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Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) in Solid Waste Management

C. Visvanathan

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Environmental Engineering and Management Program Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.

[email protected] Web:



Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM)

One of the market-based flexibility Mechanisms under Kyoto Protocol

To assist industrialized countries to lower the cost of achieving its GHGs emissions targets To support developing countries in achieving sustainable development who host CDM project through the implementation of project activities that reduce GHG emissions Ex: Industrialized country may invest for hydropower project in developing country that replaces electricity that would otherwise have been produced from coal and claim credit for the emission reduction and use these credits to meet its own target.


CDM in Solid Waste Management

CDM: Concept

Abatement cost /ton-CO2 : high Flow of Finance, state-of arttechnology, Capacity building Abatement cost / tonCO2 ton very low Certified emission reduction (CER) Company B: with no target Developing country

Company A:with GHE reduction target

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Industrialized country

Certified emission reduction (CER) or Carbon credit, GHE emission rights



CDM Overview

CDM Project Activity (Methane recovery in Landfill) Sustainable Development in Developing Countries

Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Sell CER through market


Use CER to comply with present or future GHG emission commitments



How CDM project works?

Project Development Design Validation/Registrat ion

Project Participants Designated Operational Entity Executive Board Project Participant Designated Operational Entity Executive Board

Monitoring Verification /Certification

CDM in Solid Waste Management


Certified Emission Reductions Project Activity Cycle for a CDM project

(Source: United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change)



CDM Projects: Current Statistics

Registered projects by region. Total 223

223 are registered with 450,000,000 t-CO2 expected emission reductions, 113 (46%) in Asia & Pacific

CDM in Solid Waste Management

India is leading host 30% total CMD projects Followed by Brazil (20%)

Latin America & Caribbean(49.78%) Africa (2.24%)

Asia & Pacific (46.19%) Other (1.79%)

Out of 223 total CDM projects, 21.35 % under waste handling & disposal sector,




CDM Projects: Current Statistics

Distribution of registered project activities by scoop

Energy industries (renewable / nonrenewable)(55.56%) Agriculture (10.86%) Manufacturing industries (3.75 %) Chemical Industries (o.75 %)

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Waste handling and Disposal (21.35%) Fugitive emission from production and consumption of halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride (2.62%) Energy Demand (3.00%)

Fugitive emission from fuels (solid, oil and gas)(1.12%)




CDM Projects for Solid Waste Management

Current CDM projects in solid waste management in Asia Composting of Organic Waste in Dhaka, Bangladesh Signed 15 years agreement with Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) on January 24, 2006, for collection and composting of 700 tons of organic waste per day with total expected emission reduction of 89,259 tCO2 Nanjing Tianjingwa Landfill Gas to Electricity Project, China (expected to reduce 246,107 tCO2 (2005-2014) Landfill Gas Extraction and Utilization at the Matuail landfill site, Dhaka, Bangladesh (expected to reduce 80,000 tCO2 (2004-2012)



CDM in Solid Waste Management

Examples current registered CDM project in Waste Management (June 2006)

Title of projects Brazil NovaGerar Landfill Gas to Energy Project Biomass in Rajasthan - Electricity generation from mustard crop residues Methane capture and combustion from swine manure treatment for Peralillo APCL proposed 7.5 MW Mustard Crop Residue based Power Project Anding Landfill Gas Recovery and Utilisation Project Bandeirantes Landfill Gas to Energy Project (BLFGE) Landfill Gas Extraction and Utilization at the Matuail landfill site, Dhaka, Bangladesh Host party Brazil India Other party Netherlands Netherlands Reduction (t-CO2) 670,133 31,374


Canada Japan Austria




CDM in Solid Waste Management




Brazil Bangladesh

1,070,649 80,000




CDM: Packaging

Small-scale project activity can be debundled component of a large project activity If there is a registered small-scale CDM project With the same project participants In the same project category and technology/measure Registered within the previous 2 years Whose project boundary is within 1 km of the project boundary of the proposed small scale Geographically based projects will require further conceptual and technical work on the concept of boundary




CDM in Solid Waste Management

Landfill Bundling

CDM Projects for Solid Waste Management

Reducing GHG emissions is the top priority of the CDM Significant potential for municipal greenhouse gas reduction, methane reduction projects in particular Waste sector requires less efforts in comparion to energy sector

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Methane solid waste and wastewater through anaerobic decomposition Solid waste & wastewater disposal and treatment together accounts about 20 % of human-induced methane emissions. Emissions are expected to grow in the future as waste generation in increasing in most Asian countries.



CDM Projects for Solid Waste Management

CDM offers an opportunity for MSW management in developing countries Solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental concerns in many Asian cities

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Technology and Environment, Bangkok Thailand, 2000)

Waste disposal site are responsible for 36.5% of the methane released into atmosphere in Bangkok (Ministry of Science,



CDM Potential for Solid Waste Management Emission

Methane emissions can be reduced

Reducing waste generation (source reduction) Diverting waste away from disposal sites (i.e., through composting, recycling, or incineration

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Recovering methane generated from the waste and its utilization as substitute for fossil-based energy Large investments are required to provide adequate waste management services considerable percent of solid waste remains uncollected



CDM Potentials for Solid Waste Management

Pyrolysis-gasification waste-toelectricity project:

-Turning dry wastes to power generation

by heating the waste under controlled condition Biomethanation of MSW/ manure project:

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Pyrolysis plant

Biogas generation from anaerobic digestion (wet) waste & using it in power generation Reduces methane escape to atmosphere by capturing Biogas Utilization for power generation displace fossil fuel Displacement of chemical fertilizer by organic fertilizer thus energy required Anaerobic digester to manufacture chemical fertilizer





Methane reduction projects are attractive Methane is 21 times higher global warming 21 certified emission potential than CO2 reductions (CERs) for each tonne of methane reduced Excellent candidate for control due to short atmospheric lifetime Can be sold in carbon market

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Sales of methane as an energy source

Provide a new source of income to local authorities finance infrastructure operation and improvement inwaste management



CDM Potentials for Solid Waste Management

Potential areas

LFG-to-energy project: Recovering the landfill gas (LFG) from existing landfills to generate electricity

CDM in Solid Waste Management

LFG collection utilizing of recovered LFG as fuel source

GHG reduction through methane combustion & displacement of grid electricity produced by fossil fuel based plant



Landfill gas utilization overview

Flare and compressor station

Cogeneration plant

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Landfill site


Condensor trap



Biogas generation

Source: Wet organic material Agricultural waste Industrial waste (food industry)

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Municipal waste (organic waste) ,about 200 m3 biogas/ ton of waste & has calorific value of 54,000kcal/cubic meter





Landfill Gas Management Project : Success Story

Project title: Salvador da Bahia Landfill Gas Managem (under waste handling and disposal sector), Brazil Crediting period: Jan 2004 - Dec 2010 (Renewable) Project activity: Landfill gas emission reduction by capturing of methane produced by waste decomposition & its destruction by combustion at high temperate Capacity of methane destruction equipment m3/h 6.250


CDM in Solid Waste Management

Site: Salvador Metropolitan area, Landfill capacity 18x10 820,000 ton of household waste per year (organic 60%)




Landfill Gas Management Project

Project participates:

Project operator: BATTRE (Bahia Transferencia eTratamento de Residuo e,S.A.) Host country: Brazil Purchasing party: Showa Shell sekiyu K.K.(Japan) Shell Trading International Limited (UK) Estimated emission reduction (2004-2019): 13.9 M tons CO2 equivalent Starting from power installation capacity 8MW with annual electricity production of 63,000 MWh (20042005) to 40 MW with 315,000 MWh in 2019.



CDM in Solid Waste Management

Landfill Gas Management Project

Current status of project : monitoring report

Biogas collection system is in operation with increasing biogas collection together with waste filling Final cover with plastic membrane continued to be installed to increase impermeabilization to capture fugitive methane emissions and to reduce leachate generation

CDM in Solid Waste Management


Total Methane captured (Nm3 of CH4) 20,534,398 39,939,655

Total required in Baseline (Nm3 of CH4) 17 ,226,361 204,489,537

*Total Certified emission reductions (Tonne of CO2e ) 45,988 269,863

2004 2005



Landfill Gas Management Project

Monitoring methodology

LFG calculation &recording Continuous gas flow meter, temp. , pressure Methane lab analysis Continues control of flame temp

CDM in Solid Waste Management

LFG pretreatme nt

Gas continuous analyzer

LFG collection & flaring in Salvador de Bahia Landfill gas management project



Project name: Landfill Gas Extraction

and Utilization at the Matuail landfill site Dhaka, Bangladesh

Landfill Gas Management: Case Study

Project activity: Project is based on

two complementary activities: Collection and flaring (combustion) of landfill gas, reducing GHGs Electricity generation and supply of electricity to the grid, thus replacing a certain amount of fossil fuel for electricity generation

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Matuail landfill

Estimated emission : 566,000 tCO2e

2006 ­ 2012 .

Start operation on of projectactivity :1st August 2006



Landfill Gas Management


Waste Generated (3200 t/d) Municipality Collect & Transport (t/d) 40 % of total generated waste

Methane Emission Bad Odor

Leachate Ground & Surface water

CDM in Solid Waste Management


Landfill gas recovery :CDM projects



Landfill Gas Management:

Project participants:

Project proponent/Sponsor · World Wide Recycling B.V. (WWR) a Dutch private company and Waste Concern (WC) a Bangladeshi (NGO) Host party: People Republic to Bangladesh

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Extraction technology: · Vertical wells; collectors + piping; condensate separator; · compressors; Gas utilization equipment : · Flare; dedicated gas engines connected to electric generators; hook-up to grid devices.v




Landfill Gas Management:

Environmental benefits

Mitigation of uncontrolled GHG emission by LFG capture Reducing the risk of on-site fires, Control the release of volatile organic compounds Degassing the landfill improved health conditions due to reduction of gaseous emissions; jobs for locals

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Economical benefits

LFG as a new indigenous fuel source for Bangladesh Foreign expertise and technology transfer Foreign capital inflow Jobs for locals



Lost Opportunity : Sri Lanka, Colombo

Total Solid Waste Generation - 1,200 t/d - Waste Generation per capita Low income - 0.5 kg/capita/day High income ­ 0.5 ­ 1.0 kg/capita/day

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Waste Collection

- 600 ~ 650 t/d

Total Cost for waste management­ Rs.400 million/year



Lost Opportunity : Sri Lanka

Solid Waste Composition in Colombo Metropolitan Area

MSW Composition (% by weight) Low Income (residential) Middle & High Income (Residential) Commercial

Organic Waste

CDM in Solid Waste Management

85.34 5.63 5.37 0.64 0.00 3.02

83.00 7.48 5.70 2.50 0.88 0.44

86.44 6.73 5.20 0.63 0.00 1.00

Paper Plastic Metal Glass Other

Source: ERM, 2000



Lost Opportunity : Sri Lanka

Treatment facilities ­ Colombo Municipal Council Dispose at open dumpsite ­ Bloomandale Road

(12 acres private land in the heart of the city which is saturated. CMC pays nearly 5 US$ per ton to dispose waste. 13 m height garbage mountains, just opposite to the harbor)

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Home Composting

­ 600 households

Planning to implement Composting Facility at Sedawatta with the assistance of Private Sector ­ September 2002

among 1,000 households



Recycling ­ Has initiated source separation scheme

Lost Opportunities: Sri Lanka

Colombo metropolitan area waste alone can run a power plant to generate generate 8 - 10 MW

Average electricity price is 5.60 Rs./kWh

CDM in Solid Waste Management

Number units generated out of 8 MW is 63,360,000 kWh for 330 working days.

If had the landfill site, could use the GEF grant to upgrade or build new biogas based power plant.... Lost opportunities continue due to political in action.....



CDM in Solid Waste Management




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