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Spring 2009

Delta Delta Sigma

PRESIDENT

University of Washington Pre-Dental

Brian Cheung

VICE-PRESIDENT

Chris Lee

VOLUNTEER COORDINATOR

Daniel Murphy

SECRETARY

Allison Byun

ACTIVITIES COORDINATOR

Amandeep Virk

PUBLIC RELATIONS

Trusha Patel

TREASURER

Tracy Ngo

WEBMASTER

Katie Rowley

DAT'S STUDY GUIDE: DAT'S ARE COMING UP!!!!! - See what books ACTUALLY help you. - What are some recommendations for the DAT? - Excellent practice questions books. -- Check it out inside! --

ALSO INSIDE:

Dental Specialities, Wonderful volunteer opportunities for Freshmen/Sophomores, and MUCH MORE!

Dental Specialities

By: Brian Cheung

Hey pre-dents! Below is a list of all the recognized dental specialties in the United States, along with a brief summary describing each. Please contact me at [email protected] washingotn.edu if you have any questions. Thanks! Dental Public Health - The science of controlling and preventing dental disease promoting dental health - Concerned with the dental health education of communities and the public over all Endodontics - The specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the physiology, pathology, and morphology of the human dental pulp - Specialist that patients would go to if a root canal procedure is needed Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology -Specialtythatdealswiththeidentificationandmanagementofdiseasesaffecting the oral and maxillofacial regions Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology - Specialty that is concerned with the production and interpretation of images that are used for diagnosis and/or management of diseases and disorders affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery - Specialty that includes the diagnosis, surgical and adjunctive treatment of dis eases involving the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics

- Braces! - Specialty that is concerned with the guidance and correction of the maturing dentofacial structures (moving teeth) Pediatric Dentistry -Age-definedspecialty - Provides primary and comprehensive oral healthcare for infants and children, including those with special healthcare needs Periodontics - Specialty that deals with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this eases related to the surrounding and supporting tissues of the teeth - Maintenance of the health and function of these tissues and structures (we do not want to lose our teeth!) Prosthodontics - Specialty that involves restoring and maintaining oral functions - Restoring natural teeth and/or replacing missing teeth -Restorecontiguousoralandmaxillofacialtissueswithartificialsubsti- tutes

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

DAT Study Guide

By Allison Hyunji Byun

I've compiled this list for those who are planning to study DAT alone without DAT prep courses. It can be confusing because there are so many materials out there, I hope this helps! DAT content Study Materials

Kaplan DAT 2008-2009 edition This is a comprehensive book that covers key points in all subjects (biology, organic chemistry, chemistry, PAT, quantitative reasoning, reading comprehension). I recommend this book to brush up on the rusty materials because it is easy to read, and straight forward. The down side is that it is too simple, especially the biology section, and fails to give the reader the depth of knowledge needed to do well on DAT. It has two practice tests, keep in mind that they are relatively easier than the real test, especially the PAT part.

Barrons DAT book This is also comprehensive book that covers all subjects like Kaplan book. Again, like the Kaplan book, it doesn't go into much depth in any of the subject. But it has very good PAT section and has some interesting strategies. I think it's worth to buy this book just for the PAT section.

Cliff's notes AP Biology

Schaum's Outline of Biology Personally, I think both Cliff notes and Schaum's are good books for supplementing biology section of DAT. They are both informative, but Schaum's Biology is more through and more time consuming to read through. Practice Problem Materials DAT Destroyer: book with DAT problems in biology, chemistry, organic chemistry and quantitative reasoning. Topscore, DAT Achiever: computerized DAT practice tests. Crack DAT PAT : computerized PAT practice tests. Additional Practice Problems Exam Krackers 1001 problems General Chemistry Exam Krackers 1001 problems Organic Chemistry Exam Krackers 1001 problems Biology

STUDY..... STUDY..... STUDY!!!!! *ACE THOSE DAT'S*

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

Improving Oral Healthcare Among the Elderly

By: Katie Rowley

Nearly one third of American adults over 65 have untreated dental caries, and of the 8000 oral cancer deaths in the nation per year, more than 4000 occur in this age group.1 Good oral health is essential to good overall health and, while it is necessary for everyone to maintain good oral health habits, some older patients are at particular risk for oral diseases and conditions due to systemic diseases and their use of certain medications.2 This age group has the lowest rates of dental visits among those aged 18 and older.3 Adults over the age of 65 currently comprise 12.6% of the US population, and that percentage is estimated to grow rapidly in the coming decades,4 making barriers to elders' use of professional dental services an increasingly important focus in dentistry. A lot of effort has been put into determining what barriers keep older adults from receivingregulardentalcareandmanyfactorshavebeenidentified.Becauseonly22%of those over 65 have dental insurance, including Medicaid, most pay out of pocket for their care.1Withmanyolderadultslivingonafixedincome,financialconstraintscanprohibit regular dental visits. Mobility issues can be a barrier on a number of levels, including lack of transportation and physical accessibility.5 Other factors that can keep the elderly from regular dental care are a low degree of independence, cultural and language barriers, and long appointment times.5 Whileeliminatingbarriersisanimportantfirststepinincreasingutilizationofdental services among older adults, improving physical access to dental care does not always increase dental visits.6 Because of this, it researchers have tried to determine the most important predictors of dental care utilization among seniors. The picture can be complex because there are often multiple predictors acting in concert. They may include gender,7 ethnicity,7 education level,5 and awareness of available services,8 but considerable evidence suggests that the perception of need may be the most important factor leading to the elderly seeking dental care.3 Unfortunately, many elders may not be aware that good oral health is important to good overall health, or that even the edentulous should be receiving regular oral examinations. If increasing the perception for dental care is indeed the most important factor in determining whether or not older adults receive the care they need, then it will be our duty as future dentists to increase awareness of good oral health among our growing senior population. Of course, the picture dental service utilization among the elderly is a complex one and no single factor will resolve the problem completely. Our sensitivity to the barriers

that older adults face will be an important aspect of improving their oral healthcare. As we become more conscious of the problems that face the elderly in our community, we will be more effective in reducing their incidences of dental disease and oral cancer among them.

1. Vargas CM, Kramarow EA, Yellowitz JA. (2001) The Oral Health of Older Americans. Aging Trends; No.3. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. 2. Dolan TA, Atchison KA. (1993) Implications of access, utilization, and need for oral health care by the noninstitutionalized and institutionalized elderly on the dental delivery system. J Dent Educ ;57(12):876-87 .3. Kiyak HA. (1987) An explanatory model of older persons' use of dental services. Implications for health policy. Med Care. (10):936-52. 4. http://www.agingstats.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_Documents/Population.aspx Number of Older American, AgingStats.gov 5. Janes GR, Blackman DK, Bolen JC, Kamimoto LA, Rhodes L, Caplan LS, et al. (1999) Surveillance for use of preventive health-care services by older adults, 1995­1997. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 48:51­88. 6. Dolan T, Atchison K, Huynh T. (2005) Access to dental care among older adults in the United States. J Dent Educ. 69(9):961-74. 7. Skaar DD, Hardie NA. (2006) Demographic factors associated with dental utilization among community dwelling elderly in the United States, 1997. J Public Health Dent. 66(1):67-71. 8. Wu B, Plassman BL, Liang J, Wei L. (2007) Cognitive function and dental care utilization among community-dwelling older adults. Am J PublicHealth. 97:2216­2221

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

Leaving the Poor Behind... the Lack of Dental Care For Needy Adults

By: Tracy Ngo

While President Obama and Governor Christine Gregoire have stated that SCHIP (State Children's Health Insurance Program) will be expanded to provide insurance for more children, we have not heard anything about increasing the funding of dental services for poor adults. Every year, dental care gets put on the state's budget cut chopping block. Dental care constantly gets ignored or pushed aside. In 2003, the adult dental budget was cut by 25% and the program eliminated coverage for root canals and crowns.Manyfearthatthe2009-2011budgetwillcuttheMedicaidoptionaldentalbenefitsaltogether. Many do not realize the impact of cutting dental care. A lack of dental care does not simply cause oral health problems. Oral infections can lead to serious health complications including strokes and heart attacks. Missing teeth creates problems in chewing which can lead to malnutrition. They can also affect a person's speech and appearance. Unfortunately, most oral infections can be prevented with regular checkups and treatment. What happens all too often is that poor, uninsured individuals do not obtain regularcheckupsandwillonlygotoadentalofficewhenthereisanemergency.Emergencyvisitscost significantlymorethanregularcheckups.Itissimplynotcost-effectiveforthegovernmenttocutdental care funding because in the long-run, it costs both the government and the people more money. WHAT IS MEDICAID? Medicaid is a federal-state health program that provides medical and dental services to individuals and familieswithlowincomesandfinancialresources.Dentalservicesarerequiredforthosewhoareunder 21 and eligible for Medicaid. Adults over the age of 21 are not guaranteed dental services. However, Washington is one of the only states that voluntarily provide dental coverage. STATS ·While71%ofAmericanshaveprivatemedicalinsurance,only33%haveprivatedental insurance. ·Halfofalldentalproceduresperformedarepaidout-of-pocket. ·UWSchoolofDentistryprovides$2.4millioninuncompensatedcaretothousandsof patients each year. ·In2008,Washingtonspent$36millionondentaltreatmentfor116,000Medicaid adults;whereas,$98millionwasspenton330,000Medicaidchildren. ·HalfofallstatesprovidenodentalcoveragethroughMedicaid. While the politicians work on the budget, there are still a few options for those who are uninsured. OPTIONS FOR DENTAL CARE:

Community Clinics Tofindonenearyou,visithttp://www.chs.hca.wa.gov/clinics.html. Dental Schools Dental hygiene schools provide free or low-cost dental exams and cleanings as training for their students ·LakeWashingtonTechnicalCollege425.739.8130 ·ShorelineCommunityCollege206.546.4711 Dental schools offer a full range of dental services. Dental students perform the services at 20% to 40% less than private practice dentists. Departments include emergency, DECOD (program for the disabled), endodontics, periodontics, pedodontics and oral surgery. ·UWSchoolofDentistry206.616.6996

Mobile Dental Vans These are dental clinics that operate on wheels. NW Medical Teams Mobile Dental Clinic Program ­ There are 8 mobile dental vans offering dental services to low-income/homeless individuals or migrant farm workers. They serve Pierce, King, Snohomish, Skagit, Thurston and Lewis counties. University of Washington Mobile Geriatric Dental Clinic WSDA Outreach WSDA Outreach is a discount dental care program for elderly, disabled, and Alzheimer's patients with limited incomes.

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

What to Consider Before Deciding on the Right Dental School for You

By Amandeep Virk

Choosing the right dental school for you, out of 58 schools in total, is not always an easy task. Applying to dental schools is a costly and timely process and each school applied to should be given close consideration. Since every applicant is looking for very different characteristics within the dental school of their choice, deciding which dental school to apply to is a verypersonaldecision.Thefirststepistodefineyourpreferencesandneeds.Knowyourgeographical preference, the type of curriculum you are looking for, and range of tuition you are willing to pay, etc It is important to remember that each dental school is very different, and each school offers very different types of experiences. Each dental school offers a very different range of curriculum options. Some schools utilize problem-based learning, which is a student-centered approach that allows students to work in small groups and collaboratively solve problems. Other schools organize their curricula along a more integrative approach. Then there are schools that follow a more traditional approach with classroom instruction followed by clinical training. Understanding the differences among the curriculums will give you a better understanding of which school to apply to and what type of educational environment is most suitable for you. Another important factor to consider when choosing the right school is whether it is focused more oncommunity-basedcareororalhealthresearch.Again,thisisapersonalchoicewhichreflects yourinterestsandpassioninthefieldofdentistry.Ifyouprefergettingmoreinvolvedwith community-based care, you want to apply to a school that offers a public health focus and opportunities in gaining experiences in community clinics. If you are more interested in research,

you want to look for a dental school with a stronger research focus and with many student research opportunities. Again,thekeyistodefineyourpreferencesandneedsandthenpickdentalschoolsthat correspond.Tohelpyoudothat,ADEAOfficialGuidetoDentalSchoolpresentsquestionsthat will help you decide on which dental schools are best for you: - What is the focus of the dental school's training, and does it match my interests and needs? - What is the structure of the curriculum in terms of what is taught and where? - What academic resources are available? - What services are available to students? - Where is the school located?

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

Dentanomics

By: Chris Lee

Thiseconomicdownturnhasimpactedthefieldofdentistryjustas itdidtoanyfieldofprofession.Thisrecessionhascausedadecreasein consumption, which means that less people are visiting the dentist. A majority of cases and procedures per dentist are executed on patients without private dental insurance. These patients fund for their dental care with out-of-pocket cash; therefore, hasbeenvisitingthedentistfarless.Also,thegovernment'sincreaseinbudgetdeficitshascausedbudgetcuts in Medicaid, which means less coverage and less visits to the dentist. Revenue has drastically fallen for dentists alloverthecountry.Inaweatheredeconomy,dentistswillnoticethefollowingsetbacksintheirdentaloffice:a decline in acceptance of treatments, especially the electives; an increase in unpaid compensations; a higher rate of no-shows or last minute-cancellations of appointments; an increase in patients who switch to practices that accepttheirspecificinsurancecoverage. Although proper maintenance of oral health is unpopular to the majority of the United States population, it is necessary and is a service that is valued by most. However, many of the uneducated do not see the importance of dental care; therefore, avoid visiting the dentist to cut annual costs from their budget. Also, another large number of people will run away from the dentist due to a development of a fear or phobia of receiving treatments from dentists. Yet, because of the high demand and high cost of dental care due to limiteddentists,advancedtechnology,andthespecializationoftheprofession;thedentalfieldisnotasmall industry.Thefieldcontributeswidelytotheeconomy,intermsofspendingandcirculatingmoney.Theaverage Americanpatientspendsroughly$600peryearout-of-pocket,notincludingtheamountinsurancecompanies reimburse,whichisaboutanother$600.In1997,astudymeasuredthatdentalofficesearnedanaverage revenueof$424,618,whichincreasesatanapproximatepercentageof4%peryear. In2000,thegovernmentaccumulated$33billionintaxesbytheentiredentalindustrydirectlyor indirectly. These taxes include social security, personal income, property, sales, and indirect business taxes. Clearly,thefieldofdentistryisproventobebeneficialfortheeconomybydollarsgeneratedandcirculated. Astudycalculatedthetotaleconomicimpactinputtedbydentiststobe$203.6billion.(Thiswascalculated by taking 20% of the revenue data of dentists, physicians, and other health care professionals used by the government for input-output analysis.) The total impact can be further measured by being divided by industry levels. The three major industries that are impacted the most by the dentalfieldareservices; finances,insurance,andreal estate; and manufacturing. Dentistry impacts these three industries in the monetary amount ofrespectively,$35,536,613,376; $29,089,851,392; $24,705,718,272.Theindirect and induced impacts on other industries including the three

These large numbers are a result from the fact that the dental career is a business. Dentists hire services such as business consulting firms and accountants, because practice management and financing is not a forte of many dentists. To protect themselves, dentists pay large amounts of money for malpractice insurance and loan thousands of dollars to open a practice which that credit money circulates to real estate. Capital in a dental office does not only include dental equipment per say, but thousands of dollars in furnishings as well. Furthermore, dentists have large incomes with expensive hobbies and interest- golfing, traveling, collecting wines and cigars, are amongst these. Any of their excess spending stimulates the economy. The expansion of the economy that the dentist creates is apparently not only caused by patients, but by the dentist and their office as well. This large impact can be seen in comparison to other sectors- poultry and eggs, petroleum refining, and motor vehicles in the graph below:

This graph puts into perspective the high-value dentistry adds to the economy. Advancements in oralhealthcaremanagementwithfluoridationofwater,whichdecreasesdentalcaries,andadvancements in bonding for longer lasting treatments has not slowed down the business of dentistry. The total economic impactofoneadditionaldentalofficeintheUnitedStateseconomyismeasuredtobe$1,278,253in2000. Also,tofurthermeasuretheeconomicimpactofanadditionofonedentaloffice,thetotalannualimpact onlaborincomewas$570,686;thetotalannualimpactontaxeswas$207,518;thetotalvalueaddedper yearwas$798,411.Thevariablevalueaddedinthedentalsectorismeasuredbytotalrevenuereceived subtractedbyexpensespaidtowardsrawmaterials,services,andfinishedproducts.Inaddition,the directvalueaddedinthedentalfield,whichwas$47,787,556,864in2000,isthevalue-addedofadental workforceinspecificallythedentalsector. During times of struggle, you notice how connected this world is. The stock market bubble led to a housing bubble, which the end result is unemployment, mass losses in retirement, and foreclosure of homes. From janitors, business owners, to lawyers, everyone is struggling in some way and is required to make a forced adjustment in quality of life. Describing the ways dentistry has been and will be impacted by the economy puts into clear perspective the value of hard work and discipline. Since many facets of this world is connected, it is necessary for the people of this country to connect amongst each other to collectively be a strong support group during these times of confusion and darkness. * House DR; Fry CL; Brown LJ The Economic Impact of Dentistry Journal of The American Dental Association (1939) [J Am Dent Assoc] 2004 Mar; Vol. 135 (3), pp. 347-52

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

Freshmen and Sophomores: Can you hear an ECOH?

By: Dan Murphy

That's ECOH for Early Childhood Oral Health, and it is a project between the Pediatric Department of the University of Washington and nearby Children's Hospital. If you've yet to become familiar with the great staff at ECOH, then let DDS as you a few questions: + Are you interested in public health, or oral health education? + Does the pediatric dentistry seem possible in your future? +Would you like a structured, rewarding commitment in this area to best prepare mal education in dental school?

you for-

If these questions seem to turn on a little light in your head, then please keep reading as the opportunities available to DDS members are so good, this newsletter may as well be a silver platter! Some background for those of you who could not attend our December field trip to the future site of the ECOH clinic: First, it will be a clinic exclusively designed for the underserved pediatric patients of Washington State, accommodating about 30,000 visits a year after its grand opening in September 2010. With an area of over 25,000 square feet, it will be more than ten times the size of the current, and difficult-to-find pediatric clinic that is in the B wing of the School of Dentistry. It will be located at Sand Point Naval Base, about three miles from UW. A short bus ride gets you from upper campus to a few steps from their front door. With drive-up access to the front door and generous parking available, the new ECOH clinic will be of great value to our community. And because of its much-needed expansion, the clinic is looking to the enthusiastic and motivated members of DDS to contribute to the day-to-day operations of the clinic by assisting patients and their families in a variety of ways. In the spring of next year, ECOH will begin a comprehensive, structured program to prepare students that will be needed for the new facility. The training* is expected to take about 30 hours to be distributed over several months before the grand opening, with the student's commitment to the clinic expected to last through the 2010-2011 academic year. To best match your all-important school schedule, the administrators of ECOH are looking to design a fixed weekly staffing schedule. This translates to consistency for you, the volunteer, and the success of the ambitious needs of the clinic.

If you would like to learn more, there are several things you can do this quarter! First, participate in an outreach event for oral health education for children. There are several scheduled for spring term 2009; these details are found in the DDS e-mailings. The outreach manager, Dana Robinson Slote, is a very friendly, energetic, and knowledgeable member of the ECOH team, and she is very eager to meet talented pre-dents like you. Perhaps you can spend some time learning more about the outreach volunteer internship that is available in her office? Or perhaps you are keen on research experience? She can tell you more about the assistantship position that needs to be filled. There is talk of upcoming clinical trials in spring quarter, too, and while details are still being worked out, be sure that several students will be needed to participate. Delta Delta Sigma members are being given advance notice of these and other career- and knowledgebuilding occasions ­ get involved and invest in your future! *This training is in addition to preparation that students need to make to become qualified volunteers through the University of Washington School of Dentistry. Please refer to the DDS website for downloadable forms to become a registered volunteer. ECOH's requirements go above and beyond those of the School of Dentistry. Advance planning, as always, is of utmost importance

.

DELTA DELTA SIGMA WWW.STUDENTS.WASHINGTON.EDU/DENTAL [email protected]

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