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NEWSLETTER CRIMINOLOGYAND INTERNATIONAL CRIMES

Vol. 2, No. 1, May 2007

Index

Editorial Agenda Expert-meeting Prato roundtable ANZSC Conference ASC-Rountable Special Focus: Intervict Selected New Publications Calls for papers Miscellaneous Subscription Page 1 Page 1 Page 2 Page 4 Page 5 Page 5 Page 6 Page 6 Page 10 Page 10 Page 10

protected the Sudanese regime from UN pressure. On top of the bigger UN force it voted for already last October, it has now agreed to send a special envoy to Sudan. It is unknown what caused this shift. Some voices rumor that it is the Peking Olympic games ....

Agenda

· 21 May 2007: International Workshop on the Armenian genocide. European University Institute, Florence, Italy. www.iue.it 24 May 2007: Conference and book presentation `The failure to prevent the genocide in Rwanda' by: Fred Grünfeld and Anke Huijboom. Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Contact: [email protected] 4-6 June 2007: Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden. www.criminologyprize.com/ 6-10 June 2007: Workshop on Collective violence: emergene, experience, remembrance, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina. http://www.iro.hr/hrv/infoservis.php?vijest=163 14 June 2007: NVK-Marktdag. Annual Criminology Conference (in Dutch). Leiden University, the Netherlands www.criminologie.nl/nvk/indexmarktdag.html 27-30 June 2007: Conference: Settler colonialism, Galway, Ireland. http://www.nuigalway.ie/cis/first_galway_conf erence.htm 28-30 June 2007 Conference: Criminal jurisdiction 100 years after the 1907 Hague Peace Conference, The Hague, the Netherlands. www.asser.nl/hjc/ 4-6 July 2007: Conference - Before the Holocaust concentration camps in Nazi Germany 1933-1939. London, United Kingdom. www.camps.bbk.ac.uk

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Editorial

As we send you the second newsletter, we note that two important things have happened. A date has been set for the beginning of the trial of Charles Taylor in the Hague. Mr. Taylor, who is held responsible for numerous crimes in Sierra Leone, will be tried by the Special Court for Sierra Leone, which will preside, however, in the Hague. The trial has been set to begin on the 4th of June. Charles Taylor is reportedly held in the cell that also housed Milosevic for quite a while. As the defense as well as the prosecution reported to NRC Handelsblad a Dutch newspaper, the trial must become a `success'. The Special Court for Sierra Leone has not yet pronounced any verdicts, even though some big time former leaders are being prosecuted. So, this probably also makes that all eyes are set on the the Hague trial. Amnesty International produced a damning report a few days before we composed the newsletter, that showed how both Russia and China have delivered arms to the Sudanese regime in breach of a Security Council resolution of which both countries are a member. At the same time, it appears as if at last a glimmer of hope is emerging in the crisis for in Darfur, now that China is starting to budge. China buys 80% of Sudan's oil, and had so far effectively ·

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5-7 July 2007: EGOS Colloquium ­ subtheme on Genocide, Vienna, Austra. http://www.egosnet.org/conferences/collo23/su b_10.shtml 9-13 July 2007: International Association of Genocide Scholars Conference - Responding

to Genocide before it's too late. Sarajevo, BosniaHerzegovina. http://www.isgiags.org/events/2007iags.html

Expert-meeting on Supranational Criminology, Maastricht, April 2007

By: Dave Kauzlarich On April 13 and 14 scholars and practitioners from across the globe met at Maastricht University to chart a course for the advancement of the study of international crimes. Sixteen papers were presented on etiological, victimological, conceptual, methodological, and practical issues relating to collective violence, state crime, and gross human rights violations. Sponsored by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, the Center for Human Rights at Maastricht University, and VU University Amsterdam, the expert-meeting was principally organized by Alette Smeulers to more formally establish a long neglected area of study in criminology. Although the meeting was closed, several graduate students from area universities were invited to listen to the presentations. Paper presenters are currently revising their manuscripts for inclusion in an anthology on supranational criminology edited by Smeulers and Roelof Haveman. The book will be completed later in 2007 and released with Intersenita Publishing. The conference began on the morning of the 13th with paper presentations by David Friedrichs and Gregg Barak. Both provided theoretical, conceptual, and typological frameworks through which supranational criminology could develop into a more recognized field of study within criminology. Barak, a Professor at Eastern Michigan University, argued for the integration of insights from the emerging globalization literature into the study of supranational crime and Friedrichs, Professor at the University of Scranton, maintained, through a review of definitional and typological issues in criminology, that supranational criminology could be among the most important developments in the field. The next session focused on methodological issues in the study of international crime. Catrien Bijleveld, Professor at VU University in Amsterdam, presented a paper outlining the problems and prospects of a methodologically rigorous approach to studying international crimes. The final morning presenters, Wayne Morrison and Wim Huisman, discussed indirect and direct private organizational involvement in international crime. Drawing on state-corporate and corporate crime theory, Huisman from VU University in Amsterdam, presented a conceptual framework for studying the various ways in which corporate entities become involved in crimes across states. Morrison, Professor at Queen College University of London, drew upon his recently published book and discussed media images of crime and their role in the social construction of harm and violence.

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23-26 Sepember 2007: Annual Conference ANZSOC. Adelaide Australia

http://www.aomevents.com/conferences/anzso c/ ·

26-29 September 2007: Annual Conference European Society of Criminology in Bologna, Italy. http://www.esc-

eurocrim.org/conferences.shtml ·

14-17 November 2007: Annual Meeting American Society Criminology, Atlanta Georgia, United States.

http://www.asc41.com/annualmeeting.htm ·

20-22 November 2007: International meeting on genocidal social practices: From Europe to Latin America and beyond: the continuity of genocidal social practices. Buenos Aires, Argentina.

http://hsozkult.geschichte.huberlin.de/termine/id=6412 · 16-18 December 2007: Conference Association of Jewish Studies, Toronto, Canada. www.ajsnet.org/generalinfo.htm 20-25 July 2008: Conference: International Society for Criminology, Subtheme on violence, victimization and restorative justice. Barcelona, Spain. http://perso.orange.fr/societe.internationale.de. criminologie 21-23 September 2008: Conference ­ Famine and mass violence. Youngstown, US. Contacts: Helene Sinnreich [email protected] and Christian Gerlach [email protected]

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For a more extensive agenda we refer to our website: www.supranationalcriminology.org/

If you organize a conference, workshop or symposium of interest within the broad area of supranationalcriminology, please inform us [email protected] and we will make a reference on our website and in the newsletter.

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After a lunch break, Martha Huggins, Dawn Rothe, and Christopher Mullins presented papers on torture and crimes against humanity. Huggins, Professor at Tulane University, described the behavioral, structural, and cultural sources and manifestations of torture in a variety of situational contexts. Drawing upon their research on crimes against humanity in several regions of Africa, Rothe and Mullins, both from the Northern Iowa University, discussed how their emerging theory of the causes of supranational crime can be helpful in explaining the genesis and persistence of international crime. The final session for the day included paper presentations by Smeulers and Alex Alvarez. Smeulers, from the VU University in Amsterdam, laid out a framework and typology of offenders noting the distinct and subtle differences between leaders themselves and others in an organizational hierarchy. Alvarez, Professor at Northern Arizona University, advanced several theses on the crime of genocide, noting the similarities and differences in several instances of the crime across time and space. The conference continued on the morning of the 14th with a presentation by Xabier Agirre on the structure and function of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Agirre, Head of the Investigative Strategies and Analysis Unit at the ICC, ended his presentation with a call for more collaboration between scholars and practitioners in the field of international crime. The mid-morning session shifted to the topics of defining and addressing international crime. Jennifer Balint, from the University of Melbourne, reviewed several key conceptual issues in the state crime literature and

advanced the notion of "civil liability" as a way to further understand both the causes and responsibilities of criminal offending. Uwe Ewald, currently an analyst at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), discussed the evidentiary, political, and hierarchical dimensions of ICTY prosecutions and how the academic understanding of international crime can be aided by a close look at the ICTY. The next session featured two paper presentations, the first by Roelof Haveman on the Rwandan genocide and a co-authored paper by Elmar Weitekamp and Stephan Parmentier on restorative justice and supranational crime. Haveman, from the Center for International Legal Cooperation in Rwanda, detailed the horrors of the crimes in Rwanda as well as the process by which the United Nations failed to act in a timely manner to prevent the widespread suffering. Weitekamp, Professor at the University of Tübingen, and Parmentier, Professor at K.U. Leuven in Belgium, outlined the principles of restorative justice and their applicability for addressing international crimes and collective violence. The final paper presentations at the conference were delivered by David Kauzlarich and Fred Grünfeld. Kauzlarich, from the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, reviewed empirical and conceptual literature on the victims of collective violence and called for greater attention and study of those who find themselves in the worst of violent conditions. Grünfeld, Professor at Utrecht University and Maastricht University, presented a paper on the role of bystanders in instances of international crime and their salience for either the enablement or control of collective

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violence. The conference formally ended with remarks by Barak and Agirre on the future of supranational criminology. A lengthy and open discussion followed. The expert-meeting was successful in bringing together scholars from different fields of study and regions of the globe to chart a course for the maturation and development of the new field of supranational criminology. Lively presentations and the subsequent referent critiques of the papers provided the opportunity for spirited discourse and discussion. Informal conversations at organized dinners and breakfasts also facilitated fruitful intellectual exchanges. It is hoped that the publication of the anthology by Smeulers and Haveman will extend the discussion to larger audiences and this will serve to more firmly implant the study of gross human rights violations and state crimes into the field of academic criminology. David Kauzlarich, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Chair Sociology and Criminal Justice SIUE 618 650-2891 [email protected] www.siue.edu/~dkauzla

can capture rapidly emerging transnational practices and the harms they generate. At this year's meeting, participants explored a wide variety of transnational harms, as well as their implications for human rights discourses and practices. Participants argued that criminologists must develop clarity in conceptualizing transnational social harms and that this is an urgent project given the rapid pace of globalization and technological change. Even more urgent is the essential role that criminologists can play as witnesses to transnational social harms for a broader public. Participants agreed that globalization has changed the architecture of nation states, law, and law-like structures, including human rights frameworks. Two features of this new architecture that are especially important for criminology are the de-territorialisation of the state and the mobility of law under dynamic process of globalization. Globalization has also fostered new strategies of social control. In particular, the Prato Collective highlighted the use of political theatre and spectacles of fear as strategies to under-gird and obfuscate transnational practices. These tactics strategically divert attention away from the social etiology of transnational harms and encourage a focus on individuals as threats, particularly individuals from marginalized groups. The Prato Collective also examined the growth of the spatial politics of exclusion, with a particular focus on anti-terrorism initiatives, immigration politics, and border deaths. Rather than viewing bordered spaces as zones providing security to those within a nation, the Prato Collective contends that border performativity by a range of actors challenges democratic practice, inclusive politics, and human rights in a globalized world. The Prato Collective also interrogated the future viability of human rights discourses and mechanisms. Participants argued for the negotiation of hierarchies of rights in the recognition of a shared humanity. In addition, the Prato Collective advocated for the development of criminological purchase on lawless spaces. We urgently draw attention to the increasing derogation of human identity in technologically mediated, deterritorialized, lawless transnational spaces, which range from surveillance and data-mining projects to Guantanamo. In the end, what concerns us most are harms that are "beyond law and not yet crime" since such harms exist at the periphery of criminological discourse and outside the boundaries of law or human rights framings ­ indeed, too frequently beyond the boundaries of our imaginations. We urge others to join us in

Report from the Prato Roundtable: Human Rights and Transnational Crime ­ April 2007

By: The 2007 Prato Collective An international group of scholars met in April, 2007 at the Monash Centre in Prato, Italy for the Roundtable on Transnational Crime and Human Rights, an event hosted by Monash University, Australia - Criminology Section. Each scholar in attendance presented a paper that focused on a research topic related to the broad theme of the Roundtable, but all agreed that the most intellectually exciting aspect of the event was the synergy that occurred across the various paper presentations. This article briefly outlines some of lexicon and lessons that emerged from the threeday event. Rather than highlighting individual participants, we elect to refer to our shared experience as the 2007 Prato Collective. The broad project of the Prato Collective is to critically examine the conditions that produce transnational harm and to explore the challenge of transnational spaces for criminological, political, and social discourse, as well as for theoretical and empirical research. The Prato Collective seeks to create anticipatory frameworks and analyses that

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exploring the richness and threat of these imaginary spaces. The papers from the 2006 Prato Roundtable will appear in a forthcoming special issue of Social Justice entitled "Beyond Transnational Crime." It is anticipated that the work presented at the 2007 Prato Roundtable will also be published so that the papers are available to a broad audience. This report was submitted by `The 2007 Prato Collective.' For more information, contact Monash University Criminology section faculty: Sharon Pickering [email protected] and Jude McCulloch [email protected]

perhaps more importantly the role criminology can play in advocating for human rights.

Professor Chris Cunneen Professor at the Law Faculty University of New South Wales Australia [email protected]

ASC Roundtable November 2006: The State of State-Corporate Crime

By: Dawn L. Rothe The Roundtable session titled "The State of StateCorporate Crime", Chaired by Dawn L. Rothe, brought together leading scholars of state-corporate crime, 1) to celebrate Ron Kramer and Ray Michalowski's newly released anthology StateCorporate Crime: Wrongdoing At The Intersection Of Business And Government and 2) to discuss where the sub-field should direct itself in the near future. Among those attending the session were David Friedrichs, Mona Danner, Nancy Wonders, David Kauzlarich, Ronald Kramer, Raymond Michalowski, Rick Mathews, Steve Tomb, and Mathew Yeager. As the session progressed several key themes emerged for the future direction of state-corporate crime including the need to continue to expand to the international level looking at transnational corporations and state crime, incorporating environmental crimes include social and geographical harms, the need for a victimization of state-corporate crime that can address the individual level experiences, and the future for controls of these types of acts (including the issue of transnational loopholes, World Trade Organization, and the United Nations Social and Economic Council). Another dominate theme discussed that resulted in a planned three part thematic roundtable for the American Society of Criminology 2007 meeting in Atlanta was centered on the significance of the state. Some of those attending brought up the question of whether or not states had a declining role in the global economic market forces while others stated that state sovereignty was strengthening and countries were increasing their powers and forces internationally: as such the issue of state-corporate crime was not declining into a transnational crime alone. This topic will be revisited at the 07 Conference focusing on "the state of state crime". Dawn L. Rothe University of Norther Iowa, USA [email protected]

ANZSC Conference on Criminology and Human Rights. February 2006

By: Chris Cunneen The 19th Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology Conference was held in Hobart, Tasmania from 7-9 February 2006. The theme of the Conference was Criminology and Human Rights. It was the first time that human rights had played the central thematic link in the annual ANZ conference. As many people noted it was a timely reminder that state crime, the treatment of refugees and prisoners, environmental crime, civil disobedience, racist violence and hate crime and the `war on terror' were all issues that unsettled and challenged many of the common assumptions of more traditional criminology. Plenary speakers at the conference included local and international criminologists who have written extensively on matters relating to human rights and criminology, including Phil Scraton, Penny Green, Jude McCulloch, Sharon Pickering, David Brown and Chris Cunneen. Importantly, plenary speakers also included activists such as Kim Pate, the Executive Director of the Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies, Debbie Kilroy, the Director of Sisters Inside (a community-based activist organisation representing women prisoners), and Margaret Piper a well-known advocate for refugee rights. One of the most important aspects of the conference was that it demonstrated that human rights can clearly provide a framework for criminological endeavour. For many students who attended the conference it was their first exposure to understanding the role a human rights perspective can play in criminological research, and

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Special focus: Intervict

The International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) promotes and executes interdisciplinary research that can contribute to a comprehensive, evidence-based body of knowledge on the empowerment and support of victims of crime and abuse of power. Victimology is a relatively young branch of academic research. Its objective is to gain knowledge on victims of crime and abuse of power. Victimology has from its inception adopted an interdisciplinary approach to its subject matter. Contributions are being made by experts from fields as diverse as academic lawyers, criminologists, clinical and social psychologists, psychiatrists, political scientists and economists. Victimology also maintains a strikingly international profile. Despite its relatively brief tradition of some 50 years, it is well established and has been acknowledged as a special and identifiable area of academic research. There are specialised international (refereed) journals for victimology; there is a World Society of Victimology and there are a number of regional and national Societies of Victimology comprising many hundreds of researchers active in this field. INTERVICT aims to develop and implement a large scale interdisciplinary research programme in order to make significant contributions to the body of international victimological knowledge. The interdisciplinary approach of the research programme ensures that proper research is performed into all aspects of victimization, which will ultimately contribute to preventing or reducing instances of criminal victimization across the world and to limiting the effects of such victimization on victims and their families including economic costs, pain and suffering. Prof. Marc Groenhuijsen director of Intervict and professor in criminal law at Tilburg University, the Netherlands will be awarded the prestigious Dr Hendrik Muller Prize for Behavioural and Social Sciences (2007) from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. The Academy established the Dr Hendrik Muller Prize for Behavioural and Social Sciences in 1991. Awarded every other year to researchers who have made exceptional achievements in the area of the behavioural and social sciences, the prize is financed by the Stichting Dr. Hendrik Muller's Vaderlands Fonds. See for more information on Intervict: www.tilburguniversity.nl/intervict

Selected New publications (2007)

In this section we list a number of books and articles of interest which have been published recently. We do not aim or pretend to present a complete list but rather rely on books which we think are worthwhile or which have been recommended to us.

Books

Barak, G. (2007). Violence, conflict, and world order ­ critical conversations on statesanctioned justice, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, inc. This book explores the relationship between globalising social processes and recent changes in the level and forms of violence, representations of these changes, and the varying state responses to them. It pinpoints how the development of neoliberal ideologies and forms of economic and political organization have an impact on a range of relationships between individuals and between individuals and wider institutional structures, praticularly when the consequences are criminal, repressive, and socially destructive. The conversations which took place at a conference at the Eastern Michigan University in the spring of 2004 and which were edited by Gregg Barak, introduce a wide range of contemporary, scholarly, and critical social scientific thinking accessible to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty. Those involved with Criminology, Criminal Justice, Sociology, and Political Science Programs will be particularly interested.

Drumble, M. (2007) Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law, Cambridge: University Press. In Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law, Mark Drumbl rethinks how perpetrators of atrocity crimes should be punished. After first reviewing the sentencing practices of courts and tribunals that censure genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, he concludes that these practices fall short of the goals that international criminal law ascribes to punishment, in particular retribution and deterrence. This raises the question whether international prosecutorial and correctional preferences are as effective as we hope. Drumbl argues that the pursuit of accountability for extraordinary atrocity crimes should not uncritically adopt the methods and assumptions of ordinary liberal criminal law. He calls for fresh thinking to confront the collective nature of mass atrocity and the disturbing reality that individual membership in

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group-based killings is often not maladaptive or deviant behaviour but, rather, adaptive or conformist behaviour. This book deploys a bold, and adventurously pluralist, interpretation of classical notions of cosmopolitanism to advance the frame of international criminal law to a broader construction of atrocity law and a more meaningful understanding of justice. Drumbl concludes by offering concrete reforms. He urges contextual responses to atrocity that welcome bottom-up perspectives, including restorative, reparative, and re-integrative traditions that may differ from the adversarial Western criminal trial. Grünfeld, F. and A. Huijboom (2007). The failure to prevent the genocide in Rwanda ­ the role of the bystander, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. This volume is about the failure to prevent genocide in Rwanda in 1994. In particular, the research focuses on why the early warnings of an emerging genocide were not translated into early preventative action. The warnings were well documented by the most authoritative source, the Canadian U.N. peace-keeping commander General Romeo Dallaire and sent to the leading political civil servants in New York. The communications and the decisionmaking are scrutinized, i.e., who received what messages at what time, to whom the messages were forwarded and which (non-) decisions were taken in response to the alarming reports of weapon deliveries and atrocities. This book makes clear that this genocide could have been prevented. See also the Conference on Thursday 24 May 2007 in Utrecht at which the book is presented. Contact and application: [email protected]

sanctioning differ widely all over the world. What is the proper sanction for a crime against humanity or an act of genocide? And whom to punish? Controversy exists regarding states, children (child soldiers) and mentally incapable offenders as punishable subjects. Questionable also are the goals of the supranational criminal justice system, and whether these goals are achieved. Too often these supranational goals seem to be supra-natural as well. Goals steer the system in choosing the number of accused to be prosecuted and judged and the quality of its proceedings, but also questions such as whether a detainee has the right to be visited by a prostitute. These are some of the questions that are highlighted in this fourth Volume of the Supranational Criminal Law series. Morrison, W. (2007). Criminology, civilisation & the new world order, Cavendish: Routledge. Criminology, Civilisation and the New World Order examines the relationship between a modern discipline's presentation of truth and modernity, globally conceived. The history and composition of criminology ­ the discourse of crime and its ordering ­ is critically reworked in the light of two circumstances: September 11th 2001, and the prevalence of genocide in modernity. Criminology is excluded from the discourse of power post September 11, and genocide is excluded from the world of facts that criminology presents for analysing. Criminology is revealed as a discourse that underpins the structuring of `civilised space' ­ the place of play, financial reward and consumption internal to the western nation-state ­ preventing us from realising the extent to which this space is the consequence of imperial and other projects that, officially discarded, nevertheless continue to support it. September 11 disrupts the security of this space, but the neo-imperial projects it spans are in danger of ignoring the warnings of past events: not just the destruction of the `savage' other, but of the Holocaust, when western civilisation turned its colonizing project upon itself. The result of this divide between `civilised space' and its other is, Wayne Morrison argues, an intellectual incoherence in which, for example, we deny protection and access to justice to the victims of the contemporary Congo, while members of the European Parliament enjoy the grand sights of Brussels built by King Leopold II from the proceeds of its earlier exploitation. This divide also condemns the inhabitants of civilised space to an existential imbalance where they cannot know justice. The absence of a global criminology, the author concludes, is not the simple failure of an intellectual discipline but a reflection of global governance; as with the killing of the albatross in the Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner, it is a human

Haveman, R. and O. Olusanya (Eds.) (2006). Sentencing and sanctioning in supranational criminal law, Antwerp: Intersentia. The supranational system is still under construction and will be so for at least some decades before it can be called a consistent system with an intrinsic logic. Sentencing and sanctioning is one of the issues in which this becomes clear. The ICCcomplementarity principle, the principle of legality, the execution of sanctions, and the relation of the supranational system to domestic systems such as the Rwandan gacaca, are all topics to be thoroughly discussed. The uplifting of a penal system from a relatively small community an individual state with relative agreement on basic aspects of punishing, to the mondial, per definition heterogeneous, level, where no such agreement exists, reveals many controversies. Opinions on all aspects of

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choice the consequences of which curse our contemporary condition. Thompson, A. (Ed.) (2007). The media and the Rwandan genocide, Pluto Press. The news media played a crucial role in the 1994 Rwanda genocide: local media fueled the killings, while the international media either ignored or seriously misconstrued what was happening. This is the first book to explore both sides of that media equation. The book examines how local radio and print media were used as a tool of hate, encouraging neighbours to turn against each other. It also presents a critique of international media coverage of the cataclysmic events in Rwanda. Bringing together local reporters and commentators from Rwanda, high-profile Western journalists, and leading media theorists, this is the only book to identify and probe the extent of the media's accountability. It also examines deliberations by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on the role of the media in the genocide. This book is a startling record of the dangerous influence that the media can have when used as a political tool or when news organizations and journalists fail to live up to their responsibilities. The authors put forward suggestions for the future by outlining how we can avoid censorship and propaganda, and by arguing for a new responsibility in media reporting. The book includes an opening statement from Kofi Annan and an introduction by Senator Roméo Dallaire.

qualitative research on Argentine rescuers during the so-called dirty war: `(a) who were these rescuers and (b) what led them to get involved in rescuing activities while the great majority of the population remained passive?' Casiro suggests that there is a banality of good (p.437-454). Central in the review forum is the book by Michael Mann (2005). The dark side of democracy, explaining ethnic cleansing, Cambridge: University Press in which Levene, Bartov and Mann himself react. In the first issue of volume 9 there is an article by Luke Fletcher on the potential motivations of the Rwandan `genociodaires'. Fletcher concludes that the traditional state power/obedience explanation is inadequate. The Rwandan genocide was instigated by local extremists and non-extremists joined out of a combination of intimidation and self-interest. (p. 25-48). Laurel Rose conducted interviews with prisoners of genocide and prison officials in Rwanda and focused on the relationship between land scarcity and genocide (p. 49-69). Touko Piiparinen discusses the functional shift in crisis management from the Rwandan genocide to Darfur (p.71-91). Sévane Garibian focuses on the influence in international criminal law on legality issues after Nuremberg (p. 93-111). Central in the review forum is the book of Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the age of the nation state: vol. I, the meaning of genocide, vol. II the rise and the coming of genocide, London: I.B. Tauris. In the Journal Genocide Studies and Prevention, vol. 1, nr. 3 (2006) there is an article by David Scheffer on the concepts of genocide and atrocity crimes. Scheffer argues that `the political use of the term [genocide] should be separated from its legal definition'. The term genocide entails, according to Scheffer, `all too often [an] intimidating brake on effective responses' (p. 230). The author therefore suggests to use the term atrocity crimes which refers to genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. This article launched a conceptual debate which continued in vol. 2 nr. 1 (2007). Several distinguished scholars were invited to react to Scheffers propositions. These reactions are published in the volume 2, nr. 1 issue. There are contributions of among others: William, A. Schabas, Martha Minow, Martin Mennecke, Payam Akhavan, Mark Levene and David Scheffer. In vol. 1, nr. 3 (2006) William Miles discusses the labeling of genocide in Darfur. Not using the term genocide in the media leads to `downgrading of attention, to, and salience for, Darfur among the public at large, their elected representatives, and policy makers.' (p. 251-263). Like Scheffer, Miles notes that the challenge to act before the genocide not merely thereafter. Edward Paulino focuses on the anti-Haitian sentiments present in the

Articles

In the Journal of Genocide Research vol. 8, nr. 4 (2006) Christian Gerlach launched a conceptual debate by proposing the term extremely violent societies which `overlaps with genocide but which is not identical to it.' (p. 455). Extremely violent societies have four characteristics: `various victim groups, broad participation, multi-causality and a great amount of physical violence. (p. 460)' Gerlach gathers that the concept of genocide is not sufficient to study this type of society. In vol. 9, nr. 1 (2007). Alex Hinton, Patrick Wolfe and Henry R. Huttenbach react to Gerlach's suggestions. Other articles in the Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 8 nr. 4: Patrick Wolfe on the relation between settler colonialism and genocide (p. 387-409). Kirsten Juhl and Odd Einar Olsen wrote an article which explores `how excavating (...) mass graves can serve different purposes related to societal rebuilding processes in the aftermath of violent conflicts.' (p. 411-435) and Jessica Casiro summarizes her findings from her

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Dominican Republic (p. 265-288) and Rubina Peroomian on the work of the writer and poet Leonardo Alishan and genocide literature (p. 289303). Two articles focus on the crimes of the Ottoman authorities: Taner Akcam discusses the Armenian genocide (p. 305-325), and Hannibal Travis the killings of native Christians. (p. 327-371) Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 4 nr. 5 (2006) published a special issue on criminal law responses to terrorism after September 11th. Articles focus on legal definitions, terrorism, civil society and legal culture, countering terrorism and the responses to terrorism. Vol. 5, nr. 1 (2007) has a series of articles on the Military Commissions Act and a series of articles on the doctrine of joint criminal enterprise as used by the ICTY with contributions of Cassese, Ambos, Van Sliedregt and Van der Wilt. If you have any suggestions on literature, courses, links, or events which are of interest for our website or newsletter or if you have any other suggestion, please feel free to contact us: [email protected]

Kaleck, W., M. Ratner, T. Singelstein and P. Weiss (Eds.) (2007). International prosecution of Human Rights Crimes, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. Mestrovic, S.G. (2006). The trial of Abu Ghraib: an expert witness account of shame and honor, Pradign Publishers Olusanya, O. (Ed.) (2007). Rethinking international criminal law, Groningen: Europe Law Publishing. Richardson, L. (2006). What terrorists want ­ understanding the enemy, containing the threat, New York: Random House. Parmentier, S. and E. Weitekamp (2007). Crime and human rights, Oxford: Elsevier. Rothe, D. and C.W. Mullins (2006). Symbolic gestures and the generation of global social control: the international criminal court, Lanham: Lexington Publishers. Shaw, M. (2007). What is genocide?, Cambridge: Polity. Welch. M. (2006). Scapegoats of September 11th: Hate Crimes and State Crimes in the War on Terror, New Brunswick, New Jersey & London: Rutgers University Press.

Other new publications

Books: Allen, T. (2006). Trial Justice: the international criminal court and the Lord's Resistance army, London: Zed. Alston, P. and H. Steiner (2007). International Human Rights in Context, 3rd Ed., Oxford: University Press. Cobban, H. (2007). Amnesty after atrocity? Healing nations after genocide and war crimes, Boulder: Paradigm. Daly, E. and J. Srakin (2006). Reconciliation in divided societies ­ finding common ground, Pennsylvania: University Press. De Feyter, K., S. Parmentier, M. Bossuyt, and P. Lemmens (eds.) (2005) Out of the Ashes. Reparation for Victims of Gross and Systematic Human Rights Violations. Antwerp: Intersentia. Ewald, U. and K. Turkovic (eds.) (2006) LargeScale Victimization as a Potential Source of Terrorist Activities. Importance of Regaining Security in Post-Conflict Societies, 217-241, NATO Security through Science Series, vol. 13. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Articles: Breau, S. (2006). The impact of the responsibility to protect on peacekeeping, 11 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 3, p. 429-464. Eck, K. and L. Hultman (2007). One-sided violence against civilians in war: insights from new fatality data, 44 Journal of Peace Research 2, p. 233-246. Parmentier, S. and E. Weitekamp (2005) The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, in: M. Natarajan (ed.), Introduction to International Criminal Justice, New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 151158. Rothe, D. and C.W. Mullins (2006). The international criminal court and United States opposition, 45 Crime law and social change 3, p. 201-226 Rothe, D., C.W. Mullins and S. Muzzatti (2006). Crime on the High seas: crimes of globalization and the sinking of the Senegalese ferry Le Joola, 14 Critical Criminology 2, p. 159-180 Weitekamp, E., S. Parmentier, K. Vanspauwen, M. Valinas and R. Gerits (2006) How to Deal with Mass Victimization and Gross Human Rights

May 2007 page 9

Violations. A Restorative Justice Approach, in: U. Ewald and K. Turkovic (eds.), Large-Scale Victimization as a Potential Source of Terrorist Activities. Importance of Regaining Security in Post-Conflict Societies, 217-241, NATO Security through Science Series, vol. 13. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Whyte, D. (2007). The crimes of neo-liberal rule in occupied Iraq, 47 British Journal of Criminology, p. 177-195.

Subscription

The newsletter will be sent electronically to all who have signed up on the website. Scholars who conduct research in the field of international crimes, such as genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and other gross human rights violations, international (criminal) law or any other relevant subject matter might be enlisted on the website. If you are interested: please contact us: [email protected] and give your names, position, institutional affiliation, e-mail address, research interest and website and we will enlist you as a scholar within two weeks. Others interested in receiving the newsletter who do not conduct research in any of the related areas can subscribe to the newsletter as an affiliated member. Please inform us of your interest via a mail to: [email protected] and supply us with your name and e-mail address and you will receive the newsletter via e-mail.

Call for Papers

The supranational criminology group would like to help organizing one or more sessions on supranational criminology at the upcoming conference of the European Society of Criminology (ESC) in Bologna, Italy, 27-29 September 2007. Some scholars already showed an interest but if there are more scholars interested to join us please contact us no later that May 25th: [email protected] Call from Raymond Michalowski, editor of the Critical Issues of Crime and Society Series who would be interested in considering any possible manuscripts that members of the list, or the group as a whole, might like to propose. See for further information: http://rutgerspress.rutgers.edu/acatalog/__Critical_I ssues_in_Crime_and_Society_650.html Or mail to [email protected]

Miscellaneous

The Max van der Stoel Human Rights Award 2006 for the best dissertation in 2005/2006 on human rights in the Netherlands was awarded to Anne-Marie de Brouwer for her PhD-dissertation which she finished in 2005 and which was entitled: Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence: The ICC and the Practice of the ICTY and the ICTR, Antwerp: Intersentia. The prestigious Moddermanprijs 2006 for the best PhD-dissertation on criminal law in 2003 was awarded to Elies van Sliedregt, associate professor at Leiden University, the Netherlands for her book entitled: The criminal responsibility of individuals for violations of international humanitarian law, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Institute. We congratulate both scholars.

May 2007 page 10

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