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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 61 (1998) 17 ­ 30

A survey of traditional medicinal plants from the Callejon de ´ Huaylas, Department of Ancash, Peru ´

Gerald B. Hammond 1,c,*, Irma D. Fernandez a, Leon F. Villegas a, ´ ´ b Abraham J. Vaisberg

a

Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Laboratorio de Farmacologia, Uni6ersidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Aptdo. Postal 4314, ´ ´ Lima 100, Peru b Departamento de Microbiologia, Uni6ersidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Aptdo. Postal 4314, Lima 100, Peru ´ c Department of Chemistry, Uni6ersity of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 -2300, USA Received 25 August 1996; received in revised form 16 December 1997; accepted 8 January 1998

Abstract The medicinal uses of local flora from the Callejon de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, northeastern Peru, are ´ ´ reported. This geographical area has an old tradition of herbal healing. A total of 33 species have been documented through interactions with village elders, traditional doctors and herbalists. Of the 33 medicinal plant species surveyed in the Callejon de Huaylas, six have not been previously reported, seven have received only minor phytochemical ´ coverage in the literature, and the medicinal uses of seven other plants have not been corroborated with traditional medicinal reports from around the world. The traditional medicinal uses of six medicinal plants have been corroborated with previously published reports but their biological activities have yet to be confirmed in the laboratory. The medicinal uses of four other plants have been corroborated with previously published reports and their biological activities have been confirmed in the laboratory. The purported medicinal use of three plant species could not be confirmed in the laboratory. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Traditional medicinal plants; Ethnobotanical survey; Ancash; Peru ´

1. Introduction Callejon de Huaylas is located in the central ´ region of the Department of Ancash, on the northeastern flank of the Peruvian Andes (Fig. 1). This narrow and long valley, with a rich flora and fauna and an extension of 180 km, runs north-

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 51 508 9998865; fax: + 51 508 9106918; e-mail: [email protected] 1 Recipient of the 1996 Henry Dreyfus Teacher­Scholar Award.

0378-8741/98/$19.00 © 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PII S0378-8741(98)00009-9

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Fig. 1. Map of the region and its surrounds.

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south and is nested between two mountain ranges that form part of the Andes cordillera. The geographic area under study, whose major city is Huaraz (9° 29% 33%% S and 77° 27% 51%% W), was the center of a very notable pre-Inca culture known as Chavin, that flourished between the years 900 and ´ 200 BC. Archaeological sites in the area date back to 10000 BC (pre-ceramic period). Its diverse topography covers the provinces of Huaraz, Yungay, Caraz, Carhuaz and Recuay. The elevation varies from 1239 to 3699 m, with a climate that ranges from sub-tropical to temperate and alpine. The majority of its population live in remote villages and lack modern services and facilities. The local inhabitants depend mostly on plants for the treatment of diseases and this medical knowledge is only stored in the memory of increasingly few herbal healers. During the second half of this century, socio-political changes have contributed to an irreversible loss of traditional medical knowledge throughout this and other regions of Peru. Furthermore, polit´ ical violence during the 1980's discouraged field researchers, thus hampering scientific data collection. The objectives of the present study are: (i) To survey and tabulate the available scattered information; (ii) to establish any association between the medicinal uses found locally and other uses reported in the literature; and (iii) to inform whether published biological studies for a given plant species have corroborated or refuted medicinal uses claimed in the present research.

information came from conversations with the primarily female vendors (`yerbateras') selling medicinal herbs during market days. Most interviews were carried out in Quechua (predominant language of the Peruvian Andes region) by a trained translator using the local names of the relevant plants. It was not possible to record response and outcome to drug therapy as patients were not readily available for interviews at the time of documentation. Voucher specimens were prepared and deposited in the Herbarium of the Museo de Historia Natural Javier Prado at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, and are cited in Table 1, in parenthesis below each species. Taxonomic identification of the plants was performed by one of us (IF) with the assistance of staff members at the Herbarium.

3. Results and discussion A total of 33 medicinal plants were identified during this investigation. In Table 1, families are arranged alphabetically and the data are presented in the following sequence: family/botanical name, botanical note, indigenous name in Quechua (Q) and/or Spanish (S), plant part collected and information on uses and method of use. A thorough literature search of the plants under consideration was performed using the NAPRALERT (Loub et al., 1985) and Chemical Abstracts (American Chemical Society) databases as sources of information. The medicinal values of some of the plants, listed in Table 1, have been noted in previous publications but the present study found different uses in the treatment of diseases and in the parts used. The layout employed in the discussion is as follows: For each plant listed in Table 1, a brief description of its traditional medicinal use in the Callejon de Huaylas is given, followed by its use in ´ other parts of Peru and the world, if references on ´ these were found. In addition, phytochemical and/ or biological reports on that particular species are provided if appropriate references were found. The documentation thus gathered, served to give corroborative scientific evidence or lack of, the traditional medicinal uses of a given species.

2. Methodology Field work was carried out during the dry season (May­September) in 1989, 1990, 1993 and 1994. During each visit, plants were collected from different villages (Yungay, Unchos, Vicus, Pitec, Llupa, Huaraz, Carhuaz, Recuay and Monterrey) throughout the Callejon de Huaylas. Data were ´ collected through informal conversations with village elders, traditional doctors and herbalists. The interviewees were visited in their own surroundings. In some cases he/she would bring out samples of the fresh herbs or point out to the sites where the plants were collected. An important source of

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Table 1 Uses of medicinal plants from the Callejon de Huaylas, Department of Ancash, Peru ´ ´ Plant note Local name in Quechua (Q) and Spanish (S) Parts useda Preparation and uses

Botanical name (voucher no.)

Anacardiaceae Schinus molle L. (IFV079) A native tree An endemic herb A native herb An Andean shrub Caramati (Q) LF/SH Lengua de perro (S) WH Willa-willa, Ancosh (Q) LF Molle (S) LF/RS

Asteraceae Culcitium canescens Humb. et Bonpl. var canescens (IFV224) Gamochaeta spicata Lamarck (IFV200)

Infusion is used to treat colds, coughs and asthma. The resin is applied externally over the affected area to treat rheumatism

Jungia paniculata (DC) A. Gray (IFV091)

Mutisia acuminata R. et P. var acuminata Cabrera (IFV331)

An Andrean shrub

Chinchircuma (Q)

LF/SH

Senecio culcitioides Schultz-Bip. (IFV225) A wild shrub A wild herb An Andean herb A cultivated and introduced herb An endemic herb An Andean herb Santa Maria (S) Linlish-ccora (Q) Recrish-ccora (Q) Huamanripa (Q) Anis serrano (S) Llanchuasa (Q)

A native herb

Asnac-ccora (Q)

LF LF LF WH FL/LF WH WH

Senecio rhizomatosus Rusby (IFV226)

Senecio tephrosioides Turcz. (IFV227) Tagetes filifolia Lag. (IFV078)

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. (IFV201) Werneria caespitosa Weddell (IFV228)

Decoction drunk for coughs and bronchitis and for the treatment of asthma Decoction drunk for its inflammatory action and as a health tonic for the liver Infusion of the leaves is used to disinfect external cuts and wounds and also it is drunk to treat inflammation of the liver and kidneys Young leaves, crushed and applied as a dressing of external wounds to speed healing. Juice from crushed leaves is drunk to treat liver inflammation Decoction is drunk for coughs and bronchitis and for the treatment of asthma Infusion is drunk to heal wounds and also to increase bililary secretion Decoction is drunk for coughs and bronchitis Decoction is drunk in cases of stomach ache, intestinal pain or discomfort Infusion is used as an antipasmodic

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Werneria nubigena HBK (IFV229)

Decoction is drunk for the treatment of uterine cancer Decoction is drunk for the treatment of uterine cancer Huayo (Q) LF Decoction of a mixture of the young leaves with Polylepis racemosa is drunk to treat uterine cancer and rheumatism Borraja (S) LF Leaf infusion is drunk for coughs

Betulaceae Alnus acuminata HBK subsp. Acuminata (IFV188)

A cultivated tree

Boraginaceae Borago officinalis L. (IFV175)

A cultivated and introduced herb

Caprifoliaceae Sambucus peru6iana HBK A cultivated tree Sabucu or Samucu (Q) LF/SH

Infusion of leaves mixed with human urine is drunk to treat kidney inflammation, while crushed young leaves applied as dressing of external wounds is used to speed healing Infusion is drunk as an anti-inflammatory. Mixed with leaves of Desmodium mollicum, it is drunk to treat prostate cancer

Equisetaceae Equisetum bogotense HBK (IFV180) A cultivated shrub Cola de caballo (S) WH/RT

Fabaceae Cassia tomentosa L.f. (IFV236) A wild herb Huillash or Wishllac (Q) LF

Desmodium mollicum (HBK) DC (IFV185) LF/SH

An Andean herb or Pata de perro (S) vine Otholobium glandulosum (L.) Grimes (IFV184) A wild shrub or Culen (S) ´ tree An Andean herb Mitzca-mitzca (Q) RT

LF

The leaves are crushed and ground and mixed with parsley and are applied to cuts and wounds to speed healing and to act as a disinfectant Infusion is drunk for its anti-inflammatory action, especially of the liver and kidneys Infusion of the young leaves is drunk to treat diarrhea and as a health tonic Decoction is drunk to treat uterine cancer and liver and kidney inflammation

Geraniaceae Geranium sessiliflorum Cav. (IFV227)

Iridaceae Orthrosanthus chrimboracensis (HBK) Baker (IFV402) An Andean herb Parajsha (Q) An Andean shrub Ratanya (Q) or subshrub

WH

Decoction with Werneria caespitosa is drunk to treat uterine cancer RT/ST Decoction is drunk in cases of diarrhea and inflammatories and for the treatment of stomach cancer WH LF LF

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Krameriaceae Krameria lappacea (Dombey) Burdet et B. Simpson (IFV335)

Lamiaceae Lepechinia meyenii (Walp.) Epling (IFV354) Melissa officinalis L. (IFV831)

Minthostachys mollis Griseb. (IFV077)

An Andean herb Tequar (Q) An introduced and Toronjil (S) cultivated herb A native subshrub Muna (Q) ~

Used as an anti-spasmodic and carminative Infusion of the leaves is used as a sedative and hypotensive Infusion of the leaves is drunk or whole leaves eaten as a vegetable to treat digestive ailments and as an anthelmintic and an aphrodisiac

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Table 1 (Continued) Plant note Local name in Quechua (Q) and Spanish (S) Parts useda Preparation and uses

Botanical name (voucher no.)

Loasaceae Mentzelia cordifolia Dombey ex Urban and Gilg (IFV321) A herb, shrub or subshrub Anhuarate (Q) ´ ST/BK/LF

Decoction is used to treat ear aches by applying the juice of crushed leaves inside the ear. Also used as a wound-healing agent Used as an anti-spasmodis

Myrtaceae Eugenia myrtomimeta Diels (IFV076) An introduced and cultivated herb An endangered epiphytic herb Congona (Q) WH Arrayan de Castilla (S) ´ LF

Piperaceae Peperomia galioides HBK var galioides (IFV331)

Crushed plant is used as a compress for cuts and wounds to speed healing. The juice is swallowed to treat gastric ulcersb Crushed young leaves are applied as a dressing of external wounds; decoction of the leaves, together with those of Chenopodium murale (`hierba del gallinazo'), a few drops of lime juice and salt, are drunk to treat uterine cancer

Polygonaceae Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia (HBK) Meiss. (IFV325) A cultivated liana, Puma-huascan (Q) shrub or vine LF

Polypodiaceae Adiantum capillus-6eneris L. (IFV083) A wild herb Culantrillo (S)

Fronds

Infusion of leaves is used as an emenagogue and to treat bronchitis and coughs ST/BK Decoction of the branches together with leaves of Alnus jouillensis is drunk to treat inflammation of the uterus. It is said to be a treatment for uterine cancer LF Crushed leaves are applied as a dressing of external wounds, while decoction of the leaves is drunk as an antipyretic and for its antibacterial properties

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Rosaceae Polylepis racemosa R. et P. (IFV407) An endangered native tree Quenual (Q)

Solanaceae Cestrum auriculatum L'Herit (IFV075) ´

An Andean shrub Herbia santa (S)

Verbenaceae Verbena litoralis HBK fma. Albiflora (IFV080)

A herb

Verbena (S)

LF

Decoction is used as an anthelmintic and for th etreatment of rheumatism

a

b

BK, bark; FL, flower; FR, fruit; LF, leaf; NI, no information; RS, resin; RT, root; SH, shoot; ST, stem; WD, wood; WH, whole plant without root. According to several healers, external wounds treated in this manner do not form a scar. However, prolonged treatment is claimed to cause temporary amnesia.

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3.1. Anacardiaceae

The use of Schinus molle L. for the treatment of colds, coughs, asthma and rheumatism, reported by herbalists in the Callejon de Huaylas, has been ´ corroborated by De Feo's survey of medicinal and magical plants in northern Peru, in which the ´ leaves and fruits are also used internally in a decoction as an antirheumatic and in the treatment of respiratory infections (De Feo, 1992). According to the authors, the latter use may be due to the presence of volatile sesquiterpenes, including limonene, phellandrenes, and pinenes, in the essential oils from S. molle berries and leaves (Bernhard et al., 1983; Maffei and Chialva, 1990).

3.2. Asteraceae

The aerial parts of Culcitium canescens var. canescens (syn.: Senecio canescens var. canescens) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) are used by people of the Callejon de Huaylas, for the treatment of ´ coughs, bronchitis and asthma. These uses have been corroborated in other regions of Peru, where ´ a decoction of this plant has been used to treat coughs and fever. In addition, this plant has been used for the relief of pain around the breasts in women (Abdo et al., 1992; Okuyama et al., 1994). Experimental studies appear to substantiate the latter claims. The extract has been shown to possess in vivo analgesic and antipyretic activities and barbiturate potentiation (Okuyama et al., 1994). A recent phytochemical study uncovered novel furanoeremophilanes and cacalohastine derivatives (Abdo et al., 1992), but none of them was found to be responsible for the analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extract. Another phytochemical communication showed the presence of kaempferol glycosides and caffeoyl derivatives in C. canescens (D'Agostino et al., 1995c). The anti-inflammatory use of Gamochaeta spicata Lamarck (syn.: Gamochaeta americana (Miller) Weddell) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) as reported by the herbalists of the Callejon de ´ Huaylas has not been corroborated in the literature. In Argentina, G. spicata has been used against diarrhea and in the treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections (Perez and

Anesini, 1994). Dried leaves and stem of Bolivian G. spicata have been studied for its leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity but found to be inactive (Fournet et al., 1994). In vivo studies of G. spicata showed no antimicrobial activity (Anesini and Perez, 1993). The infusion of the leaves of Jungia paniculata (DC) A. Gray (syn.: Dumerilia paniculata Cassini, Dumerilia paniculata DC) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used in the Callejon de Huaylas as an ´ anti-inflammatory and disinfectant. The disinfectant action has been noted also by the people living in the northern Peruvian Andes, Department of Piura, where a decoction of the branches is used internally to treat genitourinary infections (De Feo, 1992). None of these uses, however, has been confirmed in the laboratory. A single phytochemical communication on J. paniculata has reported the presence of flavonol glycosides (D'Agostino et al., 1995b). Mutisia acuminata R. et P. var. acuminata Cabrera (syn.: Mutisia peduncularis Cavanilles, Mutisia 6iciaefolia Cavanilles) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used as an external cicatrizant and as a liver anti-inflammatory by the community of the Callejon de Huaylas. In vivo studies, however, ´ showed no wound-healing activity in this plant (Vaisberg et al., 1997), but 11,12-dihydroxy-5methylcoumestan, isolated from the methanol extract from the aerial parts of M. acuminata, has shown antihepatotoxic activity in cultured hepatocytes (Daily et al., 1988). In our opinion, the presence of this compound may explain the antiinflammatory action on the liver. A recent phytochemical communication described the presence of flavonoids in the aerial parts of M. acuminata (Catalano et al., 1995a). In the Callejon de Huaylas, a decoction of the ´ leaves of Senecio culcitioides Schultz-Bip. is drunk for the treatment of coughs, bronchitis and asthma. No other reports on the medicinal uses of this plant are known. Herbalists from the Callejon de Huaylas recom´ mend drinking an infusion of the leaves of Senecio rhizomatosus to treat internal wounds and also to increase biliary secretion. In a different study of the medicinal and magical plants of northern Peru, S. rhizomatosus is used as a vulnerary, skin ´

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depurative and in the treatment of pneumonia (De Feo, 1992). Among the community of the Callejon de ´ Huaylas, a decoction of the leaves of Senecio tephrosioides is usually drunk for the treatment of coughs and bronchitis. No other uses have been found in the literature for this plant, a recent phytochemical communication listed the major components of its essential oils (FernandezZuniga et al., 1996). ~ The dried leaves of Tagetes filifolia Lag. (syn.: T. dichotoma Turcz., T. foeniculacea Poeppig ex DC, T. pusilla HBK, T. silenoides Meyen et Walpers) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) are used by the people of the Callejon de Huaylas against ´ stomach ache and intestinal pain or discomfort. No confirmatory evidence has been found in the literature. In other parts of Peru, this plant has ´ been used with quids of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (Erythroxylaceae) (Plowman, 1984). Only the essential oils of the genus Tagetes have been analyzed (Lawrence, 1985). Though not a native of the Callejon de Huay´ las, Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. (syn.: Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernhardi, Matricaria parthenium L.) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used by these peoples as an antispasmodic. This plant has received much attention in the literature (Makheja and Bailey, 1981; Browner, 1985; Heptinstall et al., 1985; Johnson et al., 1985; Darias et al., 1986; Loesche et al., 1988; Lokar and Poldini, 1988; Sumner et al., 1992; Acevedo et al., 1993), although its antispasmodic effect has not been studied. The Purepecha indians in Mexico have used an infusion of the dried leaves and stem against some enterobacteriaceae. In vitro studies have confirmed the antibacterial activity of T. parthenium against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhosa and Shigella boydii. In the Callejon de Huaylas, 6a decoction of the ´ aerial parts of Werneria caespitosa is drunk for the treatment of uterine cancer. No other reports on this plant are known. Werneria nubigena HBK (syn.: Werneria stuebelii Hieron.) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used among the community of the Callejon de Huaylas ´ for the treatment of uterine cancer. No other reports are found in the literature for this plant,

except for a phytochemical communication that states the presence of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Roeder et al., 1992).

3.3. Betulaceae

Alnus acuminata HBK is used by herbal doctors in the Callejon de Huaylas in conjunction with ´ Polylepis racemosa (Rosaceae) to treat uterine cancer. The only other reference to A. acuminata--unrelated to its use as an anticancer agent--comes from a cosmetic preparation involving this plant and Schinus molle, Mutisia acuminata, Desmodium mollicum, Culcitium canescens, Melissa officinalis and Krameria triandra. This mixture has been patented recently as a skin-lightening cosmetic containing natural tyrosinase inhibitors (Komazaki et al., 1994).

3.4. Boraginaceae

Borago officinalis L. is a cultivated and introduced herb in the Callejon de Huaylas, where it is ´ used in the treatment of coughs. Similar claims have been made in Argentina, where a decoction of the dried pedicels is used to treat respiratory infections (Anesini and Perez, 1993) and in the Canary Islands, where an infusion of the dried flowers (known as `borraja' or `borracha') is used as an anticatarrhal agent and as a febrifuge (Darias et al., 1986). This plant has been the subject of various phytochemical studies (Mandich et al., 1984; Dodson and Stermitz, 1986), in which the seeds have been shown to contain fatty acids (Carnat et al., 1988; Sensidoni et al., 1994, 1995) and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Larson et al., 1984; Luethy et al., 1984; Parvais et al., 1994).

3.5. Caprifoliaceae

Leaves of Sambucus peru6iana HBK are used by the people of the Callejon de Huaylas as an ´ anti-inflammatory and a wound-healing properties. In other regions of Peru, the leaves are used ´ for different applications: either as a decoction for mouth washes, in cases of oral infections, or chopped for galactophorous applications. The inflorescences are decocted and drunk as an

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aphrodisiac, sudorific, urinary anti-infective, depurative and antirheumatic (De Feo, 1992). No biological or phytochemical studies on S. peru6iana have been reported.

3.8. Geraniaceae

In the Callejon de Huaylas, a decoction of the ´ roots of Geranium sessiliflorum Cav. is drunk to treat uterine cancer, and liver and kidney inflammation. No other reports on this plant have been found in the literature.

3.6. Equisetaceae

Equisetum bogotense HBK (syn.: E. giganteum L.) (De Feo, 1992) is used by herbal doctors in the Callejon de Huaylas as an anti-inflammatory ´ agent and for the treatment of cancer by mixing it with Desmodium mollicum. In the Department of Piura, northern Peru, a decoction of the whole ´ plant of E. bogotense is used externally as a vulnerary, skin depurative, topical anti-infective and antihemorragic. An infusion of the same whole plant is drunk to treat malarial fevers, gallstones, kidney stones and as a diuretic (De Feo, 1992). The diuretic action has been corroborated by in vivo studies on rats, albeit weak, and strong hypotensive activity (Rodriguez et al., 1994).

3.9. Iridaceae

In the Callejon de Huaylas, a decoction of ´ the aerial parts of Orthrosanthus chimboracensis (HBK) Baker, mixed with Werneria caespitosa, is drunk to treat uterine cancer. No other reports on this plant have been found in the literature.

3.10. Krameriaceae

The root of Krameria lappacea (syn.: Krameria canescens Willd. ex Schultes, K. linearis Poiret, K. pentapetala R. et P., K. triandra R. et P., K. triandra var. humboldtiana Chodat, Landia lappacea Dombey) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used in the Callejon de Huaylas as both an antidi´ arrheic and anti-inflammatory and also in the treatment of stomach cancer. The anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheic claims of K. lappacea have been corroborated in other regions of the world, where it is recommended against inflammations of the mouth and throat, hemorrhoids and diarrhea. In addition, it is widely used because of its astringent properties. The astringency is probably due to the presence of proanthocyanadins in the root (Scholz and Rimpler, 1989). Biological studies have confirmed the antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of K. lappacea (Scholz and Rimpler, 1989). Neolignans and dineolignans with antimicrobial and antifungal activity have also been isolated from the roots of K. lappacea (Arnone et al., 1988, 1990; De Bellis et al., 1994). The alleged anticancer action of K. lappacea appears to be unfounded, since extract of the plant has been shown to be inactive against sarcoma WM256 in rats (Wall et al., 1969).

3.7. Fabaceae

Cassia tomentosa L.f. (syn.: Senna multiglandulosa (Jacquin) H. Irwin et Barneby) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used in the Callejon de Huaylas ´ as a wound-healing and disinfectant agent. No other reports have been found in the literature for this plant, except for a phytochemical communication that determined the presence of anthraquinones (Abegaz et al., 1994) and bianthraquinones (Alemayehu and Abegaz, 1996) in samples from Ethiopia. The anti-inflammatory action of Desmodium mollicum (syn.: Hedysarum molliculum HBK, Meibomia mollicula (HBK.) Kuntze) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) has not been corroborated in the literature. No other reports have been found, except for a phytochemical communication that determined the presence of flavone and flavonol glycosides (D'Agostino et al., 1995a). In the Callejon de Huaylas, an infusion of ´ young leaves of Otholobium glandulosum (L.) Grimes is drunk as a health tonic and for the treatment of diarrhea. No other reports on this plant have been found in the literature.

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3.11. Lamiaceae

Lepechinia meyenii (Walpers) Epling (syn.: Sphacele meyenii (Walpers) J. F. Macbride, Stachys meyenii Walpers) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used in the Callejon de Huaylas as an ´ antispasmodic and carminative. These uses have not been corroborated, as no other reports have been found in the literature for this plant, except for a phytochemical communication that determined the presence of abietane diterpenoids in the aerial parts of plant (Bruno et al., 1991). Melissa officinalis L. is a cultivated and introduced herb in the Callejon de Huaylas, used as ´ a sedative and hypotensive. These claimed therapeutic effects has been verified in the laboratory, where the fresh leaves and the ethanol extract of this plant produced a tranquilizing effect in an experiment with mice, as well as an analgesic effect (Soulimani et al., 1991). A similar tranquilizing effect has been reported with humans, when the leaves of M. officinalis were mixed with those of Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) (Lindhahl and Lindwall, 1989). An infusion of the leaves of Minthostachys mollis Grisebach (syn.: Bystropogon mollis HBK, nom. Illeg.) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used as a digestive, anthelmintic and aphrodisiac in the Callejon de Huaylas. The digestive action of ´ M. mollis has been corroborated by similar use in Argentina (Bandoni et al., 1972). In addition, also in Argentina, a decoction of dried branches and leaves of M. mollis has been used as an antidiarrheic and in the treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections (Anesini and Perez, 1993). In the laboratory, the extract was found to be inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Perez and Anesini, 1994). Experimental evidence has shown that M. mollis is mutagenic at a concentration of 30 vg/ml of the crude extract. The mutagenic effect resembled the induced rate of 1 vM of benzo[a]pyrene (Carvajal and Thilly, 1988). A phytochemical communication indicated the presence of volatile terpenoids in the essential oils of M. mollis (Alkire et al., 1994).

3.12. Loasaceae

Mentzelia cordifolia Dombey ex Urban et Gilg is used in the Callejon de Huaylas as an anal´ gesic and cicatrizant. According to De Feo (1992), inhabitants of the Department of Piura, northern Peru, use the decoction of the aerial ´ parts of this plant internally as an anthelmintic, cholagogue and cicatrizant for gastric ulcers. The cicatrizant activity, however, has not been confirmed in vivo (Vaisberg et al., 1997). A phytochemical communication indicated the presence of phenolics and iridoid compounds in M. cordifolia (Catalano et al., 1992, 1995b).

3.13. Myrtaceae

The leaves of Eugenia myrtomimeta Diels (syn.: Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) are used as an antispasmodic by the community of the Callejon de ´ Huaylas. The one other reference to E. myrtomimeta in the literature, reported that an ethanolic extract of the dried leaves and stem had been evaluated for its xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity but was found inactive (Theoduloz et al., 1991).

3.14. Piperaceae

The juice from the crushed leaves of Peperomia galioides HBK var. galioides (syn.: Peperomia agapatensis C. DC) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is widely used in the Callejon de Huaylas ´ as a wound-healing agent for external and internal (gastric ulcers) wounds. According to De Feo (1992) it is also used as a cicatrizant in the Department of Piura, northern Peruvian Andes, where the people apply it externally as a lenitive for hemorrhoids and by rubbing, to prevent hair-loss. The wound-healing activity has been demonstrated in vivo in mice, using the crude extract (Vaisberg et al., 1997). Furthermore, the petroleum ether extract of Peperomia galioides from Bolivia has shown significant in vitro activity against three Leishmania species and Trypanosoma cruzi. (Mahiou et al., 1996).

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3.15. Polygonaceae

The juice from the crushed leaves of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia 6(HBK) Meissner (syn.: Calacinum peru6ianum (Meissner) J.F. Macbride, Coccoloba monoica Ruiz ex Meissner, Polygonum tamnifolium HBK) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used mainly as a cicatrizant of external wounds by the herbal doctors of the Callejon de ´ Huaylas. Its use as a wound-healing agent has also been noted in the northern part of Peru, ´ where it is used internally as a cicatrizant for gastric ulcers (De Feo, 1992). A decoction of the aerial parts of the same plant is used externally as a vulnerary and cicatrizant. In vivo cicatrizant studies, however, showed no wound-healing effect in M. tamnifolia (Vaisberg et al., 1997). A previous phytochemical report on the roots of M. tamnifolia from Ecuador determined the presence of free anthraquinones (chrysophanic acid, emodin and rhein) and anthraquinone glycosides (Martinod et al., 1973).

al., 1989) and antiviral activity (Husson et al., 1986). According to the authors, these biological activities may serve to corroborate the use of A. capillus-6eneris in the treatment of respiratory affections among the people of the Huaylas. A. capillus-6eneris has been the subject of several phytochemical studies (Akabori and Hasegawa, 1969; Berti et al., 1969; Imperato, 1982a,b,c,d; Sato and Furuya, 1983; Marino et al., 1989; Mahran et al., 1994).

3.17. Rosaceae

In the Callejon de Huaylas, a decoction of the ´ bark of Polylepis racemosa R. et P., mixed with the leaves of Alnus jouillensis is drunk to treat inflammation of the uterus and uterine cancer. No other reports on this plant have been found in the literature.

3.18. Solanaceae

The leaves of Cestrum auriculatum L'Heritier (syn.: C. lasianthum Dunal, C. leptanthum var. majus Dunal, C. leptanthum var. micranthum Dunal, C. serratum Dunal) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) are used by the people of the Callejon ´ de Huaylas for its antipyretic and antibacterial action. The only other available literature reference indicates that the leaves of C. auriculatum are used in the coast and mountain regions of Peru for the treatment of hemorrhoids and ´ headaches (rubbed on the forehead) and as a febrifuge, antirheumatic and astringent (De Feo, 1992).

3.16. Polypodiaceae

Adiantum capillus-6eneris L. is used in the Callejon de Huaylas primarily as an emena´ gogue and in the treatment of bronchitis and coughs. Traditional medicinal uses in other regions do not appear to corroborate these effects, however, other claims have been made. For example, in the Department of Piura, a decoction of the whole plant is used internally as a sudorific, diuretic and to treat gallstones. It is also mixed with milk and drunk as an anti-icteric. Externally, it is rubbed to prevent hair loss (De Feo, 1992); this hair-stimulant effect has also been observed in the Venezia Giullia region of Italy (Lokar and Poldini, 1988). The Mexican Kickapoo Indians use a decoction of the entire plant (`helecho culantrillo') for its claimed antifertility effect, for which it is mixed with Dryopteris normalis (Polypodiaceae) and drunk for four consecutive mornings following intercourse (La Torre and La Torre, 1977). The methanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of A. capillus6eneris has shown antibacterial (Mahmoud et

3.19. Verbenaceae

The aerial parts of Verbena litoralis HBK fma. albiflora (syn.: Verbena litoralis var. albiflora Moldenke) (Brako and Zarucchi, 1993) is used as anthelmintic and antirheumatic by the people in the Callejon de Huaylas. This plant, ´ used in Costa Rica in the treatment of diarrhea (Castro et al., 1990), has been shown to contain cafeoil and iridoid glycosides (Umana and Castro, 1990).

28

G.B. Hammond et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 61 (1998) 17­30

4. Conclusions Of the 33 medicinal plant species surveyed in the Callejon de Huaylas, six have not been previ´ ously reported in the literature (Geranium sessiliflorum, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium glandulosum, Polylepis racemosa, Senecio culcitioides and Werneria caespitosa), while seven have received only minor phytochemical coverage (Alnus acuminata, Werneria nubigena, Cassia tomentosa, Desmodium mollicum, Lepechinia meyenii, Senecio tephrosioides and Verbena litoralis), and the medicinal uses of seven other plants have not been corroborated with traditional medicinal reports from around the world (Gamochaeta spicata, Senecio rhizomatosus, Tagetes filifolia, Sambucus peru6iana, Equisetum bogotense, Eugenia myrtomimeta and Tanacetum parthenium). The traditional medicinal uses of six medicinal plants have been corroborated by previously published reports, but their biological activities have yet to be confirmed in the laboratory (Schinus molle, Culcitium canescens, Jungia paniculata, Borago officinalis, Minthostachys mollis and Cestrum auriculatum). The medicinal uses of four other plants have been corroborated by previously published reports and their biological activities have also been confirmed in the laboratory (Krameria lappacea, Melissa officinalis, Peperomia galioides and Adiantum capillus-6eneris). The purported medicinal use of three plant species have not been confirmed in the laboratory (Mentzelia cordifolia, Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia and Mutisia acuminata).

authors also wish to extend their thanks to Mr Hugo Loli del Castillo for his invaluable help during the various expeditions to the Callejon de ´ Huaylas, to all the staff who helped identifying the plant specimens at the Herbarium of the Museo Natural Javier Prado and to the people of the Callejon de Huaylas for sharing their valuable ´ knowledge, especially Victoria Lazaro, Alejandro ´ Silva, Alvina Guane y Severiana Leon. ´ ´

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Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance of the National Institutes of Health (Grant c 1 R15 CA 56911-01A1), National Science Foundation (Grant c INT-9221270) and the Program in Science and Technology Cooperation, Office of the Science Advisor, US Agency for International Development (Grant No. 9365542-G-00-918-00). The corresponding author (GBH) is grateful to the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation (TH-96-012) for its support. The

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