, are addressed. This focus area also deals with social relationships and other human rights and responsibilities. It is important for learners to be politically literate, that is, to know and understand democratic processes. The importance of volunteerism, social service and involvement in a democratic society are emphasised, and the causes, consequences and prevention of pervasive social ills, such as all forms of violence and abuse, are addressed. Particular attention is paid to social and environmental issues (including HIV and AIDS). Knowledge of diverse religions will contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and social justice. Recreation and physical activity

Knowledge of healthy practices and nutrition, participation in games, sport, recreational and leisure time activities, and an understanding of the relationship between health, physical activities and the environment can improve the quality of life and the well-being of all learners. This area also focuses on the role that sport can play in redressing biases and in nation building. Knowledge of and participation in recreational and fitness activities can open doors to various careers, community projects and lifelong well-being. Life Orientation acknowledges that participation in recreation and physical activities is influenced by ideology, beliefs and worldviews.

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Careers and career choices

The nature of the Further Education and Training band means that learners must make critical decisions regarding career fields and further study. In order to help learners to make these decisions, they will be exposed to study methods and skills pertaining to assessment processes, information about institutions of higher and further education, and preparation for job applications and interviews. Self-knowledge and knowledge of labour laws, the job market, work ethics, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA), learnerships and Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs), and unemployment are critical. Principles such as equity and redress are also addressed. The four Learning Outcomes specified for Life Orientation are: Learning Outcome 1: Personal Well-being Learning Outcome 2: Citizenship Education Learning Outcome 3: Recreation and Physical Well-being Learning Outcome 4: Career and Career Choices The scope of Life Orientation Life Orientation is a unique subject at the Further Education and Training level. It focuses on the diversity of learners as human beings in their totality and requires learners to identify and confront challenges using acquired knowledge, values, skills and strategies; prepares learners to be successful by helping them to study effectively and make informed decisions about subject choices, careers, and additional and higher education opportunities; helps learners to exercise their rights, as well as their civic and social responsibilities, in order to contribute to society and to environmentally-sustainable living, while respecting the rights of others; fosters self-awareness, social competencies and the achievement of a balanced and healthy lifestyle; addresses changes during puberty and adolescence, responsible sexual behaviour, risky adolescent behaviour and attitudes regarding a range of issues including substance abuse, road use, dietary behaviour and personal safety; helps learners to make informed decisions about and to nurture personal, community and environmental health; and exposes learners to and encourages them to participate in recreational and physical activities to enhance well-being. Life Orientation acknowledges the multi-faceted nature of the human being, as well as issues like human rights, gender, the environment, all forms of violence, abuse, sexuality and HIV and AIDS. For organizational purposes and to avoid duplication, these issues are located in one of four focus areas but integrated across the Assessment Standards. The four focus areas, discussed below, are: personal well-being; citizenship education;

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recreation and physical activity; and careers and career choices.

Life Orientation acknowledges that there is a wide diversity of knowledge systems through which people make meaning of the world in which they live. No knowledge system is static but is growing and changing in contact with other knowledge systems. Indigenous knowledge systems in the South African context refer to a body of knowledge embedded in the philosophical thinking and social patterns of indigenous peoples that have evolved over thousands of years and continue to evolve. Life Orientation recognises the richness of indigenous knowledge systems and their contribution as one of the sources of change to help transform the values of learners. Life Orientation encourages a teaching and learning environment that recognises that people are diverse and have different strengths and weaknesses. The subject embraces inclusive education by providing opportunities, alternative methods of instruction and flexible assessment for learners who experience barriers to learning and participation. Life Orientation also encourages learners and teachers to develop knowledge and understanding of varying levels of learner ability, as well as particular support needs to address barriers. School sport is recognised as an integral, extra-mural, co-curricular component of the education programme. In view of this position, Life Orientation addresses the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that enable learners to participate in extra-curricular activities, including school sport. The South African Education Policy Act (Act No 27 of 1996) was taken as the point of departure in dealing with religion and Religion Education in the subject Life Orientation. The term `religion' in Life Orientation is used to include belief systems and worldviews. Religion Education in the National Curriculum Statement for Grades 1012 (General) rests on a division of responsibilities between the state on the one hand and religious bodies and parents on the other. Seen in this way, Religion Education has a civic rather than a religious function in this curriculum, and promotes civic rights and responsibilities. In the context of the South African Constitution, Religion Education contributes to the wider framework of education by developing in every learner the knowledge, values, attitudes and skills necessary for diverse religions to co-exist in a multi-religious society. By using this approach, individuals will come to realise that they are part of the broader community, and will learn to see their own identities in harmony with those of others. The Life Orientation curriculum content needs to be dealt with in such a way as to assist the learner to progress towards the achievement of the Learning Outcomes. Content must serve the Learning Outcomes but not be an end in itself. The contexts suggested will enable the content to be embedded in situations which are meaningful to the learner and so assist learning and teaching. The teacher should be aware of and use local contexts, not necessarily indicated here, which could be more suited to the experiences of the learner. Content and context, when aligned to the attainment of the Assessment Standards, provide a framework for the development of

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Learning Programmes. The Learning Programme Guidelines give more detail in this respect. Refer to Table 3.10 for detail on the content in Life Orientation. Table 3.10: Learning outcomes for Life Orientation Grade 10 Learning Outcome 1: Personal Well-being Grade 11 Grade 12

The learner is able to achieve and maintain personal well-being. Applying various life skills to provide evidence of an ability to plan and achieve life goals: Types of goals (e.g. short-term, mediumterm and long-term). Important life goals (e.g. goals related to family, marriage, parenting, career choices, relationships). Relationship between personal values, choices, goal setting. Steps in planning. Steps in goal setting (and/or planning). Prioritising goals. Perseverance and persistence. Problem-solving skills. Explaining that relationships can influence and are influenced by own well-being: Different types of relationships. Relationships with different people/groups. Changing nature of relationships. Role of power in relationships. Social and cultural views that influence/affect relationships. Relationships that contribute/are detrimental to individual well-being. Qualities sought in different relationships. Genders roles and stereotyping. Individuality in relationships. Impact of the media on values and beliefs about relationships. Exploring characteristics of a healthy and balanced lifestyle, factors influencing responsible choices and behaviour in the promotion of health, and the impact of unsafe practices on self and others: Characteristics of a healthy lifestyle (e.g. physical, psychological, social, emotional and spiritual needs). Aspects that impact negatively on a healthy lifestyle, for example: · accidents (types of accidents, lack of knowledge and skills, unsafe attitudes and behaviours, unsafe environments, emotional factors); · risk behaviours and situations (e.g. personal safety, road use, substance use and abuse, dietary behaviour, sexual behaviour, risk of pregnancy, sexually-transmitted infections [STIs], HIV); The learner is able to achieve and maintain personal well-being. Applying a range of life skills, evaluating own ability to prevent and manage stress, and adapting to change as part of own ongoing healthy lifestyle choices: Concepts: quality of life, stressors and change. Identify stressors (e.g. physical, emotional, social, environmental, abuse, vocation, life crises, personality, social pressure). Assess level of stress (e.g. signs and symptoms of stress, positive and negative aspects of stress). Various coping mechanisms and/or management techniques. Develop and implement own strategy. Discussing the importance of initiating, building and sustaining positive relationships with family and peers, as well as in the workplace and broader social context: Importance of communication (e.g. understanding others, communicating feelings, beliefs and attitudes). Communicating in various situations (e.g. in the family, with peers, with friends, in the workplace). Factors influencing the effectiveness of communication (personality, attitudes, values). Conflict resolution (common conflicts, ways of resolving conflict). Acceptance of responsibilities (e.g. express views and feelings appropriately, respect the feelings of others). Rights in relationships (e.g. to have opinions and feelings, to make decisions about one's own body, equality). Responsibilities and rights in sexual relationships. Investigating the human and environmental factors that cause ill health, accidents, crises and disasters, and exploring appropriate ways to deal with these: Human factors (e.g. psychological, social, religious and cultural practices, and different knowledge perspectives). Lifestyle diseases: · major lifestyle diseases (e.g. cancer, hypertension, diseases of the heart and circulatory system, sexually transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS); ·

The learner is able to achieve and maintain personal well-being. Applying various strategies to enhance selfawareness and self-esteem, while acknowledging and respecting the uniqueness of self and others: Concepts: self-awareness, self-esteem. Factors influencing self-awareness and self-esteem (including the media). Developing self-awareness and selfesteem: · strategies for building confidence in self and others could include: * communication, * successful completion of tasks/projects, * participation in community organisation or life, * making `good' decisions, * affirmation of others; · respect others and respect differences (e.g. race, gender, ability). Explaining different life roles, and how they change and affect relationships: Identify evolving nature of roles and responsibilities (e.g. child, student, adult, role in family, partner, mother, father, grandparent, breadwinner, employee, employer, leader, follower). Handling life roles effectively (links with stress management, coping mechanisms, influence of society and culture). Explaining of changes associated with growing towards adulthood and describing values and strategies to make responsible decisions regarding sexuality and lifestyle choices in order to optimise personal potential: Concepts: puberty, adolescence, physical, emotional and social changes. Phases of development ­ adolescence is one of many changes across the lifespan. Male and female reproductive systems. Physical changes: hormonal changes, increased growth rates, bodily proportions, secondary sex characteristics, primary changes in the body (menstruation, ovulation and seed formation), skin problems, changing body needs during puberty. Emotional changes: maturing personality, depth and control of emotions, feelings of insecurity, changing needs, interests, feelings, beliefs and values, sexual interest.

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Table 3.10: continued

Social changes: relationships with family, `crushes', interaction with social groups, need for acceptance by and dependence on peer group, moving into the workforce, increased responsibilities. Individual reactions to change: positive and negative. Coping with change: importance of communication, making friends. Behaviour that could lead to sexual intercourse. Teenage pregnancy and the prevention thereof, sexual abuse, rape. Values such as respect for self and others, self-control, loyalty in a relationship, right to privacy, right to protect oneself, right to say `No', taking responsibility for own actions. Skills such as self-awareness, critical thinking, decision making, problem solving, assertiveness, negotiation, communication, refusal, goal setting, information gathering. Where to find help. Investigate other views and insights of the life cycle and related traditional practices. Describing the concepts `power' and `power relations' and their effect on relationships between and among genders: Concepts: power, power relations, masculinity, femininity and gender. Differences between a man and a woman (e.g. reproduction and roles in the community ­ that is, a man and a woman are different but equally important). Stereotypical views of gender roles and responsibilities. Influence of gender inequality on relationships and general well-being (e.g. sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS). · impact of socio-economic environment (e.g. literacy, income, poverty, culture, social environment). Individual responsibility (towards self and others) for making informed decisions and choices. Positive influences on and barriers to behaviour change (e.g. role of parents and peers, personal values and belief system, religion, media, social and cultural influences, economic conditions, access to information). Seeking support, advice and assistance. Coping with and overcoming barriers regarding behaviour. Impact of unsafe practices on self, family and community (e.g. physical, emotional, spiritual, social, economic, political, environmental impact). contributing factors (e.g. eating habits, lack of exercise, smoking, alcohol abuse; unsafe sexual behaviour); · prevention and control. Environmental factors and disasters (physical environment, e.g. lack of infrastructure; environmental hazards, e.g. pollution, waste dumps, radiation, floods, fires, damage caused by wind). Dealing with these on a personal level (attitudes, safety skills, first aid, coping with disasters). Community responsibility to provide environments and services that promote safe and healthy living (responsibilities of various levels of government, laws, regulations, rules, community services). Explaining how unequal power relations between the sexes are constructed and influence health and wellbeing, and applying this understanding to work, cultural and social contexts: Abuse of power in the work setting (e.g. sexual harassment), cultural context (e.g. different mourning periods for males and females), societal context (e.g. domestic violence, sexual violence/rape), and negative effect on health and well-being.

Analysing gender roles and their effects on self, family and society: Concepts: masculinity, femininity and gender. Own gender role, role in family and society

Grade 10

Learning Outcome 2: Citizenship Education Grade 11 Grade 12

The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the values and rights that underpin the Constitution in order to practice responsible citizenship, and to enhance social justice and environmentally sustainable living. Participating in a community service that addresses a contemporary social or environmental issue, indicating how this harms certain sectors of society more than others (e.g. HIV and AIDS, environmental degradation): Concepts: social and environmental justice. Social issues (e.g. lack of basic services and unequal access to basic resources, food production, security, nutrition, health, safety, HIV and AIDS). Environmental issues (e.g. genetically modified foods and the use of harmful substances in food The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the values and rights that underpin the Constitution in order to practice responsible citizenship, and to enhance social justice and environmentally sustainable living. Evaluating services offered by a community project on a contemporary social or environmental issue, and evaluating own contribution to the project: Evaluation of community project and own contribution to address social or environmental issues. Present findings and make recommendations. Evaluating own positions taken when dealing with discrimination and human rights violations, taking into account the Bill of Rights: Participation in discussions, projects, campaigns and events to address discrimination and human rights violations.

The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the values and rights that underpin the Constitution in order to practice responsible citizenship, and to enhance social justice and environmentally sustainable living. Identifying social and environmental issues, and participating in a group project to address a contemporary social or environmental issue (e.g. abuse, depletion of resources): Social issues (e.g. crime, poverty, food security, abuse, discrimination, violence, HIV and AIDS). Environmental issues (e.g. degradation (such as soil erosion, air and water pollution, loss of open space) and depletion of resources (such as fishing stocks, firewood, land)). Youth service development.

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Table 3.10: continued

Explaining the value of diversity, and discussing contemporary contributions of individuals and groups in addressing diversity, discrimination and violations of human rights: Concept: diversity. Diversity in various contexts. Contemporary events showcasing the nature of a transforming South Africa. Incidences of human rights violations. Bill of Rights, international conventions and instruments, rules, codes of conduct, laws. Individuals, groups and organisations in government and civil society making significant contributions to address human rights violations. Protection agencies and their work. Participating in a democratic structure, and knowing the principles of such a democratic structure, how it functions and how it changes: Participation in local community structures, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community-based organisations (CBOs), faith-based organisations (FBOs), Community Police Forums, Representative Councils of Learners, Scouts, clubs, and so on. Constitutions, elections, representation of constituencies, mandates, lobbying, advocacy, running of meetings. Displaying an understanding of the major religions, ethical traditions and indigenous belief systems in South Africa, and exploring how these contribute to a harmonious society: Major religions (e.g. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism). Ethical traditions. Indigenous belief systems. Living in a multi-religious society production, cruelty to animals and inhumane farming methods, impact of environmental factors such as pollution and food additives on personal and community health, depletion of resources). Civic, social and environmental responsibilities including the knowledge and skills to make informed decisions and take appropriate action. Social skills, constructive and critical thinking skills necessary to effectively participate in civic life. Youth service development, volunteerism, youth and civic organisations. Formulating strategies based on national and international instruments for identifying and intervening in discrimination and violations of human rights: Instruments such as the Bill of Rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of Children, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Protection agencies. Impact of discrimination and oppression. Discrimination (e.g. race, class, creed, rural/urban, HIV and AIDS status, religion, ethnicity, xenophobia, gender, language). Challenging prejudice and discrimination. The nature and sources of bias, prejudice and discrimination. Participating in and analysing the principles, processes and procedures for democratic participation in life: National, provincial and local government structures, and traditional authorities. Public participation and petition process. Governance. The law-making process. Rule of law. Political parties, interest groups, lobbying, business. Civil society. Transparency, representation and accountability. Reflecting on knowledge and insights gained in major religions, ethical traditions and indigenous belief systems, and clarifying own values and beliefs with the view to debate and analyse contemporary moral and spiritual issues and dilemmas: Clarify own values and beliefs. Identify various moral and spiritual issues and dilemmas (e.g. right to life, euthanasia, cultural practices and traditions, economic issues, environmental issues). Process of critical analysis. Respect differing opinions. Evaluation of outcomes from campaigns and events. Bill of Rights. Analysing and debating the role of the media in a democratic society: Media: electronic and print media. Role and responsibility of media, freedom of expression, limitations. Critical analysis of media and campaigns. Access to information. Reflecting on and explaining how to formulate a personal mission statement based on core aspects of personal philosophies, values, beliefs, religion and ideologies, which will inform and direct own actions in life and contribute meaningfully to society: Awareness of own personal views, values, beliefs, religion, ideology. Develop own mission statement for life. Respect the right of others to hold different views and values.

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Table 3.10: continued Grade 10 Learning Outcome 3: Recreation and Physical Activity Grade 11 Grade 12

The learner is able to explore and engage responsibly in recreation and physical activities, to promote well-being. Setting own goals and participating in programmes both in and out of school to improve personal current level of fitness and health, and investigating how nutrition relates to these: Ascertain own level of fitness and health. Role of nutrition in fitness and health. Participate in a programme for the development of aerobic endurance. Knowledge of performance requirements. Design and practise own programme according to determined goals. Attitude of commitment, acceptance of own capacity and body image. Links with other human dimensions. Participating in self-designed and modified games and sport that are taught to peers, and developing own umpiring, administrative, organisational and leadership skills in such activities: Peer coaching techniques to improve or increase knowledge and skill acquisition. Organisation of equipment, planning of sessions. Applying rules and making judgements. Administration of score cards, time keeping, and so on. Building on self-confidence and selfesteem. Opportunities for knowledge acquisition. Investigating participant and spectator behaviour in sport and its role in nation building: Behaviour impact. Administration (e.g. sporting bodies and boards, referees). Incidence of participator behaviour and what triggers certain behaviour. Exposure to positive behaviour programmes. Role of sport in nation building. Exploring and evaluating various leadership roles through participation in a self-designed recreational group activity, and analysing own role in such activity: Participation in recreation activities that promote leadership skills. Leadership qualities and leadership styles. Being a leader and a follower. Rules and etiquette. Learning and improving techniques. Application of leadership skills in other spheres of life. Analysing own role in activity. The learner is able to explore and engage responsibly in recreation and physical activities, to promote well-being. Monitoring and evaluating own progress in achievement of personal fitness and health goals through regular participation in a programme: Participate to meet, monitor and evaluate progress. Methodology: How to evaluate progress? What to evaluate? Drawing conclusions. Explore different monitoring processes. Evaluating and participating in various relaxation and recreational activities, sport and games with the view to making a choice about participation and long-term engagement in at least one activity: Developing criteria for evaluating programmes, sport and games. Long-term effects of participation: physical, mental, social and emotional. Value-added benefits and diseases of lifestyle. Reporting on the opportunities for careers and work in the recreation, fitness and sport industries: Research skills. Knowledge of work opportunities. Value and attitude change towards perceptions of different careers (stereotyping). Profitable use of time. How to use talents in working and career opportunities. Transfer skills to other related industries. Enjoyment. Investigating how ideologies, beliefs, and worldviews influence the construction of and participation in recreation and physical activity: Understand that the concepts recreation and physical activity are social constructs. Understand how beliefs and ideologies influence participation across cultures. Make comparisons between urban and rural participation. Analyse differences in participation trends of westernised and more traditional societies. Identify gender differences in participation (differences between men's and women's participation trends). Evaluate the entry of women into previously men's-only sport, and factors that influence this. Assess the barriers to participation for people with different physical abilities. Examine own participation in relation to the above. Indigenous games. National Sports Commission's initiatives on the development of indigenous games into structured and organised representational games such as the indigenous Olympics.

The learner is able to explore and engage responsibly in recreation and physical activities, to promote well-being. Participating in programmes to promote wellbeing, and describing the relationship between physical fitness and physical, mental and socio-emotional health: Concepts: cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, endurance and flexibility. Psychological development, creativity, therapeutic value. Value of movement in neuromuscular development. Health promotion and physical fitness aspects. Benefits and outcomes of participation. Relationship between physical and mental health. Commitment. Participating and practising skills in a variety of games and sport, and analysing the value of own participation in such activities: Participate with attention to skill acquisition. Basic technique requirements. Games (e.g. rounders, mini-cricket and indigenous games). Sport (e.g. softball and cricket). Participate for social interaction and enjoyment. Health benefits and appreciation of ability. Analysing the coverage of sport, sporting personalities and recreational activities by the media, and suggesting ways of redressing biases and unfair practices in the world of sport: Biases in terms of gender, race, age, stereotyping, sporting codes, and so on. Unfair practices such as drug taking (`doping'), match fixing, subjective umpiring, maladministration. Process of analysis and critical evaluation. Media: print and electronic media. Redressing issues of this nature. Planning and participating in a self-designed environmentally-responsible outdoors recreational group activity, and analysing the value of own participation in such an activity: Participate in recreational activities. Environmental scan/survey of possibilities such as nature walk, surf walk, bird watching and orienteering, and ways in which to ensure that the environment is protected while it is being enjoyed. Appreciation of own abilities. Safety issues.

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Table 3.10: continued Grade 10 Learning Outcome 4: Careers and Career Choices Grade 11 Grade 12

The learner is able to demonstrate selfknowledge and the ability to make informed decisions regarding further study, career fields and career pathing. Exploring and evaluating knowledge about self, interests, abilities and personal expectations in relation to career requirements and socio-economic considerations: SAQA, the NQF framework, and recognition of prior learning. Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled and physical labour, learnerships. Additional and higher education studies required. Expectancy and reality. Perseverance. Researching the requirements for admission to additional and higher education courses, as well as options for financial assistance: Evaluating additional and higher education options. Information access skills. Explores access to financial assistance. Obligations in terms of financial arrangements, study loans, and so on. Demonstrating competencies, abilities and ethics that will assist in securing a job and developing a career: Information access skills. Studying advertisements, writing an application letter, completing application forms, writing a CV, and so on. Personal appearance, such as dressing when going for an interview. Interview skills and preparing for typical questions that can be expected. All forms of experience gained (e.g. work shadowing, informal jobs). Acquiring testimonials. Ethical behaviour. Reflecting on, refining and applying own study skills, study style and study strategies: Study skills: examine how learning takes place and reflect on effectiveness. Study styles as preferred way of approaching tasks. Study strategy as the way a learner approaches a specific task in the light of perceived demands. Process of assessment and examination writing skills. The learner is able to demonstrate selfknowledge and the ability to make informed decisions regarding further study, career fields and career pathing. Commiting to a decision taken, and applying for a job or a course in additional or higher education: Job, course or institution application. Skills for final action (e.g. availability of funds, completing forms, travel arrangements, accommodation). Decision-making skills. Exploring career opportunities within chosen career field, and investigating other innovative solutions (including entrepreneurship) as ways in which to counteract possible unemployment: Reasons for and impact of unemployment. Access information on world of work. Revise entrepreneurship. `Reading' the market and identifying niches. Problem solving and creative thinking. Investigating and reporting on the core elements of a job contract, conditions of service, relevant labour laws and practices, the principles of equity and redress, the value of work and the importance of a work ethic: Core elements of a job contract, obligations, conditions of service. Laws such as the Labour Relations Act (conditions of work, including health and safety in the workplace, other relevant issues) and the Employment Equity Act. Recruitment process, general trends and practices. Trade unions. Principles: history of labour practices and the relevance of the Employment Equity Act. Concept: work ethics. Societal expectations. Work gives meaning to life, provides an income. Reflecting on the process of assessment and examination writing skills, and applying these skills: Revise own study skills, strategies and styles. How to manage a portfolio. How to write an examination (read the question, answer the questions, etc.). Understand the importance of continuous assessment.

The learner is able to demonstrate selfknowledge and the ability to make informed decisions regarding further study, career fields and career pathing. Demonstrating self-awareness, and exploring socio-economic factors as considerations in own subject, career and study choices: Knowledge about life domains: · being (physical, psychological, spiritual); · becoming (practical, leisure, growth); and · community (social, physical, community). Socio-economic factors (refer to existing economic activities or lack thereof in specific setting), availability of finances to fund studies, stereotyping, and so on. Difference between career fields (clusters), occupations, careers, jobs. Various subjects and career choices. Affordability. Accessing information. Steps in choosing and the decision-making process. Investigating the diversity of jobs according to economic sectors, as well as work settings and forms of activities in each of these sectors in relation to self: Primary sector (raw materials), secondary sector (finished products/goods), and tertiary sector (infrastructure, providing services). Workplace environment and conditions such as indoors, outdoors (laboratory, mine). Forms of activity (e.g. designing, assembling, growing). Skills and competencies (e.g. information gathering or analysis, instruction). Various facets of self and integration into the world of work. Displaying an awareness of trends and demands in the job market, and the need for lifelong learning: SAQA, the NQF framework and recognition of prior learning. Ability to adapt, re-train, flexibility, ongoing development of self. Reading' the market for trends regarding jobs. Different kinds of learning: formal, nonformal (e.g. web, conferences). Exploring a range of study skills, and applying selected study methods: Listening skills. Reading skills. Comprehension skills. Concentration and memory skills. Organisation and time management skills. Selecting important concepts and content. Note-taking and mind-mapping. Assignment and essay construction. Making comparisons. Critical, creative and problem-solving skills.

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Assessment standards for Life Orientation For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Learning Outcome 1: Personal Well-being The learner is able to achieve and maintain personal well-being. In this phase, learners are expected to consolidate their own identities. The emphasis is on building self-esteem and confidence, and applying various life skills in everyday life. Learners are made aware of their own development, a variety of risks (especially sexual risks), and substance use and abuse. Because learners of this age are vulnerable, these issues are explored in greater depth than in the General Education and Training phase. Other influences in society and the environment that impact on well-being are also studied. As learners in this phase are becoming more independent, preparation for effective life management becomes essential. Other influences in society that impact on well-being ­ such as indigenous knowledge systems, religion and the environment ­ are also studied. Learning Outcome 2: Citizenship Education The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the values and rights that underpin the Constitution in order to practise responsible citizenship, and to enhance social justice and environmentally sustainable living. In this phase, learners are being prepared for the role of informed, active participants in community life and as responsible citizens. Competencies and abilities in addressing discrimination, awareness of economic and social justice, and environmentally sustainable living (thinking globally and acting locally) are further developed. Learners are also exposed to diverse religions in order to foster peaceful co-existence in a multi-religious society. They are required to clarify their own values and beliefs as these will influence their decisions throughout life. Learning Outcome 3: Recreation and Physical Well-being The learner is able to explore and engage responsibly in recreation and physical activities, to promote wellbeing. In this phase, learners are in transition to adulthood. The importance of nutrition, physical activity and recreation and their contribution to personal health and fitness are emphasised. Opportunities are created for the expression of creativity and initiative. Learners will be encouraged to participate continuously in recreational activities, physical exercise and sport for lifelong well-being. Learning Outcome 4: Career and Career Choices The learner is able to demonstrate self-knowledge and the ability to make informed decisions regarding further study, career fields and career pathing.

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In this phase, learners are expected to reflect continuously on their own interests and abilities as well as career and entrepreneurial options as they move towards finalising their choice of a career. They have to critically evaluate socio-economic factors, additional and higher education options, and access to financial assistance to finalise a career choice. As learners at this stage are about to enter the world of work, relevant employment legislation, how to access it, and dealing with unemployment are studied. For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Table 3.11 provides an overview of the assessment standards for Life Orientation. Table 3.11: Assessment standards for Life Orientation Learning Outcome 1: Personal Well-being

The learner is able to achieve and maintain personal well-being.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply various strategies to enhance selfawareness and self-esteem, while acknowledging and respecting the uniqueness of self and others. Explain different life roles, and how they change and affect relationships. Explain changes associated with growing towards adulthood and describe values and strategies to make responsible decisions regarding sexuality and lifestyle choices in order to optimise personal potential. Describe the concepts `power' and `power relations' and their effect on relationships between and among genders.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply various life skills to provide evidence of an ability to plan and achieve life goals. Explain that relationships can influence and are influenced by own well-being. Explore characteristics of a healthy and balanced lifestyle, factors influencing responsible choices and behaviour in the promotion of health, and the impact of unsafe practices on self and others. Analyse gender roles and their effects on self, family and society.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Apply a range of life skills, evaluate own ability to prevent and manage stress, and adapt to change as part of an ongoing healthy lifestyle choice. Discuss the importance of initiating, building and sustaining positive relationships with family and peers, as well as in the workplace and the broader social context. Investigate the human and environmental factors that cause ill health, accidents, crises and disasters, and explore appropriate ways to deal with them. Investigate how unequal power relations between the sexes are constructed and how they influence health and well-being, and apply this understanding to work, cultural and social contexts.

Learning Outcome 2: Citizenship Education

The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the values and rights that underpin the Constitution in order to practice responsible citizenship, and to enhance social justice and sustainable living.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Identify social and environmental issues, and participate in a group project to address a contemporary social and environmental issue (e.g. abuse, depletion of resources). Explain the value of diversity, and discuss contemporary contributions of individuals and groups in addressing discrimination and violations of human rights. Participate in a democratic structure and know the principles of such a structure, how it functions and how it changes. Display an understanding of the major religions, ethical traditions and indigenous belief systems in South Africa, and explore how they contribute to a harmonious society.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Participate in a community service that addresses a contemporary social or environmental issue, indicating how it can harm certain sectors of society more than others (e.g. HIV and AIDS, environmental degradation). Formulate strategies based on national and international instruments for identifying and intervening in discrimination and violations of human rights. Participate in and analyse the principles, processes and procedures for democratic participation in life. Reflect on knowledge and insights gained in major religions, ethical traditions and indigenous belief systems, and clarify own values and beliefs with the view to debate and analyse contemporary moral and spiritual issues and dilemmas.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Evaluate services offered by a community project on a contemporary social or environmental issue, and evaluate own contribution to the project. Evaluate own positions taken when dealing with discrimination and human rights violations, taking into account the Bill of Rights. Analyse and debate the role of the media in a democratic society. Reflect on and explain how to formulate a personal mission statement based on core aspects of personal philosophies, values, beliefs, religions and ideologies, which will inform and direct actions in life and contribute meaningfully to society.

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Table 3.11: continued Learning Outcome 3: Recreation and Physical Well-being

The learner is able to explore and engage responsibly in recreation and physical activities, to promote well-being.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Participate in programmes to promote wellbeing and describe the relationship between physical fitness and physical, mental and socioemotional health. Participate and practice skills in a variety of games and sport, and analyse the value of own participation in such activities. Analyse the coverage of sport, sporting personalities and recreational activities by the media and suggest ways of redressing biases and unfair practices in the world of sport. Plan and participate in a self-designed, environmentally responsible outdoors recreational group activity, analysing the value of own participation in such an activity.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Set own goals and participate in programmes both in and out of school to improve current personal level of fitness and health, and investigate how nutrition relates to these. Participate in self-designed and modified sport and games which are taught to peers, and develop own umpiring, administrative, organisational and leadership skills in such activities. Investigate participant and spectator behaviour in sport and the role of sport in nation building. Explore and evaluate various leadership roles through participation in a selfdesigned recreational group activity, and analyse own role in such activity.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Monitor and evaluate own progress in the achievement of personal fitness and health goals through regular participation in a programme. Evaluate and participate in various relaxation and recreational activities, sport and games with the view to making a choice about participation and long-term engagement in at least one activity. Report on the opportunities for careers and work in the recreation, fitness and sport industries. Investigate how ideologies, beliefs, and worldviews influence the construction of and participation in a recreational and physical activity.

Learning Outcome 4: Career and Career Choices

The learner is able to demonstrate self-knowledge and the ability to make informed decisions regarding further study, career fields and career pathing.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: Demonstrate self-awareness and explore socioeconomic factors as considerations in own subject, career and study choices. Investigate the diversity of jobs according to economic sectors, and work settings and forms of activities in each of these sectors in relation to self. Display an awareness of trends and demands in the job market, as well as the need for lifelong learning. Explore a range of study skills and apply the selected study method.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: Explore and evaluate knowledge about self, interests, abilities and personal expectations in relation to career requirements and socioeconomic considerations. Research the requirements for admission to additional and higher education courses, as well as options for financial assistance. Demonstrate competencies, abilities and ethics that will assist in securing a job and developing a career. Reflect on, refine and apply own study skills, style and strategies.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: Commit to a decision taken and apply accordingly for a job or a course in additional or higher education. Explore career opportunities within chosen field and investigate other innovative solutions (including entrepreneurship) as ways in which to counteract possible unemployment. Investigate and report on the core elements of a job contract, conditions of service, relevant labour laws and practices, the principles of equity and redress, the value of work and the importance of a work ethic. Reflect on the process of assessment and examination writing skills, and apply these skills.

Methods of Assessment Self-assessment Peer assessment Group assessment

Methods of collecting assessment evidence Observation-based assessment Observation-based assessment methods tend to be less structured and allow the development of a record of different kinds of evidence for different learners at different times. This kind of assessment is often based on tasks that require learners to interact with one another in pursuit of a common solution or product. Observation has to be intentional and should be conducted with the help of an appropriate observation instrument.

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-

Test-based assessment

Test-based assessment is more structured, and enables teachers to gather the same evidence for all learners in the same way and at the same time. This kind of assessment creates evidence of learning that is verified by a specific score. If used correctly, tests and examinations are an important part of the curriculum because they give good evidence of what has been learned. Task-based assessment

Task-based or performance assessment methods aim to show whether learners can apply the skills and knowledge they have learned in unfamiliar contexts or in contexts outside of the classroom. Performance assessment also covers the practical components of subjects by determining how learners put theory into practice. The criteria, standards or rules by which the task will be assessed are described in rubrics or task checklists, and help the teacher to use professional judgment to assess each learner's performance. Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 Suggested reading AMUSA, L.O. & TORIOLA, A.L. 2006. A comparative analysis of the perception and understanding of physical education and school sport among South African children ages 6-15 years. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 12(3): 220-237. ANDERSON, M.J., BLANKSBY, B.A. & WHIPP, P.R. 2005. A retrospective evaluation of assessment in physical education. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 27(1): 1-10. BRUNDRETT, M. 2001. The development of school leadership preparation programmes in England and the USA. Educational Management and Administration, 29(2): 229-245. CHICK, K. 2001. Constructing a multicultural national identity: South African classrooms as sites of struggle between competing discourses. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 17(1-2): 27-45. CHIDESTER, D. 2003. Religion education in South Africa: Teaching and learning about religion, religions, and religious diversity. British Journal of Religious Education, 25(4): 261-278. DICKINSON, G. & VAN VOLLENHOVEN, W. 2002. Religion in public schools: Comparative images of Canada and South Africa. Perspectives in Education, 20(3): 1-19. ECCLES, J.S., BARBER, B.L., STONE, M. & HUNT, J. 2003. Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59(4): 865-889.

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ENGELBRECHT, P., OSWALD, M. & FORLIN, C. 2006. Promoting the implementation of inclusive education in primary schools in South Africa. British Journal of Special Education, 33(3): 121-129. GRIESSEL-ROUX, E., EBERSÖHN, L., SMIT, B. & ELOFF, I. 2005. HIV/AIDS programmes: What do learners want? South African Journal of Education, 25(4): 253-257. HLUNGWANI, S.B., HENNING, I.J. & LORTER, G.A. 2001. The need for the teaching of biblical studies in the RSA with special reference to the Giyani high schools. Acta Theologica, 21(1): 41-56. MASTROPIERI, M.A. & SCRUGGS, T.E. 2001. Promoting inclusion in secondary classrooms. Learning disability Quarterly, 24(4): 265-274. REDDY, S. 2005. "It's not as easy as ABC": Dynamics of intergenerational power and resistance within the context of HIV/AIDS. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 11-19. RHODES, B. & ROUX, C. 2004. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum. South African Journal of Education, 24(1): 25-30. RIDGE, S. 2003. Imagining xenophobia : Life Orientation, language and literature. Per Linguam, 19(1 & 2): 1-12. ROOTH, E. 2005. An investigation of the status and practice of Life Orientation in South African schools in two provinces. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of the Western Cape. ROTH, J.L. & BROOKS-GUNN, J. 2003. Youth development programs: risk, prevention and policy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32: 170-182. ROUX, C. & DU PREEZ, P. 2005. Religion in education: An emotive research domain. Scriptura, 89: 273-282. SCHOEMAN, S. 2002. "The school with the Bible": From meaningless to meaningful citizenship education in South Africa. Koers, 67(4): 441-457. SPERANDIO, J. 2000. Leadership for adolescent girls: The role of secondary schools in Uganda. Gender and Development, 8(3): 57-64. TER AVEST, I. 2005. Religion: Voice of the multi-voiced self-evaluating the diversity of religious and nonreligious philosophies of life as part of the multi-voiced self. Scriptura, 89: 283-292.

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STOLBERG, T. 2007. The religio-scientific frameworks of pre-service primary teachers: An analysis of their influence on their teaching in science. International Journal of Science Education, 29(7): 909-930. VAN DEVENTER, K 2002. Quality physical education and the partnership concept. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 24(2): 101-119. VAN DEVENTER, K. 2004. A case for Physical Education/Life Orientation: The health of a nation. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 26(1): 107-121.

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3.7.6

Life Sciences (Contact person: Dr Louise Botha, Department of Curriculum Studies, [email protected])

Background Life Sciences draw from disciplines such as Botany, Zoology, Genetics and Physiology. Life Sciences as a subject is a systematic study of life in the natural and human-made environment and focuses on basic life processes, interrelationships and interdependence of the living and non-living (physical) environment. Learners need to master skills in Life Sciences which include scientific inquiry, problem solving, critical thinking and the application of their acquired knowledge. The purpose of Life Sciences is to enable learners to develop an understanding of the nature of science, the influences of ethics and biases together with an understanding of the interrelationship of science, technology, indigenous knowledge, environment and society. The Process skills acquired in the GET and FET band strongly link to the scientific methods according to which Natural Sciences are studied e.g. identifying hypothesis, accurate observations, data collection, interpretation and communication, to mention a few. In mastering these skills, learners will be able to plan, follow instructions, conduct investigations and report on findings successfully during further studies. Life Science subject knowledge and content are not just factual but are placed within the context of everyday life and experiences in the environment and society. In order to stay in touch with technological development and change, every person should have the ability to become a lifelong learner. With the implementation of the NCS learners are guided to become lifelong learners. The content of each theme within Life Sciences as prescribed by the NCS is merely a guideline as to what the learner should know (assessment standards). The educator/teacher has the responsibility to design/plan the depth/detail of knowledge required in the specific theme. This might be a weakness as not all educators have the same in-depth knowledge, appropriate training and the acquired skills to gain and present the content knowledge of Life Sciences. All three the stated learning outcomes are achievable as it strongly connects to the Process skills and Science methods. Failure to achieve these outcomes could be ignorance toward the NCS or that educators are not properly informed and trained within the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards. Misconceptions regarding outcomes-based education could have a negative impact on the implementation and achievement of the Outcomes for the programme. Learning Outcomes 3 (Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society) might be more of a challenge as it is a new, yet not unfamiliar, concept to be taught in schools. Not all educators are life-long learners and are caught up in the old fashioned way of education/teaching.

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National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Life Sciences The purpose of the NCS is to lay down the foundation for achieving specified goals as set out in the Learning Outcomes and Assessment standards. Outcomes-based education is one of the NCS principles addressed by Life Sciences. The Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards describe what a learner should know and be able to demonstrate at the end of the educational year. Learners must be able to demonstrate their newly acquired skills, knowledge and values as specified in the Assessment Standards. These demonstrations are the result of effective learning. Learning Outcomes are broadly stated and flexible within the NCS, allowing the inclusion of local inputs. Assessment standards underpin the progression within the subject in that the learner identifies and plans an investigation, conduct the investigation and analyse the data. The learner will be able to access knowledge, make meaning of knowledge in Life Sciences and understand how Life Science knowledge is applied in everyday life. Learners will be able to compare scientific ideas and indigenous knowledge of past and present cultures. The future learner The kind of learner that is envisaged by the NCS is one who will act in the interest of a society, based on respect for democracy, equality, human dignity and social justice. Learners emerging from the Further Education and Training band must: have access to, and succeed in, lifelong education and training of good quality; demonstrate an ability to think logically and analytically, as well as holistically and laterally; be able to transfer skills from familiar to unfamiliar situations. apply newly acquired knowledge be able to solve problems in any situation through critical thinking and analysis be able to work together in teams

According to the NCS the following are careers that could be considered after successfully completing the Life Science programme: Medicine Bioengineering Psychology Nursing Education Marine biology Environmental science Sport science

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Teachers' access to information Many schools have information sessions regarding the implementation of FET and the different subject choices the learners have to face. The educators of these subjects had special training as to convey this information to the learners and to guide them in the choices they make for FET subjects that will be appropriate for their individual career choice. Not all schools have the same opportunities and perhaps the knowledge regarding informing learners about their subject choices within the FET Life Science curriculum. Therefore it should be taken into consideration that not all students wanting to enter any of the Sciences as a course, studied Life Science or Physical Science up to Grade 12. They possibly only did Natural Science up to Grade 9 in the GET band. These students have a basic knowledge of science and therefore should be considered on merit to enter science studies. The implementation of the NCS could be successful. Secondary and tertiary education institutions need to link appropriate and relevant knowledge and requirements within Life Sciences. The content needs within different programmes should be clearly communicated between these institutions in order to deliver quality education to the learners and future students. Learning outcomes for Life Sciences These guidelines assist teachers and other learning programme developers to plan and design quality learning, teaching and assessment programmes. According to these guidelines Life Sciences are build on knowledge as set out in the GET (General Education and Training, Grades R to 9) band for Natural Sciences that include four knowledge areas: Life and Living (biological science) Matter and Material (physical science) Energy and Change (chemical science) Earth and Beyond (earth science)

The three Learning Outcomes specified for Life Sciences are: Learning Outcome 1: Scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills Learning Outcome 2: Construction and application of Life Science knowledge Learning Outcome 3: Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society The scope of Life Sciences Life Sciences as a subject focuses on the biological sciences and include the following themes: Tissues, cells and molecular studies Structure and control of processes in basic life systems Environmental studies Diversity, change and continuity

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This core knowledge covers 80% of the policy statement and the remaining 20% should be used by provinces and schools to adapt to local conditions or incorporate local knowledge into the curriculum. Refer to Tables 3.123.15 for detail on the content in Life Sciences. Table 3.12: Learning outcomes for the content area tissues, cells and molecular studies Grade 10

a) b) c)

Learning Outcome 1: Scientific inquiry and problem solving skills Grade 11 Grade 12

a) Microscopic skills or other comparative methods or resources b) Research in a field of biotechnology e.g. cell structure, tissue growth, chemotherapy c) Investigate (community) diseases: conduct surveys, collect data on e.g. fungal, viral, animal and plant diseases; genetic diseases d) Collect latest research information on diseases e.g. malaria resistance, TB incidence in South Africa a) Microscopic skills or other comparative methods or resources b) Research in a field of biotechnology e.g. cell structure, tissue growth, chemotherapy c) Investigate (community) diseases: conduct surveys, collect data on e.g. fungal, viral, animal and plant diseases; genetic diseases d) Collect latest research information on diseases e.g. malaria resistance, TB incidence in South Africa

d)

Microscopic skills or other comparative methods or resources Research in a field of biotechnology e.g. cell structure, tissue growth, chemotherapy Investigate (community) diseases: conduct surveys, collect data on e.g. fungal, viral, animal and plant diseases; genetic diseases Collect latest research information on diseases e.g. malaria resistance, TB incidence in South Africa

Grade 10

Learning Outcome 2: Construction and application of Life Science knowledge Grade 11 Grade 12

Micro-organisms: Organisms that require a microscope to study their structure, characteristics and value: viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi Choose one related disease and outline its cause, effects and management, from each of the four groups viruses ­ e.g. rabies, HIV/AIDS bacteria ­ e.g. blight, cholera, tuberculosis protists- e.g. malaria, bilharzia fungi ­ e.g. rusts, thrush Immunity: Immune response against drugs by infecting organisms Immune response by organism against infecting agent DNA, protein synthesis: State location of DNA Name 4 nitrogenous bases of DNA: adenine (A), thiamine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (G) Name 4 nitrogenous bases of RNA: adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), guanine (G) Briefly describe transcription of RNA from DNA Briefly describe translation of RNA into protein Reference to specialised RNA not required Chromosomes, meiosis, production of sex cells: Location of chromosomes Chromosomes as key to cell division Haploid and diploid number of chromosomes Define the process of meiosis State where meiosis takes place in plants and in animals Using diagrams identify and state what happens in each of the phases of meiosis Explain the importance of meiosis in the reduction of chromosome number as mechanism to introduce genetic variation Explain inheritance and genetic diseases by using the following terms: Genes, Gametes, Alleles, Hybrid, Heterozygous, Homozygous, Phenotype, Genotype, Recessive, Dominant, Filial generations, Mutations, Segregation (with reference to meiosis) Diseases/disorders e.g. Down's syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (accelerated ageing), albinism, haemophilia, sickle-cell anaemia, etc.

Cell structure: Nucleus, Chromatin material, Cytoplasm, Cell membrane, Nuclear membrane, Chloroplast, Cell wall, Vacuole, Difference between plant and animal cells, Processes related to the cell-diffusion and osmosis Cell division (mitosis): Define the process of mitosis as a cell divides into two identical cells Explain importance of mitosis as additional cells formed for: Growth (and reproduction in some simple organisms) Repair and replacement of damaged cells State role of mitosis in forming new cells which are identical to each other and the original mother cell Phases of mitosis not required Tissues Define tissue as group of cells Blood as an example of a tissue Blood components and their functions; components being white blood cells, red blood cells, plasma and platelets Defense against infections ­ blood clotting, white blood cells, antibodies and immunity Group of tissues form an organ and group of organs form a system Description of related diseases e.g. cancer ­ uncontrolled cell growth; osteoporosis ­ bone tissue wasting; Alzheimer ­ nerve tissue wasting

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Table 3.12: continued Grade 10 Learning Outcome 3: Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society Grade 11 Grade 12

Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour and ethics Historical developments: History of microscopy applicable to discovery of cell, genes and DNA Ethics and legislation: Tissue sampling, tissue culture, cloning, genetic engineering and ethics IKS and biotechnology: Micro-organisms and biotechnology in the food industry e.g. cheese, beer Traditional technology e.g. traditional medicines and healers Medical biotechnology e.g. immunity, antibiotics, blood transfusion Genetic engineering and its use in medicine, agriculture e.g. enetically modified crops Cloning DNA, fingerprinting and forensics Beliefs, attitudes and values: concerning diseases genetic counseling Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour and ethics Historical developments: History of microscopy applicable to discovery of cell, genes and DNA Ethics and legislation: Tissue sampling, tissue culture, cloning, genetic engineering and ethics IKS and biotechnology: Micro-organisms and biotechnology in the food industry e.g. cheese, beer Traditional technology e.g. traditional medicines and healers Medical biotechnology e.g. immunity, antibiotics, blood transfusion Genetic engineering and its use in medicine, agriculture e.g. genetically modified crops Cloning DNA, fingerprinting and forensics Beliefs, attitudes and values: concerning diseases genetic counseling

Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour and ethics Historical developments: History of microscopy applicable to discovery of cell, genes and DNA Ethics and legislation: Tissue sampling, tissue culture, cloning, genetic engineering & ethics IKS and biotechnology: Micro-organisms and biotechnology in the food industry e.g. cheese, beer Traditional technology e.g. traditional medicines and healers Medical biotechnology e.g. immunity, antibiotics, blood transfusion Genetic engineering and its use in medicine, agriculture e.g. genetically modified crops Cloning DNA, fingerprinting and forensics Beliefs, attitudes and values: concerning diseases genetic counseling

Table 3.13: Learning outcomes for the content area structure and control of processes in basic life systems Grade 10 Learning Outcome 1: Scientific inquiry and problem solving skills Grade 11 Grade 12

Structure of systems: Investigate kidneys, hearts, eyes through dissections and/or other comparative techniques using models, charts Experimental investigation: e.g. photosynthesis Design a model: e.g. Anatomy of a system such as the digestive system Microscope work: e.g. alveoli or stomata Conduct research on any of the latest medical practices concerning life processes e.g. heart transplants laser surgery Structure of systems: Investigate kidneys, hearts, eyes through dissections and/or other comparative techniques using models, charts Experimental investigation: e.g. photosynthesis Design a model: e.g. Anatomy of a system such as the digestive system Microscope work: e.g. alveoli or stomata Conduct research on any of the latest medical practices concerning life processes e.g. heart transplants laser surgery

Structure of systems: Investigate kidneys, hearts, eyes through dissections and/or other comparative techniques using models, charts Experimental investigation: e.g. photosynthesis Design a model: e.g. Anatomy of a system such as the digestive system Microscope work: e.g. alveoli or stomata Conduct research on any of the latest medical practices concerning life processes e.g. heart transplants laser surgery

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Table 3.13: continued Grade 10 Learning Outcome 2: Construction and application of Life Science knowledge Grade 11 Grade 12

Support (structural): - Axial skeleton - Skull: (Names of bones of are not required). - Teeth and jaws related to functions - Vertebral column and rib cage: functions only Appendicular skeleton - Transport Girdles: components of pectoral and pelvic girdles; attachment of girdles to axial skeleton - Limbs: main components (names of individual carpals and tarsals not required) - Joints: Structure of joints. Mention fixed and synovial joints. Study synovial joint as an example. - Skeletal muscles, antagonistic arrangement and attachment to bones; functioning of muscles and skeleton to bring about locomotion Disorders related to muscles and joints e.g. muscle, hip and knee injuries; joint replacements Transport: Structure of the heart - atria and ventricles, and the nature of their walls; tricuspid, bicuspid and semi-lunar valves, main blood vessels to and from the heart. Explain pumping blood by heart - cardiac cycle; systole and diastole; blood pressure Structure and function of blood vessels arteries, capillaries and veins Examples of blood disorders - anaemia, leukaemia, hypertension and hypotension Transport (and support) in plants: Locate and name tissues and their functions ­ root, stem and leaf Excretion: The removal of metabolic waste Name excretory organs and their products ­ examples being skin, lung and kidneys Macroscopic structure and function of the urinary system - emphasis on internal structure of kidneys - structure of a nephron and its blood supply Reproduction: Human reproductive organs - Identify and state the function of each of the following parts of the male reproductive system: testes, germinal epithelium, penis, scrotum, epididymis, sperm duct, prostate, seminiferous tubules - Identify and state the function of each of the following parts of the female reproductive system: ovaries (including follicles and corpus luteum), Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina Formation of male and female sex cells - State that germinal epithelium of the testes and ovaries produce sperms and egg cells respectively. -Testes and ovaries produce sex cells through meiosis. -State the role played by testosterone -State the role played by the following hormones: oestrogen, progesterone. Describe the menstrual cycle under the following: state that a Graafian follicle develops (no details required) state that the empty follicle is converted into a corpus luteum - State that the corpus luteum remains if fertilisation occurs and disintegrates if not; that the egg cell is released from the follicle into the Fallopian tube. Fertilisation, embryo development and implantation - State that fertilisation in humans is a process of a sperm fusing with the egg cell in the Fallopian tube; that the zygote contains a combination of the father's and mother's genetic material (see 1.3.2 Gametes as vehicles of inheritance); that the zygote divides repeatedly to form the embryo which develops into a foetus; that the embryo becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus where it develops Gestation - State the functions of the following (no further details required) - Placenta, umbilical cord, amnion, amniotic fluid Birth, pre- and post-natal care - Antenatal care - State that the natural birth process is a result of the muscular contraction of the uterus (no details required); the care of offspring following birth including being fed with milk from the mammary glands

Energy release: Energy in universe remains constant ­ neither created nor destroyed; flows from high to low energy levels Released by breakdown of organic compounds, mainly carbohydrates Breakdown is termed cellular respiration aerobic and anaerobic respiration: - Aerobic respiration as taking place in a cell, requiring oxygen, combination of oxygen with energy-rich molecules (e.g. glucose) in the cells, gradual release of energy from the reaction. Energy that is released is stored in ATP. Carbon dioxide and water are released. (No biochemical details are required) - Anaerobic respiration as taking place in a cell: Occurring in oxygen-deficient conditions ­ fermentation In plant cells and yeast, energy-rich molecules (e.g. glucose) are converted to ethanol (alcohol) and the release of carbon dioxide and a small amount of energy. In animal cells like muscle cells, energy-rich molecules such as glucose is converted to lactic acid with the release of a small amount of energy. (No biochemical details are required) Food production: Plants as food producers through process of photosynthesis Description of the process as absorption of light energy, carbon dioxide, and water; evolution of oxygen; production of energyrich organic compounds such as sugars and starches Factors affecting the process and the products Biological significance of the process as: - Providing energy for higher feeding levels; control of carbon dioxide / oxygen levels (environmental) - Study of biochemical mechanisms NOT required Human nutrition: Importance of food as supply and sustain energy needs; provision of material for growth and to maintain body processes

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Table 3.13: continued

Structure of digestive system: - Major components being, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus - Associated organs: salivary glands, liver, gall bladder and pancreas -Process of digestion as being physical process and motility, secretion, digestion, absorption and elimination - Importance and maintenance of a balanced diet - Related diseases/ disorders/ allergies e.g. obesity, anorexia, nutritional marasmus, kwashiorkor, bulimia, allergy to various foods Gaseous exchange: Requirement of efficient organ as surface area adequately large; exchange surface thin and moist; sufficient ventilation; adequate protection; efficient mode of transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between gaseous exchange organ and body tissues. Structure of Respiratory system as macroscopic structure of trachea, bronchi and lungs, microscopic structure of alveoli in relation to their functions. Process of breathing as role of diaphragm, intercostal and abdominal muscles in ventilation of lungs; modification of breathing rate in relation to needs of the body. Gaseous exchange in plants: Leaf structure related to gaseous exchange ­ epidermis, mesophyll layer and stomata Breathing related diseases/ disorders/ allergies - Asthma, hay fever, cancer, and emphysema - First aid to choking Nervous system: Neuron - State main features, functions, location of: sensory neurons (Structure and functions of sensory organs ­ Eye, Ear, Skin, Tongue and Nose) motor neurons connector neurons (only location and function ), movement of impulses along and in-between neurons -Central nervous system: Brain ­ structure and function of cerebrum cerebellum and medulla oblongata, Spinal cord ­ structure and function as pathway for impulses between brain and organs Peripheral nervous system as all nerves outside the central nervous system - Mechanism of reflex arc: Stimulates body for effect and also normalises the body after the effect Endocrine system - Chemical co-ordination (positive and negative feedback) - Hormones ­ As organic chemical messengers, mostly protein in nature; may have several specific effects on organs and thus control a wide variety of activities; do not operate in isolation but form an integrated system. Drug misuse related conditions of the above, medical conditions e.g. strokes, diabetes, hypertension Glands: State position and give functions of the following glands: Pituitary, adrenal, Pancreatic islets, ovary, testes and thyroid glands Drug misuse related conditions of the above Medical conditions e.g. stroke, diabetes, hyperthyroidism Control of human fertility ­ birth control, in vitro fertilization Reproduction in plants - Asexual and sexual. - Focus on manufacture of food products Related diseases disorders: e.g. Foetal alcohol syndrome, HIV/AIDS, gonorrhoea, herpes, syphilis, genital warts, breast, cervical and prostrate cancers.

Grade 10

Learning Outcome 3: Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society Grade 11 Grade 12

Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs Food manufacturing and preservation (IKS and industry) Drug influence Hormones like insulin Blood transfusion Life support systems e.g. dialysis, and organ transplant and ethics Sperm banks, surrogate motherhood, test tube babies, abortion and ethics Ultrasound for determining sex of the child, amniocentesis Sexuality, child-parental responsibility (parent as protector, provider and potential threat), ethics and beliefs Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs Food manufacturing and preservation (IKS and industry) Drug influence Hormones like insulin Blood transfusion Life support systems e.g. dialysis, and organ transplant and ethics Sperm banks, surrogate motherhood, test tube babies, abortion & ethics Ultrasound for determining sex of the child, amniocentesis Sexuality, child-parental responsibility (parent as protector, provider and potential threat), ethics and beliefs

Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs Food manufacturing and preservation (IKS and industry) Drug influence Hormones like insulin Blood transfusion Life support systems e.g. dialysis, and organ transplant and ethics Sperm banks, surrogate motherhood, test tube babies, abortion and ethics Ultrasound for determining sex of the child, amniocentesis Sexuality, child-parental responsibility (parent as protector, provider and potential threat), ethics and beliefs

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Table 3.14: Learning outcomes for the content area environmental studies Grade 10 Learning Outcome 1: Scientific inquiry and problem solving skills Grade 11 Grade 12

a) Investigate the human influences on the environment e.g. introduction of exotic species Manage and maintain natural resources Investigate a local environmental issue, problem solving and decision making e.g. managing rubbish dumps a) Investigate the human influences on the environment e.g. introduction of exotic species Manage and maintain natural resources Investigate a local environmental issue, problem solving and decision making e.g. managing rubbish dumps

Investigate the human influences on the environment e.g. introduction of exotic species Manage and maintain natural resources Investigate a local environmental issue, problem solving and decision making e.g. managing rubbish dumps Grade 10 a) Biosphere, biomes and ecosystems Define biosphere, biomes and ecosystems Explain biosphere as hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere Describe examples of biomes found in South Africa and types of organisms found in them with reference to habitats, focus on one ecosystem, the interaction between biotic and abiotic components. b) Briefly outline water cycle, nitrogen cycle and carbon cycle (no inorganic chemistry detail is required). List major components of pathway of energy flow as : producers, consumers (herbivores and carnivores), decomposers. Also Living and non-living resources Nutrient cycles and energy flow within an environment: - discuss food chains and food webs

b) c)

b) c)

Learning Outcome 2: Construction and application of Life Science knowledge

Grade 11 a) Human influences on the environment ­ air, land and water issues Define a food pyramid. Use food pyramids to interpret environmental changes ­ e.g. impact of deforestation on food production and consumers, impact of use of insecticides and culling on consumers, impact of pollutants and overpopulation on producers and consumers. Describe the following: global warming, green house effect, acid rain and ozone depletion ­ explain their effects on the environment b) Sustaining our environment Management of the cause and effects pollution, deforestation, land use, industrialisation and extinction. c) Air, land & water borne diseases - Discuss one example in each of the following: - Air borne disease e.g. influenza, polio, chicken pox, measles - Land borne disease e.g. round worms, sleeping sickness - Water borne disease e.g. cholera, amoebic dysentery Grade 12 a) Local environmental issues Outline issues using local environment and community practices, that take into account biotic and abiotic components, cause and effect processes, and suggest corrective management actions e.g. exploitation of local indigenous resources like devils claw, rooibos, fynbos, perlemoen, African potato; HIV/AIDS b) Effect of pollutants on human physiology and health e.g. allergies Outline issue using local environment and community practices, that take into account biotic and abiotic corrective actions and support e.g. effect of oil refinery waste on local communities; smoke from burning coal on local communities

Grade 10

a)

Learning Outcome 3: Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society Grade 11 Grade 12

a) Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs Exploitation vs. sustainability: Exploring issues Industrialisation and impact of industry and management Management of resources, use and abuse of resources e.g. Fossil fuel usage Ecotourism Air e.g. ozone, global warming and greenhouse effect, acid rain and consequences Waste management Rehabilitation of the environment Land issues e.g. ownership and use of land, nature and game reserves, agriculture, desertification, forestation/ deforestation, urban decay Exploring the land issue: politically, legally, economically, ethically, environmentally and other influences a) Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs b) Exploitation vs. sustainability: Exploring issues c) Industrialisation and impact of industry & management d) Management of resources, use and abuse of resources e.g. Fossil fuel usage e) Ecotourism f) Air e.g. ozone, global warming and greenhouse effect, acid rain and consequences g) Waste management h) Rehabilitation of the environment i) Land issues e.g. ownership and use of land, nature and game reserves, agriculture, desertification, forestation/ deforestation, urban decay j) Exploring the land issue: politically, legally, economically, ethically, environmentally and other influences

Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs b) Exploitation vs. sustainability: Exploring issues c) Industrialisation and impact of industry and management d) Management of resources, use and abuse of resources e.g. Fossil fuel usage e) Ecotourism f) Air e.g. ozone, global warming and greenhouse effect, acid rain and consequences g) Waste management h) Rehabilitation of the environment i) Land issues e.g. ownership and use of land, nature and game reserves, agriculture, desertification, forestation/ deforestation, urban decay j) Exploring the land issue: politically, legally, economically, ethically, environmentally and other influences

b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

j)

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Table 3.15: Learning outcomes for the content area diversity, change and continuity Grade 10

a) b)

Learning Outcome 1: Scientific inquiry and problem solving skills Grade 11 Grade 12

a) b) Plan, conduct and investigate plants and animals ­ a comparison Analyse given data and findings to evaluate growth and behavioural issues among population Measure population growth using different techniques Collect and analyse data on specific community diseases that will impact on population vigour dynamic) Analyse and evaluate any specific human behaviour that will influence population growth Collect and analyse data on evolutionary trends in a population e.g. human beings a) b) Plan, conduct and investigate plants and animals ­ a comparison Analyse given data and findings to evaluate growth and behavioural issues among population Measure population growth using different techniques Collect and analyse data on specific community diseases that will impact on population vigour dynamic) Analyse and evaluate any specific human behaviour that will influence population growth Collect and analyse data on evolutionary trends in a population e.g. human beings

Plan, conduct and investigate plants and animals ­ a comparison Analyse given data and findings to evaluate growth and behavioural issues among population Measure population growth using different techniques Collect and analyse data on specific community diseases that will impact on population vigour dynamic) Analyse and evaluate any specific human behaviour that will influence population growth Collect and analyse data on evolutionary trends in a population e.g. human beings

c) d)

c) d)

c) d)

e)

e)

e)

f)

f)

f)

Learning Outcome 2: Construction and application of Life Science knowledge Grade 10

a) Biodiversity of plants and animals and their conservation Define biodiversity and conservation State five kingdom classification (no details required) With reference to biodiversity of organisms and their conservation, focus on one biome and compare similarities and differences that organisms show in order to survive in water and on land b) Significance and value of biodiversity to ecosystem function and human survival Energy flow and energy relationships (link to Environmental Studies knowledge area) Adaptations for survival Provision of living and non living resources for humans. Living relationship as being mutualism, symbiosis, communalism, parasitism, competition, and predator-prey. c) Threats to biodiversity Factors that effect energy flow and energy relationships Threats to the continued provision of living and non living resources for humans. d) Parasitism, diseases e.g. bilharzia Use one example of a disease that effect living relationships e.g. lice, tapeworms, mites, ticks, fleas Use one example of a nutritional disorder that arises from resource limitations e.g. mineral, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins deficiency.

Grade 11

a) Population studies: characteristics of populations and population growth, fluctuations, limiting factors Define population by referring to cells, unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. Define species with reference to shared characteristics and reproductive ability. Outline characteristics of populations in terms of habitat, size, density and distribution Provide details on environmental changes as being earthquakes, volcanoes, earth slides, tornadoes, droughts, flood and extreme temperatures that effect biomes, ecosystems and habitats. Brief outline of factors influencing population growth being ­ births, migration, resources death and human developments. Fluctuations of populations as influenced by limited resources; population size and growth; use cells, unicellular and multicellular organisms. b) Social behaviour Describe behavioural effects based on preservation, conservation, sustainability predation, competition, instinct and socially learnt behaviour . Descriptive examples of mating behaviours, social animals based on density dependant and density independent factor. c) Managing populations in terms of: Biodiversity of plants and animals and their conservation Significance and value of biodiversity to ecosystem function and human survival Threats to biodiversity Diseases.

Grade 12

a) Biological evidence of evolution of populations and fundamental aspects of fossil studies Fossils as evidence of ancient life Define fossilization Interpretation of the fossil record by means of morphological divergence-, homologous, analogous structure. b) Origin of Species - Evolution theories, mutation, natural selection, macro evolution and speciation Outline the Darwin theory `Origin of species by means of natural selection' and Lamarck theory Define biological evolution Describe mutations at a cellular and molecular level as lethal, neutral or fixed mutations Genotypic and phenotypic variations in populations by examples e.g. finches of Galapagos, cheetah or White lion Choose two examples one human and one non-human to illustrate the practice of inbreeding and out breeding in populations e.g. plants, animals and humans Describe formation of species at an ecological, reproductive, and genetic level Study macro evolution as patterns, trends and rates of change among lineages over geologic times by means of fossil. c) Popular theories of mass extinction Continental drift, Ice age, volcano activity, heating and cooling of the atmosphere and disease Extraterrestrial theories (explosion of a star, meteor collision, comets). d) Cradle of mankind - South Africa? State the difference between anthropology, paleontology and archaeology With reference to the above discuss the possible origin of humankind on planet earth Illustrate a few causes for population movements.

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Table 3.15: continued Grade 10 Learning Outcome 3: Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society Grade 11 Grade 12

a) Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Adaptation and survival Sustainable development History and nature of science Extinction of species, red data listing and endangered species Fossils records, museum, zoos Population changes over time Beliefs about creation and evolution Changes of knowledge through contested nature and diverse perception of evolution a) Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs b) Adaptation and survival c) Sustainable development d) History and nature of science e) Extinction of species, red data listing and endangered species f) Fossils records, museum, zoos

a) Historical developments: IKS, biotechnology, environment, legislation, social behaviour, ethics and beliefs b) Adaptation and survival c) Sustainable development d) History and nature of science e) Extinction of species, red data listing and endangered species f) Fossils records, museum, zoos g) Population changes over time h) Beliefs about creation and evolution i) Changes of knowledge through contested nature and diverse perception of evolution

g) Population changes over time h) Beliefs about creation and evolution i) Changes of knowledge through contested nature and diverse perception of evolution

Assessment Standards for Life Sciences For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate. Learning Outcome 1: 1. Planning investigations 2. Conducting investigations and collecting data 3. Evaluating data and communicating findings Learning Outcome 2: 4. Recalling meaningful information when needed 5. Categorising information to reduce complexity and look for patterns 6. Interpreting information 7. Applying knowledge to problems that are not taught explicitly Learning Outcome 3: 8. Understanding science and technology in the context of history and indigenous knowledge 9. Understanding the impact of science and technology on the environment and on people's lives 10. Recognising bias in science and technology which impacts on people's lives In order to determine if a learner has reached the outcomes, the learner needs to be assessed. Assessment of learners could be done in various ways i.e. formative or summative.

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There are 7 proposed assessment opportunities within Life Sciences that include at least 2 formal examinations. The remainder of the assessments are continuous assessment that could either be daily assessment or according to a year-long programme of assessment that comprise of various tasks performed during the year/grade. Learners could be assessed during practical sessions, research projects or assignments. During these assessment opportunities the following abilities of the learner will be assessed: Follow instructions Make accurate observations and measurements Work safely Use apparatus effectively Handle materials appropriately Gather data Record data appropriately (graphs, tables) and draw conclusions.

Subject assessment guidelines for grade 10 -12, published in September 2005, will be field-tested in 2006 and the first half of 2007. After this testing period, the subject assessment guidelines will be amended and become policy only in 2008. Table 3.16 provides an overview of the Assessment Standards for Life Sciences.

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Table 3.16:

Assessment standards for Life Sciences

Learning Outcome 1: Scientific Inquiry and Problem-solving Skills

The learner is able to confidently explore and investigate phenomena relevant to Life Sciences by using inquiry, problem solving, critical thinking and other skills.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Identifying and questioning phenomena and planning an investigation Identify and question phenomena. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o observes that some pot plants are growing poorly and questions whether they are lacking a mineral salt. Plan an investigation using instructions. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o plans an experiment to test the effect of a mineral salt (e.g. magnesium on plant growth) following given instructions. Consider implications of investigative procedures in a safe environment. B. Conducting an investigation by collecting and manipulating data Systematically and accurately collect data using selected instruments and/or techniques and following instructions. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o follows instructions on a worksheet; o sets up an experiment in which five pot plants are given magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) in solution and five pot plants are given water only; o follows instructions to control all other variables (e.g. to use plants of the same type and size, to provide all plants with the same amount of sunlight and water, and to keep them at the same temperature); o measures the height of each plant every three days. o Display and summarise the data collected. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o records results in a table; o calculates the average height of the five plants with or without magnesium every three days and plots the result on a line graph. C. Analysing, synthesising, evaluating data and communicating findings Analyse, synthesise, evaluate data and communicate findings. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o examines the graph and reaches a conclusion about the effect of magnesium on plant growth; o displays results and conclusions on a poster.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Identifying and questioning phenomena and planning an investigation Identify phenomena involving one variable to be tested. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o observes that fungi grow better on fish paste than on peanut butter; or o observes that a number of people in the local community are suffering from diarrhoea. Design simple tests to measure the effects of this variable. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o designs an investigation to test the influence of substrate type on fungal growth (e.g. decides to spread a tablespoon each of fish paste, peanut butter, marmite and syrup on a slice of white bread and to use a slice of bread with no spread as a control); or o plans ways of collecting information about the number of people infected (e.g. survey, information from the local clinic). Identify advantages and limitations of experimental design. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o considers how `fair' the experiment is (amount of spread used, calculation of % spread covered by fungus); o considers the limitations of survey methods in collecting accurate data about diarrhoea. B. Conducting an investigation by collecting and manipulating data Systematically and accurately collect data using selected instruments and/or techniques. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o sets up the experiment; o decides how to calculate, every two days the percent of the spread covered by fungi; o records findings in a table; o discusses, in a group, the limitations of the techniques and instruments used to measure fungal growth. o

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Identifying and questioning phenomena and planning an investigation Generate and question hypotheses based on identified phenomena for situations involving more than one variable. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o observes the high incidence of respiratory problems in the community; o hypothesises that this could be linked to smoking or the local oil refinery. Design tests and/or surveys to investigate these variables. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o designs a survey to find the correlation between smokers/nonsmokers and respiratory problems; o designs tests to find out the amount of air pollutants in the community. Evaluate the experimental design. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o checks the accuracy of the air pollution test or survey. B. Conducting an investigation by collecting and manipulating data Compare instruments and techniques to improve the accuracy and reliability of data collection. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o works co-operatively in a group; o uses different instruments and techniques to collect data on the air pollutants; o compares data collected using the different instruments. Manipulate data in the investigation to reveal patterns. Identify irregular observations and measurements. Allow for irregular observations and measurements when displaying data. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o draws graphs using the data collected; o takes note of data that does not fit the graph; o displays irregular observations on the graph but does not include them in the construction of the graph.

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Table 3.16:

continued

OR o as a member of a team (class) carries out a survey in selected areas; o recognises that people responding to the survey may not give accurate answers for a variety of reasons; o investigates possible sources of the infection (e.g. sewage entering the stream running through the area); o collects information on possible causes of diarrhoea from books, the Internet, pamphlets from a clinic, talk by the community health nurse. Select a type of display that communicates the data effectively. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o displays the experimental design and group results in a `paper'; o plots data on graphs. OR o combines all the results and plans to present the data in graphic form as part of a newspaper article. C. Analysing, synthesising, evaluating data and communicating findings Compare data and construct meaning to explain findings. Draw conclusions and recognise inconsistencies in the data. Assess the value of the experimental process and communicate findings. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o draws meaning from graphs; o explains findings; o in a `paper', discusses possible variables that could influence the results. OR prepares and submits an article for the school newspaper or newsletter describing the research and C. Analysing, synthesising, evaluating data and communicating findings Critically analyse, reflect on and evaluate the findings. Explain patterns in the data in terms of knowledge. Provide conclusions that show awareness of uncertainty in data. Suggest specific changes that would improve the techniques used. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o analyses and reflects on data represented in graphs and other data, looks for evidence of the causes of respiratory problems, and evaluates experimental findings; o presents a report to the class in which they communicate their findings; demonstrates an awareness of weaknesses in their design and possible inaccuracy of results, and proposes how they could improve their experiments.

Learning Outcome 2: Construction and Application of Life Sciences Knowledge

The learner is able to access, interpret, construct and use Life Sciences concepts to explain phenomena relevant to Life Sciences. Note: Progression in this Learning Outcome is reflected in the increase in the number of concepts as well as the depth of understanding of some concepts, together with the establishment of links between different concepts to develop a well organised knowledge base.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Accessing knowledge Use a prescribed method to access information. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o uses books and magazines to collect information on human nutrition. B. Interpreting and making meaning of knowledge in Life Sciences Identify concepts, principles, laws, theories and models of Life Sciences in the context of everyday life. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o identifies structures and processes as food passes through the digestive system.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Accessing knowledge Use various methods and sources to access information. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o researches causes, effects and incidence of HIV/AIDS by making use of libraries, clinics, medical personnel, magazines and/or the Internet. B. Interpreting and making meaning of knowledge in Life Sciences Identify, describe and explain concepts, principles, laws, theories and models by illustrating relationships. o

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Accessing knowledge Use various methods and sources to access relevant information from a variety of contexts. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o searches for information on theories about the origin of life and about South Africa as the cradle of mankind by making use of various sources of information such as libraries, local people, the Internet and magazines.

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Table 3.16:

continued

Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o uses information or sources collected to describe and explain meaningfully causes and effects of HIV/AIDS; o traces the source and incidence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on society. Evaluate concepts, principles, laws, theories and models. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o evaluates different ideas on the cause of HIV/AIDS from information collected. C. Showing an understanding of the application of Life Sciences knowledge in everyday life Analyse and evaluate the costs and benefits of applied Life Sciences knowledge. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o writes a report on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health and lifestyle of peers; o makes suggestions and comes up with solutions for the HIV/AIDS problem. B. Interpreting and making meaning of knowledge in Life Sciences Interpret, organise, analyse, compare and evaluate concepts, principles, laws, theories and models and their application in a variety of contexts. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o engages in debates regarding the origin of life; o compares different theories regarding the origin of life and identifies their shortcomings; o analyses and evaluates theories on changes in different species over time. C. Showing an understanding of the application of Life Sciences knowledge in everyday life Evaluate and present an application of Life Sciences knowledge. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: ·writes a report on how DNA can be used to identify the parents of a lost child.

Describe and explain concepts, principles, laws, theories and models. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o describes causes of various digestive problems (e.g. heartburn, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, colon cancer, piles); o explains the causes of nutrition problems (e.g. bulimia, anorexia, obesity, kwashiorkor, rickets, gout). C. Showing an understanding of the application of Life Sciences knowledge in everyday life Organise, analyse and interpret concepts, principles, laws, theories and models of Life Sciences in the context of everyday life. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o uses information or sources collected to describe and explain meaningfully the problems associated with health (e.g. heartburn).

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Table 3.16:

continued

Learning Outcome 3: Life Sciences, Technology, Environment and Society

The learner is able to demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science, the influence of ethics and biases in the Life Sciences, and the interrelationship of science, technology, indigenous knowledge, the environment and society.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Exploring and evaluating scientific ideas of past and present cultures Identify and investigate scientific ideas and indigenous knowledge of past and present cultures. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o · investigates various home remedies for nutritional disorders. B. Comparing and evaluating the uses and development of resources and products, and their impact on the environment and society Describe different ways in which resources are used and applied to the development of products, and report on their impact on the environment and society. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o describes the use and abuse of fossil fuels. C. Comparing the influence of different beliefs, attitudes and values on scientific knowledge Analyse and describes the influence of different beliefs, attitudes and values on scientific knowledge and its application to society. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o discusses the views of peers on cloning.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Exploring and evaluating scientific ideas of past and present cultures Compare scientific ideas and indigenous knowledge of past and present cultures. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o compares industrial production of fermented beer and/or food preservation in South Africa to the traditional method. B. Comparing and evaluating the uses and development of resources and products, and their impact on the environment and society Compare different ways in which resources are used in the development of biotechnological products, and analyse the impacts on the environment and society. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o investigates the history of heart transplants; o compares the new approaches to organ transplants. C. Comparing the influence of different beliefs, attitudes and values on scientific knowledge Compare scientific ideas and indigenous knowledge of past and present cultures. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o compares traditional and modern medicines in healing various diseases.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Exploring and evaluating scientific ideas of past and present cultures Critically evaluate scientific ideas and indigenous knowledge of past and present cultures. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o critically evaluates ideas on parental care during early childhood in various communities (e.g. quarantine of mother and newborn baby immediately after birth). B. Comparing and evaluating the uses and development of resources and products, and their impact on the environment and society Analyse and evaluate different ways in which resources are used in the development of biotechnological products, and make informed decisions about their use and management in society for a healthy, sustainable environment. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o differentiates, analyses and evaluates the impact of nonindigenous plants on the environment. C. Comparing the influence of different beliefs, attitudes and values on scientific knowledge Critically evaluate and take a justifiable position on beliefs, attitudes and values that influence developed scientific and technological knowledge and their application in society. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example: o debates and takes a justifiable position on deforestation and its impact on certain communities and the environment.

Methods of Assessment Self-assessment - reflection on one's own learning as a vital component of learning. Peer assessment - using a checklist or rubric, helps both the learners whose work is being assessed and the learners who are doing the assessment. Group assessment - the ability to work effectively in groups is one of the Critical Outcomes of the NCS. It involves assessing social skills, time management, resource management and group dynamics, as well as the output of the group.

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Methods of collecting assessment evidence Observation-based assessment Test-based assessment Task-based assessment

Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 Suggested reading ALDRIDGE, J.M., LAUGKSCH, R.C., SEOPA, M.A. & FRASER, B.J. 2006. Development and validation of an instrument to monitor the implementation of outcomes-based learning environments in science classrooms in South Africa. International Journal of Science Education, 28(1): 45-70. CHAKANE, M. 2003. Investigating the need for different science-technology-society programmes in South Africa. Perspectives in Education, 21(2): 103-112. CHILDS, A. & MCNICHOLL, J. 2007. Investigating the relationship between subject content knowledge and pedagogical practice through the analysis of classroom discourse. International Journal of Science Education, 29(13); 1629-1653. DE LANGE, M.C. 2005. Integrating philosophical and bio-ethical perspectives in life sciences facilitator education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 19(6): 1062-1073. DEMPSTER, E.R. & HUGO, W. 2006. Introducing the concept of evolution into South African schools. South African Journal of Science, 102(3/4): 106-112. HOBDEN, P. 2005. What did you do in science today? Two case studies of grade 12 physical science classrooms. South African Journal of Science, 101(5/6): 302-308. JENKINS, E. 2007. School science: A questionable construct? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 39(3): 265-282. KAHN, M. 2005. A class act ­ mathematics as filter of equity in South Africa's schools. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 139-148. KARIKAN, K.M. & RAMSURAN, A. 2006. Is it possible to have systemic curriculum reform on principles of social justice? Education as Change, 10(2): 3-16. KEILER, L.S. 2007. Students' explanations of their data handling: Implications for transfer of learning. International Journal of Science Education, 29(2): 151-172.

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LAUGKSH, R., RAKUMAKO, A., MANYELO, T. & MABYE, D. 2005. Development and validation of the Science Teacher Inventory of Needs for Limpopo province (STIN-LP). South African journal of Education, 25(4): 273278. LOUBSER, C.P., SWANEPOEL, C.H. & CHACKO, C.P.C. 2001. Concept formulation for environmental literacy. South African Journal of Education, 21(4): 317-323. MELLADO, V., RUIZ, C., BERMEJO, M.L. & JIMENEZ, R. 2006. Contributions from the philosophy of science to the education of science teachers. Science & Education, 15: 419-445. MOLEFE, N.P.J., LEMMER, M. & SMIT, J.J.A. 2005. Comparison of the learning effectiveness of computerbased and conventional experiments in science education. South African Journal of Education, 25(1): 50-55. OGUNNIYI, M. 2006. Effects of discursive course on two science teachers' perceptions of the nature of science. African Journal of Research in SMT Education, 10(1): 93-102. ONWU, G. & STOFFELS, N. 2005. Instructional functions in large, under-resourced science classes: Perspectives of South African teachers. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 79-91. RAMSURAN, A. & MALCOLM, C. 2006. Professionalisation as a social regularity: the policy process in South Africa's natural science curriculum. South African Journal of Education, 26(4): 515-528. REDDY, S 2005. `It's not as easy as ABC': Dynamics of intergenerational power and resistance within the context of HIV/AIDS. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 11-19. REDDY, V. 2005. State of mathematics and science education: Schools are not equal. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 125-138. RICKINSON, M. 2006. Researching and understanding environmental learning: hopes for the next 10 years. Environmental education Research, 12(3-4): 445-457. RICKINSON, M. & REID, A. 2003. What's the use of research in environmental education? Paper presented in the Special Interest Group Ecological and Environmental Education session on Research in Environmental Education: Directions for the Future at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, 23 April 2003.

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SCHWARTZ, M.S. & SADLER, P.M. 2007. Empowerment in science curriculum development: A microdevelopmental approach. International Journal of Science Education, 29(8): 987-1017. SCOTT, P. 2001. The initial teacher training national curriculum for secondary science: on learning to be a high school physics teacher. Physics Education, 394-398. SWANEPOEL, C.H., LOUBSER, C.P. & CHACKO, C.P.C. 2002. Measuring the environmental literacy of teachers. South African Journal of Education, 22(4): 282-285. WATTERS, D.J. & WATTERS, J.J. 2007. Approaches to learning by students in the biological sciences: Implications for teaching. International Journal of Science Education, 29(1): 19-43.

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3.7.7

Mathematical Literacy (Contact person: Dr Kosie Smit, IMSTUS, [email protected])

Background Learners who do not do well mathematically in General Education and Training, usually stopped studying Mathematics. This contributes to a perpetuation in high levels of innumeracy. The inclusion of Mathematical Literacy as a fundamental subject in the Further Education and Training curriculum serves to contribute to future learners being highly numerate consumers of Mathematics. Outcomes4 1. In the teaching and learning of Mathematical Literacy, learners will be provided with opportunities to engage with reallife problems in different contexts, so as to consolidate and extend basic mathematical skills. Thus, Mathematical Literacy can contribute to greater understanding of mathematical terminology, while making sense of numerical and spatial information communicated in tables, graphs, diagrams and texts. 2. Mathematical Literacy can develop the use of basic mathematical skills in critically analysing situations and creatively solving everyday problems. In everyday life, a person is continually faced with mathematical demands. These demands frequently relate to financial issues such as hire-purchase, mortgage bonds, and investments. 3. The workplace requires the use of fundamental numerical and spatial skills in order to efficiently meet the demands of the job. This numeracy of Mathematical Literacy will enable learners to, for example, deal with work-related formulae, read statistical charts, deal with schedules and understand instructions involving numerical components. Table 3.17: Current curriculum for Mathematical Literacy Grade 10

Learning Outcome 1: Number and operations in context (The learner is able to use knowledge of numbers and their relationships to investigate a range of different contexts which include financial aspects of personal, business and national issues) Learning Outcome 2: Functional relationships (The learner is able to recognise, interpret, describe and represent various functional relationships to solve problems in real and simulated contexts)

Fractions, decimals, percentages Positive exponents and roots Associative, commutative and distributive laws Rate Ratio Direct and inverse proportion Compound growth Scientific notation

Grade 11

Content of Grade 10 work, but applied to more complex situations Square and cube roots Ratio and proportion Complex formulae Cost and selling price Profit margins

Grade 12

Content of Grade 10 and 11, but applied to more complex situations Taxation Currency fluctuations Financial and other indices

Tables of values Formulae depicting relationships between variables Cartesian co-ordinate system Linear functions Inverse proportion Compound growth Graphs depicting relationships between variables Maximum and minimum points Rates of change (speed, distance, time)

Content of Grade 10 work, but applied to more complex situations Simple quadratic functions Solution to linear, quadratic and simple exponential equations Solution of two simultaneous linear equations

Content of Grade 10 and 11, but applied to more complex situations Simple linear programming (design and planning problems) Graphs showing fluctuations of indices over time

4

Department of Education, 2003

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Table 3.17: continued

Learning Outcome 3: Space, shape and measurement (The learner is able to measure using appropriate instruments, to estimate and calculate physical quantities, and to interpret, describe and represent properties of and relationships between 2dimensional shapes and 3dimensional objects in a variety of orientations and positions) Learning Outcome 4: Data handling (The learner is able to collect, summarise, display and analyse data and apply knowledge of statistics and probability to communicate, justify, predict and critically interrogate findings and draw conclusions)

Measurement of length, distance, volume, area, perimeter Measurement of time Polygons commonly encountered (triangles, squares, rectangles, parallelograms, trapeziums, regular hexagons) Circles Angles (0°-360°) Theorem of Pythagoras Conversion of units within the metric system Scale drawings Floor plans Basic transformation geometry, symmetry and tessellations Populations Selection of a sample Tables recording data Tally and frequency tables Single compound bar graphs Pie charts Histograms Line and broken-line graphs Mean, median, mode Range Relative frequency Probability Content of Grade 10 work, but applied to more complex situations Measurement in 3D (angles included, 0°-360°) Surface area and volumes of right prisms and right circular cylinders Conversions of measurements between different scales and systems Compass directions Properties of plane figures and solids in natural and cultural forms Location and position on grids Trigonometric ratios: sin x, cos x, tan x Content of Grade 10 work, but applied to more complex situations Selection of samples and bias Cumulative frequencies Ogives (Cumulative frequency graphs) Variance (interpretation only) Standard deviation (interpretation only) Quartiles Compound events Contingency tables Tree diagrams Content of Grade 10 and 11, but applied to more complex situations Surface areas and volumes of right pyramids and right circular cones and spheres Scale models Sine, cosine and area rule

Content of Grade 10 and 11, but applied to more complex situations Bivariate data Scatter plots Intuitively-placed lines of best fit Percentiles

Implications Although the four learning outcomes are similar to the curriculum for Mathematics, the emphasis of the Mathematical Literacy curriculum shifts from developing abstract mathematical skills to the application of basic mathematical skills in everyday real life problems for Mathematical Literacy. Since the most significant application of mathematical skills in everyday life is of a financial nature, the Mathematical Literacy curriculum tends to focus on these skills. The curriculum of Mathematical Literacy will endeavour to equip learners to: Use numbers with understanding to solve real-life problems in different contexts including the social, personal and financial; Deal with formulae, read statistical charts, deal with schedules and understand instructions involving numerical components; Use mathematically-acquired skills to perform financially-related calculations with understanding that involve personal, provincial and national budgets, such as hire-purchase, mortgage bonds, and investments; Model relevant situations using suitable functions and graphical representation to solve related problems; Understand mathematical terminology and make sense of numerical and spatial information communicated in tables, graphs, diagrams and texts; Describe, represent and analyse shape and space in two- and three-dimensions using geometrical skills such as calculating areas and volumes;

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Engage critically in the handling of data (statistics and chance), especially in the manner in which these are encountered in the media and in presenting arguments; and Use computational tools competently (a scientific calculator is taken as the minimum).

Recommendations Conceptual and Thinking ability An advantage of this curriculum is that emphasises is placed on the practical implementation of Mathematics theory. This provides students with the opportunity to develop their analytical, thinking and conceptual ability in linking Mathematics in the classroom with the application of this theory practically. Suggested reading BOWIE, L. & FRITH, V. 2006. Concerns about the South African Mathematical Literacy curriculum arising from experience of materials development. Pythgoras, 64: 29-36. BROWN, B. & SCHÄFER, M. 2006. Teacher education for Mathematical Literacy: A modelling approach. Pythagoras, 64: 45-51. CHRISTIANSEN, I.M. 2006. Mathematical Literacy as a school subject: Failing the progressive vision? Pythagoras, 64: 6-13. FRITH, V. & PRINCE, R. 2006. Reflections on the role of a research task for teacher education in data handling in a Mathematical Literacy education course. Pythagoras, 64: 52-61. JULIE, C. 2006. Mathematical Literacy: Myths, further inclusions and exclusions. Pythagoras, 64: 62-69. JULIE, C. & MBEKWA, M. 2005. What would Grade 8 to 10 learners prefer as context for mathematical literacy? The case of Masilakele Secondary School. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 31-43. KAHN, M. 2005. A class act ­ mathematics as filter of equity in South Africa's schools. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 139-148. REDDY, V. 2005. The state of mathematics and science education: Schools are not equal. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 125-138. VENKATAKRISHNAN, H. & GRAVEN, M. 2006. Mathematical Literacy in South Africa and Functional Mathematics in England: A consideration of overlaps and contrasts. Pythagoras, 64: 14-28.

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3.7.8

MATHEMATICS (Contact person: Dr Kosie Smit, IMSTUS, [email protected])

Background The new FET-curriculum for schools (Grades 10-12) introduces a new era in the teaching and learning of numeric literacy. The new curricula for Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy is currently being implemented ­ Grade 10 in 2006, Grade 11 in 2007, and Grade 12 in 2008. The first cohort of students entering the higher education system via the new FET-curriculum will therefore be in 2009. The most notable changes within the new curricular dispensation include: The introduction of Mathematical Literacy as a subject (Grades 10-12) Significant changes to the existing Mathematics and Additional Mathematics curricula The removal of so-called higher and standard grades The initiation of a system of three papers for the assessment of Mathematics in Grade 12 in the National Senior Certificate, of which the first and second papers will be compulsory and the third an optional paper. Learners are expected to choose between Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy upon entering Grade 10 of the new FET-curriculum. Learners will not be able to move between these subjects as was previously possible between higher and standard grades of Mathematics. Learners will be able to move to Mathematical Literacy from Mathematics up till the end of Grade 10, but not beyond that point. Learners will not be able to move from Mathematical Literacy to Mathematics at any point. Mathematical Literacy and Mathematics form two distinct entities ­ with significantly different learning outcomes and assessment standards specified for each of these subjects. Programmes in higher education that previously required Mathematics as an entry requirement, will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. However, it cannot be assumed that the learners entering the system with Mathematics as a subject would have completed the (currently) optional third paper in the National Senior Certificate examination in Grade 12, or even covered the concepts included in this portion of the curriculum in class. A limited number of schools present Additional Mathematics as an option for learners, and it is therefore probable that only a limited number of students in a first-year class would have had Additional Mathematics as a subject. The learning outcomes (LO) and assessment standards (AS) for Mathematics and Additional Mathematics will now be discussed in greater depth. MATHEMATICS Learning outcomes for Mathematics The Mathematics curriculum for Grades 10-12 includes four main learning outcomes. Tables 3.18 ­ 3.21 provide an overview of the main similarities and differences between the new and previous curriculum for Mathematics in Grades 10-12.

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Table 3.18: Summary of the changes in the FET-curriculum for Mathematics Learning Outcome 1 Introduced

Grade 10 number patterns simple and compound growth Converting between fractions and decimals Grade 11 recognising non-real numbers number patterns recursion simple and compound decay Grade 12 future and present value annuities analysing loan options recursion

Learning Outcome 1: Number and number relations Greater emphasis Less Emphasis

Grade 10 solving non-routine problems estimating surds Grade 11 solving non-routine problems Grade 12 solving non-routine problems sequences and series Grade 10 simplifying expressions using laws of exponents Grade 11 rational exponents Grade 12 logarithm laws

Excluded

Grade 10 rational exponents Grade 11 absolute value Grade 12

Table 3.19: Summary of the changes in the FET-curriculum for Mathematics Learning Outcome 2 Introduced

Grade 10 trigonometric functions -

Learning Outcome 2: Functions and Algebra Greater emphasis Less Emphasis

Grade 10 multiple representations of functions effect of varying the parameters on graphs of functions conceptual understanding of relations and functions average gradient Grade 11 multiple representation of functions effect of varying the parameters on graphs of functions conceptual understanding of relations and functions manipulating algebraic expressions and fractions (binomial denominators Grade 12 linear programming inverse functions rd factorise 3 degree polynomial (incl factor theorem) Grade 10 manipulating algebraic expressions and fractions (monomial denominators) factorising algebraic expressions Grade 11 Quadratic equations Quadratic inequalities linear programming remainder and factor theorem Grade 12 logarithmic functions

Excluded

Grade 10 circle relations sum and difference of cubes literal equations Grade 11 nature of roots absolute value inverse functions Grade 12 log inequalities

y

a q x

Exponential function Exponential equations Mathematical modeling Increasing / decreasing functions Average rate of change Grade 11 -

y

a q x p

-

mathematical modelling Intuitive understanding of gradient at a point

Grade 12 increasing /decreasing functions mathematical modelling through regression analysis

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Table 3.20: Summary of the changes in the FET-curriculum for Mathematics Learning Outcome 3 Introduced

Grade 10 Analytic geometry (distance, gradient, midpoint) Transformations (translate, reflect) History of geometry and trig Grade 11 Similar triangle theorems Analytic geometry (equation of line, inclination) Transformations (rotate, enlargement) History of geometry and trig Grade 12 Transformations (rotate about origin, rigid transformations) Other geometries, e.g. taxicab, spherical, fractals History of geometry and trig

Learning Outcome 3: Shape, Space and Measurement Greater emphasis Less Emphasis

Grade 10 Conjecture, justification and proof (triangles, quads and polygons) the role of definition geometry investigations Grade 11 surface area and volume (cones, pyramids, spheres) general solution of trig equations Grade 12 circle geometry as a mini axiomatic system trigonometric models and 3-D problems Grade 10 area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders quadrilateral theorems Grade 11 trig reduction formulae problems Grade 12 analytic geometry (circle and tangent) trig graphs (done earlier) identities involving compound angles

Excluded

Grade 10 cot, sec and cosec Grade 11 circle geometry concurrency complex trig identities trig reciprocal functions 3-D problems Grade 12 Similar triangles Locus of a point Complex trig identities

Table 3.21: Summary of the changes in the FET-curriculum for Mathematics Learning Outcome 4 Learning Outcome 4 : Data Handling and Probability (All newly introduced)

Grade 10 Univariate data: Measures of central tendency and dispersion Graphic representation of data Probability versus relative frequency Probability: Sample spaces, Venn diagrams, union and intersection, mutually exclusive events, complementary events Interpretation of statistics (e.g. bias) Investigative project Grade 11 Univariate data: calculates and represents graphically measures of central tendency and dispersion Bivariate data: scatter plots and intuitive lines of best fit Probability: Independent and dependent events, Venn diagrams and tree diagrams Interpretation of statistics (e.g. bias) Differentiate between symmetric and skewed data Investigative project Grade 12 Sampling and sample size Bivariate data: Calculates regression functions for modelling purposes and correlation coefficient to make relevant deductions Generalises the fundamental counting principle Interpretation of statistics (e.g. bias) Identifies normally distributed data Investigative project

Mathematics subject assessment guidelines A minimum of 50% of the internal assessment mark must be obtained from assessment in Learning Outcomes 1 and 2. A minimum of 30% of the internal assessment mark must be obtained from assessment in Learning Outcomes 3 and 4. These minimums apply irrespective of whether the learners are working with the Optional Assessment Standards or not. The term 2 and 3 examinations should reflect the duration, mark allocation and structure of the external National Senior Certificate Mathematics examination.

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Table 3.22: Forms of assessment in the annual internal Programme of Assessment for Grade 12 Mathematics TERM

Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Internal assessment mark

TASKS

Test Investigation or project Assignment Assignment Examination Test Examination

WEIGHT (%)

10 20 10 10 15 10 25 100

External assessment The National Senior Certification process includes a formal external assessment at the end of Grade 12. The formal external Mathematics assessment assesses the Assessment Standards of Grades 11 and 12 while assuming that learners have achieved the Grade 10 Assessment Standards. The assessment will consist of two compulsory papers (Paper 1 and Paper 2) and, at present, one optional paper (Paper 3). The structure, time allocation and marks of the Grade 12 National Mathematics examinations are illustrated in Table 3.23. Table 3.23: Summary of the National Senior Certificate external Grade 12 assessment EXAM PAPER Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 LEARNING OUTCOMES LO1 and LO2 LO3 and LO4 LO3 and LO4 TIME ALLOCATION 3 hours 2 hours 2 hours TOTAL MARKS 180 marks 120 marks 100 marks

The Assessment Standards of the National Senior Certificate Mathematics examinations will be structured in line with the weightings indicated in Table 3.24. The level of complexity of the mathematical questions in the examinations will be in line with the taxonomical categories given in Table 3.25.

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Table 3.24: Suggested distribution of marks for Grade 12 question papers PAPER 1 Bookwork: max of 6 marks LO1: Patterns and sequences LO1: Annuities and finance LO2: Functions, graphs and modelling (see note below) LO2: Algebra and equations LO2: Modelling LO2: Calculus ±30 ±15 ±40 ±20 ±20 ±40 ±15 180 Total 120 Total 100 LO3: LO3: PAPER 2 Bookwork: 0 marks Coordinate geometry Transformation ±30 2025 5060 0* 10-5 LO1: LO3: PAPER 3 Bookwork: max of 15 marks Recursive sequences Geometry ±5** ±40 ±20 ±20 ±15

LO3: Trigonometry (see note below) LO3: LO4: Measurement Data handling

LO4: Descriptive statistics and interpretation LO4: Probability LO4: Bivariate data

LO2: Linear programming Total *

Measurement will be part of the applied problem solving requirements in trigonometry or one of the other Assessment Standards.

**

Recursive sequences will occasionally be used to replace some of the marks of bivariate data questions.

NOTE: The trigonometric graphs listed in LO 10.2.2 and LO 11.2.2 can be examined in both papers 1 and 2. In Paper 1 they are incorporated into the Function, graphs and modelling section for the purpose of modelling. In Paper 2 they may be examined in the trigonometry section. Table 3.25: Taxonomical differentiation of questions on Grade 12 question papers TAXONOMICAL CATEGORIES Knowledge Performing routine procedures Performing complex procedures Problem solving APPROXIMATE PROPORTION OF THE PAPER % ±25 ±30 ±30 ±15 180 mark paper 40 ­ 50 50 ­ 60 50 ­ 60 20 - 30 120 mark paper 25 ­ 35 30 ­ 40 30 ­ 40 15 - 25

The above taxonomical categories are based on the 1999 TIMSS Mathematics survey.

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Promotion A learner must achieve a minimum of 30% (Level 2: Elementary achievement) in Mathematics for promotion at the end of Grades 10 and 11 and for certification at the end of Grade 12. THE NEW ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS Additional Mathematics is an extension of Mathematics and is based on the same view of the nature of the discipline as the subject Mathematics is. Table 3.26: Course requirements for Additional Mathematics Compulsory Grade 10 Grade 11 and 12 Calculus Compulsory Calculus Algebra Statistics Algebra Statistics Matrices & Mathematical applications modelling Options (pick one topic) Matrices & Mathematical applications modelling

Learning outcomes and assessment standards for Additional Mathematics Learning Outcome 1: Calculus The learner is able to establish, define, manipulate, determine and represent the derivative and integral, both as an anti-derivative and as the area under a curve, of various algebraic and trigonometric functions and solve related problems with confidence. Assessment Standards Much the same required in differentiation and integration as the current curriculum does. Learning Outcome 2: Algebra The learner is able to represent, investigate, analyse, manipulate and prove conjectures about numerical and algebraic relationships and functions, and solve related problems. Assessment Standards Absolute Value functions; partial fractions, induction, factorisation, inequalities. Learning Outcome 3: Statistics The learner is able to organise, summarise, analyse and interpret data to identify, formulate and test statistical and probability models, and solve related problems. Assessment Standards Grouped data, hypothesis testing, least squares regression, correlation, normal distribution; independent events, conditional probability, permutations and combinations, probability density functions.

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Learning Outcome 4: Mathematical modelling The learner is able to investigate, represent and model growth and decay problems using formulae, difference equations and series. Assessment Standards Linear difference equations; population growth models, compound growth and decay, nominal and effective interest rates, deferred annuities Learning Outcome 5: Matrices and Graph Theory The learner is able to identify, represent and manipulate discrete variables using graphs and matrices, applying algorithms in modelling finite systems. Assessment Standards Solution of systems of equations, transformations using matrices; walks, paths, circuits, algorithms for classifying graphs; travel, route and network problems. Suggested reading ANDREWS, P. 2007. The curricular importance of mathematics: A comparison of English and Hungarian teachers' espoused beliefs. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 39(3): 317-338. BRADY, P. & BOWD, A. 2005. Mathematics anxiety, prior experience and confidence to teach mathematics among pre-service education students. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 11(1): 37-46. GRAVEN, M. 2002. Coping with new mathematics teacher roles in a contradictory context of curriculum change. The Mathematics Teacher, 12(2): 21-27. JITA, L. & VANDYAR, S. 2006. The relationship between the mathematics identities of primary school teachers and new curriculum reforms in South Africa. Perspectives in Education, 24(1): 39-52. KAHN, M. 2005. A class act ­ mathematics as filter of equity in South Africa's schools. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 139-148. NARDI, E. & STEWARD, S. 2003. Is Mathematics T.I.R.E.D.? A profile of quiet disaffection in the secondary mathematics classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 29(3): 345-367. NYAUMWE, L.J. 2006. Learning Mathematics concepts in a traditional socio-cultural economic environment in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, 5(1): 50-61.

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OPDENAKKER, M.C. & VAN DAMME, J. 2001. Relationship between school composition and characteristics of school process and their effect on Mathematics achievement. British Educational Research Journal, 27(4): 407--432. OPDENAKKER, M.C., VAN DAMME, J., DE FRAINE, B., VAN LANDEGHEM, G. & ONGHENA, P. 2002. The effect of schools and classes on mathematics achievement. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 13(4): 399-427. REDDY, V. 2005. The state of mathematics and science education: Schools are not equal. Perspectives in Education, 23(3): 125-138 STAR, J. 2001. "Reform" at the collegiate level: Examining students' experiences in Harvard Calculus. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, 10-14 April 2001. VAN DEN BROECK, A., OPDENAKKER, M.C. & VAN DAMME, J. 2005. The effects of student characteristics on mathematics achievement in Flemish TIMSS 1999 data. Educational research and Evaluation, 11(2): 107121. VITHAL, R. 2004. Mathematics, Devan, and project work. South African Journal of Education, 24(3): 225-252. WARNICK, B.R. & STEMHAGEN, K. 2007. Mathematics teachers as moral educators: the implications of conceiving of mathematics as a technology. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 39(3): 303-316.

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3.7.9

Physical Sciences

(Contact person: Dr Kosie Smit, IMSTUS, [email protected]) Background Previously Physical Sciences were regarded as consisting of many unrelated topics. However the curriculum has changed in that two main principles underlie the NCS Physics, namely, conceptual progression (topics going up from one grade to the following) and conceptual coherence (links between topics within each grade). Several "big ideas" are introduced that thread through all of physics from school level to higher education level, such as, boundary conditions, superposition and so forth. Chemical systems is a new addition to the Chemistry component of Physical Science. The content and context of Chemical Systems provides opportunities to focus assessment on evaluating competing knowledge claims, the impact of science on human development and the impact of science on the environment. The subject Physical Sciences focuses on investigating physical and chemical phenomena through scientific inquiry. By applying scientific models, theories and laws it seeks to explain and predict events in our physical environment. This subject also deals with society's desire to understand how the physical environment works, how to benefit from it and how to care for it responsibly. National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Physical Sciences The Physical Sciences plays an increasingly important role in the lives of all South Africans due to its influence on scientific and technological development, which underpins our country's economic growth and the social wellbeing of our community. It underpins many of the technologies that we take for granted ­ the homes we live in, the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the materials we use, medical diagnosis and treatment, computers and other information technologies. There is every reason to expect that the knowledge, skills and values people learn in the Physical Sciences will make even more of an impact on our lives as we move into the twenty-first century. The application of Physical Sciences knowledge has a profound impact on world-wide issues and events -- economic, environmental, ethical, political, social and technological. An understanding of scientific perspectives will enhance participation by citizens when they are called upon to exercise their rights in deciding on and responding to the directions of science and technology. The subject fosters an ethical and responsible attitude towards learning, constructing and applying Physical Sciences, and accommodates reflection and debate on its findings, models and theories. South Africa has a legacy in which the poor quality and/or lack of education in certain sectors resulted in limited access to scientific knowledge and the devaluing of indigenous scientific knowledge. Therefore, the curriculum of Physical Sciences must ensure increased access to scientific knowledge and scientific literacy. The study of Physical Sciences is aimed at correcting some of these historical limitations by contributing towards the holistic development of learners in the following ways:

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giving learners the ability to work in scientific ways or to apply scientific principles which have proved effective in understanding and dealing with the natural and physical world in which they live; stimulating their curiosity, deepening their interest in the natural and physical world in which they live, and guiding them to reflect on the universe; developing insights and respect for different scientific perspectives and a sensitivity to cultural beliefs, prejudices and practices in society (this aspect should also include the mobilising of African indigenous scientific knowledge and practices, particularly as these relate to solving social and environmental challenges in Africa);

developing useful skills and attitudes that will prepare learners for various situations in life, such as selfemployment and entrepreneurial ventures; and enhancing understanding that the technological applications of the Physical Sciences should be used responsibly towards social, human, environmental and economic development both in South Africa and globally.

The future learner The study of Physical Sciences draws upon and builds on the knowledge and understanding, skills, and values and attitudes developed in the study of Natural Sciences in the General Education and Training band. The study of the Natural Sciences focuses on four knowledge areas ­ Life and Living, Earth and Beyond, Matter and Material, and Energy and Change. The learners in the General Education and Training band are encouraged to use concepts in a variety of contexts including scientific investigations, constructing science knowledge, and science, society and the environment. In the Further Education and Training band, a number of science subjects build on the foundation laid by the Natural Sciences. The Physical Sciences is one of these subjects. It builds on the Earth and Beyond, Matter and Material, and Energy and Change knowledge areas of the Natural Sciences. The Learning Outcomes for the Physical Sciences and Life Sciences subjects ensure continuity by linking directly with the General Education and Training Learning Outcomes. The same organising principles and design features have been used in this subject as in the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 (Schools). The nature of science forms the basis from which learning outcomes have been developed. This allows for the smooth progression of learners. The Physical Sciences curriculum will not only deepen the knowledge base laid in the General Education and Training band; it will also provide learners with deeper general knowledge, specialised knowledge and skills. This will enable them to enter Higher Education and Training or to follow various career pathways, and to take their place in society as informed and responsible citizens. Science process skills and the creative mind developed through the problem-solving activities also allow learners to follow career paths other than those directly related to science; for example, higher education courses such as Computer Sciences, Mathematics and health-related fields. Thus, learners who have studied Physical Sciences will have access to:

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academic courses at institutions such as universities and technikons to study science and science-related programmes, which can lead to science-based studies (e.g. sciences, engineering, bio-technology and environmental degrees);

professional career paths related to applied science courses and engineering (e.g. science teachers, nurses, medical doctors, veterinarians, radiographers, dentists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers and pharmacists); and

vocational career paths (e.g. technicians, technologists and beauty therapists).

Learning outcomes for Physical Sciences: The three Learning Outcomes of the Physical Sciences are aligned to the three focus areas. Thus, they aim to develop the abilities of: doing (skills), applying and constructing knowledge (Learning Outcome 1); knowing (knowledge) (Learning Outcome 2); and being and becoming (values and attitudes) (Learning Outcome 3). Learning Outcome 1: Practical Scientific Inquiry and Problem-solving Skills The learner is able to use process skills, critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies to investigate and solve problems in a variety of scientific, technological, environmental and everyday contexts The thrust of this Learning Outcome is on the doing aspects and the process skills required for scientific inquiry and problem solving. Learners' understanding of the world will be informed by the use of scientific inquiry skills like planning, observing and gathering information, comprehension, synthesising, generalising, hypothesising and communicating results and conclusions. In addition to investigation of natural phenomena, information will be used in problem solving. Problem solving is central to the teaching and learning of Physical Sciences. Higherorder thinking and problem-solving skills are required to meet the demands of the labour market and for active citizenship within communities with increasingly complex technological, environmental and societal problems. Problem solving involves identification and analysis of the problem at hand, and the design of procedures to reach solutions. These skills find application in all spheres of life and in all contexts. Learning Outcome 2: Constructing and Applying Scientific Knowledge The learner is able to state, explain, interpret and evaluate scientific and technological knowledge and can apply it in everyday contexts. This Learning Outcome concerns itself with the knowledge of the universe, the world and the environment. Technology, as understood in this outcome, incorporates ways and means of using the physical sciences in the service of humankind, thus enhancing and improving the quality of human life. Underlying this Learning Outcome is the notion of constructing, understanding and applying knowledge in socially, technologically and environmentally responsible ways. The content (facts, concepts, principles, theories, models and laws) and skills studied in Physical Sciences helps learners to gain a better understanding of the world they live in, and to explain physical and chemical phenomena. The context in which learning occurs is important ­ it establishes the

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purposes for the knowledge, and the ideas and experiences to which the knowledge relates. Progression in this Learning Outcome is ensured through increasing difficulty of concepts and the nature of contexts. Learning Outcome 3: The Nature of Science and its Relationships to Technology, Society and the Environment The learner is able to identify and critically evaluate scientific knowledge claims and the impact of this knowledge on the quality of socio-economic, environmental and human development. It is important for learners to understand the scientific enterprise and, in particular, how scientific knowledge develops. Modern science is based on traditions of thought that came together in Europe about 500 years ago. People from other cultures have developed alternative ways of thinking resulting in different knowledge systems, which are increasingly interactive with Mainstream science. Scientific knowledge is tentative and subject to change as new evidence becomes available and new problems are addressed. The study of historical, environmental and cultural perspectives on science highlights how it changes over time, depending not only on experience but also on social, religious and political factors. Learners at the Further Education and Training stage evaluate the limitations of the explanatory power of scientific models and of different theories to explain phenomena. It is also necessary to help learners make informed decisions and enable them to have a broader understanding of how science relates to their everyday lives, to the environment and to a sustainable future. Acknowledging this interrelationship between science, society and the environment will contribute to active debates and responsible decision making on issues related to technological development, environmental management, lifestyle choices, economics, human health, and social and human development. Scientific and technological advancements affect all aspects of our lives, and it is important for learners to evaluate that impact. The scope of Physical Sciences The subject Physical Sciences prepares learners for future learning, specialist learning, employment, citizenship, holistic

development,

socio-economic

development

and

environmental

management

by

developing

competences in the following three focus areas: scientific inquiry and problem solving in a variety of scientific, technological, socio-economic and environmental contexts; the construction and application of scientific and technological knowledge; and the nature of science and its relationship to technology, society and the environment.

Scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills The skills and processes which learners use and develop in the study of Physical Sciences are similar to those used by scientists at work. They build on skills already developed in the General Education and Training band. These are the tools that learners need in order to understand the working of the world. The development of these skills and processes allows learners to solve problems, think critically, make decisions, find answers, and satisfy their curiosity. These skills are the focus of all science learning and assessment activities in classrooms, but cannot be developed in isolation. They are best developed within the context of an expanding framework of

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scientific knowledge. In addition, learners must be able to use these skills and processes while working with others to achieve common goals. This will require broadening access to appropriate and sufficient resources, including adequate time and space for effective inquiry-based science teaching and learning. It is within this context that this subject also focuses on the construction and application of scientific knowledge. Construction and application of scientific and technological knowledge. Knowledge in the Physical Sciences is organised around six core knowledge areas. These main knowledge areas are broad descriptors and ensure proper planning and clustering of concepts, skills and values to support achievement of learning outcomes. They are organised in such a way that they can be used to achieve all the Learning Outcomes of the Physical Sciences. This approach allows learners to learn the prescribed core knowledge and concepts by the end of Grade 12, but with increasing depth and breadth. The six core knowledge areas have the following foci:

two with a chemistry focus ­ Systems; Change: three with a physics focus ­ Mechanics; Waves, Sound and Light; Electricity and Magnetism; and one with an integrated focus ­ Matter and Materials.

These six knowledge areas and the percentage of annual time in the curriculum to be devoted to them are listed in Table 3.27. Table 3.27: The six knowledge areas for the Physical Sciences Knowledge area

Matter and Materials Systems Change Mechanics Waves, sound and light Electricity and magnetism

Type

Integrated Chemistry Chemistry Physics Physics Physics

Time

25.00% 18.75% 18.75% 12.50% 12.50% 12.50%

Refer to Table 3.28 for detail on the content in Physical Science and Table 3.29 for the assessment standards in Physical Science. .

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Current curriculum Table 3.28:

Mechanics Waves, Sound and Light Electricity and Magnetism Matter and Materials Chemical Change Chemical Systems

A summary of the current Physical Sciences curriculum Grade 10

12.5%

Motion in one dimension Gravity and Mechanical Energy

Grade 11

12.5%

Force, momentum and impulse

Grade 12

12.5%

Motion in two dimensions Doppler Effect Work, power and energy

12.5%

Transverse pulses on spring Transverse waves Geometrical optics

12.5%

Geometrical optics Longitudinal waves Sound Physics of music

12.5%

Doppler Effect Colour 2D and 3D wavefronts Wave nature of matter

12.5%

Magnetism Electrostatics Electric circuits

12.5%

Electrostatics Electromagnetism Electric circuits

12.5%

Electrodynamics Electronics Electromagnetic radiation

25%

Observing/ Describing/ Classifying Particles substances are made of Atom basic building block

25%

Electronic properties of matter Atomic combinations: Molecular structure Atomic nuclei Ideal gases and thermal properties

25%

Optical phenomena and properties of materials Organic molecules Mechanical properties Organic macromolecules

18.75%

Physical and Chemical Change Representing Chemical Change

18.75%

Quantitative aspects of chemical change Energy and chemical change Types of reaction

18.75%

Rate and extent of reaction Electrochemical reactions

18.75%

Global Cycles (Water Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle) Hydrosphere

18.75%

Exploiting lithosphere Atmosphere

18.75%

Chemical Industry

Assessment standards for Physical Sciences For each of the Learning Outcomes there are specified Assessment Standards indicating what the learner must be able to demonstrate.

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Table 3.29: Assessment standards for Physical Sciences Learning Outcome 1: Scientific Inquiry and Problem-solving Skills

The learner is able to use process skills, critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies to investigate and solve problems in a variety of scientific, technological, environmental and everyday contexts.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: A. CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to collect data systematically with regard to accuracy, reliability and the need to control one variable. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · plans and conducts an experiment to determine the speed of waves in a medium; · plans and conducts an experiment to measure property of some materials. B. INTERPRETING DATA TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS Seek patterns and trends in the information collected and link it to existing scientific knowledge to help draw conclusions. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · analyses and interprets the properties of waves during their transmission in a medium, and from one medium to another, to draw conclusions; · compares the properties of some materials and interprets . C. SOLVING PROBLEMS Apply given steps in a problem-solving strategy to solve standard exercises. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · draws a diagram, identifies what is known, selects a suitable equation, solves the equation and checks that the answer makes sense for a standard kinematics exercise. Apply known problem-solving strategies to solve multi-step problems. D. COMMUNICATING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTS Communicate information and conclusions with clarity and precision. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · selects and uses appropriate vocabulary, SI units, and numeric and linguistic modes of representation to communicate scientific ideas and plans related to experimental procedures; · reports that the length of a pendulum is the only factor affecting the frequency.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Conducting an investigation Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to collect data systematically with regard to accuracy, reliability and the need to control variables. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · determines through experiments, properties of solutions; · investigates the qualitative effect of changing resistance on the current in a circuit and the quantitative relationship between power, voltage and current with reference to all variables. B. INTERPRETING DATA TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS Seek patterns and trends, represent them in different forms to draw conclusions, and formulate simple generalisations. Attainment is evident when the learner , for example, · uses graphical methods to indicate the relationship between resistance and the factors affecting resistance; · establishes the relative strength of acids by measuring conductivity. C. SOLVING PROBLEMS Apply known problem-solving strategies to solve multi-step problems. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · uses kinematics to calculate the acceleration of an object being pulled up a slope and then uses the calculated value of acceleration to determine the force with which the object is being pulled. Select and use appropriate problem-solving strategies to solve novel (unseen) problems. D. COMMUNICATING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTS Communicate information and present scientific arguments with clarity and precision. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · discusses the development of modern electronic devices and presents arguments to explain advantages of using them; · argues which motor will produce the greatest turning effect by referring to appropriate factors; · presents a scientific argument on the use of nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: A. Conducting an investigation Design, plan and conduct a scientific inquiry to collect data systematically with regard to accuracy, reliability and the need to control variables. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · designs and carries out an experiment to identify specific variables that affect motion (e.g. an experiment to verify Newton's second law of motion); · uses experimentation to determine some of the properties of organic compounds; · synthesises a common organic compound such as soap. B. INTERPRETING DATA TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS Seek patterns and trends, represent them in different forms, explain the trends, use scientific reasoning to draw and evaluate conclusions, and formulate generalisations. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · interprets patterns and trends in data in order to analyse and explain the motion of objects; · interprets the information gathered on the use of electrical energy, to identify patterns and trends of power usage during all seasons, day and night, and formulates strategies to conserve energy. C. SOLVING PROBLEMS Select and use appropriate problemsolving strategies to solve (unseen) problems. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · decides what information is needed and what steps must be followed to determine how far away a satellite is, using a laser. D. COMMUNICATING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTS Communicate and defend scientific arguments with clarity and precision. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · formulates and defends scientific arguments for wearing safety belts; · formulates and defends scientific arguments around the compulsory installation of airbags in all means of transport; · presents scientific arguments on the risks and benefits of the combustion of organic products and the manufacturing of synthetic products on human development, society and the environment; · explains the dangers associated with the use of organic solvents and other organic products like combustibility and toxicity, and presents scientific arguments against the use of synthetic organic solvents.

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Table 3.29: continued Learning Outcome 2: Constructing and Applying Scientific Knowledge

The learner is able to state, explain, interpret and evaluate scientific and technological knowledge and can apply it in everyday contexts.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: A. RECALLING, STATING AND DISCUSSING PRESCRIBED CONCEPTS Recall and state basic prescribed scientific knowledge. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · states components of the atom (protons, electrons, neutrons, sub-atomic particles) and their characteristics; · lists sources, uses and quantities of elements obtained from mining in South Africa; · states and recognises that there are weak forces between and strong forces within molecules. B. EXPLAINING RELATIONSHIPS Express and explain prescribed scientific theories and models by indicating some of the relationships of different facts and concepts with each other. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · uses the atomic model of matter to explain howmelting and boiling temperature can be used to differentiate between substances having molecular and giant structures; · explains the differences between elements, molecules and compounds. C. APPLYING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE Apply scientific knowledge in familiar, simple contexts. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · identifies LEDs in circuits and knows the type and approximate voltage required for them to work.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: A. RECALLING, STATING AND DISCUSSING PRESCRIBED CONCEPTS Define and discuss basic prescribed scientific knowledge. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · defines the concepts of atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, isotope and radioisotope; · describes concepts and units related to electricity (e.g. electrical charge, electrical current and electron flow); · states and explains the motor principle; · describes oxidation and reduction in terms of the loss and the gain of electrons or the change in oxidation number. B. EXPLAINING RELATIONSHIPS Express and explain prescribed scientific theories, models and laws by indicating the relationship between different facts and concepts in own words. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · describes the relationship between atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, isotope and radio-isotope; · compares direct current and alternating current in qualitative terms, and explains the importance of alternating current in the transmission of electrical energy. C. APPLYING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE Apply scientific knowledge in everyday life contexts. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · applies knowledge about electricity and magnetism to explain the working of transformers and builds a transformer; · applies knowledge about radioactivity to explain the use of radio-carbon dating to determine the age of an artifact.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: A. RECALLING, STATING AND DISCUSSING PRESCRIBED CONCEPTS Define, discuss and explain prescribed scientific knowledge. Attainment will be evident when the learner, for example, · recalls and explains the concepts of distance, speed, time, acceleration, force and momentum; · defines energy and explains the differences between different types of energy; · discusses the characteristics of the carbon atom (referring to bonding and chain formation) and identifies the functional groups of common families (e.g. alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, acids, esters); · describes electrochemical processes. B. EXPLAINING RELATIONSHIPS Express and explain prescribed scientific principles, theories, models and laws by indicating the relationship between different facts and concepts in own words. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · indicates and explains the relationships between distance, time, mass, speed, force, acceleration, and balanced and unbalanced forces, and represents these relationships in more than one form; · explains the principles underlying the use of distillation to separate organic compounds; · describes, using basic knowledge about chemical reaction and structural formulae, typical organic reactions such as addition, combustion and polymerisation; C. APPLYING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE Apply scientific knowledge in everyday life contexts. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · applies scientific knowledge to identify precautions that can be taken to avoid accidents; · shows how energy transformation technologies are applied in everyday life; · applies understanding of electrolysis to the production of chlorine in swimming pool chlorinators; · uses available materials to construct an electrochemical cell.

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Table 3.29: continued Learning Outcome 3: The Nature of Science and its Relationships to Technology, Society and the Environment

The learner is able to identify and critically evaluate scientific knowledge claims and the impact of this knowledge on the quality of socioeconomic, environmental and human development.

Grade 10

We know this when the learner is able to: A. EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS Discuss knowledge claims by indicating the link between indigenous knowledge systems and scientific knowledge. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · uses scientific knowledge to explain why certain traditional practices are important; · compares the changing interpretations of the nature and properties of matter. B. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Describe the interrelationship and impact of science and technology on socioeconomic and human development. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · provides names, formulae and uses of elements and compounds in everyday life and describes their impact on the environment; · states the impact of human demands on the resources and products in the earth's system; · using scientific principles, summarises the dangers of ultra-violet radiation and the role of sunscreens. C. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Discuss the impact of scientific and technological knowledge on sustainable local development of resources and on the immediate environment. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · discusses the environmental challenges to proper management of elements and compounds as well as their safe use and disposal in everyday life.

Grade 11

We know this when the learner is able to: A. EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS Recognise, discuss and compare the scientific value of knowledge claims in indigenous knowledge systems and explain the acceptance of different claims. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · traces and compares the historical development of different electronic technologies; · compares the ways of explaining lightning by different communities; · states controversies around the use of radioactivity. B. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Identify ethical and moral issues related to the development of science and technology and evaluate the impact (pros and cons) of the relationship from a personal viewpoint. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · identifies and discusses moral and economic issues related to the use of electronic devices to protect cellular phone users against radiation; · discusses strategies and ethical issues related to using chemical substances in sport; · identifies and discusses ethical and moral issues related to global warming. C. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Evaluate the impact of scientific and technological knowledge on sustainable development of resources and suggest longterm and short-term strategies to improve the management of resources in the environment. Attainment will be evident when the learner, for example, · discusses scientific factors that influence the different type of reactions and how these are applied in industry and everyday life; · explains the impact of electronic devices on society and the environment; · describes the effects of acid rain on the process of corrosion of metals; · mentions the applications of radioactivity and its impact on our lives and the environment.

Grade 12

We know this when the learner is able to: A. EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS Research, discuss, compare and evaluate scientific and indigenous knowledge system knowledge claims by indicating the correlation among them, and explain the acceptance of different claims. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · compares and evaluates various explanations from different historical perspectives on the concept of force; · researches and evaluates the suitability of alternative energy sources such as ethanol as a fuel, wind, solar and nuclear power, and discusses the acceptance of different viewpoints based on scientific knowledge. B. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Research case studies and present ethical and moral arguments from different perspectives to indicate the impact (pros and cons) of different scientific and technological applications. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · explains the impact on human beings of collisions during road accidents; · explores the precautions that can be taken to avoid accidents and discusses the technologies used to minimise the effects of collisions; · analyses and explains the relationship between force and motion with political, economic, environmental and safety issues in the development and use of transportation technologies; · researches and presents arguments on the impact of organic reactions on the quality of human life and the environment; · researches and presents arguments on the economic, social and environmental impact of various energy sources; · identifies typical organic reactions that add value to life (e.g. combustion and addition polymerisation) and researches their impact on socio-economic development; · explains the dangers and impact associated with the use of organic solvents and other organic products (e.g. combustibility, toxicity) and suggests intervention strategies; · discusses ethical issues related to the use of newly-synthesised drugs without proper testing.

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Table 3.29: continued

C. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Evaluate the impact of scientific and technological research and indicate the contribution to the management, utilisation and development of resources to ensure sustainability continentally and globally. Attainment is evident when the learner, for example, · analyses and explains the relationship between force and motion with political, economic, environmental and safety issues in the development and use of transportation technologies; · evaluates strategies used to determine the influence and impact of motion on the quality of life and the environment; · analyses the sustainable use of energy; · presents scientific arguments on the risks and benefits of combustion of organic products and manufacturing of synthetic products on human development, society and the environment; · explains the impact on the environment of combustion of fossil fuels (organic compounds); · presents a report on the social, environmental and economic consequences of the use and discarding of organic products.

Implications for Physics and Chemistry teaching at first year level Chemistry: Differentiation between terms such as atom, ion and molecule Writing of formulae and equations Understanding and working with the mole Interpretation and understanding of mole relationships from balanced equations

Mechanics: Understanding graphs: Interpretation, plotting and manipulation

Electricity: Interpretation and understanding of potential difference Interpretation of electric circuits

Practicals: Students have limited experience in the handling of basic laboratory apparatus. Students need to be assisted in the laboratory so that they can gain experience and confidence in handling laboratory apparatus. It cannot be assumed that students are acquainted with, for example, the use of a scale.

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Recommendations Our experience in working with students with Mathematics and Science has led us to believe that the following recommendations could be useful when teaching first year students:

1. Contextualisation of Grade 12 Curriculum There is a need to contextualise the Grade 12 curriculum in the light of the first year curriculum. Students need to be aware of the extent the Grade 12 curriculum follows into themes of the first year curriculum. This approach should be followed before the commencement of a theme in the first year curriculum.

2. Introductory Chapters The introductory chapters ensure that the pre-science (pre-knowledge) of a theme is addresses. It cannot be assumed that all students are acquainted with the expected prescience (pre-knowledge) of the first year curriculum.

3. Mathematical Concepts Mathematical concepts in science are a challenge for most students. While students might understand scientific concepts, their application using mathematical concepts is usually the cause of the problem. For example, students struggle with conversions between units such as cm3 to m3. While students also experience the manipulation of mathematical equations with a calculator to be challenging.

4. Initial WebStudies evaluation Cognitive congruency involves realising where the student is and then adjusting the teaching material to reach the student. This is critical as research shows that prior knowledge is related to understanding and achieving. Incorrect assumptions of the prior knowledge of students can impact there achievement. We recommend a WebStudies evaluation on the commencement of the module to evaluate the level of prior knowledge. Reference: Excerpts from the FET Statements and Learning Programme Guidelines, NCS, Nov 2005 3.8 CONCLUSION

The principles on which the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) is founded was discussed in this chapter. The new National Curriculum Statements (Grades 10-12) for the subjects Accounting, Geography, History, Languages, Life Orientation, Life Sciences, Mathematical Literacy, Mathematics, and Physical Sciences. The latest available National Curriculum Statements (Grade 10-12) were used in this analysis. The curriculum, however, constantly changes as lessons are learnt during implementation and developments take place in the various disciplines concerned. It will therefore be important for lecturers to remain abreast of these

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developments in order to understand the knowledge, skills and attitudes first-year students may have acquired during their school careers in the FET-band. It is recommended that a close link be fostered between lecturers and programme planners within the first-year context and lecturers in the relevant curriculum specialisation areas at the Department of Curriculum Studies within the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University. Input from the subject advisers of the Western Cape Education Department may also be valuable.

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CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FET (SCHOOLS) POLICY 4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter will report on the implementation of the new FET (Schools) policy. The data for this component of the study were generated in two phases. The first phase encompassed a preliminary study within which the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students of 2006 were asked to report on the implementation practices they observed in the schools where they completed their practice training in the third term (a three month period) by means of a questionnaire. The second component of the study reports on an in depth analysis conducted in feeder schools within which the PGCE students of 2007 were trained as fieldworkers to generate data focused on the implementation of the new FET (Schools) policy. The study was also conducted during their practice training when they had access to these schools' teachers, learners and classrooms as pre-service teachers. 4.2 4.2.1 EMPIRICAL STUDY IN SCHOOLS Preliminary study (PGCE 2006)

Background to the study The PGCE students are required to complete a practice training period of three months during the third term of the PGCE programme. The students are placed in diverse schools ­ including private schools, ex-model C schools and schools that were categorized as black and coloured schools under the previous political dispensation). All the schools are situated within easy traveling distance of Stellenbosch, as PGCE students are often required to continue taking part in campus activities such as sport. Lecturers of the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University are also required to visit the students and the schools, which add to the rationale for the compact geographical placement strategy. Schools in the areas of Stellenbosch, Somerset West, Strand, Paarl, Wellington, Kuilsriver, Brackenfell, Bellville, and Cape Town were included in the placements for 2006. PGCE students are mainly required to observe and teach learners in Grades 8-11. Grade 12 learners are usually preparing for exams and students therefore often have little opportunity to teach subjects at the Grade 12 level. The subjects that were taught by students in the 2006 PGCE group included (with the number of students who taught this subject in brackets after the subject): · · · · · · · · Afrikaans (8) English (14) Xhosa (2) Mathematics (6) Mathematical Literacy (9) Computer Studies (1) Accountancy (6) Economics (4)

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· · · · · · · ·

Business Management (5) Life Science (Biology) (10) Science (11) History (2) Geography (6) Speech and Drama (4) Art and Culture (2) Life Orientation (23)

The students were asked to complete a questionnaire with mainly open questions upon their return to campus in the fourth term of 2006. the responses were analysed by means of basic content analysis. The following discussion reports on the feedback obtained from these students on their perceptions of the implementation of the new FET (Schools) policy. Perceived ways in which learners are prepared for university through the new FET (Schools) policy From the responses obtained from the 2006 PGCE students it was evident that interpretation and implementation of new FET (Schools) curriculum depended on the school and/or teacher. Although only (positive) ways in which this curriculum contributes to preparedness were asked in the particular question, students also noted a number of curricular limitations (which will be discussed in greater depth in the next section). The perceived ways in which learners are prepared for university study include a wide choice of subjects, and an emphasis on correct subject choices. The subject Life Orientation is also perceived to provide learners with coping skills for when they complete their school careers. The practice-based nature of the curricula within subjects was also perceived to prepare learners for future study and specific reference was made to the high level cognitive skills development integrated into the curriculum in general. Other aspects that could facilitate learners' development evident in the practices in schools include greater learner involvement in classes, an emphasis on searching for information, group work, independent learning, the development of self-reflective abilities, and the encouragement of critical thinking. The use of continuous assessment was also perceived as a way in which learners were prepared for university by their school environments. Perceived limitations of the new FET (Schools) policy in preparing learners for university Despite the intentions of the FET (Schools) policy, some PGCE students also noted various aspects they perceived could limit learners' preparation for university. The implementation of the new policy seems to be largely dependent on the teacher and the system seems to still be teacher-centered rather than learner-centred. The students reported evidence of what they perceived to be "spoon feeding" and according to their perception

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learners were given too little responsibility for their own work. Some students perceived that learners experienced a lack of guidance to learners and in some cases limited subject choices that had implications for future studies. Some students also commented on the lack of input from HE institutions and professional bodies in curriculum development at the school level. In some schools (although not the vast majority), students reported what they perceived as a lack of skills development, with specific reference to language, writing, reading and study skills. In other cases, students perceived the increased focus on skills development in the new FET (Schools) policy as leading to a lack of emphasis on content in the classroom. In some cases students thought factual knowledge was transmitted with little insight. Too much emphasis on group work was also noted as a possible limiting factor. The lack of coherence between different grades where the content and standards within and between grades were not clear was mentioned as a possible hindrance to policy implementation and eventually the preparation of learners for university study. Students who were involved in Mathematics/Mathematical Literacy classes expressed doubts about the compulsory nature of Mathematics/Mathematical Literacy in schools, as in-service teachers were not adequately prepared to implement the new policy ­ especially in the case of Mathematical Literacy. Learner negativity towards Mathematical Literacy was also noted in some responses. Assessment featured in various responses. In some cases an emphasis on presentation rather than content quality was observed. In other cases students perceived that learners were only encouraged to reach minimum standards ­ not excel to the highest possible level of attainment. Some students commented that the current National Senior Certificate (NSC) standard may be too low, which could explain this phenomenon. In other cases the current culture of promotion without passing was perceived to create discipline problems in schools, which hampered learning. It is interesting to note that in some cases the same aspects are perceived as making a positive contribution to learner preparation, whilst the same aspects are noted as possible hindrances by other students. This trend emphasizes the importance of the teacher and the school context in understanding how new school policies are implemented. Perceived typical challenges first-year students have to face5 The themes that emerged from the perceived typical challenges first-year students have to face include challenges in terms of the specific study area, as well as general academic, social and individual challenges. Making the right choice of a study programme and adapting to the particular environment of a new discipline was perceived as challenges first-year students have to face within a specific study area.

5

Please refer to Chapter 2 of this report where current first-year students' perceptions of the challenges they face when entering higher education are discussed.

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The general academic challenges first-year students have to face as perceived by the PGCE students include expressing independent thought, the high level of writing skills expected, the decrease in individual attention received in some cases, and completing assignments where the student is expected to conduct his/her own information searching. The fact that work is generally not summed up for the student at university and that little repetition or revision take place, while this may be the case at school, could pose a challenge to first-year students who have become accustomed to these approaches to teaching and learning. Coping with the fast pace and large volumes of work may also be daunting for first-year students. The little or no guidance on assessment may also pose a challenge to some first-year students. Some first-year students may be required to adapt their study methods or strategies in order to succeed, which may be difficult at the individual level. Some students may find it difficult to remain focused in a system where class attendance is not compulsory. The possible social challenges that were noted include adapting to a new environment and fitting in, coping with the relative anonymity on campus, finding a balance between academic and social life, and coping with the exposure to diverse people and ideas. Some first-year students may also have a lacking support system, which may inhibit their success. Individual challenges that were noted include becoming independent and self-disciplined, taking responsibility, staying up to date without supervision, and maintaining effective time management. These results triangulate well with the results found in the questionnaire and focus group discussions conducted amongst first-year students ­ as reported in Chapter 2. Perceived input of schools in preparing learners to deal with future challenges The PGCE students of 2006 were asked how they perceived schools prepared learners to deal with the challenges they may be facing as first-year university students. The main themes that emerged related to academic preparation, skills development, and aspects related to the school milieu. Schools are perceived to prepare learners for facing challenges through academic preparation. The subject Life Orientation was specifically mentioned in this regard, as it contains elements of career guidance and also the development of life skills in general. The increased workload in Grades 11 and 12 in all subjects are seen as a preparation for dealing with the large volumes of work that need to be mastered in the first year of university studies. Continuous assessment and homework are perceived to promote continuous studying at school, which helps the learner to also work throughout the academic year once he/she reaches university. Skills development at school is perceived to help learners when they have to make the transition from school to university. The focus on practical skills, information searches, and the identification of core facts emphasized within the new FET (Schools) policy is seen as facilitating factors in preparing learners for future studies. The

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development of study methods, note-taking and critical thinking skills that seem to be emphasized in some schools are deemed important for future success. A strong school ethos where hard work is encouraged, where learners are given more responsibility and where independence and self-discipline are fostered are aspects of the school milieu perceived to play an important role in preparing learners for university. Learner exchange programmes are also perceived to add value to learners' development, although these programmes were not commonly noted in the responses obtained from the PGCE students. Suggestions on how schools can better prepare learners for university The PGCE group of 2006 were asked how they thought schools could better prepare learners for university. Curricular input, aspects related to teaching and learning, guidance and individual development featured as possible areas where schools could provide opportunities for learner development. In terms of subject curricula, some respondents indicated that theory needed to feature more strongly, including an emphasis on understanding of basic concepts. These respondents called for a better balance between content and application and less emphasis on assignments, and more on quality of learning. Teaching and learning featured in a number of responses. No so-called "spoon feeding" and strict deadlines were suggested as ways in which teachers could encourage hard work, self-study and independent work. The suggested role of teachers seemed to centre on helping learners to understand how learning works and to help them distinguish between important and less important information. Respondents also argued that the balance between independent and group work seemed to be distorted and could be improved. Guidance to learners was seen as an important function of schools and teachers. Encouragement to study further and guidance on what to study and the prerequisites for specific programmes were deemed important facilitative factors. Some PGCE students thought teachers could provide learners with background on what happens at universities and prepare learners gradually for the different teaching styles they experienced at university. Preparatory courses were seen as a possible way in which to help learners intending to continue their studies at university. Some responses focused on individual development, which related specifically to the development of a sense of responsibility, increased independence, critical thinking and decision-making skills. This preliminary study indicated the need for a more extensive investigation on the actual implementation of the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 in schools. The following section reports on the results obtained in this component of the project.

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4.2.2

Study of the implementation of the FET (Schools) policy (PGCE 2007)

Introduction to the study First-year students at universities are often school leavers that enter the higher education system with an array of prior knowledge skills and attitudes obtained during their school careers. According to Nuñez and CuccaroAlamin (1998), and Warburton, Bugarin, and Nuñez (2001) the quality of the academic experience and intensity of the high school curriculum affect almost every dimension of success in postsecondary education, suggesting that a rigorous high school curriculum can help bridge the gap between school and university. The best prepared high school learners are best positioned to do well in university, regardless of their socio-economic and demographic background, or eventual choice of university (Gladieux & Swail, 1998; Horn & Kojaku, 2001; Martinez & Klopott, 2003; Warburton, Bugarin, & Nuñez, 2001). Lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes often lack insight into the academic backgrounds of first-year students towards whom the university curriculum is directed. In the South African context this problem is amplified by the introduction of a new National Curriculum Statement (NCS) within the Further Education and Training (FET) band (grades 1012) in the past three years. South African universities have been slow to adapt their own practices to the new educational dispensation at the school level, even though an institution such as Stellenbosch University has explicitly stated the importance of enhancing first-year success as an institution-wide priority. However, it may be difficult to effectively develop and implement first-year support systems and curricula without knowing the clientele at which it is aimed. The changes in clientele, coupled with policy and curriculum changes in the South African school system, necessitate that lecturers reflect on their academic offering ­ especially at the first-year level. An interpretive case study was therefore conducted to investigate the implementation of the new NCS in Grades 10-11 at schools in the feeder area of Stellenbosch University. The 2007 cohort of Postgraduate Certificate in Education students were trained to complete a limited investigation into the implementation of the new National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Grades 10 ­ 12 within a specific subject area by means of an interview with the teacher, class observations and administering a standard questionnaire to 20 learners. The primary aim of the project was to provide lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes with insight into the academic trends and practices of first-year students towards whom the university curriculum is directed, in order to enhance student success. The motivation for this project was the present focus on the first-year experience and success at Stellenbosch University and an acknowledgement that the curriculum changes in the FET (Schools) band will have implications for how we teach at Stellenbosch University. The question addressed was: How is the new NCS for Grades 10-11 implemented in schools in the Western Cape? Background literature The issues surrounding first-year success do not seem to be unique to the Stellenbosch context, as trends in local and international literature indicate a growing awareness of the first-year experience. Academic literature in

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the international arena directs attention to the importance of the first-year experience in academic planning, as well as teaching and learning (Cutright, 2002; Fleming, 2002; Geall, 2000; Grayson, 2003; Hendel, 2001; Hossler, Kuh & Olsen, 2001; Howe & Briguglio, 2006; Johnstone, 2001; Knight, 2002; Mandel & Evans, 2003; McCune, 2004; McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001; Meyer & Shanahan, 2004; Moffat, McConnachie, Ross & Morrison, 2004; Peat, Dalziel & Grant, 2001; Smith, 2003; Szafran, 2001, Vanderfaeillie, De Fever & Lombaerts, 2003; Zeegers & Martin, 2001). A number of research initiatives locally and abroad have identified and/or addressed the problems associated with the first-year experience (Chansarkar & Michaeloudis, 2001; Fenzel, 2001; Flisher, De Beer & Bokhorst, 2002; Kidwell, 2005; Lizzio & Wilson, 2004, Mäkinen, Olkinuora & Lonka, 2004; McInnis, 2001; Pancer, Pratt, Hunsberger & Alisat, 2004; Pitkethly & Prosser, 2001). Nationally various studies (Bojuwoye, 2002; Fraser & Killen, 2003; Moore & Lewis, 2003) have pointed out the importance of the first-year in further academic success. It is difficult to effectively develop and implement these systems without knowing the clientele at which it is aimed. It is therefore necessary to also consider the educational background of the students entering higher education. Various studies provide information on students entering the higher education system (Huyshamen, 2003; Iannelli, 2004; Laugkech, 2000; Legotlo, Maaga, Sebego, Van der Westhuizen, Mosoge, Nieuwoudt & Steyn, 2002; Lethoko, Heystek & Maree, 2001; Masitsa, 2004; Masitsa, Van Staden, De Wet, Niemann, Heyns, Brazelle & Niemann, 2004; Mji, 2002; Pillay, 2004; Singh, Mbokodi & Msila, 2004; Tell & McDonald, 2003; Tinklin, 2003; Toni & Oliver, 2004; Van der Merwe, 2004; Wömann, 2003; Worth, 2002). Studies furthermore indicate that higher education clientele have changed (Brennan, 2001; Chevaillier, 2002; Cross, 2004; Drost, 2002; Lowe & Cook, 2003; Murdoch, 2002; Patrick, 2001; Van Harmelen & Pistorius, 1998). Research also shows that the clientele for undergraduate studies in higher education has changed and will continue to do so in future (Brennan, 2001; Chevaillier, 2002; Cross, 2004; Drost, 2002; Lowe & Cook, 2003; Murdoch, 2002; Patrick, 2001; Van Harmelen & Pistorius, 1998). The changes in clientele, coupled with policy and curriculum changes in the South African school system (Basson, 2004; Botha, McCrindle & Owen, 2003; Department of Education, 2002; Ferreira, 2004; Naidoo & Parker, 2005; Rambuda & Fraser, 2004; Swanepoel & Booyse, 2003; Wilmot, 2005) has changed the landscape through which potential university candidates have to travel before reaching higher education (Basson, 2004; Botha et al., 2003; Ferreira, 2004; Naidoo & Parker, 2005; Rambuda & Fraser, 2004; Swanepoel & Booyse, 2003; Wilmot, 2005). The low throughput rates in the first year of postschool study reported in national and institutional statistics is an added area of concern for higher education institutions in South Africa (Ishengoma, 2002; Nair, 2002; Subotzky, 2003). These trends necessitate that lecturers reflect on their academic offering ­ especially at the first-year level. Schutte and Steyn (2002) report on how lecturers experience these changes and issues. Planning for the future in higher education is necessary if the needs and demands of these candidates are to be met. It therefore becomes important to investigate trends at the school level in order to plan ahead. This article provides a limited view of the type of student the new NCS will deliver (with the first possible intake in 2009).

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Stellenbosch University has explicitly stated the importance of enhancing first-year success as an institutionwide priority. The Stellenbosch University Education Management Plan 2003-2007 (2003) recognises the importance of effective support and sound academic practice especially in the first-year of academic study. Various initiatives have been launched under the umbrella of the First-year Academy and faculties are critically debating possible solutions to problems related to first-year success. The First-year Academy has launched various initiatives to try and improve first-year performance from 2006 and onwards. The initiatives centre on equipping first-year students with information and skills, training student counsellors as partners in the whole process, providing effective support, monitoring and feedback systems and conducting research to investigate and determine factors that influence first-year success. However, no previous studies have had a school-based focus. The need therefore existed to investigate possible future trends by focusing on the implementation of the new NCS at feeder schools of Stellenbosch University. Approach to the study An interpretive study was undertaken, aimed at capturing the trends regarding the future profile of the first-year student at Stellenbosch University from school-based sources. A mixed method approach was used in the project, as it enabled the researchers to understand the beliefs, ideals, notions of reality, perceptions, values, actions and/or concerns of respondents (Henning, Van Rensburg & Smit, 2004). The implementation of the new NCS in Grades 10-12 formed the centre of the investigation conducted by pre-service teachers during their practice training in schools. The PGCE students (N=94) were trained as fieldworkers to obtain data within a specific setting ­ a grade 10 or 11 class in a subject in which they themselves had specialised in their PCGE programme. These students again represented a variety of subject areas and visited a variety of feeder schools in the Western Cape. The schools were mostly within easy travelling distance of Stellenbosch, but included both rural and urban schools, private and public schools (the latter including ex-model C schools and schools within previously disadvantaged areas). Data was generated from a variety of sources, including learners (by means of a standardised questionnaire), teachers (by means of a semi-structured interview), and class observations (facilitated by an observation schedule). The PGCE programme is a one year programme aimed at preparing pre-service teachers for practice after they have completed an initial degree. In some cases these students have obtained further degrees in their original disciplines of speciality, but this is the exception rather than the rule. PGCE students are expected to select a minimum of two and a maximum of four curriculum specialisation areas on the grounds of their initial undergraduate education. These curriculum specialisation areas are presented as elective modules in the PGCE programme. The PGCE students were required to complete a practice training period of three months during the third term of the PGCE programme. The students were placed in diverse schools ­ including private schools, exmodel C schools, and schools that were categorized as black and coloured schools under the previous political dispensation. All the schools were situated within easy traveling distance of Stellenbosch. The areas of Stellenbosch, Somerset West, Strand, Paarl, Wellington, Kuilsriver, Brackenfell, Bellville, and Cape Town were

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included. The schools that formed the population from which the PGCE students selected the sample for the study can be characterised as follows:

Schools from both previously advantaged and disadvantaged areas, as well as public and private schools were included. Both urban and semi-urban schools were included. The schools (and therefore also the class sizes within the schools) varied considerably. The teachers eventually included in the sample had varied levels of teaching experience.

The following background information on the PGCE class of 2007 notable:

The majority of the PGCE class of 2007 was female (75.3%). The majority of the PGCE class of 2007 considered themselves Afrikaans-speaking (68.5%), while 28.1% considered themselves English speaking, and 3.4% thought they were bilingual in terms of Afrikaans and English.

The distribution of prior qualifications represented in the PGCE class of 2007 is provided in Figure 1 below. These qualifications are noteworthy as they determine the curriculum specialisation areas students are able to choose in the PGCE programme.

Table 4.1 provides an overview of this placement for 2007 and also provides a broad profile of the PGCE students as placed within the various schools. This table provides the broad framework in which sampling took place for the particular component of the project. All schools are within relative proximity to Stellenbosch, as many PGCE students continue with their campus activities (such as sport) during their practice teaching period at the schools and the availability of transport for students also needs to be taken into account.

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Table 4.1: Overview of the placement and profiles of Postgraduate Certificate in Education students (2007)

School Number of PGCE students placed PGCE student profile Gender Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Male Male Female Cloetesville High School 7 Female Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Female Male Female Male Female Female Female Male Boys High, Paarl Girls High, Paarl La Rochelle Girls High School Luckhoff High School Parel Vallei High School 4 1 2 3 2 Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Male Female Male Female Qualifications BA BA (Languages and Culture) BComm BSc (Bio) Hons (Sport Science) BA BDrama BAgryc BA BDrama BA BComm BA (Language and Culture) BA (Social Sciences) BA BA (Social Sciences) BComm BA BA BA (Language and Culture) BA (Language and Culture) BPsych BSc BA BDrama BA (Language and Culture) BA BA (Sport Science) BComm Hons BSc BA (Fine Arts) BA (Language and Culture) BA BSc (Consumer Science) BA BA (Language and Culture) BSc BA BA Law BA (Social Sciences) BA (Sport Science) BA (Social Sciences) BA (Social Sciences) BComm BA (Social Sciences) BSc BA BA (Language and Culture) BA (Social Sciences) BA (Social Sciences) BA (Social Sciences) BDrama Curriculum specialisation areas Life Orientation (Psychology), History English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Economics, Accounting Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Mathematical Literacy Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Afrikaans, Drama English, Drama Business Economics, Life Sciences English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Drama, English History, English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Business Economics, Accounting Afrikaans, English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education), English English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Afrikaans, Life Orientation (Psychology) Economics, Mathematical Literacy English, Geography Afrikaans, Life Orienation (Psychology), English Life Orientation (Psychology), English, Afrikaans Afrikaans, English Xhosa, Life Orientation (Psychology) Life Orientation (Psychology), Physical Sciences, Life Sciences Life Orientation (Psychology), Geography English, Drama English, Life Orientation (Psychology) English, Life Orientation (Psychology), History Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Business Economics, Accounting Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Sciences Art, English English, History Religious Studies, Life Orientation (Psychology) Mathematical Literacy, Physical Science History, Religious Studies Afrikaans, English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Physical Science, Life Science, Mathematical Literacy Afrikaans, Life Orientation (Psychology) Afrikaans, English Afrikaans, Life Orientation (Psychology) Business Economics, Life Orientation (Movement Education), Life Orientation (Psychology) Afrikaans, Life Orientation (Psychology) Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Accounting, Economics, Business Economics, Mathematical Literacy History, English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Mathematical Literacy, Physical Science, Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Science English, History Life Orientation (Psychology), English, German Life Orientation (Psychology), History Afrikaans, History, English Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) English, Drama

Bloemhof Girls High School

6

Brackenfell High School Boland Agricultural High School Bridge House

1 1 4

DF Malan High School Durbanville High School Fairmont High School Paarl Gimnasium Helderberg College

4 2 2 1 3

Hottentots-Holland High School

6

Hugenot High School

3

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Table 4.1: Continued

Female Male Male Male Female Male Male Female Female Female Female Male Male Female Female Somerset College 5 Female Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Male Male Female Famale Female Female Female Male Male Strand High School 3 Female Female Female Female Female BA (Social Sciences) BSc (Sport Science) BComm Hons Sport Science BSc Hons BA Hons BSc BA (Fine Arts Education) BSc Hons BA BComm Hons BA BSc BA (Social Sciences) Hons Sport Science Hons BSc BA (Social Sciences) BA (Social Sciences) BSc BPsig BA BA Hons BA BA BComm BSc BA (Sport Science) BComm Hons Sport Science Hons BMus BA BA (Sport Science) BPhysiotherapy BSc BA (Social Sciences) BA (Language and Culture) BA (Social Sciences) Afrikaans, English, History Mathematical Literacy, Physical Science, Life Science Economics, English Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Mathematics, Physical Science Geography, Physical Science, Mathematical Literacy Mathematics, Mathematical Literacy Art, English Life Science, Mathematical Literacy English, History, Life Orientation (Psychology) Accounting, Mathematical Literacy, Business Economics Life Orientation (Psychology), Music Physical Science, Life Science English, Life Orientation (Psychology) Physical Science, Mathematical Literacy, Life Orientation (Movement Education) Mathematical Literacy, Life Science, Physical Science Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Geography, Life Science, Physical Science Life Orientation (Psychology), Xhosa Life Orientation (Psychology), Afrikaans English, Afrikaans Afrikaans, Life Orientation (Psychology), Xhosa Afrikaans, Xhosa, Life Orientation (Psychology) Economics, Accounting Physical Science, Life Science Geography, Life Orientation (Movement Education) Accounting, Economics Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Life Orientation (Psychology), Music Afrikaans, History Physical Science, Life Orientation (Psychology), Life Orientation (Movement Education) Physical Science, Mathematical Literacy Life Science, Mathematical Literacy Xhosa, History English, German Life Orientation (Psychology), Xhosa

Paul Roos Gymnasium

7

Rhenish Girls High School

6

The Settlers High School

1

Stellenberg High School

4

Stellenbosch High School

8

Tygerberg High School

3

The schools that formed the population from which the PGCE students selected the sample for the study can be characterised as follows:

Schools from both previously advantaged and disadvantaged areas, as well as public and private schools were included. Both urban and semi-urban schools were included. The schools (and therefore also the class sizes within the schools) varied considerably. The teachers eventually included in the sample had varied levels of teaching experience.

The following background information on the PGCE class of 2007 notable:

The majority of the PGCE class of 2007 was female (75.3%). The majority of the PGCE class of 2007 considered themselves Afrikaans-speaking (68.5%), while 28.1% considered themselves English speaking, and 3.4% thought they were bilingual in terms of Afrikaans and English.

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The distribution of prior qualifications represented in the PGCE class of 2007 is provided in Figure 4.1 below. These qualifications are noteworthy as they determine the curriculum specialisation areas students are able to choose in the PGCE programme.

4% 3% 4% 2% 1% 4%

1% 1%

BA Bcomm BSc Bdrama BAgryc BPsig 55% Hons Sport Sc Hons BSc Hons BA Hons BMus BPhysio 11%

14%

Figure 4.1: Postgraduate Certificate in Education students' prior qualifications (2007) The PGCE students were expected to complete a limited investigation into the implementation of the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 within a specific subject area that they were specialising in during the PGCE-programme. They were expected to investigate the implementation thereof in a systematic scientific manner and had to complete three fieldwork assignments in the following manner: 1. Conducting an interview with a teacher that teaches in the subject (Grade 10-11) that the student had chosen to study. The student had to be able to observe classes of this teacher and administer the questionnaire (discussed below) to the learners within these classes. Therefore they had to carefully consider which teacher they wanted to approach for the assignment. 2. 3. Observing the classes of the teacher within the specific subject and make meticulous notes according to the observational schedule supplied (which was discussed in class). Administering a standard questionnaire to 20 learners within the subject they had observed and within which they had interviewed the teacher. Students were supplied with a letter of introduction that they could give to the teacher(s) in question, which provided the background to the assignment and what was expected of the student (see Addendum E).

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Students were briefed and trained to gather the data and keep meticulous records thereof during their school visit. Data analysis only started upon their return to campus. They therefore had to bring all their data records (of the interview, observations and completed questionnaires) to class after the school visit. Students were briefed that their project had to take place in either a Grade 10, or Grade 11 class, seeing that the focus fell on the implementation of the new National Curriculum Statement within these grades. Grade 12 had not been implemented in 2007, and students would in any case not have easy access to these classes that start their final exams quite early. Students need not have presented classes themselves within Grades 10 or 11, should have been able to observe and have access to the learners at this level. They were asked to organise the protocol of their study with the teacher asked to participate in the study at the start of the school visit as to determine the most appropriate time and place to conduct all facets of the study. Results and discussion of interviews and class observations This study on the implementation of the new NCS in a number of schools in the Western Cape provided useful insights in terms of how teachers adopt and adapt the new curriculum in their particular subject areas. Teachers were asked what they did differently within the new NCS for their specific subject area in comparison to the previous curriculum to prepare learners for study after completing school. They were also asked whether they were able to readily implement all the facets of the new NCS in their particular subject area.

The impact of a standardized curriculum

Some teachers commented on the positive effects of standardizing the curriculum at a national level. However, the data suggests that teachers do not necessarily implement the new NCS precisely as stipulated in the policy documents. Quite a few teachers commented and PGCE students observed that curricula seemed to demand a large volume of work be covered, which is sometimes difficult to achieve. Some learning outcomes are neglected or ignored by teachers as a result. PGCE students in Life Sciences reported that the curriculum was sometimes divided into blocked components, which meant that aspects such as Movement Education was only done in one term of the whole academic year. A PGCE student observed a similar pattern in an English class:

The lessons were informative and well-structured. It did, however, happen that the teacher tried to cram two poems into one lesson or one large subsection of work into one lesson. This was done to finish the planned section of the work. During these lessons when the learners asked questions she would answer quickly or tell them that they have to press on with the work. Teachers try to do as much as possible but do not always succeed. Other than the time constraints the teacher in this class did a remarkably good job of covering all aspects of the curriculum. Another PGCE student in Accounting reported that the teacher felt all facets of the curriculum were important, but that it was unrealistic to try and implement all of them. This particular teacher focused on some facets of the

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new NCS in Accounting for Grades 10-12, so that not all were taught half-heartedly. She said: I'd rather teach half really well, than all badly.

Teaching and learning within the new NCS

The interviews and observations indicate that the new NCS (Grades 10-12) emphasizes a more learner-centred and interactive approach to teaching. Learner-centeredness is, however, not achieved readily without a concerted effort of the teacher. Kuh (2001), Kuh, Kinzie, Schuh, Whitt, and Associates (2005), and Pascarella (2001) emphasise the importance of the institutional environment to student learning. Institutional environments that are perceived by students to be inclusive and affirming where expectations for performance are clearly communicated and set at reasonably high levels create safe spaces for inclusive and interactive learning. One PGCE student in Mathematical Literacy commented that a trusting and safe learning environment was necessary for interactive learning and group work to succeed. Reportedly classes have become more interactive as learners participate in discussions and group activities, even though it may not always be the case in practice, especially in large classes. The following PGCE student's observation in a Mathematics class indicates that teachers may vary in their ability and/or willingness to facilitate learning in an interactive manner:

Learners don't seem to get enough opportunity to communicate with other learners concerning mathematical problems. In the two months that observations were done no time was spent on group work. The teacher relied on teaching methods that do not engage learners in active learning. They need to develop communication skills so that they can function efficiently at university and most importantly in society. Other teachers seem to emphasise group work in class activities. Some teachers noted that outcomes related to group work were more easily reached in smaller classes. A teacher in Life Orientation added that she saw herself as a facilitator of learning and that group work helped learners to become socially competent when they leave school.

Learning resources needed to implement the new NCS

Teachers were asked which learning resources they as teachers needed to effectively implement the new NCS in the particular subject within their specific school context. The teachers were also asked which learning resources Grade 10-12 learners needed to be successful in their particular subject and whether learners in their school readily had access to these learning resources. Teachers indicated that the new NCS (Grades 10-12) demands a variety of resources for effective implementation, including for example textbooks, newspaper articles, magazine articles, audio-visual equipment, Internet access and computers. Certain subjects, such as Life Sciences and Physical Sciences require more specialized apparatus for conducting experiments and visual models to explain complex systems. The Movement Education component of Life Orientation requires sport apparatus. Reynolds and Walberg (1992)

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found that learners' socio-economic background has a determining effect on the type of school environment that was accessible, while Coleman (1988) reported that socio-economic status had implications for the accessibility of resources at home and the available social capital necessary to succeed in school. Learners from higher socio-economic groupings had access to more resources that enabled them to obtain rigorous academic preparation, have high academic aspirations and family support to entertain these aspirations. The majority of teachers in the study seem to have access to these resources, but the extent to which learners have access varies considerably. Most schools have libraries and computer centres, but the extent to which these resource centres are stocked and equipped seems to vary considerably amongst schools. In more privileged schools classrooms are equipped with computers and data projectors, but this is not the case in all schools. The disparity in resource allocation created under the previous political dispensation seems to be continued in current times as schools in previously disadvantaged areas continue to struggle in providing their teachers and learners with adequate resources and infrastructural facilities. A PGCE student in Business Studies observed that a lack of resources limited the teacher's ability to facilitate learning in the following manner:

The lessons would have gone better if the teacher possessed some critical resources to work with. One of these would be an overhead projector. By using this instrument, it could make the theoretical work a lot more visual. Computer access for all the learners is also essential as this will allow them to do their own research for assignments a lot quicker and independently from the teacher. Unfortunately, the school is set in a disadvantaged area and does not possess these important resources. This makes the job of the teacher a lot more strenuous and difficult. Various other teachers in a variety of subject areas concurred with this notion. Textbooks seem to be a limiting factor in some subject areas. Some teachers (for example in Accounting, Economics and Xhosa) complained that the existing textbooks had insufficient content and they therefore had to supplement textbooks with additional notes that they had to compile themselves. Teachers in Xhosa seem to have developed a strong collegial network where learning material development and reflective discussion take place. One teacher in Xhosa mentioned that since there had previously been no formal syllabus for Xhosa as a second additional language, and currently still no national curriculum statement, teachers were forced to collaborate to develop material and guidelines. Teachers in Xhosa commented on the lack of updated learning materials and textbooks available in their school libraries. An Accounting teacher commented specifically on the lack of examples in the available textbooks. PGCE students in both Mathematics and Economics observed that a number of textbooks existed, but that they covered different work. The particular teachers found it difficult to decide which textbook(s) to use, since the

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NCS for these subjects was not (in their opinion) specific enough on what is and what is not important for learners to know. The PGCE student in this case commented that this situation seemed to confuse the teacher and created a problem for the effective implementation of the curriculum. Another PGCE student (in Accounting), however, provided a different view on the matter:

Unfortunately the school had a very limited range of textbooks and the teacher only worked out of one textbook. This is very limiting to the learner as they get used to the way a certain textbook asks questions and do not develop their skills properly. Some teachers see the value of using different sources, as the following quotation from a Life Sciences teacher illustrates:

We make use of many different sources and are not bound to the textbook alone. This makes it possible for us to implement all facets in greater depth. A History teacher mentioned that at first few sources were available to teachers to help them implement the new NCS (Grades 10-12), but that as the sources gradually increased, so did teachers' confidence in implementing the curriculum. Despite the above-mentioned debate around the use of textbooks and other supplementary sources of information, textbooks seem to remain the primary learning resource used in all schools and in all subjects studied. Where resources are more readily available, teachers expect learners to complete assignments on computer, and search for information via the Internet. There was no indication, however, that teachers scrutinized the scholarly authority of the sources that were used, or that care was taken to sensitise learners to the dangers of plagiarism. Specific computer programmes were required in some subjects, such as Accounting, and learners completed assignments in school time at the computer centre of the school.

The influence of teachers' implementation practices on learners reaching learning outcomes in the new NCS

The previous school curriculum and teachers' experiences continue to influence the teaching and learning that take place in the schools included in the sample population, as one PGCE student in Business Studies observed:

The way in which the teacher handles the class also gives the impression that this is the way in which she has been teaching all her life and she's not that eager to change her style.

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A PGCE student in Economics also found that the particular teacher did not change her teaching style, but that she did find the level of work in the new NCS (grades 10-12) more challenging:

The teacher feels competent to implement the new curriculum effectively in her subject as she has been teaching Economics for 28 years and have gained a lot of experience in this field of study. She said she doesn't really do anything different to previous years. The emphasis is till placed on practical applications where the teacher needs to make use of good examples from the newspapers and case studies that are relevant to what the learners are being taught. The learner outcomes are the same, yet with more skills involved. The assessment standards are also similar to those in the previous systems. The teacher indicated that due to the changes in Economics in the new FET (Schools) curriculum, there were various challenges that had to be overcome during the implementation thereof. The greatest challenge is the fact that the work is on a university level and the learners battle to grasp all the concepts. The work is often too difficult for the learners to cope with and they also battle with having to do so much work in a short period of time. The majority of teachers were confident that they were able to readily implement the new NCS for Grades 10-12. Some teachers indicated that the predetermined learning outcomes and assessment standards set out for each subject facilitate effective implementation. However, PGCE student observations seemed to indicate that teachers' actual effectiveness in helping learners to reach the specified learning outcomes were not always effective. One PGCE student in Business Studies commented:

During the classes that were observed, it was obvious that the teacher had no plan to fully implement the outcomes. She simply read the content of the work from the book without much enthusiasm. The learners are expected to underline the important parts of the work for test and exam purposes. In the classes observed the teacher did not allow the learners to do group work which is one of the critical outcomes of FET education. Therefore most of the outcomes were difficult to achieve in the class because the teacher did not grant enough opportunity for it to happen. Another PGCE student in History added:

Learners expressed concerns for their university studies. The History curriculum was designed to prepare learners for such studies, although learners did not appear to make the connection between skills that they were taught in History and how these skills are used extensively at a university level.

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A number of student observations in a variety of subjects and schools pointed out that learners were more capable to reach learning outcomes that were concrete or practical in nature, while the more abstract the learning outcomes became, the less likely learners were to reach these outcomes. Learning outcomes in general seemed to be quite task-orientated and learners are often expected to complete assignments as groups based on their own search for information. A number of PGCE-students noted that once learning outcomes were included that were more theoretical and knowledge (fact) based that learners were expected to memorise, the learners became disinterested and they would be less likely to reach these outcomes. Even though aspects such as critical thinking and problem solving are specifically stated in the learning outcomes and assessment standards of the new NCS (General), teachers seem to vary in the extent to which they are able to implement the curricula to facilitate these developmental tasks and learners seem to vary in the extent to which they are able to reach these outcomes. One teacher in Mathematics seemed to find the content that had changed in the new NCS (Grades 10-12) for Mathematics quite difficult. She commented that she only knew the work in the textbooks and found it difficult to explain to the learners. Some language teachers seemed to focus more on creative work and others more on the acquisition of basic language skills. The results of De Fraine, Van Damme, Van Landeghem and Opdenakker (2003) are interesting in terms of language achievement. They found that class composition played a greater role in high school learners' language development in Belgium than how the learners were taught. Teachers in both Afrikaans and English commented that learners' oral skills seemed to be better developed than those of reading and writing. These teachers observed that sms-language has had an influence on learners' spelling abilities. Some learning outcomes may prove difficult to implement as there are emotive, religious and/or ethical nuances that need to be taken into account, for example introducing learners to theories of evolution and issues on HV/Aids, sexual health, and religious education. Different teachers in particularly Life Sciences commented specifically in this regard:

These learning outcomes pose some problems because they exist more on an ethical level. It is not always possible to find a connection between this and the knowledge that one is dealing with.

Applying scientific theories to society is not always easily done and often requires extra work from both the teacher and the learners. In Life Orientation, a PGCE student noted that the teacher focused more on the the disease of HIV/Aids that on how it related to the learners' lives. A History teacher commented that it was sometimes difficult to convey information in an objective manner without expressing the teacher's own opinion. The particular teacher

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indicated that it was important to teach learners the importance of having their own opinions despite the viewpoints of the teacher. Some PGCE students observed that teachers ignored these possibly contentious areas in the new NCS (Grades 10-12) and simply did not address it in class.

Teachers adapting the new NCS

Examples were also found of teachers adapting the curriculum according to their class's needs, the wider social context within which the school is situated, and the teacher's own prior knowledge and experience. Some examples include Life Orientation, History, Economics and Mathematical Literacy teachers who include socially relevant issues (such as the impact of HIV/Aids, high levels of unemployment, the interdependency of communities, and globalization) in the curriculum and facilitate regular class discussions on how these issues influence national and international economies ­ even though it may not be expected as such within the predetermined learning outcomes. A teacher in Mathematical Literacy noted: ...there is a lot more that can be done in class now without just using the textbook. Teachers in Life Orientation and Life Sciences commented on the regular excursions (to places such as various higher education institutions in the case of Life Orientation, and Tygerberg Hospital Medical Campus, the Two Oceans Aquarium, and Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens in the case of Life Sciences) organized as part of their teaching strategy. The Life Sciences teacher commented:

I try to organize regular outings to places that will interest learners and show them the relevancy of the subject of Life Sciences in the outside world. The teachers noted that these excursions often had to be funded by the learners' parents, as the school did not have the budget to accommodate these types of learning experiences. Teachers in Accounting and Mathematical Literacy added that these real world examples were helpful to the learners, but time consuming for the teacher who is already pressured to implement a new and very full curriculum. Sensitivity to learners' needs also seemed to influence the way in which the new NCS was implemented. A teacher in Mathematical Literacy in a previously disadvantaged school noted that she did not give the learners in her class homework, as many of them had either chores at home and/or part-time employment after school which limited their time for homework. She also said that many of her learners come from homes where learning is not valued and where parents may be illiterate or semi-literate. These learners' home environments were therefore not conducive to learning and their families would not be able to provide learning support as might be the case in schools situated in higher socio-economic areas. The progress through the curriculum in these classes tends to be slower and the teacher indicated that she sometimes struggled to complete all the expected work. She noted that the PGCE-student working with her initially questioned her particular approach and she

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had to explain her rationale ­ based on her years of experience ­ in order to prepare the student for future practice. An Afrikaans teacher added that learners are often not encouraged to read at home and their reading skills suffer as a result. She does not have enough time in class to develop these skills sufficiently. An Afrikaans and a History teacher also noted that they now used more time in class for learners to complete exercises and assignments than previously.

Assessment in the new NCS

Assessment seems to be a key element in the new NCS for Grades 10-12. The frequency of required assessment has increased which sometimes adds to the workload of teachers (who already feel overburdened) and shortens time available for teaching. Continuous assessment means that smaller components of work are assessed rather than larger volumes of work less regularly. Different forms of assessment seem to be more prevalent as a result of the new NCS (Grades 10-12), including class presentations, group work assignments, and simulations ­ above and beyond regular theoretical tests. Group work assignments are also assessed, but although some teachers found the more difficult to assess. The formative value of assessment tasks were questioned by some PGCE students, as most assessment tasks seem to be of a summative nature. A PGCE student in Life Orientation observed that the subject was seen as a free period and only at the end of a term learners were required to complete one assignment that formed part of their portfolio at the end of the year. Assessment seems to have become more process-driven, as a teacher in Mathematical Literacy explains:

It is important that the learner understands the concept of what he has done, even if the answer he gets in the end is wrong as long as his process of thinking to get there is correct. A PGCE student in History reported that the interviewed teacher noted changes in assessment as the main difference between the previous and current curricula. A teacher in Afrikaans noted the increased workload brought about by the introduction of portfolios, but added that the standardized rubrics that are provided for assessment facilitates objective and unbiased assessment of learning. Another Afrikaans teacher did, however, comment that the rubrics had limited value in the assessment of essays. The comments of teachers and PGCE students on assessment seem to indicate a current emphasis on group assessment and peer assessment practices in schools. One Afrikaans teacher was of the opinion that the emphasis on group assessment (also in the General Education and Training band) limits learners' ability to work in an independent, self-disciplined manner.

Teacher training offered to facilitate the implementation of the new NCS

Teachers were asked what training they had received to be able to implement the new curriculum in their subject.

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A PGCE student in History emphasized the importance of the knowledgeable and skilled teacher as facilitator of learning in reaching learning outcomes:

With the implementation of the new curriculum, learning materials were re-created. However, the fact that the teacher has to bring her own additional relevant sources to school could be a possible indication of the inadequacy of the supplied material. What has become evident is the importance of a well-trained and knowledgeable educator. The successful implementation of the curriculum in this class could be attributed largely to the teacher. The teacher was familiar not only with the historical content, but also with the curriculum itself. A PGCE student in Geography had a less positive view of the input from the teacher and emphasized the responsibility of the learners themselves in developing into independent students. Newly introduced subjects, such as Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation, provide unique challenges to teachers, as there are (in some cases) too few subject advisors, no previous question papers that can be used as a reference to indicate the level of difficulty the learner has to reach in order to pass Grade 12. Life Orientation is split in most schools where some teachers would take responsibility for Movement Education, and others would take learners for career guidance and citizen education. However, not all schools are in the position to make this distinction and teachers are expected to implement curriculum areas of Life Orientation for which they had not been trained. Teachers do seem to receive training by the provincial Department of Education to implement the new NCS (Grades 10-12). The training opportunities were usually in the form of weeklong sessions during (mostly winter) school holidays. Teachers' responses vary in the extent to which they found these training opportunities provided useful. It does not seem as if all teachers are required to attend these sessions. Some teachers indicated that they had not undergone any training in implementing the new NCS (Grades 10-12), but utilized teacher conferences and informal teacher networks to gain information and develop professionally. The teachers that did attend formal training sessions received resource packages, which the some teachers indicated were useful. Teachers indicated that the implementation of the new NCS (Grades 10-12) demanded extensive self-study and preparation from them. Some teachers have a positive experience these training sessions, while others were not as enthusiastic. Their apparent negativity could possibly be attributed to the fact that not all the teachers seemed to adapt equally well to the new curriculum and the approach followed during training sessions. Teachers in Mathematics and Economics noted that the emphasis during training fell on the general national documentation, rather than on the relevance and practical implications to subject areas in particular. Another teacher in Economics was quite critical of the training, and provided an indication that not all teachers may be equally well prepared to implement the new NCS (Grades 10-12). A teacher in English

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commented on the facilitators of such organized sessions as, "they come with an idea to share but they do not ask you what you need." A teacher in Life Sciences commented that training needed to be continuous, rather than a once-off introductory session, as constant changes necessitated that teacher kept up to date. Some teachers seem to resist the current constant state of flux in new (and still developing) curricula. This everchanging policy and curriculum landscape in which teachers have to conduct their profession was underscored by various teachers.

The profile of the learner who completed the new NCS

Teachers were asked to comment on the profile of the learners delivered after completion of the Grade 10-12 school curriculum in their particular subject, with specific reference to the aspects that could be of importance for study after completing school. Teachers were also asked to whether these competencies learners achieved were, in their opinion, adequate preparation for university education. One History teacher gave a concise overview of how the approach of the new NCS (Grades 10-12) related to the preparation of learners. The teacher acknowledged that differences exist between the previous and new curricula regarding the learning outcomes. The teacher elaborated on this point emphasizing that the outcomes have a far more practical nature and aid learners in developing life skills, such as research techniques and extended writing skills. According to the particular teacher, learners are also assessed on a more continuous basis with multiple opportunities for assessment. Assessment opportunities vary in nature and include presentations, research tasks, orals, and extended writing tasks. The teacher also noted that the new curriculum requires learners to master numerous different skills that are applicable across the spectrum of learning areas at school. She also added that learners are far more aware of which skills they are being taught and the rationale behind these skills. The new NCS (Grades 10-12) requires a holistic approach and focuses on researching skills as very important in the History classroom. Some teachers emphasized the importance placed upon the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills within the new NCS (Grades 10-12). A teacher in Accounting commented that she used to spoon feed learners more in the previous curriculum, while the new NCS (Grades 10-12) calls for learners to become critical thinkers. She said it would be better to let the learners struggle a little so that they could get to solutions themselves. She thought that letting learners solve problems themselves, they would become better prepared for university where she thought critical thinking was expected of all students. Some teachers added that the learners delivered from the new NCS (Grades 10-12) will have more skills than content knowledge, as one teacher in Mathematical Literacy specifically pointed out:

Mathematical Literacy is more skill-based and not content-based and the learners need to learn to apply skills to a variety of situations and contexts. However, teachers realise the importance of content, as one teacher in Mathematical Literacy noted:

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Mathematical Literacy is not just context based, it has to have content. Another teacher in Life Sciences noted that:

The content that needs to be covered during each of the FET grades have been rearranged in such a way that the topics that are dealt with do not always go together in the way that they used to. I feel that the arrangement of content was better in the previous curriculum. The emphasis on skills development in Mathematical Literacy may equip learners for responsible citizenship in society, but its contribution to preparing learners for higher education is debatable ­ as the following Mathematical Literacy teacher commented:

Mathematical Literacy may be too context-based and therefore learners may battle at varsity because it is more academically based and there is more content than Mathematical Literacy. Some teachers are of the opinion that new subjects, such as Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation, provide learners' with knowledge and skills that may not yet be valued by higher education institutions. One teacher in Mathematical Literacy emphasized the difference between Mathematical Literacy and Mathematics. He argued that Mathematical Literacy was not merely scaled down version of Mathematics, but the application of mathematical concepts in context. He was worried that Mathematical Literacy was not as yet recognized by universities to give learners access to particular programmes. A PGCE student in Mathematical Literacy at another school made some interesting comments in this regard:

The Mathematical Literacy curriculum for Grade 10 is being implemented at a superficial level. The teacher mostly makes use of the textbook to find examples and does not design his own worksheets with relevant contexts such as global warming or oil prices. During the time of the observational study the learners never interacted with the material in such a way as to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical concepts. The competencies that learners reach in this subject are not adequate preparation for study at university in a mathematical degree. However, this is in accordance with the National Curriculum Statement for Mathematical Literacy because the purpose is only to give learners the tools to use mathematics in their everyday lives and not to prepare them for university studies.

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Another Mathematical Literacy teacher commented on the misconception that Mathematics is a prerequisite for all programmes at university and emphasized that the strength of Mathematical Literacy lies in the skills learners are equipped with, namely analyzing problems, and reading for problem solving. In Life Orientation ­ another new subject in the FET band ­ a variety of skills are supposedly developed. PGCE students, however, noted that whilst the new NCS (Grades 10-12) emphasized the development of these skills, learners were often not able to repeat problem solving strategies done in class with the teacher, or completed on their own as homework. Learners also seemed to have problems with learning skills and conceptualizing answers to longer essay-type questions. The problems related to the new NCS (Grades 10-12) seem to be related to the volume of work expected in most cases and the level of work in some cases. A teacher in Accounting commented:

The teacher felt that the idea behind the new school curriculum was very good and that there was nothing holding learners back from university if the complete the programme successfully. The biggest problem is not the standard of the school work but if the learners have enough time to complete the work. So they might not be prepared for university, not because the standard of the work was too low, but because they didn't get through all the facets of the school curriculum. A teacher in Accounting commented that one needs to take into account the relative novely of the new NCS (Grades10-12) and that it would take time to refine. She added:

Teachers should be patient in letting it settle down and not lose hope. A teacher in Life Sciences commented that the preparedness of learners for further studies was dependent upon the particular school they had attended:

Die skool waar die leerder studeer het sal dit bepaal. Die standaarde in sommige skole is heelwat laer en die studente gaan die aanpassing op universiteit baie moeilik vind. Another PGCE student in a school that was well-resourced had quite a different experience, as noted in the quotation below:

Teachers at the school are aware of the importance of the subject of Life Orientation, specifically in terms of the school's approach to preparing learners (Grades 10-12) for study after school. The school's approach has shown positive results. The

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approach is well-structured with the learner being given added responsibilities. Through this approach the learner is prepared for the real world of work and study. The school really does see studying after school as something that a learner must be personally prepared for and aware of from a young age. Learners complete tasks, worksheets and a test known as PACE on the computer already in Grade 9. These assessments are used to assist the learner in their subject choice, which is necessary for each learner before they start Grade 10. These choices are done in line with the career they are considering. Some PGCE students observed that classes had on average more than 45 learners, which hampered individual attention. These students commented that the demands of the new NCS (Grades 10-12) could not easily be met in such large classes. A teacher in Afrikaans concurred with this statement and added that learners seemed to have poorly developed reading and writing skills, and that basic language skills were neglected not only within the new NCS (Grades 10-12), but also within the GET-band. This is worrying, since Adelman (2004) found that 70% of students in the United States of America who had to follow a remedial reading course when entering higher education did not complete their chosen academic programme within eight years of initial registration. Another teacher (in Life Sciences) emphasised the role of the university in the process of adapting to the new NCS (Grades 10-12):

There is still a big gap between Grade 12 learners and the university. Universities need to adapt their syllabi to bridge the gap between Grade 12 learners and the university. This notion of the quality and standards of work achieved at the school level holds far-reaching implications for higher education. The Achieve report (2006) note that the quality of high school preparation is not always aligned with what higher education institutions expect. The interviews and observations reported in the data suggest that the new NCS (Grades 10-12) has aimed to standardise curriculum through a national policy which had not previously existed. However, the reported practices in schools seem to indicate that the actual interpretation and implementation of curricula differs as a result of teacher ability and aptitude, the access schools have to resources, and the academic background of learners with which they enter the FET-band. It can therefore be expected that the school system will deliver learners with varying preparedness for study in higher education. Learner questionnaire A questionnaire aimed at determining Grade 10-11 learners' perceptions of preparedness for life after completing school was developed and administered by the PGCE-class of 2007 during their practice teaching in

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Western Cape secondary schools. A total of 1465 learners completed the questionnaire, with the following distribution between Grades 10 and eleven: Table 1: Respondent distribution between Grades 10 and 11 Number of respondents Grade 10 Grade 11 Total 805 660 1465 Percentage of total sample population 54.95 45.05 100.00

The slightly higher percentage of Grade 10 learners in the sample population is indicative of various factors at play in schools. Firstly, in-service teachers are prone to place (pre-service) student-teachers in lower grades. The project stipulations specified that the PGCE students had to conduct their fieldwork in either a grade 10 or 11 class, and therefore it could be expected that there would be more Grade 10 learners than Grade 11 learners represented in the sample due to this factor. Secondly, the PGCE students where allowed to choose a class of learners and their teacher to include in their investigation according to their curriculum specialisation area, as well as their rapport with the particular teacher and class. It was assumed that the PGCE-student would feel more confident to conduct the study in an environment where he/she felt at ease. In the third place, national Department of Education stipulations demanded a formal examination of all Grade 11 learners nationwide. PGCE students therefore had less access to Grade 11 classes. It is furthermore the first year that the new National Curriculum Statement for Grade 11 is implemented in schools, while curriculum implementation in Grade 10 classes is in its second year. Teachers may have felt uncertain themselves and therefore reluctant to let PGCE students use Grade 11 classes as their study group. The sample was drawn from a number of subjects, as PGCE-students were expected to select one of their curriculum specialisation areas in which to conduct the study. The researchers argued that learners may have felt more at ease in completing the questionnaire with a student-teacher to whom they had grown accustomed in class, and that student-teachers would have easier access to these classes and teachers for the purposes of administering the questionnaire, conducting an interview, and observing the classes. If all three these research tasks were aligned in one subject, this coherence in research design was expected to facilitate triangulation, which was the case. Table 2 provides an overview of the subjects included.

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Table 2: Numbers of respondents per subject per grade Number of Grade 10 respondents 82 106 41 11 70 19 64 27 15 19 51 14 20 0 18 9 239 805 Number of Grade 11 respondents 41 73 0 0 104 0 14 20 23 0 0 26 54 39 0 0 266 660 Total 123 179 41 11 174 19 78 47 38 19 51 40 74 39 18 9 505 1465 Percentage of total sample population 8.40 12.22 2.80 0.75 11.88 1.30 5.32 3.21 2.59 1.30 3.48 2.73 5.05 2.66 1.23 0.61 34.47 100.00

English Afrikaans Xhosa German Life Sciences Physical Science Mathematical Literacy Mathematics Accounting Business studies Economics Geography History Drama Arts and Culture Design Life Orientation TOTAL

Table 2 again points out the greater prevalence of Grade 10 versus Grade 11 representation, which was discussed in greater depth earlier. The relatively high representation of Life Orientation in the sample may be partly due to the relatively large percentage of PGCE students who have Life Orientation as an elective curriculum specialisation area. This may explain the relatively low incidence of other subject areas in the sample (such as Mathematics and Physical Science). One also has to take into account the fact that some subjects may not be presented at certain schools, even though care was taken to place PGCE students at schools where their curriculum specialisation areas would be presented as school subjects.

Learners' current use of technology

Technology has become an integral part of life in general and computers become increasingly integrated into undergraduate study. It is therefore important to know to which extent learners have been exposed to computer technology prior to entry into higher education. The questionnaire inquired whether respondents had access to a computer at home by means of a yes/no closed question. Table 4 provides an overview of the results obtained. Table 4: Respondents' access to home computers Number of responses Yes No 1320 143 Percentage 90.10 9.76

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No response TOTAL

2 1465

0.14 100.00

Table 4 indicates that the vast majority of respondents (90.1%) reported to have access to a home computer. Respondents were then asked for what purposes they used home computers. Predetermined categories that were supplied included using the computer for the completion of school assignments, the gathering of information from the Internet for school assignments, playing computer games, surfing the Internet for nonacademic purposes and an "other" category (in which respondents were asked to specify their answers). Table 5 provides the results indicating respondents' use of home computers.

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Table 5: Respondents' use of home computers Number of respondents Completion of school assignments Gathering of information from the Internet for school assignments Playing computer games Surfing the Internet for non-academic purposes Other 1232 1093 799 784 421 Percentage 84.10 74.61 54.54 53.52 28.74

The uses of home computers specified in the "other" category related mainly to ways of maintaining contact with friends and family through email and other communication media such as online chatrooms, Facebook, msn, Mixit, and Myspace. This corresponds to the finding of Krause, Hartley, James and McInnis (2005) who found that students increasingly use electronic communication media and software. Computers were also reportedly used to listen to or download music, watch and/or download movies, digital photo production or downloading visual material, online shopping, and conducting personal administrative tasks. Less prevalent, although also notable, uses of home computers included were computer programming, digital drawing, searching for jobs, and self-study of personal interests. The above-mentioned results indicate that learners seem to have widespread access to computers even beyond the school walls, and that they use computers extensively for both academic and non-academic tasks.

Respondents' future plans

The questionnaire inquired whether Grade 10-11 learners planned to attend a university by means of a yes/no closed response question. The unrefined results (Table 4.4) suggest that the vast majority of the questioned learners plan to attend a university in future. This corresponds to the work of Choy (1999), who found that nine out of ten of high school completers plan to continue their education after school.

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Table 3: Respondents planning to attend a university Number of respondents Yes No TOTAL 1308 157 1465 Percentage 89.28 10.72 100

The results presented in Table 3 should, however, be interpreted with care as they may present a skewed picture of the reality. Even though the vast majority of learners questioned indicated that they intended going to a university, a much smaller percentage may be expected to eventually enter the higher education system, and an even smaller percentage is expected to complete their chosen programmes of study. PGCE students observed that whilst many learners indicated that they wanted to attend a university after school, they did not have either the needed subject combinations, or high enough marks (or both) to be accepted into a university. Pike and Saupe (2002) found high school grades as the strongest predictor of first-year students' grades, and this observation is therefore noteworthy. Some respondents themselves indicated in the questionnaires that they worried whether their subject choices and/or marks would allow them to be accepted for university studies. Quite a number of respondents also indicated intended future areas of study or professions not normally catered for within a traditional university environment when asked what they plan to study if they intended to go to a university (for example becoming an air hostess, or dancer, or studying tourism and hospitality, carpentry, plumbing, photography, events planning, or beauty therapy). This trend may indicate that these learners are not well informed on what universities can offer them, or what university studies entail. Schilling and Schilling (1999) also found that many students enter higher education with uninformed expectations. These students are often "disengaged" from the learning process, and have acquired a cumulative deficit in terms of attitudes, study habits, and academic skills (Levine & Cureton, 1998; McCarthy & Kuh, 2006; Marchese, 1997, 1998; National Survey of Student Engagement, 2005). If the dataset is filtered in order to omit these invalid responses, the results are quite different (N=1155). Figure 2 provides a graphic overview of these respondents' preferences for future studies at a university.

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30 Percentage of valid responses 25 20 15 10 5 0

om m er ce En gi ne Ar er ts Ar in ch an g ite d So ch tu cia re lS ci en ce s Jo ur na Ag li s ri c m ul tu ra la La nd w Sc ve ie te nc na es ry sc ie nc Sp es or ts ci H en ea ce l th Sc ie nc es IT Ed uc at io n M us ic Sc ie nc es U nc er ta in ta ry

C

Preferred area of study

Figure 2: Respondents' preferred areas of future studies at a university Figure 2 provides a broad overview of areas of interest for future study that could be catered for at a traditional university expressed by grade 10 and 11 learners included in the questionnaire sample (N=1155). It indicates that Commerce (including more specific fields such as accounting, marketing, economics, entrepreneurship and business management) was the most preferred area of study as 24.59% (n=284). Arts and Social Sciences (including psychology, social work, drama, languages, political studies, international studies, fine arts, graphic design, geography and history) was the preferred area of future studies for 15.41% of the respondents (n=178). Study in Health Sciences (including medicine, dietetics, physiotherapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, dentistry and nursing) was planned by 10.22% of the respondents (n=118) that indicated they wanted to further their studies at a university. Engineering was preferred in 7.79% of the valid responses (n=90), whilst 7.19% of the respondents (n=83) wanted to study Law in future. A total of 4.94% of the respondents (n=57) plan to study Sport Science and 4.76% of the respondents (n=55) want to continue their education in Agricultural and vetenary sciences (including wine-making, agricultural management, conservation and wildlife management, and vetenary science). Only 3.64% of the respondents (n=42) planned future study in the Sciences, and these responses were mainly centred within the biological sciences. It was interesting to note that 3.03% of the respondents (n=35) wanted to study Architecture in future and 2.25% of the respondents (n=26) wanted to eventually become journalists. A total of 1.73% of the respondents (n=20) wanted to continue their studies in Information Technology (IT), and another 1, 73% of the respondents (n=20) wanted to study music. Only 1.65%

M i li

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of the respondents (n=19) wanted to study Education and 0.26% of the respondents (n=3) wanted to study in the Military Sciences. These figures have to be interpreted with the understanding that respondents' indications of further study may be tentative at this stage, as many learners may still change their minds before leaving school at the end of Grade 12. This trend is evident in the 10.82% of respondents (n=125) who indicated that they were uncertain about what to study in future, but that they did want to go to university. The respondents who indicated that they did not plan to attend a university were mostly interested in furthering their studies at a further education and training colleges or other vocational institutions, starting a job (quite often in a family business), starting a business as an entrepreneur, working overseas as part of a gap year, or becoming a professional sportsman/-woman. The most preferred vocational career paths indicated were careers in tourism and hospitality, events planning, culinary arts, beauty therapy, photography, public relations, fashion and interior design.

Respondents' general views on the future

Respondents were asked what they were most worried about in terms of life after completing school. The most notable themes that emerged from the data included respondents' concerns about their future studies ­ such as choosing the right career option, obtaining entry into a higher education institution, affording tuition fees, coping with the degree of difficulty and workload within their chosen field of study, and coping with social pressures and challenges at university ­ as expressed in the following quotations (all quotations are directly copied from the questionnaires without any corrections for language or spelling):

I'm worried about my marks and my school work so far it doesn't look good it might cause me my career if I don't pull up my socks and start working to achieve my goal. Grade 10 learner in Life Orientation

My school marks. I'm taking Accounting at the moment and I know it's got nothing to do with what I want to study after school. My marks are brought down a lot by Accounting, thus my average is poor. So I'm worried that I can't get into a University. Grade 11 learner in Accounting

That if I don't study well, I won't get university entrance. And I also worry that if all doesn't go well I will be poor. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

I'm very worried about my marks not being good enough to be accepted into university. I'm also worried about not having enough money to study. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

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I am worried that I'll choose the wrong course of study. It is a really important decision and I am worried that I make a mistake. Grade 10 learner in English

I'm worried about the career I chose maybe it not what I want and I end up not knowing what I want in life. I'm scared of all responsibility when it comes to living on my own, money if I can't find a job. Grade 11 learner in History

That I will make the right decision about what to do after school. I want to be happy, not necessarily rich. Grade 11 learner in Drama

Acceptance into university/res. Being able to afford tuition fees. Will I be able to cope with the work? Grade 11 learner in Drama

Admission requirements and the uncertainty about them at university level, because things are constantly changing. Grade 11 learner in Economics

The workload. I know many people who are studying at the moment and I wonder if I will be ready for that. Grade 10 learner in English

I am worried about how much pressure there will be in university and how much work we going to actually get. Grade 10 learner in History

Not getting into the university course I want to. Not living up to the expectations of my family and ending up disappointing them. That I will end up doing something that I am not passionate about. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

I am most worried about doing something I don't enjoy ­ I cannot stand the thought that I might get stuck in a job I hate and have regrets. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

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Getting into a course I want to do, making into a good uni, my degree being accepted for jobs (in other countries) Grade 11 learner in Life Sciences These and other respondents were also concerned about aspects of life after completing their studies. Responses generally related to finding employment, being financially secure, and being able to support a family. The following responses are indicative of these respondents' concerns regarding their futures:

Finding a job because I know a lot of people who are overqualified which can't find a job and after that the future of my children. Grade 10 Mathematical Literacy

I'm worried that it will take too long to make enough money to sustain an independent lifestyle (before marriage). I'm worried that I would not have the opportunity to study even further later in life. Grade 11 learner in English

Not getting in in university. Not being able to live a life I'm planning. And will I be able to survive without my parents support? Grade 10 learner in Accounting

Not being able to secure a secure and decent job. If I am in a low paying job I would probably not be able to survive because now as a teenager I am used to my parents providng me with lucsuries and I would probably need to earn 40 00 rand per month to have a comfortable life and retire with no worries. Grade 10 learner in Business Studies The above-mentioned responses also indicate that learners are well aware of the context within which they will find themselves as adults. Some respondents worried about the adjustments required when moving from childhood to adulthood in general. Tinto (1993) postulates that first-year students need to separate from the their associated social groups such as family members and school peers and undergo a period of transition in which they have to interact in new ways with the members of the new group into which they need to be socialized, and incorporate or adopt the values and behaviours of the new group (with reference to the university culture). Successful students are those who can effectively distance themselves from their family or community of origin and adopt the values and the behavioural patterns that of the new environment in which they find themselves. Perna and Titus (2005), however, emphasised the importance of family support in student success and which must therefore not be devalued even if the student moves to a more independent or different state of being. Coping with independence, and making new friends were also notable concerns. The challenges and

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opportunities in South Africa in particular were noted by a group of respondents who worried about coping as an individual within the broader South African socio-economic and political context. The latter concern is noted as the schools where the study was conducted are feeder schools for Stellenbosch University and the university as institution within the broader South African society may need to be sensitive in terms of its future entrants' view of their place in the country and the world at large. The following quotations were amongst those noted within this particular theme:

Well all I'm really worried about is the responsibility you are given. Also the fact that you are no longer considered a child Grade 10 learner in Accounting

Not being successful in my job or studying. Being a drop-out or a failure. Not knowing how to cope in the "real world". Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

South Africa's crime rate and job opportunity in the face of affirmative action. I'm also worried I don't succeed or even get to do I want to do. Grade 10 learner in English

The stress and anxiety of a career and having to provide for myself. Not being able to succeed. Moving out of the house to live on my own. Falling in love with the wrong guy. Grade 10 learner in English

Think of the increasing unemployment rate. What would happen to me if I am qualified but not accepted anywhere that is if I do not get a bursary. BEE ­ choose other people that might not have the qualifications prior to me. Global warming! Grade 10 learner in English Some responses provided evidence of an entrepreneurial spirit amongst the future working population of South African, as the following responses suggest:

Not getting enough capital to start my businesses. Going to another province like Jozi where I know nobody and having to start afresh. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation Respondents were also asked what they felt the most confident about concerning life after completing their school careers. Responses indicated that respondents were most confident about their own abilities (in a variety of aspects) to succeed in life. Rendon (1995) found that the most important indicators of Latino student success

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include believing in one's ability to perform in college, believing in one's capacity as a learner, being excited about learning, and feeling cared about as a student and a person. The following responses indicate a similar sense of self-confidence that the South African learners studied have in their own abilities:

My sporting abilities and passion to get as far as possible. I know that I am determined and I am confident about my lifestyle, friendships and my future family. Grade 10 learner in Life Orientation

I'm confident about myself being the fact that I learn things fast and I can be very quiet sometimes which I know is not a good thing but I'm very self-confident. Grade 10 learner in Life Orientation

The way I communicate and strive towards achieving what I want. Although I might make mistakes ­ Failure and mistakes are rehearsals for success. Can always change my life if not happy.. Grade 10 learner in English

My ability to work with people. Understanding of people. Confident about my way of thinking. Confident of how I handle many situations. Grade 11 learner in Accounting Other respondents' prior knowledge and education seemed to give them a sense of confidence about the future:

Knowing that I have at least a matric education. Knowing I can depend on family and friends. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

The fact that I already have an idea about the systems in the university and the `ruthlessness' of the lecturers. Grade 11 learner in English These responses are indicative of a strong internal locus of control and if lecturers are capable to facilitate learning based on this sense of self-confidence rooted in the individual's inherent beliefs about themselves, it may result in independent, self-directed and self-motivated development. More in-depth studies may be needed to explore the identity and sense of self-confidence of first-year students entering the higher education system. Knowing they wanted to study and having financial security also provided confidence in the future to some respondents, as noted in the following quotations:

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That I will enter varsity and study Law. That I will open at least one business in the future. That I will make my parents proud. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

Making money and where I'm going to end up. I don't want to work so hard to create a lifestyle for myself and then at the age of 40 or 30 have nothing else but a routine to follow and no real life. Grade 11 learner in History

I'm confident about the job I want to do when I finish studying and the type of business I want to open up. Grade 11 learner in History

I'll definitely get a job very quickly. And my physics and maths is excellent. So if my public speaking fails me I'll become a technician. Grade 10 learner in English A positive outlook on South Africa's future was also noted as an aspect that provided confidence in the future:

If I want something I go after it. I also know our country will improve and we will develop our hidden potential. Grade 10 learner in Xhosa

I'm confident that good opportunities will come about and that my good friends will stay with me and support me. Grade 10 learner in English

That I'm different and will create and business and designs that will benefit the market and peoples needs. That I thrive on the "fast-paced" life (Joburg). I can handle stress, work under pressure. I will succeed with full contentment. Grade 10 learner in English Respondents were asked what they looked forward to most after completing school. Understanding what students expect of and from their university experience is imperative for higher education institutions to develop policies and practices that effectively address students' learning needs (Miller, Kuh, Paine & Associates, 2005). Independence and personal freedom featured most prominently in the responses received:

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Being "legal" and the challenge of being independent excites me. Grade 10 learner in Life Orientation

Being able to plan my own life and make my own choices. Grade 11 Learner in Life Orientation

Having MY own money to buy the things I love. Having a sense of freedom. Grade 10 learner in English Tinto (1993) indicates that both academic and social integration is necessary for eventual student success, and follow-up studies (as reported in Braxton, Sullivan and Johnson, 1997) found that social integration seemed to be an even more robust predictor of persistence at university than academic integration. The social experience that students have at university should therefore not be devalued. Some respondents did, however, indicate that they looked forward to the intellectual stimulation they hoped would be fostered at university:

The content of the work. School work is boring compared to university work. Grade 10 learner in English

Getting started with a degree that will one day be my profession. . Grade 11 learner in English

Knowing that my research could help some day. Grade 11 learner in Mathematics Other respondents mainly looked forward to the social aspects of university life:

My ability to go places, make contacts and opportunities. Grade 11 learner in History

Making new friends and enjoying a new independent lifestyle. Grade 10 learner in English "A large part of the impact of college is determined by the extent and content of one's interactions with major agents of socialization on campus, namely, faculty members and student peers" (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991: 620). Astin (1993: 398) found that peers are "the single most potent source of influence," affecting virtually every aspect of development--cognitive, affective, psychological, and behavioural. Therefore residential and commuting students may experience university life differently and this difference may have an influence on the interactions that students have with lecturers and peers. Student interaction with peers can positively influence

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overall academic development, knowledge acquisition, analytical and problem-solving skills, and self-esteem (Kuh, 1993, 1995). Some respondents had a long term vision in which financial independence, eventual job satisfaction, and a family life were noted as aspects they looked forward to, as indicated in the following responses:

Getting my first pay cheque as a qualified CA Grade 11 learner in Accounting

Being in court and studying Law. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

Studying. Being able to work and not to be dependent of my parents. Paying for my own needs and luxuries. Grade 10 learner in English The data suggests that the respondents ­ current school learners in Grades 10 and 11 ­ are contextually aware citizens who have legitimate concerns about their futures amidst the rapidly changing global environment and challenges relating to South Africa in particular. However, these concerns do not seem to stifle their sence of confidence in the future and their excitement about entering adulthood. Universities are faced with the challenge to foster this confidence and excitement whilst preparing students for the world of work. Dweck (2000) found that learners' views on their own beliefs could be altered by structuring early learning experiences in a new subject by starting with what students are good at.

The perceived influence of school preparation on respondents' future plans

The questionnaire concluded with questions on learners' perceptions of how their school experience prepared them for life after completing their school careers. Learners included in the sample were asked what in school they perceived prevent them from reaching their dreams. The results indicate there are various factors that learners perceive as hindrances to their future successes ­ most notably academic relevance and processes:

Non lateral thinking approach to education. No independence allowed. Pointless schoolwork for many subjects. Grade 11 learner in Afrikaans

Sometimes I feel as if what we're learning at school is irrelevant to what I want to do with my life. Grade 10 learner in Life Sciences

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Time ­ we spend so much time doing pointless things. My friends and I once added up that if we compounded all the work we do in one week we could do it all in 2 days. That's 3 days of six hours we do useless things and waste time. Grade 11 learner in History

I feel the school doesn't recognise very talented students and it sometimes holds them back by working extremely slow. I think SA's education system sucks. Grade 10 learner in English Some responses referred specifically to the new National Curriculum Statement:

The over filled syllabus ­ makes it hard for us to learn and know work well and the bad planning by government Grade 10 learner in Life Sciences

The new FET system as we don't have sufficient time to complete our work (syllabus) properly. Therfore my marks aren't as good as I'd hoped. Grade 11 learner in Accounting Subject choice and related academic performance was noted by a number of respondents as a perceived limiting factor in preparing learners for life after school:

I didn't have a choice in my subjects so I have some subjects that I don not enjoy or have any interest in. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

@ the moment 2 of my subjects are not helping me and I might not get an examination next year if I don't get better marks. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation

The subject choice (the grouping). There are some subjects that I would like to take but it is not possible. Grade 10 learner in English

In some schools the variety of subjects is very limited. This might make it difficult to get into your dream course of study because the correct subjects were not provided. Grade 10 learner in English

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The fact that I'm nearly 19 and I can't start living my own life. I'm tired of being pulled back here. I just want to go to varsity and do what I want to do. Grade 11 learner in History Teachers, the class environment, school resources, and learners' academic performance seem to play an integral role in the preparation of learners for life after school. Learners may perceive the contribution teachers make to their lives in a negative light, as the following responses indicate:

If teachers strike or there's not enough qualified teachers Grade 10 learner in Accounting

Some of the teachers I consider a bit lazy in terms of extra work. I suppose its our own responsibility to do extra work (exercises not in normal handbooks/extra classes). Grade 11 learner in English Teachers seem to play a determining role in forming learners' futures, and teachers may detract from learners' aspirations when their expectations for their learners are lower that those of parents or the learners themselves (US Department of Education, 2004). Besides teachers, friends and family and the home environment seem to be determining influences in learners' lives. Extra-curricular activities and the social context of the school were also noted by respondents as a factor that needs to be considered when investigating learner preparedness. The respondents were also asked what in school they perceived helped them to reach their dreams. The wider educational processes beyond the boundaries of curricula that take place in schools were noted by some respondents as perceived facilitating factors in their future success. Subject choices were added to the list of facilitating factors. Some respondents perceived specific subjects as helping them to realise their dreams:

I take music and science which gives me a choice if I change my mind later. It would've been really nice if drama was accessible. Grade 10 learner in English

My English and Maths marks because those are the two major subjects that I need to do Law. Grade 11 learner in Life Orientation Teachers were noted as strong perceived influence on learners, as the following responses indicate:

Teachers. They teach me & my academic achievements through them is the key to my dreams.

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Grade 10 learner in Accounting

Teachers who motivate; when doing assignments learning new things; discovering my talents. Grade 10 learner in English The data suggests that learners use and combine various sources to inform and help prepare them for life in adulthood. If the university environment is able to sustain at least some of the support structures that learners evidently utilise in their quest for success, they may be able to help the first-year student adapt into the new academic environment. 4.3 CONCLUSION

When looking critically at the implementation of the new NCS (Grades 10-12), it is important to understand that curriculum is not a static entity and that it evolves constantly over time. This initial investigation into the implementation of the new NCS (Grades 10-12) is therefore context and time dependent and may change as lessons are learnt and changes are made in the implementation process. The new era in South African school education, which is capped by the new NCS (Grades 10-12), have lead teachers to reconsider their education practices and learning material. Teachers in this study, however, seem to have a varying capacity to innovate and renew. Therefore it can be expected that a hybrid curriculum consisting of both old and new elements will result in schools and feed into higher education. First-year students who have come through this new curriculum may therefore vary in the extent to which they are able to realise the outcomes envisioned by the new NCS (grades 10-12). Learners themselves seem to be excited by prospects of future study, but they may not have realistic expectations of what traditional universities are able to offer them, and whether they will be able to meet the access demands of these institutions. The questionnaire data suggests that current Grade 10-11 learners in the sample are aware of the South African context within which they will enter the world oof work. Many learners want to use a university education as a passport to enter this world on a higher socio-economic level. They are worried about not finding employment, being disadvantaged in this regard, and not being able to make ends meet. University studies are seen as more of a vocational preparation than a resource for liberal development. These learners will most probably bring an interesting array of skills with them into higher education. The new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) seems to focus less on content knowledge, but emphasises the holistic development of the learner. The ability to work in a group, source information and access a variety of media sources, take part in interactive discussions, and using a computer to complete tasks form part of this

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holistic approach to learner development. However, it would be imprudent to assume that all learners entering higher education as first-year students have mastered these skills equally well. The PGCE group of 2006 were asked for suggestions on how the university as institution could address the needs of first-year students. A call for greater involvement of higher education institutions in the school environment was noted in the responses. It was suggested that the involvement takes the form of continuous teacher development, the continuation of open days for learners and the possibility of shadowing ­ where prospective learners get the opportunity to spend a day with a student volunteer on campus in the study area they intend to follow. It was also suggested that Grade 12 learners of feeder schools could become involved in university projects, which they would learn more about the university environment in general and possible career choices. Some students indicated that learners need more information on career choices when embarking on their university careers and more information on career choices. Some students were of the opinion that the university should demand reading comprehension before accepting a first-year student. Extra classes presented at schools by the university in order to prepare learners were suggested. Some students also advised that the university should investigate the correspondence between FET (Schools) curricula and that of first-year modules. In the development of first-year modules, there was a call for so-called "bridging courses" before the start of learners' first year of university study and compulsory modules in languages, logic and Mathematics. A focus on the development of critical thinking skills, self-discipline, study management and dealing with a large workload were also mentioned as generic skills that learners may need to develop once they enter the higher education environment, and that it cannot be assumed that all first-year students would have had the opportunity to develop these skills. The first-year orientation was mentioned in some responses. An emphasis on the available facilities, the importance of class attendance, explaining the meaning of individual responsibility and an emphasis on the importance of information given during the orientation were perceived to be aspects that needed to be addressed. The importance of academic support and especially the First-year Academy was noted in some responses. The continuation of workshops ­ specifically on time and stress management and writing ­ was emphasized in some responses. The value of counseling services, and the mentor system was mentioned. In some cases students thought the tutor system could be improved (it was unclear whether there was a distinction between the mentoring system and faculty-specific tutor systems). There seemed to be a perceived need for a space for student complaints and feedback on where changes were made. There was a general call for the improvement of communication on campus. The importance of teaching and learning at the first-year level is notable in the responses obtained from the PGCE students. They provided the following general suggestions for effective teaching and learning at the firstyear level:

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· · · · · · ·

Provide summarized introduction to module components Provide study guides Smaller student to lecturer ratio Encourage study groups Make use of tutorials Do revision WebStudies is making a positive difference

The next chapter (Chapter 5) will provide a brief discussion on the implications of the study for higher education in terms of access, curriculum design and assessment, teaching methods, and lecturer support.

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CHAPTER 5: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION

Changes in national education policies influence all sectors of education in South Africa. Schools are particularly affected by the implementation of the General Education and Training (GET) and Further Education and Training (FET) bands ­ entailing new and changed curricula and subjects. Higher education institutions cannot ignore these changes, as the students who will enter these institutions from 2009 onwards may have a different set of knowledge, skills and attitudes to their predecessors. Lecturers at universities therefore need to take note of the expected changes in the future student population ­ especially at the first-year level. What do the changes at school level imply for us as lecturers at Stellenbosch University? The Centre for Teaching and Learning (CTL) has commissioned a research project to investigate the present and future trends in terms of the academic profiles of first-year students at Stellenbosch University. The primary aim of the project was to provide lecturers of first-year modules and planners of foundation programmes with insight into the academic trends and practices of first-year students towards whom the university curriculum is directed, in order to enhance student success. This project included a variety of activities. The project commenced by investigating the current realities of the first-year experience. First-year students' perceptions of academic preparedness were investigated by means of a questionnaire, followed by focus groups, in various first-year modules across faculties at Stellenbosch University6. Lecturers of the Department of Curriculum Studies (Faculty of Education) conducted an analysis of the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 documents in various subject areas and provided input on this topic at the CTL Spring Academy in November 2007. The Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students added to our understanding of the current implementation of the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 in schools in the Western Cape by triangulating data through administering questionnaires to learners, interviewing teachers, and observing classes in Grades 10-11 in a variety of subject areas. What did we learn from these initiatives that could be of use to lecturers of particularly first-year modules? The following discussion provides a summary of the findings and suggests possible implications for teaching and learning in first-year classes in terms of access, curriculum design and assessment, teaching methods, and lecturer support. . 5.2 ACCESS

The responses from Grade 10-11 learners in the study suggest that not all learners are well-informed in terms of what a traditional university ­ such as Stellenbosch University ­ can offer them. Systems that inform learners upon application about access criteria and possible programmes are already in place via the normal application

6

Current first-year students were included, even though they had completed the previous curriculum at school. However, their perceptions are of importance as first-year perceptions on academic accessibility are not only influenced by the curriculum they followed at school. Furthermore, many of the same teachers who taught the previous curriculum are now implementing the new FET (Schools) policy.

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and registration systems. Various South African universities, including Stellenbosch University, are in the process of standardising and formalising higher education specific admission tests that may facilitate the identification of suitable university candidates from the applicants. A reconsideration of university admission requirements does not seem to be unique to South Africa, as Bakker (2001) reports on similar initiatives in France, Italy, Israel, The Netherlands, Slovania and the United States of America. Admission tests alone may, however, not be sufficient to facilitate effective learning and student throughput at especially the first-year level. Ideally, administrators, support staff and lecturers must share the responsibility of channelling and developing intellectual potential in the most appropriate academic direction. Lecturers will need to be aware of the apparent varying levels of discipline-specific knowledge and skills of the first-year students entering the system from the FET-band in 2009. First-year students who gain entry into the university system may not have had the same access to learning resources, school and home environments that are conducive to learning, computer facilities, as well as trained and capable teachers. They may therefore not have reached the envisioned outcomes of the NCS (Grades 10-12) in general, or those specified in the various learning areas and subjects, to the same extent in all cases. Lecturers may need to interpret the data obtained in admission tests, registration information (including demographics, school attended, performance in relevant school subjects ­ much of which can be obtained from class lists), and the Tracking System to know where a particular aggregate of first-year entrants may be lacking the necessary knowledge, skills and/or attitudes, and what their capabilities are. This may facilitate the design of appropriate curriculum and assessment opportunities. 5.3 CURRICULUM DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT

The new FET (Schools) policy informs the National Curriculum Statements for Grades 10-12. The rationale underpinning these educational reforms may lead to learners emerging from the school system with knowledge, skills and attitudes different to their predecessors. Lecturers may therefore have to reconsider the curriculum design and assessment in first-year modules if the potential of these prospective students are to be realized. The new National Curriculum Statement provides a useful point of departure for lecturers of first-year modules. For the first time in South African history a nationally standardized curriculum exists at this level, which enables lecturers to know the content, learning outcomes, and assessment standards across the board for students coming from all South African provinces. This is a major advantage of the educational reforms that higher education institutions could use to their advantage. Policy provides the framework for practice. The National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Grades 10 ­ 12 (General), however, leaves room for interpretation in its implementation in schools. As policy dictates practice to a varying extent, it was necessary to look at how teachers implement the new NCS at grassroots level. The main findings from this study suggest the following:

Curriculum implementation is context-dependent. The school context often dictates what is possible in terms of curriculum implementation as the availability of resources (for example funding, transport, and

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infrastructure) and human capital (teachers) vary. Lecturers can therefore not assume that all first-year students from 2009 and onwards had access to all the possible learning materials, exposure to more extensive learning materials and opportunities than required by the National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12), or teachers who were able or willing to conform to the new national standards.

The implementation of the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) seems to be influenced by the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the teachers. Teachers' prior knowledge and experience are valuable assets in flexing the new NCS into a learning framework that is context-sensitive and digestible to a specific group of learners. However, it can also limit teachers' vision to incorporate new and innovative ways of teaching and learning. Lecturers may have to find mechanisms to determine where the gaps are in their first-year students' prior knowledge. Lecturers may have to provide opportunities for bridging the gaps left by teachers who either did not have time to address all the outcomes stipulated in the National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12), or were not able or willing to facilitate learning that enabled learners to reach the intended outcomes for a particular grade/subject.

The new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) encompasses various relatively sensitive aspects that may be either foreign or morally questionable to teachers ­ the theory of evolution, multireligious education, as well as HIV/Aids education that are included in the curricula of various subjects are examples ­ which may lead to teachers either omitting these components, or providing an individual interpretation of them. Lecturers may need to tread sensitively where these issues are concerned as students may already have been imprinted with a certain mind-set at school, or may not have had exposure to some of these aspects at all where teachers may have ignored addressing these components of the curriculum.

The new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) seems to emphasise skills development rather than discipline-specific content. This notion is enforced by the move to Learning Fields from distinctly demarcated subjects in the previous curriculum. First-year students from 2009 onwards may therefore enter higher education with more skills-based competency (such as critical thinking, group work, and problem solving capabilities) than knowledge specific to a particular discipline. The challenge for university lecturers will lie in designing curricula that capitalize on these strengths, whilst introducing first-year students to content knowledge deemed as essential within a particular discipline.

Eventually a hybrid curriculum emerges that includes elements of both previous and new curricula. It will take time for the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) to phase into classrooms and filter through to higher education. Lecturers will need to be aware of not only the content, but also the approach, learning outcomes and assessment standards that underlie the subjects in the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) relevant to their particular first-year modules. Assessment seems to take on a different colour in the FET (Schools) policy and the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12). The emphasis on skills development rather than content knowledge within the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) also has an influence on assessment practices in schools. Group assessment, continuous assessment, frequent assessment, and task-based assessment are evident in the

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assessment strategies of teachers in all subjects. First-year students emerging from the new school system may find the traditional assessment practices of universities unfamiliar and possibly difficult. They may particularly find it difficult to handle the large volumes of work that is presented and assessed at a first-year university level. Students may find it easier to succeed in modules structured for continuous assessment. Continuous assessment means that smaller components of work are assessed rather than larger volumes of work less regularly. Different forms of assessment seem to be more prevalent in schools as a result of the new NCS (Grades 10-12), including class presentations, group work assignments, and simulations ­ above and beyond regular theoretical tests. Lecturers of first-year modules may want to consider incorporating these approaches to assessment initially and where feasible to facilitate the transition from school to university in a gradual manner. The early assessment strategy implemented at Stellenbosch University may also help to ascertain whether students have problems in terms of coping with new forms of assessment. The educational reforms at the school level not only hold implications for curriculum design and assessment, but also imply a reconsideration of teaching methods. 5.4 TEACHING METHODS

The new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10 ­ 12) emphasizes the facilitation of interactive and participatory learning opportunities. Learners who have completed their schooling in this system may be well acquainted with the practice of group work and class discussions. Lecturers may want to take this into account when designing curricula and related class activities, but again first-year students may vary in the extent to which they had the opportunity to engage in such activities as teachers reportedly find it difficult to facilitate such forms of learning in especially large classes. PGCE students reported that class sizes seem to vary amongst schools. Some first-year students may therefore be quite comfortable with large classes by the time they reach university. Other first-year students may have become accustomed to the individual attention and coaching made possible in smaller class groups, which may influence their capability for self-directed learning. These students may have particular needs for tutoring and mentoring and lecturers of first-year modules may be able to identify students with these needs accordingly. The data obtained from schools suggest that learners in the FET-band are being taught to search for information related to specific tasks. There seems to be an emphasis on electronic media, particularly the Internet, as well as popular printed media, such as newspapers and magazines. It does, however, seem that learners are not necessarily taught to critically evaluate the scholarly nature of these sources of information. Lecturers can therefore not assume that first-year students would have been introduced to academic sources beyond textbooks and that they are able to use the library effectively. First-year students may also not have welldeveloped academic literacy skills due to their limited exposure to scholarly literature. Specific attention may have to be paid to issues of plagiarism, as no accounts could be found in the data of teachers sensitising learners to these issues.

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The current first-year students also provide some useful insights into how teaching methods could be adapted to meet student needs. The results of the study amongst first-year students suggest that even though first-year students may perceive a module as relatively difficult, they do not expected to fail. Reality contradicts this notion as the failure rate in first-year modules seem to be higher if compared to respondents' expected performance7. Early assessment may again provide a reality check for these students. Exercises and examples that help learners to prepare for assessment are highly valued input from lecturers. First-year students indicated that they often feel unprepared for assessment opportunities ­ especially in modules where they might be unaccustomed to the discipline-specific jargon and/or assessment approaches. Current first-year students noted various teaching and learning related aspects which could influence accessibility within a module.

Even though the words and terms the lecturer uses, as well as the language used in class did not seem to be major obstacles to accessibility, discipline-specific jargon could pose a problem if these concepts are totally new to the students' vocabulary or understanding. This is especially in the case where modules do not build on school subjects. Lecturers may need to take more time in explaining concepts and provide opportunities for first-year students to practice and become accustomed to the new jargon.

Class notes seemed to be generally accessible as learning materials, but a notable group of students found the prescribed textbooks difficult and therefore inaccessible. Some respondents also requested that the connection between prescribed textbooks and class notes be made clearer. The accessibility of textbooks in terms of facilitating learning in first-year classes may therefore be an aspect that may need consideration when planning the learning materials for a module. The language of textbooks may also play a role in this regard where students are unaccustomed to studying in a different language.

The data suggest that audio-visual resources are widely used as learning materials in first-year classes and were deemed as valuable learning materials by the respondents. First-year students sometimes seemingly struggle to find coherence between audio-visual resources used in classes and the textbooks. Lecturers may need to state this connection explicitly.

The visibility of visual learning materials seemed to be an issue for some first-year respondents. The colour and handwriting on overhead transparencies and a small font used on PowerPoint slides my be difficult to follow, especially considering that first-year students may not yet have developed their note-taking skills. .

First-year students seem to have learned how to utilise WebStudies adequately and it especially seemed to help the students who did not have well-developed note-taking skills. Lecturers may want to take note of the lack of note-taking skills evident from first-year responses.

The respondents that commented on lecturing as an accessibility issue found it difficult to simultaneously take notes and follow the lecturer (which may relate to the perceived fast pace, volume of work, and notetaking skills). This corresponds to the data obtained from schools, where teachers provide summaries of the most important points in textbooks and learners are not taught to sift information themselves and take notes

7

Although the results only reflect the students' perceptions, they can help us to understand what and why first-year students succeed or fail.

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while the teacher/lecturer is talking. It may take time for first-year students to acquire this skill and therefore may have implications for with initial pace at the start of a module.

Mathematical calculations (where applicable) were not seen as inaccessible by the majority of respondents in the current first-year survey. Lecturers may, however, want to take note of the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) for both Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy, as these subjects seem to have changed significantly in terms of content and approach to teaching and assessment.

The perceived fast pace at which lecturers progressed through the work within a module seemed to pose difficulties for first-year students. Respondents indicated that they struggled to keep up and once they fell behind, found it difficult to regain a position where they were up to date. Lecturers are advised to find strategies to determine whether first-year students are keeping up with the pace at which the work is presented. Early assessment may play a facilitative role in this regard.

Some respondents indicated that they found the volume of work daunting and as a result could not easily keep abreast with their studies. It is expected that this will continue to be the case, especially since the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) seems to focus more on skills development than content knowledge. First-year students may therefore struggle to keep up with the large volumes of content-based work presented at a much faster pace than they are used to.

Tutorials featured as a central theme and comments related to the necessity of trained tutors, issues related to the lack of coherence between lectures and tutorials, and the need for support for students who lacked the necessary foundation for a module.

Assessment was noted and some first-year students felt they were not adequately prepared in class to be successful in assessment opportunities. Some respondents requested previous question papers to help them prepare for assessment. A request was also received for memoranda to be placed on WebStudies, so that it was easily accessible and a student could learn where mistakes were made during assessment.

It is not expected that lecturers will need to take on a different teaching persona or completely change their teaching methods. The above-mentioned teaching-related aspects are noted to help sensitise lecturers to the needs of current and first-year students. 5.5 LECTURER ORIENTATION

Lecturers of first-year students cannot be expected to deal with changes in the student population without receiving the necessary support. Lecturer support may need to take on a flexible format, as student needs (and consequently the needs of the lecturer) may differ. The following aspects were identified as possible issues in which lecturer support systems could provide input in order to help lecturers:

find resourceful ways of interpreting available background data on students, and integrating these findings to inform curriculum development, as well as teaching and assessment practices; establish relationships or networks with relevant subject advisors in the provincial Department of Education to keep up to date with curriculum changes in terms of content, learning outcomes and/or assessment standards;

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utilise early warning systems to determine the gaps in first-year students' knowledge, skills and attitudes, which may be easier to address if the inadequacies in particularly academic literacy and numeracy are known;

be aware of certain emotive concepts that may elicit emotive responses (such as theories of evolution) and realise that even though these may be included in the NCS for Grades 10-12, are not necessarily handled in school classrooms the way the curriculum was intended to be presented to learners;

identify concepts or jargon in a discipline not (adequately) addressed or explained in the National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) and finding ways of relating these concepts to what students already know; develop curricula and related assessment tools that help first-year students bridge the gap between school and university; development teaching methods that use more student-centred, interactive means of facilitating learning ­ also in large classes; development of facilitation skills that foster self-directed learning; effective use and training of mentors and/or tutors in the various disciplines as current first-year students emphasise the importance of these support systems; train students to critically evaluate sources of information and determine the scholarly nature of sources; help students integrate a variety of sources into a coherent whole, as the skills to integrate and systhesise information may not have been well-developed within the new NCS; explain the dangers of plagiarism to students and use available anti-plagiarist resources/software, as firstyear students may unknowingly plagiarise because they have not been exposed to the concept before; help students to develop efficient note-taking skills, as they may not have developed these skills at school; develop audio-visual resources that will facilitate learning, as teaching and learning practices in schools are becoming more and more centred around audio-visual resources; use electronic learning support structures and e-learning tools, as the majority of students would have had access and becom adept at using electronic media.

Lecturer support services at Stellenbosch University already address the majority of these issues. They may need to increase the emphasis on the contextualised nature of prior learning with which students enter higher education institutions, and the effect of this context on student learning. 5.6 CONCLUSION

It is not envisioned that the new National Curriculum Statement (Grades 10-12) in the FET-band will produce first-year students from 2009 and onwards who will be totally different to their predecessors, or emerge as clones of the new system. Data generated in the school environment suggests that the status quo is being upheld in many schools as teachers may be slow to adapt to the new approaches promoted in the new FET (Schools) policy. However, distinct and inescapable features ingrained in these educational reforms at the school level will shape the university students of the future and can therefore not be ignored by lecturers.

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It is expected that the first-year student of 2009 and onwards will be a hybrid product of the previous and new school curricula. They will in some cases lack content knowledge, a self-directed learning orientation, and the ability to effectively handle large volumes of work at a fast pace. They may, however, be well-equipped in terms of skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, information retrieval, the use of technology, group work, and having a holistic perspective on how learning areas fit into a cohesive whole. The extent to which these skills have been developed may vary. Lecturers can therefore expect future first-year students to have a diverse profile and they will need to teach in an inclusive manner to meet the possibly diverse needs of their clientele.

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Addendum A: Nationally approved subjects that comply with the programme requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) ­ Group A Official languages at home and first additional level

Afrikaans Home Language Afrikaans First Additional Language English Home Language English First Additional Language IsiNdebele Home Language IsiNdebele First Additional Language IsiXhosa Home Language IsiXhosa First Additional Language IsiZulu Home Language IsiZulu First Additional Language Sepedi Home Language Sepedi First Additional Language Sesotho Home Language Sesotho First Additional Language Setswana Home Language Setswana First Additional Language SiSwati Home Language Tshivenda Home Language Tshivenda First Additional Language Xitsonga Home Language

Mathematical Sciences

Mathematical Literacy Mathematics

Human and Social Studies

Life Orientation

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Addendum B: Nationally approved subjects that comply with the programme requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (General) ­ Group B Agriculture

Agricultural Management Practices Agricultural Science Agricultural Technology

Culture and Arts

Dance Studies Design Dramatic Arts Music Visual Arts

Business, Commerce and Management

Accounting Business Studies Economics

Official languages at second additional level and non-official languages

Afrikaans Second Additional Language English Second Additional Language IsiNdebele Second Additional Language IsiXhosa Second Additional Language IsiZulu Second Additional Language Sepedi Second Additional Language Sesotho Second Additional Language Setswana Second Additional Language Tshivenda Second Additional Language Xitsonga Second Additional Language Arabic Second Additional Language French Second Additional Language German Home Language German Second Additional Language Gujarati Home Language Gujarati First Additional Language

194

Gujarati Second Additional Language Hebrew Second Additional Language Hindi Home Language Hindi First Additional Language Hindi Second Additional Language Italian Second Additional Language Latin Second Additional Language Portuguese Home Language Portuguese First Additional Language Portuguese Second Additional Language Spanish Second Additional Language Tamil Home Language Tamil First Additional Language Tamil Second Additional Language Telegu Home Language Telegu First Additional Language Telegu Second Additional Language Urdu Home Language Urdu First Additional Language Urdu Second Additional Language

Engineering and Technology

Civil Technology Electrical Technology Mechanical Technology Engineering Graphics and Design

Human and Social Studies

Geography History Religion Studies

Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences

Computer Applications Technology Information Technology Life Sciences Physical Sciences

195

Services

Consumer Studies Hospitality Studies Tourism

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Addendum C: Specific information for Afrikaans Oorsig: Nasionale Kurrikulumverklaring vir Graad 10-12 (Algemeen): Tale (mnr Richard Stanley, Department of Curriculum Studies, [email protected]) Inleiding Die Vakverklaring vir Tale definieer taal as `n instrument vir denke en kommunikasie. Deur taal word kulturele diversiteit en sosiale betrekkinge gekonstrueer en uitgedruk. Die doeltreffende gebruik van taal stel leerders in staat om te dink en kennis te verwerf, hulle kreatiewe vermoëns en identiteit en, asook gevoelens en idees uit te druk, in interaksie te tree met ander en om hul eie leefwêrelde te bestuur. Alle tale kan op drie vlakke aangebied word, naamlik Huistaal, Eerste Addisionele Taal en Tweede Addisionele Taal. Alle leerders is verplig om twee amptelike te neem ­ óf twee tale op Huistaalvlak, óf een op Huistaalvlak en een op Eerste Addisionele Taalvlak. Een van die tale moet die Taal van Onderrig en Leer (TOL) wees. Die taalvaardighede, naamlik luister, praat, lees, kyk, skryf en aanbied vorm die grondslag vir die ontwikkeling van die Leeruitkomste. `n Leeruitkoms is `n verklaring van die bedoelde eindresultaat van leer en onderrig. Dit beskryf die kennis, vaardighede en waardes wat leerders aan die einde van die VOO-band behoort te verwerf. Die Nasionale Kurrikulumverklaring (NKV) baseer die Leeruitkomste vir Tale op die Kritieke en Ontwikkelinguitkomste. Kritieke en Ontwikkelingsuitkomste Die Kritieke Uitkomste vereis dat leerders in staat is om die volgende te doen: Identifiseer en los probleme op en neem besluite deur kritiese en kreatiewe denke. Werk doeltreffend saam met ander as lede van `n span, groep, organisasie en gemeenskap. Organiseer en bestuur hulself en hulle aktiwiteite verantwoordelik en doeltreffend. Versamel, ontleed en organiseer inligting en evalueer dit krities. Kommunikeer doeltreffend deur middel van visuele, simboliese en/of taalvaardighede in verskillende vorme. Gebruik wetenskap en tegnologie doeltreffend en krities deur verantwoordelikheid teenoor die omgewing en die gesondheid van ander te toon. Begryp dat die wêreld 'n stel verwante stelsels is waarin probleme nie in isolasie opgelos word nie.

Die Ontwikkelingsuitkomste stel leerders in staat om die volgende te doen: Dink na oor en ondersoek 'n verskeidenheid strategieë om meer doeltreffend te leer. Neem as verantwoordelike burgers aan die lewe van die plaaslike, nasionale en wêreldgemeenskap deel. Is kultureel en esteties sensitief in verskeie sosiale kontekste. Ondersoek onderwys- en beroepsmoontlikhede. Ontwikkel entrepreneursgeleenthede.

197

Assesseringstandaarde Assesseringstandaarde is kriteria wat gesamentlik beskryf wat 'n leerder behoort te weet en in staat is om te kan doen om die bereiking van die Leeruitkoms op die vlak van 'n spesifieke graad te toon. Assesseringstandaarde beskryf die kennis, vaardighede en waardes wat leerders moet verwerf om die Leeruitkomste te bereik. Vir elke Leeruitkoms toon die Assesseringstandaarde gesamentlik die wyse aan waarop konseptuele progressie van graad tot graad plaasvind. Voorts stel die gebruik van `n wye verskeidenheid tekste leerders in staat om persoonlike, nasionale en wêreldaangeleenthede te ondersoek en om sodoende toenemend kennis van die wêreld op te bou. Leeruitkomste vir Tale Leeruitkoms 1: Luister en Praat Die leerder is in staat om te luister en te praat vir verskillende doeleindes en teikengroepe en in 'n verskeidenheid kontekste. Luister en praat is sosiale aktiwiteite wat in spesifieke kontekste en vir verskeie doeleindes en teikengroepe plaasvind. Mondelinge genres en registers varieer dienooreenkomstig. Leerders herken en gebruik gepaste mondelinge genres en registers in 'n verskeidenheid formele en informele kontekste. Luister en praat is sentraal in die leer van alle vakke. Deur doeltreffende luister- en praatstrategieë kan leerders inligting insamel en sintetiseer, kennis opdoen, probleme oplos en idees en opinies uitdruk. Kritiese luistervaardighede stel leerders in staat om waardes en houdings in tekste te herken en om vooroordeel en manipulerende taal te bevraagteken. Leeruitkoms 2: Lees en Kyk Die leerder is in staat om te lees en te kyk vir begrip, om krities te evalueer en om op 'n wye verskeidenheid tekste response te lewer. Goeie lees- en kykvaardighede is belangrik vir suksesvolle leer oor die kurrikulum heen, en vir volledige deelname aan die samelewing. Leerders ontwikkel vaardighede om inligting in te win deur die kyk na en lees van 'n verskeidenheid literêre en nieliterêre tekste, insluitend visuele tekste. Hulle herken hoe genre en register die doel, teikengroep en konteks van tekste weerspieël. Leerders gebruik verskillende lees- en kykvaardighede na aanleiding van 'n spesifieke doel en die strekking van die teks. Hulle gee betekenis aan tekste, identifiseer waardes en aannames en reageer krities daarop. Die lees van literêre tekste bied aan leerders modelle vir hulle eie skryfwerk.

198

Leeruitkoms 3: Skryf en Aanbied Die leerder is in staat om vir 'n wye verskeidenheid doeleindes en teikengroepe te skryf en aan te bied deur konvensies en formate gepas vir verskillende kontekste te gebruik. Deur skryf kommunikeer leerders idees betekenisvol en samehangend. Gereelde skryf in verskillende kontekste en vir verskeie take stel leerders in staat om funksioneel en kreatief te kommunikeer. Die doel van skryf is om leerders vaardig en veelsydig skriftelik te laat kommunikeer. Hulle moet in staat wees om hul skryfvaardighede toe te pas om gepaste geskrewe, visuele, oudio- en multimediatekste vir verskillende doeleindes te ontwikkel. Leeruitkoms 4: Taal Die leerder is in staat om taalstrukture en -konvensies gepas en doeltreffend te gebruik. Deur interaktief om te gaan met 'n verskeidenheid tekste, verbreed leerders hul woordeskat en pas hul begrip van taalstrukture toe. Hulle ontwikkel kritiese bewustheid van die wyses waarop waardes en magsverhoudings in taal ingebed kan wees en van wyses hoe taal ander kan beïnvloed. Assesseringstandaarde vir Afrikaans LEERUITKOMS 1: LUISTER EN PRAAT GRAAD 10

Toon kennis van verskillende vorme van mondelinge kommunikasie vir sosiale doeleindes. Beplan en doen navorsing om mondelinge opdragte vlot en ekspressief aan te bied. Toon vaardighede in die lusiter na en lewer van mondelinge aanbiedings. Toon kritiese bewustheid van taalgebruik in mondelinge situasies

GRAAD 11

Toon kennis van verskillende vorme van mondelinge kommunikasie vir sosiale doeleindes Beplan en doen navorsing om mondelinge opdragte vlot en ekspressief aan te bied Toon vaardighede in die lusiter na en lewer van mondelinge aanbiedings. Toon kritiese bewustheid van taalgebruik in mondelinge situasies

GRAAD 12

Toon kennis van verskillende vorme van mondelinge kommunikasie vir sosiale doeleindes Beplan en doen navorsing om mondelinge opdragte vlot en ekspressief aan te bied Toon vaardighede in die lusiter na en lewer van mondelinge aanbiedings. Toon kritiese bewustheid van taalgebruik in mondelinge situasies

LEERUITKOMS 2: LEES EN KYK GRAAD 10

Toon verskeie lees- en kykstrategieë vir begrip en waardering Verduidelik die betekenis van `n wye verskeidenheid geskrewe, visuele, oudio- en oudiovisuele tekste. Verduidelik hoe taal en beelde waardes en houdings kan weerspieël en vorm in tekste. Verken die hoofkenmerke van tekste en verduidelik hoe betekenis deur die leser se interaksie met tekste geskep word.

GRAAD 11

Toon verskeie lees- en kykstrategieë vir begrip en waardering Evalueer die betekenis van `n wye verskeidenheid geskrewe, visuele, oudio- en oudiovisuele tekste. Evalueer hoe taal en beelde waardes en houdings kan weerspieël en vorm in tekste. Verken en evalueer die hoofkenmerke van tekste en verduidelik hoe betekenis deur die leser se interaksie met tekste geskep word.

GRAAD 12

Toon verskeie lees- en kykstrategieë vir begrip en waardering Evalueer die betekenis van `n wye verskeidenheid geskrewe, visuele, oudio- en oudiovisuele tekste. Evalueer hoe taal en beelde waardes en houdings kan weerspieël en vorm in tekste. Verken en evalueer die hoofkenmerke van tekste en verduidelik hoe betekenis deur die leser se interaksie met tekste geskep word.

199

LEERUITKOMS 3: SKRYF EN AANBIED GRAAD 10

Beplan die skryfproses volgens `n spesifieke doel, teikengroep en konteks. Toon die gebruik van skryfstrategieë en ­tegnieke vir eerste weergawes. Dink na oor, ontleed en evalueer, met inagneming van ander se sienings, eie werk en bied die finale produk aan.

GRAAD 11

Beplan die skryfproses volgens `n spesifieke doel, teikengroep en konteks. Toon die gebruik van skryfstrategieë en ­tegnieke vir eerste weergawes. Dink na oor, ontleed en evalueer, met inagneming van ander se sienings, eie werk en bied die finale produk aan.

GRAAD 12

Beplan die skryfproses volgens `n spesifieke doel, teikengroep en konteks. Toon die gebruik van skryfstrategieë en ­tegnieke vir eerste weergawes. Dink na oor, ontleed en evalueer, met inagneming van ander se sienings, eie werk en bied die finale produk aan.

LEERUITKOMS 4: TAAL GRAAD 10

Identifiseer en verduidelik die betekenis van woorde en gebruik dit korrek in `n verskeidenheid tekste. Gebruik goed gestruktureerde sinne betekenisvol en funsksioneel. Ontwikkel kritiese taalbewustheid.

GRAAD 11

Identifiseer en verduidelik die betekenis van woorde en gebruik dit korrek in `n verskeidenheid tekste. Gebruik goed gestruktureerde sinne betekenisvol en funsksioneel. Ontwikkel kritiese taalbewustheid.

GRAAD 12

Identifiseer en verduidelik die betekenis van woorde en gebruik dit korrek in `n verskeidenheid tekste. Gebruik goed gestruktureerde sinne betekenisvol en funsksioneel. Ontwikkel kritiese taalbewustheid.

Assessering Alle leer-, onderrig en assesseringsaktiwiteite is gerig op die bereiking van die Leeruitkomste en Assesseringstandaarde. Binne die VOO-band tel die jaarpunt 25 % en die eindeksamen 75 % van die totale punt. Ten einde Afrikaans Huistaal te slaag moet `n kandidaat `n kode 3 (40 % - 49 %) behaal. Puntetoekenning: Afrikaans huistaal GRAAD 10

TAKE VRAESTEL 1 (TAAL IN KONTEKS) VRAESTEL 2 (LETTERKUNDE) VRAESTEL 3 (SKRYF) MONDELING TOTAAL 1-15 = 700 PUNTE 700 /7 = 100 70 80 100 50 400

GRAAD 11

1-15 = 700 PUNTE 700 /7 = 100 70 80 100 50 400

GRAAD 12

1-14 = 800 PUNTE 800/8 = 100 70 80 100 50 400

Puntetoekenning: Afrikaans Eerste Addissionele Taal GRAAD 10

TAKE VRAESTEL 1 (TAAL IN KONTEKS) VRAESTEL 2 (LETTERKUNDE) VRAESTEL 3 (SKRYF) MONDELING TOTAAL 1-15 = 700 PUNTE 700 /7 = 100 80 70 100 50 400

GRAAD 11

1-15 = 700 PUNTE 700 /7 = 100 80 70 100 50 400

GRAAD 12

1-14 = 800 PUNTE 800/8 = 100 80 70 100 50 400

200

Assesseringstake vir Afrikaans Huistaal: Graad 10 en 11 Kwartaal 1:

4 Take: 140 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 2. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Kortverhale) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (35 punte); 3. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte) ; 4. Kontroletoets (45 punte)

Kwartaal 2:

4 Take: 350 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50punte); 2. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte), 3. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Gedigte) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (40 punte); 4. Halfjaarlikse eksamen: Vr. 1 (70 punte), Vr. 2 (80 punte), Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Kwartaal 3:

4 Take: 150 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 2. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Gedigte) (50 punte); 3. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte); 4. Kontroletoets (40 punte)

Kwartaal 4:

4 Take: 60 punte 1. Korter skryfstukke (20 punte); 2. Mondeling ­ literêre respons (20 punte); 3. Kontroletoets (20 punte); 4. November-eksamen ­ Vr. 1 (70 punte); Vr. 2 (80 punte); Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Assesseringstake vir Afrikaans Huistaal: Graad 12 Kwartaal 1:

5 Take: 150 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 2. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (40 punte); 3. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte) 4. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte) 5. Kontroletoets (40 punte)

Kwartaal 2:

5 Take: 400 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (50 punte); 2. Enige lang skryfstuk (50punte); 3. Mondeling: Literêre respons (20 punte); 4. Kontroletoets (30 punte) 5. Halfjaarlikse eksamen: Vr. 1 (70 punte), Vr. 2 (80 punte), Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Kwartaal 3:

4 Take: 350 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 2. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toesprak/gesprek (10 punte); 3. Toets: (40 punte) 4. Voorbereidende eksamen: Vr. 1 (70 punte), Vr. 2 (80 punte), Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

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Assesseringstake vir Afrikaans Eerste Addisionele Taal: Graad 10 en 11 Kwartaal 1:

4 Take: 140 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 2. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Gedigte) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (35 punte); 3. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte) 4. Kontroletoets (45 punte)

Kwartaal 2:

4 Take: 350 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte); 2. Enige lang skryfstuk (50punte); 3. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Kortvehale/Gedigte) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (40 punte); 4. Halfjaarlikse eksamen: Vr. 1 (80 punte), Vr. 2 (70 punte), Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Kwartaal 3:

4 Take: 150 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Mondeling: literêre respons (20 punte); 2. Transaksionele skryfstuk (50 punte); 3. Kontroletoets (45 punte); 4. Letterkunde Roman/Drama/Kortverhale - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (35 punte)

Kwartaal 4:

3 Take: 60 punte 1. Korter skryfstukke (30 punte); 2. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte); 3. Kontroletoets (20 punte); 4. November-eksamen ­ Vr. 1 (80 punte); Vr. 2 (70 punte); Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Assesseringstake vir Afrikaans Eerste Addisionele Taal: Graad 12 Kwartaal 1:

5 Take: 150 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 2. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Kortverhale/Gedigte) - opstel- of kontekstuele vrae (35 punte); 3. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte) 4. Kontroletoets (35 punte) 5. Kort Skryfstuk (20 punte)

Kwartaal 2:

5 Take: 400 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Kontroletoets (40 punte); 2. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 3. Mondeling ­ lees/luister/praat - onderhoud/debat/voorbereide toespraak/onvoorbereide toespraak/gesprek (10 punte) 4. Letterkunde (Roman/Drama/Gedigte) - opstel- of konstekstuele vrae (50 punte); 5. Halfjaarlikse eksamen: Vr. 1 (80 punte), Vr. 2 (70 punte), Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Kwartaal 3:

4 Take: 350 punte verwerk na 100 punte 1. Mondeling: literêre respons (20 punte) 2. Enige lang skryfstuk (50 punte); 3. Toets: (30 punte); 4. Voorbereidende eksamen: Vr. 1 (80 punte), Vr. 2 (70 punte), Vr. 3 (100 punte) [250 punte]

Kommentaar: Vakassesseringsriglyne Afrikaans Tweede Addisionele Taal Graad 10 en 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Die aantal take is verminder van 15 na 13 take. Die aantal take en soort take is deurgaans redelik. Die Assesseringsprogram is beslis `n verbetering op die vorige program. Kandidate hoef slegs 1 genre in die eksamen te doen. Daar is slegs 2 vraestelle ­ die letterkunde is gekombineer met vraestel 1. Die feit dat graad 11 in 2007 `n nasionale vraestel skryf, is problematies vir die afhandeling van die take in die vierde kwartaal.

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Addendum D: Specific information for English (Contact person: Prof Christa van der Walt, Department of Curriculum Studies, [email protected]) Analysis of the FET English 1st additional language curriculum from an academic literacy perspective Introduction Students at the University of Stellenbosch write an academic literacy test (the TALL, or Test of Academic Literacy), developed by the universities of Pretoria, Stellenbosch and Potchefstroom to determine the extent of academic language support for newly enrolled students. This test (described and analysed extensively by Weideman and Van Dyk ­ see bibliography) measures 10 elements of academic literacy that is generally considered to be crucial for success at higher education level. In the analysis that follows, these ten elements are used as the framework in terms of which the new FET curriculum statement is tested for the degree to which it prepares students linguistically for studies at higher education institutions. The aim of the FET band is "to develop a high level of knowledge and skills in learners" (English First Additional Language 2003:2,3, referred to as EFAL from this point forward) and it is serious in its commitment to giving learners access to higher education (EFAL 2003:3, emphasis added):

Given that the Further Education and Training band is nested between the General Education and Training and the Higher Education bands, it is vital that the Further Education and Training Certificate (General) articulates with the General Education and Training Certificate and with qualifications in similar learning pathways of Higher Education. In order to achieve this articulation, the development of each Subject Statement included a close scrutiny of the exit level expectations in the General Education and Training Learning Areas, and of the learning assumed to be in place at the entrance levels of cognate disciplines in Higher Education. If we take this commitment seriously, it should be possible to find the skills and values required for the beginner phases of higher education as assessment standards for Grade 12. In the discussion below the focus is on learners who followed the first additional language curriculum, since this will include to the majority of students. One can assume that higher standards will pertain to those who followed the home language curriculum. What is academic literacy? TALL is the English academic literacy test which is based on a construct that was developed in the course of a series of empirical investigations. Part of these investigations was to determine what academics regard as the basic elements of academic literacy. The following points emerged and were incorporated in the test:

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Table 3. TALL measures: A. Academic vocabulary B. Metaphoric language use C. Text composition and text relations D. Familiarity with text type, style and register E. Interpretation and use of visual and graphic information F. Distinction making between essential and non-essential, cause and effect, fact and opinion, etc. G. Classification and comparison H. Ability to make inferences and applications I. Defining, arguing and furnishing of proof J. Making meaning beyond the sentence level We can look for these elements in the Curriculum Statement to see to what extent our students are `academically literate' when they enter the university. The Curriculum Statement also specifies the performance indicators and the grading that such indicators should receive: Table 4.1 Scale of achievement for the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10 ­ 12 (General) Rating 6 5 4 3 2 1 Description of Competence Marks Outstanding Meritorious Satisfactory Adequate Partial Inadequate Code (%) 80 ­ 100 60 ­ 79 50 ­ 59 40 ­ 49 30 ­ 39 0 ­ 29

COMPARISON OF TALL AND CURRICULUM STATEMENT Academic vocabulary: The Further Education and Training curriculum enables all learners to meet many of the requirements of the Critical and Developmental Outcomes, including the following objectives:

Broaden and deepen language competencies developed in the General Education and Training band,including the abstract language skills required for academic learning across the curriculum, and the aesthetic appreciation and enjoyment of texts, so that learners are able to listen, speak, read/view and write/present with confidence. These skills and attitudes form the basis for life-long learning. (EFAL 2003:9)

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All languages can be offered at the following levels: First Additional Language: Learning a first additional language promotes multilingualism and intercultural communication. Learning Outcomes for First Additional Languages provide for levels of language proficiency that meet the threshold levels necessary for effective learning across the curriculum, as learners may learn through the medium of their First Additional Language in the South African context. This includes the abstract cognitive academic language skills required for thinking and learning. This applies to all official languages. There will be an equal emphasis on the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing (EFAL 2003:11). Vocabulary: P 13: Learning Outcome 4: Language The learner is able to use language structures and conventions appropriately and effectively. Through interacting with a variety of texts, learners extend their use of vocabulary and correctly apply their understanding of language structures. They develop critical awareness of how values and power relations are embedded in language and how language may influence others p 47: Texts are produced in particular contexts with particular purposes and audiences in mind. Different categories of texts have different functions and follow particular conventions in terms of structure, style, grammar, vocabulary and content. These are referred to as genres. Learners need to be able to understand and to produce a range of different genres. P 61: In terms of performance indicators, this means: By the end of Grade 12 the learner with outstanding achievement can:

understand and use the structures and conventions of language confidently and accurately; identify, interpret and explain subtle differences in the meanings and functions of words and word forms; identify, explain, evaluate and use a wide variety of sentence structures for functional purposes and stylistic effect; show thorough control of grammar and vocabulary.

(Going down to `very good' (meritorious) and `reasonable' (satisfactory) and `sufficient' (adequate))

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Metaphoric language use: P 24 In terms of reading and viewing: recognise and explain the effect of a range of figurative and rhetorical language and literary devices such as metaphor, simile, personification, metonymy, onomatopoeia symbol, hyperbole, contrast, sarcasm and irony on the meaning of texts; Text composition and text relations AND Distinction making between essential and non-essential, cause and effect, fact and opinion, etc.: Writing and Presenting ` The learner is able to write and present for a wide range of purposes and audiences using conventions and formats appropriate to diverse contexts. Grade 12 assessment standards (p 33 ­ planning):

locate, access, select, organise and integrate relevant data from a wide variety of sources; develop coherent ideas and organise them by using techniques such as mind maps, diagrams, lists of key words and flow charts;

p 35 (drafting): use main and supporting ideas effectively from the planning process; apply paragraph conventions to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; use conjunctions, pronouns and adverbs to ensure cohesion.

P 37 revision and presentation): refine word choice and sentence and paragraph structure and eliminate ambiguity, slang, offensive language and unnecessary jargon; Listening and speaking: P 17: organise material coherently by choosing main ideas and relevant and accurate details or examples for support; p 19: demonstrate comprehension of oral texts by recording main and/or supporting ideas by making notes, checklists, summaries, paraphrases and/or by retelling;

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p 21: distinguish between facts and opinions and give evidence even when only implied; Interpretation and use of visual and graphic information: P 9: Purpose of the languages learning field: The range of literacies needed for effective participation in society and the workplace in the global economy of the twenty-first century has expanded beyond listening, speaking, reading, writing and oral traditions to include various forms such as media, graphic, information, computer, cultural, and critical literacy. The Languages curriculum prepares learners for the challenges they will face as South Africans and as members of the global community. P 13: Learning Outcome 2: Reading and Viewing The learner is able to read and view for understanding and to evaluate critically and respond to a wide range of texts. ...Learners develop proficiency in reading and viewing a wide range of literary and non-literary texts, including visual texts, for information. Classification and comparison: p 35: apply paragraph conventions to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; See D. (Looking for `analysis' doesn't help ­ significant?) Ability to make inferences and applications: Listening and speaking: p 21: make inferences and judgements and motivate with convincing evidence; Reading and viewing: p 25: explain the writer's inferences and conclusions and compare with own; Searching for `apply': P 55: Task-based assessment Task-based or performance assessment methods aim to show whether learners can apply the skills and knowledge they have learned in unfamiliar contexts or in contexts outside of the classroom. Writing and presenting: p 33: decide on and apply the appropriate style, point of view and format of texts;

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p 35: apply paragraph conventions to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; Defining, arguing and furnishing of proof: P 25: distinguish between fact and opinion, and motivate own response;

give and motivate personal responses to texts with conviction;

Planning writing p 33: identify the target audience and the specific purpose such as narrating, entertaining, persuading, arguing, explaining, informing, interpreting, describing and manipulating;

research topics from a wide variety of sources and record findings; locate, access, select, organise and integrate relevant data from a wide variety of sources;

p 35: apply paragraph conventions to ensure coherence by using topic sentences, introduction and ending, logical progression of paragraphs, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; Make meaning beyond sentence level: Reading and viewing: P 23: skim texts to identify main ideas by reading titles, introductions, first paragraphs and introductory sentences of paragraphs; · scan texts for supporting details;

infer the meaning of unfamiliar words or images in familiar and unfamiliar contexts by using knowledge of grammar, wordattack skills, contextual clues, sound, colour, design, placement and by using the senses;

p 25: · find relevant information and detail in texts; · recognise and explain how selections and omissions in texts can affect meaning;

explain the writer's inferences and conclusions and compare with own;

p 27: evaluate how language and images may reflect and shape values and attitudes in texts: · explain socio-cultural and political values, attitudes and beliefs such as attitudes towards gender, class, age, power relations, human rights, inclusivity and environmental issues; · recognise and explain the nature of bias, prejudice and discrimination. P 29: explore the key features of texts and explain how they contribute to meaning (these features should never be dealt with in isolation):

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transactional and creative texts: · identify and explain the purpose, structure and language use in texts across the curriculum such as reports, procedures, retelling, explanations, descriptions and expositions; literary texts: novel, short story, folklore/folk tale, short essay: · explain and interpret development of plot, subplot, conflict, character, and role of narrator where relevant; · explain and interpret messages and themes and their significance in the rest of the text; · interpret how background and setting relate to character and/or theme; · interpret mood, time-line, ironic twists and ending.

poetry: · interpret how word choices, figures of speech, imagery and sound devices affect mood, meaning and theme; · explain how lines, stanza forms, rhyme, rhythm, other repitition techniques and punctuation affect meaning.

drama and film study: · recognise and explain how dialogue and action are related to character and theme;

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Addendum E: Letter of introduction to FET teachers Geagte Kollega NOS-Navorsingsprojek 2007 Daar word jaarliks van die Nagraadse Onderwyssertifikaat (NOS) studente verwag om navorsingsprojek as deel van die module Inleiding tot Opvoedkundige Navorsing 172 uit te voer tydens hul skoolbesoek. Ons het vanjaar besluit om hierdie opdrag te bou rondom die nuwe Nasionale Kurrikulumverklaring Graad 10-12 (skole) in die Verdere Onderwys en Opleiding (VOO) band wat tans inkrementeel geïmplimenteer word. Die hoofdoel van dié fokus sal wees om studente op `n sistematiese wyse te laat ondersoek instel rakende die inhoud en konteks van die nuwe kurrikulum, om sodoende hul praktykervaring te verryk en sodat hulle ingeligte besluite kan neem in die beplanning van hul eie onderwyspraktyk na afloop van hul studies. U samewerking en kundige insette sal hoog op prys gestel word. Daar word van die studente verwag om individueel en onafhanklik te werk vir die doeleindes van hierdie projek. In die betrokke vak word daar van hulle verwag om `n onderhoud te voer met onderwyser, klaswaarnemings te doen, en `n kort vraelys aan leerders te administreer. Die fokus sal te alle tye wees op die Graad 10-11 kurrikulum en die implikasies daarvan vir leerders se verdere studie ­ nie op onderwysers of leerders se prestasie as sulks nie. Baie dankie by voorbaat vir u waardevolle insette en tyd. U is welkom om my te kontak met enige verdere navrae in dié verband.

Liezel Frick

Dosent: Inleiding tot Opvoedkundige Navorsing 172 Nagraadse Onderwyssertifikaat, Stellenbosch Universiteit Tel. (021) 808 3708 E-pos: [email protected]

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Dear Colleague PGCE Research project 2007 The Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students are annually expected to conduct a research project during their school visit as part of the module Introduction to Educational Research 172. This year we have decided to build this assignment on the new National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (schools) in the Further Education and Training (FET) band currently being implemented incrementally. The main purpose of this focus will be to encourage students to systematically investigate the content and context of the new curriculum, in order to enrich their practice experience and so that they are able to take informed decisions in the planning of their own teaching practice after their studies. Your cooperation and knowledgeable input will be much appreciated. The students are expected to work individually and independently for the purposes of this project. They are required to conduct an interview, do class observations, and administer a short questionnaire to learners in this learning area. The focus at all times will be on the Grade 10-11 curriculum and its implications for learners' further study ­ not on teacher or learner performance as such. Thank you in advance for your valuable input and time. You are welcome to contact me with any further inquiries in this regard.

Liezel Frick

Lecturer: Introduction to Educational Research 172 Postgraduate Certificate in Education, Stellenbosch University Tel. (021) 808 3708 E-mail: [email protected]

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Addendum F: Interview schedule for PGCE students INLEIDING TOT OPVOEDKUNDIGE NAVORSING 172

Navorsingsopdrag: Derde kwartaal 2007 Onderhoudskedule Kies vak waarbinne jy tydens jou skoolbesoek sal praktiseer. Voer onderhoud met `n onderwyser in hierdie vak. Gebruik die meegaande onderhoudskedule om jou onderhoud te struktureer. Onthou dat jy verslag moet skryf oor die data wat jy tydens die onderhoud genereer ­ jy moet dus sorgvuldig notas neem tydens die onderhoud. Begin altyd eerste met die genommerde vraag, en gebruik die om meer in-diepte antwoorde te kry.

Gebruik asseblief die onderstaande inligting as agtergrond binne die spesifieke vak wanneer u terugvoer gee oor die volgende vrae:

VOO Kurrikulumstellings (FET Curriculum statements) VOO Leerprogramriglyne (FET Learning programme guidelines) Vakassesseringsriglyne (Subject assessment guidelines)

1. Wat doen u anders binne die nuwe skoolkurrikulum (Graad 10-12) in u vakgebied om leerders voor te berei vir verdere studies na skool?

Is daar verskille ten opsigte van die leeruitkomste? Is daar verskille in die manier waarop u leerders se vordering assesseer? Is daar verskille in die vaardighede wat leerders moet bemeester?

2. Kan u al die fasette van die nuwe skoolkurrikulum (Graad 10-12) in u vakgebied met gemak implementeeer?

Kan u die voorgestelde leeruitkomste geredelik bereik binne hierdie vak? Motiveer asseblief u antwoord. Watter leeruitkomste vind u moeilik om te bereik binne hierdie vak? Motiveer asseblief u antwoord. Hoe geredelik kan u die assesseringstandaarde vir die vak toepas?

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Motiveer asseblief u antwoord.

Hoe bepaal u of die leeruitkomste wel bereik is, en op watter vlak?

3. Watter leerhulpbronne het u as onderwyser nodig om die nuwe skoolkurrikulum (Graad 10-12) in u vak effektief te kan implimenteer binne u spesifieke skoolkonteks?

Beskik u skool oor die nodige leerhulpbronne om effektiewe implementering moontlik te maak?

4. Watter leerhulpbronne het Graad 10-12 leerders nodig om sukses te behaal in hierdie vak?

Het die leerders in u skool algemeen toegang tot hierdie leerhulpbronne?

5. Watter opleiding het u ontvang om die nuwe kurrikulum in u vak te kan implementeer? 6. Voel u bekwaam om die nuwe kurrikulum in u vak effektief te kan implementeer?

Gee asseblief redes vir u standpunt.

7. Hoe sou u die profiel van die afgelewerde leerder na afloop van die Graad 10-12 skoolkurrikulum beskryf? Fokus asseblief op u vak en op aspekte wat moontlik van belang kan wees vir studie na skool. 8. Is hierdie bekwaamhede wat leerders bereik in u opinie voldoende voorbereiding vir

universiteitsonderwys?

Motiveer asseblief u antwoord.

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INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 172

Research assignment: Third term 2007 Interview schedule Choose a subject within which you will practice during your school visit. Conduct an interview with a teacher in this subject. Use the attached interview schedule to structure your interview. Remember that you will need to write a report on the data you have generated during the interview ­ you must therefore take notes carefully during the interview. Always start with the numbered question, and then use the answers.

to obtain more in-depth

Please use the information mentioned below as background within the specific subject when you give feedback on the following questions:

FET Curriculum statements FET Learning programme guidelines Subject assessment guidelines

1. What do you do differently within the new school curriculum (Grades 10-12) in your subject area to prepare learners for study after completing school?

Are there differences regarding the learning outcomes? Are there differences in the way in which you assess learners' progress? Are there differences in the skills learners have to master?

2. Can you readily implement all the facets of the new school curriculum (Grades 10-12) in your subject area?

Can you readily achieve all the proposed learning outcomes within this subject? Please motivate your answer. Which learning outcomes do you find difficult to reach within this subject? Please motivate your answer. How readily can you apply the assessment standards for this subject? Please motivate your answer. How do you determine whether the learning outcomes were reached, and at which level?

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3. Which learning resources do you need as teacher to effectively implement the new school curriculum (Grades 10-12) in this subject within your specific school context?

Does your school have the necessary learning resources to enable effective implementation?

4. Which learning resources do Grade 10-12 learners need to be successful in this subject?

Do the learners in your school generally have access to these learning resources?

5. What training have you received to be able to implement the new curriculum in your subject? 6. Do you feel competent to implement the new curriculum effectively in your subject?

Please provide reasons for your view.

7. How would you describe the profile of the learner delivered after completion of the Grade 10-12 school curriculum? Please focus on your subject and on the aspects that could be of importance for study after completing school. 8. In your opinion, are the competencies learners achieve adequate preparation for university education?

Please motivate your answer.

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Addendum G: Observational schedule for PGCE students INLEIDING TOT OPVOEDKUNDIGE NAVORSING 172

Navorsingsopdrag: Derde kwartaal 2007 Waarnemingstudie Kies vak waarbinne jy tydens jou skoolbesoek sal praktiseer. Spesifiseer die vak sowel as die Graad (10, 11, of 12) wat jy oor die tydperk van jou skoolbesoek waargeneem het. Doen waarnemings op `n sistematiese wyse tydens klasse in hierdie vak. Gebruik die meegaande riglyne om jou waarnemings te struktureer. Onthou dat jy verslag moet skryf oor die data wat jy tydens die waarnemings genereer ­ jy moet dus sorgvuldig notas neem tydens die klasse.

Gebruik asseblief die onderstaande inligting as agtergrond binne die spesifieke vak wanneer jy terugvoer gee oor die volgende vrae:

VOO Kurrikulumstellings (FET Curriculum statements) VOO Leerprogramriglyne (FET Learning programme guidelines) Vakassesseringsriglyne (Subject assessment guidelines)

9. Wat is die hoof leeruitkomste van die nuwe skoolkurrikulum (Graad 10-12) wat beklemtoon word binne die spesifieke vak? 10. Met betrekking tot die leeruitkomste: Watter leeruitkomste word oënskynlik geredelik bereik binne hierdie vak? Watter leeruitkomste was problematies om te bereik binne hierdie vak?

Motiveer asseblief jou antwoord. 11. How word leerders se vordering geassesseer in hierdie vak? Hoe is bepaal of die uitkomste wel bereik is, en op watter vlak? Hoe stem hierdie assesseringspraktyke ooreen met die assesseringstandaarde vasgestel vir hierdie vak?

12. Watter leerhulpbronne het die onderwyser nodig om die nuwe skoolkurrikulum (Graad 10-12) in die vak effektief te kan implimenteer? Beskik u skool oor die nodige leerhulpbronne om effektiewe implementering moontlik te maak? Het die leerders in die skool algemeen toegang tot hierdie leerhulpbronne? 13. Watter leerhulpbronne het Graad 10-12 leerders nodig om sukses te behaal in hierdie vak?

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14. In jou opinie, hoe effektief word die nuwe Graad 10-12 skoolkurrikulum binne die konteks wat jy bestudeer het geïmplimenteer? Motiveer asseblief jou antwoord. 15. Is die bekwaamhede wat leerders bereik in hierdie vak voldoende voorbereiding vir universiteitsonderwys? Motiveer asseblief jou antwoord.

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INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 172

Research assignment: Third term 2007 Observational study Choose a subject within which you will practice during your school visit. Specify the lsubject as well as the Grade (10, 11, or 12) that you observed during your school visit.

Do observations in a systematic manner during classes in this subject. Use the included guidelines to structure your observations. Remember that you will need to write a report on the data you have generated during the observations ­ you must therefore carefully take notes during the classes.

Please use the information mentioned below as background within the specific subject when you give feedback on the following questions:

FET Curriculum statements FET Learning programme guidelines Subject assessment guidelines

1. What are the main learning outcomes of the new school curriculum (Grade 10-12) that are emphasised within the specific subject? 2. With regards to the learning outcomes: Which learning outcomes were seemingly readily achieved within this subject? Which learning outcomes were problematic to achieve within this subject?

Please motivate your answer. 3. How are learners' progress assessed within the subject? How was determined whether the outcomes were reached, and on which level? How do these assessment practices correspond to the assessment standards set for the subject?

4. Which learning resources does the teacher need to effectively implement the new school curriculum (Grades 10-12) in this subject? Does the school have the necessary learning resources to enable effective implementation? Do the learners in the school generally have access to these learning resources? 5. Which learning resources do Grade 10-12 learners need to be successful in this subject? 6. In your opinion, how effectively is the new Grade 10-12 school curriculum implemented within the context you had studied? Please motivate your answer.

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7. Are the competencies that learners reach in this subject adequate preparation for university study? Please motivate your answer.

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Addendum H: Questionnaire for Grade 10/11 learners A B C

Slegs vir kantoorgebruik For office use only

Ek wil graag uitvind hoe jy as leerder voorberei word vir verdere studie. Voltooi asseblief al die vrae in die meegaande vraelys. Wees asseblief eerlik in jou antwoorde ­ jou antwoorde is vertroulik en sal nie met jou onderwyser gedeel word nie.

I would like to find out how you as a learner are being prepared for further study. Please answer all the questions in the accompanying questionnaire. Please be honest in your answers ­ your answers are confidential and will not be shared with your teacher. 1. Vak / Subject

2.

Graad / Grade

3.

Beplan jy om universiteit toe te gaan? Merk asseblief die toepaslike blokkie. Do you plan to go to university? Please mark the appropriate block. Ja Yes Nee No

4.

Indien wel, wat beplan jy om te studeer? If so, what do you plan to study?

5.

Indien nie, wat beplan jy om te doen na skool? If not, what do you plan to do after school?

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6. 6.1

As jy dink aan die lewe na skool... If you think of life after school... Waaroor is jy die mees bekommerd? What are you most worried about?

6.2

Waaroor is jy die mees selfversekerd? What are you most confident about?

6.3

Waarna sien jy die meeste uit? What do you look forward to the most?

7.

Het jy toegang tot `n rekenaar tuis? Merk asseblief die toepaslike blokkie. Do you have access to a computer at home? Please mark the appropriate block. Ja Yes Nee No

221

8.

Indien wel, waarvoor gebruik jy die rekenaar? Merk asseblief die blokkies langs die antwoorde wat jou rekenaargebruik die beste omskryf ­ jy mag meer as een blokkie merk. If so, for what do you use the computer? Please mark the blocks next to the answers that best describe your computer use ­ you may mark more than one block. Voltooiing van skooltake Completion of school assignments Versamel van inligting vanaf die Internet vir skooltake Gathering of information from the Internet for school assignments Speletjies Games Swerf op die Internet vir nie-akademiese doeleindes Surfing the Internet for non-academic purposes Ander (spesifiseer asseblief) Other (please specify)

9.

Wat van skool verhinder jou om jou drome te bereik? What in school prevents you from reaching your dreams?

10.

Wat van skool help jou om jou drome te bereik? What in school helps you to reach your dreams?

DANKIE THANK YOU

222

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