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UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND POLITICS SUBJECT GROUP

Introduction to British Politics

Sussex in September

September 2004

Course Tutor: Dr Dan Hough, C312 Arts Building email: [email protected] Office Hours: Monday 2-3 Wednesday 2-3

Introduction to British Politics

Dr Dan Hough, September 2003

COURSE INFORMATION AND REQUIREMENTS Politics is a subject that arouses conflicting emotions. Some are intensely interested in political issues and follow politics and the political process keenly. For others politics involves distant institutions, remote politicians and obscure, complex issues with little direct relevance for immediate everyday life. Others again show a strong distaste towards political parties and politicians who are `all the same' or `on the make', and `only interested in what they can get out of it'. Yet, for better or worse, politics is inescapable. Everyone is affected by it whether they like it or not. For this reason everyone should have some sort of interest in political activity. This is no more or less true in Britain than it is anywhere else. In this course we will attempt to analyse how the institutions of British political life do in fact influence the everyday activities of British citizens. We will analyse where power lies, who possesses it and what they do (or attempt to do) when they get their hands on it. We will attempt to see if theories developed to help us understand how political life in Great Britain functions retain contemporary relevance and we will analyse whether two recent Prime Ministers (Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair) really are the reforming, galvanising leaders that they (and their advocates) claim them to be. Finally, we will visit the Houses of Parliament in London to take a first hand look at the place where Britian's politicians ply their trade.

Introduction to British Politics - Aims and Objectives

The overall intellectual aims of Introduction to British Politics are to: 1) Provide an analysis of some of the key institutions and their role in contemporary Britain, with a particular emphasis on the Thatcher and Blair periods. 2) Understand the social and political forces help to shape political activity in the UK. 3) Ground this understanding within the wider political history of post-war Britain Learning objectives are specified for each topic. You should use when preparing for preparing for each seminar. The course also has the explicit objective of encouraging the development of your academic, personal and interpersonal skills - seeking to build on your previous experiences. Again, you should be thinking about and working on: · reading and note-taking skills · presentation skills · verbal skills · writing skills · organisational skills such as time management and meeting deadlines · IT skills

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Course summary

6 September: Introduction and distribution of course booklets. 8 September: The Historical Context: British Politics since 1945 13 September: Political Institutions: Constitution, Parliament, Prime Minister, Legislative Process 15 September: The Battle for Ideas: Parties and the Party System 20 September: Elections and Electoral Behaviour 21 September: Visit to Houses of Parliament (date open to negotiation with students) 22 September: Case Studies: (1) Margaret Thatcher and her Conservative Governments; (2) Tony Blair and his Labour Governments

Teaching and Learning

The course will be taught in a twice weekly two-hour seminar. Seminars should be discussions between students, with the tutor facilitating and contributing to that discussion. Your preparation for seminars and essays is a key part of your work for this course. I would expect you to be putting in at least 25 hours work each week in addition to your attendance at the seminar. In an average week you should read 100-200 pages. Sometimes it may be less (because the material is particularly difficult or hard to access) while it will be much more in other weeks if you find it interesting or are writing an essay on the subject. Before arriving in each session you should spend at least half an hour reviewing your notes, considering the topic and how you may be able to contribute to discussion by raising pertinent points or questions. Presentations In each session, one or more student(s) (depending on what is being covered) will be asked to give a short presentation to the seminar, based on the objectives for that particular session. The allocation of topics will take place in Session One. As a rule of thumb, students can expect to give two presentations over the course. The presentations should be informative and provide a framework for seminar discussion. Transparencies and `overhead pens' will be available should you need them. Every presenter should prepare an outline of their paper to be distributed at the start of the session. The outline need not be any longer than two sides of A4, but it must include the main points that you plan to make in your oral presentation. Do not produce an essay (although you may produce handouts that ARE longer than two sides) and PLEASE DO NOT simply read out your handout in the seminar!!

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Written Work and Assessment Course work. Each student is required to write: · (Not more than) 3,000-word essay submitted to me on Monday 20 September. The exact title of each dissertation will be agreed between each student and myself by Monday 13th September. All titles of course work essays must be agreed with me. I am, however, very flexible and providing that you come up with an interesting and `doable' title, I'm usually quite prepared to sanction essays on a wide variety of topics. A good essay length is approximately 2000 words. All assignments should be word-processed and include full references and bibliography. Use any standard format, just be consistent throughout your paper. Office hours I will hold a twice weekly office hour when I am specifically available to see students. These will take place on Mondays and Wednesdays, 2-3. You are encouraged to use this time to talk to me about any aspect of the course that concerns you - including your individual progress and written work. Do not be afraid to ask for help, guidance or feedback. You are also welcome to email me at any time in order either to make an appointment to see me in person or simply to ask questions. I will make every effort to answer email enquiries within 24 hours, although usually quicker. Background reading The bibliography included in this outline is a guide to the seminar topics and to the available literature. The list is divided into two categories - `core reading' and `additional reading'. Students are expected to complete the core reading for each session's topic. The world-wide-web offers an invaluable source of information on everything ­ British politics included! I strongly recommend you use it to supplement the reading listed here. A few of these sites may be of interest:

Newspapers

The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk (left liberal. Good website for news and more in depth comment on British politics) The Times: http://www.timesonline.co.uk (centre-right, Rupert Murdoch owned daily) The Economist: http://www.economist.com (informative weekly) The Independent: http://www.independent.co.uk (good, but you have to buy most articles unfortunately) The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com (good but you have to register and pay for some articles) The Scotsman: http://www.thescotsman.co.uk (good for UK and Scottish Affairs, not as `agenda driven' as other British newspapers)

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Journals

All of these journals have at least some of volumes available through the University of Sussex library website. Unfortunately, you may well find that the exact volume of the journal that you want is missing ­ go to the library and see if you can locate a hard copy, you should have more luck that way. Political Studies: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Political Quarterly: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Political Science Quarterly: Access through Sussex University Online Journals British Journal of Political Science: Access through Sussex University Online Journals British Journal of Politics and International Relations: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Politics: Access through Sussex University Online Journals American Political Science Review: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Parliamentary Affairs: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Electoral Studies: Access through Sussex University Online Journals West European Politics: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Journal of Common Market Studies: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Government and Opposition: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Governance: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Public Administration: Access through Sussex University Online Journals Party Politics: Access through Sussex University Online Journals BIDS Search Engine: http://www.bids.ac.uk (see me for relevant passwords) JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org (American journals website)

Others

The BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk (news and general review articles) The Labour Party: http://www.labour.org.uk The Conservative Party: http://www.conservatives.com The Liberal Democrats: http://www.libdems.org.uk The Scottish National Party: http://www.snp.org Plaid Cymru: http://www.plaidcymru.org The Green Party: http://www.greenparty.org.uk The British National Party: http://www.bnp.org.uk British Parliament: http://www.parliament.uk Scottish Parliament: http://www.scottish.parliament.uk Welsh Assembly: http://www.wales.gov.uk Charter 88: http://www.charter88.org.uk

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Session 2 (8 Sept): The Historical Context: British Politics since 1945

Discussion Topics Winston Churchill (Conservative) `won the war' yet Clement Attlee (Labour) won the 1945 election: why? How did Britain's `retreat from Empire' affect British post-war politics? What long lasting effect (if any) did Attlee's administration have on post-war British politics? The 1960s and 1970s were a period of economic decline for the UK: what events characterised the period? How did Labour and Conservative governments attempt to cope with this? Core Reading Coxall, B. et. al. `The Historical Context: British Politics since 1945', in Contemporary British Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003), pp.32-50. Main/JC 2150 (Cox) Kavangah, D and Morris, P (1994) Consensus Politics from Attlee to Thatcher (Oxford: Blackwell), Introduction and Conclusion. Main/DA 588 Kav or Short / DA 588 Kav Additional Reading Coxall, B. and Robins, L. (1998) British Politics since the War (London: Palgrave). Dunleavy, P et al (2003) Developments in British Politics 7 (London: Palgrave). Dorey, P. (1995) British Politics Since 1945 (Oxford: Blackwell). Frankel, J. (1975) British Foreign Policy, 1945-73 (London: Oxford University Harvie, C. (1994) Scotland and Nationalism (London: Routledge). Hechter, R. (1975) Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British Colonial Development, 1536-1966 (London: Routledge). Hennessey, P (2000) The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders since 1945 (Harmondsworth: Allen Lane). Holland, R. (1991) The Pursuit of Greatness: Britain and the World Role, 1900-1970 (London: Fontana). Hutton, W. (1995) The State We're In (London: Jonathan Cape). Jenkins, R (2001) Churchill: A Biography (Basingstoke: Macmillan). Judd, D. (1996) Empire: The British Imperial Experience (London: Fontana). Morgen, K. and Owen, K. (2001) Britain Since 1945 (Oxford; OUP). Nutting, A. (1967) No End of a Lesson: The Story of Suez (London: Constable). Pyper, R. (1991) `Governments, 1964-1990: A Survey', in Contemporary Record, 5:2, Autumn. Pyper, R. (1994) `Individual Ministerial Responsibility: Dissecting the Doctrine', in Politics Review, 4:1, September 1994. Reynolds, D. (1991) Britannia Overruled: British policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century (London: Longman). Ridley, F. F. and Rush, M. (eds.) (1995) British Government and Politics Since 1945 (Oxford: OUP). Sanders, D. (1990) Losing and Empire, Finding a Role (Basingstoke: Macmillan). Shaw, E. (1996) The Labour Party since 1945 (Oxford: Blackwell). Press).

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Session 3 (13 Sept.): Political Institutions: Constitution, Parliament, Prime Minister, Legislative Process

Discussion Topics The UK does not have a written constitution: what are the advantages and disadvantages of Britain's constitutional settlement? Is Britain's Prime Minister now becoming increasingly Presidential? When and under what circumstances does Parliament play a significant role in British political life (both in theory and in practice!). What role does the House of Lords play in (1): the legislative process; (2) scrutinising the government? Is there a case for abolishing the House of Lords? If so, what is it? And what is the case for retaining it? Core Reading Burch, M. (1995) `Prime Minister and Whitehall', in D. Shell and R. HodderWilliams (eds.), Churchill to Major: The British Prime Ministership since 1945 (London: Hurst). Main/JC 3150 UK (Chu). Norton, P. (1992) `The House of Commons: From Overlooked to Overworked', in B. Jones and L. Robins (eds.) Two Decades of British Politics (Manchester: MUP). Main / JC 2150 UK (Two). Shell, D. (1992) `The House of Lords: The Best Second Chamber we have got?' in B. Jones and L. Robins (eds.) Two Decades in British Politics (Manchester: MUP). Main / JC 2150 UK (Two). Additional Reading Adonis, A. (1993) Parliament Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press). Bagehot, W. (1963) The English Constitution (London: Fontana). Barberis, P. (ed.) The Whitehall Reader (Buckingham: Open University Press). Barnett, A. (1997) This Time: Our Constitutional Future (London: Vintage, Random House). Blackburn, R. and Plant, R. (eds.) (1999) Constitutional Reform (London: Longman). Bogdanor, V (ed.) (1988) Constitutions in Democratic Politics (Aldershot: Gower). Brazier, R. (1988) Constitutional Practice (Oxford: Clarendon). Burch, M and Holliday, I (1996) The British Cabinet System (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf). Dorey, P. (2003) `The West Lothian Question in British Politics' in Talking Politics, September 2003. Dunleavy, P et al (2003 ) Developments in British Politics 7 (London: Palgrave). Dunleavy, P and Jones, G. W. (1993) `Leaders, Politics and Institutional Change: The Decline of Prime Ministerial Accountability in the House of Commons', in British Journal of Political Science, 23. Dunleavy, P et al. (1990) `Prime Ministers and the Commons: Patterns of Behaviour, 1868-1967', in Public Administration, 68, Spring 1990. Foley, M. (1993) The Rise of the British Presidency (Manchester: MUP). Griffith, J. A. G. and Ryle, M. Parliament (London: Sweet and Maxwell). Hazell, R (ed.) (1999) Constitutional Futures: A History of the Next Ten Years (Oxford: OUP). 7

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Hazell, R (2001) `Reforming the Constitution', in Political Quarterly, 72:1, JanuaryMarch 2001. Hennessey, P (2000) The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders since 1945 (Harmondsworth: Allen Lane). Hill, M. (1997) The Policy Process in the Modern State (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf). Holme, R. and Elliot, M. (eds.) (1988) 1688-1988: Time for a New Constitution (London: Macmillan). James, S. (1992) British Cabinet Government (London: Routledge). Jennings, I. (1966) The British Constitution (Cambridge: CUP). Johnson, N. (1977) In Search of the Constitution (London: Methuen). Jones, G. W. (1990) `Mrs Thatcher and the Power of the Prime Minister' in Contemporary Record, 3:4. Jowell, J. and Oliver, D. (2000) The Changing Constitution (Oxford: OUP) Judge, D. (1993) The Parliamentary State (London: Sage). King, A. (ed.) (1985) The British Prime Minister: A Reader (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Madgwick, P. (1991) British Government: The Central Executive Territory (London: Philip Allen). Marshall, G. (ed.) (1989) Ministerial Responsibility (Oxford: OUP) Marshall, G. (1991) `The Evolving Practice of Parliament Accountability', in Parliamentary Affairs, 4:4. McNaughton, N. (2002) `Prime Ministerial Government', in Talking Politics, 15:1. Mount, F. (1992) The British Constitution Now (London: Heinemann). Norton, P. (1995-96) `Parliamentary Behaviour since 1945', in Talking Politics, 8:2, Winter. Ryle, M and Richard, P. (eds.) (1988) The Commons under Scrutiny (London: Routledge). Rhodes, R. A. W. and Dunleavy, P. (eds.) (1995) Prime Minister, Cabinet and the Core Executive (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Rush, M. (ed.) (1990) Parliament and Pressure Politics (Oxford: Clarendon). Seldon, A. (1990) `The Cabinet Office and Co-ordination', in Public Administration, 68:1, Spring. Smith, M. J. (1999) The Core Executive in Britain (Basingstoke: Macmillan). Theakston, K. (1991-92) `Ministers and Mandarins', in Talking Politics, 4:2, Winter. Wakeham, Lord (2002) `Lords Reform', in Politics Review, 10:2. Woodhouse, D. (1994) Ministers and Parliament: Accountability in Theory and Practice (Oxford: Clarendon). Wright, A. (1997) `Does Parliament Work', in Talking Politics, 9:3, Spring 1997.

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Session 4 (15 Sept): The Battle for Ideas: Parties and the Party System

Discussion Topics What is `Conservatism'? What are the key tenets of the Labour's ideology? What is liberalism? Are the Liberal Democrats a classic `liberal' party? Why have the far-right/far-left never been politically successful in Britain? Why has the Green Party failed to gain a meaningful foothold in British politics? What is the ideology of the two nationalist parties (SNP and PC)? Does this ideology represent a challenge to the British state? Core Reading Coxall, B. et. al. `Political Ideologies: The Battle of Ideas', in Contemporary British Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003), pp.50-71. Main/JC 2150 (Cox) Giddens, A (1998) The Third Way: The Transformation of Social Democracy, particularly the first and last chapters. Main/JD 2150 (Thi). Additional Reading Adams, I. (1998) Ideology and Politics in Britain Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press). Bell, D. (1960) The End of Ideology (New York: Free Press). Benn, T. (1980) `The Case for a Constitutional Premiership', in Parliamentary Affairs, 33:1. Benn, T. (1982) Parliament, Power and People (London: Verso). Blair, T. (1996) My Vision of a Young Country (London: Fourth Estate). Brittan, S. (1968) Left or Right: The Bogus Dilemma (London: Secker and Warburg). Coxall, B (1992) `The Social Context of British Politics: Class, Gender and Race in the Two Major Parties, 1970-1990', in B. Jones and L. Robins (eds.) Two Decades in British Politics (Manchester: MUP). Crewe, I. (1996) `1976-1996', in A. Seldon (ed.) How Tory Governments Fall (London: Harper Collins).. Crewe, I and King, A. (1995) SDP: The Birth. Life and Death of the Social Democratic Party (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Crosland, C. A. R. (1956) The Future of Socialism (London: Jonathan Cape). Davies, A. J. (1996) We, The Nation: The Conservative Party and the Pursuit of Power (London: Abacus). Davies, A. J. (1996) To Build a New Jerusalem: The British Labour Party from Keir Hardie to Tony Blair (London: Abacus). Dunleavy, P et al (2003) Developments in British Politics 7 (London: Palgrave). Dobson, A. (1995) Green Political Thought (London: Routledge). Duverger, M. (1954) Political Parties (London: Methuen). Eccleshall, R. (1986) British Liberalism: Liberal Thought from the 1640s to the 1980s (London: Longman). Eccleshall, R. (1990) English Conservatism since the Reformation (London: Longman). Eccleshall, R. et. al. (1994) Political Ideologies (London: Routledge). Freeden, M. (1990) `The Ideology of New Labour', in Political Quarterly, 70: 1. Gamble, A. (1988) The Free Economy and the Strong State: The Politics of Thatcherism (London: Palgrave). 9

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Garner, R. and Kelly, R. (1998) British Political Parties Today (Manchester: MUP). Gilmour, I (1978) Inside Right (London: Quartet). Gray, J. (1986) Liberalism (Buckingham: Open University Press). Greenleaf, W. H. (1973) `The Character of Modern British Conservatism' in R. Benewick et. al (eds.) Knowledge and Belief in British Politics (London: Allen and Unwin). Heywood, A. (1998) Political Ideologies: An Introduction (Basingstoke: Macmillan). Ingle, S. (2000) The British Party System (London: Pinter). Katz, R. S. and Mair, P. (eds.) (1994) How Parties Organise (London: Sage). Leach, R. (2002) Political Ideology in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Ludlam, S. and Smith, M. J. (eds.) Contemporary British Conservatism (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Miliband, R. (1972) Parliamentary Socialism (London: Merlin). Minkin, L. (1992) The Contentious Alliance: Trade Unions and the Labour Party (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press). Rawnsley, A. (2001) Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour (Harmondworth: Penguin). Rentoul, J. (2001) Tony Blair: Prime Minister (London: Little and Brown). Robins, L. et al. (eds.) (1994) Britain's Changing Party System (London: Leicester University Press). Robinson, M. (1992) The Greening of British Party Politics (Manchester: MUP). Saville, J. (1988) The Labour Movement in Britain (London: Faber and Faber). Seldon, A and Kavanagh, D. (eds.) (1994) The Major Effect (London: Macmillan). Seliger, M. (1976) Ideology and Politics (London: Allen and Unwin). Seyd, P. and Whiteley, P. (1992) Labour's Grass Roots: The Politics of Party Membership (Oxford: Clarendon). Shaw, E. (1996) The Labour Party since 1945 (Oxford: Blackwell). Whiteley, P. et. al, (1994) True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership (Oxford: Clarendon).

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Session 5 (20 Sept): Elections and Electoral Behaviour

Discussion Topics "Class is the basis of British party politics: All is embellishment and detail" (Pulzer, 1967). How true is this statement? Is class still the primary shaper of the vote in the UK? What are class and partisan dealignment? How important are they in understanding contemporary election outcomes? How important are issues in determining the outcome of British elections? Are British elections presidential in nature? How important is the electoral system in determining British electoral outcomes? Why is turnout dropping in British elections? Core Reading Denver, D. (2003) Elections and Voters in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Main/JD 3450 UK (Den). Sanders, D. et. al `The Economy and Voting', in Parliamentary Affairs, 54: 789-902. Current Periodicals, Main/JC 10 Par Additional Reading Bartolini, S & Mair, P. (1990) Identity, Competition and Electoral Volatility (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Campbell, A et al (1960) The American Voter (New York: Wiley). Crewe, I. and Denver, D. (eds.) (1985) Electoral Change in Western Democracies: Patterns and Sources of Electoral Volatility (London: Croom Helm). Curtice, J. and Jowell, R. (1995) `The Sceptical Electorate', in R. Jowell et al (eds.) British Social Attitudes: The 12th Report (Aldershot: Dartmouth). Dalton, R. J., Flanagan, S. C. and Beck, P. A. (eds.) (1984) Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment? (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Dunleavy, P et al (2003) Developments in British Politics 7 (London: Palgrave). Evans, G. and Norris, P. (eds.) (1999) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-term Perspective (London: Sage). Farrell, D. (2001) Electoral Systems: A Comparative Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Franklin, M. (1985) The Decline of Class Voting (Oxford: OUP). Franklin, M. et al. (1992) Electoral Change: Responses to evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Gavin, N and Sanders, D. (1997) `The Economy and Voting' in Parliamentary Affairs, 50: 4, October 1997. Harrop, M. and Miller, W. L. (1987): Elections and Voters: A Comparative Introduction (Basingstoke: Macmillan). Heath, A. et al. (1985): How Britain Votes (Oxford: Pergamon). Himmelweit, H. et al. (1984) How Voters Decide (Milton Keynes: Open University Press). Kavanagh, D. (1995) Election Campaigning: The New Marketing of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell). Miller, W. et. al (1990) How Voters Change (Oxford: Clarendon). 11

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Miller, W. E. and Merrill Shanks, J. (1996) The New American Voter (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press). Pulzer, P. (1967) Representation and Elections in Britain (London: Allen and Urwin). Rose, R. and McAllister, I (1986): Voters Begin to Choose: From Closed-Class to Open Elections in Britain (London: Sage). Rose, R. and McAllister, I (1990) The Loyalties of Voters (London: Sage). Sanders, D. (1995) ``It's the Economy Stupid': The Economy and Support for the COnservative Party, 1979-1994', in Talking Politics, 7:3, Spring. Tapper, T. and Bowles, N. (1982) `Working Class Tories: The Search for Theory', in L. Robins (ed.) Topics in British Politics (London: Politics Association). Whiteley, P. et. al. (2001) `Turnout', in Parliamentary Affairs, 54: 775-788. Särlvik, Bo and Ivor Crewe: Decade of Dealignment: The Conservative Victory of 1979 and Electoral Trends in the 1970s (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).

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Session 6 (22 Sept): Case Studies: (1) Margaret Thatcher and her Conservative Governments; (2) Tony Blair and his Labour Governments

Discussion Topics What was (is) Thatcherism? How (if at all) did it differ from traditional Conservatism? Why have the Conservatives struggled electorally since her departure in 1990? "Britain's departure from the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) in 1992 was the Conservatives' Waterloo". Was it? What (if anything) is the `Third Way'? Do Tony Blair's governments represent a major departure from previous Labour administrations? If so, how? Core Reading Kavanagh, D. (1990) Thatcherism and British Politics (Oxford: OUP). Main/JC 2150 UK (Kav). Short / JC 2150 UK (Kav). Ludlam, S. and Smith. M. (eds.) (2004) Governing as New Labour (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Main / JD 2150 UK (Gov). Additional Reading Ascher, K. (1987): The Politics of Privatisation (Basingstoke: Macmillan). Blair, T (1996) My Vision of a Young Country (London: Fourth Estate). Crewe, I. (1996) `1976-1996', in A. Seldon (ed.) How Tory Governments Fall (London: Harper Collins). Dunleavy, P et al (2003) Developments in British Politics 7 (London: Palgrave). Driver, S and Martell, L (1998) New Labour: Politics after Thatcherism (Cambridge: Polity Press). Evans, E. (1997): Thatcher and Thatcherism (London: Routledge, 1997). Freeden, M. (1990) `The Ideology of New Labour', in Political Quarterly, 70: 1. Gamble, A. (1988) The Free Economy and the Strong State: The Politics of Thatcherism (London: Palgrave). Giddens, A (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy Cambridge: Polity). Jones, G. W. (1990) `Mrs Thatcher and the Power of the Prime Minister' in Contemporary Record, 3:4. King, A. (2002) `The Outsider as Political Leader: The Case of Margaret Thatcher', in British Journal of Political Science, 32 (3); 435-454. Lovenduski, J. (2001) `Apathetic Landslide; The 2001 British General Election', in Parliamentary Affairs 50:4, October 2001. Ludlam, S. and Smith, M. (eds.) (2001) New Labour in Government (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Maynard, G. (1988) The Economy under Mrs Thatcher (Oxford: Blackwell). Newman, J. (2001) Modernising Governance: New Labour, Policy and Society (London: Sage).

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Norris, P. (1997) `Anatomy of a Landslide', in Parliamentary Affairs, 50:4, October Rawnsley, A. (2001) Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour (Harmondworth: Penguin). Rentoul, J. (2001) Tony Blair: Prime Minister (London: Little and Brown). Seldon, A. (ed.) (2001) The Blair Effect: The Labour Government 1997-2001 (London: Little and Brown). 1997.

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