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LEED® Project Case Study Tim Hortons Restaurant 969 Upper Ottawa, Hamilton, Ontario

Fig. 1- Entrance and east elevation1

Overview Location: Hamilton, ON Building type: Restaurant New Construction on an Existing Site 223 m2 (2400 ft2) Project scope: 1 storey building Urban setting: residential neighbourhood Completed: December 2010 LEED Rating: LEED NC-v1.1 Certified Anticipated Energy Savings: 34,110 kwh per year Anticipated Water Savings: 540,952 L/yr. Anticipated Waste Diversion: 75% (approximately: 50,051kg.) 18% Recycled Content and 100% FSC Certified wood (excludes furniture).

1. Images are taken from Tim Hortons 2010 Sustainability and Responsibility Report. For further information on

Tim Hortons Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives please visit:

At Tim Hortons, we acknowledge we have an environmental impact in the communities we serve and source from and are Making a True Difference by embracing our responsibility to manage our restaurant footprint. Tim Hortons has already made tremendous strides for improving how we source materials, use energy, protect habitats, design our stores and manage our waste. ­ We are committed to continuously improving and exploring innovations at our restaurants year after year.

Tim Hortons Restaurant ­ 969 Upper Ottawa, Hamilton Ontario Welcome to, Tim Hortons' first restaurant in Canada to be for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) with the Canada Green Building Council. This restaurant will serve as a learning environment for many sustainable initiatives we hope to introduce into all our new and renovated restaurants going forward. The knowledge gained from data gathered at this restaurant will help us build more efficient and sustainable restaurants tomorrow. Even from the outside it is evident something is different about this restaurant. Developed on an existing parking lot, not a greenfield, this restaurant location was chosen for its proximity to existing residential development and public transit, both existing and planned, to help promote and serve a connected community. Bicycle racks and car pool parking were included to encourage alternative means of transportation. A white roof reduces the heat island effect produced by the building and helps keep the interior temperature cooler in summer and warmer in winter - which results in more efficient energy use. Sustainability doesn't end with building design and construction. Through multiple initiatives, like offering china cups and plates for in restaurant dining and promoting reusable travel mugs for take away we are helping to reduce single-use packaging. Partnerships with waste management companies across the country allow our restaurants to divert our packaging and food products from local landfill. Our restaurants recycle bottles, cans, paper products (including our hot drink cups) corrugated cardboard and organic food waste including coffee grinds. Tim Hortons continues to be a leader in the food service industry through the implementation of diversion programs for our waste. Owner & Occupancy 20 year land lease by the TDL Group Corp. Building Matrix Major Occupancy: Group A Div. 2 Building Classification: (2006 Ontario Building Code) Finance Cost Data

Total project cost: $584,000.00CAD Hard cost: $2620/m2 ($245/ft2)

Land Use & Community Property Evaluation o Phase I and Phase II Environmental Site Assessment (Details in the Sustainable Sites section). Support for Community Connectivity o Provide safe access for cyclist and pedestrians. o Provide bicycle parking in a visible location to promote use. o Provide vehicle access but encourage carpooling. Property Selection Opportunities o Review pre-developed locations with proximity to amenities and public transportation.

Sustainable Sites Site Description The restaurant is located in a developed medium density section of Hamilton on a major thoroughfare to the downtown core. The site includes several essential services and is in close proximity to medium density residential as well as existing and planned transit routes (fig. 1a). Lot size: 2,320 M2 Building Footprint: 222.96 M2 Previously developed land

Fig. 1a- Community Connectivity Plan

Site Environmental Management during Construction Working on a portion of a pre-developed site limited the LEED Project site but did not reduce the necessity of an Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan or the diligence of the general Contractor to ensure implanted measures were properly maintained. As an example, filtration media was installed (fig. 2) and regularly cleaned on all existing catch basins on the site. Silt fencing was also employed to help reduce the loss of excavated soil.

Fig. 2- Typical catch basin filtration.

Redevelopment of a Potentially Contaminated Site During the environmental due diligence procedures it was found that there were areas of potential environmental concern surrounding the property. Through a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment it was determined the site was adjacent to a gasoline fuel outlet since 1988, located approximately 85 m north. Potential impact to the soil and groundwater conditions was noted due to underground storage tanks and distribution of liquid fuels. It was also noted there was a former automotive service garage in the general vicinity of the site from approximately 1960 to 1971. The historical management of automotive chemicals and wastes were not known and were listed as a potential environmental impact to the soil and groundwater. We performed a multiple Environmental Site Assessments (ESA) as part of our environmental due diligence procedures based on the above historical information. Through these tests it was determined all soil and groundwater analyzed at the site met the acceptable limits. No further work was recommended by the consultant. Reduced Site Disturbance The project is located within a residential neighbourhood and is specifically zoned "G" S-413 neighbourhood shopping centre. It maximizes property density, as permitted by the

applicable zoning bylaws and protects greenfields by building on a previously developed parcel of land, representing an intensification of use. This project has "increased localized density" by replacing the existing paved parking lot with a single storey commercial building and additional landscaping. It conforms to existing density goals as it is sized appropriately for the neighbourhood, predominantly single storey commercial and two-storey residential, and maximizes the allowed property density. It is located within an existing commercial development and constitutes "channeling development to urban areas with existing infrastructure".

Alternative Transportation A restaurant's location can dramatically reduce the travel time and the need for motorized vehicle use by customers and employees. Therefore, finding a location where guests and team members might use alternative transportation methods, such as bicycles, played a large role in site selection. For this specific site, parking capacity was limited to the zoned minimum and several elements were included on this project to promote alternative methods of transport. Bicycle racks (fig. 3) were placed at the front of the restaurant, close to the street and sidewalk and carpool parking (fig.4) was given priority, only second to barrier free parking.

Fig. 3- Bicycle rack

A carpool rewards program was created specifically for our team members at the Upper Ottawa restaurant and will be tested. If successful, the program will be rolled out across the franchise in both Canada and the USA, where it has the potential to impact the commuting habits of over 100,000 Tim Hortons team members.

Fig.4- Carpool Parking

Because of the site's proximity to residential and the downtown core there are bus routes within 400m. Also there is planned and funded expansion of light rail transit (LRT) for the area. All of these factors will help to reduce the overall motor vehicle footprint by customers and employees traveling to and from this restaurant.

Heat Island Effect and Microclimates Although the overall size of this specific restaurant is is small by comparison to many other retailers and restaurants, only 223m2, we always have to remember that there are over 3500 free standing Tim Hortons restaurants across the country. With an average footprint of 230 m2, this works out to just over 803,000 m2 of roof space in Canada alone. Because of this, white TPO roofs (fig. 5) have been standard on all restaurants since 2009. A white roof reduces the amount of energy a standard black roof would absorb. This modification to our restaurants helps reduce the heat island effect produced by the building, keeping the interior temperature cooler in summer and warmer in winter - which results in more efficient energy use and cooler communities.

Fig. 5- White TPO roof

Water Efficiency Tim Hortons' retail footprint on the country increases the necessity for efficient water use. For this project our design team worked with the city to use only native species in the landscaping (fig. 6). As a result no permanent irrigation system was installed. On average 3,000L of potable water are used daily in irrigation systems over a 4 month growing period. With irrigation systems at over 2500 restaurants that's 900,000,000L every year. By eliminating the irrigation system at this location we are saving 360,000L annually.

Fig. 6- Indigenous landscaping

Using conventional fixtures, a restaurant can use up to 721,523L of potable each year. The benchmark for LEED credits for water reduction of 30% is 505,066L. Through the selection of water efficient plumbing fixtures, like low flow water closets, aerators and infra-red faucets (fig.7) we were able to reduce water consumption to 180,571L, nearly 75% (74.97%) over the baselines. In addition to this, water efficient fixtures are now being mandated across the franchise on all new build restaurants.

Fig. 7- Infra-red sensor with aerator

Energy and Atmosphere This project used eQuest version 3.63 computer simulation software and energy modeling to establish energy efficiency against the baseline building prescribed in the Energy Cost Budget (ECB) of ASHRAE 90.1- 1999. This type of simulation helps us make design decisions by modeling energy use, and allowing us to modify the design before building. Energy Efficiency The inputs used in our proposed building envelope, such as lighting, equipment, and HVAC systems, are listed in Table 2 below. These were compared to baseline characteristics listed in Table 1.

Table 1- Baseline input summary

Table 2- Proposed design input summary

In a restaurant occupancy, designing for energy savings can be a difficult task. Energy used by non HVAC and lighting loads constitutes most of the building's energy use. The ECB method as described in ASHRAE 90.1-1999 requires all end uses of energy be accounted when determining energy savings. This includes not only the regulated loads such as HVAC, lighting, and water heating, but the non-regulated loads as well, including remote refrigeration, cooking equipment, and office equipment. However, for the LEED EAc1 Credit , the nonregulated loads are not included. The results are listed in Table 3 below. These results support the proposed design complies with LEED EAp2 for minimum energy conservation and also earns four (4) LEED EAc1 points under the CAGBC's LEED NC V1.0 rating system. Table 3 presents a summary of energy cost and consumption for the energy types for the proposed prototype design and its baseline model. Efforts to conserve electricity include photo luminescent `EXIT' signs, motion sensor activated lights in public and team member washrooms and energy efficient fluorescent lights. This restaurant also employs daylight harvesting, with dimmable ballasts, in the public area

coupled with increased glazing and transom windows to maximize natural lighting. Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting was also used for the building's exterior signs, interior pot lights, showcases, displays, and walk-in units.

Table 3- Baseline vs. actual

Ozone Protection Heating and cooling is controlled by high efficiency Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units and monitored by an automated system to ensure efficiency. The use of a vestibule at the entrance and air curtains over the drive-thru window and delivery door help contain the conditioned air. A Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) was installed to capture heat from the exhaust air to preheat incoming fresh air and heat from our ovens and toaster is redirected to help heat the restaurant during colder months. These initiatives ease the demand on the HVAC units and reduce gas consumption. Measurement and Verification To ensure the building operates as designed through the energy modeling; a Building Automation System was installed to monitor key systems as well as electrical circuits. The system provides notification through visual and audible alarms when monitored items passed above or below threshold levels. The data collected from the BAS will also provide for future improvements in performance and equipment across the franchise.

Materials and Resources Storage and Collection of Recyclables By working with various waste management companies across the country Tim Hortons is able to offer a variety of diversion programs to our guests and team members Our success in this area is evident at the 650 restaurant locations currently diverting hot drink cups and other paper packaging as well as our 320 restaurants composting food waste and coffee grinds. At this particular location, diversion programs are in place for bottles, cans, paper products (including our take out cups), corrugated cardboard as well as organic food and coffee grinds. It is estimated that this restaurant will divert nearly 75%, (Chart 1) from landfill.

Chart 1- Waste Diversion

Diversion of Construction Waste Requirements for waste diversion were outlined in the specifications. As a result over 75% of the construction waste materials were diverted from landfill through recycling and innovative salvage efforts. Figure 8 shows the dedicated waste diversion area set up on site.

Fig. 8- Waste Diversion Centre

Construction materials were chosen from regional suppliers for their recycled content. Many of the materials used came from less than 800 kilometers away. Some materials even came from the site. For example, the existing parking lot surface was crushed and reused as granular fill. Recycled Content Over 15% of the Upper Ottawa restaurant is comprised of recycled content, by value. Big tickets items like concrete and aluminum finishes attributed greatly to the overall value but smaller items like ceiling and floor tile were also specified to contribute to reaching the highest possible recycled value. Regional Materials Over 25%, by value, of the Upper Ottawa restaurant is comprised of construction materials sourced from within an 800km radius of the site. Several items came from local suppliers within 100kms. For example, a portion of the brick was extracted and manufactured 15kms away. The use of indigenous materials reduces transportation distances and the associated environmental impacts. It also helps to support the security of local/regional economies by routing construction dollars through local business.

Certified Wood By mandating all millwork and specifying FSC certified wood in the construction documents we were able to achieve over 40%, by value, FSC certified wood on the project. As a result of this project Tim Hortons has mandated FSC certified wood as a standard for the millwork in all new and renovated restaurants going forward. FSC-certified wood is wood that is certified under the standards set by FSC or the Forest Stewardship Council. FSC-certification is given to companies and landowners to verify that they practice forestry that is consistent with FSC standards. The FSC label on wood or paper products guarantees that consumers can trust the sources.

Indoor Environmental Quality Minimum Air Quality The building meets ASHRAE 62-2004, which is standard used to specify the minimum ventilation rates and indoor air quality that is acceptable to human occupants and intended to minimize the potential for adverse health effects. Smoking on site during construction was designated to a specific location (fig. 9) away from the building. No smoking signs are posted near all air intake points on the building to ensure that no tobacco smoke exposure takes place for indoor occupants.

Fig. 9- Designated Smoking Area

CO2 Monitoring While carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring element, when out of balance, specifically in surplus, it will impact the oxygen required by a person to be comfortable and healthy

Therefore, being able to monitor and control indoor CO2 levels is an important responsibility for us at Tim Hortons. CO2 sensors and air flow control systems were installed to regulate air flow within the building in accordance with ASHRAE 62-2004. Indoor Air Quality Management Plan- During Construction Every effort was made to protect the ventilation system from the dust and debris caused during construction so that contaminates would not be in the system when it came online for team members and guests Prior to construction and indoor air quality management plan was devised in accordance with the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor's National Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction. Absorptive materials were stored covered and away from construction activities and, when winter heating was required, the heat source was placed outside the building to ensure any potential harmful fumes were not circulated. Figure 10 and 11 indicate some of the measures taken to protect the building's mechanical systems during construction.

Fig. 10- HVAC ducts sealed

Fig. 11- Winter heat

Low Emitting Materials While it is impossible to eliminate Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) entirely from a project, efforts can be made to drastically reduce the number of VOCs on site. Paints, sealants, adhesives, and many other construction materials were specifically selected on this project for their low levels of VOCs (fig. 12).

Fig. 12- Example of VOC ratings specified

Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control In a restaurant environment air quality is of paramount importance. To control exposure to indoor chemicals and pollutants several efforts have been put in place across the franchise. One important step is to ensure all restaurants only use Green cleaning products (fig. 13), which is discussed further in the Innovation in Design section. Another item to help reduce indoor pollutants is a foot grille within vestibules to capture dirt, dust and pollen often carried in through foot traffic and delivery carts. In addition to these steps air curtains were added to the delivery door (fig. 14) and drive thru window to help prevent potential contaminants from entering the space.

Fig. 13- Green Cleaning Products

Fig. 14- Air Curtain

Innovation in Design The LEED rating systems provide the opportunity to achieve additional credits for exemplary performance above set requirements and innovative performance in green building categories not specifically addressed in the rating system. It also allows an additional credit for including a LEED Accredited Professional on the project. Below are some steps that were practiced at the Upper Ottawa location that went above and beyond expectations in the LEED rating system. Exemplary Performance- Water Use Reduction An exemplary performance point may be earned for achieving double the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold of an existing credit. As outlined in the Water Use Reduction section, by implementing water efficient plumbing fixtures, we were able to reduce water consumption by 540,952L, nearly 75% (74.97%) over the baselines, surpassing both the next incremental percentage threshold of 40% and more than doubling the existing WEc3.2 levels of 30%. In addition to this, water efficient fixtures are now being mandated across the franchise on all new build restaurants.

Green Building Education Tim Hortons restaurants welcome an average of over 2,000 guests per restaurant, every day. This restaurant is unique by acting as our exploratory prototype for testing and as a great tool to educate our guests and team members on sustainability. To do this a self-guided tour of the facility has been created (fig. 15) as well as an online interactive tour of the green features (fig. 16) which was featured in the 2010 Corporate Sustainability Report. Other educational items include a digital media loop featured on the menu boards and this narrative, which will be posted to the corporate website-

Fig.15- Self Guided Green building Tour

Fig. 16- Online Educational Tools

Another option for Innovation in Design credits is to meet criteria from a different LEED Rating system. This is the case for the next two Innovation credits, borrowed from LEED for Existing Buildings Operation and Maintenance (EBOM) and LEED for Commercial Interiors (CI) rating systems respectively.

Green Cleaning Policy The project complies with all the criteria for EBOM credit IEQ 3.3- Sustainable Cleaning Products and Materials with over 30% of the cleaning materials (by value) meeting the outlined criteria. Long Term Lease The project also complies with CI credit MR 1.1- Tenant Space, Long-Term Commitment. All Tim Hortons leases are at least 10 years. This is the credit minimum. This location has a 20 year term. A longer term lease commitment shows we have a vested interest in our performance and impact on the community we serve. LEED Accredited Professional Several LEED APs collaborated on this project.


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