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Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· International Maritime Organization (IMO)

­ MARPOL Annex VI ( Resolution MEPC.176 (58)) ­ NOx Technical Code 2008 (Resolution MEPC.177 (58)) ­ Come into force on 1st July 2010

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Emission control

­ Ozone depleting substances, regulation 12 ­ Nitrogen oxides (NOx), regulation 13 ­ Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), regulation 14 ­ Volatile organic compounds (VOC), regulation 15

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Survey and Certification, regulation 5

­ Every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above shall have a valid International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) certificate

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Ozone depleting substances (ODS)

­ Apply to all ODS equipment except permanently sealed equipment where there is no refrigerant charging connection ­ ODS record book is required for ship that has rechargeable systems

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· NOx emission control

­ Apply to marine diesel engine with power output of more than 130 KW installed on a ship

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Three Tiers standard and pre-2000 engines:

­ Tier I, on or after 1 January 2000 and prior to 1 January 2011 ­ Tier II, on or after 1 January 2011

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

­ Tier III, on or after 1 January 2016 ­ Pre-2000 engine, to comply with Tier I standard provided the approved modifying kit is available and subject to: not decrease engine rating (>1.0%) increase fuel consumption (>2.0%)

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

Tier I · 17.0 g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm · 45 . n(-0.2) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2,000rpm · 9.8 g/kWh when n is 2,000 rpm or more

n = rated engine speed (crankshaft revolutions per minute)

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

Tier II · 14.4g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm · 44 . n(-0.23) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2,000rpm · 7.7 g/kWh when n is 2,000 rpm or more

n = rated engine speed (crankshaft revolutions per minute)

Air Pollution Prevention of Ships

Tier III · 3.4g/kWh when n is less than 130 rpm · 9 . n(-0.23) g/kWh when n is 130 or more but less than 2,000rpm · 2.0 g/kWh when n is 2,000 rpm or more

n = rated engine speed (crankshaft revolutions per minute)

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

Tier III · On or after 1 Jan.2016: · Tier III standard is applied when the ship is operating in NOx emission control area. · Tier II standards when the ship is operating outside an emission control area

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Emission control area for NOx

­ North American Emission Control Area, will enter into force on 1st August 2011, Resolution MEPC.190 (60), amendment to regulation 13 ­ The United States Caribbean sea area (approved in Oct.2010, to be adopted in July 2011)

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· NOx emission control does not apply to marine diesel engines:

­ for recreational purpose and is less than 24 metres, regulation 13.5.2.1 ­ Combined propulsion power of less than 750KW and because of design or constructed limitation, regulation 13.5.2.2

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Review of the Tier III standard will begin in 2012 and completed no later than 2013, regulation 13.10

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Survey and Certification for marine diesel engine

­ NOx Technical Code 2008, chapter 2 ­ Each marine engine of more than 130 KW shall have a valid Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) certificate

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Survey and Certification for marine diesel engine ( cont'd)

­ EIAPP certificate shall be supplemented by the Technical File (TF) ­ The engine manufacturer is responsible for preparing the TF

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· IAPP and EIAPP

­ Ship of 400 gross tonnage or above but the engine(s) less than 130KW shall have a valid IAPP certificate only ­ Ship of less than 400 gross tonnage but with engine(s) more than 130 KW shall have a valid EIAPP certificate only

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· SOx emission control

­ By stipulate sulphur content limit for fuel oil used onboard ship ­ Two standards approach, for Global and Emission control areas respectively

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Sulphur content limit of fuel oil use onboard ship globally shall not exceed

­ 4.5% m/m prior to 1 January 2012 ­ 3.5% m/m on and after 1 January 2012 ­ 0.5% m/m on and after 1 January 2020

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Sulphur content limit of fuel oil use onboard ship within emission control areas shall not exceed

­ 1.50% mm prior to July 2010 ­ 1.00% m/m on or after 1 July 2010 ­ 0.10% m/m on and after 1 January 2015

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· In the case ship using separate fuel oils to enter and leave emission control areas, it is required to carry a written procedures in recording the fuel oil change over, regulation 14.6

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Emission control areas for SOx

­ Baltic Sea, the North Sea, regulation 14.3.1 ­ North America area, amendment to regulation 14 ­ The United States Caribbean sea area (approved in Oct 2010, await adoption in July 2011) ­ More??

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· There is a first twelve (12) months grace period for ship operating in a newly designated Emission control area for SOx, are exempt from using the compliant fuel oils and recording procedures, regulation 14.7

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Review regulations 14.8, 14.9 and 14.10

­ Global application of sulphur content in fuel oil of 0.5% m/m on and after 1 January 2020 ­ The review shall be completed by 2018

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

­ Mainly apply to tankers ­ A tanker carrying crude oil shall have onboard and implement an approved VOC management plan

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Equivalents, regulation 4

­ Alternative technologies are allowed for the requirements for NOx and SOx emission as stipulated in regulation 13 and 14, provided the methods are at least as effective in terms of respective emission controls

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· EU Sulphur Content Liquid Fuel

­ Council Directive 1999/32/EC of 26 April 1999 as amended byDirective 2005/33/EC of 6 July 2005

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Beginning from 1 January 2010, marine fuels with a sulphur content used shall not exceed 0.1% by mass for: Article 4b

­ When ship is at berth in Community ports

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· The change over operation shall be as soon as possible after arrival at berth and as late as possible before departure · The change over operation is to be recorded in ships' logbooks

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· This requirement does not apply to ships

­ at berth for less than two (2) hours ­ switch off all engines and use shore side electricity while at berth in ports

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Definitions, Article 2

­ Marine fuel means any petroleum-derived liquid fuel intended for use or in use on board a vessel, including those fuels defined in ISO 8217, Article 2.3 ­ Ships at berth means ships which are securely moored or anchored in a Community ports.... Article 2.3i

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Trials and use of new emission abatement technologies, Article 4c

­ Technologies which achieve at least equivalent of emission reduction through the use of low sulphur fuel are allowed ­ There are procedures to be followed before and during the trial period

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· The UK legislation

­ The Merchant Shipping (Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships) Regulations 2008, Statutory Instrument SI 2008 No. 2924 ­ The amendment, SI 2010 No. 895 ­ MSN 1819 (M+F) ­ MGN 400 (M+F), MGN 394 (M+F) ­ MIN 376 (M+F)

Air Pollution Prevention from Ships

· Thank you · Question? · Contact : [email protected]

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