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Educators' Guide for the Sugar Creek Nature Park

Logo by Hannah Chalmers, Tuttle Middle School student, 2007-2010 Digitized by Josh Carpenter

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Table of Contents

Welcome page from Mayor Charles Coons Educators' Caveat Station Ski Checkout Form Station Kit Evaluation Form Safety Information History of the Project Collaboration and Financial Partners Contacts List of Outdoor Classroom Stations (OCSs) Map of the Outdoor Classroom Stations (OCSs) History of Sugar Creek Native American Influence Famous Montgomery County Native Americans History of Montgomery County Resources Nature Park Survey

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3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 11 12-15 16-23 24-26 27-29 30 31

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Educators' Caveat

While we have attempted to include lessons and ideas in this Guide, please be aware that... · This area has been designed as a "do it yourself" nature park. This simply means that we want you to take advantage of all the unique opportunities this area affords, and encourage studies of all aspects of this niche. · All the activities can and should be adapted to grade level(s) with which you are working. It would be physically impossible to include the myriad of activities and experiments that could be conducted in the Sugar Creek Nature Park. · All materials purchased and available in the Station Kits are related to the activities within this manual. We have attempted to choose pieces that may not be readily available to schools and groups. · Stations locations within the park were chosen due to qualities of nature that surround the area. Please feel free to take materials to other places and stations in park. · Once you have checked out the Station Kit(s), please keep it in your classroom or storage area. Please let us know at www.sugarcreeknaturepark.com or [email protected] if something needs to be replaced or has expired. · We are aware that there are not enough materials for each student to have a piece of equipment. We are challenging ourselves to secure funding to increase supplies, but that will take time. Therefore, we have listed on line resources that may alleviate some of this problem. · Please match your activities to your respective curricular standards. In every grade level, there is an extensive list of standards for every subject for every grade level, so please modify the activities and make them your own · The activities in this guide are specific to and try to showcase the distinctive floodplain characteristics. Nature has given us a very unique, magnificent area to study. However, please feel free to choose other topics and to use the area to help your students benefit the most from the experience. · We encourage originality and request you send us your ideas!!!!! · To check out educators' materials, please fill out the form that can be found on the next page and email to [email protected], or mail to Shannon Hudson Tuttle Middle School 612 South Elm Street Crawfordsville, Indiana, 47933

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Station Kit Checkout Form

Name(s) of educators ________________________________________________________________ School or group affiliated with __________________________________________________________ Approximate age group with which you will be working ______________________________________ Address ___________________________________________________________________________ Phone number at which you can be reached ______________________________________________ Station kit you would like to reserve _____________________________________________________ What week would you like to have the Station Kit? _________________________________________ All materials can be picked up at Tuttle Middle School or the Mayor's Office on Monday of the week requested. It is requested that they be returned by the Friday of that week but special arrangements can be made. Please email this form to [email protected] or mail to Shannon Hudson Tuttle Middle School 612 South Elm Street Crawfordsville, Indiana, 47933

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Station Kit Evaluation Form

Name_______________________________________________________________________________ Date ________________________________________________________________________________ Station Kit(s) that you used ______________________________________________________________ What experiments/ studies did you complete while at the Nature Park? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ What in the Station Kit helped you? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ What would like to see added to the Station Kit? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ What discoveries did you and your students make at the Nature Park? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you so much for helping us improve the Sugar Creek Nature Park Please email to [email protected] or mail to Shannon Hudson Tuttle Middle School 612 South Elm Street Crawfordsville, Indiana, 47933

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Safety Tips

The Crawfordsville Park and Rec. Dept. is a proud supporter of the Character Counts! organization. The philosophies of this coalition, which include the six pillars of character; Trustworthiness, Respect, Responsibility, Fairness, Caring and Citizenship, are expected to be displayed by all visitors to our parks. Welcome to the many parks and facilities in our park system! To ensure that everyone can enjoy the parks safely, the following rules are enforced by city ordinance: · Generally, parks are open dawn to dusk with the exception of organized events such as softball games and other special events, conducted with proper lighting. · All pets are to be on a leash and pet owners should pick up any deposits made by pets. · No driving or parking on the grass except where such areas are designated for overflow, special event parking. · No alcoholic beverages allowed. · No smoking in public buildings or picnic shelters. · No overnight camping is permitted. · No fires, except for those contained in grills, kept under constant supervision and completely extinguish when finished. · No firearms or other explosives allowed. · It is unlawful to sell or offer for sale any goods or merchandise of any kind in the park without the consent of the Director of Parks & Recreation. · If in Doubt, Just Stay Out! We recommend that everyone wear pants during their visit. Please leave all trash in cans throughout the park. Please enjoy this Nature Park! We invite you to participate in the many activities this beautiful area offers

We ask that you take your many memories and leave only your footprints

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History of the project

Rationale To raise peoples' awareness of the fragility of our natural resources To provide our area with an outdoor laboratory To alter our future generations' perceptions those materials that make life possible. Effectively plan, develop and manage the park facility to provide a public benefit Provide a wide range of recreational and cultural opportunities throughout the park area Maintain and upgrade existing facilities Encourage continued park development and attract tourists Beginnings In September of 1988, the Parks and Recreation Board began a campaign to obtain funding for a park on the banks of Sugar Creek. These original plans mentioned a nature trail and fishing area. At the time, Darlington was pursuing similar plans. After some, time, plans continued, but were not completed. 1989, the final plans were presented to the Board of the Parks and Recreation for the creation of a Nature Preserve. This original area ran past the Elston Diamonds, past Lafayette Road. The Friends of Sugar Creek enlisted 48 Purdue landscape architecture students and requested that they produce ecologically appropriate plans. Purdue's proposed plans included o improvement of a canoe passage o rehabilitation of the abandoned Coca-Cola Plant o addition of a primitive campground o construction of a pedestrian crossing between the north and south banks. Looming obstacles faced included trying to annex privately owned lands (owners wanted "exorbitant" prices), and not being able to generate enough money to begin. The project was abandoned. So why now? The timing is perfect-"Green" is in vogue- and extremely necessary. The park will be at the entrance to our city, which will be developed into a focal point for the city. Current committee members include; Mayor Charles Coons, MS4 Operator Gary Weliver, GIS Coordinator Troy Mitchell, Parks Director Roger Neal, Tuttle Science Teacher Shannon Hudson, Friends of Sugar Creek Nathan Mullendore. With this launching of this project, many of the original goals have been adjusted to reflect timely, relevant issues and changes that have already occurred to the area. The Coca-Cola Plant no longer stands, so that area will be designed differently than originally planned The campground is no longer planned The area is to be designated a Nature Park, not a Nature Preserve to allow the area to be utilized in a more user-friendly fashion. The area will focus on more pressing issues such as protection and diversity. The east side of the Nature Park will be allowed to remain more primitive; the west side will be a bit more developed A website has been developed that will serve multiple purposes- www.sugarcreeknaturepark.com The educators' guide downloadable that will stress the area's appeal to all learning styles One main trail will be developed with several offshoots of varying ability There will be a focus on floodplain characteristics 2 Large shelters will be built (30' by 40 `). One will be on the west side of the park near the Elston Park softball diamonds; the other will be built on the east side near the Crawfordsville Electric Light and Power plant. Smaller Outdoor Classroom Stations (picnic tables) will be built and spaced throughout the park that will offer educational areas The entire community will share ownership

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Collaboration and Financial Partners

Montgomery County Community Foundation Vectren American Water Educational representatives from all 3 county school districts and Wabash College Julia Beck, DePauw winter intern Indiana American Water CEL&P Crawfordsville Area Softball Association Crawfordsville's Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Wabash College Without these groups, this project would not have begun, or been as successful as it has.

Contacts

The Mayor's Office 300 East Pike Street Crawfordsville, IN 47933 (765) 364-5160 phone (765) 364-5177 fax [email protected] Troy Mitchell, GIS Coordinator, Crawfordsville, [email protected] Nathan Mullendore, Friends of Sugar Creek, [email protected] Shannon Hudson, Tuttle Middle School, [email protected]

List of Outdoor Classroom Stations (OCSs)

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The Sugar Creek Nature Park features 12 Outdoor Classroom Stations (OCS) to feature some of the unique characteristics of a floodplain in west central Indiana. Equipment has been purchased through very generous grants from Montgomery County Community Foundation Grant, American Water, Vectren, and Indiana American Water. There are several activities listed within the Station Kits, but by no means a comprehensive list. This would be an almost impossible task and entirely too lengthy to compile. Please feel free to conduct studies other than those listed in this guide. We only ask that you respect nature and disturb the natural course of events as little as possible.

OCS Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 East Side Large Shelter

General Topic Flora Wetlands Soils Photovoice Art Energy Geology Water Testing Fauna Topography/ Erosion Levels of a Floodplain Forest Erosion/ Topography Weather

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Station 2 Wetlands

Station 1 Flora East Main ShelterWeather

Station 3 Soils

Station 4 Photovoice

Station 5 Art

West Main Shelter Station 12 Erosion and Riparian Zones Station 11 levels of a Floodplain Forest Station 10 topography and Erosion Station 9 Fauna Station 8 Water Station 7 Geology Station 6 Energy

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All information written by Tuttle 7 grade students, spring of 2006

Introduction Sugar Creek and its tributaries flow from northeast to southwest in Montgomery County. The source lies in Tipton County and the entire creek length to the Wabash River merger is approximately 90 miles. At 5 feet per mile, the creek boasts more fall per mile that almost any other in the Midwest. Sugar Creek is part of the Middle Wabash River Basin that includes 14 other surrounding counties. It flows into the Wabash River and eventually reaches the Mississippi River. Sugar Creek is touted to be the most beautiful streams in the state. It runs through or along a Girl Scout Camp, Pine Hills Nature Preserve, Shades State Park, Turkey Run State Park, and Allee Memorial Forest. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks have been exposed by erosion. Several covered bridges still traverse the stream such as Deer's Mill, Darlington Covered Bridge, Jackson Covered Bridge and Union Covered Bridge. The creek generally ranges from 2-4 feet deep with cuts to 8 feet and more at places like the Narrows. The bottom is generally composed of pebbles and sand. The stream runs clear except after rain when it tends to become muddy. Fishing is generally good; game fish species include largemouth bass, small mouth bass, pan fish and catfish. Pools, rapids, riffles, wide runs, and mild turns combine to create a creek canoeists thoroughly enjoy.

History of Sugar Creek th

Sugar Creek in the summer

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Eras Paleozoic/ Ocean Era During Paleozoic times, as crustal plates moved, a large part of the continent was submerged under a great inland sea that extended east to the Appalachian Mountains west to the Rocky Mountains. The sea that covered Montgomery County was a bit shallower due to the geologic structure called the Cincinnati Arch (or Dome) that remained above water as a large island.

Diagram of the Cincinnati Arch and relative depths during the shallow ocean era http://allencountygeology.indiana.edu/bedrock-geology.html Indiana itself lay near the equator. Average temperatures were high and Montgomery County was submerged below a shallow tropical ocean. The seawaters were warm and relatively deep because the animals that form limestone are not found in shallow water. The waters teemed with life such as shellfish, trilobites, brachiopods, corals cephalopods, and sharks. Limestone, shale, and siltstone, all began to form from the decomposing creatures' calcium shells. One creature in particular has brought fame and fortune to Montgomery County. The crinoids were sea animals related to starfish.. These sea echinoderms flourished during the Mississippian Era, which is the third period of the Paleozoic Era. The Mississippian began about 35 million years ago and lasted about 20 million years. After the Mississippian, crinoids rapidly declined from 63 species to 6. The crinoids were buried under thousands of layers of rock that Sugar Creek has eroded away over the years.

Crinoid found in Montgomery County Page 13 of 31

Called a sea lily, it consisted of a head to which food gathering arms were attached, a stem, and a plant-like root. The only purpose of the root was to anchor the creatures to the sea floor. It ate microscopic organisms gathered from the water by the arms and worked down to the mouths. Some stems attained great lengths- 30 feet or more. Crinoid species from Montgomery County are housed at Harvard University, Carnegie-Melon, Yale University, University of Chicago, United States National Museum, Cambridge University in England, Smithsonian Institute, Indiana State Museum, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and our local Crawfordsville District Library. Glaciers/ Ice Age The Great Ice Age featured enormous ice sheets that came south like huge bulldozers moving tons and tons of rock, gravel, and clay in front of them that reached parts of Indiana. The last one, called the Wisconsin Glacier, came south about 20,00 years ago. The Wisconsin Glacier's leading edge reached below Montgomery County about ½ way into Putnam County. There, it dropped its load of rocks, boulders, sand and seeds.

Map of the area covered by the Wisconsin Glacier http://allencountygeology.indiana.edu/bedrock-geology.html The Ice Age ended in Indiana bout 10,000 years ago. Average climates turned warm and dry causing desert like conditions south of the moraine, which is material at the edge of the ice, and melting of the glacier began. Melting ice ran through the uneven area left by the glacier cutting channels wherever possible. As more ice melted, a lake was formed covering the northern third of the county. Harney's Lake, a prehistoric lake, probably fed Sugar Creek at one time. The waters of this lake began to cut waterways through the moraine and this runoff formed Sugar Creek. Waters of the lake gradually receded and the marshy lake bottom was exposed. Here, swamp grasses grew and over the years their annual deposit of humus accumulated to form new soil called black muck. Several hundred years later, the weather changed again, becoming warm and moist, which allowed trees to grow and prairies to flourish. Their decomposing leaves and grasses allowed more soils to develop. That soil now nurtures crops of corn, soybeans, alfalfa, clover, and some of the finest hardwoods in the world. Montgomery County is part of the Corn Belt that stretches from Nebraska to Ohio, Minnesota to Missouri. Corn Belt crops are used internationally to feed people and livestock such as cattle and swine. Page 14 of 31

It took thousands of years for Sugar Creek and its tributaries to cut their paths that still change every year. Other creeks, tributaries, and swamps created Potato Creek, Big and Little Raccoon Creek, Lye Creek, and Black Creek Swamps. Wearing evenly through bedrock, Sugar Creek built Turkey Run, Pine Hills and Shades State Park. Sugar Creek Today Our lovely Sugar Creek has many diverse uses- many of them recreational. An annual canoe race is held in the spring. Other uses include fishing, hunting, camping, kayaking, and crinoid hunting. Recovery Efforts Recovery efforts began in earnest with the creation of the Friends of Sugar Creek. This group is responsible for creek cleanups, monitoring toxin levels in the water, public relations, and hosting Creek Fest. Many schools in the area take part in the cleanup, fundraising, and publicity efforts. Many residents have taken great pride in protecting our beautiful waterway. Sugar Creek will need constant attention if it is to be preserved. The practice of draining wetlands for farmland must be stopped since silt erosion is the mast common water pollution in Indiana. Sugar Creek has given us so much. As we look to the future, we need to preserve her beauty and protect her from the pollution that is the by-product of our advancing technology.

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Native American People's Influence On and Around Sugar Creek th

All information written by Tuttle 7 grade students, spring of 2006

Time Periods

According to Breslford's book, The Indians of Montgomery County, Indiana, It is difficult to decide exactly what Native Americans lived when and where because they did not have state and county boundaries. So, the time periods are divided into points in time that certain life styles were followed. Paleo-Indian This time period lasted until about 8,000 BC. These Native Americans lived during the last days of the Ice Age, eating the meat of prehistoric animals and using the remaining products to survive. Archaic This time period lasted from 8,000 BC to 1,000 BC. By this time, Native Americans had grouped themselves and moved to find food. Many improvements helped their population increase. The Native Americans learned to use the natural resources better making less waste, they developed more sophisticated tools, began to trade raw materials. Woodland This time period lasted from 1,000 BC to 900 AD. The Native Americans developed pottery, cord, fabric, and burial rituals. They also learned how to plant crops and store them for the colder months. Mississippian This time period lasted from 900 AD to 160 AD. Native Americans settled into groups that shared similar traditions. They improved their crop growing techniques on maize, beans and squash. They began to build more complex buildings and create pottery with more designs.

Some Native Americans of Montgomery County

Paleo Paleo Native Americans were the first Native Americans to farm Indiana along the Ohio River Valley. They developed the bow and used sharp flint rocks on sticks as arrows some longer flint rocks were used as a knife. They hunted the small animals such as boar and ground sloth. When the white man came they had all been killed or driven out of Indiana. In Montgomery County, most of the Native Americans that lived here were from the Woodland Native Americans; the Miamis, Weas, Piankeshaws, Eel River, Pottawatomies, Shawnees. Also here were the Delaware and Kickapoo. Delaware The Delaware called themselves Lenni Lenape or the "men of our nation." In 1770, the Delaware began moving between the Ohio and the White River. By 1800, most of the Delaware settled in the White River West Fork. Their homes were domed wigwams, long houses, or log cabins. In 1794, they were at war with the new Federal Republic. They were defeated by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne at the battle field of Fallen Timbers near the Maumee River west of Toledo.

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Kickapoo These Native Americans called themselves Kiikaapoa, which means "he who moves about, standing now here, now there." These Native Americans were constantly at war with the Europeans and Americans. After the mid 1700's, the Kickapoo were divided into 2 groups; the Prairie group, and the Vermillion group. They lived in permanent villages of different woods for different seasons; bark for summer and flag reed for winter. They grew maize, beans, squash, and hunted buffalo. They did crafts such as pottery and woodworking. They now have spread as far as Mexico. Miami The Miami first met the Europeans in 1658 when they settled on the Door Peninsula near Green Bay, Wisconsin. They moved south and east to the Wabash and Maumee River. The Miami are believed to have been a branch of the Illiniwek because they spoke a language similar to Algonquian and had similar cultural ways of life. The Miami Confederation was made into four parts: Miami, Eel River, Wea and Piankashaw. The Miami were allied with the French and the Illiniwek to drive back the Iroquois. After 1700, Kekionga, a village at the headwaters of the Maumee River at Fort Wayne, Indiana, was the Miami's center of power. They lived out the summer and winter by fishing, farming, buffalo hunting, and making maple sugar camps. The Miami had only one great battle that was recorded in history, and that was during the War of 1812. After defeat, they joined Tecumseh and the Prophet to stop the spread of Americans. Pottawatomie The Pottawatomie called themselves Weshbabek which means "the people." The Pottawatomie fled the Iroquois from both the Lake Huron area and then from the Sioux. The Pottawatomie were the last historic tribe to enter Indiana where they made their villages. Because they fought with the French, they were fierce warriors against the British and Americans. They were the last to leave their Native American land around 1839. Now the Trial of Courage Festival is held every year in Rochester, in Indiana to honor the Pottawatomie Native Americans. Shawnee In the warm season of the year, the Shawnee would stay near their homes and grow crops. They grew very common vegetables here in Indiana such as corn and beans. When they grew enough corn and beans for the winter, they would quit farming because the winter season was cold. The men did not do the harvesting, but the women and children did, who also watched after the ponies and horses. When the weather was very hot and the furs, the furs were not fit to trade, and the food was in short supply, they would take fish. If this would not produce enough food, they would hunt, but strictly for meat. The Shawnee were helpful, so if food was short, they would donate needed materials. During the winter, they would gather their belongings such as furniture, pots, and pans, and move into the woods for protection and security. They would start to build the huts in which they were to live. They would start to build a fenced in area for the dogs, ponies, and horses. After it was built, they would then herd the horses and ponies into it. Then they would start a short winter life. Graduation Day was when the boys would turn into a man. It was a short or long process depending on the boy. The father or chief of the tribe would take the boy hunting after they established camp. After the boy had setup camp he was then to get firewood for a fire. The chief of the tribe would go to catch the first deer for dinner and cook. This was to show the boy how to catch, kill, skin, the deer. They would then retire and wake up at the crack of dawn, eat some corn mush, and then at noon, the boy was on his way to catch the finest deer in the forest. The boy would cook and serve the deer to the chief. If the chief liked, it the boy was granted manhood.

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Plants That Native Americans Used

The Miami Native Americans called Montgomery County "Mankatow" which means "the green land". Native Americans found a plant for every need they had. Plants such as potatoes, maize, beans, pumpkins, squash, peanuts, tobacco, cranberries, and melons were grown for eating and trading. They made sugar from the saps of maple and other trees. Wild berries, nuts, crabapples, plums, nuts of all types were plucked from the plants and eaten. Acorns from white oaks were ground into corn flour. The bulbs of cattails and lotus lilies were crushed into flour. Nuts were crushed into strips of meat that were then dried and called pemmican. They also ate the potatoes that grew in the prairie areas. Cucumbers, huckleberries, blueberries and cranberries were also common in Montgomery County. The wigwam poles were made of tree branches from basswood, tulip, ash and hickory trees. Cords were made from inner bark fibers of basswood, hickory, and mulberry trees. Twine was made from milkweed fibers. Roofs were made from red elm trees because the bark doesn't rot easily and peels off the trees easily. Sometimes tulip trees and cottonwood were used. The gooey inner part of the red elm was used to help people with sore throats, coughs, and diarrhea. It was eventually nicknamed slippery elm and was used by pioneer doctors into the late nineteenth century. The elm bark could also be used to prevent food from spoiling; the elm leaves were chewed as gum, and made into a tea as a remedy for the bite of the prairie rattlesnake. Bloodroot, yellowroot and walnut hulls were crushed and the juices that oozed out were used to dye cloth. Because true tobacco was not easy to get to, Native Americans made it from sumac, bladdernut, and mullein. Wintergreen, ginseng, spicebush, and wild gingers were all thought to aid digestion, so they were added to food. If a bee stung Native Americans, they were rubbed with mullein leaves. Skin burns were treated with oak bark and leaves. Willow bark, roots and leaves were used to treat anything from skin lesions, headaches to fevers. Milkweed sap got rid of warts. Sore eyes were plastered with goldenseal.

Hunting

The bow and arrow was the main weapon used to hunt game. Because it was not a perfect weapon, they developed skills to sneak up on their prey. They could follow trails of animals that most people would not notice. They kept very quiet, stayed undercover and shot at the animal at close range. Bows were made from mulberry, sassafras, cedar, ash, and hickory wood. These woods were flexible, yet remained tough and strong. The Native American bows were shorter, flatter and less powerful that the English longbow, but worked well at close range. Arrows were made from any strong, stiff wood. They were pointed with stone and horn. At the opposite end, three feathers were connected with threads, rawhide, or animal tendons. The feathers were from wild geese, turkeys, eagles, vultures and herons. The quiver that carried the arrows was made of animal skin and hold 10-20 arrows. The buffalo was very valuable to the Plains Native Americans. The buffalo meat was dried and mixed with marrow and fruit to become a food that would keep for a long time. The Native Americans used the hides to make ropes, shields, and clothing. The teepees were also made from the buffalo hide. The muscle was used to make bowstrings, moccasins, and bags. The bones were used to make hoes and runners for dog sleds. The horns were made into utensils such as a spoon, cup, or bowl. The hair could even be made into rope. The parfleche or basket was used by the Plains Native Americans to carry their tools and weapons. The parfleche was made from a buffalo hide. The hide was cut into large rectangular shapes. Their belongings were placed in the center of the hide. Next the hide was folded like an envelope and tied with rawhide straps. The parfleche was made waterproof by covering it with glue, which was made by boiling the tails of beavers.

What the Native Americans hunted

The Native Americans hunted animals that were in the wild like deer, fish, and different types of bears. The Native Americans used the fur for coats, and meat. Some Native Americans hunted wild buffalo. That was said to be one of the hardest animals to kill. The Native Americans used different types of weapons to hunt different animals.

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Buffalo Products

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · The meat was roasted on the campfire, boiled, made into pemmican, jerky, and sausages. Hides with the hair left on were made into winter clothing, gloves, blankets, robes, and costumes for ceremonies or for hunting. Hides of any kind were used for ropes, blankets, shields, clothing, bags, teepee covers, bullboats, sweat lodge covers, containers, and drums. Muscles were used for bowstrings, thread for sewing, and webbing for snowshoes. Bones were used for making hoes, shovels, runners for sleds, pointy tools, knives, pipes, scrapers, and arrowheads. The horns were used for spoons, cups, bowls, containers to carry tobacco, medicine or gunpowder, headdresses, arrow points, and toys. The hair was used for rope, pillow stuffing, yarn, shields, and medicine balls. The beard was used for decoration on clothes and weapons. The tail was used for fly swatters, whips, and teepee decoration. The brain was used for tanning the hides (to soften the skin.) They also ate it because they thought it would make them smarter. The hoofs were used for rattles, and it was boiled to make glue. Fat was used for paint base, hair grease, and for making candles and soap. The manure chips were used for fuel for campfires and smoke signals. The teeth were used for decorating, and necklaces. The stomach was used for containers for water and for cooking. The bladder was used for medicine bags, water containers, and pouches. The skull was used in ceremonies and prayer.

Native American Burial Rituals

Have you ever wondered why Native Americans had rituals and what they did during rituals? Rituals were used for many different occasions such as birthdays, deaths, different holidays, and religious occasions were some. When settlers came to Montgomery County, they found Native American paths, trails and graves that gave clues to how they were done. Some of these were tree burials, cabin or pen burials, and cliff burials. Tree burials involved burial in the trunk of a fallen tree. A piece was cut out of the trunk, which would be used as the lid. The log was dug out, the body positioned inside, and the lid attached. During cabin or pen burials, the body of the deceased was wrapped in blankets and placed on the ground. A small pen about two feet tall was built around the bodies and a roof put on top of the pen. The holes in the sides of the wall were plastered with mud to keep animals from digging at the bodies. Cliff burials required that the Native Americans bury the body in the side of a cliff about half way up. The dead Native American was in the middle of the cliff so it was hard for people and animals to find the body. However, after years the cliff was washed away and people spotted the bones. One of the ritual burial stories recorded in Brelsford's book, Indians of Montgomery County, Indiana, tells about an eyewitness account of an Native American burial. According to the story, the Native Americans were in full war paint and feathers, carrying guns. They placed the deceased member on the ground, made two concentric circles, and began walking in opposite directions passing each other as they walked. They then raked away all the brush, leaves and soil from the chosen burial site, dug the grave with pans, tomahawks, and knives and lined the grave with leaves. The dead Native American's pipe was put into the grave first, his gun, ammunition, hunting knife, tomahawk and meat was put in next. All these items were to sustain him on his journey to the Happy Hunting Grounds in the next world. The Native Americans wrapped the body in a blanket and laid it in the grave, covered it with leaves, and filled in the grave with soil. The area was covered with leaves and brush to conceal the tomb. Afterwards, the Native Americans held a ceremony, sat and smoked for a period of time. The Chief then stood up, and silently walked away with the others following him. Page 19 of 31

Native American burial grounds are located in Franklin Township near Shannondale, which is located in the west central part of Montgomery County, near the Boone County border. There are two mounds, one of which can be easily seen because it is about 14 feet high. Skeletons and artifacts were removed by treasure hunters but were never recorded.

Language

There were two major languages among the Woodland Native Americans. The languages were related just like current languages are and had several dialects. The Algonquian- Wakashan language was the most popular, but had over 50 dialects. Some of these are still spoken in Canada, Michigan, Montana, Wyoming, Oklahoma and the northeastern part of the Untied States. The language of the Woodland Native Americans was similar to the Iroquois, Huron's, and Cherokees. The Miamis, Shawnees, etc spoke the languages of the Algonquian and Watkashan tribes The Miami language had no sound for f, r, or v. They said a p for our f, and an l when we pronounce r. "Pungosecone" means "ashes at the head of a river". It is supposed to show the location of a destroyed tribal village. "Mankatow" means "the green land" or "place of many plants". "Sanamindji Sipiwi" means "sugar maple river".

Transportation

The Miami did not use canoes much. They preferred to walk. If they did use canoes, they did not use birch because this type of tree was not common and the stones and snags in the waterways would catch the wood at the bottom of the boat. They did use dugouts for hunting and fishing. Traces and trails were both mean the paths made by animals and people through the wilderness. It is likely that Native Americans used the trails through the Montgomery County area as early as 1700 AD. The groups traveled into different areas of the Midwest and created trails to connect their different settlements. These roads could not be used year-round because of the deep snows and washouts from flooding. There were two important trails through Montgomery County area; the Wea Trail and the Strawtown Trail. The Wea Trail started at Fort Wayne and went southwest in many different branches. It can be traced through Franklin, Walnut, Clark and Scott Townships in Montgomery County. At first it was called "the road to Fort Wayne". The settlers changed the name to "The Wea Trail". Strawtown Trail, on the south of Sugar Creek, led southwest from Thorntown to Crawfordsville.

Visitors and Trade

Montgomery County Native Americans made contact with Europeans, Dutch and English colonist. They traded many things such as designs from blankets and items they carved. Beads were used for money in trade. They also traded buttons, silver ornaments, bird feathers, lace, silk ribbons, and other goods to their own purposes. They traded animal skin for blankets and tools. Most trade items that are found in Montgomery County were probably made in England or France. The Native Americans got them through trade. Such items include musket balls, flints, parts of guns, iron hoes, pottery, glass beads, metal cooking utensils, silver ornaments and buttons.

Native American Homes

The Native Americans of the Woodlands lived in wigwams not teepees. Wigwams were very cozy houses. Putting poles in the ground made them, and the poles tied together at the top. They were usually in a circular shape. Animal skins, tree bark, and reeds were attached to the outsides of the pole frames. Their disadvantage was that they were harder to take down than to build than other types of housing, but there were enough trees around that they could rebuild easily when they moved by cutting more poles. Their houses had one big room. It was warm in that room because there was a small fire in the middle of the room. In the roof there was a smoke hole so there was not as much smoke in their house. When weather was nice they would build a simple three-sided house called a lean-to. They would have a lean-to until they could build a longhouse. They had a summer village for when the weather was Page 20 of 31

warm. They also had a winter village. Most villages were on the riverbank or not very far from the river. Outside of their houses they built racks over a fire. That is where they would hang hides to dry. When the hides were dry they would make rugs, clothes, and roofs for there houses.

Physical appearance

The height of the Montgomery County Native Americans was 5'8 to 5 10" which was considered taller than the settlers. They had skinnier appearance from their muscles to their bone structure. They had small waists, broad cheekbones and somewhat large noses. Their foreheads were sometimes sloped which was caused when the babies were strapped to the cradleboards. Native Americans often cut their ear lobe rims away from the rest of the year so that the skin could be stretched. It was considered a beauty mark because this allowed the Native American to wear as many as seventy earrings in one ear. Pierced noses were also very common. Most of the time, Montgomery County Native Americans let their hair grow. But during war times, they would pull out some hair leaving areas bald. The head was then painted, decorated with feathers, the rest of the hair braided or greased with bear grease to make it stand up. Native Americans painted their bodies with body paint or putting tattoos on the face, head, and arms. Needles made the tattoos, with ink on the tip that is slammed into the skin by a small stone. Once scratches or cuts opened the skin, charcoal or gunpowder was rubbed in. The Native Americans decorated themselves for feasts and other occasion, nit just times of war.

Clothing

When the Native Americans were first here, they wore only as little as possible. Girls never wore skirts higher than their waist and were held up by belts and sashes. The men wore just as little. Women wore wrap around skin skirts. They wore leggings that came up to their knees and moccasins when the weather was cold. Other times, they would wear simple dresses made from two skins. On special occasions, they would wear shell and bone necklaces and earrings. Men wore a breechcloth, which was also called an apron. It was about 4 feet long, made of leather or cloth, and brought between the legs and fastened with a belt or sash. They were often decorated with quillwork, beads, or fringe. Men wore leggings made of leather so their legs cold be protected as they were running through the forest. Blankets of animal skin were added to keep warm. They would stuff their moccasins with cattail plants or deer hair to keep their feet warmer. Children were dressed like adult when hey turned 10. Their moccasins were designed a bit differently to make them look like they could not be used for walking. Supposedly this was to protect the child from being kidnapped by evil spirits since Native Americans thought that no evil spirit would kidnap a child with holes in his moccasins. Fur caps were made from small animal skins that were worn in very cold weather, but most of the time, women wore nothing on their heads. The most common head covering for the man was the roach. It was made from stiff hair from deer, porcupine or moose and dyed red. The Native American attached it to his head by tying it to a portion of his own hair. Once the Europeans began trading with the Native Americans, their clothing changed adapting to the European style. They now made pants, skirts, coats and shirts. Instead of animal fur, they used cotton, silk and velvet. Instead of using animal intestines or plant fibers and animal bones, they now sewed with linen thread and steel needles. Women now focused on their quillwork, which developed into complex works of art. Beads for quillwork were made from shells, bones, teeth, stones, seeds and metals. Women created geometric designs. Any items made were handed down from mother to daughter at special ceremonies. Beads were also used in trade with other tribes, and Dutch and English pioneers. They were called wampum. Women often wove elaborate beads into belts when the tribe wanted to record a treaty or tell a story they wanted to remember. Often they used glass beads, buttons, silver ornaments, tropical bird Page 21 of 31

feathers, lace and silk ribbons to decorate the belts. French nuns taught the women how to embroidery which they later put on their dresses. They made beanies, which were made out of smaller animals like skunk, fox and rabbit. The men wore headdresses and moccasins in celebration. But women and children wore them every day. During celebration they also wore face paint from raspberries, which were smashed in a bowl then put on their faces. When the men of the tribe would go hunting, they would wear mask of animals so the animals would just think it was one of their group. Scarves were worn around the head, and also used as a small blanket. When needed, it could be unfolded, piled with supplies or food, and wrapped into a carrying tool. Silver was shaped into armbands, gorgets (which were ornaments) worn by men, brooches, hair decorations and crosses. Most of these came from the French or Canadians. Sometimes what Native Americans bought or traded for, they rearrange for their own purposes. They would often unravel blankets and finger- weave sashes.

Artifacts that still exist today

A beaded rosette, which can be found in Lane Place, from Tecumseh's shot pouch, which was an inheritance from William Bratton who was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and settled in Wayne Township of Montgomery County. Bratton was at the battle when Tecumseh was killed. A friend sprinted to the dead Native American, took his shot and powder horn, and sold them both to Bratton for $1.21. The Montgomery County Historical Society has a wampum belt, which was given to Henry S. Lane when he was a member of the United States Board of Indian Commissioners. Also at The Montgomery County Historical Society also has a beaded Native American purse, which John Remley brought with him into the county in 1825.

Where Did They Live and Where Did They Go?

In settlers' letters and government treaties, many tribes used to inhabit what is now Indiana. The tribes these documents most frequently mention are the Mascontins, Piankasahaws, Kicakpoos, Delawares, Miamis, Shawnees, Weas, Ouitenons, Eel Rivers, Hurons, Pottawatomies, Wyandots, Ottawas, Senecas, Brothertowns, Winnebagos and the Puans. Not all of these groups lived in Montgomery County. Those that did settled near others who had similar traditions and languages. All these groups stayed as the settlers arrived. The largest of the settlements was that of Chief Cornstalk in Scott Township near Parkersburg. Another large village of the Piankasahaw was located near Shades State Park. They grew maize and other crops. However, most of them began to leave as the white population quickly increased. Another Native American village was located on Coal Creek near Waynetown. They lived in a blockhouse. According to history, they were of the Miami tribe and settled here because of the availability of water. The Shawnee wandered over southern Montgomery County. Haw Creek had a village of Native Americans known as Dogtown. Several wigwams protected the Native Americans from the cold and rainy weather. The early settlers visited this village and remained on peaceful terms. A favorite camping ground of the Native Americans was in Wayne Township on Spring Creek. Also, a settlement was made on Little Raccoon Lake, less than a mile from Ladoga. Some Native Americans settled near a little village called Sacranat making their main home five miles southwest of Ladoga, near what is now Cornstalk Baptist Church on the banks of Cornstalk Creek.

Where did they go?

In 1818, the Wyandottes, Pottawatomies, Weas, Delawares, Miamis and the Eel River Miamis gave up their land north of the 10 o'clock line to the United States government. This allowed the white settlers Page 22 of 31

to come into the area without fear of Native American attacks. Within the treaty, the Weas were allowed to keep a small piece of land in Parke County, which is just south of Montgomery County. The Miamis and the Eel River Miamis were allowed to keep reserves near Thorntown, Kokomo and Fort Wayne. As part of the treaty, the government gave the Native Americans about 7 million acres of land, $15,000, 160 bushels of salt, a grist and saw mill, a blacksmith and a gunsmith. Unfortunately, the Miami eventually lost their ground near Thorntown. In the Beckwith book, it stated they moved to Grant, Wells, and Jay Counties. A small group from Thorntown moved to Miami County. Later they moved near Peru. The Wea went either north to other Miami settlements or west to Kansas. Some went to Howard County in Indiana. They also moved near Lafayette. Even though the treaties were signed, some tribes refused to leave. The Pottawattamie and Miamis didn't want to lose their hunting grounds clinging to the belief that just one person could not own land. However, most Native Americans had gone by 1828. The last documented settlement, near the Thorntown area in Boone County, was abandoned in 1829. Before they left, the Native Americans danced for twelve days. Peter Cornstalk might have been in the area as late at 1830. Some sources even tell about Native Americans returning each autumn to their old hunting grounds in the Montgomery County area to hunt turkey and deer. In 1831, the whole county was upset when the Black Hawk War broke out. It was rumored that the Black Hawk Native American warriors were on their way eastward, and could possibly get as far as Montgomery County. Everyone prepared for war. However, after all the preparation, the war did not reach Montgomery County because the Black Hawk Native Americans had already been beaten by the Illinois military.

The Situation Today

The last information anyone had about the Native Americans that lived in Montgomery County came from a 1980 census. It reported that 49 Native- Americans were living in Montgomery County. No one knows what tribes these people were joined to.

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All information written by Tuttle 7 grade students, spring of 2006

Montgomery County was home to many famous Native Americans that made an impact on the future. The first Native American was chief Iron Tail. Iron Tail was born in 1850. He got his name because his real Lakota name was Wasee Maza, which meant Iron Tail in English. The reason he is famous is because General Nelson Miles introduced him to many military officials. Years after the Battle of Wounded Knee, Iron Tail were invited to Washington, D.C. George Dewey was impressed by him so much that he created a new name for him by combining an old Sioux nickname-"beard" and George Dewey's surname, therefore the name Dewey Beard. While in Washington, D.C. Iron Tail was chosen with two other Native Americans, Two Moons, a Cheyenne, and Big Tree, a Kiowa, as models by James E. Fraser to create the Native American head profile on the Buffalo Nickel used from 1913-1938. On October 21, 1913 Dewey Beard received a certificate of "good character" from the U.S. Government. He died in 1916.

Famous Native Americans th

Another famous Native American from our county is Prophet. Prophet got his name because he told of the coming of an eclipse. It was said that he was ordered by his god to tell everyone that he was his god's only messenger.

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The next famous Native American chief was Tecumseh. He was born in 1768 at a Shawnee village of Piqua. His dad was killed at the Battle of Pleasant Point in 1774. His mother refused the government's right to make land purchases from any single tribe. Tecumseh then formed a confederation of all the western and southern tribes for the purpose of holding the Ohio River as the permanent boundary between Native Americans and white men. To do this, he visited every tribe from Florida to the head of the Missouri River. While Tecumseh organized the work for the south, his plans were ruined when the Battle of Tippecanoe broke out too early under the command of the Prophet. When the War of 1812 broke out, Tecumseh and his forces supported the British. Tecumseh died at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813.

The last Native American was Cornstalk. Unfortunately historians don't really know much about him. Some people think he was Miami, others Shawnee, while others argue that he was Pottawattamie. Most people also believe that the name "Peter Cornstalk" may have been the name of many Native Americans, and the stories were all combined into one. The account that follows is historians' best idea of who he was and what happened to him. He was born around 1720 and was taken to the Scioto River in 1730. As the hunters started to occupy Kentucky, the Native Americans started to get real mad. They decided that their hunting grounds would be destroyed; they formed a confederacy as Cornstalk as their leader. In 1774 his brother was on a peaceful walk when he was shot and killed. Peter approached Britain's Lord Dunmore and asked for a peaceful settlement. Instead Dunmore got an army together and met Peter at Point Pleasant. On October 9, 1774, 1,100 solders were camped out there. Cornstalk led 1,000 Native American warriors, made up of Shawnees, Wyandotts, Delawares, Mingoes, Cyugans, and many smaller tribes. Cornstalk called a council Page 25 of 31

and asked if they really wanted to battle and they unanimously voted to fight. During the Battle of Point Pleasant, Cornstalk and his troops were ambushed and he was shot and killed. Cornstalk and others were buried not far from camp.

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All information written by Tuttle 7 grade students, spring of 2006

Overview of Montgomery County History In 1823, Montgomery County represented a vast expanse of territory of millions of acres to be settled. Dense forests, pure springs, plentiful flora and fauna offered remarkable possibilities for those who chose to exert the effort to clear the land and make it their home. In 1824, the Wisehart house stood alone between White River and Sugar Creek. Crawfordsville was then the only town between Terre Haute and Fort Wayne, both of which were small outposts. There was little immigration into what is now Montgomery County until the high ground around Crawfordsville was found to be protection from the fever found in the low grounds very common in the pioneer time. The location of the land office at Crawfordsville made it an important point for business. All settlers were required to buy and sell lands Williamson Dunn and Ambrose Whitlock. Introduction We who live in Crawfordsville are here because of Sugar Creek. Many of the early settlers were from Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, and Ohio. They came here because of the great farmland and water powered mills on Sugar Creek. Sugar Creek is a fast moving river so the mills had great power. They were able to get a deed for the land for little money. We all know that Montgomery County has been around for a while, but we weren't the first here. Native Americans were the first people to settle in the area of the county. The first settlers were in the late 1820's. They say the first settler was William Offield. Montgomery County struggled from 1851- 1900 with Civil War problems. Also during that time period, we progressed a great deal in our economy, gaining jobs and businesses as more and more people moved to the area and sold their farmland. During the 19001950's we had didn't have too great of an economy or environmental protection. Now it is been a while and the pollution has caught up to us. It is causing problems to our health now and it is getting to the point where you can't eat the fish you catch in Sugar Creek. It isn't even healthy to swim in Sugar Creek. Native Americans of Montgomery County Native Americans settled in places near a very good water source on high ground. That's the big reason why they settled in Montgomery County. They settled here because of Sugar Creek. They named Sugar Creek because when the Red men came to this area he named the stream that flows through the tract [Shades State Park] "Pungosecone." The meaning is "Ashes at the head of a River," meaning ashes from a destroyed tribal village. We have found lots of artifacts left by the Native Americans from the prehistoric times. Some of the types of artifacts that we have found are archaic blades, like Kirk Corner Notched, Plano Blade, and Macorkle Stemmed. Some others are the late archaic artifacts, including the bone pen, the stone pipe, and the grooved ax. People feel that the artifacts are probably in the state museum's collection, but over the years they have become mixed in with all other artifacts so that it's impossible to identify which items came from our county. Back when the Native Americans were living in our county there were a few Indian reserves. But in September and October of 1818, at St. Mary's in Ohio, the Wyandottes, Potawatomis, Weas, Delawares, Miamis, and Eel River Miamis gave their lands north of the 10 o'clock line to the U.S. government. This gave an opportunity for white pioneers to settle in the state of Indiana. This was often referred to as "The New Purchase." When pioneers started settling they found not only Indian trails to tell them that they were in the presence of the Native Americans, but also lots of graves and burials. The social customs of these Native Americans from the different types of tribes were so similar it's not possible to tell from which tribe a given burial came from. When the settlers started coming to Montgomery County, the Native Americans left. Page 27 of 31

History of Montgomery County th

They didn't like getting disturbed by the settlers wanting the land they had. Researchers made an educated guess that they moved to Grant County. 1800-1850 Montgomery County was named in honor of Richard Montgomery (American Revolutionary War general that was killed [1775] trying to capture Quebec City, Canada in the Battle of Quebec.) In 1813three rangers thought that the site where Crawfordsville was the right spot. Their names were Williamson Dunn, Henry Ristine, and Major Ambrose Whitlock. All three left and came back ten years later to find that only one cabin had been built. Finally, Major Whitlock, laid out C-ville in 1823 [march]. In 1830 the population in Crawfordsville was up to 600 people. C-ville named after Colonel William H. Crawford. Wabash was founded in 1832 and is one of the three remaining all-male colleges around. Indians or Native Americans ruled the land that Crawfordsville is on and they ruled it until the New Purchase Treaty! 1851- 1900 The major event of this time period was the Civil War. Montgomery County was greatly affected by the War. We sent many volunteers and lost a total of 275 people during the war. We also took part in the Underground Railroad. John Speed was a major leader of the Underground Railroad, which included the Speed Cabin. The Speed Cabin still remains at the Lane Place in Crawfordsville. But, not only did the Civil War affect us, we had many other accomplishments. In 1850, Waynetown was a major trading center between Crawfordsville and Danville, Ill. Three years later Linden became a grain market, which brought more opportunities for the people. In Crawfordsville, the Railroad and the County Courthouse were completed in 1870 and 1876. The new County Jail was also built in 1882. By the 1900's land was cheap and selling well. Farmers were selling their land and moving into the town, which meant more people, more businesses, and more jobs. 1901-1950 Many things happened in Montgomery County from a period from 1901 to 1950. In 1909, Montgomery County voted to be under local option law, which means the local government has control of something to ban. That caused all of the saloons to close in Montgomery County. A year later the county had 144.2 miles of railroads and trains running through it every single day. In 1914 the Wingate High School won the title of state champs. The year following that land prices and value of the land had dropped greatly. This happening caused a lot of county citizens to go through financial troubles. Some lost homes and other things they owned to stay alive. That was also the period of time that was the Great Depression. Two years later World War Two began and many people were enlisted in the draft and went to war. 1923 was the year of one of the biggest moonshine operations or whiskey operations. The police came in and stopped it. In 1929 The Culver Hospital opened. 1930 was a bad year; a huge ice storm hit the county and caused lots of damage. The courthouse was also found to lean to one side that same year, so it was removed. Six years after the storm it was very hot and it caused a big drought. Temperatures reached up to 110 degrees for 12 straight days. The county fairgrounds burned down and six people died of heat exhaustion. In 1948 yet another natural disaster occurred. A tornado ripped through the county costing an astounding 1 million dollars in damage repairs. The next year polio cases were reported in the county. The county jail was condemned after being built in 1882. 1951-Present Farming was a pretty common job in this time period in Montgomery County. Many natural disasters caused a lot of damage in the county and much money was needed to recover from the damage. In 1978 a blizzard passed through the county, and one year later a tornado caused $11.5 million dollars in damage. Quickly following, a drought disappointed all farmers of all 92 counties from Indiana in 1983. Three years later PCB's were found at Mallory and the EPA quickly ordered the county to clean up the chemicals. In 1988 another drought occurred in the county. Just two years later a horrible tornado flew through the county. The tornado was quickly documented as the worst one to ever pass through Page 28 of 31

Montgomery County as of today. Just a few months later, a December flood shocked the county. One last disaster, a major winter storm in 1999, which brought a $185,000 cost for a fix up. Montgomery County did get struck with many difficulties in this time period, but we also progressed many different ways. In 1979 a farm progress show was held at Lincoln Priebe farms, showing off new farming technology or machinery. In 1983-1984 Culver Union Hospital was built and opened, which brought lots of new people and jobs to the county. In 2002 Nucor steel opened for worldwide strip caster plant, which was a great compliment to Montgomery County. Future If Montgomery County keeps progressing the way that we are today, we aren't looking at a very good future. Our major businesses, that are supporting our county, are shutting down. We have a major problem with polluting Sugar Creek; it's even unhealthy to swim in. If we keep progressing the way we are, our children will not have a Sugar Creek to look at, or swim in. The river will be a ghost river, and be a memory from the past. But, if we take a stand, we can make a big difference in the way this county is going. A little change we make can make a big difference in how this county will be in the future. For example, placing warning signs on the drains remind people of where the litter and things go, strait to Sugar Creek. Hopefully helping reduce litter and things people put in the drains. If we take a little time to make little differences, it can make a great of difference.

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Resources

Indiana Department of Natural Resources, http://www.in.gov/dnr/ Project Wild, http://www.in.gov/dnr/nrec/2445.htm Project Wet, http://www.in.gov/dnr/nrec/2466.htm Project Learning Tree, http://www.in.gov/dnr/nrec/2942.htm Crop Life Ambassadors, http://ambassador.maca.org/ . This organization's mission is to provide scientifically based, accurate information to the public regarding the safety and value of American agricultural food production. FREE speakers program will come to schools and civic groups across the Midwest. Check the website for lessons and to schedule a speaker Soil and Water Conservation Districts, http://www.iaswcd.org/whatsnew/districtdues09.html Purdue University Extension, http://www.ag.purdue.edu/extension/pages/default.aspx Tuttle Middle School's interactive CD: Beyond the Delicate Banks; Protecting Our Sugar Creek Watershed, contact Shannon Hudson at [email protected] Indiana Wildlife, http://www.indianawildlife.org/ Indiana Audubon Society, http://www.indianaaudubon.org/ DePauw Nature Park, http://www.depauw.edu/univ/naturepark/ Friends of Sugar Creek, http://www.friendsofsugarcreek.org/ Shades State Park, http://www.stateparks.com/shades.html Nature Conservancy in Indiana, http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/indiana/ Pine Hills Nature Preserve http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/indiana/misc/art22888.html Turkey Run State Park, http://www.turkeyrunstatepark.com/

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Sugar Creek Nature Park Survey

Please complete and send to Shannon Hudson at [email protected] or Tuttle Middle School 612 South Elm Street Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 1. How did you find out about the Sugar Creek Nature Park? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Did you access www.sugarcreeknaturepark.com before visiting? If so, what information did you find helpful in planning your trip? ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ What other information could have been included on the website that would have been helpful? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Please list positive features that you found while visiting the park? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are some effects that could be improved in the park? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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