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Managing Stress: Coping with Life's Challenges

PowerPoint® Lecture Slide PowerPoint® Presentation prepared by

Michael Hall

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Objectives

· Define stress. · Explain the three phases of the general adaptation syndrome, and describe what happens physiologically. · Examine the health risks that may occur with chronic stress. · Discuss psychosocial, environmental and self-imposed sources of stress. · Examine the special stressors that affect college students and strategies for reducing risk. · Explore techniques for coping with unavoidable stress. · Examine the role of spirituality in enhancing the ability to deal with stress.

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

What Is Stress?

· The mental and physical response of our bodies to the changes and challenges in our live · Stressor ­ any physical, social, or psychological event or condition that causes the body to adjust to that situation · Eustress ­ positive stress that presents the opportunity for personal growth and satisfaction · Distress ­ negative stress that results in debilitative stress and strain

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Body's Response to Stress

· "Fight or flight" response · General adaptation syndrome (GAS) ­ an adaptive response where our bodies move from homeostasis to crisis:

· Alarm phase · Resistance phase · Exhaustion phase

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 3.1 The General Adaptation Syndrome

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2 The General Adaptation Syndrome: The Alarm Phase

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 3.2

Stress and Your Health

· Stress ­ a "disease of prolonged arousal" that leads to other negative health effects · Highly stressed individuals are at greater risks for:

· Cardiovascular disease (CVD) · Impaired immunity · Diabetes management

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stress and the Mind

· Stress may contribute to mental disability and emotional dysfunction · These effects may be manifested as:

· Lost work productivity · Difficulties in relationships · Abuse of drugs and other substances · Displaced anger · Aggressive behavior

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Sources of Stress

· Psychosocial factors in our daily lives that cause stress:

· Change · Hassles · Pressure · Inconsistent goals and behaviors · Conflict · Overload · Burnout · Other (overcrowding, discrimination, unemployment, poverty)

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stress and "isms"

· When being different from the crowd causes stress:

· Race · Ethnicity · Religious affiliation · Age · Sexual orientation

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Health Disparities

· Health effects of excessive stress by population:

· Black Americans have higher rates of hypertension, CVD · Gay men and lesbians have higher rates of suicide and are more likely to be victims of violence

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Environmental Stress

· Stress that results from events occurring in the physical environment opposed to social surroundings:

· Floods · Hurricanes · Earthquakes · Fires · Industrial disasters

· Background distressors ­ noise, air, and water pollution

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Self-Imposed Stress

· Self-concept:

· Cognitive stress system · Personality types and hardiness:

· Type A · Type B

· Self-efficacy · External vs. internal locus of control

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stress and the College Student

· Away from home · Pressure to make new friends · Large classes · Academic pressures · National College Health Assessments reported that stress was the number one factor affecting individual academic performance

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Table 3.1 Chronic Stressors for College Students

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Table 3.1

Managing Your Stress

· Building skills to reduce stress · Assessing your stressors · Changing your responses · Learning to cope · Downshifting · Managing social interactions · Managing emotional responses

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Fighting the Anger Urge

· Five main sources of anger are related to threats to: · Safety and well-being · Power · Perfectionism and pride · Self-sufficiency and autonomy · Self-esteem and status · What to do? · Understand what anger is and how you tend to express it · Develop an awareness and acceptance of your tendency to anger · Recognize your anger patterns · Learn and practice good communication · Respect others and yourself

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Taking Mental Action

· Changing the way you think · Taking physical action:

· Exercise · Relaxation · Eating right

· Managing your time

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stress Management Techniques

· Hypnosis · Massage therapy · Meditation · Biofeedback

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Making the Most of Support Groups

· Important part of stress management · Members include friends, family members, and coworkers · If no close support group exists for you, there are alternatives such as counseling services, clergy, instructors, mental health clinics

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Developing Your Spiritual Side: Mindfulness

· The physical dimension · The emotional dimension · The social dimension · The intellectual dimension

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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