Read SuperBeam 5 USA manual text version

SuperBeam 5 USA

User Guide



Licensed Program and Materials

This license applies to our SuperBeam 5 USA program ('the software'). Demo mode (valid activation key not entered): this license allows you to use the software for evaluation purposes without charge for a period of 30 days commencing with the date the software is first installed. If you wish to continue to use this software after the 30-day evaluation period a license payment is required. When payment is received you will be sent a activation code which will activate all program functions. Unregistered use of SuperBeam after the 30-day evaluation period is in violation of copyright laws. You may NOT sell any services to others involving the use of SuperBeam to process their information until you have purchased a license entitling you to use the software beyond the 30-day trial period. Fully licensed mode (valid activation key entered): Purchase of a single user license allows the licensed copy of the software to be used by a single individual on one or more computers, or installation of the software on a single workstation used nonsimultaneously by multiple people, but not both. Otherwise you may only install the software on a network or more than one computer, if you have obtained a multiple-user license for the software covering all workstations that will access the software through the network or have purchased an unlimited user site license. Each copy of the program has a unique serial number to enable the source of any illegal copy to be traced. Activation keys or codes are copyright and may not be published or disclosed to any other party.

Governing Law, Jurisdiction and Venue

All matters relating to this agreement will be governed by the laws of the United Kingdom, without regard to the United Kingdom's choice-of-law rules. Exclusive jurisdiction and proper venue for all proceedings relating to this agreement shall be in courts and other fora located in the United Kingdom, and you hereby consent to such jurisdiction and venue.


All information, programs and other materials contained in SuperBeam 5 are our property, or the property of people or businesses from whom we have license rights, under copyright and other laws. All source code for the computer programs in SuperBeam 5 is confidential and proprietary. You agree not to permit others to view or attempt to view the source code.. SuperBeam includes code portions copyright Aspack Software, Borland International, Gnostice Information Systems, Helpware Group, OverByte sprl and TMS Software used under licence. SuperBeam and EuroBeam are registered trade marks of Survey Design Associates Ltd. ProSteel is a trade mark of Survey Design Associates Limited. NDS and National Design Specification are registered trademarks of the American Forest and Paper Association. All other trademarks used in this software and its accompanying documentation are the property of their respective owners and are hereby acknowledged

SuperBeamTM program and documentation © COPYRIGHT 1989, 2008 All rights reserved

Survey Design Associates Limited

Kestrel House, 111 Heath Road, Twickenham, Middx. TW1 4AF U.K. Tel: +44 20 8744 2002 Fax: +44 20 8891 0866 E-mail: [email protected] This manual was last revised in June 2008

Contents 1 - Quick start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 - Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 - Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 - Beams - loadings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5 - Steel beam calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6 - Wood beam calculations. . . . . . . . . . . 15 7 - Wood posts and studs. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 8 - Steel columns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 9 - User text pages and Project text. . . . 25 10 -Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 11 -Configuration options. . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 12 -Miscellaneous options. . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 13 -Technical support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 14 -Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36



1.1 Quick Start

SuperBeam is aimed at construction professionals who are involved in the structural design of domestic scale buildings. It handles the design and checking of simply supported steel and wood beams, and checking of steel columns, wood posts and studs using the AISC Allowable Stress Design Code (Ninth edition) and AFPA National Design Specification 2001 edition. To start the program select `Start, Programs, SDA Applications, SuperBeam 5 USA'. Enter your initials in the dialog that appears (Selecting `I am the only user' will stop this being displayed each time you run the program) and click on the `Accept' button when the disclaimer appears (on legal advice this has to be shown every time you run the program). SuperBeam is a Windows MDI application. Select options from the menu, with the hot keys shown next to menu options or by using the toolbar. When you see references in the manual to the `Item' menu, it refers to the menu whose name follows `Project' on the menu bar: the menu title will change according to the currently selected window.

1.2 Calculated fields

Certain fields, mainly those for loads are referred to as calculated fields. These accept enter either a number, or an expression, the value of which is calculated by the program. Entering a load as an expression saves having to work it out first and entering data in this form can make it much easier for anyone checking your work. For example a loading entered as `1.8 x 4.7/2' gives one some clues as to how it is derived, whereas 4.23 might not. Note that in contrast to the well known `BODMAS' (Brackets, Of, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction) rule, division is carried out after multiplication: this saves the need for parentheses when entering an 0.4x1.8 expression such as 2x1.5 : this would be entered as 0.4x1.8/2x1.5 which is evaluated by SuperBeam as (0.4x1.8)/(2x1.5) = 0.24 (Using BODMAS it would be evaluated as 0.4x(1.8/2)x1.5 = 0.54 - not the same!). For more information on how calculated fields are evaluated (operator precedence etc.) see the online help - `Calculated fields'. * * * * *

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Projects - an overview

SuperBeam uses the concept of a `project' which is composed of one or more `items' (beams, columns etc.). Each project is stored as a separate file. The project file stores information relating to the project as a whole (for example the site address and job description) and data relating to each item forming part of the project.

2.1 Starting a new project

Select the File > New option. The project details dialog shown below appears. Enter the relevant details, press OK, then enter a file name for the project. You can then start adding items to the project.

2.2 Opening an existing project file

To open a project file, select the File > Open option, choose the file required from the open file dialog. If you enter the name of a file that does not exist, it is assumed that you are starting a new project. You can also open a file by dragging it onto the desktop from Explorer or a folder. By default the most recently opened project file names are shown at the end of the File menu, and on startup the previous project is reloaded. These two options can be disabled if required - see User Setup, page 82.

2.3 Saving your work to disk

To prevent data loss save your work regularly using the File > Save option (Ctrl+S). Use the File > Save As option if you have not already given your project a file name or if you want to save it under a new name. The User Setup dialog (page 82) lets you select automatic timed saving of your work.

2.4 The Project Manager

The Project Manager window occupies the leftmost part of the program desktop and provides a convenient way of selecting and managing the items making up the current project. The numbers given to items are reassigned when necessary. You can change the width by dragging on the splitter bar to its right. If you drag it too far to the left the Project Manager will close; drag the splitter bar to the right to redisplay it. The font can be changed using the Configuration > Screen and Printer Fonts option. Click on an item to select its window. The Cut and Copy buttons copy the selected item; `Cut' then deletes it from the project. Paste inserts a copy of a

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previously copied or cut item into the item list. The Move ... buttons let you rearrange the order in which sheets are printed when using the Project > Print Project option. The Expand button stays down when pressed; press it again to release it. When it is down, the selected window expands to fill the program desktop (F8 does this for any individual window). Clicking the bar below the item list hides/shows the Project Manager buttons. Keyboard shortcuts: Press F12 to select the Project Manager, use the Up and Down cursor keys to highlight an item, then Enter to select it. F6 and F7 move through the items in your project in forward and reverse order. Other useful keyboard shortcuts are F4: close current window; F8/Shift+F8: expand current/all open windows; F10: menu and F11: show calculator.

2.5 Project details

The Project Details dialog shown below, contains details which relate to the project as a whole. You can go back and change these details at any time using the Project > Project Details option. This data relates to the project as a whole. The ProSteel dialog is shown here::

Project fields There are four text fields in which (by default) you enter the site address, job, job number and client: you can change these field descriptions if desired using the Configuration > Project Fields option (page 80). The data entered in these four fields is printed as part of the page heading in the positions marked by the %1-%4 parameters (see page 78ff). Project started This initially defaults to the date on which the project was started but you can changed it if desired. The contents of this field are printed at the top of the Project Summary and in the Project File Catalogue (see page 87).

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Show notes in summary If this box is checked, notes added to individual calculations will also be shown in the Project Summary. Print Project includes Project Summary If this box is checked, the Summary is printed first when you select the Project > Print Project option. This setting can also be changed in the Print Project, Selection dialog (see page 76). Print ... diagram These settings are the defaults for new beams added to the project: the options for existing beams will not be changed. Load entry SuperBeam only A pair of radio buttons let you choose whether to enter beam and column loads as total loads or separate dead and live loads. The former is easier and quicker; the advantages of the latter are as follows: 1. For steel beams the deflection limit you enter (typically L/360) is then applied to live load deflection only. You should still satisfy yourself that the total load deflection is within acceptable limits. 2. Where a beam extends as a cantilever, SuperBeam calculates the maximum bending moment and shear force with live loads applied to the span only, cantilever only and with all loads applied. and uses the worst case to determine the member size. The printout shows the mid-span and cantilever end deflections for each load combination. 3. Where a beam extends as a cantilever, the reaction at R1 used for checking web crushing and buckling, padstone/bearing plate sizing, and as a B/F reaction is calculated ignoring any live load on the cantilever section (which tends to reduce the reaction). 4. When using total load entry, the padstone/bearing plate and column base design routines ask you for the assumed proportions of dead and live loads from which the factored load is calculated; when you enter separate dead and live loads these are not required

2.6 Adding items to a project

A project contains one or more of the following (`items'):

A beam (steel or wood)

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A steel column A sood post or stud A user text page (text stored as a separate file on disk) Project text (text stored as part of the project file) An OLE object page (a page whose contents generated and edited using another application on your system, e.g. a word processor)

There are several ways of adding items to the current project. The easiest way is to use the toolbar buttons. From the keyboard use the shortcut keys for the Project > Add ... options: [Ctrl+B]: Add beam; [Ctrl+A]: Add column; [Ctrl+J]: Add connection; [Ctrl+R]: Add Project Text and [Ctrl+U]: Add User Text Page. The Add OLE object page option does not have a shortcut key or toolbar button. If you want to add an item which is a copy or near copy of an existing item select the Project Manager (see above) and use its Copy and Paste options, then edit the copy as necessary.

2.7 Adding item(s) from another project

The Project > Add item(s) from another project option lets you extract beam or column data from projects already stored on disk. Choose the project file from which items are to be copied: the items in this project are listed. Check the one(s) that you wish to add to your current project, then press `Add'. The item(s) are added to the end of the existing item list: you can use the Project Manager's `Move' buttons to reposition them. Repeat this process to add further items from the same project, or choose another project file and add items from it. Press Close when done.

2.8 Item edit dialogs

When you add a new item to a project the corresponding edit dialog is displayed. Each dialog is described in detail later in this manual. The edit dialogs are modeless - in most cases you do not have to close a dialog before proceeding further. If desired you can make the Apply button close the dialog - see Configuration > User Setup option (see page 82). To edit an item's data, first select the item window then press the toolbar Edit button, double click on the window or select Item > Edit. The corresponding edit dialog appears. When an edit dialog is displayed it makes a copy of the item's data: if you make any changes you are making them to this copy, not

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to the original. Apply (which is only be enabled once you have made one or more changes) replaces the original data with the amended copy, and the item window is updated. Undo cancels any unapplied changes.

2.9 Project summary

The Project > Project Summary option displays the project file name, the date on which the project was started (initially assigned by the program but changeable in the Project Details dialog) and last saved to disk, the project details (as entered in the Project Details dialog) and key data for each item. Optionally, for beams, posts and columns, you can also include notes in the Project Summary. To print the summary press the toolbar Print button. * * * * *

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Beam loads

3.1 Adding a beam to a project

To add a beam to your project press the toolbar Add beam button or select Project > Add Beam (Ctrl+B) - see Adding Items to a Project, page6). The beam edit dialog shown below appears. It also appears when you add a beam to a project, press the toolbar Edit button or select the Beam > Edit option (Alt+E) with a beam load window selected. SuperBeam consider simply supported beams spanning `L' feet between reactions R1 and R2; load positions are measured in feet from R1. Loadings are entered in lb/ft run for variable, uniformly and part uniformly distributed loads and in pounds for point loads (PLs). Reactions and shear forces are given in kip, bending moments in kip-in.

3.2 Entering beam load data

As with other edit dialogs, the Apply and Undo buttons are greyed out until you change the data (at this stage you are changing a copy of the data, not the original). Apply confirms these changes. Undo discards any changes made since the dialog was displayed or Apply was last pressed.

The Loads page of the beam edit dialog contains fields for the beam description, span and type, followed by a table containing one row for each load. You can enter up to 30 loads per beam. The height of this dialog can be changed if desired: increasing the height shows more loads and increases the size of the `Notes' fields on the other pages.

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In the `Beam' field enter a suitable identifier, e.g. its number, `A32' or location, e.g. `Front cross steel' and the span (between centres of bearings, not clear span). Check one or both diagram boxes to print the corresponding diagram on the calculation sheet. If you are using SuperBeam check the Steel and/or Timber boxes to denote the beam type. If appropriate, you can choose to design steel and timber alternatives for the same loads. Within the load table enter new text by selecting the cell and typing it in; to edit an existing entry double click on the cell or press [F2] to put the cell into editing mode. Beams extended as cantilevers Currently SuperBeam checks simply supported beams, beams extending as a cantilever beyond R2 and true cantilevers. Later in 2008 we hope to extend this to handle checking of beams that extend as cantilevers beyond R1 and/or R2. If you enter a load position greater than the beam span, the member is automatically picked up as being a beam extending as a cantilever. The length of the cantilever is determined by the rightmost load position. For example if you enter a span of 5.0 and a point load at 6.0, this indicates that the beam extends as a 1m cantilever with the point load 1m beyond R2. If you enter a span of `0' the member is analysed as a true cantilever. Where you have a UDL that extends from R1 to the end of the cantilever, enter it as a part UDL with start and end positions of `0' and (span+cantilever length) respectively. Entering loads Loads are entered in a table. Each load line starts with a single character denoting the load type, which can be one of the following:


Uniformly distributed load (from reaction R1 and to R2): Enter the description and the loading (in kN/m); the load start and end positions of `0' and `L' are automatically filled in. paRt uniformly distributed load: This is a uniform load with user entered start and end positions. Enter the description, loading (kN/m) and the load start and end positions (in metres from R1). If the end position is greater than the span it indicates that the beam extends as a cantilever beyond R2. The length of the cantilever is determined by the rightmost part UDL or point load position.


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Variable load: This is a distributed load which increases or decreases linearly between the start and end positions. Enter the description, loading at the start position, start position, loading at the end position and end position. A triangular load such as a gable wall will need to be split into two variable loads, the first from 0 at 0 to W at L/2, the second from W at L/2 to 0 at L. Point load: Enter the description, loading (kN) and position (measured in metres from R1). If the position is greater than the span it indicates that the load is a point load on the cantilever extension of the beam beyond R2. No load: Pressing Apply deletes any entries on this line.



In each case enter the loading duration, D (dead) or L (live) in the second column of the table unless you are using SuperBeam and have opted to enter total loads. Should you forget to enter the load start and/or end positions, worst case values are inserted, followed by a question mark: 0 and L/2 for part UDL's and VL's, L/2 for point loads. Some common loading situations 1. Wall above beam: UDL = weight/m2 x height of wall supported 2. Floor or roof joists bearing on beam: UDL = floor or roof load/m2 x half span of joists. 3. Trimmer or subsidiary beam: PL at `X', where `X' is the distance of the supported beam from reaction R1. For more guidance on loading we would suggest consulting the `Structural Engineer's Pocket Book', Fiona Cobb, ISBN 0 7506 5638 7. Note that for distributed loads you enter the loading per metre run, NOT the total load. Occasionally new users have mistakenly entered the total load, which is then multiplied by the span - and they're then left wondering why such a large section is needed! Bringing forward a beam reaction as a point load Where a point load results from a reaction of another beam in the project, you can enter the load in the form #nRxD or #nRxL where n is the item number, x is the reaction (1 or 2), and `D' or `L', dead or live. For example

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#3R1D is item 3 R1 dead load. The referenced item must appear in the item list before the current item. To save you remembering item numbers, press the B/F button (only visible when the load table is selected) to display a dialog from which you can select the beam and reaction (R1 or R2) and enter the load position. The load expression is pasted into the next available row. Change the default name given to the load if desired. You can also use a #nR expression to bring forward loads from columns. By entering loads this way the load is automatically updated if the loads on the supported member are changed. In the calculation, the actual figure is substituted for the expression followed by [B/F] to indicate that the figure used has been brought forward from elsewhere. If an expression cannot be evaluated, it will be prefaced with a question mark, and evaluated as zero. Copying, deleting and reordering loads The Copy and Delete Load buttons are only visible when a load is selected. The first copies the selected load to the end of the table. The second deletes the load (you can also do this by changing the type character to a hyphen). To reposition a load click on the row number and drag it up or down to the required position. Note that when you press Apply loads are sorted by type, discarding any rows which start with a hyphen, so changing the relative position of two loads is only effective if they are of the same type. Span related loads or load positions If `L' is entered into a load or load position field, the value of the span is substituted when the expression is evaluated. This is of particular use for UDL's where you are given the total load - for example a 20kN total load equates to a UDL of 20/L kN/m run - and for entering point load positions by reference to the span of the beam: for example by giving the load position as L/2, or 2L/3.

3.3 Loading and bending moment/shear force diagrams

To display one of these diagrams for the currently selected beam press the corresponding toolbar button. The diagrams are included in printouts only if the boxes within the edit dialog are checked. Right-clicking the diagram displays a popup menu which lets you copy the diagram to the clipboard or save it as a bitmap. To change the diagram display colours and/or fonts select the Configuration > Diagram options option.

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3.4 Be kind to checking engineers!

Help yourself and anyone checking your calculations by giving meaningful descriptions to loadings (e.g. `Floor' or `Beam 1 R1'), and entering them as expressions, if this will help to clarify how they have been determined (e.g. `2.0 x 5.7/2'). To reduce the risk of errors and make checking easier we would suggest that you always enter loadings in the form of generic load x spacing x distance, e.g. `Floor 2.0 x 0.4 x 5.7/2' or `Wall 5.0 x 3.6' and have a standard house rule for determining which end of a beam is R1 (for example, always make R1 the leftmost or rearmost end of a beam). To repeat the point made on page 2 note the way in which the parser interprets calculated fields: 2.0 x 5.7/2 x 0.4 is interpreted as 2.0x5.7 - which 2x0.4 is not the same as 2.0 x 0.4 x 5.7/2. This is quite deliberate, not a bug, and saves the need for parentheses in most cases. * * * * *

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Steel beam design and checking

SuperBeam 4 USA steel beam calculations are based on the AISC Manual of Steel Construction: Allowable Stress Design, Ninth Edition 1989. You are strongly advised to obtain a copy if you do not already have one. Beams are assumed to be loaded in the vertical direction only. You can design using grade A36 or A50 steel.

4.1 Section classifications

The AISC Manual classifies sections as compact, non-compact or slender: the criteria are set out in Table B 5.1. SuperBeam determines the type and critical span (Lc) for each section and grade as it reads in the steel data file; virtually all `W' and `S' A36 and most A50 sections are classed as compact and for these the maximum permissible bending stress Fb is 0.66 Fy; for non-compact sections Fb will be between 0.66Fy and 0.6Fy.

4.2 Effective length and permissible bending stress

Long unrestrained beams are likely to fail before the maximum bending stress is reached because of the tendency of the compression flange to buckle under compression. Where the laterally unsupported length Lb of the compression flange exceeds the critical span Lc it is necessary to reduce Fb in accordance with the formulae set out in F 1. SuperBeam does all the necessary calculations for you. The steel beam design dialog (shown on page 12) includes a field for entering the unsupported length of the compression flange, Lb. The default value is 1.0L, the span of the beam. A fully restrained beam will have an effective length of `0'. If Lb does not exceed Lc, Fb will be (for compact sections) equal to 0.66 Fy; if it is greater than Lc but does not exceed Lu (assuming this is greater than Lc), Fb will be 0.60 Fy. If Lb exceeds Lu, Fb will be less than 0.60 Fy; it reduces as Lb increases in accordance with the AISC formulae (F1-6), (F1-7) and (F1-8). SuperBeam always uses a value of 1.0 for Cb: this is conservative. Beams with intermediate restraints If the beam has one or more intermediate restraints you need to decide which is the critical span and enter the appropriate effective length, e.g. 12 [ft], 10+D etc. D represents the depth of the beam which may be significant

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if the beam sits on a bearing plate but is not otherwise restrained at a bearing.

4.3 Deflection

On domestic scale structures deflection is not usually a factor in deciding which section to use unless you are dealing with a situation where the height of the beam needs to be minimized (for example because it has to be contained within the overall thickness of a floor). The AISC Manual states that "the live load deflection of floor beams supporting plastered ceilings should be limited to not more than 1/360 of the span length". As well as potential cracking of plaster you should also consider (as appropriate) the possibility of excessive vibration, ponding of roofs, effects on sliding doors and glazing under beams, and cracking of masonry over. Where works to existing properties are concerned we would suggest that total deflection be limited to span/360 unless you can be sure that the beam will be properly preloaded against the dead loading.

4.4 Twin and triple beams

SuperBeam gives you the option of considering single, twin or triple sections. Twin beams are often used as the means of support when forming openings in thicker masonry walls where the loading is not too great. You may also wish to consider using twin channels, but you are advised not to use a single channel as a beam unless it is fully restrained. Triple beams are sometimes used when forming openings in thick masonry walls. Twin and triple beams are assumed to have twice or three times the strength of the single member - no account is taken of any increased lateral stiffness. Clause F6 states that where two or more sections are used side-by-side to form a single member they should be connected together at intervals of not more than five feet. For smaller beams the usual method is to tie the beams together with long bolts or studding and tube spacers at the center of the web. Two bolts, one above the other, should be used where the beam depth is 12 in. or more. A designed connection should be used if the load is to be transferred from one beam to another, or where it is unequally distributed between the beams to any great extent.

4.5 Remember the limitations of the program

SuperBeam steel (and wood) calculations are limited to those that are generally carried out when manually designing or checking small structures

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and users should be alive to the necessity of carrying out more rigorous checks in certain instances. Web crushing and buckling, effects of lateral loading and torsion are not checked by the program and if any of these are likely to be significant you should make a further manual check. How close to the limit? A selected section may meet all requirements but only by a very small margin: if you end up with an actual bending stress of 1psi less than the permissible value you may wish to congratulate yourself the economy of your design; alternatively you may decide that it would be prudent to use the next largest section size as any checking engineer would, in such circumstances, scrutinize your loadings closely, and any discrepancy might result in the section not being considered acceptable. The same comment obviously applies to wood design.

Using SuperBeam to check and design steel beams

If the `Steel' box on the load page of the beam edit dialog is checked, SuperBeam automatically updates the current steel calculation whenever you change the loads or steel design parameters. If you have not selected the `combined load and beam calculation' option within the Project Details dialog, display the steel calculation for the current item by first selecting the beam loading window, then click on the `Show steel' toolbar icon (Alt+S). By default a summary calculation is displayed; if the `Show details' box (see below) is checked, you will see a more detailed calculation (the one that would be printed). Hot key Alt+V toggles between the summary and detailed calculation.

4.6 Steel design criteria

To change the design criteria used for automatic selection of the required section, either click on the `Steel' tab of the beam edit dialog, if open, or with the steel calculation window selected double click on it, click on the toolbar `Edit' button or select Steel: Edit (Alt+E). The `Steel' page of the beam edit dialog (shown overleaf) will be displayed and this lets you change the design parameters discussed next. When you press `Apply', SuperBeam selects the first section size found that is satisfactory and displays the calculations for it.

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The entries required in the various fields of this dialog are as follows: Section widths By changing the minimum and maximum permissible widths you can eliminate sections that would be too wide or narrow for the intended position (if the width is not critical use the default values of 0 and 999). Twin and triple section beams are considered to have a minimum width of twice or three times that of a the section (i.e. the flanges will be touching) and a maximum width of three or five times that of the section (i.e. a maximum spacing between flanges of one beam width is assumed). Effective length The effective length should be entered as described above, either in terms of the span (e.g. `1.0L' or `0.85L'), or as an expression incorporating the beam depth (e.g. `1.2L+2D') .If the beam is fully restrained it will have a effective length of `0' .If the beam extends as a cantilever enter the effective length of the cantilever section in the field provided (in this case `L' equals the cantilever length). Deflection The default deflection limit is `L/360'; change it if desired. If the beam extends as a cantilever enter a figure for the cantilever deflection limit (the default is L/180, where `L' equals the length of the cantilever section). If you have chosen total load entry, SuperBeam compares the total load deflection with the limit(s) you enter so you may feel that a higher limit can

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be used; we would not recommend this unless you are sure that the beam will be adequately preloaded against dead loads or it is in a new build situation where dead load deflection will be taken up during construction. For beams extended as cantilevers be sure to note the differing deflections when the span and/or cantilever are subject to live loads. Section types and sort order to be used The `Consider' radio buttons give you the option of checking one section only, or you can find the lightest or shallowest suitable section selected from the section types checked in the `Use' check boxes. The currently selected section appears as the caption of the button next to the `Check' radio button. Click on this radio button to ensure that this section (only) is checked. Click on the button itself to manually select an alternative section; this duplicates the `Check' option described below. Steel grade The steel grade can be changed as desired: we would suggest that you specify Grade A36 steel unless you are sure that the contractor who will carry out the work is aware of the difference between Grade A36 and Grade A50 steel (no offense to reputable contractors is intended by this comment!). L3.1 check The ASD L3.1. recommendation is that the allowable bending stress should be reduced where the beam depth is less than L.Fy/800 for floors and L.Fy/1000 for roofs. Select `Floor' or `Roof' where appropriate and this check will be made. Show details If the box is checked the full calculation (the one that will be printed) is shown on screen. If it is not checked a summary calculation is shown. Keyboard shortcut Alt+V can be used to toggle between these two. Flag value percentage Enter a value between 50 and 100: if the bending stress, shear stress or deflection exceeds this percentage of the corresponding permissible value a warning is shown at the top of the steel calculation window and a question mark is shown before the item description in the Project Manager. Note that the selected section is suitable, though possibly only just!

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Notes Enter any notes which you want to appear at the end of the steel printout. SuperBeam 2 allowed two lines of notes only; in SuperBeam 4 there is no limit (within reason). Copying and pasting of text is handled by the Windows clipboard, so you can paste in text copied from other sources. In SuperBeam 4 note lines are joined together and word wrapped at print time; to force a new line leave a blank line after the line where a break is required. The combo box lets you select a standard note (entered using the Configuration, Standard Notes option), the text of which is then inserted into the note field by pressing the single arrow button; pressing the double arrow button appends the note text to the end of any existing text. Overriding the selected section Clicking on the radio button next to the button showing a section name selects that section (only). Pressing the button itself lets you change the section.

4.7 Analysis

With a steel beam calculation window selected, selecting the Steel: Analysis option (Alt+Y) to display a table showing the bending moment, shear stress and deflection at intervals of span/20. To print the analysis click on the toolbar print icon (Alt+P); it can also be selected for printing from within the Project: Print Project option.

4.8 Checking a particular steel section

With the steel calculation window selected, click on the toolbar `Steel Check' button or select Steel: Check (Alt+C). All steel sections in the current steel table file are shown in a display similar to the one below. Select the section type from the smaller list box and the required section from the larger one. Click on `1 x' to display the calculations for this section. To check a twin or triple beam click on `2 x' or `3 x' or press `2' or `3' respectively.

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To change the effective length and/or permissible deflection, change the design parameters as described above.

4.9 Adding bearing details to a steel beam calculation

With a steel calculation displayed, click on the Edit icon (Alt+E) to display the beam edit dialog and click on the `Bearings' tab (if the dialog is already open, just click on the tab). The required area of a padstone or m.s. bearing plate is calculated from the reaction and permissible stress on the masonry under. This method is adequate where there is ample load distribution below the padstone or plate; all slender piers should be checked by calculation. The required bearing plate thickness is calculated where applicable. Applicable bearing details are automatically added to printouts.

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The options for each bearing are: 1. Omit: No information is requested or printed 2. User defined: You can type in one line of text which will appear on the printout. This will usually identify how this end of the beam is supported, e.g. `Cleat to column A32' or `Bearing on external wall'. This field can also be used to enter a short note if you have selected the padstone or bearing plate options. 3. Padstone: Enter the permissible stress on the supporting masonry and the padstone width, `A', and length, `B'. If the latter is less than the required minimum length (the greater of the beam width or reaction x factor/permissible stress x area), the required minimum length is substituted when press `Apply'. You have the option of rounding this up if desired, e.g. you would probably want to show a padstone as being 12" long, rather than 10.73". The permissible bearing stress should be calculated allowing for any other loads on the masonry at the bearing position. The required height of the padstone is not calculated, but if the padstone is unreinforced this should not be less than its projection beyond the beam flanges. 4. Bearing plate: This routine works in a similar way to the padstone design, but in addition calculates the minimum required plate thickness, using limiting the bending stress to 21.6ksi. Press the `Apply' button to recalculate the minimum required plate thickness. You will probably want to round the thickness up to the next standard value

4.10 Making changes to the steel section data file

The steel data file (SB5STEEL.DTA by default) is a standard ASCII text file and can be edited using Windows Notepad or another editor if you wish to add additional sections, delete sections, or change the section order. When making changes be sure to follow the existing format of the file. If you are adding additional sections please be particularly careful when entering the figures for the section properties, as errors here are less likely to be suspected by checking authorities. Valid lines within the steel data file contain fourteen items separated by twelve commas and start with a valid section type. Lines not containing

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thirteen commas are treated as comments; if you never use the larger sections you can free up memory and speed the loading of the program either by deleting the whole line, or by removing one comma on the line concerned (which will then cause the line to be treated as a comment). You can change the location or name of the steel data file to be used using the Configuration: Paths and Files option as described on page 33. The change will not take effect unless you save the configuration to disk and then reload the program. The following factors should be considered if you are thinking about making changes to the file: 1. Reducing the number of sections frees up memory and reduces the time taken to load the file. 2. If you remove all blank lines, spaces and comments from the file it will load more quickly, but further editing will be more difficult. 3. Valid section types are `W', `M', `C' (channel), `S', `HP' and `MC' 4. The `Use section types' check boxes within the design criteria dialog lists section types in the order in which they first appear within the data file. 5. One option within the Steel Design Parameters dialog lets you consider sections in the order in which they appear in the file. 6. The Check option section selection screen gives more space to the first two section types (four types if you have seven or eight section types) than to the rest.

Steel section data file format

The thirteen items should be listed in the following order: Type (as above), Nominal depth, Weight (these are used to generate the section name) Cross sectional area A, Actual depth d, Web thickness tw Flange width bt, Flange thickness tf Radius of gyration rT Moment of inertia Ix, Section modulus Sx Moment of inertia Iy, Section modulus Sy Center of web to fillet

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4.11 Making changes to the steel section data files

The steel data file (SB5Steel.dta by default) is a standard text file and can be edited if you wish to add additional sections, delete sections, or change the section order. The steel file location is shown in the Configuration > Information report. For more information see the on-line help: `Steel section data file' * * * * *

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Steel column design and checking

5.1 Design Principles

SuperBeam 4 USA steel column (stanchion) calculations are based on the AISC Manual of Steel Construction: Allowable Stress Design, Ninth Edition 1989. SuperBeam lets you check columns that are subject to axial loading only or those which are subject to axial loads and bending moments about one or both axes. Axial loads Short columns fail because the material of which they are made yields under the direct compressive force due to the applied load(s). As the column gets longer it is more liable to buckle and the permissible compressive stress has to be reduced to take account of this. The tendency to buckle is a function of the effective length (the length, L, multiplied by a factor, K) and the radius of gyration for the section about the appropriate axis. If the slenderness ratios about the two axes are different (which will nearly always be true for I sections) the greater one determines the permissible compressive stress. Recommended K factors can be found in the AISC Code Table C-C2.1. The most common situations are: Member effectively held in position at both ends and ... ... restrained in direction at both ends 0.65L ... restrained in direction at one end 0.80L ... effectively held in position at both ends and not 1.0L restrained in direction at either end (e.g. a pin jointed braced frame) Member effectively held in position and restrained in direction at one end. Other end not held in position ... ... but restrained in direction 1.2L ... and not restrained in direction 2.1L If the slenderness ratio is less than Cc (defined as


2E Fy

) inelastic buckling

is the assumed mode of failure and the permissible compressive stress will be between 0.6Fy (SR=0) and 0.26Fy (SR=Cc). If the slenderness ratio is between Cc and 200 (the maximum allowable: B.7) it will be less than the

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latter value. SuperBeam calculates the value of Cc and the permissible compressive stress using the formula E.2-1 or E.2-2 as appropriate. Bending Two key assumptions are made: 1. The structure is braced in both directions and that the column is subject only to bending due to the eccentricity of applied loads. 2. All beams framing into the column at any one level are fully loaded. The general rule for members subject to compressive and bending stresses is that

fa Fa


f b,x F b,x


f b,y F b,y


Experimentation has shown that this can overestimate the safe load that a member can carry and the second and third expressions are therefore multiplied by amplification factors (except where fa/Fa is less than 0.15) which increase as the applied compressive stress approaches the permissible stress. In certain cases the AISC code also allows a reduction factor, Cm, to be used: SuperBeam uses a value of 1.0 for Cm which is conservative. Calculation of bending stress If the member is axially loaded there will be no bending moment. Where the moments is generated by a beam bearing on a cap plate, the moment will be taken as the axial load x half the section depth. Where the moment results from the reaction(s) of one or more beams bearing on the column you can entered the beam reactions and the distances between their assumed points of action and the member center. If preferred you can enter the total load as an axial load and enter any moments in the fields provided.

5.2 Steel column design and checking

When you first add a column to your project, the edit dialog shown below is displayed. To edit the data related to an existing column, first select it, then click on the `Edit' button on the toolbar, select Column: Edit (Alt+E), or double click on the window. To check a particular section click on the toolbar `Steel Check' button or select the Column: Check option (Alt+C): a dialog similar to the one shown on page 13 will be displayed; select the section that you wish to check To print the calculation click on the `Print' button or select Column: Print (Alt+P) or print from with the Print Project option.

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The column edit dialog Only those fields which do not replicate those in the beam edit dialog, steel page are discussed here. For information on the others please refer to the section on steel beam design starting on page 11. The fields for section type(s), steel grade, show details, select/check and notes appear on the `Section' page of the dialog.

Location Enter a reference number or description for this column, e.g. `A32' or `Front corner support' . Column length Enter the column length in feet and the effective lengths about the major and minor axes - most usually the effective lengths will be entered as an expression with `L' as the actual length, e.g. `0.85L'. Loads Column loads are entered in a table much as for wood posts and studs. To enter a new value in a table cell, select the cell and type the value in; to edit an existing entry double click the cell or press [F2] to put the cell into editing mode. The entries required in each column are as follows: Loading type: Enter `A': Axial or `1', `2', `3' or `4' where the load is offset from the center of the member, numbers as shown on the diagrammatic section.

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Description: Enter a suitable description for the load, or select one from the standard load description drop-down list. Dead and live loads: These are entered in pounds, as expressions if desired. If you have chosen total load entry only one column will be shown and the total load should be entered here. Load offset: This entry only applies where the load type is `1' - `4'. Enter the distance in inches from the center of the member to the point where the load is considered to act. To bring forward the reaction from a beam, press one of the small buttons on the section diagram and the B/F button will be enabled. Select the required beam and reaction (R1 or R2) from the dialog that appears, press OK and the reactions will be entered in the column load dialog in the form #nR1D (R2L etc) where n is the item number. Note that this option only functions reliably where the reaction is from a beam listed above the column in the item list. Additional moments Moments resulting from loads that have been given types of `1' - `4' are calculated automatically according to the member size. in the `Additional Moments' fields enter any additional (unfactored) moments to be included when checking the member. Check/design option If the `Check' radio button on the section page is selected, the section next to it will be checked. This section can be changed by clicking on it and selecting the required section with the [Up] and [Down] keys, or by clicking on the `Select' button and selecting the required section from the dialog that appears. This is virtually identical to the Beam, Check Section dialog shown on page 12.

5.3 Column base plates

SuperBeam's base plate design is based on the UBC and AISC effective area method. The basic bearing strength of the concrete under the bearing plate is taken as 0.3f'c where f'c is the cube strength at 28 days. If the concrete base is larger than the baseplate (as will generally be the case) this figure can be multiplied by a factor of (A2/A1)0.5 (but not more than 2.0), where A2 is the support area and A1 the baseplate area. Dividing the bearing strength into the load gives

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the minimum required area. The load is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the actual area of the base plate. The projection of the base plate, taken as the greater of (plate width - 0.8 x section width)/2 and (plate length - 0.95 x section depth)/2, is used to determine the required thickness. The base plate is assumed to be taking an axial load only (i.e. the base is pinned). If this assumption is not correct you will need to calculate the base plate size manually. You will also need to do this if the base plate size is to be determined by the allowable bearing stress of fill under the slab rather than by the strength of the concrete slab itself. Adding a base plate With a column calculation selected, double click on the window or click on the toolbar `Edit' icon to display the column edit dialog (if it is not already visible) and then click on the `Base' tab. To remove a base plate uncheck the `Base Plate' check box (it is automatically checked when you first access this dialog) and press `Apply', then `Close' otherwise proceed as follows. In the `Concrete fcu' field enter the concrete cube strength: clicking on the up and down arrows changes the displayed value in steps of 0.5ksi. Pressing `Reset' recalculates the minimum plate dimensions. You can then increase these manually to round off the base size as preferred; the up and down arrows next to the width and length fields adjust the dimensions in 1" steps and those next to the thickness in 0.125" steps. The area field determines the allowable stress on the concrete, which as explained above will be between 0.3f'c and 0.6f'c depending on the value entered here. f

Each time you press `Apply' the program checks to see that the dimensions in these fields are equal to, or greater than, the required minima. The program output shows the actual minima (e.g. 10.3" x 11.2" x 0.89") and the

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selected rounded-up size, say 12" x 12" x 1"). It is of course necessary to ensure that the plate size has adequate space to accommodate the holding down bolts

* * * * *

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Timber and flitch beams

SuperBeam USA wood calculations are based on the National Design Specification® for Wood Construction 2001 edition published by the American Forest & Paper Association. You should obtain copies of the NDS® and Supplement (which lists the properties and grades of the various species) if you do not already have them so that you are aware of the detailed provisions. You may also find it helpful to obtain a copy of the AF&PA Commentary on the NDS which gives the background to the various provisions and discusses how they should be interpreted. The AF&PA address is given at the end of this manual.

6.1 An introduction to the NDS

Wood design is complicated by the fact that two pieces of wood of identical size and species may behave very differently due to the presence of knots, slope of the grain, rate of growth and other factors, and are capable of sustaining differing loadings depending on the load duration and moisture content of the wood. The NDS Supplement lists properties of wood species and grades in five tables: Table 4A refers to dimension lumber as used for joists, studs and general framing; the most commonly used grades will be Select Structural, No.1, No.2 and Stud. Tables 4B and 4C refer to Southern Pine and machine graded wood respectively. Table 4D refers to sawn timbers, subdivided into "Beams and Stringers" and "Posts and Timbers". Table 4E covers decking which is not handled by SuperBeam. "Beams and Stringers" are members that are 5" (nominal) or thicker, and have a width of at least 2" more than the thickness, for example a 6 x 10. Such members are intended for use as beams, subject to bending about the major axis. "Posts and Timbers" are defined as lumber that is 5" (nominal) or thicker, and have a width not more than 2" more than the thickness, for example a 6 x 6: such members are intended for use as structural posts. To take account of the statistical variability of wood, the basic stresses relating to the selected strength class need to be modified by the appropriate coefficients listed in the NDS. Those that considered by SuperBeam are CD , CF, CM, CR and (for posts and studs) CP. CD Loading duration coefficient The ability of wood members to safely sustain loads over a short time that would cause failure if applied for a prolonged period was first reported in

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1841 and the development of factors that recognize this is discussed at length in the NDS Commentary. To take account of this phenomenon the permissible stresses contained in the NDS Supplement need to be multiplied by the appropriate CD factor given in the NDS: Floor dead loads Floor live and dead load Snow load Roof live load Wind or seismic force Impact 0.9 1.0 1.15 1.25 1.6 2.0

SuperBeam allows you to select one of the first four when designing wood beams and one of the first five when designing posts and studs. You should be alive to the fact that some members will need to be checked under different loading conditions, applying the appropriate CD factor in each case. CF Size factor The permissible stresses for bending and compression parallel to the grain need to be multiplied by a size factor CF. This is calculated in a different way for each table and you should refer to the NDS Supplement for full details. For Table 4A stresses CF is taken from a table that gives set values depending on grade, thickness and width. Where the member size falls outside the table we take CF as 1.0 and add a note that this figure has not been taken from the NDS. Table 4B stresses (Pine) apply to members of a given thickness and width and CF is generally (but not always) 1.0. Table 4C stresses do not need to be adjusted. For Table 4D members CF is 1.0, or (12/d)1/9 for depths in excess of 12". CR Repetitive member coefficient Where one piece of wood acts on its own, for example as a trimmer, then it must be assumed to have a permissible bending stress equal to that of a piece of wood just complying with the minimum standards laid down for the grade. As more members are added to a system it becomes increasingly likely that the bending strength will approach the mean value for the grade. Where several members act together in a repetitive-member system the permissible bending stress can be multiplied by a CR factor of 1.15. The NDS defines a repetitive-member system as one that has

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1. Three or more parallel members of dimension lumber, 2. Members spaced at a maximum of 24" centers, and 3. Members connected together by a load distributing element such as a roof, floor or wall sheathing. The 1.15 CR factor can also be applied where three or more members of parallel size act together, for example as a built-up beam. See the NDS Commentary 4.3.4 for a full discussion of this subject. CM Wet service factors The tabulated figures in the NDS Supplement generally apply to wood that will have a moisture content of 19% or less, which will be the case in most covered structures. If the moisture content will exceed this figure for a prolonged period the tabulated bending stress, shear stress and E-value need to be multiplied by the appropriate CM factors.

6.2 Deflection

The NDS does not say much about deflection, leaving it to the UBC, but states that seasoned members will creep by an amount equal to approximately half the dead load deflection. For floor joists and similar members the suggested limits are L/360 for live load deflection and L/240 for total load deflection. Among the cases where you should pay particular attention to deflection are the following: 1. On longer span floors the maximum deflection may be within the L/360 recommended limit but may still be perceived as unacceptable by users of the building. For this reason the corresponding UK code limits the deflection of domestic floor joists to 14mm (0.55") where this is less than L/360. 2. Where one beam supports another you should take account of the effect of the deflection on the secondary beam: consider a 3 foot long stair trimmer supported on a wall with one end and one the mid span of a 16 foot main trimmer. The latter can be designed so as to deflect by ½", but if one end of the 3 foot trimmer ends up ½" lower than the other your client will probably notice! The same point also needs to be considered where steel beams support wood beams, though the deflection of the former is less often a problem. 3. The deflection of flat roof joists may lead to undesirable ponding if an adequate fall is not provided, and the weight of the trapped water

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may in turn cause further deflection leading to structural failure in the worst case. 4. Where joists of different spans are next to one another (e.g. joists over an `L' shaped space) there may be undesirable differential deflections between adjacent joists at the point where the span changes. The effects of deflection where a joist is parallel to a wall may need to be considered. 5. The effect of deflection on sliding doors and moveable partitions under a beam or beams above and below glazing should be considered.

6.3 Lateral restraint of wood beams and joists

The stresses used within the program are only appropriate where the member has a depth to breadth ratio within the limits set out in the NDS and Commentary, which are as follows:

Degree of lateral restraint

No lateral support Ends held in position by full depth solid blocking, bridging, hangers, nailing or bolting to other framing or similar support As above + one edge held in line for its entire length (e.g. by direct connection of sheathing, decking or joists) As above + full depth blocking or cross bracing at intervals not exceeding 8 feet, or both edges held in line or the compression edge held in line through its length to prevent lateral displacement (e.g. by adequate sheathing or subflooring); and the ends have lateral support to prevent rotation Ends held in position and both edges held firmly in line

Maximum depth/breadth

2 4 5 6


6.4 Miscellaneous comments on wood design

Note that SuperBeam only checks bending stress, deflection and shear on the un-notched section. Users should be alive to the fact that a more rigorous check may be necessary in certain cases.

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6.5 Amending the wood data file

Wood data is contained in the file SB5Wood.dta. This is a text file and can be edited with any text editor. The file format is explained at the top of the file. To edit the file with Windows Notepad, select Configuration > User Setup > File Names and Locations and press the `Edit' button to the left of the wood data file name. The data contained within the supplied file may only be used in conjunction with SuperBeam.

Why change the file

The following are some of the reasons why you might wish to change the supplied data file: 1. Deleting unwanted species and grades will speed the loading of the program and reduce the memory used for holding this data. 2. If you move the most used species to the top of their tables you will be able to select them from the list box without first scrolling through the list.

6.6 Wood beam design and checking

SuperBeam calculates the optimum member size whenever you enter or edit the loads on a wood beam or a steel/wood beam. To display the calculations for the selected size first ensure that the loading window for the required beam is active, then click on the `Edit' button on the toolbar or select Wood, Edit (Alt+E). If this section is the one required press (Alt+P) to print the calculation (though you may prefer to use the Print Project option). Changing the wood design parameters To change the selected section size, select the wood calculation window, then Wood: Edit (Alt+E) or click on the toolbar `Edit' button. The wood design parameters page of the beam edit dialog will be displayed (if the dialog is already open, you need only click on the `Timber' tab). When you press `Apply' the appropriate section is then checked or selected and calculations for it are displayed.

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The entries required on this pages are as follows: Dimensions Enter the member width and/or depth in inches (you can select standard sizes from the drop down boxes). If the member depth and width are both entered then a check on a section of this size will be carried out. Usually you will want to leave the `Nominal' check boxes checked: if you do so the dimensions entered are handled as nominal dimensions and calculations are carried out on the net section size after deducting ½" from the thickness and ½" or ¾" from the width (widths up to/greater than 6"). To calculate the required thickness or width or enter a dimension of `?` in the corresponding field. SuperBeam starts with a thickness or width of 2" and increases this dimension until a suitable size is reached; the calculated size will be shown in parentheses. Deflection Enter the maximum deflection, either in terms of the span or in inches; the default is L/360. For beams extended as cantilevers enter the permissible cantilever deflection in the field provided: in this case `L' denotes the span of the cantilever. Grade/species/strength class Select the required table, species and grade from the radio buttons and list boxes.

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CD Loading duration factor Select the appropriate factor: 0.90 for floors, 1.0 for floors, 1.15 for roofs carrying dead and snow load, or 1.25 when calculating joists carrying dead load and maintenance access load. Repetitive member system Check the box if the member forms part of a repetitive member system as defined in the NDS. Wet service situation Check the box if the member is being used in wet service situation as defined in the NDS. Flag value Enter a flag value between 50 and 100: if the bending stress, shear stress or deflection(s) exceed this percentage of the permissible values a warning will be shown at the top of the display window. The warning does not appear on printouts as the selected section is suitable (though possibly only just!) or if you select the `Show details' option. Show details If you check this box the full calculation is displayed instead of a summary. If the section size is not suitable this is shown by a `!!!' in the Project Manager. You can also toggle between the summary and detailed calculations using the options on the Wood menu (hot key [Alt+V]) Notes Enter any notes which you want to appear at the end of the printout. SuperBeam 2 allowed two lines of notes only; in SuperBeam 4 there is no limit (within reason). Copying and pasting of text is handled by the Windows clipboard, so you can paste in text copied from other sources. In SuperBeam 4 note lines are joined together and word wrapped at print time; to force a new line leave a blank line after the line where a break is required. The combo box lets you select a standard note (entered using the Configuration, Standard Notes option), the text of which is then inserted into the note field by pressing the single arrow button; pressing the double arrow button appends the note text to the end of any existing text.

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6.7 Flitch beams

Flitch beams If the beam to be checked or designed is a flitch beam check the `Flitch plate' box and enter the plate thickness and depth as described next. Flitch beams are beams that use a combination of wood and steel (iron in times past) and were commonly used in earlier times as the primary beams on long span floors. Most of the load is carried by a vertical steel plate which has wood members on either side to keep it from buckling. The wood members are bolted together through the plate to ensure that the steel and wood act as one composite member. Many designers prefer to make the plate depth one inch less than that of the wood (i.e. the edges of the plate are half an inch below the tops and above the bottoms of the flanking wood members) so that the steel will not protrude if the wood shrinks slightly. SuperBeam assumes that you will use Grade A36 steel for the plate.


In a properly constructed flitch beam the wood and steel members will deflect by exactly the same amount. The loading on the beam will therefore be shared between the wood and steel members in proportion to their EI values. When checking a flitch beam SuperBeam first calculates the EI values and from these the proportion of loads carried by the steel and wood members. The bending stress in the plate is checked to ensure that it does not exceed 24ksi; the timbers are checked using the stresses applicable to a unflitched beam. The required bolt size and spacing is not calculated by the program.

Bolting of flitch beams

The only current guidance on the design of flitch beams that we know of appears in the UK TRADA publication TBL52: Wood Frame Housing Structural Recommendations. The approach taken is to assume that the load is in the first instance taken by the wood, the calculated proportion then being transferred to the plate by the bolts over the main span, and then transferred back from the plate to the wood at the bearings. As an example consider an example beam spanning 16 feet carrying a UDL of 1000lb/ft run, built up of 2no 3" x 12" Northern Species Select Structural members flanking a ¾" x 10¼" steel plate. The SuperBeam analysis shows that the wood members carry 0.25 of the total load. Across the main span we

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therefore need to transfer 1,000 x 0.75 = 750 lb./ft run to the plate, and at each bearing 6000 x 0.8 = 4800 lb. back to the wood. The permissible bearing stress on the wood perpendicular to the grain is 350 psi. If we use ¾" bolts each bolt can take 350 x ¾ x 2 x 2½ = 1312.5 lbs (the limiting shear on the bolt and bearing on the plate/bolt are not a factor in the design). The maximum bolt spacing is therefore 1312x12/1000 = 15¾" over the main span. At each bearing 4800/1312 = 4 bolts are needed. If wood connectors were used to transfer the loadings from the bolts to the timbers it would probably be possible to use smaller or fewer bolts. The bolt spacing should be limited in any case to ensure that the timbers and steel do act as one member.

Flitch beam bearings

The above beam has end reactions of 8000 lbs.. Assuming that these are taken by the wood only, the required bearing lengths will be 8000/5 x 350 = 4.57" (assuming there is no wane in the timbers). If the beam bears on a wall it will need to sit on padstones or bearing plates, as this stress is considerably in excess of what is permitted on `normal' brickwork.

Lateral stability

Flitch beams have very little strength about the minor axis. You MUST ensure that any flitch beam is provided with adequate lateral restraint.

6.8 Wood or Flitch Beam Analysis

With a steel beam calculation window selected, selecting the Wood: Analysis option ([Alt+Y]) to display a table showing the bending moment, shear stress and deflection at intervals of span/25 and at mid-span. To print the table click on the Print toolbar icon (Alt+P); the analysis can also be selected from printing from within the Project: Print Project option* * * * *

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Timber posts and studs

7.1 Design principles

SuperBeam lets you check wood posts and studs that are subject to axial loading only or those which are subject to a bending moment about one axis. Short columns fail in crushing; more usually the safe load on any compressive member is limited by the tendency of the member to buckle, and this depends on the ratio of the effective length of the member to the radius of gyration. This tendency is taken account of by multiplying the tabular compressive stress Fc by a factor CP as well as by CD, CM and CF discussed above. If the column is fully supported CP will be 1.0. The formula used to calculate CP is found in the NDS - you will be relieved to know that SuperBeam does the calculations for you. Where a member is subject to bending and compression a check is to be made to see that the combined ratio of actual to permissible stresses satisfies the interaction formula given in the NDS (3.9-3).

Determining the slenderness ratio

The effective length is equal to the actual length (between restraints where provided) multiplied by the recommended K factor given in Appendix G. The recommended factors are shown in this table, followed by the theoretical figure in parentheses: End conditions Restrained at both ends in position and in direction Restrained at both ends in position and one end in direction Restrained at both ends in position but not in direction Restrained at one end in position and direction and at the other end in direction but not in position Restrained at one end in position and direction and free at the other end Restrained in position at one end and in direction at the other

Effective length= Actual length x

0.65 (0.5) 0.8 (0.7) 1.0 (1.0) 1.2 (1.0) 2.1 (2.0) 2.1 (2.0)

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7.2 Entering wood post dimensions and loads

When you add a wood post/stud to a project the dialog shown overleaf appears. A single member (post or stud) only is considered. If the post is made up of several members enter the overall dimensions. Enter the thickness and the effective length in that plane (as an expression if desired: e.g. `8 x 0.85'), and the width and the effective length in that plane (which may be different).

7.3 Post and stud design and checking - general

To add a wood post to your project click on the toolbar `Add post' button or select Project: Add Post (Ctrl+D) (see Adding Items to a Project, page 21). A single member only is considered. When you add a post to your project, the edit dialog shown below is displayed. To edit the data related to an existing post, first select it, then click on the `Edit' button on the toolbar, select Post/Stud: Edit (Alt+E), or double click on the window. To print the calculation click on the `Print' button or select Post/Stud: Print (Alt+P) or print from with the Print Project option.

7.4 Editing wood post and stud data

Most of the information that needs to be entered in the post/stud edit dialog is identical to that in the wood page of the beam design dialog which has been described in detail already.

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If the post is made up of several members enter the overall dimensions. Enter the length, then the width and the effective length in that plane (as an expression if desired: e.g. `0.85L'), and the depth and the effective length in that plane (which may be different). For stud walls, the thickness is the stud dimension when the wall is viewed in elevation, e.g. 2", and the depth is the wall thickness, e.g. 4". As with beams, loads on timber posts and studs are entered in a table. To enter a new value in a table cell, select the cell and type the value in; to edit an existing entry double click the cell or press [F2] to put the cell into editing mode. The entries required in each column are as follows: Loading type: Enter `A' for an axial load or `1' or `2' where the load is offset from the center of the member. `1' denotes a load whose assumed point is action is one side of the neutral axis, causing a positive moment,`2' a load which causes a negative moment. Description: Enter a suitable description for the load, or select one from the standard load description drop-down list. Dead and live loads: These are entered in pounds, as expressions if desired. If you have chosen total load entry only one column is shown and the total load should be entered here. Load offset: Where the load type is `1' or `2' enter the distance from the center of the member to the point where the load is considered to act. You can enter `D' to denote the member depth: for loads assumed to act at the face of the post the offset is `D/2'. SuperBeam calculates the resulting moment having regard to the member size. To bring forward the reaction from a beam, press one of the small buttons on the section diagram and the B/F button will be enabled. Select the required beam and reaction (R1 or R2) from the dialog that appears, press OK and the reactions will be entered in the column load dialog in the form #nRx where n is the item number and x the reaction, 1 or 2. You can enter any additional moment about the major axis in the field provided in kip-in. If the moment is due to wind loading enter this as an expression loading: psf x spacing(ft) x length2x12/8x1000, e.g. 20 x 1.33 x 8 x8 x 12/8x1000. If it is due to eccentricity of load enter it as load (lbs) x eccentricity (in.)/1000, e.g. 200 x 1.5/1000. Note that SuperBeam only considers bending about the major axis.

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As with other edit dialogs, the Apply and Undo buttons are disabled until you change the data in some way. Pressing `Apply' confirms the change(s); `Undo reverses them. Each time you press `Apply' the calculation will be updated. * * * * *

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User Text, Project Text and OLE Pages

User Text Page and Project Text items contain text that is printed out under the standard page headings. Typical uses for such pages are:

Notes, specification or standard loading sheets Title or front pages Standard calculations for items not covered by the program - e.g. a splice calculation for a particular section size

OLE Object Pages contain text or other data originating from another application on your system - for example from a Word document.

8.1 User Text Pages

User Text Pages use text stored on disk in a separate file. When you load a project containing such a page, the text is read in from this file, much as you might incorporate a photocopy of a standard details sheet in a set of calculations. The project file contains the name of the file only, not the text itself so you must ensure that you do not delete any such files that are being used by current projects, or ones you may need in the future. User Text Page files are useful where you know that you will want to use the same text again and again (e.g. a standard loading sheet or title page). The key advantage of keeping the text on disk as an external file is that you can readily incorporate User Text Page files in new projects.

8.2 Project Text

Project Text is similar to User Text pages but the text is saved to disk as an integral part of the project file, and cannot therefore get separated from the project to which it refers. If you go back to a project after some months you will know that the text has not been changed, whilst you may have amended a User Text Page in the meantime for use with another job. Project Text cannot be used except by the project of which it is part, and is analogous to incorporating a hand-written set of notes within a calculation.

8.3 Adding a User Text Page or Project Text to a project

When you add a User Text page, a standard Windows file dialog is displayed: enter or select the file name. You would normally enter or select the name of an existing file; to create a new file enter the name under which the text will be saved. The text from the file is displayed in a window. When

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you add a Project Text item to your project the text editor is displayed so you can type in your text. Text from a User Text Page file can be converted to Project Text using the Text > Convert option. The same option will let you save a Project Text page to disk so that it can be used in other projects.

8.4 Editing text pages

SuperBeam includes a basic text page editor. Select a text page window and press the toolbar Edit button to display the editor. The editor's cut, copy and paste options use the Windows clipboard, thus enabling you to exchange text with other applications. As elsewhere press Apply to save your changes or Undo to cancel them. Using special symbols and expressions in text pages To print any part of a line in the style defined for notes, emphasis, section name or subhead insert the corresponding tag <n>, <e>, <s> or <h> at the start of the line or where the new style is to start; <*> switches to Symbol font; <-> switches back to the default text style and font. For information on how to create aligned columns and other special effects see the DemoText project file installed with the program. If you are not linking the page to beam loads you may find it is easier to add an OLE Object Page (see below) so that you can create the text using your word processor.

8.5 Linking text to beam loads

If you link your page to a beam, you can substitute actual values for the span, total load, reactions bending moment - for more information on this see the on-line help: `text pages - linking to beams'.

8.6 Creating Project Text from a User Text Page

If you want to customise an existing User Text Page for use with your current project, add the page and the text is read in from disk. Then select the Text > Convert option. This will change the item type to Project Text and the text will now be stored in the project file. The Text > Convert option also lets you save Project Text as a User Text Page: You will be asked for a file name under which the text is to be saved. It can then be used elsewhere. For User Text pages, the Text menu also lets you save the current text under a new name or replace the current file with another one.

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8.7 OLE Object Pages

OLE stands for Object Linking and Embedding. The `Object' is (for example) a Microsoft Word document or a CAD detail. Applications capable of producing such objects are known as servers; those which use the objects are known as clients. An application may function as both a client and a server; SuperBeam is only ever a client. To add an OLE Object Page select the Project > Add OLE Page option. You are given the option of creating an object from an existing file, or a new object. If you select the former you can create an object from the file or link to it. If you link to the file any changes made to it are reflected in your project each time you load the project - see the discussion above on Project Text and User Text Pages. If you want to create a new object you will be asked to select the server application. Once you have done this a window appears displaying the object. Options on the Object menu lets you choose how the object is displayed; the options are clip (display as much as possible at normal size), centered (centre of object will be at centre of window) or scaled (object size is adjusted so you can see it all). You can also choose whether the origin for printing is to be the page edge or the SuperBeam margin - you may need to experiment. Generally you have two editing options. `In-place' editing is supported by most servers: double clicking on the object window or selecting Object, Edit zooms the window, starts the server, and its menu and toolbar replace the standard ones whilst in edit mode. Press [Esc] to stop editing and return to SuperBeam. Selecting Object, Open starts the parent application in its own window allowing you to edit the object in the normal way. Data relating to objects created within SuperBeam is saved in a file that has the same name as the project file, but with an OLE extension. Object pages which are linked to an external file do not require any additional data storage; as with User Text Pages, the name of the source data file (only) is saved in the project file. * * * * *

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At some stage you will want to print out your calculations. The default printer settings (as set in Control Panel) can be changed using the File: Printer Setup option: selecting this option displays the standard Windows printer setup dialog. The page margins are set using the Configuration > Page Setup option (page 80. The fonts used in the printout are set using the Configuration > Fonts option - (page 81).

9.1 Printing sheet(s) relating to a single item

Select the item window then press the Print (white printer) toolbar button or select Item > Print (Alt+P). The Print dialog shown here appears.

Select the sheet(s) you wish to print from the check boxes on the left hand side (the entry corresponding to the current window should be checked by default). The `Page Heading only' option lets you create a title page that can be overprinted or used for hand-written notes or calculations. On the right hand side, select the copy(ies) to be printed. Copy names are set up using the Configuration > Copy Allocation option - see page 82. You will be able to select only one of these entries if `printing' to a PDF file. The OK button is only enabled when at least one box in each column is checked. You have two options for page numbering. The first, sequential numbering, numbers pages 1, 2, 3 .., though you can change the first page number if necessary (the small button resets it to 1). The second option numbers pages

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according to their position in the item list: for example pages for the second item in the list would be numbered 2.1, 2.2 ... You can also add a prefix and/or suffix if desired (e.g. to produce sheets numbered A1, A2 ... or 2.A, 3.A ... etc.) and select an alternative page heading template (if you have created more than one). Finally, you have the option of sending output to the selected printer (press the Setup button to change the printer if you have more than one or settings for the selected printer) or to a PDF (Adobe Acrobat) file: if you select the latter option you will be prompted for a file name. Check the box if you want the PDF file to be displayed once created. When ready press OK to print. PDF files produced by SuperBeam are `secure', and so cannot be edited or added to other documents, though if you have a suitable program you should be able to add unsecured content to these files.

9.2 Print Project option

The Print Project Option, Project > Print Project (toolbar, blue printer icon, lets you select a number of sheets for printing, and once you confirm your choice they are printed as one print job. When you select this option a list of sheets that are currently marked for printing is displayed in a window. To print these items press the Print button (Alt+P). The Print dialog shown above appears, with one item, `Project' marked for printing.


To change the contents of the list press the toolbar Edit button (Alt+E): a dialog similar to the one shown here appears. The left hand list shows items that can be printed but have not been selected. The right hand list shows the items that have been selected: sheets are printed in the order shown in the

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box (to reorder them use the Move buttons in the Project Manager. The item name/description only appears in either list box if there are options to be displayed. To move an item between lists, first click on it, then press the left or right arrow (as applicable). To print a `blank page' (page heading only) at any point select the item title in the left hand box then press the right arrow. To select multiple items hold down the Ctrl key then click on them before pressing an arrow button. You can also drag items from one list to the other. Check the `Print Summary first' box if you want to put the Summary at the start of the list: this setting can also be changed in the Project Details dialog. * * * * *

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10. Configuration menu options

10.1 Page heading edit

Each printed sheet heading is built up from an eight line by four column matrix of cells. The program name and serial number are always printed at the start of the last line, so that the source of the calculation is always known. To change the page heading template select the Configuration > Page Heading option. The heading editor, shown here, appears.

Entering text The text that appears on the heading is entered in the table at the top of this dialog. Blank rows at the bottom of the table will not be printed. As elsewhere, to enter text in a cell, double click on it, alternatively select the cell and press [F2]. Within a cell text can be left or right aligned, or centred. The `Centre of Page' option extends cell A across the whole page and centres the text within it; when this option is selected any text entered in columns B, C and D is ignored. The text in each cell is printed using one of the four fonts shown at the bottom left of the dialog. To change the font used for a particular cell, click on the cell to select it, then press the button to the left of the chosen font name. To change the font itself press the button to the right of the name and select the required font from the dialog that appears. All cells using the old font will be updated so as to use the new selection. Using replaceable parameters in page headings Within the page heading some text and symbols will not change from job to job - for example your practice details. Other data will only be known at

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print time - for example the job details or page number. The positions at which such data is to be printed are marked by special symbols which are replaced by the actual value at print time. The symbols that can be used are:

%I:User initials %N:Page number %A:Copy allocation %F:File name %D:Date %T:Time %1, %2, %3, %4:Job related information

The %A parameter is related to the Copy Allocation option (see below). If you print three copies of a sheet they would be marked, by default, File copy, Client copy and L.A. copy. The text substituted for %1 - %4 is that entered in the project details dialog (see page 4). Changing the column widths Column widths are changed by dragging the appropriate divider in the table header to the left or right. For example to make column C narrower, drag the vertical line between C and D to the left. Column D always contains the remaining space. At print time the heading is expanded to fill the page width (excluding margins) whilst maintaining these proportions shown here. Double clicking the table header resets the column widths to their default values. Each row's height is determined by the size of the largest font used on the row. If a row's height when printed seems too great, this is probably because there is a blank cell on the row which has a larger font assigned to it - you may wish to use do this deliberately in certain cases to achieve a particular layout. Lines To draw lines around one or more of sides of a cell or block of cells, select the cell(s), ensure that `Add' is selected, then press one of the four narrow buttons to draw the corresponding line. Press the centre square button to draw all four lines. To make it easier to identify which cell a particular line belongs to (e.g. whether it is the right hand border of B2 or left hand border of C2), within the dialog lines are drawn just inside the cell boundaries and different colours are used for the top/left and bottom/right lines. At print time lines are always printed in black, using the thickness shown in the Page Setting dialog. Block operations To select a block of cells first click on the top left cell, then press `Shift' and click on the bottom right cell. Until the block is deselected (by clicking on another cell) font, line and alignment options are applied to the block.

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Heading template name The heading is saved using the name shown at the bottom of the dialog. You can create multiple headings, and choose the one required at print time. Should you have one of our UK programs and SuperBeam USA installed, note that they share the same headings. If this is not what you want, give each program's heading a unique name. To select another heading or to delete one that is no longer required, select the User Setup dialog - see below.

10.2 Page layout

The Configuration > Page Layout option displays a dialog which lets you set the margins for the currently selected printer (to change this select the File > Printer Setup option). Margins entered here are in addition to the non printable areas: for example, if the printer cannot print on the leftmost 10mm of the sheet and you enter a left margin of 12mm you will get an actual margin of about 22mm. You can also change the default line thickness.

10.3 Project field names

This option lets you change the names of the four `Project details' fields. You might, for example, want to change `Job number' to `Plan number'.

10.4 Standard load names and notes

This dialog is split across two pages. On the first you can enter standard load names, e.g. `Floor', that you will use repeatedly. These appear on the drop down lists in the beam and column edit dialogs.

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The second page, shown here, is used to enter standard notes. When you want to use the text entered here as the note for a beam or column you only need to select it from the drop down list in the appropriate edit dialog and click on the Use or Add button. The notes are all saved in one file whose name is shown in the Setup dialog (see below), by default StdNotes.sbps, (on pre-2007 installs where xxx are the current user initials). To change an existing note, select it from the list box on the left. Make any changes to the title or text and press the Save changes button. To add what you have just typed as a new note press the Save as new note button. The Delete, Move up and Move down button functions are self-explanatory.

10.5 Screen and printer fonts

Use this option to change the fonts to display and print calculations. Dragging one font name over another copies the name and size, retaining the style (bold etc). The `Screen' page also lets you select the fonts used for toolbar button captions and the Project Manager. Printer font options are stored with the settings for the current printer. If you have more than one printer you can choose different fonts for each one. On each page you can also change the line spacing and the space given to a blank line. Smaller values allow more text to be printed on one page ; larger values may make the calculations easier to read. The choice is yours!

10.6 Loading & B.M./S.F. diagram options

The first page of this dialog contains the options for on-screen display of these diagrams, the second, options for the currently selected printer. The information required should be self-evident: click on the arrows to change the colours. If you are using a colour printer you can select different colours for the shear force and bending moment lines; for a mono printer you probably want to give them distinct thicknesses. If you are printing both diagrams side by side, the width is ignored if more than half the page width.

10.7 Window colours

This option lets you change the background colours of display windows. Press the down arrow next to each colour to display the colour picker and select the required colour. There are three colour pickers: right click on this dialog to select another one. You can also choose the colours used for tabs in tabbed dialogs: select a tab, then press the down arrow to select a new colour. Two further buttons restore the default colours or set all the tabs to

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grey (as per Microsoft standard). Finally you can also select the alternating row background colours used in the beam and column load entry tables.

10.8 Print copy allocation

When each copy of a sheet is printed the corresponding entry in this dialog is substituted for any %A parameter in the page heading template. This makes it easy to collate sets of calculations.

10.9 User setup - Preferences

General setup options and file names are set/changed in a two page dialog A number of items will not need to be changed in normal circumstances. Others are a matter of preference. The options on this first page are a matter of personal preference: there are no right or wrong choices: choose the ones that suit the way you like to work.

File history maximum items This field can contain a number, x, between 0 and 9. If x is greater than 0 a list of the x most recently accessed files for each user is added to the end of the File menu so that previous jobs can be easily recalled. Autosave If you enter a number x greater than zero, the current project is saved if it was last saved more than x minutes ago and has changed since. Multiple section description This field contains the text used in multiple section steel beam section names, e.g. 2No 152x76x16UB, 2 x 152x76x16UB or 2 of 152x76x16UB. If

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a leading space is required you must enter it. Any change made here only affects new calculations, not those already displayed. Flash messages for The entry here determines the length of time in milliseconds for which various informational messages (e.g. `Reading file') are displayed. Enter `0' to stop such messages being displayed. Default page heading This holds the name of the page heading template that is loaded when the program starts. If you select another heading name, the new heading will be loaded when you close this dialog. Press the `Delete' button to permanently delete the current heading template - note that this option is not reversible. Reload last project If this box is checked the project your were working on when you last exited the program is reloaded when you next start it. Create backup when saving If this box is checked (the default), the first character of an existing project file extension is changed to a tilde (`~') when the file is next saved. Otherwise any existing file is overwritten by the new one. Show full path in title bar If this box is checked, the program title bar and file menu history entries show the full paths of project files; if not only the file name is shown. If all your project files are kept in the same directory you will probably want to uncheck this box. Show hints over item windows If this box is checked, when you hold the mouse cursor over an item window a hint window containing a brief summary of the item is displayed, for example for a beam the location, span and section size. Apply button closes edit dialog If this box is checked, pressing `Apply' in an edit dialog closes the dialog i.e. `Apply' then has the same function as `OK' in modal dialogs (a modal dialog is one that has to be dealt with by the user before continuing).

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Edit dialog shows current item If this box is checked (the default) and an edit dialog is open, selecting another item (by clicking on its window or selecting it from the Project Manager) will update the edit dialog to show the data for the newly selected item or the appropriate edit dialog for the newly selected item. Use Corus Advance ® section names If this box is checked, sections are shown as UKB, UKC etc. rather than UB, UC. On reading in project When you open a project file the windows are laid out in one of two ways as selected here. The options are `Tile' or `Cascade'. You can tile all items using the toolbar Tile All button at any time. If the project contains 2 or 3 items press this button repeatedly to toggle between horizontally and vertically tiled windows. Where the number of items in the project exceeds the number x entered here the first x item windows are displayed and if the button is pressed again within ten seconds the next x and so on. Steel section types to be displayed Check the boxes for all section types that you are likely to want to use. The unchecked sections will not be shown on the beam and column edit dialogs, thus making it easier to find the section types you do want. We would suggest unchecking the RSJ and CH (taper flange channel) boxes as these sections are not readily available also, if you are not likely to use them in your projects, the ASB (asymmetric beam), SFB (Slimflor fabricated beam) and Euronorm IPE/HE sections.

10.10 User setup: File names and locations

For the most part, the entries on this page should not need to be changed, but they will allow to create a non-standard installation if this will best suit your needs. Steel data file This contains the name of the file that holds the steel section data. The default file is AdvSteel.dta. On new installations the default location will C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\SDA on Windows XP systems and C:\ProgramData\SDA on Vista systems.

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If you change this entry to the name of another existing file, steel data will be read from this new file when you next run the program. If you enter the name of a file that does not already exist, the existing data file will be copied to a new file of this name.

Timber data file This field is only used in SuperBeam. This contains the path and name of the file that holds the timber data file; if `DEFAULT' is entered in this field, the program's internal data file is used. If you enter the name of a file that does not already exist, the program's internal data will be written out to this file; you can then edit it if you want to. Help file This field holds path and name of the program help file; the defaults are C:\Program Files\SDA\psw.chm or sbw.chm. You should not need to change this entries. Standard notes file This field holds the name of the file that stores the text of notes entered in the Standard Notes dialog. If you change this to the name of a file that does not exist, the current notes are written out to this file. If you enter the name of a file that does exist, the current notes are replaced by the ones from this file. Program and current user INI file names Before February 2007 the default was to save all settings to one file, SDA_APPS.INI in the current Windows directory. This default is not changed when you install an update. The new default is to store the common settings in two files. The first of the two file names entered here stores common

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settings (e.g. the name/location of the help file). The second, which can have the same name as the first, stores individual settings such as preferred colours and fonts. Pressing the `V' (Vista-compatible) button will generate the new system preferred options for these files. For further information please see our web page Project file extension(s) The entry or entries in this field determine which files are shown in the File > Open dialog: multiple entries should be separated with semicolons. If more than one extension is entered, the first is used as the default for new projects. The default entry is PS5;PSW;PS2 (the latter two for backward compatibility). Note that the file type is determined when it read in, not by its extension. You should not normally need to change this entry. Register extensions Press this button to associate files with the extension(s) entered with the program. Once you have done this, clicking on such files in Windows Explorer will start SuperBeam and load the file.

10.11 Configuration information

This option displays information about the program files and locations, version licensing etc. which can be printed out if desired. * * * * *

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11. Miscellaneous and Help Menu options

11.1 Calculator

This option (toolbar button, F11) displays the calculator. Enter an expression and press [Enter] or `=` .The calculation (with answer) is added to the scrolling list. To copy the highlighted result back to the input line press `R'. To recall the last expression press `#` . To clear the list press `M'. A standalone version of this calculator can be installed from your CD.

11.2 Calendar

Selecting this option displays a calendar (that surprised you, didn't it?)

11.3 Catalogue project files

This option compiles a list of selected project files in the selected directory. Each project file name appears as a clickable link: click on the link to open the file. The list also shows, for each file, the creation date, site address and other details. The catalogue can be printed or saved as an HTML file. Click on the file mask at the top of the list to change the file selection mask.

11.4 Windows Explorer

This option starts Explorer. You can open a project file by dragging it from Explorer to the program desktop. This option can be disabled if required; details available on request.

11.5 Latest information

This option displays the file SBREADME.HTM or PSREADME.HTM using your default web browser which gives details of the most recent changes and bug fixes. If you are installing an updated version you may find it helpful to note which release you are currently using before installing the update, so that you can then see how many of the changes apply to you. You will also find this information on our website support pages.

11.6 Visit the SDA web site

This option starts up your browser and attempts to load the support page on our website for the program you are using. This option can be disabled if required; details available on request.

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11.7 Change user initials

This option lets a new user enter his/her initials without restarting the program. You can also change the user's status - sole user, usual user or one of many users: this determines whether this dialog and the disclaimer are displayed when the program starts (if you select sole user, it is not).

11.8 Enter activation key

SuperBeam runs in demo mode until you enter an activation key. If you change your user name, email address we can send you a new activation key, and will also do this when you renew your update cover. You enter the new data using this option. The last three digits of the activation key denote which releases of the program it will work on, YMM. For example a key ending in 806 will work on all releases issued up to the end of June 2008, but not later ones. Enter the key information exactly as sent to you; if emailed to you, the easiest way to enter it is to copy the email and press the `Paste' button in the dialog. When you press `Continue', a message will be displayed confirming (or otherwise) that the details were entered correctly.

11.9 Help > Show Licence

Selecting this option shows the licence and disclaimer.

11.10 Help > About

This option shows you which release (e.g. 5.00a) you are using and when your update cover expires. We may need to know this if you encounter a problem. * * * * *

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12. Technical support

From Easter 2008 technical support will be via our website support forums, or by email ([email protected]) We welcome your ideas and comments. Minor enhancements and bug fixes are introduced on an ongoing basis. Members of our subscription update scheme (see our web site for current prices) can download updates as released; for new users the first year's update cover is included in the price of the program. A bit of history and a word of thanks SuperBeam's roots lie in a beam design program written on a Commodore PET in 1980 - you would recognise the beam printouts instantly even now (but not a lot else). In 1983 it was rewritten to run on a BBC computer, and then rewritten again in 1988 to run on a PC. Originally it was just used for our own work (principally loft conversion design) but we then decided to enhance it for general use. SuperBeam, as it was christened, was released in early 1989 and was enthusiastically received. SuperBeam 2, released in 1993, later followed by a US version, added the ability to handle projects containing a number of members and much else. Releases 3 and 4, released in 1998-9 adopted the Windows user interface. Since then we've been continuously improving both programs , many of the enhancements being suggested by users.. SuperBeam 5 USA brings the USA version into line with its UK counterpart and incorporates wood design to NDS2001. We have been well rewarded by all those users who have expressed their appreciation of our programs either to us, or even better by recommending them to others. Special thanks are due to all those users whose suggestions have been incorporated over the years, and to those gurus on Internet message boards who have answered our programming questions. Your suggestions for future enhancements and bug reports are always appreciated. * * * * *

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% parameters - see Page heading Catalogue

project files, 56


Effective length

- see Steel beams columns, 24 steel beams, 15 wood posts and studs, 39


columns, 25 steel beams, 17 wood beams, 33



menu option, 57


changing, 50

Activation key

entering, 57


adding to project, 5 entering loads, 24


FAQ (frequently asked questions)

udl's are in kN/m run, 9

Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file

producing calculations as, 45


checking, 23 effective length, 24


S.F. & B.M. along beam span, 17, 36

File menu

history items, 2, 51 new, 2 printer setup, 49 save, 2

Configuration menu

changing colours, 50 copy allocation, 51 information option, 55 INI file names, 54 page headings, 47 page layout, 49 project field names, 3, 49 screen and printer fonts, 50 user setup, 51

Apply button, 42 Autosave project file, 51


configuration (INI) file(s), 54 help file, 54 standard notes, 54 steel section data, 21



create on save, 52


adding to project, 5, 7 b/f reaction, 9 common loading situations, 9 diagram options, 50 load entry, 9 loading and BM/SF diagrams, 10, 50 standard load names, 49 steel, 14 wood, 32

Flitch beams

bearings, 36 bolting of, 35 design and checking, 35


adding to project, 5

Copy allocation, 44, 48, 51

Fonts: screen and printer, 50



steel beams, 13, 15 wood beams, 30, 33


Heading - see Page heading Help

changing file name/location, 54


flitch beams, 36 steel beams, 18


beam loading and B.M./S.F., 4, 8, 50

Hot keys

Alt+B : steel beam bearings, 18 Alt+C : column check, 23 Alt+C : steel beam check, 17 Alt+E : edit beam loads, 7 Alt+E : edit column data, 23 Alt+E : edit post/stud data, 38 Alt+E : edit steel design criteria, 14 Alt+E : edit wood design criteria, 32 Alt+P : print, 23, 32, 38, 44, 45 Alt+S : display steel calculation, 14


column base plate, 26 column design, 23 column loads, 24 post/stud edit, 38 steel beam bearings, 18 steel check, 17, 25 steel design parameters, 14, 15 wood design parameters, 32


Calculated fields

evaluation of, 1, 11

Calculator, 3, 56 Calendar, 56 Cantilever

entering loads on, 8

User Guide

Page 59

Alt+V : toggle summary/detailed calculation, 14, 34 Alt+Y : display analysis, 17, 36 Ctrl+A : add column, 5 Ctrl+B : add beam, 5, 7 Ctrl+C : Windows 'Copy' Ctrl+D : add post/stud, 38 Ctrl+J : add connection, 5 Ctrl+P : print project, 45 Ctrl+R : add project text page, 5 Ctrl+S : save project, 2 Ctrl+U : add user text page, 5 Ctrl+V : Windows 'Paste' Ctrl+X : Windows 'Cut' F10: select menu, 3 F11: calculator, 3, 56 F12: project manager, 3 F2 : edit table cell, 8, 24, 39, 47 F4: close window, 3 F5: zoom window, 3 F6: next item in project, 3 F7: previous item in project, 3 F8: expand window, 3 Shift+F6 : tile all item windows, 53

Miscellaneous menu

calculator, 56 calendar, 56 catalogue project files, 56 latest information, 56 SDA web site, 56 Windows Explorer, 56

Modal dialog, 52


National Design Specification

introduction, 28 lateral restraint requirements, 31 Loading duration factor CD, 28, 34 repetitive member factor CR, 29, 34 size factor CF, 29 slenderness factor CP, 37 wet service factors CM, 30, 34

adding items to, 4 details, 49 details field names, 49 details fields, 3, 48 file catalogue, 56 file extensions, 55 open file, 2 print project option, 3, 4, 32, 45 project manager, 2, 5 recent files list, 51 reload last file, 52 save to disk, 2 selecting an item, 2 start date, 6 starting a new, 2 summary, 4, 6

Project file

autosaving, 51 backup of, 52 opening existing, 2 reload last, 52


include in Project Summary, 4 standard notes, 49

Project Manager, 2, 3

change font, 50

Project menu

add beam, 7 add post/stud, 38 print project, 17, 32, 36, 45 project details, 2, 3, 48 project field names, 50 project manager, 5 project summary, 6


Import items from another project, 5 INI (configuration) files

change name or location, 54


OLE Object Pages, 43

adding to project, 5, 43


Page heading

changing, 45, 47, 52 replaceable parameters in, 47, 48, 51 selecting default, 52


upgrading, 56

Project Text

adding to project, 5 creating, 41 creating from User Text Page, 42 linking to beam loads, 42 special symbols in, 42 use of, 41


SDA web site, 56

Item menu, 1

PDF file


Lateral restraint

flitch beams, 36 wood beams, 31

producing calculations as, 45


fonts, 50 margins, 49 printer setup, 44, 49 setup, 45



Latest information menu option, 56


dead/live or total?, 4 on cantilever, 8 saving to disk, 2 span related, 10

Printing, 44

changing line thickness, 48 copy allocation, 51 margins, 49 print project option, 17, 32, 36, 45

Reload last project, 52



column base plate dialog, 26 column loads, 24 steel beam bearings dialog, 19 steel section selection dialog, 17



changing width of, 44, 49


add beam, 7

Page 60

SuperBeam 5 USA

wood post and stud design dialog, 38

tile all items, 53

Setup - see Configuration Show details

wood beam calculation, 34


Undo button, 42 User initials, 1

new user menu option, 57

Slenderness ratio

columns, 22 wood posts and studs, 37

Standard, 17, 34 Standard notes, 49, 54 Steel beams

analysis, 17 bearing details, 18 change displayed section types, 53 checking, 17 deflection, 13 deflection limit, 15 design criteria, 14 design for minimum depth or weight, 16 effective length, 12, 15 load entry, 9 multiple sections, 13 notes, 17 permissible section widths, 15

User Setup dialog, 51 User Text Page

adding to project, 5 converting to Project Text, 42 linking to beam loads, 42 special symbols in, 42 use of, 41



changing user permissions, 54 copy diagram to clipboard, 10 Explorer option, 56 INI file locations, 54

Wood beams

analysis, 36 checking, 33 deflection, 30, 33 dimensions of, 33 flagging of values close to limit, 34 flitch beam design, 35 show details, 34

Steel data file, 53

file format, 20 making changes to, 19, 21


- see Project, summary

Wood data file

making changes to, 32



posts and studs, 37

Wood posts and studs

adding to a project, 38 load entry dialog, 38 slenderness ratio, 37

Timber posts and studs

adding to project, 5


add ..., 5 add beam, 5, 7 add column, 5 add connection, 5 add text page, 5 change caption font, 50 edit, 5, 7, 42, 43, 45 print, 44 print project, 45 save project file, 2 show BM/SF or loading diagram, 10

User Guide

Page 61


SuperBeam 5 USA manual

65 pages

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