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Innovation in Japan Shinkansen Network, Japan

·Meiji Period ­ Industrial Revolution and connection to conquered areas caused motivation for new technologies ·Occupied Period ­ Forced peaceful national investment ·Electrification

Map of Shinkansen Network (japan-guide.com, 2009.)

Amy Bernknopf

Source: wikipedia.org, 2009.

Expansion of the Shinkansen

Emergence of Shinkansen

Sanyo Shinkansen Tohoku Shinkansen

Strong leadership from Shinji Sogo, President of JNR and Chi f f d Chief engineer Hideo Shima 1957 Conference at JNR-owned Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) promoting new technologies Commission created and proposals reviewed and passed quickly 1964 Tokaido line complete and Tokyo Olympics

Source: wikipedia.org, 2009.

Source: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/life/2005/08/19/stories/20050819001 20300.htm, 2009

Source: http://8tokyo.com/2007/10/, 2009.

Joetsu Shinkansen Nagano Shinkansen Kyushu Shinkansen

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E3-2000-L67-ofYamagata-Shinkansen.jpg, 2009.

Expansion of Shinkansen ­ "mini" Shinkansen and JRs Map

Akita Shinkansen

Expansion of the Shinkansen Network

Line Takaido Sanyo Tohoku Joetsu Hokuriku Yamagata Akita From/to Tokyo-Shin Osaka Shin Osaka-Hakata Tokyo-Morioka Tokyo-Niihata Takasaki-Nagano Fukushima-Shinjo Morioka-Akita Kagoshima-Yatsushiro (still under construction) Length (km) Opening Date(s) Max. speed (km/hr) 515 554 593 270 117 149 127 1964 1972/75 1982/85 1991/2002 1982 1997 1992/99 1997 270 300 275 275 260 130 130

Source: http://www.japanrail.com/index.php?page=JRShinkansen-bullet-train, 2009.

Yamagata Shinkansen

Kyushu

126

2004

200

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E3-2000L67-of-Yamagata-Shinkansen.jpg, 2009.

Source: http://www.japantravel.co.uk/site/jrpass_main.html, 2009.

Existing network of Shinkansen (Smith, Roderick, The Japanese Shinkansen, 2003; jrkyush.co.jp/english/index.html, 2009.

Shinkansen Quasi-Privatization Quasi1949 Creation JNR 1987 ­ JNR divided and JRs and JNRSC created 1998- Law for Disposal of Debts and Liabilities passed 1998 ­ JNRSH established in JRCC

Integration of Shinkansen in Japan

Coastal Development due to Japan's mountainous terrain Low freight usage, passenger trains dominate the railways Environmental and noise regulations due to the high density population

2004JRTT constructs/owns railways and operated by 7 JR companies

2002-03 ­ JRCC 2002- law merger with passed Japanese reforming govt. Corporation affiliated for Advanced agencies Transport and Technology 2006- shares of 3 major JR companies have sold their shares and three JR island and freight companies are aiming to consolidate their operating bases to promote listing 2003JRTT took over JNRSH liabilities

Source: http://www.japanrail.com/index.php?page=JR-Shinkansen-bullet-train, 2009.

Economic Effects of Shinkansen

Increases in employment from construction of railways and stations Business development in stations for both tou sts and co tourists a d commuters ute s Time savings per passenger

Achievements of Shinkansen

Keeping coordination with local and conventional rail and bus Grade separation to avoid collision, increase time savings, and deal with i ti i d d l ith geographic obstacles Traffic Control System and Automatic Control Systems

calculating the value of time per hour from the GDP per capita the value of time saving is over 500 billion yen per year

Conclusions

National investment spurred innovation Strong leadership and government initiatives Political pressure to expand quickly increased debt Synthesis of encouragement and funding of large scale infrastructure project from public agencies, private corporations, and civic partners

Information

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