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saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universiteti

Georgian Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film State University

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #4 (41), 2009

ART SCIENCE STUDIES #4 (41), 2009

gamomcemloba `kentavri~ Tbilisi _ 2009

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UDC(u ak ) 7(0 5 1. 2) s-364 saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universiteti saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani saredaqcio sabWo levan xeTaguri iuri mRebriSvili anano samsonaZe literaturuli redaqtori mariam iaSvili garekanis dizaini levan dadiani dakabadoneba ekaterine oqropiriZe koreqtura manana goSaZe gamomcemlobis xelmZRvaneli maka vasaZe #4 (41), 2009

krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala uzrunvelyofili unda iyos Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan unda axldes monacemebi avtoris samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

winamdebare krebuli srulad efuZneba 2009 wlis 15-16 ivniss saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teastrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetSi Catarebul magistrantTa da doqtorantTa pirvel samecniero konferenciis masalebs

krebulis stamburi gamocema egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso kvleviT centrebs.

naSromebi mogvawodeT da cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT: 0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, II korpusi. tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408 mob: +995 (95) 305 060 +995 (55) 218 292 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.tafu.edu.ge

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Sinaarsi

Sesavali ...................................................................................................................9 Teatrmcodneoba irakli gogia ritmis swavlebis mniSvneloba msaxiobis aRzrdis procesSi .......................................................................................................15 mixeil mestviriSvili Teatri kiber-samyaroSi .............................................................................................23 laSa CxartiSvili Seqspiris axleburi gaazreba XX saukunis II naxevris dasawyisSi ............................................................................................38 Tamar cagareli Sua saukuneebis evropuli da qarTuli saeklesio saxilveli .................................................................................................................62 kinomcodneoba olRa eliaSvili gangsteruli kino .............................................................................................77 sofio wulaia kinofantastikis evoluciis procesi ................................................................83 rusudan papunaSvili qalis reprezentacia frankistuli espaneTis periodis kinematografSi ...........................................................................................................89 kulturis menejmenti kulturis politika elene babakiSvili sponsorobis roli kulturuli organizaciis politikaSi............ 102 ia gabunia sareklamo politika da reklamis arsi ......................................................112 sofio komlaZe sagamomcemlo bazris kvlevis zogierTi sakiTxi .........................................119 natalia murjikneli stresi organizaciaSi da misi marTvis strategiebi ................................127 caca jorjiaSvili PR -is (sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis) roli kulturuli

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turizmis ganviTarebaSi ...........................................................................................137 Tamar firosmanaSvili art-bazari saqarTvelos galereebSi .....................................................................146 nino yuraSvili reklamis efeqtianobis kvleva .................................................................................154 lika yufaraZe PR-rekomendaciebi kinofestival `sesilisTvis~ ...........................................162 nino SarmiaSvili mayureblis problema akademiur TeatrebSi ........................................................173 mariam WumburiZe menejmentis zogierTi problemaKTanamedrove xelovnebaSi ...........................181 nino xuciSvili internet teqnologiebi marketingSi ..............................................................................193 nino azmaifaraSvili menejmentis roliMkulturis globalizaciis procesebSi .....................200 tradiciuli xelovneba aleko gelaSvili samejliso cekvebis mesveurebi saqarTveloSi ...........................................217 eka geliaSvili `sarTulebiani~ ferxulebis simbolika ..........................................................228 Tamar munjiSvili qoreografiaSi sabavSvo repertuaris sakiTxisaTvis .....................................242 saSemsruleblo xelovneba Tamar firosmanaSvili qoreografiis roli TeatrSi 251 musikismcodneoba Tamar miqaZe jazisa da klasikis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis .............................261 maia sigua antikuri tragedia XX saukunis musikalur-scenur nawarmoebebSi _ Janris interpretaciis sakiTxebi ......................................271 qeTevan WitaZe axali Janruli modelebis Zieba XX saukunis musikaSi ...............285 eka WabaSvili atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnika ...............................................298

CONTENTS

THEATRE STUDIES IRAKLI GOGIA Shota Rustaveli Theatre And Film University's Faculty Of Arts And Social Sciences .....................................................................325 MIKHEIL MESTVIRISHVILI Theatre In Cyber-Universe..................................................................................... 325 LASHA CHKHARTISHVILI New Interpretation Of Shakespeare In The Second Half Of The XX Century .................................................................................................... 326 TAMAR TSAGARELI Church Show In Medieval Europe And In Georgia .............................................327 FILM STUDIES OLGA ELIASHVILI The Gangster Film ..................................................................................................328 RUSUDAN PAPUNASHVILI Representation Of Women In The Spanish Film Of The Franco Period .............329 CULTURE MANAGEMENT CULTURAL POLICY ELENE BABAKISHVILI The Role Of Sponsorship In The Policy Of Cultural Organization ....................330 IA GABUNIA The Advertising Policy And Main Point Of The Advertisement .....................331 SOFIO KOMLADZE "Several Issues On Publishing Market Research" ..............................................332 NATALIA MURJIKNELI Stress In Organization And Strategies Of Its Management........................... 334 TSATSA JORJIASHVILI Pr (Public Relations) Role In Cultural Tourism Development ............................335 TAMAR PIROSMANASHVILI Art Market In Georgian Galleries..................................................................... 337 NINO KURASHVILI Research Of The Effectiveness Of Advertisment ................................................338 LIKA KUPARADZE Pr- Recommendations For Cinema Festival ,,Sesily".................................... 339

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NINO SHARMIASHVILI Audience At Tendance Problem In Academic Theatres............................... 340 MARIAM TSCHUMBURIDZE Several Problems Of Management In Modern Art ............................................341 NINO KHUTSISHVILI Internet-Technologies In Marketing ..................................................................343 NINO AZMAIPARASHVILI The Management Of Cultural Globalization .....................................................344 TRADITIONAL ARTS ALEKO GELASHVILI Entrepreneurs Of Ball Dances In Georgia .............................................................346 EKA GELIASHVILI Symbolism Of "Multi Story" Perkhuli Dance .......................................................347 TAMAR MUNJISHVILI On Children's Programs In Choreography ..........................................................348 TAMAR PIROSMANASHVILI Importance Of Choreography In Theatre ..............................................................349 MUSIC STUDIES TAMAR MIKADZE Issues Of Interrelationship Between Jazz And Classical Music ........................................................................350 KETEV CHITADZE AN Search For New Genre Models In The 20th Century Music .............................351 EKA TCHABASHVILI Atomic-Nuclear Composition Technique ......................................................352

Sesavali periodulad reformebi ganaTlebis sistemaSi mimdinareobs sxvadasxva qveyanaSi da iSviaTia procesi, rodesac igi moicavs qveynebs, regionebs erTdroulad. msgavsi situacia gvaqvs boloniis procesTan, rodesac evro kavSirma wamoiwyo ganaTlebis sistemebis harmonizaciis procesi _ reforma, romelic gacda evro kavSiris iuridiul sazRvrebs da moicva ara mxolod evro kavSiris 27 wevri qveyana, aramed gacilebiT ufro meti da didi geografiuli areali, imisaTvis, rom sxvadasxva qveyanaSi gacemuli di plomebi, sxvadasxva qveynebSi momuSave profesor-maswavleblebi da studentebi er T man eT T an e rT i sae rT o p r inci p eb iT y ofl iyvn en dakavSirebuli da qonodaT ara mxolod ufleba mobilurobaze, aramed misi realizaciis finansuri saSualebebic. saqarTvelo am reformebs 2004 wlidan SeuerTda da Cvenma universitetmac araerTi nabiji gadadga imisaTvis, rom miaxloeboda evropul saganmanaTleblo sivrces. swored am mizniT dainerga Cvens universitetSi swavlebis meore _ samagistro da mesame _ sadoqtoro safexurebi, Seicvala swavlebis princi pebi da dainerga axali formebi, maT Soris samecniero midgomebi akademiuri da samecniero moRvaweobis daaxloebisaTvis7 swored am amocanebis gadawyvetileb aTa fonze Cvens universitetSi pirvelad daiwyo funqcionireba 2008 wels samagistro da sadoqtoro programebma, rogorc saxelovnebo mecnierb aTa, aseve _ saSemsruleb lo sp ecialob ebis mimarTulebebiT7 Seiqmna axali saswavlo badeebi da gegmebi meore da mesame saswavlo safexurebisaTvis, didi yuradReba daeTmo studentTa samecniero unar-Cvevebis Camoyalibebas da Semdgom ganviTarebas, gansakuTrebiT, _ saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa da saSemsruleblo xelovnebis farglebSi.

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gadawyda, rom samecniero konferenciebi, studentTa mier damuSavebuli Temebis sajaro aprobaciebi saswavlo procesis Semadgeneli nawili gaxdeboda7 samecniero konfrenciebis sistemuri Catareba universitetis saqmianobis prioritetia, misi momzadeba da Catareba sauniversiteto da saerTaSoriso doneebze, saboloo jamSi, udidesi mniSvnelobis mqonea saqarTveloSi saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa da saSemsruleblo xelovnebaTa ganviTarebisaTvis. winamdebare krebuli warmoadgens Cveni universitetis msoflio Teatris mimarTulebis sadoqtoro, msoflio kinos samagistro, kreatiuli pedagogikis da cekvis samgistro, kulturis politikisa da kulturis menejmentis samagistro da sadoqtoro programebis studentebis da aseve saxelmwifo konservatoriis magistrantTa semecniero moxsenebaTa krebuls, masalebs konferenciisa, romelic 2009 wlis 15-16 ivniss Catarda. es pirveli mcdelobaa damkvidrdes studentTa samecniero moRvaweobis sajar aprobacia, rasac didi mniSvneloba eqneba, rogorc studentTa profesiuli ganviTarebisaTvis da, romelic, aseve, samomavlod daexmareba saswavlo processac imisaTvis, rom aRmovaCinoT SesaZlebeli naklovanebani, anda piriqiT, _ ganvaviTaroT arsebuli miRwevebi. Cemi programebis mizania Tanamedrove msoflio Teatris Seswavla, misi adgilis gansazRvra civilizaciis mravalsaukunovan istoriaSi; Tanamedrove kvlevis warmoeba, aseve Tanamedrove da Tanadrouli teqnikuri saSualebebis gamoyenebiT. saswavlo programis dros didi adgili eTmoba studentTa samecniero kvlevasTan erTad maT pedagogiur praqtikas, maT daostatebas, rogorc momavali pedagogebisa, profesionalebisa, romelnic Tanabrd unda flobdnen, rogorc samecniero kvlevas, aseve _ saswavlo meTodologias.

Rrmad mjera, rom msoflio kulturis procesebis codna ukeT warmoaCens qarTuli kulturis adgils msoflioSi da daexmarebaT momaval mecnierebs ufro zusti analizisa da kvlevis sawarmoeblad. Cvens programaSi erTi eqsperimentic tardeba _ sadoqtoro safexurze ori praqtikosi-reJisoric swavlobs, romelnic praqtikas Teoriuli kuTxiT Seiswavlian, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom jerjerobiT saqarTveloSi ar aris danergili artistuli (SemoqmedebiTi) kvleva (artistic research), msgavsi eqsperimenti kargi saSualebaa praqtikosi doqtorantebis aRzrdisa da maTTan samecniero unarCvevebis ganviTarebisa. me minda mivuloco am pirveli krebulis yvela monawileavtors samecniero moRvaweobis dawyeba, zogs gagrZeleba da Semdgomi ganviTareba. imeds vitoveb, rom es pirveli krebuli gaxdeba yovelwliuri gamocema, rogorc angariSi yovelwliuri konferenciebisa. qarTul saxelovnebo mecnierebas mravali axalgazrda mecnieri Wirdeba, romelic Tavis wvlils Seitans Teoriis, istoriisa da kritikis ganviTarebaSi, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis gaRrmavebaSi da saqarTvelos warmoCenaSi, rogorc Tanamedrove mzardi potencialis mqone qveynisa. profesori levan xeTaguri, xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, universitetis reqtoris moadgile, msoflio Teatris mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli

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Teatrmcodneoba

humanitarul, socialur menierebaTa, biznesisa da marTvis fakulteti

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sadoqtoro programa

irakli gogia doqturanturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli _ prof. levan xeTaguri ritmis swavlebis mniSvneloba msaxiobis aRzr dis procesSi `nebismier ritmSi aris moZraoba~ emil Jak-dalkrozi

Tanamedrove evropuli Teatris mkvlevari

XX saukunis dasawyisSi araerT saTeatro eqsperiments Caeyara safuZveli. im droisTvis saritualo Teatris kvlevisaken midrekilebam bevr saintereso kiTxvas gasca pasuxi da evropuli Tanamedrove cekvis sawyisad iqca. gasuli saukunis 20-ian wlebSi, germaniaSi, eqsperimentatorma msaxiobma, mxatvarma da qoreografma rudolf labanma klasikuri baletis `sawinaaRmdegod~ sxeulsa da moZraobas sruliad gansxvavebuli mimarTuleba misca. labanma e. w. klasikur, mkacri cekvis kanonebs sxeulis sruli Tavisufleba daupirispira. amis safuZveli saritualo cekvebi gaxldaT. swored am dros Seqmna labanma misi `Tanamedrove cekvis manifesti~. aRsaniSnavia, rom imave wlebSi originaluri eqsperimentebi aisidora dunkanmac ganaxorciela _ is aRmosavlur cekvebze iyo orientirebuli. im periodis yvela mcdeloba ki ritmis, rogorc saTeatro struqturis Camoyalibebisken iyo mimarTuli. ritmisa da plastikis yvelaze masStaburi kvleva franguli warmoSobis Sveicariel kompozitorsa da pedagogs, emil Jakdalkrozs, ukavSirdeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mis SemoqmedebaSi Tavs iyris TiTqmis yvela is tendencia, romelic im periodis cekvis samyaroSi gvxvdeba. dalkrozi qmnis ritmo-plastikur meTodologias da gvTavazobs konkretul sistemas, struqturas, romelic aseve saritualo Teatris elementebs eyrdnoba. alJirSi yofnisas dalkrozma Seiswavla adgilobrivTa ritmuli moZraobebi, Sesrulebis manerulobis iseTi magaliTebi da ritmi, romlebic gansakuTrebiT afrikuli saritualo cekvisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli.

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gogia

mniSvneloba

msaxiobis

ritmis swavlebis aRzrdis procesSi

am SemTxvevaSi ritmi ganixileba, rogorc konkretuli erisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebebis mamoZravebeli da gamomxatveli Zala. aRsaniSnavia, rom dalkrozisTvis swored es faqtori gaxda stimuli imisa, rom konkretuli sistemis, anu `ritmuli varjiSebis~, Camoyalibebamde misuliyo. 1910 wlidan, drezdenTan axlos, helerauSi, dalkrozis iniciativiT, ritmis instituti yalibdeba da faqtobrivad safuZveli eyreba mis sistemur swavlebas. imdroindel evropul Teatrs Tu gadavxedavT, heleraus eqsperimentebis gavlenaSi naTlad davrwmundebiT. es 20-iani wlebidan ukve evropuli Teatrisa da Teatraluri swavlebebis erT-erTi mTavari mamoZravebeli gaxda. swored am droidan iwyeba evropul scenaze verbaluri Teatris transformirebis mcdelobebi. Tu gavixsenebT, rom TviT labanic revius mocekvave iyo da SemdgomSi iseTi manifestis avtorad gvevlineba, rogoric `cekvis manifesti~, romelic dRes ukve mxolod cekvis manifesti ki ar aris, aramed Tanamedrove Teatris ideologiis ganmsazRvrelic, maSin martivia davadginoT dRevandeli Teatris ZiriTadi moTxovnileba. Teatraluri xelovnebis ganviTarebis istoriis nebismier etapze krizisidan gamosavlis Zieba yovelTvis iyo saritualo TeatrTan miaxloveba. gasuli saukunis 50-70-iani wlebis mniSvnelovani Teatraluri gardaqmnebic swored ritualebis kvlevis Sedegia, magaliTisTvis poloneli eJi grotovskis Ziebebis dasaxelebac kmara _ isini mxolod saTeatro ritualebz e ki ar aris ageb uli, aramed p rocesis ritualurobaze. grotovskis `wminda Teatris~ elementebi da odinis laboratoria _ es aris heleraus ritmis institutis Teatraluri transformireba. `me gadavwyvite, raki swored pirvelyofilma adaT-wesebma Cahberes suli Teatrs ­ maSin dabruneba ritualisken~,1 ­ eJi grotovskis es sityvebi im periodSi Ziebis procesi gaxldaT, fiqri imaze, Tu rogori unda yofiliyo Tanamedrove msaxiobi da misi aRzrdis sistema. ra ganapirobebs Teatris `moZvelebas~? erTi mTavari faqtori _ rodesac samsaxiobo aRzrda konkretuli epoqis ritms ver pasuxobs.

rig SemTxvevebSi Cven Teatris pedagogikas zust mecnierebad miviCnevT da Sesabamisad, konkretuli epoqis TeatrisTvis saWiro msaxiobebs veRar viRebT. rodesac Tanamedrove cekvam e. w. klasikuri baletis `mkacri klasikuroba~ daarRvia da prioritetuli Tavisufali moZraobebi gaxda, roca evropul tradiciul-verbalur Teatrs nel-nela Caenacvla moqmedebasa da ritmze agebuli Teatri, saWiro gaxda Sesabamisi fizikuri monacemebis mqone msaxiobebis momzadeba. maT mosamzadeblad SemuSavebuli CvenTvis cnobili sistemebidan aprobirebuli da qarTul Teatralur swavlebaSi dadgenilia `stanislavskis sistema~. Cven gvinda aRvzardoT Tanamedrove msaxiobi, magram `ar~ an `ver~ vawodebT maT Tanamedrove swavlebas. zemoT xsenebul sistemaSi mobilizebulia samsaxiobo ostatobisTvis saWiro yvela elementi. is, TiTqos, klasikur meTodaTac iqca, magram bunebrivia isic, rom lamis saukunis winandeli swavleba Tanamedrove sasceno xelovnebis moTxovnilebebs ukve veRar pasuxobs. msoflio xelovnebis ganviTareba TavisTavad gvibiZgebs ganvaaxloT swavlebis meTodologia da is qarTul ritms, ufro zogadad ki _ Tanamedrove `qarTul ritms~, SevusabamoT. 20-iani wlebis qarTul TeatrSi araerTi eqsperimenti ganxorcielda. maSinac ki zustad imave problemebis gadaWris gzebs eZebdnen, razec axla gviwevs fiqri da kamaTi. magaliTisTvis mxolod grigol robaqiZis da misi erT-erTi moxsenebis `Teatri, rogorc ritmi~ dasaxelebac kmara. `SeuZlebelia axla wera im ritmiT, rogoriTac werda homerosi, amitomac yovel epoqas aqvs Tavisi ritmic. erTia ritmi qaravnis neli svlis da ritmi Tanamedrove avtomobilis gaqanebis. amitomac Teatrs unda axasiaTebdes ritmi rkinis, javSnis, siZliere, zomiereba, sisadave, siswore, ekonomia da fataloba. Tanamedrove TeatrSi unda ismodes ritmi aeroplanis da manqanis. aqedan momdinareobs aucilebloba sxva Teatraluri formebisa da pirvel yovlisa: siZunwe sityvebis, daSla saxeebis~,2 _ wers gr. robaqiZe. misi es sityvebi maniSnebelia imisa, rom imdroindeli qarTuli Teatri ufro axlos iyo evropul TeatrTan, vidre dRes...

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ra aris saritualo Teatri? `adaT-wesebis Zieba TeatrSi~, _ ai, ase primitiulad ganmartavs mas eJi grotovski, anu, qarTuli Teatris miTologiis kvleva, im sakulto sanaxaobebis Seswavla da meTodologia, rac Tundac qarTul cekvebSia Cadebuli. zogadad qarTuli cekvebi xom sakulto moZraobebzea agebuli, im ritualebze, saidanac TviTon qarTul Teatrs aqvs dasabami. Cven SesaZloa Seswavlili gvaqvs erTi konkretuli dResaswauli, magram ganxorcielebis teqnologiebis kvlevis mcdeloba ar gvqonia. vfiqrob, aucilebelia meTodologiurad gadamuSavdes is, raTa gamovikvlioT konkretuli ritualisTvis rogor emzadebodnen an ra xerxebs iyenebdnen Cveni winamorbedni. qarTul Teatralur xelovnebaSi ratomRac ise moxda, rom logikurad ganviTarebuli procesi (pirveli safexurebidan meoce saukunis 20-iani wlebis CaTvliT) ucbad gadavida CvenTvis sruliad ucxo swavlebis meTodikaze. maSin yvela evropuli forma rusuliT Seicvala da Tanac ise, rom TiTqos is erTaderTia da masze saintereso msoflios TeatrSi sxva araferi xdeba... TiToeul rasas aqvs sakuTari Jesti. ra aris qarTuli Jesti? ritmi, rokva, is sakulto elementebi, romlebic mTian saqarTveloSi da metnaklebad qarTul tradiciul cekvaSi dRemde Semonaxulia. qarTuli Sinagani ritmis dadgena qarTuli sakravebis xmovanebisa da tembris mixedviTac SegviZlia, anu, im gansakuTrebuli musikis struqturiT, rogoric Zvel svaneTsa da mTian samegreloSi gvxvdeba. ram dakarga iseTi `adaTwesebi TeatrSi~, romelic erT dros msoflio xelovnebis Tanadroul ganviTarebasTan gvaaxloebda? iqneb swavlebis araswori meTodika, romelmac evropul Teatrs dagvaSora? vfiqrob, araqarTul sistemaze awyobilma swavlebam Cven TviTmyofadoba dagvakargvina. arsebobs qarTvel avtorTa sistemebic, magram ZiriTadad isini mainc tradiciuli meTodis ganviTarebaa da ara namdvilis kvleva... rodesac stanislavskis samSoblos farglebs gareT TviTdajerebuli momzadebiT warvsdeqiT, aRmoCnda, rom msoflio Teatrsa da Teatralur swavlebaSi bevr saintereso movlenas Cven gareSe Cauvlia.

kidev erTxel xazgasmiT aRvniSnav, rom, rodesac dalkrozi ritmis struqturaze muSaobda, es im epoqis moTxovnileba iyo, ramac Tanamedrove evropuli Teatri moamzada. roca qarTul dramaturgiaSi mcire teqstiani piesebis weris tendencia daiwyo (magaliTad moviyvan k. gamsaxurdias simbolisturi piesas `garsi maradi~3), didi romanistis es nabiji, praqtikulad, dRemde Seuswavlelia. iqneb es piesa verbaluri Teatris etapobrivi transformirebis Canasaxicaa, romelic, samwuxarod, ver ganviTarda. grigol robaqiZe Teatris aseT ganmartebasac gvTavazobs: `Teatri, misterias ziarebuli cremlia~ da missave mowodebas Tu gavixsenebT _ `siZunwe sityvebis~, Tu kidev imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, rom orive mwerali 20-ian wlebSi, garkveulwilad, qarTuli Teatris politikis ganmsazRvrelic iyo, maSin Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom qarTuli Teatri `adaT-wesebis~ Ziebas swored im etapze gaeqca, arada, es `adaTwesebi~ eris moTxovna iyo. es im periodis dramaturgiazec migvaniSnebs, ramdenime magaliTs moviyvan: gr. robaqiZis `lamara~, S. dadianis `TeTnuldi~, s. SanSiaSvilis `anzori~ da kidev, am piesebis damdgmelis, sandro axmetelis werilebi Tu piradi Canawerebi qarTuli ritmis Sesaxeb. saqarTveloSi msaxiobis aRzrdis procesi, erTi SexedviT, kompleqsuria, Teoriulad Cven unda miviRoT universali, magram praqtikul doneze, rig SemTxvevaSi, Sedegad viRebT msaxiobebs, romlebsac sxeulis marTvis elementaruli teqnika arc ki gauvliaT _ aq iswavleba cekva, magram ar viciT, rogor vicekvoT, iswavleba `vokali~, magram is, Tu rogor unda vmarToT xma _ ara. yvelaferi gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom Cven skolas ar gaaCnia ritmis, rogorc msaxiobis ZiriTadi mamoZravebeli saSualebis meTodika. magaliTisTvis moviyvanT hileraus dalkroziseuli gakveTilebis mxolod CamonaTvals, anu, ras unda flobdes msaxiobi: ritmuli tanvarjiSi, solfejio, msaxiobis ostatoba (improvizacia), sunTqva, anatomia, gundi, plastika... Tu msaxiobs gamomuSavebuli ara aqvs Sinagani ritmi, is ver axerxebs sworad sunTqvas, araswori sunTqviT ki _ metyvelebas. CvenTan

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gogia

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msaxiobis

ritmis swavlebis aRzrdis procesSi

xom, umeteswilad, metyvelebis gakveTilebi yovelgvari fizikuri momzadebis gareSe tardeba da emsgavseba logopedis muSaobas yba-saxis defeqtis mqone adamianTan... aq, rogorc wesi, aswavlian cekvis ileTebs da ara imas, Tu rogor unda mivaRwioT ileTis Sesrulebamde... mdgomareoba gamouvali xdeba, rodesac ar viciT, elementarulad, kunTebis agebuleba da sxeulis is detalebi, romelTac konkretul davalebebs vaZlevT. ritmis Seswavlisas, vfiqrob, aucilebelia adamianis agebulebis Seswavla, anu, sxeulis im nawilTa struqturis gacnoba, romlis saSualebiTac scenaze saswauli unda moxdes. harmoniuloba gamoricxulia Tu ar viciT ra xdeba terfSi an xelis mtevanSi im dros, roca mas konkretuli davalebiT vtvirTavT... ritmis gareSe msaxiobi emsgavseba im adamians, romelsac romelime kiduri an organo xelovnuri aqvs da misi marTva ar SeuZlia. Tu Cveni amocanaa adamianis msaxiobad aRzrda, upirvelesad mas unda gamovumuSavoT survilis, inteleqtisa da qmedebis, anu moZraobis, marTvis SesaZlebloba. isev magaliTs moviyvan da gagacnobT dalkrozis ganmartebas: `Tavis tvinSi mobilizebulia survilebis, inteleqtisa da qmedebis centraluri wertilebi. Tavis tvinidan sxeulis yvela nawilisaken mimarTulia nervuli qsovilebi, romlebic asruleben iseTive rols, rogorsac sakomunikacio gadamcemebi, centraluri organodan nervebi TavianT survils gadascemen kunTebs, xolo isini sruliad emorCilebian maT brZanebas da asruleben signalis Sesabamis moZraobebs, rasac avtomaturad kunTebTan erTad imeoreben Zvlebi, saxsrebi da sxeulis rbili nawilebi. am gziT kunTebi iqceva survilis moqmed Zalad~. 4 aqedan gamomdinare, cxadia, rom ritmi, ZiriTadad, sxeulis marTvaa, anu, pirveli safexuri msaxiobis momzadebisa, raTa SemdgomSi man SeZlos yvela im tradiciuli gakveTilis aTviseba, rogoricaa `vokali~, `cekva, ostatoba~, `metyveleba~, `mxatvruli kiTxva~ da Tundac humanitaruli mecnierebebi. msaxiobis aRzrdaSi, garda sxeulisa, upirveles funqcias tvini da misi gonebrivi ganviTareba asrulebs, raTa man mis winaSe dasmuli amocanebi gaigos da Seasrulos. msaxiobisTvis aucilebelia,

rogorc kidurebisa da organoebis, aseve tvinis funqciebis codna, radganac tvini umTavresi ritmuli organoa. dalkrozis azriT: `Tavisufali nebasurvilebi, nervuli kvanZebi da kunTebi arian ganuyofelni. maTi erToblivi muSaobis wyalobiT xorcieldeba Cvenive survilebi moqmedebiT realobaSi, rac SemdgomSi aisaxeba Cvens SemoqmedebaSi~.5 tvini ritmul gonebad unda vaqcioT _ rogorc tvinidan gaSvebuli impulsebi amoZraveben sxvadasxva kunTebs, aseve nervuli qsovilebis daboloebebic xom tvinSia... es cda mimarTulia sxeulisa da sulis erTianobis misaRwevad da am SemTxvevaSi msaxiobi ukve SeZlebs srulad gamoxatos da Seasrulos nebismieri davaleba, imuSaos Teatraluri xelovnebis nebismier dargSi. `Tu misaRwevi xdeba sxeulisa da sulis erToblioba, xorcieldeba sicocxlis ZiriTadi princi pi _ azrovnebisa da moqmedebis erTdrouloba da Tanmimdevruloba~. 6 es aris Teatraluri xelovnebis mTavari azri, swored am princi pebis dacviT miiRweva namdvil Teatramde da Tanamedrove moTxovnilebebis pasuxebamdec. vfiqrob, rom swored `adaT-wesebis Ziebaa TeatrSi~ msaxiobis ritmuli aRzrda da im Tvisebebis gamomuSavebis procesi, rac qarTul Teatrs metad sainteresos gaxdis. es mogvcems saSualebas, rom scenaze srulyofili gansaxiereba vixiloT da ara erTmaneTis msgavsi nacrisferi erTferovneba. mimaCnia, rom saWiroa, Tundac, dalkrozis qarTulad transformireba da qarTuli ritmis swavlebis meTodebis Camoyalibeba (amis safuZveli qarTul miTologiaSi da cekvaSi devs) da miT ufro maSin, rodesac vrwmundebiT, rom swavlebis teqnologiebi Tu ar Seicvala, SesaZloa qarTuli Teatri Tanamedrove msaxiobis gareSe darCes. sxvagvarad SeuZlebelia msaxiobma is moTxovnebi Seasrulos, rasac mas msoflio masStabis TeatrebSi uyeneben da, Sesabamisad, moqmedebaze agebuli speqtaklebis ganxorcielebac gamoricxuli xdeba.

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dabolos, kidev erTxel aRvniSnav, rom tradiciuli verbaluri Teatri da tradiciuli aRzrdis sistema saqarTveloSi CixSia Sesuli da saWiroa iseTi evropuli Teatraluri swavlebebis danergva, romlebic Cvenamde rig SemTxvevebSi mxolod maTi avtorebis saxelebiTa da gvarebis saxeliT aris cnobili.

mixeil mestviriSvili doqturanturis I kursi, xelmZRvaneli levan xeTaguri Teatri kiber-samyar oSi saukuneebis mijnaze myofma Teatrma Tavis warsulad sakuTari gamocdileba da iseTi momavali daadastura, romelmac mTlianad Secvala an uaryo mTeli kulturuli monapovari. fiqrobdnen, rom saintereso Ziebebs winaaRmdebobebiT savse gzac Tan daerTveboda da asec moxda. qvis nagebobidan taZris, Semdeg _ ubralo xis ficarnagamde, WraqiT ganaTebul panoramebamde, urmiT moxetiale adamianebis saerTo ideamde, Tu zeTis ganaTebidan axal eleqtrofikaciamde. dRevandeli, Tanamedrove Teatris saxe mayureblisa Tu mkvlevrisaTvis warmoadgens ukve, rogorc mxatvrul mTlianobas, aseve sakvlev obieqts; Tavad Seqmnili nawarmoebi ganapirobebs aRmqmelisa da aRsaqmelis rolTa ganawilebas, rogorc rolebis aseve poziciebisa da subieqt-obieqtis urTierTmimarTebas. Tuki manamade Teatris standartuli saxe iyo dakanonebuli: mayurebeli parterSi da msaxiobi scenaze, _ am ukanasknelma kuTvnili adgili datova: xan mayurebelTa darbazSi gadainacvla, xanac Seqmnili sazRvrebis gareT scada gasvla. mokled, Zalian bevri eqsperimenti Catarda imisaTvis, Tu sad ufro `komfortuli~ iqneboda orive maTganisTvis gankuTvnili drois mimdinareobisas dabinaveba da a. S. xelovanTa mTeli Taoba Caeba rigi sakiTxebis saeqsperimento obieqtad gadasaqcevad, ramac uamravi `izmi~, uamravi `post...~ warmoSva. adgilTa geografiul gadanacvlebas sivrceSi dRes veRaravin mohyavs gaocebaSi, radgan Tanamedrove adamiani sul ufro meti eqstremisaken, meti `xifaTisadmi~, meti moulodelobebisadmi iswrafvis, rac erT-erT ZiriTad koncepts warmoadgens Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi kaTarzisis gansacdelad. reJisorebisa Tu dramaturgebis sakvlevi obieqti ukve adaminis cnobierebis dafaruli Sreebia da maT gamosaxatavad axali rakursiT gansacdeli Tu aRsaqmeli saSualebebi ikaveben mniSvnelovan adgils. `sagnebi~, aq ukve ubralod ki ar arseboben, aramed

1. eJi grotovski. `saTeatro memkvidreoba~, Tbilisi, gamomcemloba

`kentavri~, 2008, gv. 63. 2. ix.: grigol robaqiZe. werilebi Teatris Sesaxeb, Tbilisi, 2003. 3. Jurnali `sabWoTa xelovneba~, 4. ix.: . , , 2008.

5. . ix.: iqve; 6. . ix.: iqve. 22

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gansazRvrul konstruqcias amuSaveben da awarmoeben iseve, rogorc warmodgenis, verbaluri da vizualur nawili. Tanemedrove Teatris axlad aRmoCenil Tvisebebs ukve mecniereba CauRrmavda iseve, rogorc mecnierebas CauRrmavda Teatri. erTi SexedviT, sruliad gansxvavebuli saxe miiRo xelovnebis am dargma da sruliad sxva poziciebi ganalaga Tanamedrove samyaros yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. `axali mediis~ dabadebam mTlianad Secvala adamianis azrovneba. Tanamedrove samyaros swraf ganviTarebas Tan sdevs xelovnebis yvela dargis swrafi winsvlac, romelic mudmiv Ziebasa da Tvalyuris devnas, dakvirvebas moiTxovs.Amis gareSe warmoudgenelia mkvlevrisa Tu xelovnis adekvaturi reaqcia msoflios Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi mimdinare procesebze, sruli warmodgena iqonios Zireul mizezebze, romlebic gamoZaxilia ama Tu im faqtebisa. gasuli saukunis 20-iani wlebidan dRemde bevri ram Seicvala Teatralur xelovnebaSi. SiSobdnen, rom kinos, televiziis dabadeba Teatrs gaanadgurebda, magram ase ar moxda. yovelma maTganma Tavisi adgili daikava kulturul sivrceSi da Tavisi TviTmyofadobac aCvena. Tanamedrove media saSualebebma gansakuTrebuladDimoqmeda, rogorc xelovnebis yvela dargze, aseve adaminebis cxovrebazec. faseulobaTa gadafasebam sruliad axali formebi da sivrceebi Seqmna. Teatri ukve aRar aris mxolod erTxel da samudamod dadgenili, dakanonebuli sivrce, sadac scenaze msaxiobebi TamaSoben da mayurebeli ki parteridan adevnebs Tvals. Tanamedrove samyarom moaxerxa am dakanonebuli sivrceebidan gasvla da Semdeg isev ukan dabruneba Zalian bevri saSualebiT. XX saukunis 20-iani wlebSi ervin piskatorma da `bauhauzis~ im droisaTvis reaqtiulma ideebma mTlianad Secvales msgavsi midgoma Teatrisadmi, rogorc konceptualur aseve praqtikul doneze. amaSi ki udidesi damsaxureba kinosa da Tanamedrove `kiber~ saSualebebs miuZRviT. termini `kiber~ da mTlianad `kiberanTropologia~ modis `kibersfeisis~ gamogonebis Semdeg, romelic pirvelad naxsenebi iyo samecniero gamocemaSi _ novela `neuromanser~, _ viliam gibsonis avtorobiT, 1984 wels. 40-ini wlebis bolos maTematikosma norbert veinerma prefiqsi `kiber~ gamoigona

`kibernetikaze~ dayrdnobiT, romelic adamiansa da manqanas Soris urTierTobebs aRniSnavs. veiners TavSi utrilebda berZnuli sityva ,,kibernetes~ (igive ,,mesaWe~, ,,piloti~), romelic aRniSnavs manqanis mmarTvels an makontrolebels. dRes prefiqsi ,,kiber~ ZiriTadad komp iuterebis da informaciuli teqnologiebis mimarTulebiT gamoiyeneba, anu rogor zemoqmedeben adamianebi manqanebiT da manqanebze. 50iani wlebidan anTropologebma meti yuradRebiT daiwyes teqnologiebis da maTi zegavlenis Seswavla. xelovnebaSi ki sul ufro mZlavrad Semodis Tanamedrove gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi da amis niadagze ara erTi eqsperimenti Catarda. 1965 wels jon keiji mersi kaninkhamis cekvis dasisTvis qmnis `variaciebi VII-s. man devid tiudorTan erTad arCevani SeaCera xmis gadamcemis or sistemaze. pirveli sistemisaTvis gamogonebul iqna mowyobiloba, romlis muSaoba efuZneboda scenis ganaTebaze orientirebul fotoelementebs. am saxiT, urTierTzemoqmedi sxivebis mixedviT mocekvaveebi gamoscemdnen xmas. meore sistemis SemTxvevaSi sivrcis mTliani sistema antenebis serias warmoadgenda. xma gaismoda yovel jerze, roca mocekvave antenas 4 futis da ufro nakleb manZilze miuaxlovdeboda. xmis aqtivacia xdeboda aTi fotoelementiT, romlebic CarTulni iyvnen magnitofonsa da mokletalRovvan radiomimRebze. mocekvaveebis moqmedeba mimdinareobda ukana xedis fonze, romelzec sten vanderbikis filmebi da nam jun paikis video namuSevrebi proecirdeboda. `variaciebi V~, romelic m om z ad d a ham bur gis televiz iisT vis, moiTx ovd a fotoelementebisa da xuTfutiani antenebis ganlagebis iseT rigs, rom miRebuli yofiliyo saWiro gaxmovaneba. dRemde bevri Tvlis, rom Teatri kargavs Tavis namdvil saxes, magram me mimaCnia, rom es zedapiruli midgoma Sorsaa WeSmaritebisgan, radgan jer kidev Sileri ambobda, rom "Der Mensch ist nur da ganz Mensch, wo er spielt" (`srulyofilia adamiani iq, sadac is TamaSobs~). Tuki Sileris am mosazrebas Zireulad mivudgebiT, maSin imaSic davrwmundebiT, rom dRes Tanamedrove multimediuri warmodgenisaTvis saguldagulod Seqmnil sivrces xangrZlivi tradicia gaaCnia.

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dasavluri Teatris koncefciis arsebobis ganmavlobaSi, istoriis koleqtoris erT-erTi parametri xelSeuxebeli darCa, miuxedavad Catarebuli mravali radikaluri eqperimentebisa. arsebuli parametri fizikur Tanaarsebobas warmoadgenda `Semqmnelsa da mayurebel/damkvirvebels~ Soris. telematikuri da gansakuTrebiT internetis, rogorc gansxvavebul media teqnologiaTa saSualebebis, ganviTarebasTan erTad, axali ti pis Teatri warmoiSva, romelsac saxelad `telematikuri~ anu distribucirebuli warmodgenebi~ daerqva. `telematikuri~ warmodgenebi sivrceSi warmogvidgens `Semqmnelisa~ da `damkvirveblis~ erTianobas da `produqtis~ (scenuri sivrcis) realizacias sxvadasxva manZilze arsebul adgilebze, romlebic damokidebulni arian audienciis mravalferovnebasa Tu raodenobaze, proeqtis koncefciasa da ti pze. adgilebi sxvdasxva distanciazea linkirebuli internetis saSualebiT, m i Tad "Internet relay chat"1, (internet estafeta) romelic agal teqstualur garemos warmoadgens dramis wamodgenebisaTvis an kidev "world wide web"2 (msoflio masStabis qseli). msgavsi warmodgenebisaTvis scenuri sivrcis Seqmnis ZiriTad saSualebebad videokonferenciis sistema an veb-kamerebi gvevlineba. am dros ki samganzomilebiani warmodgena organzomilebianad gardaisaxeba monitoris ekransa Tu saproqcio aparatis gaSuqebaSi. arsebul mdomareobas im Tezisamde mivyavarT, rom internet performansebi da mTlinad multimediuri ti pis warmodgenebi `konkretuli adgilisaTvis gansazRvrul xelovnebas~ da missave Teorias efuZneba. pirveli aseTi midgoma `internet performansebi~ XX saukuneSi Camoyalibda, erTi mxriv saSemsruleblo xelovnebasa da meore mxriv, media teqnologiebs Soris eqsperimentebis Catarebis safuZvelze. meore midgoma `konkretuli adgilisaTvis gankuTvnili~ xelovneba, telematikuri warmodgenebisadmi gancdis, SegrZnebebis transformaciis arsebobas aZlierebs. transformaciis meTodze didi gavlena internetis dispoziciur zemoqmedebasac aqvs. zogadad, konkretuli adgilisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli xelovneba ganisazRvreba ise, rogorc gansazRvruli garemosaTvis gankuTvnili specialuri forma. misi istoriuli fesvebi ki 1960 wlebis minimalistur

qandakebaSi SeiZleba moviZioT. mkvlevrebi midian daskvnamde, rom minimalizmi sul ufro da ufro iWreba Teatralur da warmosaxviT samyaroSi efemerul da droebiTi moqmedebis arsebobisas.Bbritaneli mkvlevari nik kai aRniSnavs, rom `warmodgenaa is, rac dagvanaxebs da gansazRvravs adgils Tavis damaxasiaTebel TvisebebTan erTad. igi warmosadegia ara marto sakuTriv im droisaTvis, romlisTvisac aris gamoyenebuli arsebuli modifikaciebiT da konkretuli saqmianobisaTvis, aramed zogadad adgilisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mrvalferovnebiT.~ 3 am Teoriuli aspeqtidan gamodinare, interneti wamodgenisaTvis ukve aucilebel da mTavar komponentsac warmoadgens. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTi ti pis warmodgenebis arseboba aZlierebs sicoclxisunarian elementebs, rogorc warmodgenisaTvis, aseve maTTvis, vinc unda miiRos Seqmnili produqti. arsebuli mosazrebebis safuZvelze, fokusirebas internetze vaxdenT, rogorc specifiur, konkretul adgilze, romelic biZgs aZlevs moxdes erTianobis SegrZneba da Semdeg, egreT wodebuli, `kiber~-kaTarzisi `Semqmnelmwarmoebelsa~ da `mayurebel-mimReb-damkvirvebels Soris~, ganisazRvros rogori struqturaa da rogor xdeba komunikacia sxvadasxva distanciaze arsebul `gadamcemebs~ da `mimRebebs~ Soris. miuxedavad am yvelafrisa, internet performansebi media specifikiT ar unda ganixilebodes, rogorc marTvadi xelovnebis sfero, noel karolis argumentis mixedviT: `media specifika aris mxolod mniSvnelovani strategia axlad Camoyalibebuli xelovnebis formebis daarsebis legitimaciisaTvis~. 4 noel karolis am mosazrebaze mkvlevari julia glenseri aRniSnavs, rom `saSualebebis specifikis argumentebi mimzidvelia saSualebaTa transformaciisaTvis xelovnebis axal sferoSi, radgan igi gvTavazobs gzas, romlis saSualebiTac, xelovnebis am mimarTulebas miecema damoukidebloba da gamoeyo sxva mimdinareobebs. karoli ar uaryofs, rom `momavlis perspeqtivis arsebobas SeuZlia iqonios dasabuTebuli Sedegi, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi cdilob s T avi aaridos saSuleb aT a aucileblobas~.5 es ki gulisxmobs Semdegs:

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"saSualebebs, rogorc saWiroebas SegrZnebebisaTvis, saSualebebis mizanmimarTuli gamovlinebebi gaaCnia. es aris saSualebaTa moculoba, rac imas gvkarnaxobs, ra aris saWiro da ra unda gakeTdes am saSualebebiT~.6

kiber samyaro, paralelurad arsebobs materialur samyarosTan.Ees ori samyaro warmoadgens wyvils, zemoqmedebs erTmaneTze da amiT erTmaneTis identifikacias axdens. `samyaro aris bi polaruli yvela mniSvnelobiT~7. am procesis Sedegs warmoadgens TviTgamoxatva, romelic simbolurad daiwyo XX saukuneSi `franguli revoluciidan~ da ganviTareba filosofiaSi hpova fsiqoanalizze dayrdnobiT. TviTgamoxatvis meore etapi ukve TviTasaxvas warmoadgens, romelic efuZneba urTierTobebs sakuTar TavTan da garemosTan. xelovnebis sxva mimarTulebebisagan gansxvavebiT `net-artma~ `kibersfeisze~ dayrdnobiT Camoayaliba axali kanonebi da urTierTobebi. es axali kanonebi da urTierTobebi emxroba memarcxene flangs,8 sadac xazgasmulia TviTgarkvevis SegrZneba posthegelianur, postfroidul, postlakanur da ukve male postkiber mimarTulebiT.Eeleqtronul landSaftSi poziciebi aRebulia materilur samyaroSi mimdinare procesebis mixedviT da piriqiT. fsiqoanalizis filosofia miuTiTebs, rom erTi mxriv, Cven vcxovrobT warmosaxviT samyaroSi, sadac aramaterialuri gamoTvlebis mixedviT sagnebi realuria, is bunebSi ar arsebobs da yovelive materialurs marTavs, meore mxriv ki, _ virtualurSi, romelic materialuri samyaros simulakrums warmoadgens. erTaderTi, rac Cven gagvaCnia aris, SegrZnebebi da dro, romelic warmosaxviT samyaroSic realuria. garda amisa, es kiT xvebi struq turuli analiz is Sesaxeb , kompleqsurobis arsebobis Sesabamis potencials gvaZlevs, rac mniSvnelovan koncefcias warmoadgens axali mediis mimarTulebiT. Cems yuradRebas gansakuTrebiT Tanamedrove cekva i pyrobs, romelmac gasuli saukunidan moyolebuli cekvisa da Tanamedrove teqnologiebis mniSvnelovani sinTezi Seqmna. Teatri, cekva da mTlianad performansis xelovneba yovelTvis warmoadgenda interdisci plinur, anu multimediur formebs.

saukuneebis manZilze cekva mWidro kavSirSi iyo musikasTan da moicavda rekvizitis vizualur elementebs, kostiums da ganaTebas sivrceSi sxeulis gamomsaxevelobis gasaZliereblad. Teatrma, misi ritualuri Zirebidan klasikuri gamomsaxvelobis gavliT, Tanamedrove eqsperimentul formebamde, tradiciulad win wamowia adamianis xma da teqsti, yvela zemoT naxseneb komponentebTan erTad. saukuneebis manZilze, Teatrma swrafad aRmoaCina da gamoiyena axali teqnologiebis dramatuli da esTeTikuri potenciali. cifruli performansis istoriaSi teqnologiebis adaptacia mudmivad mimdinareobda esTetikuri da sanaxaobrivi efeqtis, agreTve emociuri da mgrZnobelobiTi zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad. jer kidev 1889 wels, eleqtroobis miRebiT eqstraordinaluri eqsperimentebis saintereso magaliTs gviCvenebs mocekvave loi fuleri. aisedora dunkanis Tanamedrove fuleri scenaze farTo gamWvirvale kostiumiT, naxevrad ganaTebuli airiani tansacmliT gamodioda, xelSi kverTxebi ekava xelebis sigrZis kidev ufro gasadideblad. msgavsi magaliTi Tanamedrove qoreografiis gamovlinebas warmoadgenda da axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT igi Tavis eqperimentebs 1923 wlamde atarebda. kinoproeqciebis da ganaTebis efeqtebis SerwymiT axdenda sakuTari sxeulis gardaqmnas mTlian performansad. aRsaniSnavia performansi, sadac misi kostumebi radiumiviT anaTebda. fuleris namuSevrebi SegviZlia CavTvaloT uein makgregoris namuSevris `kiborgi~ (1995 weli) fuZed, sadac ganaTebuli dekoraciebi mocekvave sxeulis fragmentebs warmoadgenda, dekoraciis ganaTebis monacvleobiT, erTi nawilis gaSuqebiT maSin, roca sxeulis meore nawili Cabnelebuli iyo, advildeboda sxvadasxva formis sxeulebis miReba.Aam speqtaklSi, makgregorma, rogorc britanuli cifruli cekvis liderma, axali efeqtebis misaRebad gamoiyena Zveli teqnikuri saSualebebi, ramac mayurebels cekvis is teqnologiebi gaaxsena, am dargis `pionerebi~ rom iyenebdnen. multimediuri Teatris erT-erT ZiriTad saxeobad `veb-cekvebi~ gvesaxeba, romelic gansxvavebuli specifikiT gamoirCeva, rogorc mxatvruli koncefciiT, aseve teqnologiebis gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiTac.

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`veb cekvebis~ saukeTeso nimuSebs sara morrisonis "Leaping into the net!" (naxtomi qselSi), niu-iorkis "Cassandra project" (proeqti `kasandra~) da laura notis "World wide simultaneous dance" (msoflio masStabis sinqronuli cekva) warmoadgens. vfiqrob, rom am sam proeqts SeuZlia sami gansxvavebuli struqturis demonstrireba, raTa dagvanaxos sxvadasxva internet warmodgenebis scenografiuli Taviseburebebi. sara morisonis "Leaping into the net!" (naxtomi qselSi) pirveli internetis da cekvis gamocdilebas wamoadgens, romlis Sedegic am ori komponentis erTobliobiT iqna miRebuli. " Live physical performance" (c ocx la d S esr ul eb u li warmodgena) gaimarTa 1997 wlis 4 seqtembers, klivlendis saxalxo TeatrSi. imave dResPparalelurad xdeboda gadacema "Live internet broadcast" (pirdapiri eTeri internetiT). mTavari ideis mixedviT "look what happens when art and technology come together" (`ra moxdeba, roca xelovneba da teqnologiebi erTiandeba~) oTxma qoreografma Seasrula: within the order of chaos, (qaosis mwyobrSi), "Sketches of Rodin and metamorphosis", (`metamorfozebi da rodenis eskizebi~ , romelic momzadda suzan edvardis mier). sami klasikuri scenografiuli forma, scenuri sivrce, rogorc mas patris pavi uwodebs _ dramis da saTamaSo sivrce (anu espace ludique- frang.) erTdroulad iqna gamoyenebuli tradiciuli scenis prosceniumze damswre mayureblisaTvis. klivlendis mayurebelTa garda, warmodgena iwereboda da mTeli msoflios masStabiT xdeboda gadacema realuri drois msvlelobaSi. (am miznisaTvis gamoyenebul iqna axlad Seqmnili Real Player. klivlendis audienciasTan erTad, romelic warmodgenas tradiciul formaSi uyurebda, onlain audiencia warmodgenas drois sxvaobiT morisonis veb gverdze iRebda. ZiriTadad realoba, romelsac internet warmodgenebi qmnis, xasiaTdeba kompiuteris internet qselSi CarTviT da tradiciuli Teatris saSualebebiT, rogoric aris sivrce da sxeuli. ZiriTadad kompiuteris da internetis an ufro zustad: kompiuteruli qseli, SeiZleba gamoviyenoT, rogorc gadacemis aRqmis, miRebis instrumentad. instrumentul an mediis saSualebiT realobis aRqmis funqciebis procentuli maCvenebeli, SeiZleba

damokidebuli iyos saSualebaTa gamoyenebis specifikaze, rogorc Semqmnelze, aseve mayurebel-damkvirvebelze. saSualebaTa gamoyenebaze didi zegavlena aqvs performansis scenografiul struqturas da interaqtiulobas. interaqtiulobis idea ganixileba performansis da axal media saSualebaTa mimarTulebiT. endi li pmani interaqtiulobas Semdegnairad gansazvravs: `zogadi mudmivi moqmedebebi or mxares Soris raime obieqturis misaRwevad da ara mxolod, gvaZlevs uamrav saSualebas, gadaixedos interaqtiulobis done Semqmnelebsa da audiencias Soris, an meore mxriv, mudmivi cvalebadoba ganicados (daxvewis mizniT) performansebis struqturam~.9 morisonis Leaping into the net!-Si (naxtomi qselSi), Semqmnelebi da onlain audiencia erTmaneTisagan gayofili iyo personaluri kompiuteris ekraniT, romlis drosac warmosaxviTi asaxvis funqcias kisrulobda veb-brouzeri. es erTganz omileb iani sakomunikacio arxi ar gvaZlevs interaqtiulobis saSualebas arc li pmanis gagebiT da arc rameze reagirebis SesaZleblobiT. internetis, rogorc qoreografiuli namuSevris moZravi suraTebis gadacemis transmisiul saSualebad gamoyenebisas, Leaping into the net!is (naxtomi qselSi) scenografiuli struqtura Seqmnili iyo tradiciuli avanscenuri koncefciiT , romelic performerebisa da audienciis gamoyofas gulisxmobs. am pirveli veb cekvis warmodgenis dros, rodesac Real Player (namdvili sakravi) da msgavsi Tanamedrove teqnologia pirvelad gamoiyenes evro-amerikuli Teatris istoriaSi, performansi Leaping into the net!-is (naxtomi qselSi) scenografiuli struqtura Tavidan iqna gamogonebuli. rogorc mkvlevrebi aRniSnaven, mocekvaveebs skeptikuri ganwyoba hqondaT, radgan isini sakuTar sxeuls, rogorc `instruments~ ise aRiqvamdnen (gaekeTebinaT naxtomi adaminuri sxeulidan internet qselis sxeulSi), TavianTi cirkulaciuri da interaqtiuli sistemiT. qselSi gadacemis gamocdileba ufro xSirad aRiqmeboda, rogorc ubralod gadacemis (media gadacemis) arseboba, vidre media saSualebebiT axali xelovnebis Camoyalibebis kvleva.

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scenuri sivrcis likvidacia "The Cassandra Project" (proeqti `kasandra~) meore, aseve gaxmaurebuli veb cekvis warmodgena "The Cassandra Project" (proeqti `kasandra~) Seiqmna niu-iorkis universitetSi da warmoadgens globaluri kulturis gadaadgilebis saerTaSoriso swavlebis mcdelobas (Navigation Global Culture - globaluri kulturis gadaadgileba). am proeqts profesori jon jilberti, musikaluri kompoziciebis p rogrameb is reJisori xelmZRvanelob da. niu-iorkis universiteti, 1996). "The Cassandra Project"-Si (proeqti `kasandra~) CarTulebi iyvnen aseve musikosebi da poetebi, romelTa moqmedeba xdeboda internetis saSualebiT. "The Cassandra Project"-is (proeqti `kasandra~) mravali versia iqna warmodenili, im partniorebis CaTvliT, romlebic sxvadasxva adgilebze moRvaweobdnen.P"The Cassandra Project"-is (proeqti `kasandra~) pirveli warmodgena 1996 wels gaimarTa konferenciuli sistemis CU-SeeMe-is gamoyenebiT. es gaxlavT kompiuteruli qseli, romelic akavSirebs performerebs realur droSi sxva performereb Tan sxvadasxva manZilze da warmodgenis dros, teqstis, cekvis, musikis improvizaciis materialurobis gancdis saSualebas gvaZlevs. fizikuri garemo, sadac performerebi arian ganlagebulni, specialurad aris aRWurvili minimum erTi saproeqcio ekraniT, kontrolirebadi ganaTebiT da carieli adgiliT, daaxloebiT 3-5 mocekvavisTvis da saWiro SemTxvevaSi musikosebisaTvis. video kamerebi TiTqmis yovel kuTxeSi aris ganlagebuli rameTu yvela rakursiT moxerxdes gadaReba da miRebuli masalis programa CU-SeeMe -iT gadacema. aseve monitoris ekranze mocekvaveebs saSualeba aqvT dainaxon sxva performerebi sxvdasxva adgilze. "The Cassandra Project"-is (proeqti `kasandra~) scenografiam daaknina scenis sivrce da distanciur adgilebze ganavrco. mayurebeli warmodgenili iyo, rogorc onlain aseve oflain reJimSi. performansis dros, mayurebel/damkvirvebels SeeZlo mudmivi kontaqti hqonoda performerebTan CeT rumis meSveobiT, maT SeeZloT TavianTi ideebi gamoexataT warmodgenasTan

dakavSirebiT. msgavsi interaqtiuloba, koncefcia gvaZlevs saSualebas saWiro cvlilebebi ganicados performansma Tavad warmodgenis procesSi. Mmiuxedavad imisa, rom performansi "Leaping into the net!" (naxtomi qselSi) ar exeba Teatraluri produqciis tradiciul rols, "The Cassandra Project" (proeqti `kasandra~) cdilobs ar gawyvitos kavSiri performerebsa da mayurebels Soris, raTa daafuZnos koncefcia "Distributive choreography" (distribuciuli qoreografia), rogorc mas mkvlevari: lisa naugli uwodebda. am SemTxvevaSi, qoreografiuli namuSevris distribuciuli SesaZleblobebi gulisxmobs imas, rom yvela monawiles SeuZlia wamoayenos Tavisi idea, qoreografiuli improvizacia performansis mimdinareobis dros. idea, `distribuciuli qoreografia~ axdens Teatraluri produqtis tradiciuli rolis konfiguraciis Secvlas: cekvis dagegmil moZraobebTan erTad, yvela monawiles SeuZlia wvlili Seitanos performansis SeqmnaSi. mayurebeli mTlianadaa CarTuli sxvadasxva distanciidan da erTgvarad akontrolebs performansis ganzomilebaTa Seqmnis process. orive zemoqmedeba: qoreografebis tradiciuli rolis konfiguraciis Secvla da damkvirveblebis qoreografiis p rocesSi CarT ulob a dam okid ebulia inter netis SesaZleblobebsa da monawileTa arsebobaze sxvadasxva distanciaze mowyobili adgilebidan. ''World Wide Simultaneous Dance'' ­ msoflio masStabis sinqronuli cekva ''World Wide Simultaneous Dance'' (msoflio masStabis sinqronuli cekva) proeqti, ganxorcielebuli laura notis mier 1998 wels. warmodgena moicavda or komponents: cocxlad Sesrulebuli cekvis performansebs, romelic erTi da imave dros msoflios 12 qveyanaSi mimdinareobda da internet video konferencia, romelic aseve monawile auditorias saSualebas aZlevda CarTuliyo am RonisZiebaSi. Llaura notma 60 sxvadasxva monawiles daavala ecekvaT im adgilebze, romelTac Tavisi adgilobrivi, kulturuli datvirTva eqneboda cekvis moZraobebiT. nots kargad hqonda

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gacnobierebuli, konkretuli adgilisaTvis gankuTvnili tradiciuli xelovnebis roli, e. i., TviT xelovanTa damokidebuleba mSobliuri kulturuli adgilebis mimarT. scenuri sivrceebis gafantuloba da maTi individualurad kontrolireba, zrdis produqtis konfiguraciis cvlilebis rols, rac "The Cassandra Project"-Si (proeqti `kasandra~) iyo ganxiluli, is scenuri sivrceebi, romlebic mimofenili aris msoflios sxvadasxva adgilas, Tavs erTi monitoris ekranze iyris. "World Wide Simultaneous Dance" (msoflio masStabis sinqronuli cekva) internets iyenebs, cdilobs globalur samyaroSi gafantuli mocekvaveebisa da audienciis Tavmoyras erT internet performansSi. jer erTi noti imasTan erTad, rom iwvevs p erformer- monawileeb s, romelT aT visac Sesasrulebeli cekvis moZraobebi dakavSirebulia im adgilis kulturul mniSvnelobasTan, agreTve warmogvidgens internet performansis sxvadsxva kriteriumsac. magaliTad, laura noti da pam rafi cekvas "Do While Studio"-Si bostonSi asrulebdnen, prakriti kaSiapi nacionalur cekvas "Sarakella Chau dance" (sarakela Caus cekva) mumbaiSi da andrea baker domeniCi improvizacias romSi, sakuTar samzareuloSi. internetis, (rogorc globaluri movlena) mixedviT, jefri Sou gansazRvravs `qselis-mdgomareobas~, rogorc `Cveni drois SemTxvevas, SemTxveviTobasa da garTulebul mdgomareobas~.10 veb-msaxiobi, rogoric laura notia, kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs net-garemoebis dapirispirebas da mis gamoyenebas esTetikur konteqstSi. amasTan, ''World Wide Simultaneous Dance'' (msoflio masStabis sinqronuli cekva) saSualebas aZlevs kulturasa da cekvaze adgilobriv warmodgenebs, Sevides internetSi da aqedan gamomdinare, warmoadginos misi lokaluri mniSvnelobebi internetis specifikaSi. saTeatro mecniereba stimulirebas internet performansebis, perfromerebisa da mayurebelTa saSualebiT ganicdis. es ZiriTadad zegavlenas axdens da gviCvenebs, rom TiToeuli proeqti individualuri scenografiuli struqturiT unda iqnas Sesrulebuli. sxva net-art proeqtebisgan gansxvavebiT,

rogoric aris interaqtiuli veb instalaciebi, misi SezRuduli gamoyenebis rangiT, internet performansi net-artSi axal, efemerul ideas warmoadgens. internet performansi damTavrebasTan erTad qreba da igive proeqtis kvlav warmoeba SeuZlebeli xdeba. telematikuri performansebi, performansis garemos daniSnulebis gansazRvras axdenen fizikuri samuSao modelisa da temporaluri struqturis mxriv. gamoyenebuli teqnikuri saSualebebi (rogorc gamosaxvis specifikuri teqnologiebi) cvlis realuri siaxlovis aucileblobas performerebsa da mayurebels Soris da agreTve axdens Semsruleblis rolis transformacias saSemsruleblo xelovnebaSi. dRemde performerebsa da mayurebels Soris fizikuri kavSiri erTerT ZiriTad kriteriums warmoadgens TeatrisTvis, rogorc istoriulad aseve kulturulad. internet performansebi, romelebic aadvileben mayurebelTa/monawileTa kompetencias axali media saSualebebis gamoyenebiT, kiTxvis qveS ayeneben zemoTxsenebul aucilebel kriteriums. telematikuri performansebi cvlian `cocxali~ mayureblis Tanaarsebobis koncefcias, internets scenis rols aniWeben, misi esTetikuri Tu teqnologiuri komponentebis gaTvaliswinebiT. telematikuri sivrce internet performansebSi SeiZleba danaxul iqnas metaforulad, rodesac aqcentireba sazogadoebis ZiriTad damaxasiaTebel Tvisebebze xdeba. internet performansebi xelovanebs saSualebas aZleven kritikulad aRiqvan dRevandeli kulturuli ganlageba.MerTi mxriv, Teatri sazogadoebis produqts warmoadgens, meore mxriv ki, sazogadoebis aRmSeneblobaSi erT-erT mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs. internet performansi ar aris mxolod Teatralur procesebSi axali ganzomilebebis damateba, igi aris universaluri rolis mqone teqnologia. M yovelTvis, multimediuri Teatris Taviseburebaze fiqrisas Cuan Zis ambavi maxsendeba, pepela rom esizmra. mdgomareoba, roca gaurkveveli gaxda pepelas esizmreboda Cuan-Zi, Tu Cuan-Zis pepela. iseve, rogorc mravalganzomilebian sivrceSi

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xdeba, roca subieqt-obietqis urierTmimarTebaSi yovelgvari sazRvari moSlilia. roca zRvari `aq~ da `iq~, `me~ da `Sen~ aRar arsebobs, roca realuri ararealur mdgomareobas ganicdis da Cveni cnobierebis fskerze rCeba mxolod erTad-erTi, dro. dro, romelic `iyo da ara iyo ras~ sazRvarze meryeobs yovelTvis da Cveni gonebis sazRvrebs mijnavs; dro, romelic mxolod miedineba da mis nakvalevze ikveTeba STabeWdilebebi.

1. www.internetrelaychat.com 2. www.worldwideweb.com 3.Nick Kaye: Site-specific art. Performance, place and documentation. London: Routledge, 2000 . 4. Noël Carroll: Theorizing the Moving Image. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1996. 5. Julia Glesner : Internet Performances as Site-Specific Art. 6. Noël Carroll: Theorizing the Moving Image. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1996. 7. Das Hamburg-project: abschied von der disziplinaren ordung,

MOSCOW-BERLIN. 1950-2000. CHRONIK, Nicolai, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 2000, S. 155-158 8. Borut Savski : "Aesthetic Machines" (essay.- 2001) http://www.3via.org/

· Hans-Thies Lehmann : Postdramatisches Theater. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der Autoren, 1999 · Julia Glesner : Internet Performances as Site-Specific Art. · Jeffrey Shaw : `Radical Software', in: Weibelm, Peter & Timothy Druckrey (ed.):net_condition. Art and Global Media. Boston: MIT, 2001 · : · vernerHhaizenbergi: nawili da mTeli. Tbilisi: ganaTleba, 1983. · Leaping into the Net!, Sarah Morrison: http://www.MorrisonDance.com · Cassandra Project, NYU: http://pages.nyu.edu/~jg12/cass.htmlhttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/ngc · World Wide Simultaneous Dance, Laura Knott: http://www.wwsd.org · ZKM: http://on1.zkm.de/netCondition.root/netcondition/start/ language/default_e · http://www.zkm.de

html.php?htm=borut

9.Quoted in Brand, Stewart: The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT. New York: Viking 1987. 10. Jeffrey Shaw : `Radical Software', in: Weibelm, Peter & Timothy

Druckrey (ed.):net_condition. Art and Global Media. Boston: MIT, 2001.

· Nick Kaye: Site-specific art. Performance, place and documentation. London: Routledge, 2000. · Noël Carroll: Theorizing the Moving Image. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1996. 36 37

laSa CxartiS vili doqturanturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. levan xeTaguri

Seqspiris axleburi gaazreba XX saukunis II naxevr is dasawyisSi (mixeil TumaniSvilis `mefe liris~ magaliTze) XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan mniSvnelovani politikuri da ekonomikuri cvlilebebi xdeboda sabWoTa kavSiris cxovrebaSi, gamoikveTa sruliad axali tendenciebi. marTalia, qveynis saTaveSi kvlav komunisturi partia idga, magram igi seriozul transformacias ganicdida. literaturasa da xelovnebaSi daiwyo lirikuli nakadis warmoCena. qarTul xelovnebaSi Cndeba axali saxelebi. es procesi skkp ck-is pirveli mdivnis xruSCovis mier ufro gaaqtiurda 50-ian wlebSi antistalinuri propagandis xarjze, romelmac garkveulwilad dadebiTi tendenciebi dabada. disident mwerlebs miecaT saSualeba SeeswavlaT `daxurulad~ wodebuli saarqivo masala. yvela es procesi mimdinareobda fsiqologiurad Sinagani daZabulobis xarjze. rogorc ki stalinis reJimi Seirya, warmoiSva axali problema, ­ antisabWouri literatura, romelic daupirispirda rogorc sabWoTa kavSiris, aseve TviTon xruSCovis politikasac. sabWoTa xelisuflebam daiwyo imaTi devna, vinc Tavad gaadisidenta. disidenturi moZraobis liderebi, Tavad sabWoTa xelisuflebam Casva cixeSi. miuxedavad amisa, `rkinis farda~ `axdili~ iyo da iZleoda saSualebas Semosuliyo iseTi kultura, romelic ucxo iyo sabWoTa partiuli sazogadoebisaTvis. aman zegavlena moaxdina mxatvrul azrovnebaze. sabWoTa xelovnebaSi Cndeba axali mimarTulebebi da stiluri Taviseburebani. am ganaxlebuli mxatvruli azrovnebis Sedegad ikveTeba axali reJisoruli poziciebic. TeatrSi modis reJisorTa da msaxiobTa axali Taoba, romelsac Tavisi individualuri msoflmxedveloba aqvs. am periodSi dasavluri Teatrebi iwyeben Camosvlas sabWoTa

kavSiris sxvadasxva qalaqebSi. sabWoTa TeatrisTvis es iyo namdvili gakveTili, axlis aRqmis, masTan Seguebisa da misi gaazrebis mtkivneuli procesis dasawyisi. `60-iani wlebis sazogadoeba Sinaganad mzad iyo am uSvelebeli informaciis misaRebad. ufro metic, 60-iani wlebis SemoqmedebiTi inteligencia axali azrovnebisa da mxatvruli gamosaxvis sistemebTan ziarebis daucxromel moTxovnilebas ganicdidnen da ukve 60-ian wlebs sabWoTa Teatri garkveulad axali gamocdilebiT Seegeba. SemTxveviTi ar aris swored am aTwleulis mijnaze `sovremenikis~ Teatris dabadeba, lubimovis `seCuaneli keTili adamianis~ dadgma da mis safuZvelze `tagankis Teatris~ Camoyalibeba~1. qarTul TeatrSi daiwyo axali saTeatro esTetikis Semodineba, romelsac saTaveSi rusTavelis Teatri edga mixeil TumaniSvilisa da misi TanamebrZolebis xelmZRvanelobiT. XX saukunis II naxevridan dRis wesrigSi dadga tragediis Taviseburad gadafasebis aucilebloba. Ziebebi, romelic 20-ian wlebSi daiwyo da romelic sabWoTa xelisuflebis diqtatis, ideuri da fizikuri wnexis saSualebiT Caikla, 60-iani wlebidan kvlav ganaxlda. `60-70-ian wlebSi stabiluri uwyveti procesis Sedegad qarTul TeatrSi mimdinare Ziebebi mas TiTqmis evropuli da msoflio Teatraluri proceseb is gverdiT ayenebs,­ aRniSnavs Teatrmcodne levan xeTaguri,_ Ziebis prioriteti ZiriTadad nawarmoebis gadamuSavebaze, anu, literaturul-dramaturgiul pirvelwyaros seriozul saavtoro interpretaciaze modis. interpretaciasTan erTad sul ufro ixveweba wina periodSi gamoyenebuli da amoqmedebuli gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi~2. XX saukunis 50-60-iani wlebidan evropul TeatrSi axleburad kiTxuloben klasikuri dramaturgiis ama Tu im nimuSs, miT umetes, Seqspirs, romelic veriko anjafariZis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT axlebur `interpretacias ara Tu itans, aramed Txoulobs. dadga dro axlis Ziebisa. SeuZlebelia dRes ise imuSavo da Seqmna, rogorc guSin~ 3. evropuli Teatri etapobrivad eTxoveboda Zvel, tradiciul gaazrebas, formebs da ideebs. qarTuli sabWoTa Teatri am

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procesebis avangardSi aRmoCnda, rac savsebiT logikuri movlena iyo. XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi, vidre robert sturua, Temur CxeiZe da sxva am Taobis reJisorebi (g. Jordania, n. xatiskaci) `moZlierdebodnen~ qarTuli sabWoTa Teatris avangardSi, upirveles yovlisa, mixeil TumaniSvili gvevlineba. swored mis saxelTan da SemoqmedebasTan aris dakavSirebuli ara erTi siaxle da progresuli, mxatvruli meTodebis danergva qarTul sabWoTa TeatrSi, romelic dRemde iwvevs Teatris mkv leva rT a yura dReb as da ina rCun eb s aq tu alob as. `srulyofili ar iqneboda m. TumaniSvilis novatoruli misia adre Tu gvian, rom ar ecada mas Tavisi Teatraluri principebis damkvidreba Seqspiris dramaturgiaze dayrdnobiT. Seqspiri kidev erTi, magram aucilebeli barieri iyo TumaniSvilisa da misi TanamoazreebisaTvis~4. mixeil TumaniSvili rusTavelis TeatrSi reJisoruli moRvaweobis meCvidmete wels dgams Seqspiris `mefe lirs~. es iyo misi meore Sexeba Seqspiris samyarosTan (manamde iyo `zafxulis Ramis sizmari~, 1964 w.), romlis Cavardnamac sabolood wertili dausva Seqspiris tradiciul gaazrebas. `mefe liris~ premiera rusTavelis TeatrSi 1966 wlis 12 aprils Sedga. am droisTvis igi ukve saxelganTqmuli da aRiarebuli reJisoria, ara mxolod saqarTveloSi, aramed sabWoTa kavSirSi. mas ukve dadgmuli aqvs i. fuCikis `adamianebo iyaviT fxizlad~ (1951 w.), j. fletCeris `espaneli mRvdeli~ (1954 w.), kohoutis `roca aseTi siyvarulia~ (1958 w.), g. naxucriSvilis `WinWraqa~ (1963 w., mcire scenis gaxsna), mixeil TumaniSvils icnoben moskovSi da sTxoven b. brextis piesis `gind es jariskaci, gind is~ dadgmas, romelic reJisorma ganaxorciela 1965 wels. Seqspiris dramaturgiasTan Sexvedramde m. TumaniSvils klasikuri dramaturgiis arc erTi nimuSi ar daudgams. `WinWraqas~ irgvliv atexilma skandalma da `zafxulis Ramis sizmris~ erTgvarma marcxma kidev ufro daTrguna reJisori. kritika TumaniSviliseul `zafxulis Ramis sizmarze~ werda: `reJisoris poziciebi erovnuli Teatris tradiciul TaviseburebaTa, ideur mizandasaxulobaTa da

realisturi princi pebisgan gandgomas efuZneba, yovelive amis nacvlad ki, mixeil TumaniSvili gvTavazobs speqtaklebs, sadac mefobs xelovnuroba, siWrele, stilizacia, erotika da marionetebad qceul msaxiobTa Semoqmedeba~ 5. faqtia, rom Teatraluri kritika, maSin ver Caswvda TumaniSvilis axlebur midgomebs Seqspiris dramaturgiisadmi. Seqspiris modernizacias qarTul sabWoTa sinamdvileSi, pirvelad swored mixeil TumaniSvili Seecada, man uari Tqva Seqspiris piesebis tradiciul wakiTxvaze da mravalgzis ap rob irebul dadgmebis meTodologiaz e. Sesab amisad, SemTxveviTi ar iyo `m. TumaniSvilis mier Seqspiris komediis amgvari saxiT daintereseba, speqtakli ki gaakritikes (v. qarTveliSvili, d. mumlaZe), magram is, rac TumaniSvilma m ay ur ebels SesTavaz a, uc xo da miuR ebeli iy o sazogadoebisTvisac maSin. amgvari interpretacia dagmobili iqna. es Ziebebi TumaniSvilma daiwyo `zafxulis Ramis sizmarSi~ da mere `mefe lirSi~ gaagrZela, magram gviani iyo~.6 sul sxva sakiTxia, ramdenad miaRwia am Ziebebma erTobliobaSi maRalmxatvrul xarisxs, magram Teatris istoriisaTvis mis Seqspiriseul dadgmebs umniSvnelovanesi roli eniWeba qarTul sasceno Seqspirianis tradiciebis ganaxlebaSi da modernizaciaSi. rTuli fsiqologiuri mdgomareobisa da daundobeli kritikis miuxedavad, m. TumaniSvili agrZelebs brZolas da dgams `mefe lirs~. am droisTvis rusTavelis Teatris repertuarSia robert sturuas, gizo Jordanias da nana xatiskacis saukeTeso speqtaklebi: a. mileris `seilemis procesi~, T. WilaZis `akvariumi~, sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne-sicruisa~ (e. maRalaSvilTan erTad). `WinWraqas~ da `zafxulis Ramis sizmris~ irgvliv presaSi atexili polemikisa da aJiotaJis Semdeg, bevri ram iyo damokidebuli `mefe liris~ warmatebaze, Tumca `lirma~ TumaniSvils sayovelTao gamarjveba ver moutana. Seqspiris `liris~ dadgmas XX saukunis 60-iani wlebis rusTavelis Teatris cxovrebaSi princi puli mniSvneloba hqonda. `tradiciisa~ da `novatorTa~ momxreebs Soris vnebebi kidev boboqrobda. kamaTi ukidures formebs iZenda da xSirad yuradRebis miRma rCeboda is Zvirfasi aRmoCenebi da WeSmariti

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novatoruli mignebebi, romelTac axali Teatraluri esTetika axlda~7. TumaniSvilis pirveli Seqspiriseuli dadgmebi qarTul scenaze misi gaTanamedroveobis pirveli cdebi iyo. ratom gadawyvita mainc da mainc `liris~ dadgma m. TumaniSvilma? am kiTxvaze calsaxa pasuxi ar arsebobs, Tumca sxvadasxva masalebidan da wyaroebidan irkveva, rom ` liris~ dadgmis idea sergo z aq ariaZes ekuTvnoda. TumaniSvilma mas uari ver uTxra, ris gamoc ganawyendnen kidec `Svidkacas~ wevrebi, Tumca eWvgareSea, rom TumaniSvili mxolod zaqariaZis survilis axdenis, an Tundac msaxioburi kaprizisTvis ar SeeWideboda monumentur dramaturgiul tilos. TumaniSvils gacilebiT didi ambiciebi hqonda da es iyo kritikis kidev erTi, axali gamowveva. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT n. uruSaZe wers: `vinc gaecnoba im periodis rusTavelis Teatris sareJisoro kolegiis sxdomebis oqmebs, Seityobs, rom m. TumaniSvils am tragediis dadgma ar undoda, es iyo sergo zaqariaZis survili~ 8 . Teatris moRvaweTaTvis da mkvlevarTaTvis kargad aris cnobili mixeil TumaniSvilis Tvisebis erTi maxasiaTebeli: is Tavisi miznebisa da gegmebis Sesaxeb Tavad iSviaTad saubrobda. misi gegmebic erTi SexedviT TiTqos misgan damoukideblad xorcieldeboda, yovelTvis kulisebSi idga da iqedan marTavda garkveul situaciebs. amitomac, sruliad SesaZlebelia, rom man SesTavaza sergo zaqariaZes liris roli, romelic sareJisoro kolegiaze ara reJisorma, aramed msaxiobma gaaxmaura. Jurnal `Teatris~ korespondentis kiTxvaze, Tu ratom airCia `liri~ dasadgmelad, reJisori pasuxobs: `mizezi bevria: jer erTi, bolo dros rusTavelis Teatris mimarT bevri pretenzia gaCnda did tiloebTan misi ganSorebis gamo. Cven movindomeT polemikis gagrZeleba `didi tilos~ moSveliebiT, anu, visurveT klasikuri tragedia davdgaT ise, rogorc Cven es dRes warmogvidgenia. bevri ram imiTac iyo ganpirobebuli, rom Teatris dasSi aris iseTi msaxiobi, rogorc sergo zaqariaZea...~ 9 rusTavelis TeatrSi `mefe liris~ 1966 wlis dadgmis masalebidan irkveva, rom TumaniSvilma `liris~ dadgmis gadawyvetileba `SvidkacasTan~ SeTanxmebis gareSe miiRo. man daarRvia tradicia, roca is

Tavisi gegmebis Sesaxeb megobar msaxiobebTan saubrobda. m. TumaniSvilis wignidan: `reJisori Teatridan wavida~ (Tb., 1989) avtori igonebs, rom `Svidkacas~ orma wevrma werili miswera mas, romelSic ewera: `ar gvinda, rom Seni energia axla `lirze~ daixarjos. Sen yovelTvis imas dgamdi, rac gindoda da SemdgomSic ase unda iyos. Cven is gvwyins, rom Sen `liris~ dadgma ise gadawyvite, rom CvenTvis ar gikiTxavs rCeva, rogorc amas sxva dadgmebis win akeTebdi...~ 1 0 Teatrmcodne dali mumlaZis azriT, ki `TumaniSvilis SemoqmedebaSi dadga dro, roca mas Tavisi Zala, Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi unari klasikuri nawarmoebis axal wakiTxvaSi unda eCvenebina. TumaniSvilma Seqspiri airCia. jer `zafxulis Ramis sizmari~ dadga, Semdeg `mefe liri~.11 erT-erT interviuSi, Tu ratom airCia reJisorma `mefe liri~ dasadgmelad, m. TumaniSvili acxadebs: `CemTvis mefe liri da Tavad problema, romelic am piesaSi dasva Seqspirma, Zalian axlobelia, mniSvnelovania da Tanamedrove. es umaRlesi tragediaa ­ liris samyaros Secnobis tragedia saintereso da savse cxovrebiseuli nakadiT~. 12 ase rom, ` liris~ dadgma TumaniSvilma da zaqariaZem erTad gadawyvites, SesaZloa TumaniSvilis mxridan es erTgvari kompromisi da madlobis Jesti iyo zaqariaZisadmi (cnobili konfliqtis dros s. zaqariaZem axalgazrdebs, TumaniSvilis `Svidkacas~ dauWira mxari), Tumca es sakiTxebi Cveni kvlevis mizans amjerad scildeba. TeatrmcodneTa umravlesobis azriT, es speqtakli TumaniSvilis Semoqmedebis gamarjvebaTa siaSi ar Sedis, magram mas hqonda didi mniSvneloba ara mxolod Seqspiris axleburi wakiTxvis tradiciis SeqmnaSi, aramed zogadad Z v el i fo r m eb i s ng r e vi s d a a x le b u ri a z ro v n eb i s damkvidrebaSi. polemika TumaniSvilis Semoqmedebis da Sesabamisad rusTavelis Teatris irgvliv, presaSi `liris~ premieris Semdeg axal fazaSi gadavida. polemika gascilda regionis farglebs da man mTeli sabWoTa kavSiris centraluri saxelovnebo gamocemebi moicva. zogi adanaSaulebda reJisors rusTavelis Teatris tradiciuli gzidan gadaxvevaSi (`es ar aris mefe!~ werdnen erTni), zogierTi kritikosi

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aRfrTovanebuli iyo imiT, rom Teatrma TumaniSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT uari Tqva liris `tradiciul mefur didebulebaze~ speqtaklis mxatvari iyo koka ignatovi, kompozitori _ oTar TaqTaqiSvili, rolebi ki ase iyo ganawilebuli: liri ­ sergo zaqariaZe, kenti ­ erosi manjgalaZe, gonerila ­ salome yanCeli, regana ­ medea Caxava, glosteri ­ giorgi gegeWkori, edmundi ­ ramaz CxikvaZe, edgari ­ ediSer maRalaSvili, kordelia _ bela mirianaSvili, masxara _ guram saRaraZe, mTavari kornoulisa _ jemal RaRaniZe, mTavari albanisa _ badri kobaxiZe. TumaniSvili Seqspiris tragedias axleburad miudga, es kargad Cans ara erTi im konkretuli faqtidan, rac `liris~ dadgmas ukavSirdeba, reJisorma uari Tqva i. maCablis genialur Targmanze da Seqspiris Rrma mcodnes vaxtang WeliZes SeukveTa piesis axali Targmani, radgan misi azriT, speqtakli ufro Tanamedrove gamovidoda. reJisoris mxridan Seqspiris tragediis axali Targmanis Seqmna progresuli movlena iyo, piesa xelaxali Targmnis Sedegad kidev ufro dauaxlovda prozaul teqsts. m. TumaniSvili am speqtakliT Seecada `mWidro kontaqti daemyarebina Teatrsa da Tanamedrove mayureblis sulier samyarosTan. moetana azri da cocxali adamianuri grZnobebi~.13 reJisorma paTeTikuri da diadi liris nacvlad, warmoadgina gaadamianebuli liri, cxovrebis realobasTan moaxloebuli piri, `masSi meti iyo lirizmi, vidre monumenturoba, meti sirbile, vidre mrisxaneba, meti siyvaruli, vidre siZulvili~.14 werilobiT wyaroebze dayrdnobiT irkveva, rom `mefe liri~ reJisors Teoriulad sul sxvagvarad hqonda Cafiqrebuli, vidre igi saboloo versiiT gamovida. werilobiTi dokumentis saxiT arsebobs TumaniSvilis narkvevi `mefe lirze~, romelic sagrZnoblad daSorebulia sareJisoro eqsplikacias,

eqsplikacia ki speqtaklis im redaqcias, romelic farTo mayurebelma ixila. vidre m. TumaniSvili uSualod daiwyebda speqtaklze praqtikul muSaobas, mas Teoriulad `liri~ Cafiqrebuli hqonda, rogorc politikuri farsi. igi speqtaklis movlenebs eqvs nawilad yofs da TiToeuls pirobiT saxelsac arqmevs. esenia: 1. SeSliloba, pirovnebis kulti, 2. pensioneri-katastrofa, 3. liris akademia, 4. `kaciWamioba!~, TviTmyrobelobis mZvinvareba, 5. aRdgoma! 6. akviatebuli ideebisgan gaTavisufleba. eqsplikaciaSi, romelic pirvelad TumaniSvilis wignSi: `sanam repeticia daiwyeba~ daibeWda, reJisori Txzavs erTi SexedviT liris lirikul samyaros, Tumca politikuri situaciebis analogiebi maSindel sabWoTa xelisuflebasTan konteqstSi mainc SeimCneva. reJisori wers: `pirquSi, mkacri mmarTvelobis wesi... liri mTel xalxs, saxelmwifos marTavs. magram aRmavlobis xanam gaiara. mefe daberda (unda vivaraudoT, rom TumaniSvili Seecada liris mxatvruli saxis identifikacias sabWoTa kavSirTan _ rogorc despotur saxelmwifosTan _ l. C.). is axla Zalis meSveobiT ki ara, aramed warsuli Zlierebis gaxsenebiT marTavs saxelmwifos. gadawyvita, saxelmwifo qaliSvilebs daunawilos... sarkiani cixe-darbazis miRma ki am dros gamefebulia siZulvili, SeTqmuleba, mkvleloba, intriga... qveynis gzebze jaSuSebi, yaCaRTa bandebi, mawanwalebi daZrwian... (daaxloebiT iseTebi, rogoric reJisoris speqtaklSi `antigone~ Cafrebi iyvnen _ l. C.). jurRmulebSi jerjerobiT mefisgan malulad adamianebs awameben. mosyidva, daSineba, iaraRis dagroveba, dapirebebi... saxelmwifo moRvaweebi TavianT cixedarbazebSi miyuJulan da garyvnilebis morevSi ixrCobian. qveyana, arsebiTad, sisxlisgan icleba, magram garegnulad yvelaferi Zveleburadaa. yvelas mSvenivrad esmis, rom liris saxelmwifos dReebi daTvlilia, amitom yvelani grZnoben aucileblobas, Semzadebulni iyvnen saimisod, rom gayofaganawilebis dros motyuebulni ar darCnen... centri aRar arsebobs. aRarc sistemaa... liri gamudmebiT cdilobs, samefo

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Zalauflebis iluzia SeinarCunos...15 Tu TumaniSvilis `liris~ dadgmis gegmas kargad CavuRrmavdebiT, aucileblad SevniSnavT aRwerili situaciis paralels istoriul realobasTan. stalinis gardacvalebis Semdeg iwyeba misi kultis gmoba da saxelmwifos mmarTvelobis princi pebSi Sedis garkveuli cvlilebebi, ramac xeli Seuwyo sabWoTa kavSiris, rogorc saxelmwifos rRvevis dawyebas, Tumca TumaniSvilis mier Cafiqrebuli mefe liris msgavsad, arc sabWoTa saxelmwifo imCnevs mis SigniT momxdar cvlilebebs. warsuli Zliereba, mxolod inerciaa da yvela iluziaSi cxovrobs. politikurad motivirebuli tragediis eqspoziciis Semdeg, TumaniSvils lirikul-dramatuli nakadi Semoaqvs. TumaniSvilis xedviT liris istoria ambiciuri adamianis istoriaa. `roca gmirs sakuTari Tavi gaigivebuli hyavs bunebasTan, RmerTTan, anu, is zeadamiania, zekacia. swored es Tviseba _ sakuTar TavSi Caketva, xels uSlis dainaxos mis garSemo mimdinare procesebi~.16 liri iluziiT cxovrobs, is sarkeSi mxolod sakuTari didebis anarekls xedavs, mis gamocdilebas da Zalas morCilebs saxelmwifo, swored es Rupavs lirs da ubiZgebs mas gadadgas araswori sabediswero nabiji, romelic ara mxolod mis ub edureb as, aramed saxelmwifos rRvev asac iwvevs. `sasowarkveTili liri mis mier agebuli sarkiani cixe-darbazis sazRvrebs tovebs. qariSxalma da Weqa-quxilma aiZula jiuti moxuci, damorCileboda Tavis beds, daaCoqa, agrZnobina, rom masze didi Zala arsebobs. lirma irgvliv mimoixeda da pirvelad dainaxa samyaro iseTi, rogoric is sinamdvileSia...~ 17 TumaniSvilis azriT, liri erTgvar akademias gadis, es aris misi samyaros axleburad Semecnebis procesi. liris irgvliv ki, ukve sisxlis mdinareebi dgas. glosters awameben. edmundma orive dedoflis saxlSi SeaRwia. kornuelic moklulia, misi msaxuric. adamianebi gamxecdnen da fsiqozisgan, isterikisgan Zlivs ikaveben Tavs. amis damnaxavi liri jer gaognebulia, Semdeg ki mSvidad grZnobs Tavs, radgan masTan kordeliaa. `liri, rogorc mefe, dabrZenda, magram axla misi sibrZne movarayebas aRar saWiroebs. liri WeSmaritad didi gaxda, is Caswvda cxovrebis arss. liris garSemo megobrebi iyrian Tavs. iwyeba ukanaskneli samkvdro-sasicocxlo, ideuri Setakeba

(kulminacia-orTabrZola) da uceb, moulodnelad _ yvelaferi wydeba da siCume isadgurebs~; 18 _ ai, swored es aris TumaniSviliseuli liris tragediis arsi. manamde qarTul scenaze Seqspiris es tragedia amgvarad aravis gauazrebia. mixeil TumaniSvili Tavis Teoriul Canafiqrs `lirze~ ase amTavrebs: `ai, movlenaTa rigi. magram ramdeni epizodisgan, movlenisgan da qmediTi fenisagan Sedgeba igi, ramdeni orTabrZola, Tu konfliqti, ramdeni kvanZi, Tu gadaxra imaleba moqmed pirTa saubrebs miRma. aq zRva masalaa improvizaciisTvis, magram axla es aRar gvaSinebs, radganac ukve arsebobs momavali speqtaklis ConCxi, gza, yovel SemTxvevaSi, biliki mainc. da Tu reJisor de sikas naTqvamis mcire perifrazs gavakeTebT, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom: `speqtakli, faqtobrivad, SeTxzulia, axla mxolod misi dadgmaa saWiro!~19 m. TumaniSvilma `liris~ repeticiebi 1966 wels daiwyo da premiera oTx TveSi Sedga. aq unda aRiniSnos kidev erTi garemoeba: qarTul scenaze `mefe liris~ dadgmebis istorias Tu gadavavlebT Tvals (kote yifiani _ asi repeticia, 1879 weli, valerian gunia _ ocdaoTxi Tve, 1904 weli al. imedaSvili _ 15 weli, speqtaklis premiera Sedga 1941 wels, akaki xoravam lirze muSaoba 1926 wels daiwyo, speqtakli akaki vasaZis reJisuriT mxolod 1948 wels ganxorcielda) TumaniSvilis speqtakli rekordulad mokle droSi daidga. reJisorsa da msaxiobs ar hqondaT didi dro fiqrisTvis, eqsperimentebisTvis, rac aisaxa kidec speqtaklis ideur gadawyvetaze da mxatvrul xarisxze. SeimCneoda garkveuli gavlenebis kvalic, rogorc qarTul, ise evropul `lirebTan~. reJisori ki Tavis dRiurebSi ase imarTlebda Tavs: `reJisori piesas kiTxulobs da mis cnobierebaSi umal aRmocendeba nacnobi warmodgenebi cnobili Teatraluri dadgmebidan. warsulSi aRmoCena, dResdReobiT ki banaluri, xavsmokidebuli esa Tu is xerxi, romelic araviTar axal informacias aRar atarebs, aferxebs speqtaklis gadawyvetis axal ideaTa warmoSobas. reJisoris warmosaxvisTvis Zalze rTulia, daZlios aseTi Sablonuri sqema da gaarRvios nacnob, zedapirze mdebare gacveTil gadawyvetaTa junglebi. amgvari akviatebuli idea Tu xerxi aTasobiTaa da isini mudam Cven gverdiTaa Casafrebuli,

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maTze ar unda vifiqroT, isini abezari mezoblebiviT mudam mzad arian daxmarebis xeli gamogviwodon, rodesac maT aravin sTxovs amas... piter brukma gadawyvita, erT-erT Tavis speqtaklSi (`mefe liri~) tragediis gmirebi tyavis tansacmliT Seemosa, da mohyvnen mis kvaldakval tyavSi gamowyobili yvela drois da xalxis gmirebi msoflios scenebze siaruls. es aris swored fsiqologiuri inercia. es srulebiTac ar niSnavs imas, rom saerTod ar SeiZleba, gamoviyenoT did winamorbedTa mier mignebuli esa Tu is Teatraluri xerxi. piriqiT, Zalian kargad unda vicnobdeT mignebebisa da xerxebis am arsenals, unda SeviswavloT isini, amosaval wertilad vaqcioT, ukidures SemTxvevaSi gamoviyenoT kidec, magram es ar unda xdebodes meqanikurad, garkveuli sezonisTvis gankuTvnili `modis mixedviT~. 20 TumaniSvilis `lirze~, misi premieridan ramdenime wlis Semdeg gamoqveynebuli recenziebidan, Tu kvlevebidan Cans, rom rusTavelis Teatris 1966 wlis `lirSi~ SeimCneoda bruki-skofildis `liris~ gavlena, rac im periodis qarTul sabWoTa TeatrSi siaxles warmoadgenda da siaxles yovelTvis martivad ar iRebda (an ver amCnevda) sabWoTa kritika, miT umetes, qarTuli. aseTi SemTxvevebis ara erTi magaliTi arsebobs qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi. msaxiobTa mogonebebidan irkveva isic, rom TumaniSvilma farTod gamoiyena rusTavelis Teatris muzeumSi daculi kote marjaniSviliseuli `liris~ eqsplikacia. rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom TumaniSvilis speqtakli ar Seqmnila mxolod Tanamedrove Teatraluri tendenciebis gavleniT. mis amgvar dabadebas myari safuZveli gaaCnda TviT qarTul TeatrSic. `TumaniSvilis `mefe liris~ siaxle gamoixateboda TiTqmis yvelaferSi. aq iyo brukis mier moxveuli asociacia _ adrefeodalur, Tavis formebsa da urTierTobebSi maqsimalurad sada, mouqnel, dauxvewel samyaroze. siaxle iyo TviT liris xasiaTis gaxsnaSic _ zaqariaZis liri Sors iyo uZluri moxucisgan da, amdenad, wamyvani speqtaklSi gaxda ara siberis tragedia, aramed tragedia tiranisa, romelmac sakuTar TavSi adamiani mokla da mxolod udidesi danakargebis fasad aRmoaCina es. WeSmaritad axleburad iyo danaxuli lirisa da masxaras (g. saRaraZe) urTierToba, erTguli msaxuri,

TiTqos igivdeboda mefesTan. garda amisa, reJisoris gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mii pyro ucnaurma kanonzomierebam, romlis mixedviT masxara da kordelia erTdroulad ar Cndebian piesaSi. iq, sadac aris kordelia, ar aris masxara, sadac vxvdebiT masxaras, iq ar aris kordelia. es SemTxveviToba, Tu faruli logika iqca liris saxis amoxsnis erT-erT saSualebad~.21 TumaniSvili ar moerida Seqspiris teqstTan axlebur midgomas da es mxolod piesis axali Targmanis SeqmnaSi rodi gamoixateboda. speqtakli iwyeboda Seqspirisave sonetiT (#66), romelsac xumara (g. saRaraZe) ambobda da romlis pirveli da bolo taepebi aseTia: `yvelafriT daRlils sanatrelad sikvdili damrCa, radgan maTxovrad gadaiqca axla Rirseba... radgan uwmindes xelovnebas asoben laxvars, radgan uvici da regveni brZenobs advilad... ase daRlili am qveynidan garCevas varCev...~ `xumaras mier warmoTqmuli es brZnuli soneti niadags amzadebda speqtaklisTvis da fiqrisken xrida mayureblis gonebas~. 22 rogorc Cans, xumaras mTxroblis, erTgvari protogonistis funqciac ekisreboda. ai, kidev erTi kavSiri qarTul Teatralur tradiciebTan. cnobilia, rom axmetelic Tavis ganuxorcielebel speqtakl `mefe lirs~ xumaras monologiT iwyebda. TumaniSvilis speqtakl `mefe liris~ saeqspozicio nawilis kavSirze orman bel gedelis `mefe lirTan~ saubrobs Teatrmcodne dali mumlaZe. igi werda: `TumaniSvili speqtakls masxaras monologiT iwyebs. kacisa da xalxis bedze Cafiqrebuli adamiani, romelsac xelSi Tavisi saxe ­ masxaras CaCi uWiravs, saocari gulistkiviliT ambobs: `rom SemeZlos siyvarulo Seni daTmoba~. Sua saukuneTa cixis kedeli gabmuli jaWvis xmauriT eSveba. sasaxlis karis Tavyrilobaa. dgas qvis taxti. goliaTi qvebi speqtaklis umTavres aqsesuarebs warmoadgenen. simZimisa da Seuvalobis ganwyobas qmnian, magram es xomNorman bel gederis `mefe lirisaTvis~ Seqmnili dekoraciebis zusti analogiaa. qvis

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forma mxatvar k. ignatovs ufro stilizebuli aqvs. arc patara kubikebi Cans ramp asTan, magram dekoraciuli komponentebis mTeli kompleqsi ucxadesad aRadgens londonSi 1919 wels dadgmul pirvel Tanamedrove Seqspirul speqtakls~.23 rkinis jaWvze Camobmuli qvis Zeli, romelic monumentur asketuri dekoraciis faqturas warmoadgenda mZimed eSveboda da scenaze Cndeboda liris samefo darbazi, ismoda sayviris xma, xolo glosteri amcnobda mayurebels liris SemobrZanebas. `scenaze yvela da yvelaferi SeSdeba xelmwifis molodinSi, imdenad morCilad da mTrTolvared, rom grZnobdi ramdenad didia misi Zlevamosileba da sidiade, amave dros momlodine sxeulebi imdenad daZabulia, rom grZnob, rom raRac unda moxdes. am scenis mTavari azric swored amaSia, rom dasawyisSi dgas Zlieri, diadi adamiani, romelsac yvela emorCileba~.24 aseTi unda yofiliyo speqtaklis saeqspozicio nawili TumaniSvilis Canafiqris mixedviT. dasawyisis msgavsi gadawyveta hqonda Tavis speqtaklSi robert sturuas, magram mis speqtaklSi yvelaferi gacilebiT mwvaved da dramatizebulad iyo ganxorcielebuli. TiTqos dausrulebeli lodinis Semdeg, mayurebeli gakvirvebuli iyo, liris gamoCeniT, romelsac araviTari mefuri sidiade aRar SerCenia. Semodioda liri, romelic mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda im pirovnebisagan, romelsac mayurebeli moeloda (msgavsad robert sturuas da ramaz CxikvaZis lirisa). `mis faqturaSi ar igrZnoba arc Zlevamosileba da arc sidiade. es ar iyo TviTmpyrobeli. kontrasti, Tu rogor mivida TiToeul maTganTan mis winaSe damsaxurebis mixedviT, rogor Seafasa yoveli maTgani, erTi RimiliT, meore gamomcdeli mzeriT, mesame daufaravi anti paTiiT, aman maSinve gansazRvra distancia lirsa da lirs, rogorc adamians Soris. speqtaklSi liri ar aris gadawyvetili, rogorc tragedia motyuebuli ndobisa, es aris tragedia adamianisa, romelmac Zalian gvian Seicno WeSmariteba~.25 Tavad sergo zaqariaZe liris mxatvruli saxis miseuli gaazrebis Taobaze erT-erT interviuSi ambobs: `me ar mindoda Cemi liri moxuci yofiliyo, dasasruls qveynis marTva kidev unda SesZleboda. mis SecdomaTa fesvebs misi diqtatoruli tvinis wyobaSi vxedav. saxelmwifos marTvis miseuli struqtura ver uZlebs

veranair gamocdas adamianurobaze. liris zedmiwevniT gaadamianureba mindoda, imisaTvis, rom mayurebels axloblad egrZno igi, gaego misTvis, rogorc adamianisTvis. Cven jer kidev dakavSirebuli varT polemikiT, brZoliT, roca xelovnebiT viqnebiT dakavSirebuli ukeTesi iqneba~.26 faqtia, rom reJisori da mTavari rolis Semsrulebeli ar gamoricxavda liris diqtatorul, ampartavnul bunebas, magram Sedegad miviReT gaadamianurebuli liri, rac gamowveuli unda yofiliyo tradiciisgan gaqceviT, tradiciis gavlenis SiSiT. am mxriv damdgmelebi meore ukiduresobamde mividnen, imdenad `gaadamianurda~ liris mxatvruli saxe, rom igi zogierT epizodSi yofiT personaJamde davida. es irkveva m. levilis wignidan `sergo zaqariaZe~, sadac avtori wers: `am mxarbeWganierma, Zvalmagarma, jan-Ronianma moxucma lurji xabis tilos xalaTiTa da bewvis paWiWebSi Catanebuli SarvliT mxrebze Txis bewvmogdebulma, am moxucma svanma Tu xevsurma, qarTul simReras rom wamoiwyebs sufrasTan me-4 suraTSi, ar warmoaCina kontrasti dasawyisSi medidur, SemdgomSi dabeCavebul da finalSi ki didebul lirs Soris, magram samagierod misi gancdebi uaRresad gasagebi da gulTan axlos misatani gaxada mayurebelTa farTo wreebisaTvis~. 27 koka ignatovas kostiumebma erTgvari kontrasti Seitana speqtaklis ideur gadawyvetaSi. misi kostiumebi, erTi mxriv, mowyda heroikulobas da monumenturobas, meore mxriv, gaxda yofiTi da ara sada. es kargad Cans Tavad liris Cacmulobidanac. sergo zaqariaZes ecva tilos xalaTi, bewvis paWiWebSi Catanebuli Sarvali da Txis bewvis wamosasxami. mxatvarma Tu erTi mxriv moSala dro, samagierod gansazRvra geografiuli sazRvrebi da liris tragedia erT viwro sivrceSi Caketa. liris tragedia TiTqos erTi pensioneris tragediamde davida. pirovnebis tragediaSi SeimCneoda yofiTi elementebis siWarbe. `mefe aRar aris tirani, diqtatori, igi iqca Cveulebriv adamianad Tavisi SecdomebiT~.28 XX saukunis 50-iani wlebis meore naxevramde Seqspiris personaJebi TeatrSi moiazreboda rogorc ara adamianebi, aramed xelSeuxebeli, arabunebrivi, amaRlebuli da metaforuli gmirebi. swored maTi sidiadis dakargvas Seewira speqtaklis saerTo

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ideuri gadawyveta. aki ixsenebs kidec mixeil TumaniSvili Tavis wignSi _ `reJisori Teatridan wavida~, im faqts, rom igi sikvdilamde ramdenime dRiT adre Sexvda sergo zaqariaZes, romelmac uTxra mas: `ar gindoda, erTxelac gvemuSava `lirze~? iqneb rogorme auCqareblad mivbrunebodiT mas? yvelaferi Tavidan daviwyoT, Cven xom maSin is ar gamogvivida, rac CavifiqreT?~29, amitomac ambobs mixeil TumaniSvili, rom `liris~ dadgmis dros rusTavelis Teatri misi xelmZRvanelobiT dakavebuli iyo polemikiT, axali formebis ZiebiT, axali xedvis damkvidrebiT, `speqtaklSi bevri ram swored polemikiTaa ganpirobebuli, mTavarSic da detalebSic CvenTvis sul ufro naTelia aseTi gzis saSiSroebac da SesaZleblobac. axla me speqtaklSi bevri ram kompromisulad meCveneba. Tu kamaTob, bolomde unda ikamaTo, daTmobaze ar unda waxvide da rac mTavaria Sedegi unda iyos WeSmariti xelovnebis doneze~.30 Teatrmcodne paola uruSaZe Tavis naSromSi `mefe liri qarTul scenaze~ TumaniSvilis speqtaklze wers, rom `Znelia meore iseTi speqtaklis dasaxeleba qarTul scenaze, romlis Taobazec aseTi urTierTsawinaaRmdego azri iyos gamoTqmuli. mTeli rigi RonisZiebebis gamo, es speqtakli iyo pirveli `liri~ qarTul scenaze, romelic aqtioruli da reJisoruli azris erTianobas gamoxatavda~.31 liris rolis Semsruleblebis sxva winamorbedebisgan gansxvavebiT sergo zaqariaZes ar hqonia SemoqmedebiTi konfliqti reJisorTan, is mihyveboda reJisoris ideas, ufro metic am SemTxvevaSi moxda maTi azrebis Tanxvedra. Tumca gansxvavebuli mosazreba aqvs Teatrmcodne dali mumlaZes: `mefe liris Temas TumaniSvili kiTxulobs Cveni droisaTvis aqtualur aspeqtSi. es igrZnoba speqtaklSi, magram reJisori ver aRwevs speqtaklis im ideuri datvirTvis Seqmnas, romelic erTi gmiris problemis sakiTxs daaSorebda mis warmodgenas. TviT mefe liris CaTvliT, dadgmaSi arc erTi saxe ar aris sisruliT gaxsnili~.32 gansxvavebuli mosazreba aqvs sxva Teatrmcodneebs. ase magaliTad, e. pluCeki Tavis statiaSi sergo zaqariaZes uwodebs `Tanamedrove msoflio scenis erT-erT Zalze saintereso liris Semsrulebels~.33 Teatrmcodne a. solodonikovi werda: `liri Sesrulebulia zedmetad Serbilebulad, lirikulad, iersaxis masStabebi

Seviwrovda, piesis tragikuli monumenturobis JReradobac~.34 TiTqmis imave azrs aviTarebs qarTveli Teatrmcodne S. maWavariani. igi miiCnevda: `msaxiobi, mixeil TumaniSvilis Canafiqris Sesabamisad, iZleoda ramdenime calmxriv gaazrebas. igi TamaSobda liris, rogorc mamis tragedias, damarcxebuls Svilebis cbierebiTa da umadurobiT. gverdze darCa tragediis socialur-sazogadoebrivi mxareebi, liri Camogdebuli iyo tragikulis kvarcxlbekidan~.35 Teatrmcodne manana gegeWkori Tavis sadisertacio naSromSi mTlianad uaryofs speqtakls da wers: `sergo zaqariaZis liri, ise rogorc akaki vasaZis, ar warmoadgens am Semoq medT a mwvervaleb s. maTSi arc interpretaciis TvalsazrisiT iyo raime axali da originaluri, Torem yovelive es aisaxeboda am speqtaklis kritikosTa SefasebebSi~. 36 Teatrmcodnis mxridan speqtaklis sruli uaryofa recenziebis simwiris gamo, sakiTxisadmi araseriozuli da araprofesiuli midgomaa. recenziebis simravrle-simcire rodi gansazRvraven speqtaklis adgils Teatris istoriaSi. miT umetes, disertacia Sesrulebulia mas Semdeg, rac sxvagvarad gadafasebul iqna esa Tu is Teatraluri movlena, romelmac aCvena, rom bevri ram ar iyo ise speqtaklSi, rogorc es sabWoTa Teatrmcodneobas egona. TumaniSvilis `lirma~ udidesi roli Seasrula Semdgomi Taobis reJisorebisaTvis Seqspiris axlebur interpretaciebSi. am citatebidan kargad Cans, Tu rogori brZola gamoucxades mixeil TumaniSvils Teatrmcodneebma. ra Tqma unda, liri `Camogdebuli iyo tragikulobis kvarcxlbekidan,~ oRond es garegnulad, erTi SexedviT. liris xasiaTis gaxsnas aratradiciuli formiT da sxva mwiri gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebiT kritika ver Seegua. Tanac sergo zaqariaZis liri `ar iyo britaneTis despoti mbrZanebeli, aramed is iyo saqarTvelos patriarqaluri mefe~.37 TumaniSvilis lirSi didi metamorfozebi xdeboda, oRond es gamovlenili iyo fsiqologizmis xarjze da ara tradiciuli gmirul-romantikuli, heroikuli Teatris princi pebiT. am mosazrebas amyarebs sergo zaqariaZis interviuc, romelic man Jurnal `sabWoTa xelovnebis~ imdroindel redaqtors oTar egaZes misca, sadac msaxiobi garkveviT ambobs Tavisi Canafiqris Sesaxeb: `me mindoda damerRvia `mefis tragediis~

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gadmocemis tradiciuli forma. saerTod, laparaki tragikul paTosze, amaRlebulobaze, imaze, rom SeqspirisTvis saWiroa `xma, xma, temperamenti: _ es laparaki me ar mitacebs. SesaZloa, rom yvela Cven jer kidev gatacebulni varT polemikiT, brZoliT. albaT, roca me xels movkideb marto xelovnebas, ukeTesi iqneba (gulisxmobs mis dakavebulobas kinoSi da administraciul saqmianobas _ l. C.)~. mixeil TumaniSvili ki msaxiobis naTqvams dasZens: `mefe liri~ rusTavelis Teatris tradiciebisadmi erTgulebas ki ar acxadebs, aramed survils Seqspirsac moekido dRevandeli poziciebiT~.38 naTlad Cans msaxiobisa da reJisoris mizani. tragedia rusTavelis Teatris scenaze rom axleburad da Tanamedroved aJRerda, aRniSnavdnen yvelaze radikali kritikosebic. speqtaklSi ar iyo tragizmis araviTari demonstrireba. `sergo zaqariaZis liri ar iyo sastiki, aRviraSvebuli tirani. igi ufro axirebuli TviTmpyrobeli, sakuTar ZalauflebaSi uzomod darwmunebuli mmarTveli gaxldaT da amgvar TviTkmayofilebaSi gamosWvioda raRac masxaraseuli. qaliSvilebis ,,dakiTxvac~ ufro farsul warmodgenas hgavda, romelic gasarTobad moawyo oinbazobis xasiaTze misulma mefem~. 39 liri-zaqariZe TamaSobda da kordelias sityvebsac _ ,,miyvarxar imdenad, ramdenadac amas guli mibrZanebs~ ­ Tavidan saubrad aRiqvamda, Semdeg uecrad Crdili gadaurbenda saxeze _ es lawiraki gogo araCveulebrivad momzadebul warmodgenas uSlis, Semdeg ki Cawvdeboda kordelias sityvebis WeSmarit arss _ qaliSvilis aSkara protests misi egocentrizmis winaaRmdeg da am momentidan liri Smagobda. TumaniSvilis am polemikur speqtaklSi miuxedavad imisa, rom bevri ram axleburad iyo gaazrebuli, mxatvruli saxeebi ar iyo bolomde dasrulebuli da speqtaklSi ar igrZnoboda erTiani ansambli. rusi kritikosi markovi werda, misi TvalsazrisiT speqtakli daqucmacebulia, liris saxec moklebulia erTianobas da aseTi azris safuZvlad igi imas miiCnevs, rom zaqariaZe, romelic `Semdgom gviCvenebs WeSmarit gulisxmierebas, siRrmesa da adamianurobas, rols TiTqosda gvian iwyebs, radganac mas ar axlavs liris Tavmoyvareobis, liris Tavnebobis, mbrZaneblurobis Saravandedi, TiTqosda am scenis dawyebamde man ukve ganvlo, romelic mniSvnelovani

etapi iyo gaadamianurebis gzaze~.40 Tavad msaxiobi werilSi `Cemi Seqspiruli rolebi~ werda: `Seqspiri sagangebod xlarTavs, ukiduresad arTulebs im gzas, romelsac liri gadis. swored am golgoTas mihyavs igi daZabulobamde. lirs gonebis Tvali swored maSin exileba, roca mis garSemo myofT igi SeSlilad miaCniaT. amitomac aris, rom liris xasiaTis Cemebur interpretaciaSi e. w. `sigiJis scenebs~ gansakuTrebiT gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas vaniWeb, am gansacdelis wyalobiT, am tanjvis gavliT ganwmendili liri, wminda, sufTa sanTeliviT midis wuTisoflidan~.41 manamde ki iyo misi Tayvaniscemis da ara siyvarulis periodi, is ar imsaxurebda pativiscemas sazogadoebaSi. swored amaze miuTiTebs m. levili: `irgvliv myofebTan urTierTobisas s. zaqariaZem Seqmna liris winaSe qedis moxris atmosfero, ara pativiscemis, aramed Tayvaniscemis atmosfero. gamoirkva, rom Turme umizezod rodi yvarebiaT igi keTil adamianebs da sZulebiaT borotT...~42 usazRvro Zalauflebis moyvarul da aRviraxsnili pirmoTneobiT gamorCeul mefes sabolood gaeRviZa WeSmaritad adamianuri sawyisi, ramac maSin ifeTqa, roca liri ubedurebaSi Cavarda da ubralo adamianad gaxdomis ufleba moi pova. zaqariaZis CanafiqriT erTi adamianis tragedia saxelmwifo tragediad iqca, erT-erT interviuSi igi wers: `me mindoda Tavi dameRwia Teatris mier Seqspiris Cveuli gagebisagan. me minda liri meqcia dRevandeli mayureblisaTvis savsebiT misawvdomad, gasagebad... mindoda STamebera misTvis adamianuri tanjva, rac imiTaa gamowveuli, rom adamianebs erTmaneTis ar esmiT. me vTamaSobdi adamianis tragedias, romelic gadaizarda saxelmwifos tragediaSi~.43 saxelmwifos tragediad aRiqmeboda swored ara erTi epizodi speqtaklidan. maT Soris, liris mier qaliSvilebis `gasamarTleba~ da Wkuaze SeSlilis yvela epizodi, `qariSxlis scena~, liris gamoRviZeba da cnobierebis dabruneba, edmundis da edgaris orTabrZola, liris Semosvla mklavebze gadmosvenebuli kordeliaTi. am zemoT CamoTvlil scenebs Teatrmcodne n. gurabaniZe `namdvil Sedevrebs~ uwodebs. speqtaklis finalSi liri martoa da es martooba mis sikvdils udris. Tumca igi ar kvdeba. scenis siRrmidan kordeliaTi xelSi modis liri, yvelani Tavdaxrilebi dganan, liri

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ganadgurebulia am ukanaskneli dartymiT, magram ufro didebulia Sinaganad, ufro Zlieri. safinalo scenis aseTi gadawyveta moulodneli iyo reJisorisagan. radgan qarTul scenaze manamde ganxorcielebul `lirTagan~ liri kvdeboda, Tu ar CavTvliT axmetelis ganuxorcielebel speqtakls, finalis aseTi gadawyveta gvxdeba momdevno periodis interpretaciebSic (streleri, sturua), magram fizikurad cocxali liris motivacia TumaniSvilTan sul sxvagvaria. igi amayia, gamarjvebuli da bednieri, radgan lirma Seicno WeSmariteba igi ganTavisuflda sicruisagan da midis cxovrebidan ara dabeCavebuli, aramed gamocdilebiT dabrZenebuli adamiani, romelmac icis sikeTis da borotebis fasi. kritikosebi speqtaklidan liris Semsruleblis garda gamoarCevdnen or personaJs: masxaras (guram saRaraZe) da edmunds (ramaz CxikvaZe). kritikosTa yuradRebis arealSi maTi moxvedra ganapiroba ara mxolod msaxiobTa Sesrulebam, aramed reJisoris mier am mxatvrul saxeTa gansakuTrebulma gaazrebam. reJisorma moaxdina lirisa da masxaras identifikacia. roca speqtaklis dasawyisSi TumaniSvilma masxaras aTqmevina 66-e soneti, amiT xazi gausva mis mniSvnelobas da rols mTels speqtaklSi. is avsebs lirs da ara glosteri, rogorc es adrindel dadgmebSi. roca lirs uWirs igi maSinve moikiTxavs masxaras, romelic rogorc moraluri sayrdeni, ise sWirdeba. masxara ki yovelTvis pirSi axlis simarTles. `mas Tavisi mdgomareoba aZlevs amis uflebas. masxaras Tavi CaCSi aqvs. is xom sulelia. liri amCnevs, rom misi masxara briyvi araa, lirs tanjva auxels Tvalebs qveynis dasanaxad da ara masxara~.44 is mxolod exmareba da erTgvari stimulatoria misi. masxara mefe lirisgan maSin qreba, rodesac edmundisa da kordelias jarebs Soris srola daiwyo. `rodesac srola iwyeba, iq masxarebisTvis adgili ar aris~ 45, _ wers m. TumaniSvili. didi azrTa sxvadasxvaoba iyo edmundis mxatvrul saxesTan dakavSirebiT, romelic wlebis manZilze grZeldeboda. kritikosTa erTi nawili mkacrad akritikebda ramaz CxikvaZis edmunds, nawils ki igi s. zaqariaZis mier Seqmnili liris

masStabis rangSi moiazrebdnen. `r. CxikvaZis mier warmodgenili edmundi ar SeiZleba aqtiorul gamarjvebad CaiTvalos. misi saxiT lirs ara hyavs Zlieri mowinaaRmdege da masSi ar Cans borotebis is mTavari bude, riTac upirispirdeba lirs. msaxiobi mxilebis nacvlad icavs Tavis gmirs. ramaz CxikvaZe SesaniSnavad atarebs scenebs debTan, romlis drosac xazs usvams mis momxibvlelobasac. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia ukanasknel moqmedebaSi, roca gamodis rogorc jaris meTauri da sikvdilis scenaSi, magram iq, sadac saWiroa gamoamJRavnos borotmoqmedis Tvisebebi, msaxiobs ar hyofnis Sinagani Zala da damajerebloba, rom srulyofilad warmoaCinos saxe~.46 miuxedavad imisa, rom Teatrmcodne d. mumlaZec akritikebs r. CxikvaZis edmunds da mas `siuJetis Seuferxebeli ganxorcielebis daniSnulebas~ aniWebs mxolod, Tumca imasac aRniSnavs, rom `msaxiobi cdas ar aklebs rols, Cveni drois saqmiani kacis marifaTiT aRbeWdili ti pi Seqmnas~.47 n. gurabaniZe ki ramaz CxikvaZis edmundze `liris~ premieridan 38 wlis Semdeg dawers: `saxis gaTanamedrovebis TvalsazrisiT edmundis rolis Semsrulebeli ramaz CxikvaZe yvelaze Sors wavida. es iyo XX saukunis 60iani wlebis ti puri Tavxedi, momxiblavi aramzada, agresiuli, mudam Setevaze gadasuli, Tma Sublze hqonda Camovarcxnili, avad imzireboda, wina planze dgomas cdilobda, avanscenaze moZraobda, raRac xulignuri, gamaRizianebeli iyo mis saqcielSi, gamomwvevad ustvenda da aravin arafrad miaCnda. es iyo namdvili `bestardi~, autsaideri, romelic sul win aRudgeboda, ar daindobda, sasikvdilodac ki gawiravda. aseTi Tavxedebi qalTa gulismyrobelebic arian, amitomac, advilad xiblavda liris qaliSvilebs, reginas da gonerilas, romelTa monusxvas igi saerTod ar cdilobda, ubralod ajadoebda, i pyrobda, imonebda Tavisi Seukavebeli ZaliT~.48 speqtaklSi fermkrTali da arasruli iyo sxva personaJebi, rac speqtaklis erTian msaxiobur ansambls arRvevda. glosteri m. TumaniSvilis interpretaciaSi ususur, uniaTo, magram keTili gulis qveSevrdomad iqca. susti iyo reganasa da gonerilas xazi, rac zedapiruls xdida borotisa da keTilis dapirispirebis Cvenebas.

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`liris~ premiera Sedga, magram speqtaklma didxans ver gauZlo scenas, ris gamoc igi maleve moixsna repertuaridan. saarqivo masalebisa da recenziebis gacnobam cxadyo, rom speqtakls aklda muSaoba da igi SeqspirisTvis uCveulod mokle droSi daidga. daukmayofileblobis grZnoba gauCnda reJisorsac da mTavari rolis Semsrulebelsac. ukmayofilo darCa Tavisi namuSevriT sergo zaqariaZe: `lirTan Sexvedra Cemi artistuli cxovrebis erT-erTi yvelaze naTeli, didi sulieri sazrdos momcemi momenti iyo, magram amave dros mivxvdi, rom es mainc sadRac qerqi iyo, zeda fena, romlis Sedegadac iwyeba is uZiro siRrme, romlis wvdomisaTvisac SesaZloa erTi xelovanis sicocxle sakmarisi ar aRmoCndes~.49 TumaniSvilis TqmiT `polemika bolomde unda gagrZelebuliyo da is araviTar kompromisze ar unda wasuliyo.~ rogorc TviTon reJisorma ganacxada ,,lirSi~ bevri ram mTavarSic da detalebSic ­ ganpirobebuli iyo tradiciul gagebasTan polemikiT da amgvari gza garkveul safrTxes uqmnida speqtakls, Taviseburi sqematurobisa da tendenciurobisaken ubiZgebda mas.~50 miuxedavad amisa, Tu ,,zaxulis Ramis sizmari~ gaebrZola klasikuri komediis dakanonebul reformebs, ,,mefe lirma~ idealizaciisa da paTetikis gvirgvini Camoxsna Seqspiris tragediebis scenur ganxorcielebas rusTavelis TeatrSi. amis Semdeg ikveTeba swored is Tanamedrove tendencia, romelmac ganviTareba pova jer TumaniSvilisave ,,iulius keisarSi~, xolo Semdeg robert sturuas ,,riCard III~ da `mefe lirSi~. amrigad, TumaniSvilis polemika Teatralur sazogadoebasTan marcxiT dasrulda, Tumca es rodi iyo damarcxeba pirdapiri gagebiT. TumaniSvilis speqtaklma dasabami misca qarTul sasceno SeqspirianaSi Zireul cvlilebebs, man daarRvia araerTi stereoti pi dakavSirebuli Seqspiris interpretaciis sakiTxebTan. sabWoTa TeatrSi tradiciebidan gadaxveva did risks da brZolas moiTxovda. TumaniSvilma es brZola gaagrZela, oRond Tanamedrove dramaturgiis gamoyenebiT. igi warmatebiT dgams `liris~ premieridan ori wlisTavze Jan anuis `antigones~. TumaniSvilis speqtaklSi `mefe liri~ bevri ram iyo iseTi, romlebic Semdgomi Taobis reJisorebma gamoiyenes

Seqspiris imave tragediis ganxorcielebisas. amitomac, am speqtakls misi warumateblobis miuxedavad, didi roli ekisreba ara mxolod qarTul sasceno SeqspirianaSi, aramed qarTuli Teatris istoriaSic.

1. a. WavWaniZe, reJisoruli Ziebebi rusTavelis TeatrSi XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1986. gv.45. 2. l. xeTaguri, eqsperimentidan barokomde qarTul TeatrSi, Jurnali `Teatri da cxovreba~, #1-2, 1996. gv.57. 3. n. uruSaZe, mixeil TumaniSvili (mTavari mowmis naambobi), Tb., 1999. gv. 59. 4. a. WavWaniZe, reJisoruli Ziebebi rusTavelis TeatrSi XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1986. gv. 45. 5. gazeTi `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 1964, 12 ivnisi. 6. a. WavWaniZe, reJisoruli Ziebebi rusTavelis TeatrSi XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1986. gv. 45. 7. n. gurabaniZe, fantastikuri ramaz CxikvaZe, Tb., 2004. gv. 75. 8. n. uruSaZe, mixeil TumaniSvili (mTavari mowmis naambobi), Tb., 1999. gv. 66. 9. "",@#8, 1966. gv. 23. 10. m. TumaniSvili, reJisori Teatridan wavida, Tb., 1989. gv. 249. 11. d. mumlaZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli reJisura, Tb., 1973. gv. 146. 12. j. lomTaZe, reJisori mixeil TumaniSvili (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1969. 23

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13. iqve: gv.24 14. n. gurabaniZe, fantastikuri ramaz CxikvaZe, Tb., 2004. gv. 73. 15. m. TumaniSvili, sanam repeticia daiwyeba, Tb., 2008. gv. 148-149. 16. e. Jvania, `mefe liri~ rusTavelis TeatrSi (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1998. gv.12. 17. m. TumaniSvili, sanam repeticia daiwyeba, Tb., 2008. gv. 150. 18. iqve: gv. 151. 19. iqve: gv. 152. 20. iqve: gv. 199. 21. a. WavWaniZe, reJisoruli Ziebebi rusTavelis TeatrSi XX saukunis 70-ian wlebSi (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1986. gv. 51. 22. j. lomTaZe, reJisori mixeil TumaniSvili (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1969. gv. 24. 23. d. mumlaZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli reJisura, Tb., 1973. gv. 150. 24. j. lomTaZe, reJisori mixeil TumaniSvili (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1969. gv. 24. 25. iqve; 26. n. uruSaZe, mixeil TumaniSvili (mTavari mowmis naambobi), Tb., 1999. gv. 67. 27. m. levili, sergo zaqariaZe, Tb., 1975. gv. 386-387. 28. e. Jvania, `mefe liri~ rusTavelis TeatrSi (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1998. gv. 15. 29. o. egaZe, TeatrSi da Teatrs miRma, Tb., 1969. gv. 284. 30. n. uruSaZe, mixeil TumaniSvili (mTavari mowmis naambobi), Tb., 1999. gv. 67. 31. d. mumlaZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli reJisura, Tb., 1973. gv. 60. 32. iqve: gv. 150. 33. ix.: e. puCeki, talantebis simdidre, `pravda~, 20. 12, 1966. 34. o. egaZe, TeatrSi da Teatrs miRma, Tb., 1969. gv. 377. 35. S. maWavariani, qarTuli Teatri, wignSi `sabWoTa dramatuli Teatris istoria~, t. 6., Tb., 1971. gv. 258. 36. m. gegeWkori, interpretaciis problema XX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis qarTul samsaxiobo xelovnebaSi (sadisertacio Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1993. gv. 61.

37. m. levili, sergo zaqariaZe, Tb., 1975. gv. 385. 38. o. egaZe, TeatrSi da Teatrs miRma, Tb., 1969. gv. 378. 39. . , , . 1966. gv. 51. 40. m. levili, sergo zaqariaZe, Tb., 1975. gv. 398. 41. s. zaqariaZe, Cemi Seqspiruli rolebi, wignSi `qarTuli Seqspiriana~, t. 3, Tb., 1973. gv. 220. 42. m. levili, sergo zaqariaZe, Tb., 1975. gv. 388. 43. "", 25, 1966. gv. 20. 44. d. mumlaZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli reJisura, Tb., 1973. gv. 151. 45. m. TumaniSvili, fiqrobs, wigni I, Tb., 2004. gv. 91. 46. n. qiqoZe, ramaz CxikvaZe (sadi plomo Sroma, daculia Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis biblioTekis sacavSi), Tb., 1966. gv. 48. 47. d. mumlaZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli reJisura, Tb., 1973. gv. 152. 48. n. gurabaniZe, fantastikuri ramaz CxikvaZe, Tb., 2004. gv. 76. 49. s. zaqariaZe, Cemi Seqspiruli rolebi, wignSi `qarTuli Seqspiriana~, t. 3, Tb., 1973. gv. 220. 50. n. uruSaZe, mixeil TumaniSvili (mTavari mowmis naambobi), Tb., 1999. gv. 67.

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Tamar cagareli doqturanturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. levan xeTaguri Sua saukuneebis evropuli da qarTuli saeklesio saxilveli (saTeatro anTropologiis meTodiT) cnobilia, rom adamians _ ZvelberZnulad `anTropos~ _ mravali mecniereba swavlobs. TavisTavad anTropologia (berZ. antropos _ adamiani, logos _ moZRvreba) aris mecniereba adamianis warmoSobisa da evoluciis, adamianTa rasebis Sesaxeb. ikvlevs adamianis fizikuri ti pis variaciebs drosa da sivrceSi, adamianisa da misi rasebis warmoSobis, Camoyalibebis da SemdgomSi ganviTarebis Seswavlis mizniT. anTropologia, rogorc damoukidebeli mecniereba Camoyalibda XIX saukunis Sua periodSi. misi damoukidebeli dargebia: adamianis morfologia, swavleba anTropogenezis Sesaxeb, rasaTmcodneoba. adamianis garSemo `trialeben~ iseTi mecnierebebi, rogoricaa fsiqologia, istoria, enaT mecniereba, sociologia, politologia. damoukidebel dargebad arsebobs samecniero anTropologia, sociologiuri anTropologia, eTnologiuri anTropologia, filosofiuri anTropologia, romelic Seiswavlis adamianis raobas. igi axasiaTebs adamianis yofierebis Taviseburebas. ikvlevs mis mimarTebas RmerTTan, istoriasTan, bunebasTan, sxva adamianTan. filosofiuri anTropologia aris moZRvreba adamianis raobis Sesaxeb. adamianis raoba esaa unikaluri unari, unari Semoqmedebisa, unari kulturis Seqmnisa da unari yvelaze mTavarisa _ cxovrebis Seqmnisa. adamiani sakuTar Tavs acnobierebda, rogorc Seqmnils da rogorc Semoqmeds kulturuli Rirebulebisa. XX saukunis II naxevridan viTardeba kompleqsi disci plinebisa, romelTac aerTianeben saerTo saTauriT `adamianis biologia~. igi Seiswavlis fiziologiur, bioqimiur da genetikur faqtorebs, romelic zegavlenas axdens adamianis organizmisa da sxeulis agebulebis variaciebsa da ganviTarebaze. amave dros es periodi bevri axali samecniero disci plinebis CamoyalibebiT aRiniSna. filosofiaSi aseTi

axali disci plinebia: `filosofiuri anTropologia~, `aqsiologia~, `kulturologia~, `ganaTlebis filosofia~ da sxva. filosofiuri disci plinebis Camoyalibebis paralelurad yalibdeba axali, kerZo, specialuri mecnierebebi. erT-erTi aseTi specialuri mecnierebaa `Teatraluri anTropologia~, romlis Semqmnelia odinis Teatris erT-erTi fuZemdebeli eujenio barba. Teatralurma anTropologiam unda ganixilos Teatris istoria da ganviTareba, adamianis adgilis gaTvaliswinebiT samyaroSi. aRiarebs ra gons, romelic marTavs sxeuls, specifikur adamianur fenomenad, Teatralurma anTropologiam adamiani, am SemTxvevaSi unda Seiswavlos, rogorc Teatris Semqmneli, rogorc adamianis formirebis specifikuri garemo. `scenuri arseboba, adamianis yoveldRiur qcevasTan SedarebiT energiis swrafi xarjviT, misi maqsimaluri gamoyenebiT xasiaTdeba. amitomaa, Teatraluri anTropologia swavlobs Teatris `biologiur~ dones, romelsac efuZneba gansxvavebuli samsaxiobo skolebi Tu msaxiobis `bio~. filosofiur, istoriul da kulturul anTropologiaze dayrdnobiT Teatralurma anTropologiam unda aCvenos, rom sxeuli kvlevis erT-erT umTavres obieqts warmoadgens. mas Seiswavlian ara rogorc garkveuli eT nokulturis warmomadgenels, aramed, rogorc msaxiobis Jests, mimikas, sadac unda gaviTvaliswinoT agreTve niRabic, romelic SesaZlebelia warmodgenili iyos sxvadasxva masalisagan: xisgan, Tixisgan, sxvadasxva feris grimiT (xSir SemTxvevaSi niRabi sxeulis `gagrZelebad~ gvevlineba. meierholdi werda: `niRabi, Jesti da moZraoba, ganuyofeli nawilia da dakavSirebulia balaganTan, sanaxaobasTan, sadac sxeulis dinamika regulirdeba niRbis tradiciasTan~),1 zogadad plastikis TaviseburebaTa gamomxatvelad, agreTve Seiswavlian, rogorc universalur transkulturul moculobas, romelic erTnairia kulturaTa invariantul sistemaSi. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom sxvadasxva da zogjer paralelur kulturaSi, msgavsi viTarebani yovelTvis urTierTzegavlenis Sedegi ar aris, rom SevadaroT dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis kultura, sagulisxmo paralelebs aRmovaCenT.

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Teatris anTropologia iTvaliswinebs adamianis saqcielis Seswavlas maSin, rodesac warmodgenisas igi iyenebs sakuTar fizikur da gonebriv resurss da iqceva yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan gansxvavebuli princi pebis Sesabamisad, rasac Teatralur samyaroSi samsaxiobo teqnikas uwodeben, `msaxiobi, xom esaa adamiani, momuSave sakuTari sxeuliT~.2 Teatris anTropologia es aris adamianis socio-kulturuli da fiziologiuri qcevis Seswavla Sesrulebis dros. sxvadasxva adgilis, droisa da tradiciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli stilisturi formebis miuxedavad, sxvadasxva Semsrulebels gaaCnia saerTo princi pebi. Teatris anTropologiis pirveli amocanaa Tvali miadevnos am periodul princi pebs. isini ar adastureben `Teatris mecnierebis~ arsebobas da arc ramdenime universalur kanons. isini mxolod ramdenime karg `rCevas~ warmoadgenen, scenuri praqtikisaTvis saWiro informacias. rodesac ramdenime `karg rCevazea~ saubari, iqmneba iluzia, rom saqme exeba raimes, rac naklebad Rirebulia termin `Teatris anTropologiasTan~ SedarebiT. magram Seswavlis rigi sferoebi ­ magaliTad ritorika da morali anda Tundac qcevis Seswavla aseve warmoadgenen ramdenime `kargi rCevis~ magaliTs. sxvadasxva adgilis, drois da tradiciis miuxedavad, sxvadasxva Semsrulebels gaaCnia saerTo princi pi _ rituali, romelic yvela eris istoriis safuZvelSive Zevs. ritualuri formebi, xom uZvelesi xelovnebis winare saxea. rituali ki, rogorc cnobilia, pirdapir ukavSirdeba Teatrs, saTeatro xelovnebas. ritualis Seqmnis meqanizmi xom `mimezisi~, `mibaZvaa~. aristotele iziarebda samarTlian Sexedulebas, rom TamaSi da miswrafeba mibaZvisken sulis yvelaze ufro adrindeli da elementarul aRgznebas miekuTvneba. ganviTarebis istoriiT, is ufro xnieria, vidre religia. mibaZva TamaSiT, romelmac Seqmna rituali, saidanac warmoiSva saTeatro xelovnebebi, ramac Cvenamde moaRwia freskis an kedlis mxatvrobis saxiT, qvaze gamoxatulma Tu gamoqandakebulma, sadac adamianis Jestikulacia da moZraobaa dafiqsirebuli, romlis sawyisi adamianis sxeulia.

helmut plesneri naSromSi `anTropologia da qcevis Teoria~3 ganixilavs adamianSi arsebul or sxeuls, sxeuls bunebrivs, romelsac yovelwamier vxvdebiT da vxedavT yofaSi da sxeuls gankuTvnils xelovnebisaTvis, kulturisaTvis, romelsac igi esTetikurad organizebuls uwodebs da romelic mxolod da mxolod msaxiobisa da mocekvavis privilegiad rCeba. amgvarad, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, rituali TamaSis sawyis elementebs Seicavda da aqedan gamomdinare mWidrod ukavSirdeba Teatralur xelovnebas, romlis daxmarebiTac adamiani Tavisi sxeulis batoni xdeba. Jestikulaciisa da qmedebis/moZraobis xelovnebis wyalobiT adamiani sxva personis, gmirisa Tu personaJis Semqmneli xdeba. sxeulis floba, `magiuri saxis~ Seqmna pre-istoriuli wyaroebidan ukve mogvepoveba, romelic Cvenamde Semonaxulia ZiriTadad, rogorc arqeologiuri nimuSebis saxiT, magram arsebuli istoriuli (anTropologiuri) wyaroebis kvlevis saSualebiT Cven SegviZlia SeviswavloT da qronologiuri saxiT davalagoT is sawyisi da ganviTareba, romelsac Teatraluri anTropologia ewodeba. `Teatraluri anTropologia eZebs saWiro mimarTulebebs universaluri princi pebis nacvlad,_ wers barba,_ mas ar gaaCnia mecnierebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli zomiereba. mas gaaCnia ambicia aRmoaCinos codna, romelic SesaZlebelia gamoadges Semsrulebels Tavis saqmianobaSi. misi mizani ar aris formulebis dadgena, igi ufro qcevis kanonebs Seiswavlis, rasac Sedegad moaqvs scenuri praqtikisaTvis saWiro informacia~.4 aqedan gamomdinare preistoriuli magaliTebidan moyolebuli dRevandeli dRis CaTvliT mopovebuli da gaSifruli saSemsruleblo xelovneba ufro farTo diapazoniT gvaZlevs Sanss, SevinarCunoT da ganvaviTaroT saTeatro xelovnebis esa Tu is elementebi, tradiciebi, movaxdinoT Serwyma Cveni da sxva erebis kulturuli adaT-wesebisa, xelovnebis nimuSebisa. adamianis arsebis problemis gamokvlevas Cven vpoulobT qristianul filosofiaSi, romelic Sua saukuneebSi Camoyalibda da dResac farTodaa gavrcelebuli. wminda wignebis _ Zveli da axali aRTqmis _ Tanaxmad, samyaro _ buneba, mcenareuloba, cxovelebi, adamiani _ RmerTis

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mieraa Seqmnili. xolo, adamianis codvebisagan gaTavisufleba ieso qristes daakisra ufalma, amitomac warmogzavna Tavisi Ze ­ qriste ­ kacobriobis gadasarCenad, adamianTa codvebisagan dasaxsnelad. qristes adamianad qceviT yovelgvari adamianuri misTvis axlobeli gaxda. misi xvedri gaxda adamianis cxovreba Tavisi tanjviTa da sikvdiliT. aqedan gamomdinare RmerTi pirovnebaa da samyaros warmoSoba RmerTis, rogorc pirovnebis, Tavisufali aqtia _ Semoqmedebaa, kreaciaa. Tavis mxriv amitomac misca adamianma Tavis Tavs ufleba ara marto daewera mis uzenaesze, aramed gamoesaxa igi xelovnebaSi. bibliis mixedviT adamianis adgili arsebulTa Soris sruliad garkveulia. pirveli adamiani ar aris RmerTis toli, magram yvela xorciel qmnilze maRla dgas, xorcielisa da RvTaebrivis, miwierisa da sulieris, grZnobadisa da zegrZnobadis nazavia. amitom batonobs is nivTebze, mcenareebsa da cxovelebze; amitom aqvs mas goneba, azrovneba, Rirseba, rac mTavaria Tavisufali neba. akrZalvis neba logikurad iTxovs Tavisufali nebis cnebas. amitomac, adamianis problemas qristianobaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmo. Sua saukuneebSi gaCnda skolebi, romlebic gansakuTrebul adgils uTmobdnen RmerTisa da adamianis urTierTobis problemas. aseTi iyo patristika da sqolastika. XI-XII saukuneebis cnobili qarTveli filosofosi ioane petriwi Targmnis IV-V saukuneebis gamoCenili filosofosis nemesios emeselis Sromas `bunebisaTvis kacisa~. am SromaSi platonisa da aristoteles safuZvlebze ganxilulia adamianis raoba. qristianulma religiam mogvianebiT miiRo da gamoiyena kidec Zvel berZenTa filosofiuri warmodgenebi. qristianobam imqveyniuri warmodgena sulTa samyofelze samoTxed da jojoxeTad dasaxa. samoTxe ganurCevlad yvela adamianisa warmoudgeneli netarebaa, rasac mxolod netari sulebi miaRweven. bibliur edems, axal aRTqmiseul axal ierusalims, angelosTagan dasaxlebul ierarqiebs ­ Cveni religiuri warmosaxvisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda. qristianuli moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, suli iTvleba RvTaebriv sawyisad, romelic adamians RmerTTan anaTesavebs, gamovlindeba, Tavisuflebasa da ukvdavebaSi.

Sua saukuneebis sanaxaobiTi kulturis mniSvnelovani nakadi aRmoCnda saeklesio saxilveli. Tavad rituali xom, religiiT an tradiciiT dawesebuli moqmedebaa da raki religiasTan marTlac mWidro kavSirSia, xSirad mxolod viwro wrisaTvis iyo misawvdomi misi namdvili arsi. igulisxmeba viwro wre ganswavluli da gandobili adamianebisa, xolo garegani mxare sayovelTaod iyo gamotanili da saxalxod samzeri. winamdebare naSromi swored am saxeobas mimoixilavs da warmoaCens Teatralur sanaxaobas samsaxiobo Teatraluri anTropologiis Seswavlis meTodiT. `sakraluri~ Teatraluri sanaxaoba, rogorc cnobilia, liturgiul dramas efuZneboda, romelic Tavis mxriv saTaves warmoadgenda iseTi Janrebisa, rogoricaa: naxevrad liturgiuli drama, mirakli, misteria, moralite da farsi. saeklesio sanaxaobaSi SeiniSneboda speqtaklisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebic: dialogi, antifoniuri galoba, moTamaSeTa replikebi da butaforia. sadac agreTve iyo scenari, gadacma, Semsrulebeli da mayurebeli _ mrevli. rogorc cnobilia, liturgiuli drama ori ciklisagan Sedgeboda: Sobisa da aRdgomis cikli. Cvenamde moRweuli liturgiuli dramis elementebi SesaZlebelia Teatraluri anTropologiis kvlevis nimuSad miviCnioT, sadac mocemulia saeklesio stilis mkacri kanonikuri moTxovnebis dacva, paralelebis gakeTeba Cveulebrivi cxovrebis asaxvasTan. amJamad, ganvixilav evropuli liturgiuli dramis or Zegls: `sami marias datireba~ 5 da `gonieri da ugunuri qalwulebi~.6 orive drama daTariRebulia X-XI saukuneebiT. pirveli drama miekuTvneba vinCesteris episkoposs etevaldis, xolo meore drama ki wminda marcialas saZmos. religiis istoriidan cnobilia, rom eklesiis pirveli mosaxleni arian mociqulebi, romlebmac Camoayalibes qristes dobilTa da ZmobilTa sazogadoeba macxovris kurTxevis safuZvelze: `moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni...~, xolo mociqulTa memkvidreni arian episkoposebi: `rogorc RmerTi Tavsakiduri zeciuri eklesiisa, mze qveynierebisa, aseve episkoposi sakuTari mrevlisaTvis. man unda gaasxivosnos da gaaTbos samwyso,

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gardaqmnas igi taZrad RvTisa~. amgvarad, episkoposebis, rogorc mociqulTa memkvidreebis meSveobiT eklesia wuTisofelSi agrZelebs da aRrmavebs qristes moZRvrebas, amtkicebs religiis batonobas. Tavisi misiis Sesruleba mRvdelTmsaxureba bibliis gacnobiT da misi siuJetis gacocxlebiT daiwyo. sanam mimovixilav zemoT xsenebul or Zegls, gavixsenoT, aRvidginoT is garemo, sadac imarTeboda amgvari warmodgenebi. rogorc cnobilia, Sua saukuneebSi ganviTarda arqiteqturis stili _ goTika, romelic qalaqebis xuroTmoZRvrebis dominanturi forma iyo. `goTikuri xelovneba (gotico _ italiurad, warmoSobilia germanuli tomebis guTebis saxelwodebidan), pirobiTi saxelwodebaa stilisa, romelic evropul xuroTmoZRvrebisa da saxviT xelovnebaSi batonobda XV-XVI saukuneebamde. goTikaSi garkveuli nakadis saxiT Tavi iCina mxatvrulma kulturam. qandakebisa da mxatvrobis calkeul Temebsa da elementebSi Taviseburi interpretaciiT aris asaxuli realuri samyaro. magram, gadamwyveti mniSvneloba mainc eklesias hqonda. swored saeklesio SenobaSi gamovlinda am mimdinareobis stilis niSnebi. maTi mdidari skulpturuli morTulobis Tematika ZiriTadad saRvTo werilebis siuJetebi da sxvadasxva sarwmunoebrivi alegoriebia. moqmedi pirebic umetesad saRvTo werilis personaJebi da wmindanebi arian. zogi goTikuri taZari aTiaTasamde mlocvels itevda. amgvarad, WeSmaritebas moklebuli ar unda iyos, Tu aRvniSnavT, rom saaRdgomo da saSobao sanaxaobas sakmaod mravalricxovani mayurebeli hyavda da sasuliero wodebis warmomadgenelTa propaganda farTo masebze vrceldeboda. sanaxaoba, SesaZlebelia dRis pirvel naxevarSi gamarTuliyo, radganac am periodSi ar arsebobda teqnikuri ganaTebis saSualeba. amasTanave, rogorc cnobilia, sinaTle da sibnele uZvelesi religiuri simboloebia, romlis dros sinaTle maradiul cxovrebas, xolo sibnele ubedurebas gamosaxavs. Sua saukuneebSi, Tomas fon aqvino sinaTles ganixilavda, rogorc gonis metaforas da `moqmed gonebas~ da amitomac sasuliero warmomadgenlebi ecdebodnen dRisiT, mzis Suqze eCvenebinaT warmodgena, miTumetes, rom sanaxaoba iyo erTgvari preludia, romelic amzadebda mrevls

wirvisaTvis. swored misi damTavrebis Semdeg imarTeboda wirvalocva, rac gansazRvrul dros moicavda. yovelive es qmnida emociur suraTs, sakralur movlenad aRiqmeboda. amgvar atmosferoSi mimdinareobda saSobao Tu saaRdgomo ciklis Cveneba. Tavad liturgiuli dramis Seqmnilis niSania daamkvidros da ganavrcos eklesiis batonoba sazogadoebaSi saTeatro sanaxaobiT. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom bibliuri siuJetidan aRebulia umniSvnelovanesi saeklesio movlena _ aRdgoma, romelic, sxvaTa Soris, rogorc kaTolikur, aseve marTmadidebel eklesiaSi yovelTvis Teatralizebuli iyo. episkoposs etevaldis mier Seqmnili drama `sami marias datireba~, upirveles yovlisa imiTaa saintereso, rom aq ufro metad yuradReba gamaxvilebulia warmodgenis vizualur mxareze da zustadaa miTiTebuli monawileTa Jestikulaciac. Teatri ukve iyenebs sxeulis enas. igi Txzavs garemos, dawvrilebiT aRwers yovel detals. cnobilia, rom warmodgena imarTeboda sakurTxevelsa da mrevlis dasajdom adgils Soris, romelsac navi ewodeba da romelic yvelaze karg adgils warmoadgenda, rogorc bunebrivi ganaTebis TvalsazrisiT, rogorc saxilvelad, aseve akustikuri. moqmedeba iwyeba maria magdalinelis vizualuri qmedebiT: xelis nazi moZraobiT igi mzeras apyrobs mamakacTa gunds, saxe danaRvlianebuli da Tvalcremliani kiTxulobs: o, Zmebo! da sxeulis nazi moZraobiT iCoqebs. Semdeg mudaris mzeras apyrobs qalebs da aRmoxdeba: `da debo...~ eklesiaSi, kaTolikuri iqneba is Tu marTlmadideburi, mrevli dResac gayofilia. sakurTxevlidan marcxena mxares mamakacebi, xolo marjvena mxares qalebi arian. Semdeg epizodSi maria magdalineli gulze mjiRis cemiTa da tiriliT, romelsac Tan axlavs TiTqosda mSvelelis Zebna, rac misi neli Tavis moZraobiT ikveTeba, igi xan marjvniv da xan marcxniv ixedeba, vizualuri aqtis asaxsnelad Semdeg sityvebs ambobs: `.... sad aris Cemi imedi! (Semdeg kvlav gulze icems xels). sad aris Svela?... aq Tavdaxrili ecema iesos ferxTiT, anu sakurTxevelTan~. Canawerebidan ikveTeba, rom upiratesoba eniWeba Jestikulacias.

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sxeulis moZraobiT gamoixateba qalis gulis tkivili da sevda, TiToeul verbalur aqts non-verbaluri aqti uswrebs win. moqmedeba grZeldeba ori mokvdavi qalis statikuri moZraobiT: maria ufrosi da mariam magdalineli sxeulis `eniT~, rac gamoixateba erTmaneTTan CaxutebiT, niSnad imisa, rom orives erTi tkivili aerTianebT, qristes xatTan orive personaJis daCoqebiTa da mis ferxTqveS gulSemzaravi tiriliT; miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi moZraoba SesaZlebelia aRviqvaT, rogorc statikuri moZraoba, vizualuri gamoxatvis am aqts aqvs is datvirTva, rom yoveli es gamosaxuleba asaxavs saritualo codnasa da saeklesio sibrZnes yovelgvari msjelobisa da kamaTis gareSe. Semdeg es moZraoba gancalkevdeba verbaluri aqtiT: `maria ufrosi: (aq igi uTiTebs maria magdalinels) o, maria magdalina (Semdeg uTiTebs qristesken), Cemo tkbilo maswavleblis vaJo (aq igi eamboreba magdalinels da exveva orive xeliT...), daitire CemTan erTad (uTiTebs isev qristesken) sikvdili utkbilesi vaJisa... visac ase uyvardi... (aq muxldaCoqili iwyebs qviTins)~. rogorc vxedav, es aqtic gamdidrebulia sxeulis eniT. monawileni `xataven~ gamosaxulebebs da dgamen TavianT taZrebSi, rogorc azrobriv Sinaarss TiToeuli sagnisa. `damdgmel jgufs~ kargad esmoda, rom mrevlze verbaluri aqtiT imdenad ver miaRwevda gavlenas, rogorc vizualuri warmosaxviT. aq gamovlenilia zemoqmedebis universaluri formis mcdeloba vizualur-verbaluri aqtis moxdena. warmodgenis dasasruls sanaxaobaSi monawile qalebi RmerTs evedrebian, muxldaCoqilni, Tavdaxrili da pirjvaris weriT isini mouwodeben mayurebels maTTan erTad locvisaken. orive xelis zecisken aRmarTviT madlobas eubnebian RvTismSobelsa da ufals, maria ufrosi: `mas, vinc gagvaTavisufla yovelgvari codvebisagan~. warmodgena mTavrdeba monawileTa tiriliT, raTa mayurebelSi gamoiwvion sakuTari Tavis Secodebisa da maTi codvebis monaniebis survili, rom kidev ufro metad miajaWvon eklesias. JestikulaciiT ixateba, rom warmodgena gaimarTa RmerTisTvis, mis sadideblad. Tvals Tu gadavavlebT

antikuri Teatris istorias, davinaxavT, rom amgvari qmedeba analogiaa saritualo da uZvelesi saTeatro sanaxaobisa, sadac, rogorc cnobilia, warmodgenebi imarTeboda RmerTebis sadideblad. marcialas saZmos mier Seqmnili drama `brZeni da ugunuri qalwulebi~ maTes saxarebidan, aTi qalwulis igavisa da angelozi umJRavnebs mariams iesos aRdgomas, Tavebis inscenirebas warmoadgens. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom axali aRTqma _ saxareba, mTlianad agebulia igavur, anu alegoriul, princi pze. `siZisa~ da `qalwulis~, agreTve `qorwinebis~ alegoriul mniSvnelobas centraluri adgili uWiravs macxovris qadagebaSi. `siZe~ Tavad macxovars aRniSnavs, `qalwuli~ _ qristianuli TvalsazrisiT simboloa bunebis sulisa, `qorwili~ _ marTalTa netarebas, RvTaebasTan ziarebas miuTiTebs qveynis dasasrulisa da saSineli samsjavros Semdeg. arc es princi pi daurRveviaT saZmos wevrebs da dramis personaJebad gamoiyvanes qalwulebi, siZe da angelozi. maxareblebi _ maTe, markozi, luka da ioane _ gvauwyeben, rom aRsrulda winaswarmetyveleba: qristes jvarcmis Semdeg, mesame dRes, kviris ciskarze, mkvdreTiT aRsdga ufali da macxovari. morwmuneTa angelozma es ambavi pirvelad qalwulebs auwya.... morwmuneTa eklesias ki STaagona: `qriste aRsdga mkvdreTiT, sikvdiliTa sikvdilisa damTrgunveli da saflavebis SinaTa cxovrebis mimniWebeli~. swored am ambiT iwyeba marcialas saZmos drama-warmodgena. angelozi dastrialebs im gamoqvabuls, sadac qriste esvena. igi xan afrindeba da xan Camofrindeba, aq aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom saeklesio warmodgenebSi ukve gamoiyeneba `maSineria~. angelozis Semsrulebeli plastikiTa da JestikulaciiT gamoxatavs mis Sinagan emocias, rogorc dramaSia gamokveTili esaa simboloebiT datvirTuli cekva, romelsac Semdgom verbalurad xsnis, rom `is, visac Tqven eZebT gamoqvabulSi, o, qristianno, aq ar aris. igi aRsdga, rogorc Tavad winaswarmetyvelebda.~ am ambis gamgone ugunuri qalwulni cekva-TamaSiT cdiloben angelozis daWeras da mis gaCumebas. maT ar swamT misi sityvebisa. siuJetis gamZafrebis mizniT, avtorma, ugunurni eSmaks waayvanina. moulodnelobis efeqtiT eSmaki eklesiis iatakidan amodis, TiTqosda qvesknelidan

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da mas garda imisa, rom niRabi ukeTia, Semsrulebeli mis personaJs ganasaxierebs vizualuradac. igi cdilobs swored ise imoZraos, rom mxilvels TvalnaTliv warmoudgines eSmakis realuri saxe. rogorc cnobilia, saeklesio TeatrSi eSmakis gamoCena pirvelad am dramaSi moxda, rac SesaZleblad mimaCnia imiT avxsna, rom mayurebelze Seqmniliyo emociuri zegavlena, konfliqti gaxda saxilveli, raTa TvalnaTliv daenaxaT da gaeazrebinaT codvilTa cxovrebis saboloo gza _ jojoxeTi. warmodgenis dasasruls ki, qristes Tayvans scemen iudevelTa winaswarmetyvelni: sivila, virgiliusi da nobuqodosori. Tayvaniscemis es scena sakmaod pompezuradaa warmodgenili, mxolod non-verbalurad. aq sityva sruliad zedmeti aRmoCnda warmodgenis SemqmnelTaTvis. rogorc Cans, saZmos mTavari mizani ZalTa demostraciis moxdenas warmoadgenda. Tu `Zlieri ama qveynisani~ aRiareben macxovars, ubralo mokvdavni miT ufro unda Seudgnen qristes gzas da aRiaron igi. aRdgomis udides dResaswauls mTeli saqristiano gansakuTrebuli sixaruliTa da mowiwebiT aRniSnavs. RmerTis aRdgoma da misi maradiulobis rwmena uZvelesi azrobrivi danaSrevia kacobriobis istoriaSi da am istoriis nawili saqarTvelocaa. qarTuli samyaroc ar aris gamonaklisi Zveli Tu axali religiuri rwmena-warmodgenebisagan. aqac saintereso da mravalferovani suraTia gamokveTili. saqarTveloSi aRdgomis upirveles dResaswaulad miCnevas arqauli fena da myari Sexedulebebi daedo safuZvlad. qristes aRdgomas, mis gavrcelebas da sayovelTao aRiarebas, qristianobis gadaqcevas msoflio uZlieres religiad yovelmxriv hqonia safuZveli ganmtkicebuli. `mkvdreTiT aRdgomili qriste da misi moZRvreba daipyrobs sxvadasxva erebs da qveynebso~ (daviTni) Tavidanve safuZvliani iyo. saqarTveloSi saaRdgomo wiTeli kvercxebi, saferxulo cekvebi, winaparTa sulis mosaxseniebeli Cveuleba-ritualebi mniSvnelovani daskvnis saSualebas iZleva. kerZod, CvenSi dafiqsirebuli saaRdgomo ritualebi araeklesiuri sanaxaoba iyo, romelic mkveTrad gansxvavdeba Sua saukuneebis evropis saeklesio sanaxaobebisgan. Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi

saaRdgomo sanaxaobas `qristes ferxuli~ ewodeboda, romelic Semdegi saxiT mimdinareobda: 1. waRma, sacekvao xazis mimarTulebiT (saaTis isris brunvis sawinaaRmdego mimarTuleba); 2. piriqiT, sacekvao xazis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT (saaTis isris brunvis mimarTuleba). formis mxriv, es ferxuli erTwriulad da `sarTulis~ gareSe sruldeba. saferxulo-kombinirebul svlaSi ZiriTadad gamoyenebuli iyo: Cveulebrivi svla, gverdze fexis midgmiT da ukan fexmidgmiTi moZraobebi. saferxulo svlis dros xelebi qvedaSvebuli iyo da mtevnebi Cabmuli. simReris bolo frazaze wre ixsneba da sawyis mdgomareobas ubrundebian. ferxulSi monawileobs Suaxnis asakis TxuTmeti mamakaci. maT mier am ferxulis sasimRero da qoreografiuli `teqstis~ Sesruleba folklorul variants ganekuTvneba. amave dros, aRdgoma dRes aucilebeli da upirvelesi movaleoba iyo da dResac aris micvalebulTa saflavis monaxuleba. qristianuli moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, suli iTvleba RvTaebriv sawyisad, romelic adamians RmerTTan anaTesavebs, gamovlindeba gonierebaSi, Tavisuflebasa da ukvdavebaSi. micvalebulTa moxseniebis es dRe aRsaniSnavi iyo musikiTa da garTobebiT. saTeatro sanaxaobebi saeklesio wirva-locvis Semdeg imarTeboda. qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesia Sua saukuneebis evropis saeklesio sanaxaobebisagan gansxvavebiT krZalavda yovelgvar sanaxaobas. swored wirva-locvis Semdeg iSleboda sufra da mTeli mrevli marTavda ferxuls. amgvarad, zemoT moyvanili magaliTebiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom medievistikis samyaroSi, evropasa da saqarTveloSi saTeatro sanaxaobebi Tavis wes-kanonebs emorCileba, Tumca amgvar warmodgenebs kaTolikur Tu marTlmadideblur mrevlSi sakmaod didi yuradReba da dro eTmoboda.

1. Eugenio Barba and Nicolas Savarese. A Dictionary of Theatre Antropology. 2nd edition. Lomdon and New York, 2005, p. 175-176. 2. eJi grotovski. gamomcemloba `kentavri~, Tbilisi, 2008. gv. 54.

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3. Ïëåñíåð X., Ñòóïåíè îðãàíè÷åñêîãî è ÷åëîâåê: Ââåäåíèå â ôèëîñîôñêóþ àíòðîïîëîãèþ. http://filosof.historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/ z0000877/index.shtml 4. Eugenio Barba and Nicolas Savarese. A Dictionary of Theatre Antropology. 2nd edition. Lomdon and New York, 2005, p. 128. 5. Gloria K. Fiero. The Humanistic Tradition. Medieval Europe and the world beyond. 3rd edition. New York, 1998, p. 150. 6. iqve, gv. 162.

kinomcodneoba

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samagistro programa

msoflio kinos istoria

samagistro programa kinomcodneobaSi (MA in Film Studies) msoflio kinos istoriis ganxriT amzadebs kinomcodneebs, romlebic safuZvlianad iTviseben sazRvargareTis wamyvani kinematografiuli qveynebis kinos ganviTarebis periodebs, tendenciebs, mimarTulebebs, Taviseburebebsa da a. S., gamoimuSaveben kritikuli azrovnebis unars, saTanado profesiulsa da eTikur unar-Cvevebs. programis aqtualoba ganisazRvreba xelovnebis am dargisadmi mzardi moTxovnilebiT, specifikuri codnis miRebis surviliT momavali kvleviTi (da SesaZloa, p edagogiuri) moRvaweob is maRal donez e warmarTvisaTvis. xelovnebaTmcodneobis (kinomcodneobis) magistrebs SeuZliaT kvlevis Catareba da analitikuri samuSaos Sesruleba msoflio kinos istoriis sakiTxebze. maTi specializaciis sferoebi moicavs rogorc amerikuli, ise evropuli da aziuri kinematografis istoriis codnas, mzad iqnebian imuSaon specialobis mixedviT sxvadasxva dawesebulebebSi, kvleviT centrebSi, miiReben saTanado kompetencias specialuri akademiuri literaturis kiTxvis, aRqmisa da misi kritikulad SefasebisaTvis, SeeZlebaT miRebuli ganaTlebis demonstrireba, sakvalifikacio naSromis werilobiTi da zepiri wardgena. samagistro programis xelmZRvaneli xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, sruli profesori zviad doliZe

olRa eliaSvili magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. zviad doliZe gangst eruli kino gangsterulma kinom ganviTareba pova amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 20-iani wlebis bolos, amerikuli sazogadoebis socialuri cvlilebebis safuZvelze, rac gamowveuli iyo 1929-33 wlebSi ekonomikuri krizisiT. umuSevrobam, danaSaulebebis zrdam, policiis gamyidvelobam Sva filmebi, romelTa moqmedi gmirebi gangsterebi gaxdnen. am filmebis `gmirebi~ upirispirebdnen Tavis Tavs, sazogadoebas, aRiarebdnen ra mxolod Zaladobis kults. 1931 wels ekranze gamodis gangsteruli kinos erT-erTi pirveli klasikuri nimuSi, houard houqsis `naiarevi saxe~. filmSi asaxulia XX saukunis 30ian wlebSi, amerikaSi Seqmnili situacia da gangsteruli dajgufebebis TareSi. am periodSi gangsterebma sazogadoebaSi poziciebi gaimyares da maTi dajgufebebi popularobiTac ki sargeblobdnen. 20-ian wlebSi amerikaSi miRebulma e. w. `mSralma kanonma~ da aralegaluri spirtiani sasmeliT vaWrobam, gangsterebs gamdidrebis saSualeba misca. istorikosebi SemTxveviT ar miiCneven am kanons yvelaze warumatebel socialur eqsperimentad. gangsterulma sazogadoebam es ambavi miiRo, rogorc Zvirfasi saCuqari. Seiqmna safuZveli damnaSaveebis saqmiani SekavSirebis, romelmac Sva gangsterizmi ("Gang" inglisurad niSnavs ` b andas~ ). gangstereb i axorcielebdnen aralegalur bizness, romlisTvisac iyenebdnen yovelgvar saSualebebs, swored aseTi saSualeba iyo spirtiani sasmelebis gayidva `iatakqveS~. ramdenadac mTelma erma daiwyo maTi Sesyidva, saWiro gaxda viskis aralegalur damamzadebelTa mTeli armia. kinom 20-iani wlebis bolos Zirfesvianad da didi xniT SeiTvisa `mSrali kanonis~ Tema. kriminaluri kinos istoria daiwyo filmiT `matareblis didi gaZarcva~, romelic gadaiRo porterma `edisonis~ kinofirmaSi. es iyo im cnobili parizuli seansis rva wlisTavze. porteris filmi gaxda erTdroulad kinos ori mimarTulebis

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Canasaxi: gangsteruli filmisa da vesternisa. es iyo im arsebuli realobis winaaRmdeg amaRlebuli xma, romelic ase awuxebda amerikel xalxs. am Janris kinos yvelaze cnobili dueti iyo: reJisori Tomas insi da msaxiobi uiliam harti. am duetis erT-erTi saukeTeso namuSevaria 1918 wels gadaRebuli `rkinigzis mglebi~. matareblis gaZarcvis Semdeg, roca saqme namdvil `gayofaze~ midgeba banditebi erTmaneTs `daerevian~. es sufTa damnaSaveTa sazogadoebis zusti Cveneba iyo. ukve aSkarad Canda is, Tu rogor ixveweboda da viTardeboda gangsteruli kino, rogorc damoukidebeli sufTa amerikuli kinoJanri. 1929 wels msoflioSi daiwyo ekonomikuri krizisi, romelic, ra Tqma unda, amerikasac Seexo. es krizisi amerikis istoriaSi `didi depresiis~ saxeliTaa Sesuli. giganturi qveyana, romelic ekonomikuri aRmavlobis zenitSi iyo, katastroful mdgomareobaSi Cavarda, bankebi gakotrdnen, daiwyo masobrivi umuSevroba, SimSili, xalxi panikam moicva, gaizarda danaSaulTa ricxvi. swored am yvelafris fonze gangsterulma cxovrebam arnaxuli aRmavloba ganicada da logikuria, rom kinomatografis mTavar Temad iqca. swored am periodSi ramdenime wliT popularulebi gaxdnen e. w. `soflis banditebi~: jon dilinjeri, `kid~ nelsoni, boni parkeri da sxv. 1931 wels holivudSi gadaiRes 25 gangsteruli filmi: jorj hilis `saidumlo eqvseuli~, houard houqsis `kriminaluri kodeqsi~, alfred grinis `ioli fuli~ da sxv. es filmebi sakmaod didi popularobiT sargeblobdnen. `mSrali kanonis~ Tema gavrcelebuli iyo uamrav gangsterul kinoSi, Tumca mogvianebiT roca es kanoni gauqmda, 1939 wels Seiqmna erT-erTi saukeTeso filmi `qariSxliani ociani wlebi~, romlis reJisori iyo raul uolSi. es filmi gadaRebuli iyo metad mZime periodSi _ sanam hitleri poloneTs daesxmeboda Tavs, es mZime yofa filmzec aisaxa. amerikis istoriaSi erT-erTi popularuli e. w. `sofleli banditi~ iyo Carlz floidi, metsaxelad `lamazmani~. is iyo fermeris Svili. albaT, nawilobriv, amanac ganapiroba misi popularoba. banditi Zarcvavda bankebs, romlebic fermerebs miaCndaT mtrebad, radgan swored es bankebi arTmevdnen maT

fermebs gadauxdeli arendis sanacvlod. es koncefcia moqmedebda TiTqmis ori aTwleuli. 1960 wels herbert lederma gadaiRo filmi `lamazmani floidi~. gangsterulma Janrma popularobiT vesterns, miuzikls da komediasac ki gauswro. banditobebisa da Zarcveb is gaxSirebam gamoZiebis federalur biuros (FBI) misca saSualeba xelisuflebisagan mmarTvelobis radikaluri gazrdis ufleba mieRoT. Tu adre calkeuli Statebis samarTaldamcvelebs uxdebodaT sxvadasxva Zarcvebisa da danaSaulebebis gamoZieba, axla am yovelives FBI Caudga saTaveSi. am ciklis erT-erTi bolo da mniSvnelovani filmi iyo jeims horanis 1940 wels gadaRebuli `bandis dedofali~, sadac `goueris jgufi~ uswordeba `dedilo~ berkeris bandasa da mis vaJebs. cnobil msaxiobs blanS iurks misces saSualeba eCvenebina Tavisi gmiris xasiaTis gansxvavebuli mxareebi, sakuTar vaJebze uzomod Seyvarebuli qalis saxe da amis paralelurad sxvebis mimarT Seubralebeli qali. XX saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani filmi iyo artur penis `boni da klaidi~. reJisori films iwyebs fotogalereis CvenebiT. mTavari gmirebisa da maTi ojaxebis suraTebi i pyroben ekrans. marTalia, am suraTebis dawvrilebiTi naxva ar xerxdeba kadrebis swrafi monacvleobis gamo, Tumca mayurebelSi mainc sasurvel ganwyobas iwvevs. reJisorma Zalze saintereso gmirebis saxeebi Seqmna: klaidi _ simpaTiuri amerikeli, romelic cotas koWlobs da romelmac cixeSi yofnisas fexze ori TiTi moiWra, samuSaod rom ar gaeSvaT. boni ocdaaTiode wlis ti puri amerikeli gogoa. bonis da klaidis momxibvleloba da maTi garegnobis urTierTSeTanxmeba aucilebeli iyo reJisorisTvis da asec moxda, msaxiobebma araCveulebrivi ekranuli saxeebi Seqmnes. gmirebis mizani naTelia _ isini midian raTa dasajon mdidrebi da daexmaron Raribebs, gzadagza awyoben mravalferovan gegmebs. irkveva, rom bonis arasodes sWeria xelSi iaraRi da klaidi aswavlis mas srolas. es gakveTili gamoiyureba sruliad usafrTxod, cotaT i b avSvur T amaSsac ki hgavs da arafriT ar winaswarmetyvelebs yovelive im saSinelebas, rac mogvianebiT moxdeba. es ukve klasikuri kinos triukebia, mayurebeli naTlad xedavs, rogor ixveweba da viTardeba gangsteruli kino.

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sakmaod saintereso istoria moyva lourens Silerma filmSi `jalaTis simRera~ (1982). reJisorma ekranze gadaitana is, rac gadaxda Tavs 1976 wels vinme geri dilmors. Tormetwliani sasjelis Semdeg gmiri gadis Tu ara cixidan, erTdroulad or mkvlelobas Caidens. is klavs patara maRaziis mflobels da sastumros administrators, Tumca fuls, romelsac is eZebs, ver miiRebs: orives salaroSi mxolod ramdenime dolari udevs. igi, ra Tqma unda, dauyovnebliv daakaves da samudamo patimroba miusajes. ai, aq iwyeba yvelaze mTavari _ gmirma moiTxova, rom is sikvdiliT daesajaT. gangsteruli kinos erT-erTi saukeTeso nimuSia `naTlimama~, raSic naTladaa naCvenebi problema, romelsac samarTaldamcavebi ver umklavdebodnen. vito korleone Zalauflebis xelSi Casagdebad Zarcvavda da klavda xalxs. axalgazrda gangsterebis SeCereba samarTaldamcvelebs ase Tu ise ZaluZT, radgan isini am qmedebas Tavad axorcieleben. sul sxva SemTxvevaa Tu saqme exeba `dons~, romelmac Seqmna Tavisi didebis piramidebi. igi Cacmulia mkacr saqmian kostumSi da arasodes uwevs xmas, warmoudgenelia iaraRiT xelSi emuqrebodes sxvas. marlon brando interviuSi ambobs, rom `don korleone aris Cveulebrivi saqmiani magnati, romelic iswrafvis miaRwios yvelafers Tavisi jgufisa da ojaxisaTvis~. am filmis warmatebis Semdeg, gangsterebis Tema Zalze popularuli gaxda: amas mohyva am Janris filmebis mTeli nakadi: sidni liumetis `qalaqis ufliswuli~ (1981) da `ganaCeni~ (1982), serjo leones `erTxel amerikaSi~ (1984), braian de palmas `xelSeuxebelni~ (1987) da sxv. 1983 wels braian de palmam SesTavaza al paCinos eTamaSa houqsis filmis `naiarevi saxis~ `rimeiqSi~. am axal filmSi SemorCenili iyo Zveli filmis motivebi, Tumca mas aranairi kavSiri ar hqonda al kaponesTan. sisxlismRvreli Cikagoeli gangsteri Secvlili iyo kubeli emigrantiT, romelsac igive saxeli erqva, rogorc houqsis filmis gmirs, xolo aralegaluri alkoholiT vaWroba ki Secvlili iyo narkobiznesiT. `naiarevi saxe~, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aris Janris klasikuri nimuSi, yvela im pirobasa da moTxovnas pasuxobs, rac am Janris Taviseburebas warmoadgens: gangsterebis

Cacmuloba erTnairi, mkacri da eleganturia, narkotikebi, iaraRiT vaWroba, srola, bevri sisxli, gamdidrebisa da gandidebis surviliT Sepyrobili gmirebi, SiSi, Suri, undobloba, Ralati, cdiloben Tavad ar mietanon sawamlavs, romliTac sxvebs wamlaven, magram xSirad survili akrZalvaze Zlieri xdeba da Tavad xdebian msxverplni. amrigad, filmi mogviTxrobs organizebul danaSaulebriv samyaroze da kanondamrRvevTa jgufze, romelTa cxovrebis wesi, romelsac Tavadve adgenen, mkacri da daundobelia. Tanamedrove amerikuli kinos reJisori martin skorseze Tavisi Semoqmedebis ZiriTad Temas gangsterebis cxovrebas uZRvnis. misi erT-erTi pirveli gangsteruli filmia `bneli quCebi~. am filmiT reJisori iwyebs niu-iorkis gangsterebis cxovrebis aRweras. rodesac `bneli quCebi~ gamovida da reJisorma frensis ford kopolam naxa filmi, romelic im dros muSaobda Tavisi cnobili filmis `naTlimamas~ gagrZelebaze da eZebda msaxiobs axalgazrda don korleones rolisTvis, dauyovnebliv aiyvana de niro am rolze. `naTlimamas~ seriebi SeiZleba iTqvas aTwleulis saukeTeso gangsterul filmad iqca. rac Seexeba skorsezes Semoqmedebas, is SemdgomSic iRebs mTel rig gangsterul filmebs: `kargi biWebi~, `kazino~ da sxv. rogorc ar unda iyos, dResdReobiT organizebuli danaSauli erT-erTi yvelaze mtkivneuli, terorizmTan gaTanabrebuli msoflio problemaa. amerikaze saubrisas zedmetia imis mtkiceba, Tu vis ekuTvnis am problemis Seqmna italielebs Tu `iankebs~, miT umetes, rom am saqmeSi orives aqvs gamocdileba. 2002 wels martin skorsezem gamouSva filmi epopea `niu-iorkis bandebi~, romelSic naTlad Cans, rom yvela dros hyavda Tavisi damnaSaveebi, magram namdvili profesionaluri gangsterizmis istoria mogvianebiT daiwyo ­ daaxloebiT pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg. SemoqmedebiTi kodeqsis Semqmneli uiliam heisi Tavis memuarebSi werda: `gangsteruli kinos cikli gaCnda imitom, rom gangsteris kulti JurnalistikaSi iyo mTavari didi xnis ganmavlobaSi, magram am filmebiT sazogadoebas ki ar

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eubnebodnen, rom isinic ase unda moqceuliyvnen, aramed mayurebeli filmis pirvelive epizodidan grZnobda, rom rac ar unda enaxa mTeli filmis ganmavlobaSi, iyo ukanono, araswori da ubralod araadamianuri~. gangsteruli kinoJanri mayurebels, romelic yovelTvis maqsimalurad kategoriuli da momTxovnia, aZlevs saSualebas Tavad dainaxos is sisastike, Suri, SiSi da a. S., rac am dajgufebebis wevrebs Soris aris. es filmebi, umeteswilad, araTu propagandas uwevs gangsterul dajgufebebs, aramed piriqiT sakmaod anti propagandistulia, radgan aSiSvlebs mayureblis winaSe im mankier mxareebs, romelic aseT cxovrebas mosdevs, anu, mayurebels SeuZlia airCios da gaiTvaliswinos mosalodneli Sedegebi.

sofio wulaia magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. zviad doliZe kinofantastikis evoluciis procesi sityva `fantaz ia~ Zvelb erZnuli warmoSobisaa da `warmosaxvis xelovnebas~ niSnavs, igi fantastikur siuJetze aRzrdili mayureblis cnobierebaSi ararealurTan, gamonagonTan, fiqciasTan asocirdeba. xelovnebis ganviTarebis istoriaze Tvalis odnavi gadavlebac sakmarisia imis SesamCnevad, rom fantastikuri Janri erT-erTi wamyvania, romelic asazrdoebda miTologias, literaturas, Teatrs, ferweras. amitom, ar unda gagvikvirdes, rom misiT kinematografi dabadebis adreuli wlebidanve dainteresda. Tanamedrove gagebiT `kinofantastika~ Tavis dabadebas fantastikuri Janris literaturas unda umadlodes, Tumca, kinos mTavari upiratesoba _ gamosaxulebis vizualizaciac ar unda daviviwyoT, romelic kinos mesveurebma TavianT sasargeblod gamoiyenes. vizualuri xerxebiT mani pulirebam ekrans milionobiT adamiani miajaWva. fantastikuri Janri niWieri da windaxeduli adamianebis xelSi erTgvar `oqros sabadodac~ ki iqca. igi Tamamad SegviZlia miviCnioT komerciuli kinematografis winamorbedadac. Tu aTwleulebis intervaliT kinofantastikis dinamikurad cvalebad processa da mis evolucias davakvirdebiT, aRmovaCenT, rom saxelwodeba `konofantastika~ metad pirobiTi cnebaa, igi xom Tavis TavSi uamrav eqsperiments, JanrTa Serwymas, gamomsaxvelob iTi xerxebis mudmiv cvalebadobasa da mravalferovnebas itevs. masze udidesi gavlena iqonia literaturaSi, antikur da Tanamedrove miTologiaSi, filosofias, sociologiasa da fsiqologiaSi mimdinare mTelma rigma procesebma da cvlilebebma, gamoeyo saTavgadasavlo Janrs, moaxdina sxvadasxva JanrTan met-naklebad organuli SekavSireba, droTa ganmavlobaSi ki damoukideblad arsebobis uflebac moi pova, gaxda imdenad polistilisturi, rom ramdenime

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subJanric ki gamoeyo, romlebic TavianT formebSi imdenad arian stilizebulni, rom Zalauneburad, Janrebadac ki moiazrebian. yvelaferi ki lui lumieris banaluri, ramdenime wuTiani film `meqanikuri saxorciT~ daiwyo, romelsac mkvlevrebi pirvel fantastikur filmadac ki moiazreben (suraTis siuJeti Semdegnairia: ekranze naCvenebia eleqtronuli xorcsakepi manqana, romelSic cocxali goWebi xtebian da iqidan sosisebad qceulebi gamodian). kinofantastikis qveJanrebia: samecniero fantastika, saSinelebaTa filmi, e. w. "H o r r o r", fentezi, fantasmagoria, kiber-panki, neo-goTika da sxv. ganvmartoT TiToeuli maTgani: s a m e c n i e r o f a n t a s t i k a _ mTavari maxasiaTebeli: moqmedebis mimdinareoba sxva ganzomilebaSi, sadac waSlilia Tanamedroveoba da istoriuli dro, Tumca, moklebulia yovelgvar mistikur _ magiur elements. f e n t e z i _ saTaves iRebs XX saukunis pirvel aTeulSi fantastikuri Janris literaturisgan.Aam ciklis filmebSi dominantia miTologiuri, zRapruli siuJeti, romelsac bevri aqvs saerTo istoriul-saTavgadasavlo romanTan. fentezis gmirebi arian drakonebi, gnomebi, urCxulebi... aq yvelaferi, miTis msgavsad, daSvebazea dafuZnebuli, rogorc ki warmovidgenT, rom is, rasac Tvals vadevnebT fiqciaa, nawarmoebi Tavis mxatvrul Rirebulebas kargavs. s a S i n e l e b a T a f i l m i _ mTavari maxasiaTebeli: mayurebelSi SiSis grZnobis gaRviveba, SiSis uSualo gancda, masTan Zalian axlos dgas t r i l e r i , `Trill" inglisuri sityvaa da `Jruantels~ niSnavs, magram gansxvaveba isaa, rom Tu saSinelebaTa filmSi mTavari SiSis uSualo gancdaa, trilerSi dominanti SiSis molodinia; f a n t a s m a g o r i a _ momdinareobs ZvelberZnuli sityvidan da `moCvenebas~ niSnavs. es aris filmi aramiwier, zeciur arsebebze da Zalian axlos dgas XX saukunis ferweraSi farTod gavrcelebul abstraqcionizmTan. zemoT CamoTvlili TiToeuli qveJanris saerTo maxasiaTebelia gamogonili realobis, fiqciis reprezentacia fantastikuri xerxebisa da specefeqtebis saSualebiT. specefeqtis `gamomgoneblad~ ki

kinos erT-erTi pioneri, frangi JorJ meliesia miCneuli, romelmac Tavis moklemetraJian filmebSi gamokveTa is Temebi, romlebsac mogvianebiT ara erTxel Sexebia evropuli da amerikuli kinematografi. kinokritikosebi miiCneven, rom JorJ meliesis pirveli fantastikuri Janris filmia `eSmakis gasaRebi~ (1896), romlis qronometraJi ori wuTia, siuJeti ki Semdegi: ekranze adamiani qreba da Cndeba. fantastikuri Janris filmebiT mayureblis dainteresebam kidev erTxel cxadyo adamianis swrafva yovelgvari amoucnobisadmi. marTalia, kinofantastikis didi nawili gasarTobia da inteleqtualuri mayureblis interess ver akmayofilebs, magram arsebobs am Janris klasikac, romelic Seiqmna iseTi geniosebis mier, rogorebic arian: stenli kubriki (filmSi `kosmosuri odisea _ 2001 weli~, reJisorma samecniero fantastika erTgvar fasadad gamoiyena, romlis miRmac kacobriobis istoriaSi yvelaze didi sigiJe _ xelovnuri inteleqti da misi uaryofiTi mxareebi imaleba). vudi aleni genialuri filmiT `mZinare~, romelic, erTdroulad Janris satirac aris da erT-erTi aqtualuri problemis reprezentirebasac axdens: adamianis gaucxoeba Tanamedrove industrialur samyarosTan kinosuraTis mTavari Temaa; romanPpolanski, romelmac fantastikur JanrSi ori filmi Seqmna: `rozmaris Cvili~ da `vampirTa mejlisi~; fantastikuri Janris klasikosad, `kinos stiven kingad~ aRiarebuli stiven spilbergi, romelmac saTavgadasavlomistikur-fantastikuri filmebiT kinoepoqa Seqmna; 70-iani wlebis sakulto reJisori jorj lukasi, gaxmaurebuli `varskvlavuri omebiT~, romelmac filosofiur-fsiqologiuri samecniero fantastikiT gaiTqva saxeli, reJisorma vizualuri xerxebis saSualebiT axali realoba Seqmna. amasTanve moxda pirveli rolTa gacvla sqesTa Soris: Tu 30-iani 50-iani wlebis kinofantastikis mTavari gmirebi mamakacebi iyvnen, `varskvlavur omebSi~ sigurni uiveris gmiri sapirispiro sqesis erTgvari risxva xdeba. aq qali Tavdamsxmelia, mamakaci ki msxverpli, rac, bunebrivia, 60-70-ian wlebSi feministuri organizaciebis udidesi popularobiTa da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi qalis rolis zrdiTaa gamowveuli; 80-iani wlebis

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erT-erTi warmatebuli reJisori jeims kameroni, romelmac `terminatoris~ seriebiT sakmaod seriozuli metafora Seqmna: xelovnuri da bunebrivi inteleqtis dapirispireba, romelic Tanamedrove civilizaciis erTgvar simbolodac ki aRiqmeba; inteleqtualuri kinos mwvervaladaa miCneuli andrei tarkovskis ori filmi: `solarisi~ da `stalkeri~, romlebic fantastikur JanrSia gadawyvetili. am yvelafris paralelurad arsebobda filmidan filmSi meqanikurad gardamavali banaluri siuJetebi, romelTa talRa 30-iani wlebis dasawyisidan agorda da dRemde aqtualuria, imdenad aqtualuri, rom zogjer sxvadasxva aTwleulSi erTi da imave filmis remeikebic ki iqmneboda, magaliTad: `drakula~ _ brem stokeris amave saxelwodebis gaxmaurebuli romanis ekranizacia. romanis mTavar Rirsebad unda CaiTvalos is faqti, rom man Seuwyo xeli Seqmniliyo qrestomaTiuli saxe aristokrati vampirisa, romelic Sav labadasa da `SlapaSia~ gamowyobili da RamRamobiT sisxls swovs adamianebs. meore popularuli siuJeti iyo meri Selis goTikuri roman `frankenStainis~ ekranizacia. aseve, `king kongi~, `uCinari adamiani~, `mumia~ da sxv. ... 80-ian wlebamde evropuli da amerikuli kinofantastika mkveTrad imijneba erTmaneTisgan. evropuli fantastika ufro daxvewili, inteleqtualuri, mravalplasturi da mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT ufro metad Rirebulia, maSin, rodesac Tu mcire gamonaklisebs ar CavTvliT, amerikuli kinos mTavar sazrdos mozardi TaobisTvis gankuTvnili saJurnalo da sagazeTo komiqsebi warmoadgens, romlis mTavari gmirebi arian: supermeni, betmeni, naiTmeni da sxva aramiwieri arsebebi da miTologizirebuli gmirebi. germanuli kinoeqspresionizmisTvis fantastika politikuri metafora xdeba, franguli kinoavangardisTvis _ eqsperimentebis, SemoqmedebiTi Ziebebisa da axali kinoenis formirebis mcdeloba, Jan kokto filosofiur-fsiqologiuri motivebis reprezentacias axdens miTologiur trilogiaSi `urCxuli da mzeTunaxavi~ (1948), `orfeosi~ (1950) da `orfeosis anderZi~ (1960). frangulma `axalma talRam~, kerZod, sakulto reJisorma Jan luk godarma filmiT `alfavili~ tirani mmarTvelisa da

kompiuteruli teqnikis saSualebiT marTuli samyaros modeli SemogvTavaza, sadac yvelaferi adamianuri uaryofilia, aq danaSaulad aris miCneuli romantizmis yovelgvari gamovlineba, poezia, siyvaruli... mTavari gmiri ki yvelafris Secvlas diqtatoris qaliSvilis, nataSas daxmarebiT cdilobs; fransua triufom ki filmiT `4500 farenheitiT~ gviCvena, rogor anadgurebs televizia wignis kiTxvis survils. apaTiuri, gaucxoebuli samyaros Seqmna fantastikuri xerxebis saSualebiT orive reJisors brwyinvaled gamouvida. 80-iani wlebidan evropuli kinos krizisi iwyeba, marTvis sadaveebs xelSi holivudi iRebs, evropeli kinoreJisorebis didi nawilic holivudSi gadadis da iq ganagrZobs moRvaweobas. 90-iani wlebidan kinoSi aqtiurad iWreba kompiuteruli teqnika, romelic axali subJanris, kiber-pankis dabadebas ganapirobebs.Ees aris filmebi Soreul momavalze, sadac mTavari problema post-industriuli antiutopiaa, romelic momaval sazogadoebas aRwers, rogorc qariSxlian socialur-kulturul cvlilebebs Sewirul da sulierad dasaxiCrebul kastas, sadac xelovnuri arsebebi _ robotebi, manqanebi, monstrebi _ TavianTi Semqmnelis winaaRmdeg gamodian. kiber-pankSi mTavari kompiuteruli grafikis saSualebiT Seqmnili realobaa. amave periodSi Cndeba neogotikuri, apokalifsuri da postapokalifsuri siuJetebi.NneogoTika agebulia klasikuri goTikuri romanis stilSi, romelsac kompiuteruli grafika srulyofs. apokalifsuri da post-apokalifsuri siuJetebi ki saukunis bolosTvis, 2000 wlis misadgomebSia aqtualuri. sityva Janri franguli warmoSobisaa da `gvars~, `tips~ niSnavs. kinofantastika erT-erTi mZlavri Janria xelovnebis yvelaze axalgazrda dargisa, romelmac Tavisi arsebobis manZilze urTulesi gza gaiara. iyo stereotipuli, eqsperimentuli (erTerT mTavar eqsperimentad unda CaiTvalos 30-ian wlebSi kinoSi xmis mosvlis Semdeg Seqmnili deivid batleris miuzikli `mxolod warmoidgineT~, romelic miuziklTan erTad fantastikis elementebsac Seicavs); novatoruli, gamaRizianebeli, agresiuli, zogjer iaffasiani da zogjer inteleqtualuri, magram Zalian saintereso da yovlismomcveli.

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rusudan papunaSvili magistraturis II kursi, xelmZRvaneli prof.: manana lekboraSvili qalis reprezentacia frankistuli espaneTis periodis kinematografSi espaneTis kinematografiis istoriaSi metad mniSvnelovani periodia samoqalaqo omis (1936-1939) Semdgomi wlebi. pirvel etaps, romelsac me ganvixilav (1939-1943) axasiaTebs nacionalurisa da folkloruli Janrebis Serwyma, rac ukve arsebobda respublikis imdroindel musikalur da tradiciul (costimbrista) `espanizmebSi~. ar arsebobs kinoze ufro popularuli da pedagogiuri xerxi nacionaluri ideebis gasavrceleblad.Komis Semdgom kinoproduqcias, romelic CIFESA-s mier saxelmwifos patronaJiT imarTeba, mkveTrad gamoxatuli propagandistuli funqciebi aqvs. CIFESA 1932 wels valensiaSi fuZndeba da misi mizania `gaaespanuros~ 30-iani wlebis kino, ganamtkicos rasobrivi gamorCeulobis grZnoba da gaaRrmavos patriotizmi. es aris pirveli mcdeloba holivudis magaliTze dayrdnobiT mowesrigdes xmovani kinos industria. politikurad is konservatorTa da memarjveneTa frTis ideologiur interesebs eqvemdebareba. CIFESA-m musikaluri Janris `espanuri stili~ gadaaqcia avtonomiur damoukidebel Janrad da win wamoswia rasobrivi Rirebulebebi, erovnuli wes-Cveulebebi da folklori. espanuri respublikis wlebSi CIFESA-s kinematografiuli produqcia TiTqmis mTlianad Semoifargleboda komediiT da soflis dramiT, romelTac, gamonaklisis gareSe, aerTianebT Semdegi elementebi: religia, istoriuli idilia klasebs Soris da iseTi arqauli moraluri normebi, rogoricaa Rirseba _ tradiciulad, misi matarebeli qalia. espanuroba qalSi isxams xorcs, is tradiciebisa da eris erTobas, rasobriv siwmindes asaxierebs. im espaneTSi, romelic `diad erovnul moZraobaSi~ ikveTeba, politikuri ideebi aRmocendeba mxolod erTian da diad

Tanamedrove kinoTeoriebi da kriticizmi

samagistro programa kinomcodneobaSi (MA in Film Studies) Tanamedrove kinoTeoriebi da kriticizmis ganxriT gamiznulia moamzados kinomcodne, romelic icnobs Tanamedrove tendenciebs msoflio kinematografSi, flobs Tanamedrove kinokvlevis meTodebs da SeuZlia maTi gamoyeneba konkretuli kinomovlenis analizisas. programis aqtualoba ganisazRvreba im viTarebiT, rom sabWoTa kinomcodneoba arsebuli politikuri viTarebis g am o w leb is ganm avlobaS i mow yvetili iy o msofliokinomcodneobaSi da kulturologiaSi mimdnare procesebs. sabWoTa kinomcodneoba kinematografiul produqcias ZiriTadad ikvlevda Tematur-siuJeturi da ideologiuri kuTxiT, naklebad Seiswavlida kinematografiuli enis specifikas, struqturas, recepciis kanonebs da a.S. programis mizania students gaacnos kulturis sferoSi mimdinare gamotovebuli etapebi, ufro gaRrmavebulad Seaswavlos kinos Tanamedrove Teoriebi da masze dafuZnebuli filmis kvlevis meTodebi zogad kulturul konteqstSi. kursis gasrulebis Semdeg magistri gaecnoba kulturis sferoSi arsebul yvela ZiriTad Teorias, romelic Seiswavlis kinematografs; SeeZleba am Teoriebze dayrdnobiT zogad kulturul konteqstSi ganaTavsos esa Tu is kinonawarmoebi da miRebuli Teoriuli codna gamoiyenos konkretuli kinonawarmoebis analizisas; miRebuli codnis safuZvelze ku rs da mT avr eb ul s Seu Zl ia i muS ao s te lev iz ie b S i, kinowarmoebaSi redaqtorad, Jurnal-gazeTebSi, internet gamocemebSi kinokritikosad, kinoJurnalistad, magram amave dros, kursis Teoriaze upiratesi orientaciis gamo gaagrZelos swavla doqtoranturaSi da Camoyalibdes kinos (da zogadad kulturis) mkvlevarad da umaRlesi skolis pedagogad samagistro programis xelmZRvaneli xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, asocirebuli profesori manana lekboraSvili

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samSoblos idealebze. evropuli faSisturi dogmebis msgavsad, espaneTSic ideologiuri SeTavazeba emyareba `espanizmis~ cnebis xelaxal gansazRvras, imperiuli warsulis falsifikaciasa da yovelive imis daTrgunvas, rac nacionaluri grZnobebis Seuracxyofad iTvleba.Nnacionalistur-sindikalisturi sqema sam ZiriTad kanons gamoyofs: ojaxi, munici paliteti _ sindikati da istoriuli wyoba, romlis mamoZravebeli Zalac aris samSoblo da eklesia.Ees sqema iqceva espaneli eris saxelmZRvanelod drosa da sivrceSi: `espaneTiTa da espanelobiT siamaye maSin dageuflebaT, rodesac srulad gaacnoebierebT Cveni xalxis meir ganxorcielebul misias warsulSi, da imas Tu ra aqvs mas gasakeTebeli momavalSi~ (cit. sanCes lopesis naSromidan: `espaneli qali, bedis aCrdili~). kinos `gaespanurebis~ proeqts miRwevebic aqvs am periodSi moRvawe ramdenime reJisoris wyalobiT. filmebma `aragoneli Tavadaznauroba~ (1935) da `Savgvremani klara~ (an `morena klara~, 1936), romlebic reJisorma florian reim gadaiRo, warmougenel popularobas miaRwia, rogorc omamde, aseve omis Semdeg. rasobrivi gamorCeuloba orive filmSi qalis figuraSia Cadebuli. aragoneli qalis da boSa qalis ubiwoeba da socialuri Rirseba koleqtiurad aris ganxiluli, Semdgom ki sajarod Sewynarebuli eklesiis mier.Aaseve mniSvnelovania florian reis folkloruli dramebi: `doloresi~ (1940), `dawyevlili sofeli~ (1942) da `orosia~ (1940). modiT vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba florian reis `doloresi~, `dawyevlili sofeli~ da `orisia~ ganvixiloT nacionalisturi modelis variantebad. `doloresSi~ aragonizmi, aRfrTovanebis gamomwvevi dekoracia da rasobrivi gamorCeuloba mTeli espaneTis Tavadaznaurobas niSnavs; qalis RirsebaSi mTeli eris Rirsebaa Cateuli. doloress arc mSoblebi hyavs, arc ojaxi da arc saxli aqvs; igi martod xetialobs, aris damoukidebeli da inarCunebs uflebas Tavad aarCios Tayvanismcemlebi da mTxovnelebi. filmis pirveli naxevari qalis damoukideblobis moTxovnis garkveuli interpretaciaa. erT-erTma misma ganawyenebulma Tayvanismcemelma kupletiT `Tu waxvalT kalataiudSi/

doloresi ikiTxeT/ romelic Zalian kargi gogoa/da Zalian damTmobia~, eWvqveS daayena doloresis Rirseba. qali eSmakobiT, simtkiciTa da maxis dagebiT igebs, vin iyo Cirqis momcxeb kupletze pasuxismgebeli da sajarod iTxovs Rirsebis adgenas. Rirsebis aRdgena doloresis piradi iniciativiT, religiuri zewolis gareSe moxda. magram qalis Zalaufleba amiT mTavrdeba. filmis mamakaci personaJebis andazebsa da gamoTqmebSi ikveTeba frankos periodis patriarqaluri da qalTmoZule xasiaTi, romelic aqarwylebs mTavari gmiris moCvenebiT damoukideblobas da praqtikulad imave funqcias asrulebs, rasac religiuri samsjavro. aseTi maCisturi azrovnebis warmomadgenlebi Tavs uflebas aZleven gamoiyenon xalxuri gamoTqmebi da simRerebi qalis dasamcireblad Semdegi sityvebiT `qali da Rvino kacs Wkuas akargvineben~, `arsebobs qalis ori saxeoba: cudi da uaresi, ara aqvs mniSvneloba gaTxovilia Tu ara~, `sayvarel qalebs kacebi Cirqs scxeben~, da a. S. amitomac `doloresSi~ sityvebi: `aravin miyvars da arc ki vici ra aris siyvaruli~ da `Semiwyale Sen, hilaris RvTismSobelo~, _ ar aris sakmarisi xalxis winaSe Rirsebis dasacavad. es Rirseba sajarod unda iqnes aRdgenili isev mxolod mamakacis mier leqsebisa da sakarnavalo farsis meSveobiT. suraTSi vizualuri aspeqti da stereoti puli regionalizmi (kostiumebi, dialeqti, xota _ esp. cekva da simRera) soflis garemoSia CarCenili. masSi (rogorc es mogvianebiT xuan de ordunias `aragonel agustinaSi~ moxdeba) xota samSoblos arsis gamomxatvelia. filmSi erT-erTi xotis Sesrulebisas aseT sityvebs vismenT: `rodesac aragonSi xotas mRerian. xota ar aris xota/ aramed dedaa da samSoblo.~ doloresis reputaciac (gamoxatuli sxva xotis sityvebSi), aris mSobliuri aragonis reputacia, ufro zogadad ki, mTeli espaneTis reputacia: `aragonis upiratesobaa misi qalebis patiosneba da mTeli xalxis Rirseba~. xotaSi gaJRerebuli sityvebi aRadgenen doloresis Rirsebas, amkoben mis qalur patiosnebas da mxolod filmis bolos amxelen da kicxaven cilismwameblur xasiaTs. `doloresis~ mimarT SeiZleba gamoiTqvas iseTive kritikuli SeniSnva, rac

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espanelma mweralma da istorikosma, roman gubernma misi winamorbedis `aragoneli Tavadaznaurobis~ ganxilvisas Tqva: `...puritanizmi da sqesobrivi retrogradoba im qalTa realobadaa dasaxuli, romelTa Tanamoazrec Tavad filmia da yovelive es miCneulia normalur da samagaliTo movlenadac ki~. 1943 wels florian reis `orosia~ imeorebs `doloresis~ zogierT Sinaarsobriv da folklorul debulebebs.Mmoqmedeba viTardeba me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi, espaneTis erT-erT patara sofelSi.Oorosia da eloi axalgazrda Seyvarebuli wyvilia, romelic daqorwinebas apirebs, magram qorwineba ar Sedgeba datrialebuli tragediis gamo _ orosias saqmros misi Tayvanismcemeli uklavs.Qqali gadawyvets Suri iZios satrfos mkvlelze. suraTSi Txroba da qalis personaJi meryeobs patriarqaluri arsis darRvevasa da misTvis daqvemdebarebas Soris. orosia Tavisi problemebis gadasaWrelad, iseve rogorc `aragoneli Tavadaznaurobisa~ da `doloresis~ personaJebi, cdilobs iyos damoukidebeli, uryevi da patiosani. qalis xasiaTis am statistikuri elementebis (stereoti pebad qceuli arqaizmi da regionalizmi) esTetika kidev erTxel warmoaCens orosias, rogorc gardamaval SemaerTebel rgols tragikul gmirsa da qristianul mowames Soris. `orosia~ xotbas asxams soflis adaT-wesebis siwmindes zemo aragonisa da pireneebis magaliTze: es regionebi warmoadgenen espanurobis geografiul da simbolur sazRvars, romelic gamoyofs da icavs mas ucxo elementebis SemoWrisagan. JurnalSi `premier plano~ Tavis statiaSi florian rei xsnis, Tu ratom airCia es geografiuli adgili: `zemo aragoni... gansakuTrebuli samyaroa, igi Seuvalia, misTvis ucxoa yovelgvari zegavlena. cxovreba aq TiTqos SeCerebulia da winaparTa saxeebi batonoben, cxovrebis wesi patriarqaluria, martivi, xalxi mecxoveleobas misdevs.~ Jurnal `premier planos~ 1944 wlis monografiul nomerSi, romelic mTlianad daeTmo `orosias~ premieras, erT-erTi kritikosi xsnis peizaJis simbolur mniSvnelobas am filmSi: `orosia~ aris Zveli xalxuri SeZaxili: `pireneebi isev

arseboben!~, romelmac espanur kinoSi Seisxa xorci. is upirveles yovlisa aris nacionaluri filmi, imitom rom es aris pireneiuli filmi. xolo espaneTi, vaRiaroT erTxel da samudamod, pireneebiT iwyeba... `orosia~ es aris espanuri kinos sazRvari... `pirineebi isev arseboben~,...`isev arsebobs rasis sakurTxeveli!~ (citata sanCes vidalis naSromidan `florian reis kino~). orosia pireneul garemosTan aris Serwymuli. is ansotanos regionalur kabaSi gamowyobili, zemo aragonis tradiciebsa da folkloris simboloa. is Tavisufalia mamakacis kontrolisagan, Tavs Tavad irCens, uyvars mwyemsebi da mojamagireebi, soflis boRmasa da Worebze maRla dgas. `orosias~ originaloba imaSia, rom aq siuJetis mamoZravebel Zalas qalis SurisZieba misi sabolood sikvdiliT mTavrdeba. filmis bolo kadrebSi Cven vxedavT orosias, romelmac ukve iZia Suri da romelic mieSureba sasaflaoze, sadac misi saqmroa dakrZaluli. orosia ecema Tavisi rCeulis, elios saflavze. igi kvlav qalwulia, razec sapatarZlo TeTri kaba da Tavsaburavi metyveleben. finalur scenaSi vxedavT elios saflavis qvis gverdiT axal qvas, romelzec amotvifrulia orosias saxeli. SeyvarebulTa gardacvalebis TariRebs Soris eqvsi wlis Sualedi migvaniSnebs imaze, rom swored es dro dasWirda qals SurisZiebis gansaxorcieleblad. miuxedavad imisa, rom suraTSi ar aris drois gasvlis vizualuri niSnebi, scenari damajereblad amarTlebs mTavari gmiris `Ralats~ Tavisi rCeulis xsovnisadmi. sikvdilis qvaze amotvifruli TariRi gamoricxavs TviTmkvlelobas an SemTxveviT sikvdils, rac gadaaqcevda mas tragikul gmirad. is aris msxverpli bedisa, romlis gakontrolebac ar SeiZleba. aseTi finaliT isRa dagvrCenia, miviRoT orosias sikvdili, rogorc msxverplSewirva, radganac is aris xalxis Rirsebis matarebeli da mas xvda wilad pasuxismgebloba _ epova samarTali. orosias msxverplSewirva reJimis warmomadgenelTa brtyel-brtyel sityvebs gvagonebs: `espaneli qali sufTa, qristiani da keTili, dajildoebulia msxverplSewirvis uzarmazari unariT, is aris Cveni samSoblos saukeTeso tradiciebis RvTaebrivi sacavi~

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(adolfo mailio, cit. sopenia monsalve). misi SurisZieba samSoblos samsaxurs gautolda, xolo sikvdilma igi wamebulebs gautola da misi ukanaskneli daniSnulebaa SeuerTdes gardacvlil satrfos. frankistuli socialuri wyoba icavs imas, rasac sanCes lopesi `gaafTrebul ojaxurobas~ eZaxis da rac efuZneba `qalis kuTvnilebas saxelmwifosadmi (deda/ojaxi/eri)~; `qalTa sajaro erTobis wesdebis~ Seqmnas...~, romlis uaryofac ar SeiZleba, is unda miiRo da ganicado~. erovnuli mentalitetis gadamcemi deda aris is mTavari gmiri, romelsac zneobriobis mcvelis funqciebi akisria. es debuleba warmodgenilia `dawyevlili soflis~ (1942) xmovan versiaSic (florian reis `dawyevlil sofeli~ 1930 welsac aqvs gadaRebuli). masSi koncentrirebulia da ukiduresobamdea miyvanili istoriuli anaqronizmi, personaJebis stereoti pizacia, xasiaTebi da sanaxaobrivobis ikonizacia, qalis simboluri da alegoriuli mniSvneloba, rac aqamde `doloresSi~ da `orosiaSic~ igrZnoboda, magram amjerad reJisori konkretuli politikuri da religiuri programiT xelmZRvanelobda: ar daeSvaT soflidan mosaxleobis masobrivi migracia da aRedginaT nacional-kaTolikuri espaneTis Rirebulebebi. `wyeul sofelSi~ win aris wamoweuli kastiliuri Rirsebis tradiciuli Tema, raTa warmoCenil iqnas `espaneTis istoriis parabola uaxlesi movlenebis WrilSi~ (sanCes vidali). soflidan qalaqSi gadasaxlebis gardauvalobis fonze deda valdebulia darCes sofelSi, rogorc geografiuli kuTvnilebis obieqti da rogorc soflisa da keris uwyveti simbolo. aseTi qalisaTvis akrZalulia zogierTi misi Tanamedrove kinematografiuli `kolegis~ aqtiuroba da mobiluroba. rodesac igi ganacxadebs: `mec maqvs ufleba viSromo CemianebisaTvis~ pasuxad patriarqisgan miiRebs mkvaxe `xma gaikminde~-s, rac masac da Cvenc Segvaxsenebs, rom is mxolod uxmo simboloa.Acacia aRarad agdebs qmris batonobas, gadauxvevs misTvis gankuTvnili gzidan da tovebs sofelsac, ojaxur kerasac, Svilsac (romelic patriarqaluri xazis gamgrZelebelia) da sabolood qalaqis erT-erT bordelSi aRmoCndeba. arsebuli

wesrigis darRveva da samSoblosaTvis Rirsebis ayra patriarqis samagaliTo dasjas da religiur monaniebas iTxovs. akacia, ase hqvia mTavar gmirs, gzas acdenili qali da cudi deda, aris mizezi im wyevlisa, romelic sofels awevs da, simbolurad, mizezi samSoblos SesaZlo dacemisa. samagaliTo dasja mdgomareobs sagvareulo saxlSi (samSobloSi) Caketvasa da izolirebaSi. mas ekrZaleba xmis amoReba Svilis TandaswrebiT da soflidan gadasaxleba. religiuri monanieba iTvaliswinebs qristianul gvemas, ris Semdegac SesaZlebelia Sendoba. fexSiSveli moxetiale dedis saxebaze fleSbeqiT dadebulia warsulis movlenebi, romlebSic ikveTeba codvis gaazreba, sinanuli da monanieba. qristianulma ikonografiam daskvniT scenaSi sruliad Caanacvla regionaluri folklorika: qali brundeba sofelSi, raTa patriarqs Sewyaleba sTxovos. patriarqi mas wylulebian fexebs ganbans, rogorc es gaakeTa qristem magdalinelTan mimarTebaSi. amis Semdeg igi abrunebs akacias ojaxSi. es finaluri scena qvaSi amotvifruliviT rCeba mexsierebaSi. 1942 wels gadaRebuli `dawyevlili sofeli~ aris zusti magaliTi imisa, Tu rogor gadawera da miusadaga florian reim respublikuri konservatiuloba nacionalur-kaTolikur debulebebs. is, rac 1930 wlis munji kinos versiaSi vixileT, iyo pirovnuli grZnobebi da vnebebi, xmovan versiaSi Cven vxedavT arqeti pebs, frankistuli reJimisTvis misaReb sanimuSo Rirebulebebs. `dawyevlili soflis~ `erovnuli mniSvneloba~ maSinve iqna aRiarebuli kritikosebis mier. igi Seracxes rogorc frankistuli epoqis yvelaze gamomsaxvelobiTi da mniSvnelovani filmi. soflis saswaulebrivi gaTavisufleba mxolod maSin gaxda SesaZlebeli, rac moRalate colma moinania codva. man gmirulad aitana qmris, Seuvali diqtatoris, samagaliTo sasjeli. moRalate coli ­ iseve rogorc dekadenturi epoqis gzasacdenili espaneTi, ganibana codvebisagan, Sewyda masiuri migraciis bneli talRa da soflis (kastiliis, espaneTis) Tavze mzis sxivebi gamoCnda. 1942 wels gamosuli xose luis saens de eredias filmis `rasa~ scenari Tavad frankom dawera, fsevdonimiT xaime de

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andrade. is warmoaCens ojaxs, rogorc frankistuli eris, naciis metaforas da dedobriv TviTganwirvas mamis sikvdilis Semdeg. ojaxuri wesrigis Seucvleli sayrdeni aris deda, gaigivebuli dedasamSoblosTan, romelic or Svils, xuansa da xoses Soris ixliCeba. orive Svili espanelia, magram samkvdrosasicocxlod ebrZvis erTmaneTs; deda gaigivebulia qalwul mariamTan, xolo misi xose, gaigivebuli iesosTan wiTel barbarosTa msxverpli xdeba. dedis sikvdilis Semdeg samSoblos aqtiuri damcvelebi xdebian samSoblosaTvis wamebulis qvrivi da misi rZali. isini SesaZlebels xdian xoses aRdgomas da Sesabamisad, misi Zmis xuanis politikur xsnas. am ori filmis hermetuli struqtura ar iZleva saSualebas gascdes qalis stereoti ps: deda-dedofali-wminda qalwuli. `rasa~ da `amerikis ganTiadi~, albaT, yvelaze TvalsaCino nimuSebia frankizmis mier istoriis gadawerisa. am periodis istoriul suraTebSi uxvadaa warmodgenili realuri Tu gamogonili protagonisti qalebi.Aam filmebis mizania aRadginos warmosaxviTi Sida imperializmi, rac iqneboda kompensacia gare, geografiuli imperiisa, romelic sabolood daiSala. aseTi filmebis Warbsityvianoba da gaxevebuli esTetika tols ar udebs reJimis ritorikas imperiis aRdgenis Sesaxeb an samSoblos dacvaze gareSe mtrisagan. isabel kaTolike, imperiuli orwevris (rwmenis siwmindisaTvis brZola da dapyroba) simbolo, ukvdavyofilia xuan de ordunias filmSi `amerikis ganTiadi~ (1951). igi xuravs xuan de ordunias istoriuli filmebis cikls da imavdroulad warmoadgens CIFESA-s krizisisa da dacemis dasawyiss. kastiliis dedofali aris xateba, romelic aerTianebs rasas, rwmenasa da imperiul momavals: `igi espaneli eris mfarvelia, keTilSobili erisa, romelic axal samyaroSi unda gadainergos da ganiwmindos mavrebisagan.~ aRsaniSnavia amerikidan dabrunebuli dedoflis sityva: `Cven iq Cagvaqvs keTilSobili sisxli, raTa ganvanaTloT espaneTis ori keTilSobiluri ojaxi. zRvis, manZilisa da drois miuxedavad Cven yovelTvis gagvaerTianebs erTi rwmena da erTi ena. es iqneba yvela saukunis yvelaze lamazi saswauli~.Kkolumbis gegmis wamowyebis xelSesawyobad saWiroa ara mxolod

dedoflis institucionaluri da ekonomikuri daxmareba, aramed ubralo gogonas, beatrisis uangaro siyvarulic, romelic moTminebiT icdis, rom gaxdes `diadi adamianis fermkrTali aCrdili, romelic sul Tan dahyveba, magram ar gawuxebs.~ qalebis keTilgonierebisa da Tavganwirvis wyalobiT gmirs bolomde mihyavs wamowyebuli saqme, rogorc SeniSna istorikosma frans fanonma, qali aris simboluri Suamavali im gmirobisa, romelsac sCadis mamakaci, qali xdis SesaZlebels patriarqatis Zalauflebas ojaxSi, rac reproduqcirdeba Zalauflebis militarizaciasa da centralizaciaSi mTeli eris masStabiT. xuan de ordunias istoriuli dramebi erTi sqemis mixedviTaa agebuli: espaneTis dacva ucxoelTa Semotevisgan, ierarqiulobis kanonieroba, melodramatuloba da rac mTavaria qalis xati romelic warmoCenilia rogorc saxe mTeli espaneli erisa. `siyvarulisgan gagiJebulSi~ kastilieli dedoflis, xuanas, romelic SeSlilis zedmetsaxeliT aris cnobili, kastiliuri xasiaTi da Seupovroba, romelic mas memkvidreobiT ergo dedisgan, kaTolike dedoflisgan da kastilieli raindebis igive Tvisebebi (isini icaven dedofals sigiJis braldebisagan) siuJeturadac da viz ualuradac kontrastSi modis flandriuli karisa da misi meTauris avstriis erchercogis politikur korufciasTan. mas Semdeg rac erchercogi daqorwinda dedofal xuanaze igi gaxda fili pe I kastilieli. filmis pirvelive kadrebidan mefe warmodgenilia rogorc avxorci, ambiciuri, meqalTane adamiani _ mizezi dedoflis `SeSlilobisa~. gansakuTrebiT xazgasmulia is, rom igi aris saSiSi, radganac emsaxureba ucxoelTa interesebs da `saSiSroebas uqmnis kastilieli xalxis Rirsebas~. samSoblos mtrebi flandria da granada (gansaxierebulni flandriis mefesa da mavr qal aldaraSi) Sekraven mtrul alianss. aldara aris dedoflis sruli anti podi ara mxolod kastiliurobaSi, aramed patiosnebaSic. dedofal xuanas (msaxiobi aurora bautista) mkacri Cacmuloba da saqcieli dapirispirebulia mavr aldaras (msax. sara montieli) gamomwvevobasa da egzotikurobas. erTi mxriv, dgas dedoflis sikeTe da sulgrZeloba, xolo, meore mxriv, mavris silamaze da boroteba.Aaldara fili pe Iis sayvareli xdeba, es aris Seuracxyofa dedoflisa, romelic

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kastiliis Rirsebis matarebelia. `mefem RmerTis mterTan miRalata, ar arsebobs meti Seuracxyofa espaneTis kaTolike dedoflisa~,_ ambobs xuana.Nmisi individualuroba, Seupovroba da isterika Sefasebulia rogorc `avadmyofoba~, gonebrivi aSliloba da sabolood ki _ sigiJe. misi sulieri mdgomareoba Cacmulobazec aisaxeba: dekolteebs, samkaulebsa da mxiarul flandriul kabebs is Caanacvlebs mkacri kastiliuri kabebiT, Savi TavsaburaviTa da erTi jvriT kiserze. dedofali monazvnis kabas icvams da de la motas cixe-koSkSi iketeba. magram garkveuli periodis Semdeg xuana tovebs cixe-koSks da cxenze amxedrebuli mieSureba fundukisaken, raTa Tavad darwmundes qmris RalatSi. amasTan is amJRavnebs Tavis mgznebare da dauokebel ltolvas mefis mimarT, es ki mis kaTolikur rwmenasa da mkacr aRzrdas ewinaaRmdegeba. kastiliis karze igi maSinve amyarebs sufTa qalur urTierTobebs sefeqalebTan, upirispirdeba Tavis ucxoel metoqes, saboloo jamSi ki, kastiliis kars, raTa daicvas sakuTari Tavi da aicilos datyveveba. SurisZieba mefis Ralatis gamo aris mamoZravebeli Zala, rac aiZulebs daTmos qristianuli morCileba da moiTxovos Tavisi ufleba gvirgvinze. es qmedeba Riad ewinaaRmdegeba TviTSewirvis, morCilebisa da qmrisadmi daqvemdebarebis religiur princi pebs, rasac frankistuli reJimi da kaTolikuri eklesia iTxovdnen qalebisagan. mefis sikvdilis Semdeg, raSic dedofali sakuTar Tavs adanaSaulebs, xuana kvlav gvevlineba qalad, romelic Rirsebas, samSoblos siyvarulsa da erTgulebas pirvel planze ayenebs. ganxiluli filmebi gvaZlevs Rirebul informacias qalis warmoCinebaze frankistul espaneTSi, sadac is eqskluziurad reproduqciuli funqciiT aris politizirebuli. Cven davinaxeT, rom dedasamSoblos simboluri yofna gadafaravs realuri qalis aryofnas (uCinarobas) eris socialur da politikur rekonstruqciaSi. am procesSi is praqtikulad ar monawileobs, radgan espaneli eris simboluri xati gamoisaxeba idealizebuli qalis saxeSi, romelic aris siwmindis, silamazisa da Rirsebis magaliTi, moralisa da tradiciebis mcveli is unda idges eris gagrZelebis sadarajoze da iyos erovnuli TviTSegnebis

gadamcemi.A`aseT espaneTSi~ franko igivea samSoblosaTvis, rac mama ojaxisaTvis: upirobo avtoriteti, keTilismsurveli, mtkice xeli, romelic xandaxan gadamWrel zomebs iRebs Svilebis sakeTildReod. dedoba idealizebulia da miCneulia movaleobad samSoblos winaSe, radganac rasobrivi degeneraciis SeCerebis gasaRebi swored masSi devs.

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samagistro programa `amzadebs specialistebs xelovnebisa da kulturis menejmentis sferoSi, romlebic SeZleben samecniero da gamoyenebiTi kvlevebis Catarebas; SeZleben aswavlon menejmentTan dakavSirebuli disci p lineb i, ganaxorcielon analitikuri da sakonsultacio samsaxuri, Seqmnan da uxelmZRvanelon organizaciebs, rogorc saxelmwifo aseve kerZo seqtorSi; ganaxorcielon sxvadasxva ti pis proeqtebi xelovnebisa da kulturis sferoSi. winamdebare programa saSualebas aZlevs TiToeul magistrants SeiZinos da gamoumuSavos Teoriuli da praqtikuli Cvevebi kulturis menejmentis sferoSi. amisaTvis ki saWiroa, rom magistrantma aiTvisos menejmentis Tanamedrove meTodebi, ganaviTaros problemis identifikaciis Cvevebi da samecniero kvlevis unari, SeZlos gadawyvetilebis miReba da maTi realizacia. samecniero konfereciaSi studentTa monawileobis miReba am programis erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawilia. studentTa mier Catarebuli kvlevis sajaro aprobacia mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs xels maT srulyofilad daeuflon werisa da zepiri metyvelebis Cvevebs, rac, TavisaTavad uzrunvelyofs momavalSi maTi samecniero-kvleviTi da pedagogiuri moRvaweobis maRal dones.

krebulSi aseve warmodgenilia sadoqtoro programa kulturis politikasa da kulturis menejmentSi, romelic erT-erTi pirvelia saqarTveloSi da mTel amierkavkasiaSi. programis xelmZRvaneli doqtori, profesori iuri mRebriSvili

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elene babakiSvili magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. iuri mRebriSvili sponsorobis r oli kulturuli organizaciis politikaSi arakomerciuli kulturuli organizaciebi dafinansebis mxriv mTels msofliosa da maT Soris saqarTveloSic, sakmaod rTul viTarebaSi aRmoCndnen. saxelmwifo yovelwliurad amcirebs msgavsi dawesebulebis finansur Tanadgomas. zemoT naxsenebi organizaciebi sxva organizaciebisagan dafinansebis wyaroebis diversifikaciiT gansxvavdebian. es ar aris gasakviri, vinaidan rTulia konkurencia gauwio mosaxleobisaTvis socialurad aqtualur sferoebs, iseTs rogoricaa jandacva, ganaTleba, komunaluri momsaxureoba, transporti da sxva. Tanamedrove msoflioSi saxelmwifoebi TandaTanobiT ixsnian kulturisa da xelovnebis sferoebze zrunvis pasuxismgeblobas da amdenad, misi mxardaWera biznes seqtors ekisreba. dResdReobiT, kulturuli organizaciebis sicocxlisunarianoba mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli sakuTar Semosavalsa da dafinansebis arasabiujeto wyaroeb ze. bevri maTgani sponsorebTan muSaobis gasaocari unar-Cvevebis demonstrirebas axdens. acnobiereben ra sakuTar aucileblobas, kulturis organizaciebi sxvadasxva strategiul da taqtikur moqmedebas mimarTaven, raTa gaxdnen konkurentunarianebi. kulturuli organizaciebis mTavari mizani publikis mozidva, misdami WeSmariti stumarTmoyvareobis da Tbili damokidebulebis gamomJRavneba gaxda. TiToeuli maTgani cdilobs sakuTari Tavi mayureblis ufro aqtiur momsaxureobas miuZRvnas. amitom, kulturis organizaciebi, xSirad, TavianT saqmianobas ekonomikur gaTvlebze afuZneben. kulturuli produqtis promocia xdeba zustad iseve, rogorc klasikuri marketinguli produqtisa. ZviradRirebuli sareklamo da PR kampaniebis gansaxorcieleblad isini amuSaveben aramarto sakuTari Semosavlebis strategias, aramed axdenen dafinansebis gare wyaroebis mozidvasac, iqneba es saxelmwifo Tu kerZo seqtori.

dafinansebis wyaroebi iyofa sam jgufad: moziduli, saxelmwifo da sakuTari Tanxebi. mozidul finansur wyaroebad iTvleba: saqvelmoqmedo, sasponsoro saSualebebi, granti fondebidan, sawevroebi da a. S. saxelmwifo dafinanseba aerTianebs pirdapir da irib sufsidiebs. dafinansebis mesame jgufi moicavs Semosavlebs sakuTari ZiriTadi saqmianobidan. am ukanasknels miekuTvneba sagamofeno, saganmanaTleblo, sakoncerto Semosavlebi da a. S; aseve Semosavali damatebiTi, komerciuli saqmianobidan ­ sasuveniro produqcia, saxelosnoebis, ateliebis fasiani momsaxureoba, kafeebis, restornebis, videocentrebis amuSaveba. magaliTad, marjaniSvilis Teatris ZiriTadi saqmianoba aris bileTebis gayidva, xolo Marjanoff Express-is muSaobidan miRebuli Tanxa _ damatebiTi, komerciuli Semosavali. organizaciebis dafinanseba ganpirobebulia menejmentis erovnuli TaviseburebebiT. magaliTad, evropasa da saqarTveloSi kultura, ZiriTadad, finansdeba saxelmwifo sufsidiebidan, xolo amerikaSi gavrcelebulia dafinansebis rogorc moziduli, aseve sakuTari wyaroebi. dafinansebis mozidul wyaroebs Soris sakmaod gavrcelebuli da mizanSewonili formaa ­ sponsoroba. Tanamedrove bazris pirobebSi kompaniebi sakuTari marketinguli miznebis gansaxorcieleblad aqtiurad gadadian filantropiidan sasponsoro saqmianobaze. cota ram sponsorobis Sesaxeb. sponsoroba ewodeba nebismieri proeqtis, movlenis an saqmianobis dafinansebas erTi piris an organizaciis mier. Tavdapirvelad, sponsoroba ewodeboda proeqtebis dafinansebas radiosa da televiziaSi sareklamo drois sanacvlod (`sapnis operebi~, sportuli movlenebi da a. S.) da aseve kinofilmebis gadasaRebad saWiro Tanxebis nawilobriv anazRaurebas. TandaTanobiT, sponsoroba gamoiyo rogorc saqmianobis damoukidebeli sfero ori mizezis gamo: 1. pirdapir reklamasTan SedarebiT Senatanis, ufro xangrZlivi xasiaTis da uwyveti procesis gamo. 2. fiskaluri mizezebiT.

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sponsoroba, pirvel rigSi, aris konkretuli damkveTis interesebidan gamomdinare informaciis gavrcelebis, sazogadoebasTan komunikaciis damyarebis efeqturi saSualeba. Sedegad, sponsoroba SeiZleba ewodos saqmianobis oTx gansxvavebul saxes, TiToeuli maTgani xasiaTdeba organizaciulad sxvadasxva formebiT: 1. sponsoroba, rogorc sareklamo amocanebis gadaWris saSualeba. 2. sponsoroba, rogorc sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis (PRis) forma an RonisZiebaTa marketingi (Event Marketing). 3. sponsoroba, rogorc grZelvadiani da maRalxarisxiani dabandeba, romelsac miekuTvneba sxvadasxva samecniero kvlevis mxardaWera. am sferoSi daxarjuli fuli gamarTlebulia mxolod Sesabamisi obieqtis mizanmimarTul arCevaSi. 4. sponsorobis forma, rogorc organizaciis umaRlesi menejerebis piradi ambiciebis dakmayofilebis forma. sasponsoro saqmianoba gulisxmobs grZelvadian TanamSromlobas sponsorsa da kulturul organizacias Soris, amitom sponsorobis sfero kompaniis fsiqologiur portrets da imijs unda emTxveodes. sponsorsa da kuturul organizacias Soris ideba Cveulebrivi saqmiani garigeba, romlisganac TiToeuli maTgani iRebs sargebels. am gacvliT urTierTobaSi arsebobs marketingul-komerciuli midgoma. sponsoroba warmoadgens ekonomikur SeTanxmebas, romlis mizania fuladi saSualebebis, produqciis, momsaxurebis, sareklamo saSualebebis, PR kampaniebis, RonisZiebebis gacvla. sponsori naRdi angariSiT an gadaxdis sxva formiT (Senatani naturiT _ iribi mxardaWera) axdens dabandebas, sanacvlod ki iRebs aRniSnul RonisZiebasTan, saagentosTan, an sakuTrebasTan dakavSirebuli komerciuli potencialis eqspluataciis saSualebas. es aris yvelanair beWdviT masalaSi (JurnalgazeTebi, flaeri) sponsoris logos ganTavseba; sponsoris gaSuqeba sainformacio saSualebebSi; sponsors SeuZlia isargeblos dawesebulebis darbaziT, sadac moaxdens axali produqtis prezentacias; aseve xdeba saxelobiTi adgilebis gayidva (es ufro amerikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli fenomenia), maT sasponsoro, donoris kedlebi ewodebaT. kulturulma

organizaciam unda ganaTavsos sponsoris baneri RonisZiebis Catarebis adgilas da misi msvlelobis dros araerTxel moixsenios. zogadad, sponsoris sargebeli SeiZleba daiyos or nawilad: pirdapiri ­ reklama, informaciis Tanamedrove wyaroebi da iribi ­ xelisuflebis, cnobili politikuri moRvaweebis loialuri damokidebulebis mopoveba, konkretuli piris, organizaciis imijis Seqmna, sazogadoebaSi keTilganwyobis da aRiarebis mopoveba. 1990 wels v. fiSerma da r. broem organizaciebis Seswavlis safuZvelze Camoayalibes im sargeblis sia, romelsac eZeben kompaniebi mTeli msoflios masStabiT. esenia: 1. gaumjobesebuli adgilobrivi kavSiri ­ 59%. 2. korporatiuli imijis dawinaureba ­ 57%. 3. brendis cnobadobis gazrda ­ 54%. 4. masobriv sainformacio saSualebebSi gamoCena ­ 39%. 5. brendis imijis gaZliereba ­ 37%. 6. PR-is gaumjobeseba ­ 37%. 7. grZelvadiani gayidvebi ­ 30%. 8. myidvelis siamovneba ­ 26%. 9. momsaxure personalis moraluri mdgomareoba ­ 27%. 10. da sxva ­ 6%. am CamonaT validan naTlad Cans, rom sp onsorob a organizaciebisaTvis upirveles yovlisa aris marketinguli miznebis ganxorcielebis da winsvlis saSualeba. kulturuli organizaciis sargebeli ki aris yvelaferi is, rac mas exmareba misiis warma teb iT Sesruleb aSi. swo rad gaT vlili korporaciuli sponsoroba Zalian hgavs warmatebul qorwinebas. am SemTxvevaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba Sesaferisi partnioris SerCevas, romelsac eqneba msgavsi interesebi da mizani. ganvixiloT marjaniSvilis Teatris magaliTi: misi generaluri sponsoria banki `respublika~. am SemTxvevaSi sponsorisa da Teatris interesebi da mizani harmoniulad erwymis erTmaneTs. amas emateba bankis generaluri

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direqtoris piradi daintereseba da uzomo siyvaruli Teatrisadmi, amitom orive mxare maRal doneze TanamSromlobs. banki exmareba Teatrs finansurad, xolo sanacvlod iRebs sxvadasxva saxis sargebels. esenia: 1. Teatris farTis gamoyeneba sareklamo miznebisaTvis da bankis axali momsaxurebebis wardgenisaTvis; 2. Teatris kuTvnil teritoriaze baneris ganTavseba; 3. sponsoris logos ganTavseba programaze, konkretuli speqtaklisa da kalendrul afiSaze, nabeWd Tu eleqtronul flaerze; 4. sponsoris logos ganTavseba Teatris istoriasTan dakavSirebul beWdviT masalaSi; 5. VIP mosawvevi generaluri direqtorisaTvis. 6. speqtaklis msvlelobisas sponsoris saxelis gaJRereba. generaluri sponsoris garda marjaniSvilis Teatrs hyavs sxvadasxva Tanasponsorebic. maTTvis gaTvaliswinebuli sargebeli ganisazRvreba Setanili Tanxisa da momsaxureobis moculobis mixedviT. Teatri agreTve sakmaod xSirad mimarTavs barteruli gacvlis sistemas, Teatrisa da damsponsorebeli firmis mcire finansuri SesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare. sponsorobis upiratesoba reklamasTan da PR-Tan SedarebiT: organizaciis winsvlis oTxi saSualeba arsebobs: reklama, sazogadoebasTan urTierToba _ PR, personali da promocia. aqedan romel saSualebas airCevs organizacia, ganisazRvreba misi biujetiT, msoflmxedvelobiTa da orientaciiT. Tumca yvela zemoT CamoTvlilTan SedarebiT sponsoroba fulis dabandebis yvelaze Wkvianuri da xelsayreli saSualebaa. imisaTvis, rom naTlad gamovxatoT sponsorobis upiratesoba, mokled ganvixiloT reklamisa da PR-is SesaZleblobebi. reklama ­ es aris saSualeba, romlisTvisac organizacia ixdis fuls, raTa urTierToba daamyaros mTlian bazarTan, sazogadoebasTan. sareklamo Setyobineba vrceldeba sxvadasxva sainformacio saSualebebiT: televizia, radio, Jurnal-gazeTebi, bilbordebi da broSurebi. reklamas axasiaTebs mokle sasicocxlo periodi da SezRudulia yidva-gayidvis

konkretuli amocaniT. reklamas hyavs mxolod erTi fokus jgufi ­ myidveli. yoveldRiurad adamianze modis uamravi sareklamo Setyobineba, es cifri 1200-mde aRwevs. amitom adamiani cdilobs, Tavi aaridos am ukanasknels, e. w. `damcavi faqtorebi~ axdenen Setyobinebis Sesustebas da mis srul dablokvas. `undoblobis filtri~ exmareba adamians gamoyos reklama informaciis mTeli nakadidan. momxmarebeli mas aRiqvams rogorc sagadasaxado komunikacias da amdenad _ aragulwrfels. PR xels uwyobs urTierT sasargeblo, harmoniuli kavSiris damyarebas organizaciasa da sazogadoebas Soris, qmnis konkretuli piris an organizaciis dadebiT imijs. reklamisgan gansxvavebiT PR specialistis saqmianoba mimarTulia farTo sazogadoebisaken da ara potenciuri momxmareblis viwro wrisaken. PR xangrZlivi moqmedebis strategiebs SeimuSavebs, maSin roca, reklamis prioriteti mis lakonurobasa da swraf SedegSia. PR-is fokus jgufs warmoadgens yvela is iuridiuli Tu kerZo piri, visTanac organizacias aqvs, hqonia an eqneba urTierToba. esenia; klientebi, masmediis warmomadgenlebi, partniorebi da a. S. yvela zemoT CamoTvlil komponents sponsoroba moicavs. is aerTianebs reklamasac, PR-sac da promociasac. ufro metic, amerikaSi gamokiTxvis Sedegma aCvena, rom amerikelTa 83%-s aqvs dadebiTi damokidebuleba im kompaniebis mimarT, romlebic exmarebian sazogadoebriv saqmes. sazogadoebrivad da p oli tikurad aq tiuri momxmar eb eli g ansakuT r eb iT sazogadoebrivi iniciativebis mxardamWer kompaniebs miiRebs. amerikelTa 80% acxadebs, rom urCevniaT is kompaniebi, romlebic axorcieleben grZelvadian daxmarebas da SeTanxmebas, vidre is, vinc akeTebs uamrav keTil saqmes SenacvlebiT (xanmokle vadiT). sasponsoro saq mianob is lidereb i ase axasiaTeb en sponsorobis daniSnulebas: es ukanaskneli sWirdeba im brendebs, romlebic miiswrafvian momxmarebelTan da sazogadoebasTan myari kavSirebis dasamyareblad. sasponsoro ganacxadis Sedgenisas gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtorebi: sasponsoro ganacxadis Sedgena seriozul da

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xangrZliv muSaobas moiTxovs. mxardaWeris mosapoveblad saWiroa damajerebeli dasabuTeba da sponsoris miznebis gaTvaliswineba. es miznebi SeiZleba iyos sakmaod mravalferovani, iseTi rogoricaa: produqtTan da gayidvebis zrdasTan dakavSirebuli miznebi: srulyofili informacia produqtze, sabazro segmentis da produqtis igiveobis dadgena, misi imijis modifikacia. korporatiuli miznebi: firmis imijis gaZliereba, misi cnobadobis gazrda da grZelvadiani wardgena, sazogadoebrivi azris Seqmna kompaniis mimarT, kompaniis da sabazro segmentis igiveobis dadgena, axali saqmiani kontaqtebis damyareba, arasasurveli publikaciebis prevencia. am miznebis gansaxorcieleblad kulturulma organizaciam sponsors unda SesTavazos iseTi sargeblis momtani aliansis Camoyalibeba, rac sxva alternatiuli saSualebeb iT miuRwevelia. Cadebuli Tanxis sanacvlod, am ukanasknelma, maqsimalurad maRali xarisxis momsaxureba unda miiRos, rac gaamarTlebs daxarjul resursebsa da energias. organizaciebisa da proeqtis dafinansebis dros kompania xelmZRvanelobs garkveuli kriteriumebiT. esenia: RonisZiebasTan dakavSirebuli kriteriumebi: 1. dasaxuli miznis miRwevis albaToba; 2. masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebiT gaSuqeba; 3. RonisZiebis popularoba. sasponsoro jgufTan dakavSirebuli kriteriumebi: 1. organizatorebis SesaZleblobebi; 2. RonisZiebis potenciuri warmateba. sponsorobasTan dakavSirebuli kriteriumebi: 1. eqskluziuri sponsorobis SesaZlebloba; 2. proeqtis codna menejerTa mier; 3. administraciis Tanxmoba proeqtze. bazarTan dakavSirebuli kriteriumebi: 1. konkurencia; 2. politikuri an komerciuli zewola. sponsori agreTve iTvaliswinebs auditoriasa da mis Taviseburebas, sakuTari saqmianobis sferos da Cadebuli Tanxis moculob as. sakuT ari imijis da misiis T anxvedras dasasponsorebel organizaciasTan, riskis albaTobas, stumarTa

raodenobas, vaWrobas gverdiTi produqtiTa da sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs. sasponsoro ganacxadi maqsimalurad unda iZleodes am kriteriumebis dakmayofilebis saSualebas, rac ganacxadze dadebiTi pasuxis sawindari gaxdeba. sponsorebi sakuTari gamocdilebidan gamomdinare aRniSnaven, rom sasponsoro ganacxadebis xarisxi sul ufro klebulobs, es ukanaskneli ki maRal profesionalur doneze unda iyos Sedgenili da moicavdes uamrav punqts. ganacxadis punqtebze muSaobis dawyebamde kulturulma organizaciam unda moiZios rac SeiZleba meti informacia. Sesabamisad saWiroa presis, kompaniis wliuri angariSis, komerciuli da ufaso reklamis gacnoba da misi miznobrivi bazris dadgena. unda ganisazRvros kulturuli organizaciebis qonebrivi statusi. aq Sedis organizaciis dasaxeleba, misi sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba, mosaxleobis informirebuloba da sakuTari samoqmedo programa. am yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, gacilebiT advili iqneba im sargeblis nusxis Camoyalibeba, romelsac SesTavazebs kulturuli organizacia sponsors. srulyofili ganacxadisaTvis aucilebelia Semdegi faqtorebis gaTvaliswineba: 1. zustad unda ganisazRvros is sargebeli, romelsac miiRebs sponsori kulturul organizaciasTan TanamSromlobis Sedegad. 2. warmatebuli ganacxadi moicavs ara kulturuli organizaciis prob lemeb s, aramed asaxavs mis rols dRevandelobaSi da masTan TanamSromlobis prioritetebs. 3. sponsoris saqmiani kategoriebi dafinansebis raodenobis mixedviT unda ganisazRvros. es niSnavs, rom sxvadasxva sponsors esaWiroeba gansxvavebuli sargebeli. 4. TanamSromlobis periodSi sponsoris saqmianobis ganviTareba. 5. sponsoris riskis minimumamde dayvana. es SesaZlebelia garantirebuli Suamavlebisa da Rirseuli Tanasponsorebis siis wardgenis Sedegad.

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6. kulturulma organizaciam sakuTar Tavze unda aiRos sponsoris misTvis aucilebeli informaciiT uzrunvelyofa, vinaidan sponsorma unda icodes ramdenad pasuxobs kulturul organizaciaSi mimdinare procesebi mis komunikaciur miznebs. sponsors esaWiroeba yvela saxis informacia, raTa gansazRvros ramdenad gaamarTla misma investiciam da samomavlo moqmedebis strategia dasaxos. zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sponsori mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs kulturuli organizaciis politikas. sworad warmarTuli sponsorobis SemTxvevaSi myardeba nayofieri kavSiri sponsorsa da kulturul organizacias Soris. Tumca, arsebobs garkveuli riski Tavad dasponsorebuli organizaciebisTvisac. es risk-faqtorebi aucileblad aris gasaTvaliswinebeli kulturis menejerTa mier. maT unda SeaTanxmon potenciuri sponsoroba sameurveo sabWosTan, personalTan da samxatvro xelmZRvanelobasTan, erToblivad ganixilon yvela mosalodneli uaryofiTi Sedegi. am SemTxvevaSi kulturuli organizaciisaTvis prioritetuli unda iyos misi misia. sponsoroba kulturuli organizaciisaTvis Semosavlis momtania, xolo korporatiuli partniori iRebs beWdviT masalas da gazrdil gayidvebs. kulturis menejerma yovelgvar fulsa da daxmarebaze ufro maRla unda daayenos misi organizaciis reputacia. amitom, romelime kompaniasTan TanamSromlobam ar unda daCrdilos da safrTxe Seuqmnas mis imijs. menejerebs aseve marTebT sifrTxile, raTa ar daukavSirdnen im kompaniebs, romlebic maTi Semowirulobis Semomtani piris konkurentebi iqnebian. unda gamoiricxos iseTi produqtis mqone kompania, romelic kulturuli organizaciis misiasTan konfliqtSi Seva. magaliTad, Tambaqos mwarmoebeli kompania ar unda asponsorebdes sportul ­ gamajansaRebel centrs. yovelive es migvaniSnebs kulturul organizaciaSi sponsoris mimarT garkveuli politikis Camoyalibebaze, rac mkveTrad gansazRvravs sponsorisa da kulturuli organizaciis ufleba-movaleobebs.

absoluturad yvela saxis SeTanxmeba unda gaformdes werilobiTi saxiT, rogorc nebismieri sxva iuridiuli dokumenti, raTa Tavidan iqnas acilebuli Semdgomi gaugebroba. kulturul organizaciasa da sponsors Soris dadebuli xelSekruleba unda moicavdes Semdeg punqtebs: 1. sponsorobis bunebis gansazRvra; 2. ganisazRvros sponsoroba, rogorc urTierTSeTanxmeba, gansxvavebuli qvelmoqmedebisagan; 3. ganisazRvros kulturuli organizaciis prioritetebi; 4. mkafiod Caidos sponsorisa da kulturuli organizaciis uflebebi; 5. xelSekrulebaSi aucileblad unda arsebobdes punqti, romelic uflebas miscems kulturul organizacias daarRvios xelSekruleba, Tu ki sponsoris moRvaweoba da kulturuli organizaciis misia Seusabamo aRmoCndeba TanamSromlobis romelime etapze. saqmisadmi amgvari midgoma xels Seuwyobs saqarTveloSi sasponsoro saqmianobis daxvewas. sponsorebi kulturuli organizaciis saxiT dainaxaven Rirseul partniors da am sferoSi dabandebuli Tanxa iqneba maTi saqmianobis ganviTarebis saSualeba. am ori faqtoris Sesruleba uzrunvelyofs myari kavSirebis damyarebas kulturisa da biznesis sferoebs Soris. amgvarad, finansuri krizisis foni kulturul organizaciebSi SeZlebisdagvarad moixsneba, rac saSualebas miscems kulturul organizaciebs Seasrulon Tavisi pirdapiri daniSnuleba _ gaanebivron sakuTari mayurebeli mravalferovani da xarisxiani produqciiT.

1. ix.: fransua kolberi, `marketingi kulturaSi~, 2003. 2. ix.: milena dragiCeviC-SeSiCi, `kultura, menejmenti, animacia, marketingi~, 2007. 3. ix.: jilian puli, `fulis menejmenti (xelovnebis organizaciebisaTvis)~, 2005. 4. www. pr-chance. kiev. ua

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ia gabunia magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. iuri mRebriSvili sareklamo politika da reklamis arsi (festivali `sesili~) 2001 wlis 26 marts klub `sardafSi~ Catarda saqarTveloSi axalgazrduli pirveli filmebis festivali `Cven movdivarT~, romlis organizebas xelmZRvanelobda reJisori daTo janeliZe. 2004 wels aRniSnuli kinofestivali mixeil TumaniSvilis saxelobis kinomsaxiobTa TeatrSi Catarda. 2005 wlidan axalgazrduli filmebis festivali `sesili~ (Tavidan festivals erqva `Cven movdivarT~ da SemdgomSi mas daerqva `sesili~) saerTaSoriso gaxda. `sesili sardafidan amovida~ da didi kinoTeatrebis ekranebi dai pyro. 2005-2008 wlebSi festivals maspinZlobda kinoTeatrebi: `amirani~, `rusTaveli~, `qolga~ da kinos saxli. kinofestival `sesilis~ misiaa axali talantebis aRmoCena, maTi popularizacia, ucxouri kinosiaxleebis qarTveli mayureblisaTvis gacnoba, axali kinotradiciebisa da urTierTobebis ganviTareba.Kkinofestivalis organizatorebs imedi aqvT, rom yovelwliurad festivali ufro gafarTovdeba da daimkvidrebs sakuTar saxels saerTaSoriso asparezze, rac daexmareba qarTuli kinos Semdgom ganviTarebas. kinofestivalis mizania gamoavlinos niWieri axalgazrdoba da misces maT winsvlis SesaZlebloba profesiuli daostatebis gzaze. kinofestivalma SedarebiT maRali dafinanseba miiRo 2005 wels, Semdgom wlebSi dafinanseba mcire iyo da Seadgenda 2006 w. _ 6000 lars, 2007 w. _ 5000 lars, 2008 w. _ 5000 lars. organizatorebis enTuziazmi rom ara, aseTi mcire saxsrebiT kinofestivalis Catareba SeuZlebeli iqneboda. dafinansebis ararsebobis gamo festivalis menejmenti awydeba mTel rig problemebs. menejmentis qveS igulisxmeba mmarTvelobiTi saqmianobis sistema, sxvadasxva socialuri institutebis warmatebuli funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofa. kulturul sferoSi Sedis organizaciebi, romelTa momsaxureba

da produqti aucilebelia sazogadoebis kulturuli moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad.Aam sferos menejmenti gansakuTrebuli yuradReb iT sargeblobs. mT avari gansakuTrebuloba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom saxsrebis moZieba aq xdeba ara ubralo komerciiT, aramed sxvadasxva dainteresebuli donorebis mozidviT. iqidan gamomdinare, rom festivals gaaCnia sakmaod dabali dafinanseba, rac gamowveulia ZiriTadad sponsorTa ararsebobiT, festivali ver axerxebs sakuTari miznebis miRwevas. imisaTvis, rom moxdes saxsrebis moZieba, sponsorTa daintereseba festivalis saqmianobiT, saWiroa swori sareklamo kampaniis Catareba. reklama saukeTeso saSualebas warmoadgens imisaTvis, rom festivali gaxdes cnobili da mas gaecnos farTo auditoria. reklamis meSveobiT dadebiTi imijis Seqmna gamoiwvevs festivaliT sponsorTa dainteresebas, rac gaaiolebs misi samomavlo gegmebis ganxorcielebas. swori sareklamo kampaniis dasagegmad saWiroa profesionalebis moZieba, isini ki cotani arian, Sesabamisad maTi daqiravebac Zviria. sareklamo kampania did xarjebs saWiroebs. saqarTveloSi arsebuli sareklamo situacia daaxloebiT aseTia: yvelaze maRalfasiani sareklamo momsaxureba, televiziaa. marTalia, qarTuli satelevizio badis dRis garkveuli monakveTiT SeZena sakmaod maRali tarifebi Rirs, magram, potenciuri momxmarebeli ama Tu im axali produqtis gamosvlis Sesaxeb, mainc televizoridan igebs. reklamis gavrcelebis es forma saqarTveloSi dResdReobiT yvelaze metad popularulia da yvelaze metad `momgebianad~ iTvleba. qarTuli saxelovnebo organizaciebi ki, rogorc xSirad xdeba xolme, bazarze gamodian ise, rom maT ar aqvT aranairi finansuri SesaZlebloba, amitom isini ver axerxeben verc sareklamo kampaniis dakveTas da verc am dakveTili reklamebis media sivrceSi datrialebas. qarTul mediaSi reklamis ganTavseba did xarjebs moiTxovs. Cven SegviZlia warmodgenili masalis mixedviT naTlad davinaxoT, Tu ra Tanxaa saWiro reklamis ganTavsebisTvis sxvadasxva media saSualebebSi. magaliTisaTvis warmodgenilia kompania `rusTavi 2~-is, Sps `print-jorjiasa~ da gazeT `asaval-dasavalis~ sareklamo drois Rirebuleba:

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telekompania "rusTavi 2~-is eTerSi reklamis gaSvebis faseb i

saeTero dro 7.40 - 12.00 12.00 - 18.00 18.00 - 00.00 00.00 - 3.15 reklamis fasi (dolari) 40 - 400 140 - 400 500 - 1300 50 - 700

Sps `print jorjias~ sareklamo momsaxurebis fasebi

momsaxurebis saxe dizain-studiis momsaxureba sareklamo-poligrafiuli produqciis gaformeba etiketi, SefuTva gare reklamis gaformeba foto gadaRebebiT promout teqstebis da scenarebis Seqmna veb-gverdebis damzadeba bukletebis damzadeba sareklamo furceli plakati, afiSa TviTwebad qaRaldebze beWdva fasi (dolari) 20 - 400 40 - 300 50 - 400 10 - 200 50 - 100 50 - 300 100 - 1000 135 - 250 115 - 200 115 - 200 100 - 110

gazeT `asaval-dasavalSi~ reklamis ganTavsebis fasebi

reklamis ganTavsebis adgili mTeli gverdi 1 sareklamo kubiki reklama me-2,3 gverdze reklama bolo gverdze politikuri reklama pirvel gverdze minimaluri farTi 1 sareklamo kubiki 4 sareklamo kubiki reklama naxevar gverdze fasi (lari) 1600 100 Rirebuleba + 100% Rirebuleba + 200% Rirebuleba + 100% 800 400 800

warmodgenili masalidan Cans, rom reklama sakmaod Zviri jdeba gansakuTrebiT iseTi organizaciisaTvis, romlis dafinansebac maqsimum 6000 lars warmoadgens, magram imisaTvis, rom moxdes dafinansebis problemis daZleva, Cemi azriT, aucilebelia saxsrebis moZieba swori sareklamo kampaniis Casatareblad, rac pirvel rigSi SesaZlebelia sponsorTa dainteresebiT festivalis saqmianobis Sesaxeb. imisTvis, rom moxdes potenciur sponsorTa daintereseba, pirvel rigSi saWiroa maTTvis momgebiani winadadebis SeTavazeba, anu, amisaTvis kinofestivalis menejmentma unda SeimuSaos konkretuli strategia, raTa daanaxos potenciur sponsors proeqtis mniSvneloba, gansakuTrebuloba da sponsoris wvlili kin ofest ivali s gan xorcie leb aS i. sp onsor ob a a ris strategiulad dagegmili Zalisxmeva marketingSi, rac emsaxureba gayidvebis zrdas kompaniaSi an mis ukeTes warmoCenas bazarze iseTi qmedebiT, rac moutans sargebels aseve festivals da unda iTqvas, rom amis saukeTeso saSualebas swored reklama warmoadgens, sadac aucileblad aRiniSneba arsebul sponsorTa an sponsoris saxeli. Sedegad, reklamis meSveobiT moxdeba, rogorc sponsoris, aseve festivalis Sesaxeb mosaxleobis informireba. reklama, romelic warmodgenilia sxvadasxva media saSualebiT, sazogadoebrivi azris Camoyalibebis erT-erTi saukeTeso saSualebaa. zemoT moyvanili masalebze dayrdnobiT darwmunebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aucilebelia swori sareklamo kampaniis Catareba, rac sakmaod rTul process warmoadgens: sareklamo kampaniis dagegmvisas Tavdapirvelad aucilebelia ganvsazRvroT reklamis daniSnuleba, anu, is, rom reklamam unda moaxdinos produqtis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis informireba, darwmuneba da Sexseneba. sareklamo ganyofilebis funqciebSi Sedis sareklamo biujetis, sareklamo RonisZiebaTa gegmebis SemuSaveba da misi cxovrebaSi gatareba. sareklamo programis pirvel etaps warmoadgens sareklamo miznis dadgena, anu, drois gansazRvrul periodis ganmavlobaSi konkretuli, miznobrivi auditoriis informirebis amocana.

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sareklamo politika da reklamis arsi

reklamis gasakeTeblad aucilebelia SeirCes sareklamo instrumentebi da saWiro auditoria drois gaTvaliswinebiT, saukeTeso garemoSi da yvelaze logikur adgilas, rom sareklamo informaciam moicvas aramarto maqsimalurad farTo auditoria, aramed mii pyros kidec misi yuradReba. M masobrivi informaciis yvela saSualebas gaaCnia misTvis dam axasia T eb eli SesaZ leb lob eb i da maxas iaT eb l eb i gansazRvruli sazogadoebrivi jgufebis mixedviT. unda ganisazRvros romeli masobrivi informaciis saSualebaa saWiro reklamis obieqtis mosazidad.Aamis Semdeg mizans warmoadgens iseTi teleprogramis, radiosadguris da a. S. SerCeva, romelic SeZlebs sasurveli Sedegis miRwevas yvelaze efeqturad. reklamis gasakeTeblad saukeTeso strategias warmoadgens sxvadasxva sainformacio saSualebis SerCeva.Aamis mizezebia: a). sakuTari reklamis sazogadoebis im jgufebamde dayvanis aucilebloba, romlebic ar warmoadgenen mxolod erTi sainformacio saSualebis miznobriv auditorias; b). reklamis gameorebis uzrunvelyofa naklebad Zviri saSualebebiT, mas Semdeg rac uzrunvelyofili iqneba pirveli sainformacio saSualebebis meSveobiT miznobrivi auditoriis optimaluri mocva. masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis dagegmva rTul sakiTxs warmoadgens. erT-erTi mizezi is aris, rom masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis mravalferovneba da yoveli maTgani gvT avaz ob s zemoqmedeb is instrumenteb is sul ufro gamravalferovnebul variantebs. kampaniis sareklamo saSualebebi, romlebic unda iyos gansazRvruli sazogadoebaze, SeiZleba gavrceldes sxvadasxva formiT: eleqtronuli, anu, igive televizia da radio, beWdviTi, anu, gazeTebi, Jurnalebi, plakatebi, safosto gzavnilebi. amitom es yvelaferi (Tu sad ra saxis reklama gakeTdes gavrcobis mizniT) konkretuli kampaniis specialistma unda gansazRvros, man unda icodes, Tu romel ganvrcobis saSualebas flobs TiToeuli aRniSnuli ZiriTadi saSualeba, Tu ra konkretul SemTxvevaSi gaaCnia TiToeul ganvrcobis saSualebas upiratesoba da naklovanebebi. yvelaze ZviradRirebul sareklamo arxebs miekuTvneba masobrivi saSualebebi: televizia, radio, gazeTebi. aseve zustad da

sworad unda iyos SerCeuli Tu ra dros gadaicema reklama, rac aseve, ra Tqma unda, faszec axdens zegavlenas. yvelaze dabalfasiani saSualebebia: fosta da telefoni. konkretuli reklama unda iyos martivi da gasagebi momxmareblisaTvis. sareklamo kampaniis ganmaxorcielebels mxedvelobaSi unda hqondes, rom Cveulebrivi momxmarebeli ar aris specialisti da is informacia, rac momsaxurebis organizatorebisTvis SeiZleba metad mniSvnelovani da bevris mTqmeli iyos, momxmarebels arafers eubnebodes. sareklamo informacia unda iyos advilad SesamCnevi da dasamaxsovrebeli. reklama unda gamoirCeodes safirmo stiliT da Seicavdes safirmo niSans. Tavis mxriv, safirmo stili aris konkretuli firmis Taviseburi sityva, romlis meSveobiTac igi popularizacias uwevs Tavis produqts da xels uwyobs rogorc mocemuli produqtis, ise TviT popularizacias, rac gacilebiT ufro mniSvnelovania. reklamis gakeTebis dros ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens sazogadoebis rac SeiZleba meti jgufebisaTvis informaciis miwodeba da amave dros, danaxarjebi iyos minimaluri an ar daixarjos bevrad meti. saWiroa informaciis moZieba konkretuli radiosadguris an sxva masobrivi sainformacio saSualebis miznobrivi auditoriis mocvis Sesaxeb, potenciurad efeqturi reklamis Sesaqmnelad. imavdroulad, unda vicodeT interesis done, romelic vlindeba auditoriis mier ama Tu im radiosadguris an sxvaTa mimarT. farTo auditoriaze gasasvlelad reklama bevrad ufro iafia, vidre gasvla erT potenciur klientze, individualuri realizaciis meTodis gamoyenebiT. sareklamo saSualebis arCevis Semdeg etaps warmoadgens yoveli arsebuli masobrivi sainformacio saSualebis rentabelobis analizi. unda gairkves ramdenad emTxveva sainformacio saSualebas arCeuli auditoria, SerCeuli saSualeba ramdenad Seesabameba organizaciis miznebsa da strategieb s. amis gansaz Rvris Semdeg SesaZlebelia gadawyvetilebis miReba Rirs Tu ara reklamis gakeTeba ama Tu im sainformacio saSualebis meSveobiT. aucilebelia gakeTdes analizi reklamis efeqturobis Sesaxeb. es reklamis

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mizanmimarTulobisa da Sedegianobis Sesaxeb informaciis miRebis saSualebas iZleva. efeqturobis srulyofilad gansazRvra SeuZlebelia, Tumca miaxloebiTi gaTvlac amarTlebs, iqidan gamomdinare, rom rom arsebobs reklamis mizanmimarTulebis gansazRvris SesaZlebloba. ganasxvaveben reklamis ekonomikuri efeqturobisa da sxvadasxva sareklamo saSualebis fsiqologiuri zegavlenis moxdenis efeqturobas adamianze.Eekonomikuri efeqturoba damokidebulia adamianze fsiqologiuri zegavlenis moxdenis doneze. fsiqologiuri efeqturoba ganisazRvreba momxmareblis raodenobis mocviT, simkveTriTa da STabeWdilebebis moxdenis siRrmiT, romlebic rCebian adamianis mexsierebaSi da i pyroben yuradRebas. sareklamo saqmianobis TiTqmis yvela funqciis realizacia mWidro kavSirSia reklamis biujetis dafinansebis, SemuSavebis da ganxorcielebis problemasTan. sareklamo biujetis gansazRvrisaTvis saWiroa gadawyvetilebis miReba ori mimarTulebiT: 1). sareklamo biujetis sididis gansazRvra; 2). sareklamo biujetis ganawileba. dabolos, reklama organizacias saxelis damkvidrebisa da sazogadoebrivi yuradRebis mopovebis saSualebas aZlevs, rac sxva SemTxvevaSi TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. nebismieri kompania fuZndeba auditoriaze zegavlenis mosaxdenad, sazogadoebrivi azris Camosayalibeblad. mizanSewonilia sareklamo kampaniis warmoeba moxdes im telearxebis da a. S. meSveobiT, romlebsac sazogadoeba aniWebs upiratesobas. sareklamo kampaniis mizani unda iyos: komunikaciuri arxebis SerCeva optimaluri parametrebiT, komunikaciuri arxebis meSveobiT gadacemuli informaciis efeqturobis marTva, monitoringi da Sefaseba.

sofio komlaZe magistratura II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. iuri mRebriSvili sagamomcemlo bazris kvlevis zogierTi sakiTxi

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p. loranJis mixedviT, menejmentSi strategiuli dagegmarebis procesi umaRlesi mmarTvelobiTi rgolisaTvis organizaciis marTvis gadawyvetileb is misaRebi erT- erTi mZlavri instrumentia. misi daniSnulebaa, uzrunvelyos organizaciaSi cvlilebebisa da novatorobis saWiro done. strategia detaluri, yovlismomcveli komp leq suri gegmaa da pirvelyovlisa, organizaciis misiis ganxorcielebas uwyobs xels; strategiuli gegma unda emyarebodes yovelmxriv gamokvlevasa da faqtobriv monacemebs. imisaTvis, rom firmam Tanamedrove biznesgaremoSi efeqturad SeZlos konkurenciis gaweva, man aucileblad mudmivad unda imuSaos didZali informaciis Sekrebasa da analizze, romelic SesaZloa exebodes mis gazrdas, bazars, konkurenciis pirobebsa da a. S. rac Seexeba strategiis cnebas marketingSi, am SemTxvevaSic mas umniSvnelovanesi funqcia akisria. marketinguli strategia moicavs marketingis amocanebis gacnobierebas, marketingis garemos, arCevans alternatiul strategiebs Soris da maT ganxorcielebas. strategia gulisxmobs dasaxuli miznebis miRwevis saSualebas, am ukanasknelis ganxorcieleba ki makartis marketingul miqsTan erTad (produqti, fasi, adgili, dawinaureba) ramdenime sxva ZiriTad etapsac moicavs. Tavis mxriv, bazari, momxmarebeli, marketingisaTvis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi rgolia. misi analizi ki strategiis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia. marketologebisaTvis momxmarebeli aris centraluri figura. maT i amocanaa, maqsimalurad daakmayofilon momxmarebelTa saWiroebebi da moTxovnilebebi. moTxovnileba marketingis amosavali wertilia. zogadad bazari da misi

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zogierTi sakiTxi

gamokvleva ki monacemTa sistematiuri Segroveba, aRricxva da analizia, romelic aucilebelia firmis Sedegebis gansazRvrisaTvis. sagamomcemlo kompaniebis momxmarebeli, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu orientir produqtad mxolod wigns aviRebT, sxvadasxva maxasiaTebliT ganisazRvreba, gamomdinare Tavad wignis ti pisa (an Janrisa). es, Tavis mxriv, produqts mravalferovnebas sZens da, momxmareblis ricxvs zrdis da, imavdroulad, marketingis menejers aZlevs saSualebas, isev bazarze moaxdinos produqtis lavireba, misi sxvadasxvagvarad warmoCena da, Sesabamisad, bazris moculobis gazrda. TiToeul wigns, pirvel rigSi, avtori qmnis, magram amasTan erTad saWiroa damatebiTi `partniori~, romelic konsultacias gauwevs avtors, uzrunvelyofs teqstis redaqtirebas, dabeWdavs wigns, ganaxorcielebs yvela saWiro samarketingo Tu sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis RonisZiebas, radgan avtori da misi wigni momxmarebels gaacnos. faqtobrivad, SeiZleba iTqvas, wigni momxmareblisTvis iqmneba. xolo, sanam marketingis menejeri produqtis Seqmnas daiwyebs, pirvel etapze momxmareblis, bazris moTxovnilebebis analizi unda Caataros. xelovnebis marketinguli modeli tradiciulisgan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom pirvel SemTxvevaSi mTavar, centralur figuras, saorientacio sagans Tavad produqti warmoadgens. marketingis tradiciuli modeli ki mTlianad bazarzea orientirebuli. sagamomcemlo biznesi Tanamedrove saxelovnebo sivrceSi sxva ramdenime sferosTan erTad, erT-erT komerciul saqmianobas warmoadgens. gamomcemlobebs, faqtobrivad ormagi marketinguli qmedebis ganxorcieleba uwevT: muSaoba or sakmaod seriozul cvladze _ produqtsa da bazarze. ase magaliTad, Tu Cveulebriv, arasaxelovnebo organizaciaSi bazris segmentebi iyofa produqciis mixedviT, kulturul organizaciaSi es dayofa xdeba specialuri klienturis mixedviT. sagamomcemlo saxlebi unda uzrunvelyofdnen produqtisa da momxmarebelze erTnair muSaobas. sagamomcemlo saqme, vfiqrob, rom damokidebulia ar mxolod produqtze, aramed, aseve momxmarebelzec. Tumca gamomcemels ar uwevs axali produqtis gamogoneba, Seqmna da a. S. produqti (wigni) gansazRvrulia da am produqts ukve

ukavia bazris gansazRvruli segmenti. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, dRes arsebul wignis myidvelobiT-mkiTxvelobiT dones saqarTveloSi, monacemebi sakmaod SemaSfoTebelia. yvelaze warmatebuli sagamomcemlo saxli erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi saSualod mxolod 1000 erTeul wigns yidis. es garkveulwilad, SesaZloa, Tavad produqtis `bralicaa~, an, SesaZloa, xdebodes araswori menejmentis, arasaTanado marketinguli strategiis, an sulac Sida organizaciuli problemebis SemTxvevebSi. marketingSi `bazris~ ramdenime gansxvavebuli ganmarteba arsebobs, magram yvela maTgani moicavs erT saerTo punqts: bazari Sedgeba momxmarebelTa erTeulebisagan, romelTac msgavsi moTxovnilebebi aqvT (aRsaniSnavia, rom es moTxovnilebebi erTmaneTis msgavsia da ara erTnairi). amis magaliTia is, rom, rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, wignis momxmarebeli ganixileba, rogorc bazari, romelic Sedgeba garkveuli `subieqtebisgan~, romelTac aqvT saerTo interesebi kiTxvis mimarT da am interesebs gamoxataven imiT, rom isini iZenen wignebs. interesi adamianis cnobierebaSi moTxovnilebis biZgs aCens da ai, swored es moTxovnilebebi unda gansazRvros marketingis menejerma. bazris kvleva, rogorc momxmarebelTa moTxovnilebebis gansazRvra, sakmaod saintereso procesia. kvlevis mizani aseTnairad unda iyos gansazRvruli: _ vin aris momxmarebeli? ras Seisyidis igi da ra saxis momsaxureba sWirdeba mas? iseve rogorc nebismier organizacias, kvlevasac aucileblad unda gaaCndes dasaxuli mizani (an miznebi), rom Tanmimdevruli qmedebebiT miaRwion winaswar gansazRvrul mizans. sagamomcemlo saxlebs naTlad unda hqondeT gansazRvruli miznobrivi da potenciuri momxmareblis moTxovnebi, survilebi. b az ris kvlevasT an dakavSireb uli q medeb eb i did gamomcemlobaSi SesaZloa marketingis ganyofilebam Caataros an am ganyofilebasTan arsebulma kvlevis komitetma, saagentom an sulac departamentma. es saagento dakompleqtebuli unda iyos specialistebiT. maT unda SeeZloT teqnikuri eqspertizis Sesruleba da monacemTa damuSaveba. rac Seexeba pirvelad kvlevas, rac zemoT ukve vaxsene, igi xorcieldeba Tavad bazarze da gaTvlilia specifikuri informaciis mopovebaze specifikuri kiTxvebis sapasuxod. sagamomcemlo saxlebi ar

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arian iseTi didi da masStaburi organizaciebi, rom marketinguli saqmis gansaxorcieleblad, ufro zustad ki, bazris kvlevis Casatareblad aucilebeli iyos calke ganyofilebis gamoyofa. am saqmianobas, vfiqrob, rom Tavisuflad Seasrulebs erTi menejeri da ori asistenti. maT SeuZliaT mimarTon TavianTi produqtis sarealizacio punqtebs: wignis maRaziebs, kioskebs, literaturul centrebs da a. S. mkvlevrebma saTiTaod unda gamoikvlion calobiT movaWreTa myidvelTa damokidebuleba, azri arsebul produqtTan mimarTebaSi. amis gakeTeba ki sakmaod advilia: nebismier gamomcemlobas SeuZlia wignis gavrcelebis punqtebSi (ra Tqma unda, damatebiTi anazRaurebis an raime garkveuli formis stimulirebis Semdeg), produqtis realizatorebs daurigos Sesabamisi formis kiTxvari, risi meSveobiTac gamomcemlobas ukve gauCndeba momxmareblis azris Sesaxeb informaciis minimumi. garda am ti pis kvlevisa, marketingis TeoriaSi azris Sesaxeb informaciis mopovebis ramdenime xerxi arsebobs: 1. piradi interviu; 2. interviu telefonis meSveobiT: 3. kvleva fostis meSveobiT; 4. momxmarebelTa siebi. informaciis es oTxi wyaro (amas garda arsebobs kidev sxva xerxebic) xels uwyobs imis aRmoCenas, Tu vin arian wignis myidvelebi, ra moTxovnebi aqvT maT da ras Seisyidian isini. Tavisufladaa SesaZlebeli TiToeulis maTganis qarTul gamomcemlob ebTan misadageba: pirvel or SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia interviuerisgan respondentis sworad SerCeva, Semdeg ki garkveuli, wanaswar Sedgenili kiTxvariT informaciis mopoveba. sagamomcemlo biznesSi informaciis am xerxiT mopoveba unda moxdes aucileblad wignis arsebuli an potenciuri mkiTxvelidan (myidvelidan). kvlevis es meTodi metad aprobirebulia msoflio wignis bazarze. kvlevis kidev erTi xerxia gamokiTxva fostis meSveobiT. Tanamedrove teqnologiebi iZlevian imis saSualebas, rom gamomcemlobam minimaluri raodenobis xarjebiT urTierToba daamyaros respondentebTan. werils aucileblad Tan unda axldes damatebiTi informaciis misaRebi Sesavsebi formatis kiTxvari. sasurvelia, werils

aseve Tan axldes mcire `saCuqari~, misaloci baraTi an raime produqtis SesaTavazebeli paketi (fasdakleba, bonusi da a. S.), es yvelaferi, ra Tqma unda, damatebiTi mastimulirebeli saSualebis saxiT unda iyos warmodgenili. gamomcemlobebs es arxi drois faqtoris mxrivac Zalian waadgeba, minimalur droSi SesaZlebelia sakmao raodenobis momxmarebels gaecnos. arsebobs kidev erTi meTodi imisaTvis, rom gamoikvlio momxmarebelTa azri _ specialistTa jgufi. am SemTxvevaSi sagamomcemlo firmaSi unda gamoiyos garkveuli raodenobis adamianTa jgufi, romelic regularulad imuSavebs kvleviT saqmianobebze. maT mier gamokiTxvebi unda xdebodes periodulad. saerTo jamSi ki marketingSi bazris kvlevis procesis aprobirebuli strategiebi Semdegnairad SeiZleba Camoyalibdes:

marketingis amocana

problemis zogadi aRqma problemis zogadi Camoyalibeba

winaswari kvleva problemis zusti Camoyalibeba, amocanebi da damowmebis pirobebi kvleva adgilze gasvliT

samuSao adgilis kvleva

informaciis miReba, mokreba, klasificireba Bazris Sesaxeb arsebuli codnis gaanalizeba, daskvnebis gamotana da am daskvnebis safuZvelze mizezebis ganmarteba

saboloo angariSis wardgena

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nebismier sagamomcemlo saxls xelewifeba am grafikis mixedviT dasaxos bazris kvlevis strategia an sulac moaxdinos am marketingulad mravalnacadi xerxis adaptireba Tavis organizaciasTan. naSromis dasasruls SemogTavazebT sagamomcemlo organizaciis bazris kvlevis mini strategias, anu, im aucilebel da saWiro etapebs, rac nebismierma organizaciam unda gaiaros, imisaTvis, rom miaRwios warmatebas bazarze, SeZlos jansaRi konkurenciis gaweva da, rac mTavaria, gazardos gayidvebis ricxvi. pirvel rigSi, rogorc, nebismieri marketinguli saqmianobis dawyebisas, aucilebelia organizaciam gansazRvros amocana. sagamomcemlo saqmianobis amocana, logikurad Tu vimsjelebT, unda iyos bazarze didi segmentis dakaveba, momxmareblis didi raodenoba da, Sesabamisad, aseve didi raodenobis gayiduli produqti. es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gamomcemloba axlad daarsebulia. ukve arsebul organizacias amocana ukve gansazRvruli aqvs. am ukanasknelma bazris kvleva unda daiwyos arsebuli problemebis aRqmiT. problema SesaZloa bevrnairi iyos, exebodes produqts, fass, marketinguli miqsis cvladebs, momxmarebels da a. S. bazris kvlevis strategiis dawyeba unda moxdes momxmarebelTan, myidvelebTan da isev bazarTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gansazRvriT. orive ti pis (axali da Zveli) organizaciis strategiis meore safexuri unda iyos uSualod kvleva da aqve moxdes kvlevis xerxis SerCeva, anu, iqneba es gamokiTxva fostiT, telefoniT, momxmarebelTan piradi gasaubrebiT da a. S. uSualod kvleva unda moxdes zustad gawerili kiTxvaris meSveobiT. marketingSi bazris kvlevisas didi mniSvneloba aqvs kiTxvaris sworad Sedgenas. es kiTxvari respondents aZlevs saSualebas, gamoxatos Tavisi Sexeduleba organizaciis, wignis, mimarT, amitomac, pirvel rigSi saWiroa, kiTxvebis dasmisas menejeri iyos obieqturi. ukve arCeuli arxis an arxebis Semdeg menejerma unda moaxdinos informaciis Sejameba, Segroveba, daxarisxeba. `strategiis~ am etapze, radgan kvleva exeba gamomcemlobas da mis ZiriTad produqts, SesaZloa, informaciis daxarisxeba moxdes wignis momxmareblis asakis mixedviT, wignis Janridan an Tavad produqtze momxmareblis moTxovnilebidan gamomdinare.

daxarisxeba SesaZloa moxdes grafikulad, skalurad da a. S. amis Semdegi safexuria miRebuli Sedegebis klasificireba da saboloo Sedegis (kvlevis Sedegis) gawera. Semdeg, es Sedegebi gadaecema maRali rgolis xelmZRvanel-menejers. swored am Sedegebis mixedviT unda moxdes axali samoqmedo strategiis Sedgena. meti TvalsaCinoebisTvis gTavazobT am `strategiis~ grafikul variantsac:

axali organizacia

Zveli organizacia

amocanis gansazRvra

problemis gansazRvra kvlevis arxis SerCeva

bazris kvleva

miRebuli informaciis Sejameba, daxarisxeba

Sedegebis analizi maslous `motivaciis Teoriis~ piramidis wveris bolo sami moTxovnileba ufro maRali donis moTxovnaa da mxolod pirveli ori moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gaCndes, isic ara yvela SemTxvevaSi. wignis SeZena inteleqtualuri survilia da, bunebrivia, yvelas ar uCndeba. wigniT vaWrobis SemTxvevaSi odnav rTulia adamianis motivireba. miT ufro, Tu saqarTveloSi dRes arsebul wignis yidvis mimarT damokidebulebas gavixsenebT da ramdenime kvlevis magaliTsac moviyvanT: wignis saagentos oficialuri monacemebis mixedviT, gayidvebisa da gamocemebis lideri gamomcemloba

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saqarTveloSi `bakur sulakauria~, romelmac erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi wignis (`Cemi pirveli zRaprebi~) 1215 cali egzemplari gayida (!) am samarcxvino cifrs Tavi rom avaridoT, saWiroa, gamomcemlobebma ise warmarTon marketinguli saqmianoba, rom mkiTxvels SesTavazon is, rac maT surT, SesTavazon misaRebi Rirebulebis (Tumca es ukve fasis dadgenis problemaa) wignebi. mkiTxvelis azris dadgena ki mxolod da mxolod bazris monacemebis kvlevis Sedegad SeiZleba.

natalia murjikneli magistratura II kursi xelmZRvaneli ­ prof. iuri mRebriSvili stresi organizaciaSi da misi marTvis str ategiebi iaponuri menejmentis erT-erTi wesis mixedviT, organizaciis efeqtianoba damokidebulia imaze, SeZlebs Tu ara xelmZRvaneli daeuflos mis TanamSromlebSi arsebul stresis energias da is warmatebis energiad gardaqmnas. dRes organizaciul stresze visaubrebT. SevecdebiT gavarkvioT, Tu ra gavlena aqvs mas biznesis warmatebawarumateblobaze da rogor SeuZlia kompaniis xelmZRvanelobas, stresi ise marTos, rom misi manve Sedegebi an gamoricxos an minimumamde daiyvanos. uSualod stresis marTvaze odnav mogvianebiT gadaval, Tavidan ki vupasuxoT erT martiv kiTxvas: ra aris stresi? adamianebis umetesoba fiqrobs, rom stresi daZabulobis aRmniSvneli kidev erTi terminia. magram es sakmaod martivi ganmartebaa. sinamdvileSi stresi gacilebiT rTuli da saintereso fenomenia. stresis Sesaxeb mecnierebis fuZemdebelia cnobili kanadeli biologi hans selie. misi ganmartebiT, stresi organizmis araspecifikuri reaqciaa mis mimarT wayenebul nebismier moTxovnaze. imisTvis, rom es ganmarteba gasagebi gaxdes, saWiroa aixsnas, Tu ra igulisxmeba sityvaSi `araspecifikuri~. organizmis mimarT wayenebuli nebismieri moTxovna Taviseburi, anu specifikuria. magaliTad, yinvaSi adamiani kankalebs, raTa meti siTbo gamoyos, sisxlZarRvebi ki viwrovdeba, raTa sxeulis zedapiridan dakarguli siTbos raodenoba Semcirdes. es aris organizmis specifikuri reaqciebi, anu, specifikuri zemoqmedebiT gamowveuli specifikuri cvlilebebi. magram imis miuxedavad, Tu ra cvlilebebi xdeba organizmSi, yvela amgvar zemoqmedebas erTi saerTo ram axasiaTebs: isini organizmisgan iTxovs adaptacias da normaluri mdgomareobis aRdgenas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, specifikuri efeqtis

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garda, neb ismieri z emoq medeba organizmisgan iT xovs araspecifikuri adaptaciuri funqciebis amoqmedebas da normaluri mdgomareobis aRdgenas. zustad es aris stresis ganmarteba. stresuli reaqciis TvalsazrisiT, ar aqvs mniSvneloba sasiamovnoa Tu usiamovno situacia, romelic Cvenze zemoqmedebs. mniSvneloba aqvs mxolod adap taciisadmi moT xovnis intensivobas. stresis ignorirebis safasuri dResdReobiT, adamianis sicocxles, SesaZloa, naklebi safrTxe emuqreba, magram amis miuxedavad, stresis done sul ufro da ufro matulobs. axali teqnologiebiT da axali informaciiT gamowveuli cvlilebebis tempi imdenad swrafia, rom adamiani amgvar datvirTvas veRar umklavdeba. stresi Tanamedrove biznesis ganuyreli nawilia da kompaniis nebismieri donis TanamSromelze moqmedebs. kompaniis rigiTi TanamSromeli ganicdis stress, radgan dabali anazRaurebiT, magram didi datvirTviT muSaobs, Zalian bevri movaleoba da gacilebiT cota ufleba aqvs. Sua rgolis menejerebic mudmivad stresis pirobebSi arian _ maT uwevT klientTan urTierToba, gayidvebis moculobaze zrunva, rac faqtobrivad niSnavs, rom maTi samuSao logikuri da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis (kreativis) garkveul monawileobas moiTxovs. garda amisa, isini xelmZRvanelebis pretenziebis mTavar samiznesac warmoadgenen. kidev ufro Zlier stresSia is, visac yvelaze meti pasuxismgebloba akisria _ kompaniis xelmZRvaneloba. rogorc wesi, kompaniis TanamSromlebs miaCniaT, rom `maRla~ myof direqtors an kompaniis prezidents problemebi ar awuxebs da arxeinad cxovrobs. sinamdvileSi ki, rac ufro maRla adixar karierul safexurze, miT ufro imatebs stresis intensivoba. stresis gamo uaresdeba urTierToba klientebTan, aseve uSualod kolegebs Soris, radgan adamianebi advilad gaRizianebadi da naklebad tolerantulebi xdebian.

stresis zemoqmedebis qveS myofi adamianebi araefeqtian da xSirad mcdar gadawyvetilebebs iReben. stresiT gamowveuli kadrebis gadinebas mohyveba kompaniis saqmianobis Seferxeba, produqtiulobis kleba da xarjebis zrda (mag., axali TanamSromlis ayvanisa da maTi treningis xarjebi). zemoT Tqmuli sakmarisia imisTvis, rom gasagebi gaxdes: garkveuli daZab ulob a samuSaoz e sasargeblocaa da mamotivirebelic, magram rodesac organizaciaSi stresis intensivoba izrdeba, es ukve seriozuli problemaa, romelsac xelmZRvanelobam droulad unda mixedos. stresis simptomebi rac ufro male gamovavlenT stresis zRvargadacilebul intensivobas organizaciaSi, miT ufro swrafad SevZlebT situaciis mowesrigebas. moamzadeT Tqveni TanamSromlebi specialuri treningebis meSveobiT, raTa maT iswavlon da SeZlon seriozuli stresis simptomebis amocnoba sakuTar TavSi da kolegebSi. darwmundiT rom maT ician Tqveni mzaobis Sesaxeb da problemebis gaCenis SemTxvevaSi, maSinve Tqven mogmarTaven. ra simptomebi metyvelebs stresis momatebul doneze? pirvel rigSi, adamianebi grZnoben, rom veRar umklavdebian datvirTvas; isini mudmivad Cqaroben da drois deficits ganicdian; ver axerxeben koncentrirebas saqmeze; isini mudmivad daRlilobas uCivian; ver axerxeben samsaxurebrivi problemebidan gadarTvas da dasvenebas maSinac ki, rodesac saxlSi brundebian uares SemTxvevaSi maT SesaZloa samsaxurSi misvlis SiSi ganuviTardeT. xandaxan xdeba, rom TviTon adamianebi verafers xedaven, samagierod misi TanamSromlebi amCneven garkveul cvlilebebs mis qcevaSi:

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stresSi myofi adamianebi iumoris grZnobas kargaven, uxasiaTod arian da advilad Riziandebian. maTi samuSao dRis Cveulebrivi reJimi icvleba: magaliTad, gvian modian an uars amboben Sesvenebaze. maTi muSaobis xarisxi uecrad ecema. isini sul ufro da ufro xSirad acdenen samsaxurs avadmyofobis gamo.

stresis gamomwvevi mizezebi da misi Semcirebis gz eb i stresis gamomwvevi mizezebi, pirobiTad, ramdenime ZiriTad kategoriad erTiandeba. 1. samuSao datvir T vasT an dakavSirebuli problemeb i. TanamSromlebisTvis araelastikuri amocanebis dasaxva maT demotivacias da produqtiulobis dacemas iwvevs. 2 . damatebiTi samuSao saaTebi. z ogjer, gadadeb uli saq mis dasruleb is miz niT , TanamSromlebs uwevT samsaxurSi adre mosvla da gvianobamde darCena. magram gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqti, rom rac metad iRleba adamiani, miT ufro uWirs koncentracia da samuSaos xarisxianad Sesruleba. amitom, aseTi daZabuli muSaobis Semdeg TanamSromeli erTi dRiT gaaTavisufleT, mieciT mas saSualeba, sxva mimarTulebiT gadaerTos. 3. marTvis stili. organizaciuli stresis yvelaze xSiri mizezia konfliqti ufrosTan an kolegasTan. Zalian xSirad adamianebi daSinebis da agresiuli qcevis msxverplni xdebian. ufrosi, romelic sajarod amcirebs TanamSromlebs an waaxalisebs amgvar qcevas mis xelqveiTebs Soris, riskis qveS ayenebs sakuTar reputacias da kargavs komp aniaSi momuSave adamianeb is ndob as. gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve is, rom, rac erTi adamianisTvis sasacilo xumrobad gamoiyureba, meoresTvis, SesaZloa, mZime Seuracxyofad iqces.

4. komunikaciis nakleboba. adamianebi sakuTar momavalze Relaven da efeqturad ver muSaoben, Tu ar arian informirebulebi organizaciaSi mimdinare cvlilebebis Sesaxeb. Tundac axali menejeris daniSvna. droulad miwodebuli informacia amSvidebs adamianebs, isini Tavs usafrTxod grZnoben da Cveul reJimSi agrZeleben muSaobas.AacnobeT maT ra gaxda cvlilebis mizezi da ra kuTxiT Seexeba maT es cvlileba. dausviT TanamSromlebs kiTxvebi, moismineT maTi mosazrebebi: isini Tavs kompaniis nawilad igrZnoben, rac mniSvnelovnad gazrdis maT motivacias. 5. ojaxuri problemebi. rodesac adamianebs piradi piradi problemebi awuxebs, es aucileblad aisaxeba mis muSaobazec. aseT situaciaSi TanamSromlis mimarT gamoCenili TanagrZnoba exmareba maT, ufro swrafad gadalaxon stresi da cxovrebis Cveul ritms daubrundnen. SesTavazeT adamianebs moklevadiani Svebuleba an ufro moqnili samuSao grafiki. 6 . menejmentis stresi. kompaniis prezidenti an aRmasrulebeli direqtori, gamomdinare Tavisi Tanamdebobidan, yovelTvis erTgvar izolaciaSia da ukve amis gamo Zlieri stresis qveS imyofeba. amas emateba masze dakisrebuli pasuxismgeblobis maRali xarisxi da TanamSromlebis mxridan mxardaWeris nakleboba (rogorc wesi, isini darwmunebulni arian, rom ufrosma yvelaze ukeT icis, ra unda gaakeTos ama Tu im problemur situaciaSi). gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi naklebad stresulia, rodesac pasuxismgebloba ramdenime adamianzea gadanawilebuli. Tu gadawyvetileba mcdari aRmoCndeba, amis pasuxismgeblobac gadanawildeba da erT adamians aRar daawveba. `martoobiT~ gamowveuli stresis Semcirebis mizniT, SeecadeT, msgavs Tanamdebobebze momuSave adamianebs esaubroT, maTi gamocdileba gaiziaroT. imisaTvis, rom stress gaumklavdeT, Tavidan saWiroa dadgindes, Tu sad imaleba stresis SesaZlo mizezebi. problemuri `ubnis~ gamovlenis Semdeg Tqven SeZlebT, uSualod imuSaoT am `ubanze~ da TanamSromlebs stresis SemcirebaSi daexmaroT.

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stresis marTvis ramdenime midgoma umetes SemTxvevaSi, stresi kompleqsuri, mravalfaqtoriani warmoSobisaa, amitom misi daZleva Sesabamisi strategiis gamoyenebas saWiroebs. strategiebis arsenali sakmaod didia, Tumca, arsebobs ramdenime ZiriTadi midgoma, romelic adamians exmareba, marTos stresi, airidos an gadalaxos misi negatiuri Sedegebi da mudmivad moi povos axali rezervebi sakuTari janmrTelobisa Tu Sromisunarianobis gasaZliereblad. 1 . T viT Semecneb a. am princi pSi moiazreba sakuTari SesaZleblobebisa da SezRudvebis, pirovnuli temperamentisa da stresul viTarebaSi ti piuri qcevis, agreTve, sakuTari faseulobebisa da miznebis codna. ra aris saWiro TviTSecnebisaTvis? sakuTar Tavze dakvirveba da gaanalizeba imisa, Tu romeli stresorebi moqmedebs Tqvenze ufro xSirad, da ra gemarTebaT stresis dros da ras akeTebT stresTan sabrZolvelad. 2. sakuT ar T avT an T anx mob a d a sakuT ar i SasaZleblobebis rwmena. es ori urTierTdakavSirebuli cnebaa: sakuTar TavTan Tanxmoba niSnavs, aRiaro sami ram: 1. me varsebob; 2. ar arsebobs raime mizezi imisa, rom viyo gansxvavebuli imisgan, rac amJamad var; 3. me arc `Rirseuli~ var da arc `uRirsi~. sakuTar SesaZleblobebis rwmena niSnavs: 1. icode risi gakeTeba SegiZlia da risi ara; 2. iyo mzad yvelaferi akeTo Seni SesaZleblobebis farglebSi; 3. mudmivad imuSao am farglebis gasafarToeblad. 3. Wkvianuri egoizmi. Wkvianuri egoizmis formula martivia: pirvel adgilze ayeneb sakuTar interesebs, Tumca, ar iviwyeb, rom Seni interesi gacilebiT ukeT dakmayofildeba, Tu ki sxvaTa interesebsac gaiTvaliswineb. 4. riski. adamianebi, TavianTi bunebidan gamomdinare, cdiloben miaRwion stabilurobas da ar hqondeT momavlis SiSi. Tumca, maT, garkveulwilad riskianobac axasiaTebT. Cven vsaubrobT im gonier riskze, romelic aucilebelia, raTa cxovrebisgan rac

SeiZleba meti miiRo da Tavi aarido mowyenilobiT gamowveul uaryofiT stress. imisaTvis, rom daadgino Seni SesaZleblobebi, unda garisko da gamoscado sakuTari Tavi axal saqmeSi, axal urTierTobebSi. 5. z omiereba. zomierebis princi pi dagexmarebaT, Tavidan airidoT eqstremaluroba azrovnebaSi, grZnobeb sa da qcevaSi. eqstremaluri ­ Zalian dabali an Zalian maRali molodinebis an mudmivi uiRblobis gancdas aCens, an mosabezrebels xdis cxovrebas. zomierebis princi pis arsi aris is, rom daisaxoT realisturi da miRwevadi miznebi da amocanebi, romlebsac yoveldRiurad SeasrulebT. 6. emociuri da qceviTi pasuxismgebloba. adamianebi, romlebic grZnoben, rom sakuTar emociebs da qcevas ver akontroleben, gacilebiT naklebad ganicdian stresis mavne zegavlenas. pasuxismgeblobis aRebis princi pi dagexmarebaT, Tavad agoT pasuxi sakuTar emociebze, moqmedebaze, da mTlianad Tqvens cxovrebaze. hqondes emociuri pasuxismgebloba niSnavs: a. gjerodes, rom Tavad qmni Sens sakuTar grZnobebs da b. arasodes adanaSaulebde SenSi gaCenili grZnobis gamo sxva adamianebs. qceviTi pasuxismgebloba niSnavs, aRiaro, rom Tavad xar Seni qmedebis da qcevis `avtori~ da aravin gaZalebs ganaxorcielo esa Tu is qceva. adamiani, romelic pasuxs agebs sakuTar grZnobebsa da qcevaze, arasodes aRmoCndeba msxverplis rolSi da arasodes gamoamJRavnebs gadametebul reaqcias sxva adamianebis sityvebis an qcevis mimarT. Tu ver Secvlis garemos, igi yovelTvis SeZlebs Secvalos sakuTari grZnoba da ganwyoba am garemos mimarT. 7. moqniloba. amboben, rom moqnili xe Zlieri qariSxlis dros moixreba da gadarCeba, xolo xisti ­ gauZaliandeba da gadatydeba. iyo moqnili niSnavs: iyo Ria cvlilebebis mimarT rogorc Sens SigniT, aseve gareT. Secvlili garemoebebis Sasabamisad, SegeZlos Secvalo Seni gegmebi da qceva.

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SegeZlos aiTviso azrovnebis axali wesi, romelic cvalebad samyarosTan SeguebaSi dagexmareba. Segwevdes unari, misce adamianebs saSualeba ifiqron da akeTon is, rac sworad miaCniaT, xolo Tavad Sen akeTe is rac SenTvisaa misaRebi. Mmoqniloba zrdis gadarCenis Sansebs cvalebad garemoSi. 8. realobis miReba (aRiareba). realobis aRiareba niSnavs: daeTanxmo imas, rom realoba Tundac usiamovno, arsebobs mixvde, rom yvelaferi Sens gemoze da Sens mosawonad ver moxdeba. gaurkvevloba an gawbileba normaluri cxovrebis Cveulebriv aspeqtad ganixilo. Seeguo imas, rom pirovnuli cvlilebebi SezRudulia. Mmiuxedavad, imisa, rom namdvilad SesaZlebelia bevri raRacis Secvla, zogi ram ucvlelad darCeba, rogorc unda ecado. Seeguo im azrs, rom SeuZlebelia sxva adamianebis Secvla.Amis gacnobiereba zedmet tkivils agaridebT. stresis marTvis sistemuri midgomis gamocdileba dasavleTis zogierT qveyanaSi SemoRebulia stresis marTvis specialuri standartebi, romlebic samuSaosTan dakavSirebuli stresis donis Semcirebiskenaa mimarTuli. standartebis SemuSavebis umTavresi mizani iyo im adamianTa ricxvis Semcireba, romlebic xSirad avadmyofobdnen da acdendnen samsaxurs, an kargad ver asrulebdnen maTze dakisrebul movaleobebs imis gamo, rom maRali donis stresis zemoqmedebis qveS imyofebian. stresis menejmentis standartebis mixedviT, damqiravebeli valdebulia, Tavis TanamSromlebTan imuSaos da ganuwyvetliv izrunos samuSaosT an dakavSireb uli stresis donis Semcirebaze.Ees standartebi, rogorc wesi, arasavaldebuloa, magram Tu stresis efeqtiani marTva organizaciuli kulturis nawili gaizrdeba, is did sargebels moutans ara mxolod kompaniaSi momuSave personals, aramed mTlianad kompanias. stresis marTvis standartebi eqvs ZiriTad aspeqts moicavs:

1. moTxovnebi. igulisxmeba iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa samuSao datvirTva, muSaobis reJimi da samuSao garemo. standarti: adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom maT ar uWirT samuSao moTxovnebis Sesruleba; kompaniaSi danergilia personalis individualur problemebze reagirebis sistema. 2. kontroli. samuSao procesis dagegmvasa da ganxorcielebaSi ramdenad aris gaTvaliswinebuli kompaniis TanamSromlebis azri. standarti: adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom maT aqvT ufleba da saSualeba gamoTqvan mosazreba sakuTar samuSaosTan dakavSirebiT; kompaniaSi danergilia personalis individualur problemebze reagirebis sistema. 3. mxardaWera. igulisxmeba kompaniis, Sua rgolis menejerebisa da kolegebis mier gaRebuli resursebi, waxaliseba da daxmareba. standartebi: adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom kolegebisa da xelmZRvanelobisgan sakmaris mxardaWeras da informacias Rebuloben; kompaniaSi danergilia personalis individualur problemebze reagirebis sistema. 4. urTierTobeb i. igulisxmeba pozitiuri samuSao ganwyobis Seqmna, konfliqtebis Tavidan arideba da miRebuli qcevis mimarT damokidebuleba. standartebi: adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom maT mimarT ar xorcieldeba maTTvis miRebuli qceva (mag., daSineba); kompaniaSi danergilia personalis individualur problemebze reagirebis sistema. 5. roli. is, Tu ramdenad esmiT adamianebs sakuTari roli kompaniis SigniT da ramdenad uzrunvelyofs organizacia imas, rom adamians or konfliqtur rolSi erTdrouli yofna ar mouxdes. standarti: adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom maT esmiT TavianTi roli da maTze dakisrebuli movaleobebi; kompaniaSi danergilia personalis individualur problemebze reagirebis sistema. 6. cvlileba. rogor imarTeba didi an mcire masStabis cvlileba organizaciaSi da rogor xdeba TanamSromlebis informireba cvlilebebis procesSi. standarti: adamianebi aRniSnaven, rom organizacia maT sistematurad ayenebs saqmis kursSi kompaniaSi mimdinare

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cvlilebebTan dakavSirebiT; kompaniaSi danergilia personalis individualur problemebze reagirebis sistema. sasiamovno da sasargeblo saubris bolos minda, organizaciul stresTan brZolisa da misi prevenciis kidev ramdenime popularuli meTodi vaxseno.Aam meTodebis gamoyenebisTvis organizaciis winaswari diagnostika an auditireba ar dagWirdebaT, radgan isini universaluria da amave dros qmediTi. erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli da popularuli meTodia korporaciuli wveulebebis mowyoba.Ggundis Sekrebis TvalsazrisiT, es mSvenieri RonisZiebaa, Tumca, misi organizebisas unda gaxsovdeT, rom iq, sadac alkoholia, SesaZloa, problemebi gaCndes.Aase rom, stresis moxsnis es Zveleburi recepti Zalian efeqtiania, magram mainc safrTxiloa. stress Zalian kargad xsnis sporti.Kkompania, romelic sakuTar TanamSromlebze izrunebs, maTTvis sportul darbazs Tu sacurao auzs moawyobs an Tundac tenisis magidebs daayenebs, Sedegad Sromis nayofierebis 15%-ian zrdas miiRebs. stresis prevenciisa da Semcirebis miznebs emsaxureba, agreTve, Sromis pirobebis gaumjobeseba. igulisxmeba kargi ganaTeba, oTaxebis ganiaveba da ventilacia, moxerxebuli samuSao adgili, kedlebis wynari Seferiloba, xmauris maqsimaluri Semcireba. im kompaniebSi, sadac ugulebelyofili ar aris ekonomikis wesebi, Sromis nayofiereba yovelTvis ufro maRalia.

caca jorjiaSvili magistraturis II kursis studenti, xelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvili PR -is (sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis) roli kulturuli turizmis ganviTar ebaSi resursuli potencialis mniSvnelobis mxriv saqarTvelo erT-erTi gamorCeuli qveyanaa, romlis mimarTac interesi uZvelesi droidan arsebobda. amis naTeli magaliTia Tqmuleba argonavtebis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelo evropisa da aziis gzagasayarze mdebareobs, Sesabamisad, swored saqarTvelos gavliT xdeboda evropisa da az iis saxelmwifoeb s Soris savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis ganviTareba. am gzas, romelic evropasa da azias akavSirebda, ZvelTaganve ewoda abreSumis gza, romelzec moZraobdnen savaWro qaravnebi, di plomatiuri misiebi da kaTolike misionerebi. imis gamo, rom mogzauroba iyo xangrZlivi da damqancveli, gaCnda aucilebloba sastumros ti pis nagebobebis mowyobisa. SesaZloa vivaraudoT, rom swored aqedan iRebs saTaves CvenSi pirveli sastumro-saxlebis dafuZneba. ufro mogvianebiT aRmosavluri tradiciisamebr qalaqebSi da saqaravno gzebze aSendnen qarvaslebi, sasveniebi, xaniebi, samadloebi, iamebi, fundukebi da sxva amgvari ti pis nagebobebi. evropeli vaWrebi da kaTolike misionerebi TavianT CanawerebSi aRniSnavdnen rom, TbilisSi ufro met ucxoels SexvdebiT vidre sxvagan sadme (ra Tqma unda, saubaria aRmosavleTis qveynebze). sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmnis Semdeg saqarTvelo mokavSire respublikebisaTvis mniSvnelovan kurortul da turistul zonad gadaiqca, romelic ganTqmuli iyo samkurnalo mineraluri wylebiT, Savi zRvis sanapiroTi, mTis unikaluri haviT da kavkasionis alpinisturi marSrutebiT. amdenad, sabWoTa periodSi saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad turizmis ori saxe iyo cnobili: kulturuli turizmi da

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PR -is (sazogadoebasTan turizmis ganviTarebaSi

samkurnalo turizmi. XX saukunis 80-iani wlebisTvis saqarT velo oTx milionamde turists maspinZlobda, romelTaganac ZiriTadi raodenoba kulturul turizmze modioda. da mainc, ra aris kulturuli turizmi? ­ kulturuli turizmi farTo gagebiT iseT mogzaurobas gulisxmobs romelic xelovnebis, memkvidreobisa da RirsSesaniSnavi adgilebis gacnobisken aris mimarTuli. xelovnebaSi igulisxmeba ­ galereebi, studiebi, saSemsruleblo (performing) da TvalsaCino xelovneb a; kulturul saqmianob aSi ­ festivaleb i, dResaswaulebi, ritualebi, saRamoebi da a. S.; fizikur memkvidreobaSi ki _ Senobebi da buneba. ICOMOS -i (the UN's International Council on Monuments and Sites) Tavis saerTaSoriso kulturuli turizmis qartiaSi acxadebs, rom: `farTo gagebiT, bunebrivi da kulturuli memkvidreoba ekuTvnis xalxs. TiToeul Cvengans ki gvaqvs ufleba da movaleoba imisa, rom gavigoT, davafasoT da SevinarCunoT misi universaluri faseulobebi~. saerTaSoriso da saSinao kulturuli vizitorebi ganisazRvrebian iseT vizitorebad, romlebic: - eswrebian sxvadasxva saxis kulturul RonisZiebebs. - stumroben galereebs, monawileobas iReben vorqSopebisa da studiebis muSaobaSi. - ecnobian maspinZeli qveynis xelovnebas, rewvas, samzareulos, bunebas, tradiciebs, istoriasa da eTnografias. kulturuli turizmi moicavs yvela im mimarTulebas, romelic dakavSirebulia eris istoriis, kulturis, eTnografiis, materialuri da sulieri kulturis memkvidreobis popularizaciasTan. - turizmis es mimarTuleba, saSualebas aZlevs turistebs gaecnon istoriul da kulturul memkvidreobas, riTac Cveni qveyana Zalian mdidaria. qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani istoria aisaxa mravalricxovan istoriul Zegleb Si. cnobilia, rom saqarTveloSi 150-mde muzeumi da 35 aTasi istoriuli Zeglia. 1994 wlidan oTxi maTgani iuneskos msoflio mniSvnelobis ZeglTa dacvis siaSi Sevida: 1. saqarTvelos uZvelesi dedaqalaqi mcxeTa, rogorc qalaqi-muzeumi; 2. gelaTis samonastro

kompleqsi (XI s.); 3. bagratis taZari quTaisSi (XI s.) da 4. uSgulis arqiteqturuli ansambli. amdenad Zalian mniSvnelovania Tu rogor warmoaCens sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis specialisti qveynis istoriuli da kulturuli memkvidreob is Sesaxeb informacias sazogadoebisTvis. miuxedavad imisa, rom omis Semdgomi saqarTvelo jer ekonomikurad da politikurad stabiluri araa, dRes interesi Tanamedrove saqarTvelos mimarT rogorc misi kulturis, aseve istoriis mimarT, isev Zlierdeba ucxoel turistebSi. mag.: saqarTvelos turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis informaciiT 2008 wlis 10 dekembridan 15 dekembramde saqarTvelom umaspinZla italiuri televiziis RAI UNO-s warmomadgenelTa 3 kacian jgufs. aRniSnuli pres-turis mTavar mizans warmoadgenda saqarTvelos turistuli potencialis Seswavla da gaSuqeba italiis televiziiT. garda amisa Jurnalistebma moinaxules da gadaiRes is teritoriebi, romlebic rva agvistos movlenebis Sedegad iqna dazianebuli. maT saqarTveloSi vizitis dros, dazianebuli teritoriebis garda moinaxules mcxeTa, kaxeTi, Zveli Tbilisi da sxva turistuli atraqciebi. saqarTvelos turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis statistikuri monacemebiT 2008 wels (11 Tvis ganmavlobaSi) saqarTveloSi Camosul vizitorTa raodenobam 1 200 000 miaRwia, rac daaxloebiT 25%-iT metia 2007 welTan SedarebiT. kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia saqarTveloSi arsebuli resursebis maqsimaluri amoqmedeba. agreTve mniSvnelovania Cvenma qveyanam w amoiwyos farTomasStabiani saerTaSoriso PR kampania, kulturuli turizmis mimarTulebis popularizaciis mizniT, romelic msoflios wamyvan telearxebz e da b eWdviT mediaSi, originaluri maRalxarisxiani sareklamo rgolebiT da masalebiT ganTavsdeba. swored aseTi PR aqciebiT Tu SevZlebT informaciuli vakuumis Sevsebas da saerTaSoriso sainformacio sivrceSi maRali reputaciis damkvidrebas. Sida turizmis

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ganviTarebis mizniT ki aucileblad mimaCnia iseTi satelevizio Tu radio gadacemis Seqmna, romelic mudmivad saqarTvelos sxvadasxva turistul adgilebs `promouSens~ gauwevs. mniSvnelovania momzaddes sareklamo masalebi, kerZod ki _ daibeWdos turistuli rukebi, saqarTvelos kurortebis CamonaTvali broSurebis saxiT da sastumroebisa da saxlebis guideline-ebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen rogorc turistuli potencialis popularizacias, aseve miawvdian sazogadoebas informacias turistuli RirsSesaniSnaobebis, marSrutebis, sastumroebis, kvebis obieqtebis da sxv. Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli ti pis masala aramarto turistebisTvis iqneba gamosadegi, aramed aqtualuri iqneba turizmis industriaSi CarTuli adgilobrivi mosaxleobisTvisac. Sesabamisad, glexs an fermers, romelsac ara aqvs SesaZlebloba reklamireba gaukeTos mis mier SeTavazebul turistul produqts (Ramis saTevs, kvebiT an transportiT momsaxurebas da sxv.), saSualeba eqneba miawodos saTanado informacia dainteresebul pirebs, iqneba es turisti Tu turistuli kompania. agreTve saWiroebas warmoadgens sainformacio web-gverdis Seqmnac. zemoT CamoTvlili proeqtebis dafinanseba Tavdapirvelad unda ganxorcieldes saxelmwifo biujetidan da sponsoruli saqmianobidan. agreTve sasurvelia investiciebis mozidva sxvadasxva qveynidan, raSic PR ­ specialistis swori kuTxiT warmarTul muSaobas gansakuTreb uli roli eniWeb a. kulturuli turizmis ganviTareba saxelmwifos Tanadgomis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba. saqarTveloSi kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebas xels Seuwyobs samTavrobo struqturebis ufro farTo masStaburi CarTva procesis menejmentSi. _ mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT unda ganxorcieldes iseTi proeqtebi, rogoric mag., turizmis departamentma Sida turizmis ganviTarebis mizniT svaneTSi ganaxorciela; es iyo `svaneTis popularizaciis proeqti~. aRniSnuli proeqti Sida turizmis ganviTarebis erT-erT pirvel proeqts warmoadgenda da miznad isaxavda svaneTis regionSi turistuli nakadis zrdasa da adgilobrivi infrastruqturis ganviTarebisaTvis potenciuri investorebis mozidvas. departamentis mier

mestiasTan sofel kaxrSi, moewyo 150 kaciani turistuli banaki (Camp Town-i), sadac gaimarTa axalgazrduli musikaluri festivali `svanseti~; am proeqtis farglebSi svaneTi 5000mde qarTvelma da ucxoelma turistma moinaxula. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom `svaneTis popularizaciis proeqtis~ mimdinareobis periodSi departamentis mier Catarda aqtiuri PR kampania: momzadda ramdenime sareklamo rgoli, momzadda da gavrcelda sareklamo beWdviTi masala lifletebisa da svaneTis rukis saxiT. specialurad turistebisaTvis damzadda maisurebi da gasaRebis sakidebi, romlebzec svaneTis logo iyo gamosaxuli. yovelive zemoT aRniSnulma aqtiurad Seuwyo xeli svaneTis regionSi turistuli nakadis zrdas. saqarTveloSi unda Seiqmnas turizmis iseTi politika, sadac gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba iuneskosa (United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization) da WTO-s (World Tourism Organization) programebi, rezoluciebi da rekomendaciebi, romelic savaldebuloa nacionaluri mTavrobisaTvis. Mmag., istoriis, kulturisa da bunebis Zeglebi warmoadgenen qveynis erovnul sakuTrebas.Aamdenad, maTi gamoyeneba moiTxovs Zalze saTuT mopyrobas _ devizi: `daicavi _ aRadgine _ nu daazianeb~, iseTi unikaluri teritoriebi, rogoricaa _ Zveli qalaqebi, sakarmidamo sasaxle _ parkis kompleqsi, sakulto arqiteqtura, istoriuli nagebobebi, istoriul _ kulturuli Zeglebi da a. S. kulturuli memkvidreobis dacva da misi SenarCuneba saqarTvelos kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebis mTavar prioritetad unda miviCnioT. udavoa is faqti, rom turizmi ekonomikis umsxvilesi sferoa. msoflio ekonomikaSi igi lideris poziciazea da konkurencias uwevs navTobis mopovebas. aqedan gamomdinare kulturuli turizmis da saerTod turizmis ganviTarebiT saqarTvelos turizmis sxvadasxva teritoriuli erTeulisaTvis gaizrdeba ara marto Semosavali, aramed mosaxleobas Camouyalibdeba garkveuli siamayis grZnoba, rom arsebobs raRac unikaluri, romelic damaxasiaTebelia mxolod misi kuTxisTvis da romlis SeTavazeba SeuZlia sxva kulturis warmomadgenlebisaTvis; _ amaRldeba mosaxleobis cxovrebis kulturuli done. _ bevr evropul qveyanaSi saqarTveloze mwiri warmodgena

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gaaCniaT. turistebis Semodineba ki garkveulwilad gamoiwvevs am naklovanebis aRmofxvras. _ stimuli miecema adgilobrivi kulturuli tradiciebis SenarCunebas da aRorZinebas. am stimulirebis wyarod ZiriTadad ucxoel turistTa maRali msyidvelobiTi unaris mqone bazari warmogvidgeba. _ Seiqmneba axali samuSao adgilebi. _ ganviTardeba yvela is dargi, romelic dakavSirebulia turistul momsaxurebasTan. _ ganviTardeba socialuri da adgilobrivi meurneoba (sastumroebi, restornebi, satransporto sistema, suvenirebis warmoeba, xalxuri rewva da sxva). _ q veynis b iujetSi Semova ucxouri valuta da mravalferovani gaxdeba adgilobrivi ekonomika, gansakuTrebiT maRalmTian raionebSi, sadac soflis meurneoba arasakmarisad aris warmodgenili da ganviTarebuli. _ gaizrdeba moTxovna soflis meurneobis produqciaze. _ xeli Seewyoba im miwebis produqtiulad aTvisebas, romlebic nakleb vargisia soflis meurneobisaTvis. _ adgilobriv mosaxleobas Camouyalibdeba konkretuli damokidebuleba sakuTari qveynis mimarT, rac maT daexmareba qarTul _ erovnuli individualobis damkvidrebaSi. gauCndebaT survili mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanon istoriul _ kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvaSi da SenarCunebaSi. yovelive zemoT CamoTvlili, saqarTvelos saSualebas miscems, ara marto iamayos sakuTari mravalsaukunovani kulturiT, aramed Cveni qveynis es Zlieri sfero aqcios Semosavlis da ekonomikuri winsvlis wyarod. Tavis mxriv, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba kulturasTan integrirebulad igrZnobs Tavs. amasTan erTad yovelTvis unda gvaxsovdes, rom PR-is (sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis) roli kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebaSi Zalze mniSvnelovania, radgan sazogadoebis mZafri CarTulobis gareSe turizmis ganviTareba SeuZlebeli iqneba. sazogadoebis aqtiuri CarTuloba ki SesaZlebelia misi sxvadasxvanairi stimulirebiT. mag: `kaxeli glexis~ rewvis nimuSebi da igive mis mier Seqmnili suvenirebi, ara mxolod

Semosavlis wyarod unda vaqcioT, aramed gavuCinoT mas, maTi lamazad (mimzidvelad) warmoCenis survili turistebTan mimarTebaSi. es stimulireba SeiZleba moxdes mxolod swori mesijebiT. es ki PR-is prerogativaa. PR ­ a). emsaxureba Cvens segmentur, daqsaqsul sazogadoebas komunikatorisa da Suamavlis funqciis Sesruleb iT; xelmZRvanelobs adamianebis informirebulobis amaRlebis princi piT da cdilobs maT Soris uTanxmoebis aRmofxvras. b). PR ­ asrulebs Tavis socialur valdebulebas, gaaumjobesos adamianebis keTildReoba. g). is emsaxureba sazogadoebriv interesebs, sazogadoebis sxvadasxva azris gaTvaliswinebiT. PR ­ uzrunvelyofs xelsayrel garemos, romelSic moqmedebs rogorc sazogadoeba aseve kompaniebi. praqtikulad kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis PR saqmianobas wamyvani roli akisria, radgan es saqmianoba turistuli produqtis gasaRebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi elementia. PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba) ­ turistul produqtsa da momxmarebels Soris arapirdapiri kavSiris formaa, misi mizania mii pyros sazogadoebis yuradReba, gaaRviZos misi interesi, gadasces dawvrilebiTi informacia momxmarebels da daainteresos igi. kulturuli turizmis da saerTod turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis PR ­ miznad isaxavs: 1. sazogadoebis informirebas, - informaciis miwodebas turistuli produqtis Sesaxeb; - produqtis imijis formirebas; - turistuli firmis imijis formirebas; - firmis muSaobis Sesaxeb arsebuli Sexedulebebis koreqtirebas. 2. darwmunebas, - survilis aRZvras tur. produqtis SesaZenad; - damokidebulebis Secvlas tur. produqtis mimarT; - gayidvaTa ricxvis gazrdas (tur. produqtis gayidvis xelSewyobas); - konkurenciisaTvis winaaRmdegobis gawevas (konkurent

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PR -is (sazogadoebasTan turizmis ganviTarebaSi

produqtTan SedarebiT ukeTesi reputaciis damkvidrebas). 3. zemoqmedebas mexsierebaze, - turistul bazarze firmisa da misi produqtis mudmivad arsebobas da rac mTavaria dadebiTi imijis SenarCunebas. sainteresoa Tu rogor axerxebs erT-erTi turistuli kompania KALASI TOUR-i momxmarebelTa mozidvasa da dakmayofilebas adgilobriv Tu saerTaSoriso turistul bazarze. kompania KALASI TOUR-i, romelic rogorc Semomyvan, aseve gamyvan turizmze aqtiurad muSaobs, sazogadoebis informirebas ama Tu im tur-produqtis Sesaxeb, ZiriTadad Web-gverdis meSveobiT, anu, online PR-iT uzrunvelyofs (www.kalasitour.ge); momxmareblis darwmunebas da masSi survilis aRZvras tur-produqtis SesaZenad, turistTan uSualo kontaqtebiT axorcielebs; xolo rac Seexeba konkurent produqtTan SedarebiT maRali reputaciis damkvidrebas ki ­ momsaxureobis maRali xarisxiT cdilobs. marTalia kompania swored im amocanebis gansaxorcieleblad miiswrafvis, romelsac PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba) turizmis ganviTarebisTvis miznad isaxavs, Tumca arsebobs xarvezebi da SeniSvnebi rac samomavlod gasaTvaliswinebelia. mag: Cven mier warmodgenil kompanias ar gaaCnia sakmarisi informaciis momcveli iseTi beWdviTi masalebi, rogoricaa flaerebi, bukletebi, sainformacio furclebi, rukebi da a.S. rac erT-erT mniSvnelovan xarvezs warmoadgens, radgan aRniSnuli masala xom, nawilobriv garantiaa sazogadoebis interesis aRZvris tur-produqtis mimarT. saerTaSoriso doneze kompaniis cnobadobis amaRlebis mizniT urigo ar iqneboda iseT saerTaSoriso turistul gamofenabazrobebze monawileobis miReba, mag.: rogoricaa: ITB, romelic yovel wels germaniaSi, q. berlinSi, imarTeba; aseve WTM-i (World Tourism Market ) did britaneTSi da sxva. kompania KALASI TOUR-i Zalian iSviaTad atarebsP PR aqciebs, Tumca mis warmomadgenelTan gasaubrebisas man gangvicxada, rom ` PR, marTlac, mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs turistuli biznesis ganviTarebaSi, Tumca mas mainc fufunebis sferod miiCnevs~. aseTi midgoma mcdari iqneboda maSin, roca PR-s yvela zemoT CamoTvlilTan erTad kidev bevri sxva

mniSvnelovani roli akisria, mag., imijis formirebis TvalsazrisiT PR-is fasdaudebeli Tviseba is aris, rom mas SeuZlia damajerebeli, magram uxilavi Setyobinebebis gagzavna sazogadoebisaTvis. imiji ­ rogorc xelovnurad Seqmnili Sexeduleba masobriv cnobierebaSi garkveul keTilganwyobilebas ayalibebs tur. produqtisa Tu tur. firmis mimarT. imijis ugulebelyofa turiz mis sferoSi yovlad dauSvebelia, radgan swored misi daxmarebiT SegviZlia adamianis fsiqikis emociur sferoze mizanmimarTulad zemoqmedeba. aseve mniSvnelovania maRali reputaciis mopoveba. misi Seqmna did drosa da seriozul kapitalur dabandebas moiTxovs. maRali reputaciisa da dadebiTi imijis arsebobis xelisSemwyob faqtors momsaxureobis iseTi xarisxi warmoadgens, romelic momxmarebelTa moTxovnebs Seesabameba. ase rom, yovelTvis unda gvaxsovdes, rom sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis specialists imijisa da reputaciis SeqmnaSi, SenarCunebaSi da gaZlierebaSi gansakuTrebuli roli eniWeba. xolo, rac Seexeba PR kampaniis warmoebas, mis erT-erT aucilebel etaps am kampaniis efeqtis Sefaseba warmoadgens. amgvar Sefasebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs PR strategiis koreqtuli SedgenisaTvis, aRniSnul kampaniaze gaweuli xarjebis ukugebis dadgenisa da Semdgom muSaobis swori orientaciisaTvis. turizmSi Catarebuli PR kampaniis efeqturobaze SegviZlia tur produqtis realizaciis SedegebiT vimsjeloT. Sedegebis mixedviT Sefaseba, rasakvirvelia mxolod amgvari kampaniis Catarebis Semdeg SeiZleba. Sefasebis popularul meTods sociologiuri gamokiTxva warmoadgens; am samuSaoebis ganxorcielebis aucilebel pirobas ki ­ sistematiuri, statistikuri aRricxva. amrigad, saqarTvelos bunebis mravalferovneba da kulturul _ istoriuli memkvidreobis siuxve, gvaZlevs saSualebas davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos SeuZlia msoflioSi kulturuli turizmis mZlavri centri gaxdes, Tumca amis ganxorcieleba warmoudgeneli iqneba sazogadoebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba) ki am sferoSi sul ufro da ufro did mniSvnelobas iZens da gansakuTrebul rols asrulebs kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebaSi.

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Tamar firosmanaSvili magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli ­ prof. iuri mRebriSvili art-bazari saqarTvelos galereebSi buneba met-naklebad ajildovebs adamians SemoqmedebiTi niWiT. yoveli Cvengani ase Tu ise iRvwis iqiTken, rom metnaklebad gaamSvenieros da gaalamazos es samyaro, Sehmatos mas kidev ufro meti silamaze da Tavisi SemoqmedebiT datovos kvali xelovnebis ama Tu im sferoSi. maRal Sedegs SemoqmedebaSi mxolod muza-STagoneba ar ganapirobebs. is yoveldRiuri brZolisa da Sromis nayofia da rac iqmneba drosa da sivrceSi Tanabari mxatvruli RirebulebiT ar ganizomeba. yvela saukuneSi drois ZiriTadi esTetikuri mimarTulebisa da maRali stilis damkvidreba xelovnebaSi xdeboda calkeul Semoq medTa xelweris ganzogadebis safuZvelze. saxviTi xelovneba es iseTi sferoa, romelic sagangebo da gansakuTrebul yuradRebas moiTxovs. igi im individualur urTierTobebsa da Semfaseblebs moiTxovs, visac xelovnebasTan urTierTobis marto survili da interesi ki ar aqvs, aramed kargi specialisticaa. Semoqmedis talantis warmosaCenad saWiroa misi namuSevrebis sajarod gamotana da gacnoba farTo masebisaTvis, rom miiRon realuri Sefaseba, raTa Tavi daimkvidron xelovnebaSi da gaxdes sazogadoebisTvis cnobili. yovelive amisTvis ki namuSevrebi unda gamoifinos sagamofeno galereebSi, Tundac samxatvro salonebSi, rom damTvalierebelTa farTo masebisTvis iyos TvalsaCino da sainteresod warmoCenili. es yovelive ki rogorc SemoqmedisTvis, aseve galereisTvis ver iqneba saarsebo wyaro Tu namuSevrebis realizeba SemdgomSi ar moxdeba. yovelive amisTvis unda moxdes galereebis gaazrebuli, Segnebuli marTva da xelSewyoba art-bazris CamoyalibebaganviTarebisTvis. art-bazari xelovnebis arsebobisaTvis Tanmdevi procesia da kerZo galereis arsebobisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani faqtori.

xelovnebisTvis is imdenad momgebiania, ramdenadac maT SeuZliaT moaxdinon TavianTi Semoqmedebis realizeba. igi mTel msoflioSi Zalian prestiJul da Semosavlian biznesad iTvleba. produqtis art-bazarze gatanamde ki saWiroa garkveuli samuSaoebis Catareba. saqarTveloSi arsebobs iseTi kerZo galereebi, romlebic monawileobas Rebuloben art-bazarSi. Tanamedrove qarTuli xelovnebis infrastruqturaSi da xelovnebaSi mimdinare procesebSi arsebuli mravali winaaRmdegobis gamo, srulad ver xerxdeba galereis perspeqtivebis ganxorcieleba, rac dakavSirebulia qveynis dRevandel politikur-ekonomikur da sakanonmdeblo sakiTxebTan. me viyavi Tbilisis ramdenime kerZo galereaSi. ­ mag.: galerea `hobi~, `vernisaJi~, `baia~, `art-laini~, `Tevdore~, `kamea~ da samxatvro salon `xelovnebaSi~, romlebic dakavebulni arian art-bazriT. gavesaubre iq momuSave xelovnebaTmcodneebs da aRmoCnda, rom dRes xelovnebis da galereebis muSaobaSi aris problemebi, maT miaCniaT, rom jer unda iyos qveyana stabiluri, ris Semdgomac galereas gauadvildeba Tavisi dasaxuli miznebis da amocanebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve moimatebs maTi damTvaliereblis da myidvelis procentuli raodenoba. galereis ZiriTadi saqmianobaa sagamofeno momsaxureba. maT sistematurad unda moawyon, rogorc personaluri, aseve jgufuri gamofenebi da agreTve iTanamSromlon mxatvrebTan, moqandakeebTan da sxva SemoqmedebTan. galeream unda aCvenos is procesi, romelic mimdinareobs mxatvrobasa da saerTod xelovnebaSi. anu, igi emsaxureba sxvadasxva xelovnebis an xelovanTa jgufis Semoqmedebis popularizacias, awyobs maT namuSevarTa eqspoziciebs da exmareba avtorebs namuSevarTa popularizacia ­ realizaciaSi. galerea unda iyos Tanamedrove, kargad mowyobil SenobaSi, saTanado ganaTebiT. gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos xedvis are da agreTve namuSevrebisTvis Sesabamisi pirobebi, rom ar daziandes isini. CvenTan ki zogierTi galerea moklebulia Tanamedrove standartebs. maT ar aqvT xelSewyoba. jerjerobiT xelovnebis

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bazari ar iZleva imis saSualebas, rom Cveni galereebi Seesabamebodes garkveul standartebs, vinaidan maTi Semosavali mxolod galereis arsebobas Tu hyofnis. saerTaSoriso standartebiT galereis mowyobisTvis, galeristma unda moiZios dafinansebis sxvadasxva wyaroebi. es iqneba moziduli (sponsorobiT, mecenatobiT da a. S.), saxelmwifos mxridan (nawilobriv) gamoyofili, Tu sakuTari saxsrebi. ZiriTadad kerZo galeriis mflobelebi unda ecaddnen, rom daaintereson da moizidon sponsorebi, mecenatebi. galereis dafinansebis es gza sakmaod gavrcelebuli da miRebulia. es yovelive ki xels Seuwyobs maTi miznebis da gegmebis ganxorcielebas, winsvlas. dResdReobiT, rogorc Cans, am sferoSi ar gamoCndnen iseTi sponsorebi, romlebic dainteresebulebi iqnebian sagalereo biznesis ganviTarebiT an galeristebma ver moaxerxes maTi saTanadod daintereseba da maTTan urTierTobis awyoba. Zalzed mniSvnelovania galereaSi is, Tu rogor muSaobs galeristi da agreTve misi kompetenciac. galeristoba, es aris saqmianoba, romelsac aqvs urTierToba rogorc SemoqmedebTan aseve sazogadoebasTan da es urTierToba aris mravalferovani. urTierToba, erTi mxriv, xelovanTan, meore mxriv, koleqcionerebTan, sakmaod did Sromas da codnas moiTxovs. yvela Semoqmeds sWirdeba xelSewyoba, amitom galeristma unda moaxerxos xeli Seuwyos SemoqmedTa warmoCenas sazogadoebaSi. misTvis yvelaze advili saqmea is, rom reklama gauwios im xelovans, romelic sazogadoebisaTvis ukve miRebulia da cnobili, vidre imas vinc naklebadaa cnobili. agreTve advilia galeristisaTvis imaTi reklamirebac vinc TviTon moswons da ara im xelovanebis, visi stili Tu koncefciac maTTvis miuRebelia, Tumca udaod ostaturad da maRal mxatvrulad Sesrulebuli. magram galeristis samuSao moiTxovs, rom yvela xelovnis namuSevari erTnairad warmatebiT gamofinos. maTTvis, albaT, ufro sarfiani iqneba ukve aprobirebul xelovanze rogorc muSaoba, agreTve misi promouSenic. g al er is te b ma u nd a i mu Sa on ro go rc xe lo va nT a popularizaciaze, agreTve xeli unda Seuwyon maT warmoCenas, imuSaon maTTan erTad da daexmaron maT rogorc namuSevrebis

gamofenebis, agreTve maT gamofena-gayidvebis mowyobaSi. man unda itvirTos presasa da xelovans Soris Suamavlis funqcia, rom xeli Seuwyos axali, momavali xelovanis an xelovanTa jgufis aRiarebas, romliTac gakeTdeba fasdaudebeli saqme, r og o rc T i T oe u l i x el o va n is a T v i s, ag r e T v e C v en i sazogadoebisTvisac. udaod saWiro saqmea, rogorc xelovanis namuSevrebis aseve TviTon xelovanis dRis Suqze gamoyvana da gaSuqeba masmediaSi, romlis aucilebloba JurnalistebTan erTad galeristis uSualo da ganuyofeli saqmea. ar unda moxdes marto informaciis miwodeba sazogadoebisaTvis, aramed unda moxerxdes maTSi namuSevrebis SeZenis survilis aRZvrac. es yovelive Sromatevadi da xangrZlivi procesia da moiTxovs muSaobis swored dagegmvas da mis ganxorcielebas. yuradReba unda gamaxvildes imazec, rom galeristma da saxelovnebo komisiam ar dauSvas dabali mxatvruli donis gamofenis mowyoba. saqarTveloSi kvalificiuri Sefaseba ar xerxdeba. ar aris xelovnebaTmcodneTa saxelmwifo saeqsperto jgufi. Tumca axlaxan kerZo seqtorebma Camoayalibes sakmaod kompetenturi eqspertTa jgufi `saqarTvelos erovnuli akademia~, romelic Cveni saxelmwifosTvis saWiro saqmes gaakeTebs. xelovanebi unda akmayofilebdnen garkveul profesiul moTxovnilebas. samxatvro sabWom an eqspertma unda gansazRvros gamofenisTvis mxatvruli namuSevrebis xarisxi da SearCios maRalmxatvruli gemovnebiT Sesrulebuli namuSevrebi. saqarTveloSi art-biznesis ganviTarebas xels uSlis kulturis sferoSi Sesabamisi kanonebis ar arseboba. es ki erT-erTi xelisSemwyobi faqtoria Savi bazris gafarToebis da gaZlierebis. samwuxaroa is, rom xelovnebis namuSevrebi ibegreba, ise rogorc nebismieri sasoflo sameurneo nawarmi: qaTami, kvercxi da a. S., rac namdvilad xels uSlis xelovnebis ganviTarebas. dRes ki saqarTveloSi xelovnebis nawarmoebs potenciuri myidveli ar hyavs, vinaidan xelovneba es aris fufunebis sagani da dRes, rodesac arastabiluri mdgomareobaa saqarTveloSi, sazogadoebis ekonomikuri mdgomareobac ver swvdeba mas. biznesmenebi ki sxva saxis produqciaSi deben investiciebs. maT mosazidad kargi iqneboda, rom iyos

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saqarTveloSic is sagadasaxado kanoni, romelic evropis TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSia da iTvaliswinebs biznesmenebisTvis SeRavaTebis gawevas Tu isini Cadeben investiciebs saxelovnebo biznesSi. galereebs unda hqondeT sagamofeno, komerciuli, sareklamo, saSuamavlo, saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebis xelSemwyobi statusi da isini, rogorc gamonaklisebi, rogorc sazogadoebisa da qveynis saxe unda iyvnen yovelgvari gadasaxadebisgan ganTavisuflebulebi, an saxelmwifos mxridan nawilobriv mainc unda xdebodes dafinanseba. SemoqmedisTvis da misi namuSevrebis popularizaciisTvis Zalzed mniSvnelovania da aucilebeli ucxoeTis qveynebTan kavSiri. amiT isini gaecnobian Cvens xelovnebas da gavlen saerTaSoriso bazarze. unda idebodes xelSekrulebebic, rogorc saxelmwifo, aseve kerZo turistul firmebTan saxelmwifos xelSewyobiT, romlebic CarTaven galereebs Tavian kulturul programaSi, risi saSualebiTac turistebi gaecnobian qarTul xelovnebas da warmoCindeba agreTve Cveni kulturac. ucxoeli rodesac Camodis es iqneba koncernis Tu galereis warmomadgeneli an sxva pirovneba, romelTac surT daaTvalieron qarTvel xelovanTa namuSevrebi da gaecnon maT Rirebulebas, amisTvis unda iyos saSualeba, rom isini mividnen pirdapir galereebSi da ar moxdes ise, rom maT mouxdeT namuSevrebisTvis aqeT-iqeT siaruli, Tan rodesac aris albaToba imisa, rom isini waawydnen mdare Rirebulebis namuSevrebs. saqarTveloSi Catarebuli saerTaSoriso bazroba _ artkavkasia, es iyo erT-erTi win gadadgmuli nabiji, radgan aq sakmaod farTo speqtri aris warmodgenili, romelsac ecnobian Camosuli ucxoelebi. am bazris mizani iyo, upirveles yovlisa, kulturuli TanamSromlobis gafarToeba, rogorc kavkasiis regionSi, aseve evropasa da mTels msoflioSi. am TanamSromlobas xeli unda Seewyo axali codnis Semotanasa da kulturuli dialogis warmoebaSi, aseve qseluri muSaobis, profesiuli kulturis menejmentis da kulturis politikaze debatebis danergvaSi. bazroba organizebas uwevs mecnierebis, kulturisa da

xelovnebis dargis profesional muSakebs, programebisa da RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis sakiTxSi. bazroba aris maTTvis vinc dakavebulia warmoebiT, produqciiT, prezentaciiT, reklamiT, dafinansebiT an sxva raime saqmianobiT kulturis sferoSi. am sferos Tanamedrove doneze ganviTarebisTvis agreTve didi mniSvneloba aqvs saerTaSoriso festivalebze monawileobis miRebas, magram aq isev vawydebiT ekonomikur problemebs, radgan am yovelivesaTvis aucilebelia soliduri Tanxebis mobilizeba. saqarTvelos ki saerTaSoriso bazarze swored am kuTxiT SeuZlia Tavisi kulturis, xelovnebis gatana. biznesmenebi T u g ai T v al isw in eb en k arg i iq ne b a , rom x el ov ne b a kapitaldabandebis saukeTeso sferoa da arsebobs e. w. sainvesticio suraTebi. ucxoeTSi xelovnebis nimuSebze fasebi ufro male izrdeba, vidre fasian qaRaldebze. aRsaniSnavia art-biznesis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani segmenti ­ auqcioni, romlis meSveobiTac mTels msoflioSi reitingi swored amis mixedviT dgindeba. Tu romel auqcionze ra fasad da ramdenjer gaiyida ama Tu im xelovnis namuSevari. fasebic ZiriTadad misi meSveobiT dgindeba. saqarTveloSi Tu gvinda, rom art-biznesi ganviTardes, unda moewyos auqcionebi, vinaidan am auqcionebis Catareba uwevs fass qarTul xelovnebas. saqarTveloSi ki jer-jerobiT mxolod ramdenime diletanturi auqcioni aris Catarebuli. es unda xdebodes mudmivad. galereebma rom ganaxorcielon TavianTi perspeqtivebi, maT unda moifiqron agreTve is, Tu rogor moiZion damatebiTi Tanxebi. finansebis mosaZieblad, Cemi azriT, saintereso iqneba saqarTveloSic ganxorcieldes da Seiqmnas `mikrogalereis~ (londoni) msgavsi kompiuteruli galerea, romelic warmoadgens kompiuterul sainformacio darbazebs da gankuTvnilia nebismieri damTvaliereblisaTvis. misi programa Sedgeba oTxi maCveneblisagan, romelic iZleva saWiro informaciis miRebis saSualebas. mag., tradiciuli anbanuri maCvenebeli `mxatvrebi~ xsnis biografiul cnobebs, romelsac axlavs koleqciaSi arsebuli mocemuli ostatis yvela namuSevris miniaturuli gamosaxuleba. aseTive informacias Seicavs danarCeni maCveneblebic. saqarTveloSi rom Seiqmnas aseTi programa, internetis saSualebiT,

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rogorc qarTvelebs aseve ucxoelebs eqnebaT saSualeba gaecnon Cvens xelovnebas. kargi iqneba agreTve Tu gaixsneba galereebTan arsebuli kafe-barebi, sadac mimsvlelebs eqnebaT saSualeba gaecnon Tanamedrove xelovnebas. aqedan Semosavali ki moxmardeba galereas. agreTve gakeTdes masTan arsebuli gamomcemlobebi, sadac saSualeba iqneba imisa, rom gamouSvan bukletebi, katalogebi, Jurnalebi, wignebi da a. S., maTi realizaciis SemTxvevaSi ki mogeba iyos damatebiTi finansuri wyaro galereebisaTvis, romlis wyalobiTac galereebi SeZleben ase Tu ise TavianTi perspeqtivebis ganxorcielebas. dRes didi saSiSroebaa imisa, rom niWierma xelovanebma datovon saqarTvelo da emigraciaSi wavidnen ­ imisTvis, rom es ar moxdes, qarTvel xelovnebs unda SeeqmnaT saTanado pirobebi. unda mowesrigdes saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba kulturis Sesaxeb, rom qarTvel xelovnebsac gauadvildeT gasvla saerTaSoriso asparezze. swored Sesabamisi kanonebis ar arseboba saqarTveloSi uSlis xels biznesis marTvis damokidebulebas xelovnebasTan. kanonmdeblobis mouwesrigeblobis bralia isic, rom im galereebSi sadac xdeba suraTebis realizacia iq misul ucxoel stumrebs uZneldeboda namuSevris SeZena, radganac sabaJo samsaxuri kulturis saministrosgan gacemul saTanado cnobas iTxovs, romlis gareSec Camosul stumars nayidi namuSevris gatana ar SeuZlia, yovelive es ki aferxebs realizacias. xolo Tu Cveni patara Tu didi sagamofeno galerea ­ salonebi dakompleqtebuli iqnebian specialistebiT, maSin saministros Careva aRar iqneba saWiro, vinaidan isini gadawyveten am sakiTxs, romelic upirvelesi xelSemSlelia TiToeuli SemoqmedisaTvis, imitom rom aRniSnul operacias sul cota ori dRe sWirdeba, amden xans ki ver daelodeba Camosuli stumar-turisti. wlebis win qveynidan iafad gaedineboda Cven SemoqmedTa namuSevrebi, romelTa realuri fasi sakmaod maRali iyo, vidre maT uxdidnen, rac Zalian samwuxaroa. es biznesi faqtobrivad TviTdinebazea miSvebuli.

imeds vitoveb, rom Cvens qveyanaSic gamoCndebian e. w. koleqcioner-investorebi, romlebic TavianT SenaZens uwinaresad jer rogorc xelovnebis namuSevars ise ganixilaven da Semdeg rogorc kapitaldabandebas. es yovelive ki art-bazris ganviTarebas Seuwyobs xels, romelic galereebsac da xelovanebsac wamowevs win da daexmareba maTi ideebis, miznebis ganxorcielebaSi.

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nino yuraSvili magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. iuri mRebriSvili reklamis efeqtianobis kvleva reklama warmoadgens momxmarebelTaTvis saqonlis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodebis formas, romlis mizania, popularizacia gauwios reklamirebul obieqts da stimuli misces misi gasaRebis process. fir m eb i T u org anizac ieb i reklam as iy eneben momxmarebelTaTvis informaciis miwodebis, darwmunebisa da Sexsenebis saSualebad. marketingul saqmianobaSi sareklamo saqmianoba gvevlineba gasaRebis erTiani meqanizmis ganuyofel nawilad. igi warmoadgens erT-erT umniSvnelovanes instruments myidvelTa orientaciis, moTxovnis aqtivizaciisa da mosaxleobis finansuri saSualebebis brunvaSi CarTvis saSualebas, rac gulisxmobs reklamisadmi momxmareblis kompleqsur da miznobriv midgomas. amasTanave reklama ara mxolod amzadebs pirobebs bazarze axali saqonlis Sesatanad da misi gayidvebis uzrunvelyofas, aramed igi xels uwyobs saqonlis gasaRebis TandaTanobiT gazrdas da `pikis~ periodSi realizaciis maRali donis SenarCunebas. ase rom, reklamis efeqtianobas ar gansazRvravs mxolod misi warmateba romelime festivalze, misi SemoqmedebiTi Sinaarsi, musikaluri gaformeba an kadrebis silamaze. reklamis muSaoba _ armuSaobis xarisxi bevrad ufro obieqturad da martivad unda ganisazRvros. karg reklamad iTvleba is, romelic miznobriv auditorias ukeTesad daamaxsovrebs produqts an momsaxureobas da gayidis mas. swored es aris mTavari midgoma, romliTac dRes xelmZRvaneloben rogorc wamyvani sareklamo saagentoebi, aseve reklamis damkveTebi. dRes saqarTveloSi sareklamo saqmianoba erT-erT yvelaze saintereso da prestiJul saqmianobad iTvleba, iseve rogorc es mTel msoflioSia miCneuli. sareklamo saqmianoba yvelaze swrafad ganviTarebadi dargia, aq yovel wuTs raRac icvleba,

yvelaze mniSvnelovania teqnikuri SasaZleblobebis zrda romelic pirdapir kavSirSia saerTo globalur ganviTarebasTan. efeqturi sareklamo saqmianoba gundur xelovnebas gulisxmobs, gundis gareSe, anu adamianuri resursis gareSe, reklama ubralod ar Sedgeba. yuradRebas iqcevs aseve is faqti, rom profesionalTa gundi da axali teqnologiebi Tvis TavSi moiazrebs did Tanxebs da Tu es sfero siaxleebzea dafuZnebuli, maSin am Tanxebis metobaSi zrdac gardauvali iqneba. amitomacaa, rom sareklamo saqmianoba Zvirad Rirebul sferod iTvleba. reklamis Sesaqmnelad didi Tanxebia saWiro, Tumca isic unda aRiniSnos, rom am saqmianobas didi fulic moaqvs. efeq turma sareklamo jgufma saWiroa yuradReba miaqcios Semdeg faqtorebs, magaliTad rogoricaa: _ bazari, misi Seswavla da kvleva. es saSualebas iZleva gavigoT detaluri informacia momxmarebelze, movaxdinoT adresatis segmentacia socio _ kulturuli parametrebis mixedviT. raTa maqsimalurad dakmayofilebuli iyos misi moTxovnilebebi da interesebi. aqedan gamomdinare ismeba ori kiTxva: 1. arsebobs Tu ara moTxovna konkretul produqtze an momsaxureobaze? 2. Tu arsebobs aseTi moTxovna, maSin mosaxleobis ra kategoriaSi da ra SefuTviT iqneba masze moTxovna? efeqtur sareklamo kampanias, upirveles rigSi, rac unda axsovdes es, _ momxmarebelia, radgan reklama momxmareblisTvis keTdeba da bunebrivia, rom interesis mTavari obieqtic isaa. reklamis Seqmna da momxmareblis sxvadasxva fenebisTvis gaTvla Sromatevadi saqmea, radgan amisTvis bevri garemo faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebaa saWiro. adamiani yoveldRiurad sakmaod didi moculobis sareklamo informcias iRebs. reklamis ZiriTadi mizani ki rac SeiZleba moklevadian periodSi gayidvebisa da kompaniebis mogebis zrdaa, rac reklamis mxridan momxmareblis axlo samomavlo qcevaze zemoqmedebis pirdapiri Sedegi unda iyos. garda momxmarebelTan daaxloebisa, farTomasStabiani reklama gvamcnobs raRac dadebiTs, kompaniis SesaZleblobaze,

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popularobasa da warmatebaze. reklamis sajaroobidan gamomdinare, momxmarebelSi Warbobs tendencia, reklamirebuli produqtebi ganixilon, rogorc ufro sando. aqedan gamomdinare vaskvniT, rom reklamis efeqtianobis Sefasebis Zireuli nawili momxmarebelTa qcevis srulyofilad aRqma da gacnobierebaa. risi mizanicaa momxmareblis cxovrebis arsisa da interesebis Seswavla. momxmareblis kulturuli moTxovnilebebisa da misi kulturuli donis SeswavlasTan erTad Seswavlil unda iqnas aseve maTi dainteresebis motivebi, xolo calkeuli pirovnebebis dainteresebis mizezebis amoxsnis Semdeg SeiZleba momavali sareklamo kampaniis Sinaarsis gansazRvrac. Tu ar flobT sakmaris informacias momxmarebelTa qcevis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba didi riskis winaSe aRmoCndeT. reklamis Seqmnamde danamdvilebiT unda icodeT, vin aris Tqveni momxmarebeli, informaciis misaRebad mediis ra wyaroebs iyenebs yvelaze xSirad, rogoria misi cxovrebis stili, riTi SeiZleba misi yuradRebis mi pyroba da ra motivebi amoZravebs produqtis yidvisas. Tumca arsebobs imis riskic, rom reklama mii pyrobs yuradRebas, magram is ar asocirdeba miznobrivi auditoriis cxovrebis stilTan da faseulobebTan. aseTma reklamam adamianebSi SeiZleba gaRizianebac ki gamoiwvios. xSir SemTxvevaSi, aseTi safrTxe naTargmn an sxvagvarad adaptirebul reklamebs emuqreba. reklamis efeqtianobis kvleva Tavidanve, reklamis Seqmnamde unda SeZloT, raTa minimumamde daiyvanoT potenciurad araefeqtiani reklamebis gaSvebis riski. efeqturma sareklamo saagentoeb ma mudmivad unda ifiqron axal ideebze da proeqtebze, raTa mudmivad iyvnen mowodebis simaRleze. pauza am saqmeSi diskvalifikacias niSnavs. naTqvamia: _ didi xniT daketil onkans rom gaxsni, daJanguli wyali modis... ase rom, sareklamo kampania sul unda cdilobdes, ganuwyvetliv viTardebodes, daimkvidros Tavisi adgili bazarze. miT umetes, qarTuli sareklamo bazari arc ise aTvisebulia, rom nemsis Casagdebi adgili aRar iyos. aqedan gamomdinare vrwmundebiT, rom efeqtianobaze orientirebuli sareklamo jgufi mudmivad unda iyos

siaxleebze agebuli. Tumca fxizlad unda iyos, mudmivad unda akontrolos TiToeuli moqmedeba, raTa aRebul gezs ar gadauxvios. grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi, sareklamo kampaniebis umetesoba cdilobs, bazris ganviTarebasTan erTad, momxmarebelTan uzrunvelyos xangrZlivi da mdgradi urTierTobebi. aseve aramarto gavlena iqonios momxmareblis qcevaze, aramed aqcios es qceva Cvevad. Sedegad kompania iZens erTgul momxmarebels. momxmareblis dakmayofilebisaTvis mxolod produqtisa Tu momsaxureobis maRali done sakmarisi aRar aris _ aucilebelia faseulobaTa iseTi sistemis damkvidreba, romelic axlos iqneba miznobrivi segmentis faseulobebTan. rig SemTxvevaSi, es moiTxovs zegavlenis moxdenas momxmarebelTa aRqmaze, rac reklamisa Tu sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis programebis saSualebiT xorcieldeba. saerTod efeqturi reklamis koncefcia gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom reklamam unda SesTavazos momxmarebels ara mxolod produqti, aramed cxovrebis wesi da azrovneba, is rac gansazRvravs yidvas. amiT myidveli garkveuli produqtis SeZeniT ganekuTvneba, an cdilobs ganekuTvnos, sazogadoebis garkveul fenas, iswrafvis iseTi cxovrebis wesisaken, romelzedac is ocnebobda. sareklamo kampaniebis avtorebi sTavazoben momxmarebels garkveul faseulobebs, Sexedulebebs, azrs da zemoqmedebas axdenen arCevanze. amrigad, isini monawileoben sazogadoebis qcevis SecvlaSi da, aqedan gamomdinare, Tanamedrove kulturis formirebaSic. savaraudod Tu ki yvela sareklamo jgufi amas gaiTavisebs da mTavar miznad daisaxavs, ar daiSurebs gamocdilebasa da profesionalizms, maSin kulturuli cxovreba bevrad ufro mravalferovani, faseuli, dinamikuri da mdidari iqneba, amiT saintereso cxovrebis stilsac SemogvTavazeben. efeqturi sareklamo kampania SeiZleba ganxorcieldes reklamis gavrcelebis sxvadasxva saSualebebiT, romelsac kompania mizandasaxulad gamoiyenebs imisda mixedviT, Tu vis unda mimarTos, rogori saxis auditorias, viwro Tu farTo masebs. umetes SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneben informaciis masobriv saSualebebs, rogoricaa: televizia, radio, beWdviTi media _

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gazeTi, Jurnali, interneti _ eleqtronuli media, bilbordebiT da a. S. cxadia, rom kompanias kargad unda hqondes SemuSavebuli politika. Tu sad ganTavsdeba misi reklama? ra sixSiriT gava? erTmaneTs SeuTavsebs Tu ara erTdroulad ramdenime reklamis gavrcelebis saSualebas, Tu romelime erT konkretulze aiRebs orientirs. sareklamo strategiis dagegmvisas gasaTvaliswinebelia, Semdegi oTxi ZiriTadi faqtori: 1 Setyobineba mkafiod gansazRvrul mizans unda isaxavdes. 2. Setyob ineb a mimarT uli unda iyos garkveuli auditoriisaken da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, romelTa meSveobiTac moxdeba maTi gamoqveyneba, am auditoriaze yvelaze efeqturad unda axdendes zemoqmedebas. 3. SetyobinebaSi SeTavazebuli unda iyos raRac upiratesoba: amgvari ram publikisTvis siaxles da mimzidvels unda warmoadgendes. 4. Setyobineba Tavisi maneriTa da toniT savsebiT unda Seesabamebodes im konkretul auditorias, romlisTvisac igzavneba es Setyobineba. Tuki sareklamo jgufs gansazRvruli aqvs mainc da mainc adamianTa viwro wres mimarTos, maSin is irCevs reklamis sxva formebs, mag: prezentacias, preskomferenciebs, sareklamo furclebis gavrcelebas, katalogebs, plakatebs, sainformacio masalis fostiT gagzavnas da a. S. erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani etapia ganisazRvros, reklamis gaSvebis Semdgom, warmatebulobis Tu warumateblobis xarisxi. reklamis leqsikonSi yvelaze mniSvnelovani sityvaa testireba. konkretul garemoSi warmatebis miRwevisTvis aucilebelia, produqtma momxmareblis testi gaiaros da reklamis efeqtianobis testirebac Catardes. Znelia is stimulebi amovicnoT, romelzec momxmarebeli reagir eb s. reklami s Semdgomi testireb a ar amarto gamarTlebuli, aramed aucilebeli proceduraa.

SesaZloa, Zalian moswons kompanias Tavisi reklama, magram amas gacilebiT naklebi mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre imas, Tu ramdenad moswons reklama momxmarebels. swored man, produqtis SeZenisas fulis gadaxdis gziT, yvelaze mkafiod unda gansazRvros reklamis warmatebulobis Tu warumateblobis xarisxi. am xmebis raodenoba reklamis yvelaze zusti sazomia da reklamac swored maTi maqsimaluri raodenobis mopovebisTvis aris gamiznuli. efeqturma sareklamo kampaniam warsulis gamocdilebisa da misi analizis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia realur suraTTan axlos proporciis gamoyvana SeZlos, rac Semdgomi moqmedebisTvis sakeTildReod gamoadgeba. Tu wina periodis informacia da warsulis gamocdileba ar arsebobs, maSin unda Catardes kvleva imis gasarkvevad, Tu ra aris saWiro efeqturi gayidvebis miznebis misaRwevad. reklamis efeqtianobis kvleva SeiZleba Caataros TviTon sareklamo kompaniaSi arsebulma saTanado danayofebma an garedan mowveulma kvleviTma kompaniam. magram aucilebelia, rom kvlevebis Sedegebis analizis procesSi aqtiurad CarTulni iyvnen reklamis damkveTni, damamzadebelni da sxva obieqturad dainteresebuli mxareebi. Tumca seriozuli kvlevebis garda saWiroa reklamis specialistebma saTiTaod moaxdinon sakuTari muSaobis Sefaseba, imis mkafio formulireba, Tu konkretulad ras moelodnen da ra miiRes, aseve saWiroa sareklamo jgufma iswavlos Secdomebisa da warumateblobis magaliTze problemis gamovlena da mis sawinaaRmdegod axali nabijebis dasaxva. dRes msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebSi reklama xelovnebisa da mecnierebis nazavadaa miCneuli, dReisTvis darwmunebiT SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom uaxloes momavalSi reklamis e f e q t i a n o b a is e T iv e st a n da r tu l i c n e b a g ax d e b a , saqarTvelosaTvisac, rogorc es sxva ganviTarebul qveynebSia miRebuli da misi gamoyenebis saWiroeba eWvs ar gamoiwvevs. qarTul telesivrceSi araefe q tiani rek lamis aseTi magaliTebic arsebobs, rodesac kompania ver acnobierebs Tavisi reklamis warumateblobas da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ganagrZobs mis gaSvebaze xarjis gawevas. isec xdeba, rom sareklamo rgoli miznobrivi auditoriis gaRizianebas iwvevs, ris

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Sedegadac warmatebis misaRwevad gaweuli xarji, sinamdvileSi, kompaniisTvis zaralis momtania. arsebobs martivi WeSmariteba: ragind kargi iyos reklama, ragind myari emociuri safuZveli Caidos produqtis SefuTvaze, pirvel adgilze yovelTvis Tavad produqti Tu momsaxureobaa. reklamis specialistis mizania iseTi molodinis Camoyalibeba, romelic realuri produqtis SeZenis Semdeg gamarTldeba. warmatebuli sareklamo kompania cud produqts ufro male CaZiravs. is ufro met adamians gaagebinebs, rom produqti cudia, _ sareklamo saqmis didostatis viliam bernbaxis es mosazreba dResac aqtualuri da zustia. Tu produqti uvargisia, momxmarebeli mas xelmeored ar iyidis. maSasadame, yvela sareklamo Cavardna ar SeiZleba mxolod araefeqtian reklamas dabraldes. warumateblobis mizezi, rig SemTxvevaSi, Tavad produqtidan momdinareobs, Tavad produqtia warumatebeli. warmatebuli produqti ar aris mxolod funqciurad gamarTlebuli da xarisxiani. es winapiroba ukve minimalur moTxovnadac ki iqca. mTavari sxvaa _ produqti aqtualuri unda iyos, is adamianis raime problemas unda wyvetdes, misi SeZena ramiT unda aiolebdes myidvelis cxovrebasa Tu mdgomareobas da masSi damatebiT fsiqologiuri an ekonomikuri sargebelic unda iyos Cadebuli. am pirobebis Sesruleba rTulia da produqtis potenciuri momxmareblis, misi fsiqologiis da moTxovnilebebis, misTvis gadasawyveti problemis srulyofil codnas moiTxovs. yovelive amas ki isev da isev winaswari kvlevebis Catarebis aucileblobamde mivyavarT. arc is unda daviviwyoT, rom Zvirad Rirebuli reklama yvela produqts ar sWirdeba. amgvari reklama Tqvens kompanias da mis produqts elitur iers uqmnis. Tu produqti am imijs ar Seefereba, misi yidvisas momxmarebels Seusabamobis gancda eqmneba _ mas Camouyalibdeba molodini, romelic ar gamarTlda. saerTod reklamis prioriteti misi lakonuroba da swrafi Sedegia. reklamis specialists ki Zalzed rTuli misia akisria, man reklamis patara CarCoebSi unda moaTavsos uamravi ram. mas am misiis profesionalur doneze SesrulebaSi exmareba

kreatiuloba. kreatiuloba _ adamianis is niWia, is unari, romliTac igi axali an originaluri ideebis da TvalTaxedvebis generirebas axdens. damtkicebulia, rom auditoria ukeT aRiqvavs, igebs da imaxsovrebs im informacias, romelsac SemoqmedebiTad awodeben.

1. f. kotleri, `marketingis safuZvlebi~, 2006. 2. m. seTuri, `reklama marketingis sistemaSi~, 1997. 3. i. kinwuraSvili, `marketingi~, 2007. 4. Jurnali `biznesi~, #1, marti, 2007, gv. 60-65.

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lika yufaraZe magistraturis II kursi, xelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvili PR-rekomendaciebi kinofestival ` sesilisTvis~ T anamedrove saz ogadoeb is ganviT areb is umT avres gansakuTrebulobas warmoadgens kulturebis urTierTSeRwevis procesi, romelmac saerTaSoriso xasiaTi XX-XXI saukuneebSi miiRo. kulturebis SeRweva xdeba misi warmomadgenlebis urTierTobis, anu kontaqtebis Sedegad. kulturaTaSorisi komunikaciebi Cveulebriv ganixileba, rogorc sxvadasxva adamianuri kulturebis warmomadgenlebis urTierToba. namdvili kulturuli faseulobebis propagandisa da ganmtkicebis saqmeSi umniSvnelovanesia kinofestivalebis roli. festivalurma moZraobam, romelic Caisaxa XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi, moi pova farTo popularoba da axla warmoadgens rogorc specialistebis, aseve xelovnebis am saxeobis Tayvanismcemlebis didi yuradRebis sagans. TbilisSi arsebuli kinofestivali `sesili~ xels uwyobs kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobis ganviTarebas. misi meSveobiT xdeba saerTaSoriso kavSirebis damyareba, sxvadasxva qveynis reJisorebs eZlevaT saSualeba erTmaneTi gaicnon, gaecnon erTmaneTis kulturas, gauziaron TavianTi gamocdileba, rac upirveles yovlisa Cvennair ganviTarebad qveynebs winsvlaSi daexmarebaT da mogvcems saSualebas vaCvenoT saqarTvelo mTels msoflios da vixiloT mTeli msoflio CvenTan. informaciaze muSaoba nebismier organizaciaSi bevr aspeqts moicavs. PR adgens imas, Tu rogor miawodebs sakuTar Tavs Tqveni organizacia, tovebs ra Tavis kvals yvelaferze mis Sesaxeb rasac ar unda ambobdeT. PR Tavis asaxvas povebs Tqveni sainformacio muSaobis yvela aspeqtSi _ sareklamo, sapopularizacio moRvaweobaSi, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebTan da TanamSromlebs Soris urTierTobebSi. ecadeT sazogadoebas ise moekidoT, rogorc Zvirfas stumrebs da Tqveni mowveva gaakeToT mkafiod da damajereblad.

ecadeT igi ise SeadginoT, rom stumrebi mixvdnen sad iwveven maT, ra dros elian da ra sababiT. magram jer darwmundiT, rom Tqven marTlac mzad xarT stumrebis misaRebad. es umTavresia PR-Si. kinofestival ` sesilis~ id eebisa d a mizneb is gansaxorcieleblad aucilebelia PR kampaniis gatareba, rac upirvelesad Tavisi produqtis winwawevis saSualebas miscems, rogorc adgilobriv, ise saerTaSoriso bazarze. yvela PR kampania dakavSirebulia garkveul saxsrebTan, magram warmatebuli PR-kampania sruliad aanazRaurebs gaweul Zalisxmevasa da xarjebs. kinofestival `sesilis~ PR kampania. kinofestival `sesilis~ PR kampania unda Catardes Semdegi sqemis mixedviT: · situaciis gamokvleva. pirveladi da meoradi marketinguli gamokvleva. · situaciis analizi. · demografia. samizne jgufis SerCeva da misi ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis gansazRvra. · fsiq ografia. mniSvnelovani garemocvis analiz i (potenciuri mokavSireebi da mowinaaRmdegeebi) da maTTan muSaobis taqtikis SemuSaveba. · miznis dasaxva (realurad risi miRweva SegviZlia situaciis a na l iz i s Se d eg e b i s d a x el m is a wv d om i r es u rs e b i s gaTvaliswinebiT). · codna. urTierToba. saqcieli. kampaniis saerTo strategiis SemuSaveba (ra saSualebebs gamoviyenebT). · gegmis dawera, maCveneblebis da mosalodneli Sedegebis gansazRvra. gadasacemi Setyobinebis formulireba 1. rogor vTqvaT? 2. ra saxiT gadavceT? 3. romeli arxebiT gadavceT? · SemuSavebuli Setyobinebis testireba (fokus-jgufi, siRrmiseuli interviu). · kampaniis ganxorcieleba · kampaniis efeqturobis Sefaseba (saboloo gamokvlevis Catareba Sedegebis gazomvis mizniT).

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kinofestival `sesilis~ PR kampaniis dagegmva. PR kampania iwyeba realuri problemis ganxilviT, romelic gamoikveTa situaciisa da festivalis interesebis Seswavlis Sedegad. Cven SemTxvevaSi realuri problema mdgomareobs sponsorebis mozidvasa da sazogadoebis informirebaSi. PR kampaniis gatarebisas didi mniSvneloba aqvs gare komunikaciis da organizaciis Sida urTierTobebis harmoniul da zust urTierTqmedebas. gare da Sida harmonia miiRweva organizaciuli konsultirebis meSveobiT. es aris situaciis kompleqsuri Seswavla da organizaciis saqmianobis Sedegebis gaumjobesebis saSualebebis SemuSaveba. saorganizacio konsultirebis mTavari elementia fsiqologiuri muSaoba festivalis xelmZRvanelTan. meore Semadgeneli _ moRvaweobis organizacia: teqnologiuri jaWvis koreqcia, valdebulebebis gadanawileba. mesame nawili _ muSaoba personalTan: kvalifikaciis amaRleba, koleqtivis atmosfero da miznobrivi miTiTebebi, TiToeulis individualuri gansakuTrebulobebi da maTi optimaluri Serwyma saqmeSi warmatebis misaRwevad. gare teqnologiebi gamiznulia mosaxleobasTan, xalxis did an patara jgufebTan muSaobaze, Sida _ organizaciis koleqtivebTan muSaobaze gare RonisZiebebis (reklama an PR kampania masmediaSi) daxmarebiT. Semdgom unda moxdes amocanis swori dasaxva. amocana karnaxobs teqnologiebis arCevas: iqneba es masmediasTan muSaoba, mewarmeebTan individualuri an korporatiuli muSaoba Tu sxva, magram ukve pirveli nabijebi iZleva Sedegs, romelmac SeiZleba gvaiZulos dasaxuli amocanis, teqnologiebis nakrebis da sxva instrumentebis gadaxedva. situaciis analizi da Sefaseba aucilebelia sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis samuSaos yvela etapsa da yovel momentSi. msjelobebis procesSi ibadeba PR kampaniis koncefcia, anu, problemis formulireba im saxiT, romliTac is ufro zustad da srulad iqneba aRqmuli yvelas mier, da misi gadawyvetis gzebi. aucilebelia organizaciis Zlieri da susti mxareebis, SesaZleblobebis da winaaRmdegobebis gansazRvra.

detaluri dagegmareba _ warmatebis sawindaria. qmedebebis etapobrivi dagegmva unda daiwyos kampaniis miznis winaswari formulirebiT da auditoriis gansazRvriT. kinofestivalis PR kampaniis safuZvels warmoadgens sakomunikacio p rograma mosaxleobis im jgufeb T an, organizaciebTan da pirovnebebTan, romlebsac SeuZliaT realurad situaciaze gavlenis moxdena. sakomunikacio programis miznebia _ problemaze yuradRebis miqceva, gadawyvetis gzebis SeTavazeba, maqsimaluri raodenobis kompetenturi organizaciebisa da pirebis problemis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetisken mowodeba. amisaTvis festival `sesilim~ SeiZleba gamoiyenos komunikaciis yvela misawvdomi saSualeba: · individualuri _ telefoni, faqsi, fosta, eleqtronuli fosta; · masobrivi _ beWdviTi (gazeTebi, Jurnalebi, plakatebi) da eleqtronuli (radio, televizia, sainformacio saagentoebi, internetis qseli); · Sereuli _ flaierebisa da gazeTebis pirdapiri dagzavna misamarTebze. Semdeg aucilebelia RonisZiebebis gegma SeTanxmebul iqnes PR kampaniis yvela monawilesTan da ganisazRvros yoveli etapis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebeli pirebi: 1. finansuri resursebis moZieba. 2. mosaxleobasTan Sexvedrebi. 3. publikaciebi beWdviT masmediaSi. 4. gadacemebi eleqtronul masmediaSi. 5. kampaniis msvlelobis Sesaxeb masmediisa da sxva organizaciebis, maT Soris sazRvargareTis da saerTaSoriso, informireba. da sxva. auditoriis mxridan gageba da saTanado reaqcia, rogorc wesi, ar miiRweva pirvelive jeridan. sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis samsaxuris umTavresi piroba _ programebisa an kampaniis uwyvetoba da xangrZlivobaa.

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festival `sesilis~ PR kampaniis SemuSaveba. PR kampaniis SemuSaveba unda moxdes Semdegi etapebis gavliT: 1. situaciuri analizi PR kampaniis dawyebamde. · kampaniis amocanebis, problemebis aRwera: es aris pirveli nabiji kampaniis Temis, misi daniSnulebis da kidev imis gasagebad Tu risTvis tardeba igi. · mniSvnelovani garemocvis analizi: keTdeba sxvadasxva pirovnebebis da organizaciebis analizi, romlebsac ase Tu ise kavSiri aqvT kinofestivalis kampaniasTan; · samizne jgufebis gansazRvra: pirveladi (isini, viszec iqneba mimarTuli ZiriTadi zemoqmedeba) da meoradi (isini, visi meSveobiTac iqneba mimarTuli ZiriTadi zemoqmedeba). · saerTo miznis dadgena: analizis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebelia kampaniis saerTo miznis formulireba. 2. winwasawevi imijis, saxis, ideis SemuSaveba. es aris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani komponenti kampaniis SemuSavebaSi. Zalzed mniSvnelovania winwasawevi azris mkafio formireba, romelic gamoxatavs situacias da Cvens midgomas mis Sesacvlelad. 3. samizne jgufebis warmodgenebis, damokidebulebebis, saqcielebis analizi. is tardeba imisaTvis, rom mere samizne jgufebisTvis SemuSavdes adekvaturi Setyobinebebi. Tu ki gsurT, rom romeliRac adamianebma Tqvens kulturul RonisZiebaSi miiRon monawileoba, Wkvianuria Tu ki ecdebiT jer ufro axlos gaicnoT isini. Tqven im adamianebis interesebis ufro dawvrilebiTi codna gesaWiroebaT, romlebic ukve iReben monawileobas Tqvens programebSi. rodesac maT ukeT gagebas daiwyebT, maTTan damakavSirebeli optimaluri sainformacio arxebis povnas SeZlebT, ukeTesad SeigrZnobT, Tu ra izidavs maT da ra axdens maTze ganmzidav zemoqmedebas da, rac mTavaria, SeZlebT maTi msgavsi sxva adamianis povnas. es aris is, rasac biznesSi marketinguli gamokvleva ewodeba; swored amas akeTeben organizaciebi, gamoavlenen ra Tavis potenciur momxmarebels bazarze produqtis winwasawevad. es aucilebelia Tundac imisTvis, rom kinofestivalma `sesili~ SeZlos

sponsorebis moZieba. mTeli Tqveni sainformacio moRvaweoba gamiznuli unda iyos rogorc amJamindel, ise momaval auditoriaze. aucilebelia Tqveni auditoria kargad icodeT, raTa daxvewoT TqvenTan arsebuli programebi da SeqmnaT axali. 4. Setyobinebebis SemuSaveba. analizis safuZvelze unda Seiqmnas Setyobinebebi sxvadasxva samizne jgufisTvis. es Setyobinebebi erTi mxriv, unda gamoxatavdes winwasawev ideas, saxes da imijs, meore mxriv, _ unda eyrdnobodes mocemuli sa ki T xi s S es axe b sam iz n e jgu feb is wa rm odg ene b i s, damokidebulebebis da saqcielebis analizis Sedegebs, aseve am jgufSi misaReb `enas~. rekomendirebulia TiToeul samizne jgufze Tavisi Setyobinebebis SemuSaveba, romlebic pasuxoben garkveul amocanebs. 5. Setyobinebebis winwawevis arxebisa da instrumentebis gansazRvra da SemuSaveba. am stadiaze ganisazRvreba Setyobinebebis winwawevis meTodebi, aseve informaciis gadacemis arxebi da instrumentebi. isini unda iyvnen samizne auditoriebis adekvaturi. winwasawevi imiji Setyobinebebsa, arxebsa da maTi winwawevis instrumentebTan erTad warmoadgens kampaniis strategias. 6. PR kampaniis resursebis analizi. mocemuli stadia sasargebloa maSin roca resursebi SezRudulia, anu, swored kinofestival `sesilisTvis~, vinaidan mas ara aqvs saxsrebi masStaburi kampaniebis Casatareblad. aseTi analizi saSualebas iZleva gavigoT _ realuria Tu ara im kampaniis Catareba, romelic CavifiqreT. problemebis aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi rekomendirebulia nabijebis teqnologiis damuSaveba winamdebare nawilSi. 7. PR kampaniis samuSao gegmis Sedgena. rodesac gansazRvrulia kampaniis strategia da resursebi, SesaZlebeli xdeba RonisZiebebis standartuli kalendaruli gegmis SemuSaveba misi realizebisTvis. Setyobinebebis winwawevisTvis sasargebloa kinofestival `sesilim~ gaiTvaliswinos Semdegi instruqciebi: 1. amoiwereT, romel samizne jgufebze iqneba mimarTuli Tqveni PR kampania.

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`sesilisTvis~

2. gansazRvreT TiToeuli samizne jgufis mixedviT amocanebi, romlebic unda SeasruloT kampaniis msvlelobis dros. 3. SeimuSaveT TiT oeuli samizne jgufisa da PR amocanisTvis Sesabamisi Setyobineba, romelsac miitanT samizne jgufamde PR amocanebis Sesrulebisas. 4. aRwereT TiToeuli Setyobinebis winsvlis meTodebi (sainformacio arxebi da winwawevis instrumentebi). 5. gaaanalizeT Setyobinebis winwawevis SemuSavebuli strategiis efeqturoba, SeitaneT aucilebeli koreqtivebi, Tqveni organizaciis realuri SesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare. samizne jgufebis mosalodneli qmedebebi warmoadgens garkveuli informaciis _ Setyobinebis maTTan mitanis Sedegs. Setyobineba rogorc minimum moicavs: · Sinaarss (ra vTqvaT); · struqturas (rogor vTqvaT); · formas (rogor gamovxatoT idea). Setyobinebis Sinaarsi. vinaidan Setyobineba yovelTvis mimarTulia ara usaxo masaze, aramed konkretul adamianebze, sasurvelia davadginoT romelma wamqezebelma motivebma SeiZleba gamoiwvios sasurveli sapasuxo reaqcia. arsebobs aseTi motivebis sami ti pi: 1. racionaluri motivebi. am SemTxvevaSi Tqveni gzavnili unda Seesabamebodes kontaqturi auditoriis warmomadgenlebis pirad sargebels. 2. emociuri motivebi. Setyobineba xalxSi unda iwvevdes garkveul grZnobebs: SiSs, sibraluls, sircxvils, siyvaruls, siamayes, sixaruls. 3. zneobrivi motivebi. Setyobineba unda iyos mimarTuli samizne auditoriaSi samarTlianobis grZnobis, patiosnebis SegrZnebis gamoCenaze. Setyobinebis struqturis proeqtirebisas sasargebloa gadawydes Semdegi: 1. gakeTdes Tu ara SetyobinebaSi mkafio daskvna Tu mivandoT es auditorias?

2. CamovayaliboT mxolod momxreobis argumentebi Tu SevTavazoT kontrargumentebi? 3. rodis moviyvanoT yvelaze moqmedi argumentebi _ Setyobinebis dasawyisSi Tu boloSi? 4. CavrToT Tu ara cnobili adamianebis citatebi? 5. moviyvanoT Tu ara statistikuri monacemebi? 6. davamatoT Tu ara cxovrebiseuli magaliTebi? s a k o m u n i k a c i o a r x e b i ar i s k a m p a n i i s e r T - e r T i sapasuxismgeblo momenti. yvelaze saukeTeso Setyobinebac ki, romelic mimarTulia kargad Seswavlil samizne auditoriaze, SeiZleba ar iyos efeqturi imis Sedegad, rom ubralod ar iqna miRebuli an gagzavnili iyo im arxebis meSveobiT, romelsac ar endoba samizne auditoria, an gamoyenebuli iyo informaciis (komunikaciis) gavrcelebis iseTi arxebi, romlebic saerTod ver aRweven Tqveni samizne auditoriis warmomadgenlebamde. Setyobineb is gavrceleb is saSualeb is arCevis dros kinofestival `sesilim~ unda gaiTvaliswinos auditoriis sasurveli momcvelobis, Setyobinebis gamoCenis sixSiris da misi auditoriaze zemoqmedebis done. piradi komunikaciis arxebi aris yvelaze efeqturi. masSi monawileobas iRebs ori (an meti) adamiani, romlebic uSualod urTierTqmedeben piradi saubris, auditoriasTan urTierTobis, telefonze saubris, pirdapiri eTeris dros. aRsaniSnavia is, rom, rogorc wesi, masaSi ideebi SeaqvT azris liderebs (amasTan sxvadasxva klasisa da jgufebisaTvis lideri sxvadasxvaa). amitom mimarTvis efeqturoba iqneba ufro maRali Tuki, is iqneba azris liderebze gamiznuli, xolo isini Tavad miawvdian Setyobinebas danarCenebs. arapiradi komunikaciis arxebi. es aris informaciis gavrceleba piradi kontaqtisa da uSualo ukukavSiris uqonlobis pirobebSi. xSirad qvemoT moyvanili meTodebis gamoyeneba aadvilebs pirad komunikacias. specifikuri atmosfero. es aris organizaciis mier specialurad Seqmnili garemo, romelic xels uwyobs organizaciis mimarT damokidebulebis warmoSobasa da ganmtkicebas.

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kinofestival

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movlenuri xasiaTis RonisZiebebi. maT miekuTvneba prezentaciebi, preskonferenciebi, specialuri RonisZiebebi, organizaciis an raime axali programis, gamofenis da a. S. gaxsnasTan dakavSirebiT. masobrivi da arCeviTi (specializebul auditoriaze gaTvlili) zemoqmedebis saSualebebi. pirvel rigSi, es aris masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, plakatebi, safosto reklamebi da sxv. arsebobs mosazreba, rom PR menejersa da mediis warmomadgenels sxvadasxva interesebi gaaCniaT, xolo PR menejerisTvis aucilebelia swori midgoma gamoiyenos JurnalistebTan urTierTobaSi. yuradReba maxvildeba Semdeg sakiTxebze: · PR menejerisTvis prioritetulia mediis ndobis mopoveba da SenarCuneba, rac xSirad PR menejeris pirovnul Tvisebebzea damokidebuli. mediam unda dainaxos, rom PR menejeri aris profesionali da organizaciis saqmianobaSi kargad Caxeduli adamiani, romelic yovelTvis mzad aris maT daxmareba gauwios da informaciis mopovebaSi Seuwyos xeli. · Jurnalistis konkretul SekiTxvas konkretuli pasuxi unda gaeces, Tumca amave dros saWiroa sifrTxile, yvela sityvis awon-dawonva, raTa ar gaJRerdes is, rac ar gvawyobs. Jurnalistebi xSirad ar arian kompetenturni yvela sferoSi, amitom aucilebelia maTTan mWidro TanamSromloba, detaluri da zusti informaciis miwodeba, raTa maT kargad dainaxon sakiTxis arsi da Sesabamisad gaaSuqon esa Tu is movlena. · aucilebelia mudmivi kavSiri mediasTan, mudmivad unda adevno Tvalyuri mediis da konkretuli Jurnalistebis saqmianobas. Jurnalistma unda igrZnos, rom Sen gainteresebs misi saqmianoba da mis statiebs kiTxulob. · rogorc bevr sxva sferoSi aqac wamyvania piradi kavSirebi da axlobluri urTierTobebi. amitom rac ufro kargad icnob Jurnalistebs, maT yoveldRiur cxovrebas da interesebs, miT ufro iolad SegiZlia warmatebuli TanamSromloba daamyaro. · Jurnalistebs xSirad aRizianebT, roca PR menejeri maT ar exmareba pirvel pirTan kavSiris damyarebaSi, rac yovelTvis

sulac ar Sedis PR menejeris movaleobaSi. nebismieri gaugebrobis dros momgebiania Ria damokidebuleba da gulaxdiloba. · PR menejerma unda gaiTvaliswinos, rom Jurnalistebi SezRuduli drois pirobebSi muSaoben, amitom informacia yovelTvis droulad unda miawodos. · Jurnalists iseve sWirdeba PR specialistTan urTierToba, rogorc PR menejers JurnalistTan, anu, PR JurnalistisTvis mTavari dasayrdeni unda iyos! · PR menejerica da Jurnalistic cdilobs garkveuli informaciis sazogadoebisTvis miwodebas, magram Jurnalistebs xSirad damaluli informacia ainteresebT da sensacias eZeben, PR menejeri ki cdilobs informacia ufro rbil da misaReb formebSi miawodos sazogadoebas. presisTvis unda Seiqmnas prespaketi. is gamoiyeneba _ preskonferenciebis, gamofenebis, da sxvadasxva specialuri RonisZiebebis dros. misi amocanaa _ masmedias miawodos detaluri informacia mimdinare RonisZiebis Sesaxeb. prespaketSi SesaZlebelia movaTavsoT: · presrelizi, · organizaciis broSura, · RonisZiebis programa, · sapatio stumrebis sia, · gancxadeba presisaTvis, · wliuri angariSi, · preskonferenciaze gamomsvlelTa avtobiografiebi. anu yvelanairi dokumenti, romelic xels Seuwyobs masmedias aRweros mimdinare RonisZieba. presrelizi unda Seiqmnas kinofestivalis Catarebamde ramdenime xniT adre. statiisgan gansxvavebiT pres-relizi aris mokle Setyobineba, romelic iTxovs sagrZnoblad mcire drosa da Zalas mis dasawerad. presrelizebis dagzavnis saboloo mizans warmoadgens kompaniis garkveuli imijis formireba da SenarCuneba farTo sazogadoebis TvalSi. axla mokled ganvsazRvroT is, Tu ra unda daiweros

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presrelizSi: informacia da ara reklama. zogjer maTi gansxvaveba rTulia, magram arsebobs miniSneba: informacia _ aris `monayoli ara imis Sesaxeb Tu ras yidiT, aramed imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor cxovrobT.~ presrelizi Cveulebriv iwereba ara salaparako, TxrobiT, aramed telegraful, usaxo maneraSi, raime siaxlis, movlenis sababiT, romelTac hqvia sainformacio sababi. aqedan gamomdinare presrelizis Sinaarsi, rogorc wesi, dakavSirebulia drois garkveul periodTan. ganvixiloT Tu rogor unda daiweros presrelizi. misi ZiriTadi Semadgenlebia: · saTauri, · reziume, · ZiriTadi nawili, · sakontaqto rekvizitebi, · monacemebi firmis Sesaxeb, · monacemebi produqtis, momsaxurebis Sesaxeb. arsebobs sxvadasxva kompaniebi, romelTac SegiZliaT miawodoT Tqveni presrelizebi an SeukveToT es momsaxureba. dRes arsebuli PR kompaniebi, PR sazogadoeba Tu calkeuli, individualuri `PR-Sikebi~ sakuTari, pirovnuli eTikis kodeqsis mixedviT moqmedeben. garkveulwilad, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, es amarTlebs kidec, magram aris situaciebi, rodesac Sinagani Rirebulebebi xSirad winaaRmdegobaSi modis saerTaSoriso praqtikaSi arsebul RirebulebebTan. amitom yvela PR kompaniam, PR s a z o g a d o e b a m T u c a l k e u l m a ` PR-S i k m a ~ u n d a gaiTvaliswinos sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis sferoSi profesiuli qcevis evropuli kodeqsi (lisabonis kodeqsi).

nino SarmiaSvili magistraturis II kursi, xelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvili mayureblis problema akademiur Teatr ebSi Teatris daarsebis periodSi (XVIII_XIX saukuneebSi) iyo adgili, sadac qarTul sityvas udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeboda; es im periodSi, rodesac rusifikaciis pirobebSi qarTuli dramaturgiis scenazeE gadmotana da qarTveli msaxiobebis mSobliur enaze metyveleba mayureblebisTvis umniSvnelovanesi movlena iyo. droTa ganmavlobaSi Seicvala viTareba, istoriulsocialuri foni, Seicvala Teatris bedic. qarTul Teatrs sruliad unikaluri istoria aqvs. Cemi kvlevis obieqti Teatris istoriis kvleva ar aris. naSromSi Tanamedrove qarTul TeatrSi, konkretulad ki akademiur TeatrebSi, mayureblis daswrebis problemaze gavamaxvileb yuradRebas. gasuli saukunis 90-ianma wlebma bevri gaWirveba da qaosi moitana saqarTveloSi, samoqalaqo dapirispirebis Semdeg, marTalia TbilisSi SedarebiT simSvidem daisadgura. es is periodia, rodesac saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianoba dairRva, qveyanaSi mZime socialuri viTarebaa. am periodSi TbilisSi iqmneba pirveli sardafis ti pis Teatri (reJisorebi: levan wulaZeE da oTar egaZe). yvelafrisgan gadaRlilma, dabneulma da daTrgunulma mosaxleobam sardafis Teatri Seiyvara, ufro metic, sardafis TeatrSi gaCnda anSlagebi, am droisaTvis qarTul TeatrSi esoden daviwyebuli cneba....speqtaklebis umravlesoba sardafis TeatrSi iyo Tanamedrove sinamdvilis amsaxveli, komediuri Janris. komediuri speq taklis xilvisas mayureb eli Tavisufldeba mZlavrad datvirTuli uaryofiTi muxtisagan. 2000 wlisaTvis, rodesac TbilisSi moqmed yvela did TeatrSi (rusTavelis, marjaniSvilis, Semdeg kinomsaxiobTa) saremonto samuSaoebis gamo repertuari Sewyda, mayurebeli ZiriTadad sardafis TeatrebiT sazrdoobda, amave periodSi

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eqsperimentebis moyvarulma avTo varsimaSvilma daaarsa axali Teatri: `Tavisufali Teatri~, romlis pirvelma warmodgenam `komediantebma~ mokle xanSi saocari popularoba moi pova da dRemde ar kargavs mayurebels. Teatralur sardafSi mxolod speqtaklebi ar idgmeboda, aq ewyoboda piesebis kiTxvebi, literaturuli saRamoebi. dResdReobiT Teatraluri sardafi vakeSi daxurulia, rusTavelze ki iSviaTadaa premiera, arc piesebis kiTxvebia da arc literaturuli Sexvedrebi. SesaZloa es imis gamo moxda, rom sardafis mayurebeli daubrunda akademiur Teatrebs, an sulac imis gamo, repertuaria arasworad SerCeuli. mixeil TumaniSvili ambobda: `Teatris sicocxlisunarianoba maqsimum 10 wliT ganisazRvreba, amis Semdeg Teatrma aucileblad unda daiwyos axali formebis, stilisa da tendenciebis Zieba, mas axali sisxli unda gadaesxas, Tu unda, rom Tavi gadairCinos.~ rogorc xedavT, mizezi TvalsaCinoa. sardafis Teatrma zustad 10 weliwadSi sakuTari SesaZleblobebi amowura da misma damaarseblebmac isev akademiur Teatrebs miaSures. sainteresoa, ra daxvda monatrebul TeatrebSi qarTvel mayurebels. SesaZloa, garemontebuli Senoba, reklama, lamazad gaformebuli afiSa an Teatris web-gverdi. magram Teatris mTavari produqti speqtaklia, yvelaze didi warmateba ki anSlagia. anSlagia rusTavelis TeatrSi `kavkasiur carcis wreze~, rodesac genialur msaxiobs, ramaz CxikvaZes varskvlavi gauxsnes. bileTebic warmodgenamde bevrad adre gaiyida, rigebic idga salarosTan, es maSin, roca misi Rirebuleba standartul fass bevrad aRemateboda. marTalia, `kavkasiuri carcis wre~ genialuri speqtaklia, msofliom aRiara da ukve 30 welze metia scenidan ar Camosula. anSlagi, SesaZloa, ufro iman ganapiroba, rom varskvlavebis gaxsnaze siarulic modad iqca (!). es maSin, roca rusTavelis TeatrSi moixsna sruliad genialuri speqtakli `godos molodinSi~ Zalian martivi mizezis gamo, mas mayurebeli ar hyavda (!). rodesac gia yanCelis `stiqsze~ TiTze CamosaTvleli bileTebis raodenoba iyideba, amis mizezic aSkaraa, aseT speqtaklebs mayurebeli aRar hyavs. aSkaraa, rom aucileblad varskvlavis gaxsna, sazeimo

saRamo an jeostari unda gadiodes rusTavelis TeatrSi imisaTvis, rom darbazi Seivsos. bolo dros sruli datvirTviT muSaobs rusTavelis Teatris eqsperimentuli scena, sadac, garda speqtaklebisa, saintereso Sexvedrebi da imave pieseb is kiTxvebic imarTeba. es sasicocxlod aucilebeli movlenaa nebismieri TeatrisTvis, aq darbazi yovelTvis savsea Teatraluri sazogadoebiT, es Sexvedrebze gasagebia, magram speqtaklze bileTebis raodenobis gayidvis mixedviT aqac sagangaSo mdgomareobaa, arada ra sainteresoa, rom imave eqsperimentul scenaze daswrebis mxriv namdvili rekordi daamyara realiTi Sou `dasis~ warmodgenebma, gansakuTrebiT Sous satelevizio mimdinareobis procesSi, anu, televizia CvenTan isev saocrad popularulia, ufro metic televizias ar hyavs badali. Tu kargad daakvirdebiT, arcerT gadacemaSi, mcxunvare satelevizio dros, aravin laparakobs romelime konkretul speqtaklze, mis Rirebulebebze, imaze, rom es namdvili aRmoCenaa da Seudarebelia, rom am speqtaklis dadgmiT raRac axali daiwyo qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi... Zalin kargi sayurebelia rusTaveli TeatrSi TiTqmis erTi wlis win dadgmuli speqtakli `moxuci jambazebi~, sadac brwyinvale msaxiobebi: medea Caxava, guram saRaraZe, kaxi kavsaZe TamaSoben. premieramde iyo bevri siuJeti teleeTerSi, interviuebi presaSi, premieris SemdgomUuSualod speqtakls gadacemebic ki mieZRvna, yvela warmodgenamde ramdenime dRiT adre yvela bileTi gayidulia, ra Tqma unda, es ar aris rigiTi speqtakli, magram reklamam mainc imuSava, zogierT rigiT speqtakls amis naxevari PR rom hqondes, iqneb aRar iyos speqtaklis gadadebis saSiSroeba zogjer sami an oTxi gayiduli bileTis gamo. nebismier internet gamokiTxvaSi, forumebze, reitingis TvalsazrisiT avTo varsimaSvilis `Tavisufali Teatri~ liderobs, misi siZliere albaT imaSia, rom es aris erTaderTi Teatri dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi, romlis reklamas yvelaze cnobili arxis eTerSiDdRis ganmavlobaSi ramdenimejer moismenT, iq aris speqtaklebi Tanamedrove Tematikaze, Tavisi axalgazrda msaxiobebiT, bunebrivi movlenebis (Tovli, wvima) scenaze uxvi CvenebiT, darbazSi atirebuli mayurebliT...

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`oTxi wlis win, 1997 wlis 31 marts, rodesac vxsnidi `Teatralur sardafs, pirvel speqtaklze mosul mayurebels vuTxari, rom vxsni Teatrs, romlis devizic iqneba `de, cudi, oRond bevri!~ im periodSi Teatrebi praqtikulad Caketili iyo axalgazrda reJisorebisaTvis, amitom mindoda, gamexsna iseTi Teatri, sadac bevri axali dadgma gaCndeboda. Cem mierve mogonilma devizma weliwad-naxevarSi CixSi momaqcia, me gadaviqeci Zalian bevri uniWo speqtaklisa da maTi damdgmelebis prodiuserad, ris gamoc davtove Cems mierve daarsebuli Teatri. dRes, 2001 wlis 31 marts, zustad oTxi wlis Tavze, me vxsni kidev erT Teatrs, romlis devizi iqneba `sjobs cota, oRond kargi!~ es iqneba `Tavisufali Teatri~ Tavisufali mayureblisaTvis, sadac gza mxolod niWier Semoqmedebs miecemaT,~ _ es avTo varsimaSvilis sityvebia, is yvelaze kargi menejeria Tavisi Teatrisa. man SeZlo, gaekeTebina Teatri, sadac sul anSlagebia, hyavs Tavisi msaxiobebi, romelTac yvelaze kargad icnobs da yvelaze kargad icis. bevrs davoben profesionalebi am bolo dros marjaniSvilis Teatris repertuarTan dakavSirebiT, arada faqtia, rom sworad warmarTulma menejmentma, kargma reklamam, kontaqtebma Teatrs mayurebeli daubruna, magram aq sxva ramea problema da es marTlac repertuaria, Teatrisa, romelsac Zalian didi istoria da warmatebebi aqvs. kote marjaniSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo akademiuri Teatri TiTqmis rva aTeuli welia moRvaweobs. am xnis ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibda, TvalsaCinod gamoikveTa Teatris saxe, misi moqalaqeobrivi pozicia, xasiaTi, stili, tradicia da mTlianad Semoqmedeba. dRes marjaniSvilis TeatrSi did scenasTan erTad moqmedebs mcire scena e. w. `Teatri sxvenSi~, sadac ZiriTadad axalgazrda reJisorebi cdian Tavis SesaZleblobebs. didi popularobiT sargeblobs levan wulaZis (Teatris samxatvro xelmZRvaneli) bolo dros dadgmuli iseTi gaxmaurebuli speqtaklebi, rogorebicaa: `qaquca ColoyaSvili~ da `pigmalioni~. siuJetebi, statiebi, profesionalTa recenziebi arc erT maTgans ar dahklebia, magram arc Tu saimedo.

Teatrmcodneeb isaTvis damaimedeb eli araa `q aquca ColoyaSvili~, miuxedavad Tavisi patriotuli paTosisa da marjaniSvilis Teatris salarosTan bileTis rigSi mdgari axalgazrdebisa. Tuki marTlac darbazi gaivseba da im darbazidan adamiani iseTive gamova, rogoric Sevida araferi masSi ar Seicvleba maSin ra daniSnuleba aqvs Teatrs?GvacinoT, vixarxaroT, Tu marto vitiroT? albaT, unda SevimecnoT. dRes seriozuli problemebis winaSe dgas qarTuli dramaturgia. axalgazrda dramaturgebs piesebi Taroebze uZveldebaT, Tanamedrove sazRvargareTul dramasTan xom saerTod Zalian mwyralad varT. sarepertuaro politika qarTul TeatrebSi udavod rTuli Temaa, arada yvela TeatrSi unda arsebobdes konkretuli Stati am mimarTulebiT, ufro sworad profesionalTa jgufi, romelic kiTxulobs axal piesebs, rogorc qarTuls, aseve ucxours, icis ra xdeba Tanamedrove evropul TeatrSi, da a. S. aucilebelia, TeatrebSi, Tavad Teatris interesebidan gamomdinare, tardebodes gamokiTxvebi mayureblebs Soris, gamokiTxvebis Sedegad, naTeli gaxdeba, Tu ra ti pis mayurebeli dadis ama TuU im TeatrSi, ra sixSiriT, ra moswons, an, piriqiT, raze ar mova arasodes. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Teatris menejeri unda iyos profesionali kulturis menejeric. Teatris menejerma unda dasaxos strategiuli gegma, aseve kompaniis Sida monacemebs gadaxedos xSirad. menejers SeuZlia gamoiyenos bileTebis salaros an momxmareblis mier warmodgenili angariSebidan amoRebuli cnobebi. bileTebis salarodan miRebuli cnobebi SesaZleblobas aZleven Teatris menejers dasaxos gegma konkretuli RonisZiebebis gayidvebisa. Seadaros gasuli wlebis gegmas, da Tu moTxovnileba iqneba gadawyvitos ra RonisZiebebis gatarebaa saWiro erT an ramdenime cvladTan dakavSirebiT marketingul miqsSi. magaliTad, Tu gayidvebis done ramdenime kviris mere morigi RonisZiebebis Catarebis Semdeg mudmivad iklebs, maSin mizanmimarTulad swored am periodSi unda gaizardos biujeti dawinaurebisTvis, raTa SevinarCunoT an gavzardoT daswrebis maCvenebeli.

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mayureblis problema akademiur TeatrebSi

klientebis sia, abonementebis mflobelebi, iqneba is komerciuli Tu arakomerciuli ­ aris saintereso informacia. aucilebelia aseve sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis menejeri iyos p rofesionali. misi meSveob iT unda xdebodes sazogadoebasTan urTierToba ­ informaciis gacvla ­ komunikacia. maszea damokidebuli warmateba an warumatebloba. masmediasTan urTierTobis CamoyalibebaSic didi wvlili unda miuZRvodes sazogadoeb asTan urT ierTobis menejers, mniSvnelovania speqtaklis premieris dro da TariRi gavrceldes sazogadoebaSi masmediis saSualebiT, unda daigegmos iseTi PR kampania, rom sazogadoebis didi nawili dainteresdes da ar iyos es sazogadoebis garkveul fenaze gaTvlili. marto varskvlavebis gaxsniT Sors ver wavalT. qarTul Teatrs sWirdeba bevri mayurebeli, mayurebels _ kargi speqtakli, karg speqtakls _ piesa, profesionali gundi da bevri Sroma, rac, Cemi azriT, iseT Sedegs moitans, rom akademiur TeatrebSi aRar iqneba mayureblis problema da didi imedi maqvs yvela speqtakli anSlagiT Caivlis. saTeatro menejmentSi aseve sakmaod mniSvnelovania Tavad Sida organizaciuli struqtura, romelic, erTi mxriv, sakmaod rTuli rgolia. aq, erTi mxriv, yuradReba gasamaxvilebelia SemoqmedebiT seqtorze, aseve didi yuradReba sWirdeba teqnikur seqtorsa da saerTo, administraciul seqtors. pirveli maTgani, faqtobrivad, Teatraluri moRvaweobis mTavari princi pia da moicavs yvelafers, rac dakavSirebulia Teatris samxatvro xelmZRvanelobasTan, repertuarTan, msaxiobebTan da a. S. teqnikuri seqtori esaa speqtaklebis teqnikuri momzadeba, ganaTeba, rekviziti, xmis redaqtireba. xolo, rac Seexeba administraciul seqtors, esaa sabuRaltro, komerciuli samsaxurebi. Teatri, imisaTvis, rom man warmoadginos erTi speqtakli, sakmaod rTul da saintereso gzas gadis, amas Teatraluri moRvaweobis sawarmoo cikli ewodeba da Sedgeba iseTi etapebisagan, rogorebicaa gansaxorcielebeli speqtaklis Tematikis SerCeva, dadgmisTvis momzadeba, speqtaklisaTvis momzadeba, `aspeqtebis Sekvra~, marketinguli gegma, premiera da analitikuri samuSao premieris Semdeg. rogorc xedavT,

erTi speqtaklis dasadgmelad uamravi samuSaoa Casatarebeli, uamravi adamianis mier. pirveli ramdenime stadia SemoqmedebiTteqnikur e. w. `ganyofilebebs~ exebaT da misi marTvac mxolod Semoqmedebs da teqnikur specialistebs SeeZlebaT. rac Seexeba marketingul gegmasa da sainformacio-sareklamo masalis momzadebas, es ukve menejment-marketingis samsaxuris prerogativaa da am nawilsac iseTive sasicocxlo funqcia akisriaT, rogoric Tavad speqtaklis SemoqmedebiT mxares. ar aqvs mniSvneloba, ris gamo ar moxdeba mayureblis speqtaklze daswreba, ugemovno, araRirebuli warmodgenis gamo, Tu araswori marketinguli strategiis an arasaTanado menejmentis gamo. rezultati mainc erTi iqneba _ Teatrs ar hyavs mayurebeli da es sakmaod mniSvnelovani problemaa. Teatris momxmarebeli xom TavisTavad mayurebelia. momxmareblis gareSe darCenili saxelovnebo produqti ki sruli kraxia kulturis menejmentisaTvis. Tumca, optimistebi Tu viqnebiT, ar arsebobs gadauWreli problema. me Tu mkiTxavT, amisaTvis sulac araa saWiro did optimisturi ganwyoba. amisaTvis saWiroa elementaruli praqtikuli da Teoriuli codna marketingsa da menejmentSi. saTeatro menejmentis warmarTvisas, pirvel rigSi, aucilebelia, Sida organizaciuli problemebis mogvareba. nebismier organizaciaSi erTi nabiji warmatebisken ukve gadadgmulia, Tu mogvarebulia struqturis problema, Tu sworadaa funqciebi gadanawilebuli da Tu xelmZRvaneli rgoli axerxebs yvela ganyofilebaze mmarTvelobiT e. w. `Tvalyuris devnebas~. es imas niSnavs, rom organizaciaSi nebismieri qmedeba iqneba adekvaturi da Sesabamisi, aseve iqneba kontrolirebadi da mizanmimarTuli. struqturis sworad Camoyalibebis Semdeg Teatrs ukve SeeZleba SemoqmedebiT saqmianobasTan erTad marketingul gaTvlebsa da PR kampaniebzec ifiqros. pirvel rigSi, aucilebelia, zogadad masis, rogorc bazris Sesaxeb informaciis raime, Tundac nebismieri xerxiT miReba. aucilebelia konkurentunariani sxva Teatrebis programastrategiebis zedmiwevniTi Seswavla imisaTvis, rom mocemulma Teatrma SeinarCunos individualuroba, stili, statusi da mkacrad gansazRvruli adgili bazarze. garda amisa, saWiro

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da isev aucilebelia sareklamo kampaniebi, urTierToba masobrivi informaciis gamavrcelebel saSualebebTan da mWidro kontaqti momxmarebelTan. Teatrs SeuZlia, Seqmnas `mudmivi mayureblis~ klubi, sadac gawevrianebulebs saSualeba eqnebaT fasdaklebiT an mosawvevebiT daeswros premierebs, speqtaklebs. merwmuneT, ufro mniSvnelovania, darbazi iyos mayurebliT savse da maT bileTebi hqondeT SeZenili naxevarfasad, vidre, premieraze iyos mxolod ramdenime aTeuli adamiani, ZviradRirebuli bileTebiT. yovelive zemoT CamoTvlili saSualebebis sworad gamoyenebisa da, plus amas, sxva specifikuri RonisZiebebis gatarebis Semdeg, merwmuneT, saqarTveloSi arsebul Teatrebs mayureblis problema namdvilad aRar SeeqmnebaT.

mariam WumburiZe magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. iuri mRebriSvili menejmentis zogierTi problemaK Tanamedr ove xelovnebaSi Tanamedrove epoqa socialur-politikuri, ekonomikuri, ekologiuri da kulturuli sferoebis Sokuri cvalebadobiT mimdinareobs. sazogadoebaSi icvleba prioritetebi, maTi warmatebuli ganxorcielebis saSualebebi. pragmatulma ideebma konkretuli mimarTulebebi da miznis miRwevis srulad gansazRvruli gzebi gamokveTa, romelTa Soris upirvelesi adamianis gavlenis sferoebSi SeRweva, Zalauflebis mopoveba, Semosavlisken swrafva, materialuri uzrunvelyofis miRweva iqca. am procesebis fonze SeumCnevlad daiwyo da mimdinareobs adamianis dehumanizacia, misi kulturuli identurobis aRmofxvra. uamrav problemaTa nakadSi moqceuli adamiani ver iazrebs, rom kulturis krizisi apirobebs sazogadoebaSi azrovnebisa da Sesabamisad yofierebis mraval problemas. kultura zogadi cnebaa da moicavs kacobriobis materialur da sulier sferos, miRwevebs orive mimarTulebiT, sazogadoebis ganviTarebisa da miRwevebis, memkvidreobiTi princi pis gamoyenebisa da evoluciis CaTvliT. am ori saxeobis gamijvna SeuZlebelia maTi organuli kavSiris gamo, radgan ideis materialuri xorcSesxma swored codnis, niWis materializebaa. sulieri kulturis obieqturi gansxeulebac materialuri saSualebebis daxmarebiT mimdinareobs, e. i., kulturis nebismieri sagani (movlena) materialurisa da sulieris an piriqiT sulierisa da materialuris xorcSesxmuli erTobliobaa. sulieri kultura moicavs Semecnebis sferos, sulier Semoqmedebas, religias, miTologias, filosofias, Semecnebas, zneobas, aRzrdas, ganaTlebas, samarTals, mecnierebas, literaturas, xelovnebas. kidev ufro davakonkretoT: xelovneba-literatura, Teatri, kino, saxviTi xelovneba, musika, qoreografia, sacirko xelovneba adamianis Sinagani samyarosa Tu garegnuli mSvenierebis

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srulyofilebis, cxovrebis idealur standartebamde miRwevis, rafinirebis saSualebad moiazreboda da moiazreba, magram dRes mxolod gonebis, racionaluri prioritetebiT dakavebul sazogadoebaSi mxolod nawilobriv, zedapirulad an zereled xdeba misi gamoyeneba, SemoqmedebiToba, emociuroba, intuiciisadmi yuradRebis mi pyroba. cxovrebis dRevandeli stili, ritmi, adamians ar sZens qcevis, yofiTi kulturis ZiriTad mimarTulebas, komunikaciis anbanur codnas. xolo Tuki igi flobs am Tvisebebs, misi realizaciis saSualebas. yovel sazogadoebriv-ekonomikur formacias kulturis Tavisi ti pi axasiaTebs, ama Tu im formaciis Secvla upirobod iwvevs kulturis ti pis cvlilebasac. rogorc wesi es ar unda niSnavdes ganxeTqilebas, kavSiris gawyvetas, rRvevas, miT ufro Zvelis ganadgurebas. saukuneebiT dasturdeba, rom axali formacia aucileblobis gamo, gamorCeviT iRebs wina formaciis kulturul miRwevebs. Semoqmedeba xom ZiriTadad tradicias eyrdnoba, agrZelebs an emijneba mas. rogor aisaxeba Tanamedrove civilizaciasa da msoflio saxelovnebo kulturaSi yovelive zemoaRniSnuli. ra cvlilebebsa da problemaTa rigs moicavs zogadad dRevandeli xelovneba, ra sirTuleTa gadalaxva uxdeba mas da am konteqstSi qarTul xelovnebas, mis calkeul dargebs. upirvelesad Teatris problematikas SevexebiT. es arc Tu ise advilia im faqtis gamo, rom yovel qveyanaSi arsebuli ZiriTadi politikuri klimati gavlenas axdens yoveldRiuri cxovrebis yvela aspeqtze, maT Soris Teatrzec, romelic, rogorc zogadad xelovneba, sazogadoebis `sarkes~ warmoadgenda yovelTvis. im realobis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom msoflioSi ekonomikur-politikuri krizisi da daZabuloba TandaTan mZafrdeba, saqarTveloSi damatebiT omis Semdgomi da mudmivad axali konfliqtebis afeTqebis situacia kidev ufro arTulebs Teatrebis Cveul, aprobirebul, gasuli saukunis Zalze warmatebul cxovrebas. menejmenti kulturis dawesebulebaSi Tanamedroveobis moTxovnaa, romelic aucilebelia kulturuli produqciis

warmoebis aqtiurobis ganviTarebisa da mayureblis kulturuli moTxovnilebebis Camosayalibeblad. kulturis nonprofituli nawili, romlis SemadgenlobaSic Teatri moiazreba (munici paluri Teatrebi), mTel msoflioSi finansdeba saxelmwifo biujetidan, sxvadasxva fondidan, sponsoruli saqmianobidan, mecenatobidan. Kkulturas xelmZRvanelobs kulturis saministro, romelic yvela civilur qveyanaSi makoordinirebel funqcias asrulebs da Tavis menejments mimarTavs kulturis strategiis dadgenisa da dagegmvisaken, konkretuli qveynis aramaterialuri da materialuri kulturuli memkvidreobisa da sazogadoebis mentalitetis gaTvaliswinebiT;Aaqedan gamomdinare, adgens prioritetTa sistemas da mizanmimarTulad axorcielebs Tavis menejments; magram yovelTvis ase rodi xdeba. Kkultura komerciul dargTa Soris ar ganixileba, iseve rogorc sporti, jandacva, ganaTleba. Tumca miuxedavad nonprofitulobisa mas gaaCnia mcire komerciuli seqtori. romlis menejmenti da marketingi iseve muSaobs, rogorc sxva komerciul seqtorSi. mas garkveuli wvlili Seaqvs ekonomikaSic, radgan qmnis samuSao adgilebs, gaaCnia Tavisi avtonomiuri bazari _ sagrZnobi sainvesticio potencialiT.Aaqve unda davZinoT, rom kultura da xelovneba socialurad momgebiania sazogadoebis mTavari Rerebulebebis akumulirebisa da translirebisTvis. biznesisa da menejmentis Tanamedrove teqnologiebi: reklama, PR, personalTan muSaoba, korporaciuli kulturis formireba SeuZlebelia socialur-kulturuli moRvaweobis tradiciuli formebis gamoyenebis gareSe. Yyvela zemoT aRniSnuli teqnologia saWiroa da aqtiurad gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove xelovnebis yvela dargSi. Sou-biznesi zogadad kulturuli momsaxurebis sferos erT-erTi mimarTulebaa. Tu mas ar axlavs biznesis cneba, maSin igi saqvelmoqmedo xasiaTisaa da misi dafinanseba xdeba an saxelmwifo biujetidan an munici palitetidan. im SemTxvevaSi rodesac Sous aqvs komerciuli Rirebuleba maSin is Soubiznesis kategoriaSi gadadis, romelsac aqvs komerciuli Rirebuleba da aucileblad mogeba unda moutanos mis

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mwarmoebels. mis Rirebulebas ixdis momxmarebeli (mayurebeli). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, sanaxaoba igive produqtia da igi momgebianad unda gaiyidos bazarze. aseTi Sedegis misaRwevad saWiroa efeqturi menejmenti da marketingi, romlis formula ase gamoixateba _ moZebneT (an SeqmeniT) moTxovnileba da daakmayofileT igi. rac ufro maRalmxatvruli iqneba programa da misi gaformeba monawileTa CaTvliT, miT ufro meti iqneba Sous Rirebuleba-fasi. Tu gaTvlili iqneba Sous mowyobis yoveli niuansi da efeqturad iqneba warmodgenili menejmenti da marketingi, anu, Seswavlili iq neb a saz ogadoeb is sxvadasxva jgufis moTxovnileba da interesebi, socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba /diferencirebuli midgoma sxvadasxva socialur jgufTan / miT ufro momgebiani da efeqturi iqneba Sou-biznesi, rasac adasturebs kidec misi popularoba da auditoriis yvelaze ufro mravalricxovani da mravalferovani warmomadgenloba msoflio varskvlavTa monawileobiT dagegmili da warmatebiT ganxorcielebuli proeqtebiT. rac Seexeba saTeatro xelovnebas, dRes rTulia isaubro Teatrebis marTvis raime sistemasa da organizebaze. prioritetTa gamokveTis Semdeg kulturis saministrom mWidro urTierTkavSiri unda daamyaros qveynis xelmZRvanelobasTan, vinaidan mTeli rigi sakiTxis mogvareba saxelmwifos mmarTvelobiTi organoebis Tanadgomis gareSe warmoudgeneli iqneba. saxelmwifo TeatrebSi, romlebic kulturis saministros mier finansdeba, finansebi nawildeba garkveul proeqtebze da iseT utilitarul saWiroebebze, rogoricaa Teatris Senobis Senaxva _ ganaTeba, mcire SekeTeba, komunikaciebisa da warmoebis sxvadasxva rgolebis resursebis SeZena da ZiriTadad saxelfaso fondis SenarCuneba. romelSic mainc xdeba garRveva (Seferxeba). radgan Teatris TanamSromelTa da msaxiobTa, anu dasis, Semadgenloba erTad (miuxedavad perioduli gadaxarisxebisa da Semcirebebisa, vgulisxmobT mudmivad dasaqmebul pirebs) mravalricxovania, amis gamo Zalian mcire Tanxa rCeba axali speqtaklebis ganxorcielebisTvis. am problemis gadawyveta da mo ki de b u lia u kv e mxo lo d da m xol od T ea tr is

administraciis moxerxebaze da isic yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi konkretuli damfinanseblis (sponsoris) moZiebaze, an garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi mudmivi mecenatis gamoCenaze. amis moxerxeba Tu mouxerxebloba TvalnaTliv aisaxeba speqtaklis dadgmis xarisxze. gvxvdeba gansxvavebuli svlac. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi SesaZlebelia, romelime reJisorma TviTon i povos Tavisi proeqtis damfinansebeli da winadadebiT mimarTos sasurvel, am SemTxvevaSi cnobil Teatrs, misTvis speqtaklis dadgmis uflebis nebarTvaze. Tuki proeqti daainteresebs Teatris samxatvro sabWos, am SemTxvevaSi iwyeba muSaoba SeTavazebul proeqtze, romlis mimdinareobis angariSs, periodulad repeticiebze daswrebiT amowmeben samxatvro sabWos wevrebi an upiratesad Teatris samxatvro xelmZRvaneli. mxolod dadebiTi Sefasebis, sainteresod ganxorcielebuli Sedegis aRmoCenisas eZleva muSaobis gagrZelebis saSualeba proeqtis warmomdgen reJisors speqtaklis dasasruleblad, romelic Semdgom ikavebs Sesabamis adgils Teatris mimdinare repertuarSi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom saxelSekrulebo sistema ar iTvaliswinebs am SemTxvevaSi TanamSromlobis aucilebel gagrZelebas. samsaxiobo xelovnebis problemebi aranakleb aqtualuria ganxilul konteqstSi. msaxiobi yvelaze metadaa damokidebuli Seqmnil viTarebaze da yvelaze metad ganicdis uxilavi Tu xiluli peri petiebis Sedegebs sakuTar Tavze. sazRvargareT msaxiobTa umravlesoba mcire anazRaurebis gamo iZulebulia, sxva TeatrSic imuSaos ZiriTadis paralelurad, ufro maRali anazRaurebis misaRebad, rac Semdgom iwvevs ZiriTad TeatrebSi mis gaucxoebas, fragmentul dakavebas an mis nacvlad sxva msaxiobis mowvevas (TeatrisTvis iZulebiT) da damatebiTi anazRaurebis gamoyofas misTvis. saqarTveloSi es tendencia odnav saxecvlilia. periferiidan Tu dedaqalaqidan msaxiobebi Tavad eZeben asparezs popularobis miRwevisTvis. umravlesoba maqsimalurad cdilobs teleekranze romelime Sou-programaSi moxvedras wamyvanis, monawilis ­ sareklamo rgolSi dafiqsirebis saxiT. warmatebis SemTxvevaSi zogierTi maTgani saavtoro gadacemasac amzadebs da mihyavs

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kidec, Semdeg etapze SesaZlebelia igi prodiuseradac mogvevlinos. ZiriTad TeatrSi maTi monawileoba, ramdenime speqtaklSi mainc xerxdeba. aq sxva xasiaTis problema iCens Tavs, romelic niWier adamianTa Janrobriv Tu zogadad saSemsruleblo Stampebad iqceva. Teatrebis umravlesobas ar aqvs `cnobadi~ da Tanmimdevruli repertuari. erT dRes warmodgenil klasikur piesas SeiZleba mohyves sruliad gaugebari, arafris mTqmel piesaze Seqmnili umniSvnelo speqtakli, rac abnevs ara mxolod Teatris mayureblebs, aramed mis TanamSromlebsac. Sedegad, Zalian mcire Teatrebi axerxeben msoflioSi aRiarebuli Tanamedrove dramebis warmodgenis tendenciis ganxorcielebas. siaxlisadmi Tavis aridebis mizezadac finansuri, ekonomikuri krizisi saxeldeba, radgan Teatrs ar moepoveba Tanxa, romelic unda gamoeyos Tanamedrove avtorebs axal piesaze muSaobis anazRaurebisTvis an TanamSromlobis honorarisTvis. arsebobs iSviaTi gamonaklisic, zogierT qveyanaSi esa Tu is Teatri axerxebs dadgas msoflioSi ukve gaxmaurebuli, cnobili dramebi. Cven qveyanaSic analogiur problemaTa gamo igrZnoba sarep ertuaro p olitikis g aurkvevlo b a. SerCe visas araTanmimdevroba, proeqtis avtori, romelic Tavad afinansebs Teatrisadmi SemoTavazebul, misTvis saintereso piesas, uflebamosilia Tavad SesTavazos TeatrsMmisi gadawyvetis xerxebi da SerCeul msaxiobTa kandidatura.Aam SemTxvevaSi xelmZRvaneloba mkacrad ver miuTiTebs mas mTeli dasisTvis saintereso sxva piesaze. repertuaris mravalferovnebisTvis Tanxmdeba mis azrs, es an amarTlebs, an _ ara. xelovnebis am sferoSi winaswar ver ganWvret speqtaklis warmatebawarumateblobis sakiTxs, radgan saboloo pasuxs mxolod mayureblis daswreba xdis TvalsaCinos. Teatrisa da mayureblis problema udaod sainteresod asaxavs droisa da garemos zemoqmedebas xelovnebaze zogadad da konkretulad am dargze. mayurebeli, Tanamedrove sazogadoebis is warmomadgenlobaa, romelic `Seisyidis~ an ugulebelyofs Teatris produqcias. Tavis mxriv, Teatri yovelTvis rodi iTvaliswinebda an iTvaliswinebs mayureblis an, uxeSad rom vTqvaT, `bazris~ moTxovnas.Aam SemTxvevaSi

Teatri ubralod carieldeboda TandaTan da speqtakli ixsneboda. uares SemTxvevaSi zogierTi Teatri ixureboda. ekonomikuri krizisi sazogadoebis mZime gamocdas warmoadgens. sxvadasxva asakis, anu TaobaTa, sxvadasxva Tvalsazrisisa da gemovnebis, gansxvavebuli inteleqtisa da miswrafebis mqone adamianTa es jgufebi, sxvadasxva moTxovniT erTiandebian an gamoirCevian erTimeorisgan. TviT xelovnebis sanaxaobriv dargebsac Tavisi jgufi (mayurebeli) aZlevs sasicocxlo Zalas. uaxloes periodSi Teatrma orjer ganicada mZime dartyma. gasuli saukunis mier televiziis aRmoCeniT, dRes ki sayovelTao kompiuterizaciiT, rom araferi vTqvaT kacobriobis sxva interesebze da mis periodul, etapobriv an moulodnel cvlilebebze. saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc msoflioSi, televiziam `moi para~ mayurebeli. Caketa isini sakuTar saxlebSi da miajaWva ekrans. urTierTobaSic Seitana koreqtivebi. dRes-dReobiT muSaobis, garTobis, urTierTobis, informaciis mopovebis yvelaze advili da moxerxebuli saSualeba kompiuteria. xolo adamianis urTierToba TeatrTan, misma mouclelobam an piriqiT usaqmod (umuSevrad da usaxsrod) darCenam ganapiroba. amas emateba konkretulad saqarTveloSi yvela sferoSi Catarebuli reforma. restruqturizaciis problema SeiWra TeatrSic da aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi moRvawe msaxiobTa mTeli Taoba gaiyola, romlebic `axalgazrda nakadad~ cnobilma msaxiobebma Caanacvles. bunebrivia am Taobis gasvlam asparezidan gamoiwvia mayureblis kontingentis Secvla da ufrosi Taobis mayureblis interesis dakargvac sapasuxod. axalgazrda Taobis msaxiobTa gulSematkivrebi ZiriTadad premierebze avseben Teatrs. maT gverdiT warmodgenilni arian naTesav-megobrebi da axloblebi, Semdgom garkveuli procenti im mayureblisa, romelic bileTebis SeZenis msyidvelobiTi unariT gamoirCeva. mogvianebiT ki rTuli asaxsnelia anSlagebis princi pi, radgan erTi da imave speqtaklis sanaxavad erT dRes modis mayurebeli, rigiT meore speqtaklze ki igi ar Cans.

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sainteresoa morigi problemac, romelic Janrobriv moTxovnilebas Seexeba. AaSkarad dominirebs interesi komediisadmi. Semdeg istoriuli pirovnebebis, erovnuli gmirebis cxovrebis amsaxveli piesebisadmi _ es isev saqarTveloSi. zogadad ki festivalebisadmi, sadac Tavs iyrian cnobili dasebi da varskvlavebi.Mmagram maTi xilvis saSualeba upiratesad ­ sazogadoebis SeZlebul nawils aqvs. zemoT SevexeT msaxiobTa problemas, magram ar aRgviniSnavs is, rom televiziam Teatrs ara mxolod mayurebeli, aramed msaxiobebic waarTva. satelevizio serialebSi moxvedra an telefilmebSi TamaSi popularobis uzrunvelyofis garkveul garantad iqca. Semosavlis wyaro aRmoCnda sxva qveynebis filmebisa da serialebis gaxmovanebac da satelevizio musikalur Sou-programebSi monawileoba. zogierTma pragmatulad moazrovne msaxiobma politikur sarbielze gadainacvla da politikuri gadacemebis aqtiur monawiled iqca. aSkarad nel-nela daviwyebas mieca im msaxiobTa saxelebi, romlebic TeatrSi muSaobis miuxedavad naklebad dakavebulni aRmoCndnen mimdinare repertuarSi. isini garkveuli satelevizio tendenciis gamo iSviaTad an sul ar Cndebian teleekranze.Aam sakiTxTan mimarTebiT samagaliToa evropis qveynebis mier SenarCunebuli princi pi, xandazmul msaxiobTa Sesabamisi asakis rolebze miwveviT. rom aRaraferi vTqvaT aTwleulebiT gaCerebul qarTul kinematografze da amis gamo sruliad ignorirebul kinomsaxiobTa mTel kohortaze. problematurad gamoikveTa Semdegi tendenciac. telearxebis axalma gadacemebma, romelTa umravlesoba gasarTobi ti pis Sous warmoadgens gza gauxsnes araprofesional axalgazrdebs da maT ugemovno gadacemebs. swored am iaffasiani Sous mayurebelTa gemovnebas daeqvemdebara quCis sakoncerto sanaxaobebis gamarTva. xolo teleekranze dabali xarisxis teleserialebma usaqmod darCenili sazogadoebis umravlesobis cnobierebaze miitana ieriSi da damatebiT waarTva mayurebeli qarTul Teatrs. dascems Tu ara es tendencia samsaxiobo xelovnebis miRwevebis dones? ­ nawilobriv, _ aucileblad. es gemovneba, mayurebelTa am ti pis moTxovna, did TeatrebSic aRwevs da

maTi mozidvis mizniT, rogorc sazRvargareT, aseve qarTul TeatrSic ara erTi kompromisuli speqtakli Cndeba. Seiqmna kerZo, mcire Teatrebi, romlebic sakmaod kargad arTmeven Tavs speqtaklisTvis gaweuli xarjebis amoRebas. uamravi patara Teatri alternatiuli Teatrebis cnebiT, romlebic xan droebiT funqcionireben da qrebian, an cnobil festivalebze axerxeben mxolod monawileobis miRebas Tavisi speqtaklis warmodgeniT. sazRvargareT maT kritikosebi did yuradRebas ar uTmoben, magram es sulac ar moqmedebs maT reitingze da popularobaze. msgavsi viTarebaa saqarTveloSi, konkretulad axalgazrdebSi uaRresad popularul sardafis TeatrSi, romlis speqtaklebs, Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas ramdenimejer eswreba erTi da igive mayurebeli, romelmac misi samxatvro xelmZRvanelis akademiur TeatrSi paraleluri moRvaweobis gamo Seavso marjaniSvilis Teatric. SesavalSi aRniSnul problemaTa rigSi samwuxarod SesaniSnavad Tavsdeba Tanamedrove saxviTi xelovneba, qarTuli kinematografi da a.S. Tumca es ukanaskneli (vgulisxmobT kinematografs) TiTqos iwyebs ukve gamococxlebas da saerTaSoriso asparezze warmatebul gasvlas. rac Seexeba saxviT xelovnebas, mxatvarTa azriT, xalxi da mxatvroba aSkarad daSorda erTmaneTs. saxelmwifoebrivi midgoma am mimarTulebiTac iTxovs yuradRebis miqcevas. daixura saxelmwifo sagamofeno darbazebi, maT magivrad bevri kerZo galerea funqcioniebs. personaluri gamofenis mowyobaze, rasac adre mxatvarTa kavSiri aregulirebda, dRes Tavad mxatvari zrunavs. finansurad es Zalian did xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli. gamoiZebna alternatiuli gza, ramdenime mxatvris gaerTianebiT, Tundac erTi dRiT ama Tu im darbazis daqiravebis da maTTvis sasurveli, bolo dros Seqmnili suraTebis gamofenisaTvis, romelic, Tavis mxriv, sulac ar aris sakmarisi farTo sazogadoebisTvis sakuTari Semoqmedebis gasacnobad. gamofena-gayidvaze iSviaTad iyideba maTi namuSevrebi. WeSmarit mxatvrul produqcias masa modur tendenciebs amjobinebs, ara da igi arc ki flobs zust informacias saxviTi xelovnebis kanonebis ganviTarebasa da zogadad

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profesionalizmze. aRiarebul da cnobil mxatvarTa nawarmoebebs konkurencias uwevs salonuri ti pis popularuli mxatvroba. produqciis sazRvargareT gatanac am niSniT mimdinareobs ZiriTadad. materialurad SeWirvebul ostatebs jabnian moxerxebuli da moqnili axalbedebi. amdenad, isinic iZulebulni xdebian sabazro ekonomikis, masis gemovnebis dakveTiT Segnebuli kompromisi dauSvan an datovon samSoblo da sazRvargareT eZebon damkvidrebisa da gadarCenis saSualebani. problema ase gamoixateba, xdeba popularulis da ara profesionaluris Zieba. udides atributs,Ffinansur safuZvelTan erTad, romelsac mxatvari saWiroebs, warmoadgens Tavdajerebuloba, sakuTari saqmianobisadmi rwmena da imis codna, rom saukeTeso fromouSeni eyrdnoba kargad, sifrTxiliT dagegmil, xangrZliv programas, romelic keTilsindisier koleqcionerebTan perspeqtiul TanamSromlobas daeyrdnoba. dResdReobiT arsebobs axali teqnologiebi, romlebic exmarebian mxatvrebs maTi Semoqmedebis fromouSenSi. DVD diskebi efeqturad warmoadgens mxatvris naSroms da SesaZloa gamoyenebuli iqnas gamofenis Casawerad, sxva namuSevrebTan SedarebisTvis an sxva miznebisTvis.Ees xarjT-efeqturi saSualebaa mxatvrisa da misi SemoqmedebiTi studiis (saxelosnos) warsadgenad, mxatvris muSaobis procesis Casawerad da gansakuTrebul namuSevrebze misi uflebamosilebis dasamtkiceblad. DVD mSvenivrad exmareba fromouSens, vinaidan mayureblis interessa da yuradRebas i pyrobs.Aaseve ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom did manZilze komunikaciis dasamyareblad faqsi da interneti sakmaod mosaxerxebelia. sabednierod, es axali teqnologiebi, saSualebas aZlevs erTnairad moazrovne mxatvrebs moawyon mniSvnelovani gamofenebi, katalogebSi Seitanon TavianTi namuSevrebi da daamyaron individualuri kontaqtebi. im SemTxvevaSi Tu mxatvari ikisrebs sakuTari bazris Seqmnis pasuxismgeblobas da sakuTari namuSevrebis gayidvas, is SeinarCunebs sacalo fasis dileris wils. miuxedavad imisa, rom samxatvro bazari uxvadaa Sevsebuli da konkurencia sakmaod maRalia, namuSevrebis gayidva dauRalavi mcdelobis Sedegad mainc SesaZlebelia.

yovelive zemoTqmuli ar gamoricxavs imis aucileblobas, rom gairRves saqarTveloSi arsebuli vakuumi da civilizebuli qveynebis Sesabamisad, Seiqmnas samxatvro galereebis sistemuri qseli, romelTa meSveobiTac mudmivi kontaqti damyardeba msoflio bazarze cnobil galereebTan.Ees SesaZleblobas miscems qarTvel mxatvrebs, rom maTi Semoqmedeba mudmivi yuradRebis sagnad iqces cnobili ucxoeli kuratorebisa da dilerebisTvis.Aamis gareSe evropisa da amerikis seriozul samxatvro galereaSi moxvedra (mcire gamonaklisis garda) TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, sasurveli iqneboda, am procesSi saxviTi xelovnebis menejerebis CarTva, vinaidan isini kargad arian gaTviTcnobierebulni marketingze orientirebul industriaSi, romelic komerciaze fokusirebasa da alRos moiTxovs, mxatvrobis interesebis gaTvaliswinebasTan erTad. magram rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, materialuri problema am mxrivac seriozul bariers warmoadgens. ganxilul problemaTa gaazreba da maTi gadawyvetis gzebis Zieba, upirvelesad, xelovnebis saxelmwifoebrivi zrunvis sagnad qcevis aucileblobas gvkarnaxobs.Mmeti yuradRebis gamaxvilebas, axali programebis Sedgenas da maTi SeTavazebis aucileblobas kultur is saministroeb isa d a T avad T eatrebis administraciuli xelmZRvanelebis erToblivi ZalisxmeviT. uamravi festivali, SemoqmedebiTi gacvliTi programa, kulturis bazroba udaod saintereso nabijia adamianis dehumanizaciis, sulieri dakninebis procesis SesaCereblad. magram calkeuli RonisZiebebi ar kmara kacobriobis uZvelesi kulturis gadarCenisTvis, romlis erT-erTi pirveli asaxvis forma Teatria. Teatris yuradReba unda mieqces profesional menejerTa mowvevas, Tavis mxriv ki maT kompetenciaSi Sedis mayurebelTa mozidvis formebis Secvla, maTi survilebis mxedvelobaSi miRebiT. amisTvis ki SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnes kiTxvarebi, romlebic gamoikvleven Tanamedrove mayureblis interesebs da amis mixedviT Seadgenen repertuars da a. S. magram TeatrisTvis am SemTxvevaSic saWiroa damatebiTi finansebi da kritikuli midgoma miRebuli informaciisadmi.

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finansuri mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad SesaZlebelia saabonento sistemis SemoReba, rac erTnairad xelsayreli iqneba rogorc mayureblisTvis, romelic fasdaklebiT SeZlebs warmodgenebze daswrebas, ise TeatrebisTvis, romlebic erTianad aiReben did Tanxas. es forma aprobirebulia evropis qveynebSi da sakmao popularobiT sargeblobs, radgan maTTvis premieraze daswreba gacilebiT Zvirad Rirebuli siamovnebaa vidre, winaswar abonementis SeZena, romelic am gziT uzrunvelyofs premierebze daswrebas. sasurveli iqneba qarTuliUkulturis xSiri monawileoba saerTaSoriso konkursebsa da sxva RonisZiebebSi misi popularizaciis mizniT. vinaidan Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi arsebuli statikuri garemo da ekonomikuri krizisi safrTxes uqmnis kulturuli organizaciebisa da zogadad xelovnebisa da kulturis arsebobas, aucilebelia Seicvalos mTeli sistema, SemuSavdes kulturisa da xelovnebis daxmarebis saxelmwifo politika, maRal doneze ganxorcieldes xelovnebis menejmenti da marketingi.

nino xuciSvili magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - prof. iuri mRebriSvili inter net teqnologiebi marketingSi globaluri informaciul-komunikaciuri teqnologiebis ganviTarebis p rocesebi Zalian dinamikuria, da misi SesaZleblobebi masStaburad viTardeba. Tu aTiode wlis win sityva interneti yvelasaTvis ucxo iyo, axla is erT-erTi ZiriTadi saSualebaa saWiro informaciis misaRebad. Znelia moiZebnos romelime kompania anda organizacia, romelic ar aris warmodgenili globalur qselSi, radgan xSir SemTxvevaSi is erTaderTi saSualebaa momxmarebelTan urTierTobisaTvis. internetnis gamoyenebam marketingul saqmianobaSi SeiZleba didi mogeba da ekonomia moutanos kompanias. es dakavSirebulia internetis moxmarebis moqnilobasa da komfortulobasTan, romelic ara marto kompaniis/organizaciisaTvis aris moxerxebuli, aramed momxmareblisTvisac. maSasadame internetis roli marketingSi dRiTidRe izrdeba. marketingis miznebi kulturaSi orientirebulia pirvel rigSi auditoriis Seswavlaze da gazrdaze, produqtis popularizaciaze. internet-teqnologiebi ki ayalibebs axal, aqtualur da xSir SemTxvevaSi martiv gzebs marketinguli saqmianobisaTvis. interneti unikalur maxasiaTeblebs flobs tradiciuli marketinguli instrumentebisgan gansxvavebiT. erT-erTi misi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba, informaciis swrafi miwodeba da ganmtkicebaa. marketingSi internet-teqnologiebis gamoyenebis dadebiTi mxareebia: _ moxerxebuloba ­ momxmarebels SeuZlia 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi gaecnos informacias kompaniis an mis mier warmoebuli produqtis Sesaxeb. informacia ­ momxmarebels SeuZlia SedarebiTi informaciis moZieba.

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siswrafe ­ momxmarebels SeuZlia swrafad SeukveTos da SeiZinos produqcia an momsaxureoba. konfidencialuroba ­ momxmarebels SeuZlia inkognitod imoqmedos. meore mxriv, marketingSi momuSaveTac aqvT garkveuli upiratesobebi: sabazro pirobebTan swrafi morgeba ­ menejers SeuZlia Secvalos produqti, fasi da a. S. naklebi xarjebi ­ reklama internetSi bevrad iafia, vidre masobrivi informaciis gavrcelebis saSualebebSi. urTierTobis mowyoba ­ marketingis menejerebs aqvT ufro meti urTierToba momxmarebelTan ­ iReben, aanalizeben maT SekiTxvebs, SemoTavazebebs da SeniSvnebs. auditoriis moxveWa ­ marketingis menejerebi ikvleven momxmarebels da swavloben samizne auditorias. agreTve organizacia iRebs garkveul upiratesobebs: momxmareblis zrda ­ kompania miznad axali bazris/ momxmareblis segmentacias isaxavs. yuradRebis mi pyroba ­ kompania/organizacia miiswrafis momxmareblis gafarToebisaken da maTi yuradRebis mipyrobisaken. reagirebis donis zrda ­ kompania/organizacia cdilobs mudmivad upasuxos momxmareblis moTxovnebs. axali momsaxurebebi (`servisebi~) _ kompania/organizacia momxmarebels sTavazobs siaxleebis internetis saSualebebiT. ra Tqma unda, marketingSi internet-teqnologiebis gamoyenebas Tvisobrivi naklovanebebic gaaCnia. rogorc wesi, momxmareblis da kompaniis urTierToba orive mxrisaTvis momgebiani unda iyos. magram, yovelTvis ase ar xdeba. magaliTad, marketinguli kvlevebi xSirad warmoebs internetis saSualebiT e-mail-is gamoyenebiT, da es momxmarebeli aRiqvas rogorc mis pirad cxovrebaSi SeWras. internet-reklama sareklamo saqmianobas sul sxva mimarTulebas aZlevs: internetis saSualebiT SeiZleba realur droSi ganaTavso nebismieri informacia kompaniis an produqtis Sesaxeb, romlebic miznobriv auditoriazea gaTvlili. reklamis erT-erTi xerxia informaciis ganTavseba webgverdze. es xdeba banerebis, eleqtronuli werilebis da a. S.

saSualebiT. sxvadasxva instrumentebis gamoyeneba xdeba organizaciis mier amorCeuli sareklamo amocanebis Sesrulebis mixedviT. web-gverdis Seqmnisas pirvel rigSi kompaniis moTxovnebi unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli. web-gverdze srulyofili informacia unda iyos kompaniis da misi produqtis an momsaxurebis Sesaxeb. momxmarebeli an partniorebi web-gverds ukavSireben TavianT moTxovnebs: igi 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi xelmisawvdomi unda iyos, raTa SeeZloT yovelTvis dakavSireba. internetis meSveobiT momxmarebeli cdilobs pirdapiri dialogi hqondes produqtis mwarmoebel kompaniasTan. rogorc ki kompania xsnis Tavis web-gverds amave dros unda ayalibebdes momxmarebelTa mxardaWeris eleqtronul centrs. momxmarebeli Tvlis, rom kompania valdebulia nebismier warmoqmnil kiTxvaze pasuxi dauyonebliv gaeces da SeuZlia nebismieri problemis warmoqmnisas mimarTos kompanias. aucilebelia gaviTvaliswinoT web-gverdis sanavigacio da saZiebo sistemebi, isini moxerxebuli unda iyos. webgverdis gaformeba unda eyrdnobodes kompaniis logos da standartebs. sanam sareklamo kapmanias wamoiwyebs kompania, aucilebelia dasruldes web-gverdis Seqmna da miRweul iqnas srulyofili funqcionireba. web-gverdis Seqmnis Semdgom etapze unda gaviTvaliswinoT misi saerTo saZiebo sistemebSi moxvedra, aseve unda moxdes partnior kompaniebTan SeTanxmeba maT web-gverdebze kompaniis gverdis bmulis moxvedra. amave dros SeiZleba informacia web-gverdis Sesaxeb ganTavsdes sxva tradiciul sainformacio wyaroebis saSualebebSi (gazeTi, Jurnali, radio da a. S.). aqedan gamomdinare web-gverdis sareklamo kampania internetis momxmarebelTaTvis Semdeg RonisZiebebs unda Seicavdes: saZiebo sistemebSi misi registracia da ufaso bmulebis web-katalogebSi, bmulebis sxva serverebze da fasiani reklamebis sxva popularul web-gverdebze ganTavseba. sazogadoebasTan urTierToba ­ mimarTulia sazogadoebasTan urTierTobisaken, romelic aucilebelia kompaniis mimarT momxmareblis dadebiTi damokidebulebis CamoyalibebisaTvis. kompaniam aramarto produqtis imiji unda SeimuSavos miznobrivi

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auditoriisaTvis, aramed unda cdilobdes auditoriis gazrdas. PR daexmareba kompanias popularobis moxveWaSi, kompaniis dadebiTi imijis CamoyalibebaSi da swori sareklamo kampaniis CatarebaSi. internetSi PR kampaniis RonisZiebebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT: presrelizebi, masmediasTan mimarTva, auditoriasTan mimarTva konferenciebis saSualebiT. dResdReobiT interneti aris saukeTeso saSualeba marketinguli kvlevebis Casatareblad, romelic saSualebas iZleva informacia operatiulad iqnes mopovebuli da amiT ufro didi auditoria moicvas. aseTi gamokiTxvebi aucilebelia biznesis ganviTarebis strategiis gasaviTareblad da bazris cvlilebebTan swrafi adaptireba, agreTve sareklamo kampaniis dagegmarebasTan. internetis meSveobiT marketinguli kvlevebis CatarebiT SeiZleba movi povoT bazris kvlevebis Sedegebi ara marto Cven, aramed _ sxva qveynebSi, kompaniis warmoebuli produqtis Rirebuleba msoflioSi, moiZios nebismieri alternatiuli produqtis, momsaxurebis da maTi mwarmoebeli kompaniebis Sesaxeb informacia. agreTve SeiZleba moxdes partniori kompaniebis moZieba. kompaniis saqmianobis warmoeba SeuZlebelia auditoriis/ momxmareblis moTxovnebis uwyveti kontrolis gareSe, romelic mudmivad izrdeba da viTardeba. menejerebma aucilebelia moi povon aucilebeli informacia. agreTve interneti aris efeqturi saSualeba reklamis warmodgenisaTvis. erTi mxriv, es dakavSirebulia sareklamo obieqtze informaciis maqsimaluri raodenobiT miwodebasTan, meore mxriv, saukeTeso saSualebaa auditoriisaTvis saWiro informaciis miwodeba sxvadasxva saxiT ­ teqstis, grafikis, xmis, video gamosaxulebebis saSualebiT. da kidev momxmarebels internetis specifikidan gamomdinare SeuZlia TviTon akontrolos da amoirCios informaciis mopoveba, amasTan momxmarebeli erTveba sareklamo obieqtis kargad Seswavlis procesSi. interneti, rogorc sareklamo instrumenti gansxvavdeba tradiciuli reklamis gavrcelebis saSualebebisgan. reklamis

saxeebi gansxvavdeba kompaniis miznebisa da amocanebis mixedviT. gamoiyofa reklamis ori ZiriTadi saxeoba: saimijo da mastimulirebeli reklama. saimijo reklama kompaniis dadebiTi saxis SeqmnisTvisaa gankuTvnili, xolo mastimulirebeli reklama ufro gavrcelebulia. misi ZiriTad mizans moTxovnebis stimulirebaa. orive saxis reklama unda gaTvaliswinebul iqnas web-gverdis Seqmnisas. dRevandel dRes internetSi didi raodenobis informaciaa warmodgenili, maT Soris romelime organizaciaze, sxvadasxva analitikuri da finansuri informacia, politikis da ekonomikis siaxleni da uamravi sxva. organizaciaTa umravlesobas, miuxedavad mimarTulebebisa, aqvs Tavisi warmomadgenloba internetSi (web-gverdi), sadac kompaniis moRvaweobis, SeT avaz ebeb is, moTxovnileb ebis Sesaxeb informaciaa warmodgenili. aqedan gamomdinare internetiT warmoebuli kvleva saukeTeso gzas warmoadgens. sxva kvlevebisgan gansxvavebiT aseTi saxiT Catarebuli kvleva saSualebas iZleva sasurveli informacia sakmaod operatiulad da didi moculobiT SeiTvisos organizaciam. es aseve aucilebelia kompaniis saqmis warmoebis strategiis ganviTarebisaTvis, bazris cvlilebebze swrafi reagirebisa da sareklamo saqmianobis warmoebisaTvis. interneti ­ marketingis mxolod erT-erTi iaraRia, anu, kidev erTi marketinguli arxi organizaciis saerTo marketingul kompleqsSi. internetis momxmarebelTa raodenoba ukve zogadad masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs (masmediis) auditorias utoldeba, amitom aucilebelia ganvsazRvroT marketinguli strategiis ganviTarebisas, aris Tu ara internetis momxmarebeli Cveni mTliani auditoriis garkveuli nawili da ramdenad advilia momxmarebelTa internetis meSveobiT mozidva. interneti Zalian did gavlenas axdens msoflioSi informaciis gavrcelebaze. rogorc socialuri movlena ­ interneti ­ globaluri sakomunikacio saSualebaa, romelic uzrunvelyofs teqsturi, grafikuli, audio Tu video informaciis gacvlas da xelmisawvdomobas teritoriuli Tu nacionaluri sazRvrebis gareSe. es aris kvlevis efeqturi instrumenti, romelic xels uwyobs vaWrobis da biznesis

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auditoriasTan urTierTobas. internetis ganviTrebasTan erTad swrafad icvleba mmarTvelobiTi midgoma biznessa da marketingSi, romelic misi erT-erTi nawilia.

sadoqtoro programa

kulturis politika da kulturis menejmenti

1. m. dragiCeviC-SeSiCi, branimir stoikoviCi, `kultura menejmenti animacia, marketingi~, Tbilisi, 2007. 2. n. imnaiSvili, `kulturuli momsaxurebis sistemis menejmenti da marketingi~, gamomcemloba `xelovneba~ Tbilisi, 2005. 3. Allan Banks, `Clarion Call", Vol I, Issue I, Copyright 1994 by the Classical Realism Journal.

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nino az maifaraSvili doqturanturis I kursi xelmZRvanelebi - prof. iuri mRebriSvili, prof. levan xeTaguri menejmentis roliMkulturis globalizaciis procesebSi 1.Gglobalizacia ­ movlena. globalizaciis gageba, rogorc movlenis, kacobriobis ganviTarebis Tanamdev procesebTan erTad, adreuli xanidan iwyebs Tavisi niSnebis gamovlenas. es procesi ar viTardeba SemTxveviT da spontanurad. globalizacia xangrZlivi drois istoriuli procesebis Sedegia, ganviTarebis tempebis zrdisa da Semcirebis monacvleobiT, romelic Tan sdevs samecniero _ teqnikur progress. Cvens epoqaSi globalizaciis istoriuli procesi iRebs swrafad mimdinare xasiaTs da TiTqmis zvavs emsgavseba, romelic walekviT emuqreba imas, rasac Tavis stiqiaSi moaqcevs da erT mTlianobaSi aerTianebs yvelafers.Ees bevri obieqturi mizeziT SeiZleba aixsnas. maT Soris erT-erTi mizezi samecniero-teqnikuri progresis swrafi tempiT ganviTarebaa. mecnierebis da teq nikis gaumjobeseba, rac aseve komunikaciebis swraf ganviTarebasac iwvevs, adamianTa jgufebs Soris integrirebis procesebs aCqarebs. es migraciul denadobas uwyobs xels, romelic am jgufisTvis damaxasiaTebeli sxvadasxva wes-Cveulebebis, kulturis, cxovrebis wesis da sxva elementebis gadamtania. amitom mecnierebis ganviTareba globalizaciuri procesebis dawyebis erT-erTi winapirobaa. adre istoriulad, samxedro pirebi, vaWrebi, qveynebis meTaurebi, saxelmwifo moRvaweebi da imperatorebi Tu monarqebi cvlidnen im periodis globalur politikas. dRes komunikaciis, transportirebis da kompiuteruli teqnologiebis uprecendento ganviTarebam procesebs axali stimuli misca. globaluri mobiluri kapitali reorganizebas axdens, rac, Tavis mxriv, asustebs nacionalur politikas. Cndeba axali bazrebi da

simdidre.Ees niSnebi SeimCneva globalizaciis mTavar gansakuTrebulobebad. globaluri procesebi TiTqmis yovelTvis mimdinareobda, Tumca sxvadasxvaDtempiTa da xarisxiT. dRes Tanamedrove msoflioSi tempebi maqsimums uaxlovdeba, romlis xarisxis dadgena da Seswavla mudmivi procesia. ismis kiTxva: momavalSi rogor Seicvleba msoflio politika da rogor imoqmedeben globaluri organizaciebi? 1.1 civilizaciuri gansakuT reb ulobeb i da winaaRmdegob ebi. XX saukunis bolos globalizaciis procesebis gaRrmavebasTan dakavSirebiT wina planze wamovidnen civilizaciuri gansakuTrebulobebi da winaaRmdegobebi. erTi civilizaciis ganviTareba sxva ramdenime cikliT SeiZleba aRiniSnos. zogierTi civilizacia SeiZleba arsebobdes mTeli istoriuli periodis aRmavlobisa da daRmavlobis monacvleobiT. msoflio civilizaciebis Senacvleba da modificireba lokaluri civilizaciis dinamikaSi xdeba. erT-erTi _ xdeba lideri, meore _ kargavs liderobas, mesame _ msoflio progresis axlo, an SesaZloa, Soreul periferiaSic ki aRmoCndes. civilizaciaTa Soris urTierTobebi, maTi dajaxebis xelSeSlis aucilebloba da SesaZlebloba da maTi gadasvla partniorobaSi XXI saukunis mTavari problema xdeba.1 civilizaciis momavlisa da misi urT ierTqmedebis perspeqtivebis prognozirebisas zogierTi avtori globalizaciis tendenciebs sxvadasxva demografiul, ekologiur, teqnologiur, ekonomiur, geopolitikur da socio-kulturul Sreebze gamoyofs. isini urTierTdakavSirebulia da civilizaciis ganviTarebis erTian monoliTs warmoadgenen, magram erTdroulad TiToeuli am formatidan warmoadgens damoukidebel sistemas, romlis ganviTarebazec damokidebulia Tavad civilizaciis ganviTarebis bedi. 1.2 globalizacia. ori pozicia. globalizaciis winapirobebi TandaTanobiT yalibdeboda didi aRmoCenebisa da modernizaciis Sedegad, romelsac Zvrebi moyveboda.

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arseb obs o ri Zi r iT ad i p o z i c ia glob aliz aciis qronologiur CarCoebTan mimarTebaSi, mkvlevarTa nawili ixreba iqiTken, rom globalizacia es bolo aswleulebis maRali teqnologiebis gamoyenebisa, danergvis da farTe ganviTarebis Sedegia, romelic Tavis TavSi gulisxmobs iseT problemebs, rogoricaa: globalizaciis buneba, globaluri sainformacio sivrce, teqnosferos globalizacia, globaluri ekologia, ekonomikis globalizacia, globaluri usafrTxoeba, glubaluri uTanabroba da sabazro globalizaciis sxva gamovlinebebi. gansxvavebulia antropoistoriuli midgoma, is piriqiT _ globalizaciis dawyebas miakuTvnebs dasavleT evropuli civilizaciis dasawyiss. globalizacia aris dominirebadi tendencia Tanamedrove msoflios ganviTarebisa, magram is guSin ar gaCenila, vTqvaT, internetis _ mikroeleqtronikis an kib er, nano an bioteqnologiis gaCenisas, radgan isini aris eleqtronuli an sxva teqnikis etapobrivi da aseve axali rTuli teqnologiuri procesebis Tanamimdevruli ganviTarebis Sedegi. globalizacia, ufro swored misi Sinagani logika, Seicavs or urTierTgamomricxav tendencias.Gglobalizacia SeiZleba gaCndes samecniero codnis diferenciaciis procesebis dros da Tavis TavSi atarebdes missave integraciis SesaZleblobas. aseTi dialeqtika _ ori logikuri urTierTsawinaaRmdego postulatis erTianoba globalizaciis process universalur xasiaTs aniWebs.2 2. konkurencia globalizaciis dros. globaluri procesebis ganviTareba pirvel yovlisa politikuri mdgomareobisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis speqtriT xasiaTdeba, romelic erTmaneTzea damokidebuli. globalizacia Tavisi gavleniT sxvadasxva procesebs upirispirdeba. glob aluri konkurenciis fonze sicocxlisunarianobis SenarCuneba erT-erT mTavar problemas warmoadgens, romlis fonzec Tavs iCens urTierT konkurencia. 2.1 mravalerovnuli konkurencia globaluri konkurenciis winaaRmdeg. mravalerovnuli konkurencia ganixileba rogorc sxvadasxva qveynebis kompaniebs Soris metoqeoba. Tumca konkurencia

erovnul bazrebze ar aris damokidebuli sxva qveynebis bazrebis konkurenciaze. iwyeba saxelmwifoebs Soris bazrebis gaerTianebis procesi da erTi qveynis bazari meore qveynis bazarze damokidebuli xdeba. sinamdvileSi industria aRiqmeba, rogorc erTi didi saxelmwifos bazrad, romelic garkveul segmentebad iyofa. erTiandeba, momxmarebelTa interesebi kompaniebs yovelgvari SezRudvebis gareSe SeuZliaT awarmoon produqciis eqsporti, sxva qveyanaSi ganaTavson warmoeba, Seisyidon ucxo kompaniebi, sxva saxelmwifos faqtorebi, maT Soris samuSao Zala. aseve momxmarebels aqvs saSualeba yovelgvari sabaJo procedurebis gverdis avliT imgzavros nebismier qveyanaSi da Seisyidos sasurveli produqcia. yalibdeba erTgvari saerTaSoriso bazari da bazrebis erovnul da ucxour regionebad dayofa azrs kargavs, radgan warmateba erovnul bazarze iZleva pirobiTad sxva qveynebis bazrebze warmatebis garantias. kompaniis sabazro wili ganisazRvreba mTlianobaSi saerTaSoriso bazris mixedviT. am dros amboben, rom kompaniebi CarTuli arian globalur konkurenciaSi. globalur konkurencias aseve xvdebiT iq, sadac sxvadasxva qveynis momxmarebelTa moTxovnebi erTnairia. globaluri konkurencia iZleva dinamikur efeqts. kerZod, bazrebis gaerTianeba gulisxmobs met momxmarebels, auTvisebel, axal, mimzidvel sabazro segmentebs. rac ubiZgebs realizaciis meti masStabebisken, es zrdis kompaniebis mogebas dinamikaSi. saboloo jamSi, TiToeuli qveynis mixedviT miiRweva sazogadoebrivi keTildReoba. globalizaciis Sedegi aris is, rom integraciuli regionis SigniT nebismier moqalaqes SeuZlia sxva qveyanaSi ganaTlebis uproblemod miReba, ucxouri satelevizio arxebis yureba, informaciis miReba, internetiT sargebloba da a. S. globaluri konkurenciis bazrebs warmoadgens qveynebs Soris integrirebuli Semdegi regionebi: evrokavSiri, CrdiloeT amerikis Tavisufali savaWro asociacia (NAFTA), samxreT aziis (ASEAN), laTinuri da centraluri amerikis, karibis zRvis auzis qveynebis kavSiri da sxva.

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2.1.1. mravalerovnuli Tu globaluri strategia. mravalerovnuli strategiis Sinaarsi is aris, rom qveynebs Soris kulturuli, socialuri, ekonomikuri da sabazro mdgomareoba gansxvavebulia. rac ufro mZafria gansxvaveba, miT ufro meti aucilebloba arsebobs, rom kompaniaTa strategiebis misadageba moxdes sxvadasxva erovnebebis sabazro situaciasTan. am SemTxvevaSi, mravalerovnuli strategia es aris sxvadasxva qveynebSi SemuSavebuli strategiebis jami. globaluri strategiebi kargad ergeba globaluri konkurenciis situacias. globaluri strategia umravles SemTxvevaSi erTi da igivea yvela qveyanaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifoebis bazrebs Soris mciredi gansxvavebebi mainc arsebobs, kompaniis fundamentaluri strategia ar icvleba. ufro metic, globaluri strategia iTvaliswinebs: 1). strategiuli svlebis integrirebasa da koordinirebas; 2). produqciis realizacias yvela im qveyanaSi, sadac arsebobs moTxovna. saerTaSoriso bazrebze rogori xasiaTis konkurencias awydebian firmebi da romeli strategia aris ufro mniSvnelovani? mravalerovnuli strategiis upiratesoba: rom igi yvelaze ukeTesad usadagebs strategias maspinZeli qveynis industriis situaciasTan. aseTi strategiis warmoeba aucilebelia, rodesac arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi samomxmareblo moTxovnebsa da realizaciis wesebSi, rodesac momxmarebeli karnaxobs specifikuri standartizebuli produqciis warmoebas; mravalerovnul strategiis uaryofiTi mxareebi: strategiebs Soris koordinaciis xarisxi aris Zalze dabali, rac metad arTulebs konkurentuli upiratesobis mopovebas industriaSi. globaluri strategia: am SemTxvevaSi ki piriqiT, aseTi koordinaciis xarisxi Zalze maRalia, rac kompaniebs maT Zlier mxareebze maqsimaluri

koncentrirebis saSualebas aZlevs. es ki konkurentuli upiratesobis mopovebis mTavari faqtoria, rogorc maspinZeli kompaniebis, aseve saerTaSoriso korporaciebs Soris. rodesac qveynebs Soris gansxvavebebi ar aris sagrZnobi, globalur strategias konkurenti ar hyavs.3 3. kulturis globalizacia - movlena ekonomikuri aqtiurobis globalizacias Tan axlavs transformaciaTa talRebi kulturis sferoSi procesiT, romelsac ewodeba `kulturis globalizacia~. masTan ZiriTadad xdeba kulturis simboloebis fabrikacia, rac ukve karga xania SeimCneva. sazogadoebrivi mecnierebis zogierTma warmomadgenelma ukve am gamovlinebaze Tavisi azri gamoxata, rasac globaluri kulturis konvergencia _ sakvanZo sityva _ `makdonaldizacia~ daarqva. cxovrebis stilis unifikaciis, kulturis simboloebis da qcevis transnacionaluri normebis TvalsazrisiT ki ufro da ufro gzas ikvlevs universalizacia. msoflio bazarze TandaTan xdeba saboloo niSebis aTviseba, Cndeba axali sivrce, magram ara rogorc mravalferovnebis TviTgamoxatvis aRiareba, anu, Cndeba erTiani samomxmareblo sivrce, sadac lokaluri kulturebi da identurobebi kargaven fesvebs da multinacionaluri koncernebis reklamisa da saimijo dizainidan amoRebuli msoflio produqciiT Cainacvlebian. TandaTanobiT yofiToba xdeba dizaini. koncernebi, romlebic fabrikaciaSi universaluri kulturuli simboloebis mbrZaneblobas aRweven, Taviseburad iyeneben informaciuli teqnologiebis ukidegano sivrces. xelovnuri Tanamgzavrebi saSualebas iZlevian gadailaxos yvela nacionaluri da klasobrivi sazRvrebi da aRweven planetis yovel wertilSi. danarCens ki ekonomikuri aqtivobas logika asrulebs. globalizacias, gagebuls, rogorc ekonomiur movlenas, minimumamde dahyavs gasavlebi da maqsimalurad zrdis mogebas. CNN-is diqtori rodesac acxadebs, rom `ekonomikuri globalizaciis Sedegad mimdinareobs kulturuli da socialuri revolucia~, amis mosmenas amerikeli adamiani iseve

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aRiqvams, rogorc tokios moqalaqe.Ees niSnavs, rom is rasac vakeTebT amerikaSi da amerikisaTvis gaaCnia Zala yvelgan, mTels msoflioSi. `Cveni axali ambebi _ es globaluri axali ambebia~.4 sainformacio saSualebebi erT saerTo globalur sivrces qmnian, sadac informacia da miTumetes Top-news elvis siswrafiT vrceldeba da msoflio `garemoculi~ xdeba erTi movleniT.Aadamianebi azrovnebas iwyeben erTi movlenis irgvliv, Tumca maTi midgoma mis mimarT SeiZleba iyos radikaluradac ki gansxvavebuli. 3. 1 . l o k a l u r i k u l t u r e b i d a globaluri `momxmarebluri~ kultura. teqnologiam dRes globaluri kulturis SesaZlebloba da aucilebloba Seqmna. interneti, satelitebi da sakabelo televizia kulturul sazRvrebs scildebian.Gglobaluri gasarTobi kompaniebi aerTianeben Cveulebrivi adamianebis ocnebasa da aRqmas, sadac ar unda cxovrobdnen isini.Ffaseulobebis, normebis da kulturis gavrceleba kapitalizmis dasavluri idealebis gavrcelebis tendenciebis matarebelia. SesaZloa lokaluri kulturebi am globaluri `momxmarebluri~ kulturis msxverplni gaxdnen. SesaZloa inglisurma enam gaanadgurebs sxva enebi. savaraudoa, rom momxmareblis Rireb ulebeb ma socialuri solidarobis da xalxT a Tanamegobrobis azri daakninon anda piriqiT moxdes, saerTo kulturam did danawevrebuli faseulobebis da politikuri erTianobis gaZRola SeZlos. 3.2. civilizacia da kultura globalizaciis fonze. teqnosferos dominirebas da periferiuli civilizaciis Seviwrovebas Tan sdevs misi damaxasiaTebeli elementebis gafarToeba da kulturis simboluri fenis SemWidroveba. rac Tavis mxriv, ganixileba rogorc, zogadad, kulturis gadagvareba, risi miz ez ic kulturis misterialuri Tanmimdevrobebis milevadobaa.Kkultura _ es mxolod saxelovnebo moRvaweobis suli ki ar aris,Ees Zaladobis saxeoba da Zalaa, xolo civilizacia adamianis mxolod

materialuri mowyoba ar aris, es WeSmariti mocemulobebis xelovnuriT Canacvlebaa.5 3.2.1. kulturebis gansxvavebuloba. quape da jiovana kantatoresebi statiaSi:K`kulturebis gansxvavebuloba~ ganixilaven kulturebis gansxvavebulobebis dinamikas dRevandel samuSao pirobebSi. isini amtkiceben, rom mosaxleobis demografiuli cvlilebebi da globalizacia kulturis menejmentis aucileblobas ganapirobebs. isini ga nm ar ta ve n, r om k ul tu reb is g an sx va ve b u lo b e b T an SesaZlebelia mosdes identificireba, imarTos is da sargebeli iqnas amoRebuli.Dase rom, kulturebis gansxvavebulobebis menejmenti aris ganuyofeli nawili im samuSaosi, romelsac asrulebs kulturis politikisa da menejmentze momuSave organizacia. Cven vcxovrobT globalur sivrceSi, sadac menejerebs SeuZliaT ufro swrafad gadaadgildnen, imogzauron d a g aa v r c e l o n i n f o r m ac i a k u l t ur i s p r o du q t i s Sesaxeb.Ffizikuri siaxlovis Semcirebam Cven ufro Cagvaxeda sxvaTa kulturebSi da kulturebis gansxvavebuloba ufro naTlad dagvanaxa. dRes adamians qveynisa da sakuTari saxlis datovebis gareSe SeuZlia miiRos informacia kulturuli produqtis arsebobis, daniSnulebis da fasis Sesaxeb. SesaZlebloba aris imuSavo ucxouri organizaciisaTvis, urTierToba gqondes partniorebTan sxvadasxva enaze an sazRvargareT gaiyidos produqti sxva qveynis klientebze. aseTi saSualebiT kulturebis dakavSireba ufro advilad xdeba. 6A SeiZleba moviyvanoT magaliTi imisa, sadac sxva specifikiT xdeba globaluri elementebis warmoCineba. magaliTad, kulturis bienaleebi da bazrobebi, sadac erTdroulad ganTavsebulia xvadasxva qveynis, sazogadoebrivi jgufebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kulturebi, aseTi globaluri saxis gamofenebs xSirad erTi mTavari koncefcia an idea aerTianebs, magram TiToeuli kultura warmodgenilia gansxvavebuli saxiT, formebiTa da midgomiT.Aaq ukve erT adgilze iyris Tavs kulturuli gansxvavebulobebi. iqneba kulturebis gansxvavebuloba daxmarebis Tu xelis SeSlis faqtori globaluri sivrcis Seswavlis procesebSi?

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es ufro da ufro ZiriTadi sakvanZo sakiTxi xdeba garemomcvel samyaroSi. 3.2.2. multikulturuli saz ogadoeba. ame rikul i sa z ogad oeb a agrZ eleb s gaxd es u fro maltikulturuli Tavisive sazRvrebis farglebSi. adamianebi axla eyrdnobian im azrs, rom axlo momavalSi qveynis sxvadasxva sferoSi `umciresobebi~, faqtobrivad, `umravlesobebi~ gaxdebian. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis Sromis saministros monacemebiT, afrikelebis, azielebis da espanurad molaparake amerikelebis ricxvi 7,6%-s Seadgenda 50 wlis win, 2000 wels es ricxvi TiTqmis gaormagda da 16% miaRwia. globalizaciis Sedegad samuSao Zala aseve gaxda sxvadasxva kulturis Semadgeneli nawili. kompaniebi strategiuli kavSirebis gamoyenebiT aerTianeben mTeli msoflios firmebisa da jgufebs kompaniaTa Serwymisa da Sesyidvis Sedegad.Oorganizaciebi aerTianeben samuSao personals da jgufebs, sadac sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgeneli adamianebi muSaoben da maT unda SeeTvison da gaugon erTmaneTs, rasac yoveldRiuri intermedia da sxvadasxva qveyanaSi muSaobis aucilebloba ganapirobebs. kulturuli mravalferovnebis gacnobiereba, iseve rogorc kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobebis efeqturi gacvla, aucilebloba xdeba, Tu Cven gvinda konkurencia gavwioT globalur bazarze. 3.2.3. sainformacio infrastruqturebi. cifruli meTodebis miRwevebis gamoyenebam msoflio sakomunikacio momsaxureba erT mTlianobaSi Sekra. is, upirveles yovlisa, sami teqnologiuri sferos gadakveTas uwyobs xels: kompiuteruli, satelefono da satelevizio, romlebic gaerTianebulni arian multimediasa da internetSi. sainformacio infrastruqturebma faqtobrivad kimunikaciebis siswrafis xarisxi Zalzed awia da urTierTdakavSirebis simartivem daaCqara integrirebis procesebi. 4. lokalizacia da globalizacia. kulturis globalizaciis Teoriis mama roland robertsoni, xazs usvams, rom globalizacia yovelTvis dakavSirebulia

lokalizaciasTan. naSromebi kulturis Teoriaze (cultural studies) uaryofen Caketil, ganmartoebul sazogadoebebs da maT Sesabamis kulturis sivrceebs da aRweren kulturis globalizaciis imanentarul `dialeqtikur~ process, sadac erTdroulad SeiZleba moxdes da xdeba kidec sawinaaRmdego movlenebi. mTavari Sedegi ki aseTia _ globalizacia ar aris raRac avtomaturi da calmxrivi, erTmxrivi globalizacia ­ kamaTis amouwuravi wyaroa. is, rom globalizacia gvTavazobs ara mxolod delokalizacias, aramed re-lokalizacias, es ukve ekonomikuri gaTvlebidan gamomdinareobs. `globaluri~ am sityvas Tavisi zusti gagebiT veravin warmoTqvams. swored is sferoebi, romlebic Tavis produqcias globaluri masStabebiT asaReben, iZulebulni arian ganaviTaron lokaluri kavSirebi. pirvel rigSi konkretul lokalur pirobebSi awarmoon da daxvewon produqcia, meore rigSi ki, lokaluri kulturebidan amoiRon nedleuli TavianTi globaluri simboloebisaTvis, ris xarjzec es simboloebi iqnebian cocxali, naTeli da kargad gayidvadi. sityva `globaluri~, sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, es aris `sxvadasxva adgilebSi erTdroulad~, anu translokalurad. aseTi globalur _ lokaluri urTierTdakavSireba did rols TamaSobs msxvili koncernebis gaTvlebSi. koncernebi `Coca-Cola~ da `Sony~ TavianT strategias uwodeben `globalur lokalizacias~. maTi xelmZRvanelebi da menejerebi aRniSnaven, rom globalizaciasTan dakavSirebiT saubari exeba ara imas, rom yvelgan msoflioSi aSendes fabrikebi, aramed imas, rom gaxdnen ama Tu im kulturis nawili. samewarmeo strategia, romlis mniSvneloba izrdeba praqtikuli globalizaciis dros, iwodeba `lokalizmad~. 4.1 delokalizacia da relokalizacia. delokalizaciis da relokalizaciis urTierTqmedebas albaT sxvadasxva Sedegi eqneba, amitom unda gaTvaliswinebul iqnas is, rom lokaluri kulturebi veRar gaamarTleben TavianT arsebobas danarCeni msoflios winaaRmdeg damkvidrebisa da ganaxlebisTvis.Mmokled rom vTqvaT, Tu SesaZlebeli iqneba

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globalurad ganlagdes da ganaxldes lokaluri mniSvnelobebi, moxdeba tradiciaze dayrdnobis gareSe lokalurobis renesansi. globalizacias, garkveul planSi, yvelaze xSirad urTierTdamokidebulebis intensifikaciamde mivyavarT. nacionaluri sazRvrebis globalizaciis dros unda Seiswavlos: Tu rogor ixsneba da aRiqmeba msoflios horizonti grZnobadi samyaros transkulturul da kulturis simboloTa fabrikaciaSi.Kkulturuli globalizacia Slis qveynis nacio nalurG gaig iveb as na cionalur- saxelmwifo eb riv sazogadoebasTan komunikaciis, eTnikuri kuTvnilebebis da cxovrebis transkulturuli formebis Seqmnisa da erTmaneTTan Sejaxebis gziT. eTnikurobis kuTvnilebis grZnoba, sazogadoebis ganviTarebisa da adamianTa gansaxlebasTan dakavSirebiT, sul ufro da ufro rTuldeba. SegviZlia ganvixiloT transkulturuli qorwinebis da ojaxebis magaliTze.Mmobilurobis da masobrivi gadaadgilebebis saukuneSi da ekonomikis gadajaWvis procesebSi izrdeba im adamianTa ricxvi, romlebsac Tavisi eTnikuri jgufis adgilmdebareobidan, uxdebaT sxva jgufebTan muSaoba, es sxvadasxva mizeziT xdeba (siRaribe, SimSili, ganaTlebisa da profesiis maZieblebi da cnobismoyvareoba). isini toveben sakuTar saxlebs da didi Tu mcire xniT, xandaxan ki samudamod kveTen sazRvrebs. ibadebian erT adgilze, izrdebian meoreze, qorwindebian da iyolieb en Svilebs mesame adgilz e. bikulturuli ojaxebis ricxvi izrdeba. daveyrdnoT statistikas da gaviTvaliswinoT qorwinebis aqtebi. magaliTad 1960 wels germaniis federaciul respublikaSi iyvnen gamorCeulad germanelebi da mxolod yovel 25-e qorwinebaSi registrirdebodnen ucxoelebi, 1994 wels ukve yovel me-7 qorwinebaSi erT-erTi mainc iyo ucxoeli.7 4.2 glokalizacia lokaluri da globaluri ar gamoricxavs erTmaneTs. globalizacia aseve niSnavs lokaluri kulturebis mizidvasa da Sejaxebas, ramac unda miiRos axali gansazRvreba «clash of localities» (lokalurobis Sejaxeba).

`globaluri kultura~ unda ganixilos ara statikurad, aramed rogorc SemTxveviTi da dialeqtikuri procesi (ekonomikuri mecnierebis farglebSi kapitalis Sinaganad calmxriv logikasTan SeuTavsebeli) _ `glokalizaciis~ saxiT, romelic saSualebas iZleva aRiqves da gaiSifros urTierTsakamaTo elementebi maT erTianobaSi. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba visaubroT `glokaluri~ kulturis paradoqsebze. 4.2.1. universalizmi da partikularizmi. am mizniT ar arsebobs winaaRmdegoba gaerTianebasa da institucionalurobis, simboloebis, qcevis manerebis unifikacias Soris (mag.: `makdonaldsi~, cisferi jinsebi, demokratia, informaciuli teqnologiebi, bankebi, adamianis uflebebi da a.S.) da mniSvnelobis axali xazgasmiT, axali gamogonebiT da `lokaluri kulturebis~ (islamizacia, renacionalizacia, germanuli pop-kultura, samxreTafrikuli samoTxeebi, afrikuli karnavali, havauri saqonlis Zexvi) dacviTac ki. Tu aviRebT adamianis uflebebs, praqtikulad yvela kulturebSi ikveTeba, rogorc universaluri uflebebi, da meorec isini mJRavndebian sxvadasxva saxiT konteqstidan gamomdinare.8 5. kulturis mravalferovneba da globalizacia. kultura aris yovlismomcveli da amitom Tavisi arsiT aucilebeli. is mocemul sazogadoebas an sazogadoebrivi jgufebis Tvisebebs, yofas, ganviTarebis xarisxs gansazRvravs da moiazreba imisaTvis, rom Seexos cxovrebis yvela aspeqts. is Tavisi mravalmxrivobiTa da mravalferovnebiT integrirdeba procesebSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis paralelurad da globalizaciis dros ganixileba misi SenarCuneba, transformacia, formireba da sxvadasxva riskfaqtori. erT mTlianobisaken mimavali, ganviTarebadi kulturis marTva SesaZlebelia erT sistemebSi moeqces, anda gamoinaxos struqturis gasaRebebi, romelic Sedegebis dadebiT potencialze iqneba orientirebuli. amitom kvlevebi am sferoSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs.

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5. 1 kulturis kvlevebi. xelovnebis menejerebi dRes ver uaryofen globalizaciis procesebs, romelic Cvens cxovrebaze sul ufro did zegavlenas axdens. aris saSiSroeba imis, rom globalizaciis Sedegad dasruldeba kulturis mravalferovneba da kulturis transnacionaluri korporaciebis moTxovnebis samsaxurSi myofi homogenuri erTgvarovani kulturis triumfi. kulturuli mravalferovneba muqaris qveS ivaraudeba umciresobebis jgufebis marginalizaciiTa da gaucxoebiT da evropuli gaerTianebis da gavlenis Sedegad Sesabamisobis gamonaxviT da masmediis saSualebebze globaluri gavleniT. globaluri produqcia qmnis globalur bazrebs da globaluri ideebi da ideologiebi mihyavs globaluri moxmarebisa da erToblivi adaptaciisken. globalizacia SeiZleba aRiqmebodes, rogorc kulturuli imperializmi. 5.1.2. ritceris globalizaciis ori kategoria. jorj ritceri specialisti globalizaciis sakiTxebSi akeTebs sasargeblo, mokle Sejamebas. is yofs mas or kategoriad: ekonomikuri da kulturuli, sadac mocemulia SesaZlo Sedegebi, riskebi da formirebebi kulturis ganviTarebis globalizaciis procesebis dros. kulturis TeoriebSi moiazreba: kulturuli diferencializmi (gansxvavebuloba) _ es aris bolo gansxvavebebi kulturaTa Soris, romlebic sakmaod xelSeuxeblebia bi-, inter-, multi- an transkulturul procesebisgan _ globalizacia aris mxolod zedapiruli movlena. kulturis konvergencia _ msoflioSi kulturebi ufro da ufro metad msgavsad izrdeba, globaluri msgavseba (asimilacia) dominanturi gjufeb is mimarTulebebSi; kulturuli imperializmi; vesternizacia; amerikanizacia; makdonaldizacia. kulturis narevi (hibridizacia) _ hibriduli kulturebis unikaluri produqcia.9

globalizacia aris Zala, romelic, albaT, gamoiwvevs kulturis konvergencias _ adgilobrivi gansakuTrebulobis TandaTanobiTi gaqrobas. globalizacia sxva mxriv aris sakmaod msubuqi procesi.Ees aris idea, rom lokaluri aris Casmuli globalurSi da, piriqiT. globalurobis fenomeni xdeba integrirebuli kulturul formebTan, romlebic aris namdvilad lokaluri.Kkulturis hibridizaciam, romelic aris globalizaciis erT-erTi Sedegi, SesaZloa odesme kulturis mravalferovnebamde migviyvanos. arsebobs Tu ara globaluri procesebis marTvis raime saerTo gasaRebi, romelic ganviTarebis swor gzaze daayenebs da warmoSobil procesebs marTvads gaxdis, Seasustebs gauTvaliswinebel movlenebis gavlenas da globalizaciiT gamowveul procesebSi SesaZlo arsebul efeqturobis xarisxs gazrdis. kulturebis gansxvavebulobebTan SesaZlebelia moxdes identificireba, imarTos is da sargebeli iqnas amoRebuli.Dase rom, kulturebis gansxvavebulobebis menejmentis Sedegad SesaZloa, saerTo kulturam didi danawevrebuli faseulobebis da politikuri erTianobis gaZRola SeZlos. kulturis menejmenti ar qmnis xelovnebas da kulturas, magram aZlevs Seqmnis SesaZleblobas maT.10

1. .: . ., .., XVII ­ XVIII , ., 1990. 2. , , § 1.1., , --, 2002, gv. 24-75 . 3. kavkasiis akademiuri centri, strategiuli menejmentis arsi da Seswavlis sagani, 8, strategiebi saerTaSoriso bazarze konkurenciisTvis, gv. 69-73. 4. http://www.nationalsecurity.ru/library/00057/00057global008.htm , ?

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5. , , § 3.2. , -- , 2002, 133-162. 6.http://www.culturosity.com/pdfs/Cultural%20Differences,%20Everybody's%20Business.pdf Quappe S, & Cantatore G, Cultural Differences: Not just HR's business, It's everybody's business, Can we risk the consequences of intolerance? 7. http://www.nationalsecurity.ru/library/00057/00057global009.htm12 8. http://www.nationalsecurity.ru/library/00057/00057global010.htm 9. Laycock, Jolyon. Enabling The Creators, Cultural diversity and globalization. Oxford Brookes University, 2008, 27. 10. Heinrich, Werner & Klein, Armin: Kulturmanagement von A-Z. Munchen 1996: 147.

tradiciuli xelovneba

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aleko gelaSvili magitraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - anano samsonaZe samejliso cekvebis mesveurebi saqar TveloSi (Tengiz da larisa gaCeCilaZeebi) samefo sporti ase eZaxdnen TavianT palatebSi gamarTul samejliso cekvebs ingliseli lordebi jer kidev maSin roca mdidruli etlebi da karetebi Sav, mbrwyinav frakebSi gamowyobil batonebsa da uTvalav naoWian alivlivebul kabebSi morTul qalbatonebs sacekvao darbazebisken miaqrolebdnen.1 `samejliso sportuli cekvebi~ _ es aris Tanamedrove qoreografiidan aRebuli aTi saukeTeso cekva. samejliso ­ sportuli cekvebis programa iyofa or saxeobad: maTgan xuTi evropuli cekvebis programas ganekuTvneba (`neli valsi~, `tango~, `valsi~, `foqstroti~, `kvikstepi~) da xuTi laTinur-amerikuli cekevbis programas (`samba~, `Ca-Ca-Ca~, `rumba~, `pasadobli~, `jaivi~). samejliso sportuli cekvebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi ganmasxvavebeli niSani sxva cekvebis saxeobebisgan aris is, rom aq tardeba sportuli saxis Sejibrebebi da SemoRebulia msajobis instituti. samejliso cekvebSi sportul Sejibrebebs adgili hqonda jer kidev I msoflio omamde. magram es Sejibrebebi ufro kerZo xasiaTis iyo, radgan isini ar tardeboda raime profesiuli Tu saerTaSoriso samoyvarulo organizaciebis CarCoebSi. inglisSi (am cekvebis samSoblo), germaniis federaciul respublikaSi, norvegiaSi, daniaSi, SveciaSi da sxva 1909 wlidan ukve arsebobda msoflio sportuli cekvebis federacia.2 1930 wlidan evropaSi mkvidrdeba `inglisuri stili~, riTac gamoikveTa ZiriTadi da mudmivi standarti sacekvao Sejibrebebisa da am momentidan imarTeba organizebuli saerTaSoriso Sejibrebebi. 1932 wels `germaniis moyvarulTa asociaciam~, "RPG" safuZveli Cauyara `saerTaSoriso moyvarulTa asociacias~,

qarTuli qoreografiis mkvlevari _ eTnoqoreologi

samagistro programa `qarTuli qoreografiis mkvlevari _ eTnoqoreologi~ umaRlesi skolis meore safexurze qoreografiuli xelovnebisadmi Teoriuli dainteresebis pirvel cdas warmoadgens. igi saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa im mimarTulebas miekuTvneba, romelic miznad isaxavs qoreografiuli xelovnebis, kerZod, qarTuli sacekvao folkloris istoriul-Teoriuli aspeqtebis gamokveTas da aRniSnul sakiTxTa irgvliv samecniero kvlevebis Catarebas. qarTuli tradiciuli xelovnebisadmi sayovelTao interesma da qarTuli sacekvao xelovnebis saSemsruleblo praqtikis dinamiurma ganviTarebam ganapiroba erovnuli qoreografiis mecnieruli kvlevisa da qarTuli cekvis saSemsruleblo xelovnebis profesiuli Sefaseba-analizis aucilebloba da aqtualoba. programis saswavlo komponenti ramdenime specialur disci plinas moicavs, romelTa Tematika kvlevis obieqtis istoriuli retrospeqtivis, dargis Teoriuli safuZvlebis Seswavlisa da kritikuli analizis erTobliobas warmoadgens. xolo kvleviTi komponentis p roblematika efuZvneba magistrantTa samecniero interesTa sferos, romelic, xSir SemTxvevaSi, qoreografia-qoreologiis sinTezuri bunebis gaTvaliswinebiT, interdargobrivi kvlevis saxes atarebs. samagistro programa aRzrdis qoreografiuli xelovnebis profesional mkvlevarebsa da kritikosebs, rac SemdgomSi xels Seuwyobs qarTuli eTno-qoreologiisa da zogadad qarTli qoreografiis ganviTarebas. samagistro programis xelmZRvaneli asoc. prof. anano samsonaZe

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sami wlis Semdeg ki 1935 wlis 10 seqtembers q. praRaSi dafuZneb ul iq na p irveli saerTaSoriso asociacia, saxelwodebiT "FIDA", romlis pirvel prezidentad arCeul iqna avstrieli franc buxleri. "FIDA" TandaTan qmediTi organizacia xdeba da ukve 1936 wlis berlinis olimpiur TamaSebze mas SesaZlebloba mieca Caetarebina pirveli oficialuri msoflio Cempionati bed nohaimSi, saerTaSoriso wesebis dacviT, sadac sami kontinentis TxuTmeti qveynis warmomadgeneli monawileobda. sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriaze samejliso cekvebis sportuli Sejibrebebi mogvianebiT mxolod 1957 wlidan tardeba. sabWoTa kavSiris wamyvani specialistebi didi xani ibrZodnen, rom samejliso cekvebisTvis sportuli statusi moepovebinaT, magram es sakiTxi mxolod 1986 wels gadawyda. Seiqmna sportuli cekvebis sakavSiro asociacia () (prezidenti: Ceslovas norveiSi ­ litva). am asociaciis prezidiumis wevri saqarTvelodan iyo Tengiz gaCeCilaZe.3 saqarTveloSi samejliso cekvebis sportul Sejibrebebs 1976 wels Caeyara safuZveli. manamde 1972 wels gaimarT a samejliso cekvebis SemsrulebelTa pirveli, xolo 1975 wels meore respublikuri konkursi.Aam konkursebis Jiuris Tavmjdomareobda iliko suxiSvili. 4 meore konkursze mowoneba daimsaxures da pirveli adgili mieniWaT saqarTvelos musikaluri da qoreografiuli sazogadoebis mocekvaveebs: nunu azmaifaraSvils da Teimuraz gabaSvils (pedagogi: Tengiz gaCeCilaZe).5 mas Semdeg, rac saqarTveloSi 1972 wels gaimarTa samejliso cekvebis SemsrulebelTa pirveli respublikuri konkursi am cekvebis skola gaiyo or jgufad: `samejlisosayofacxovrebod~, romelsac mixel kafievi emsaxureboda da `samejliso sportul~ jgufad, romelsac Tengiz gaCeCilaZe Caudga saTaveSi. saqarTveloSi Catarebuli konkursis Semdeg, 1975 wels kievis sportis sasaxleSi tardeba meore, saerTo sabWouri konkursi samejliso cekvebis SemsrulebelTa Soris.

saqarTvelodan am konkursSi monawielobas iRebs oTxi wyvili: maia isakaZe ­ vaxtang lukava, tatiana perlSteini ­ Tengiz eriSvili, nataSa nikolaiSvili ­ tariel Sengelia, nunu azmaifaraSvili ­ Teimuraz gabaSvili. amaTgan sami meore xarisxis di ploms iRebs erTi ki mesame xarisxis.6 1976 wels ukve safuZveli eyreba sakvalifikacio konkursebs. amas win uZRvis seminarebi samejliso cekvebis gamavrcelebeli kadrebis mosamzadeblad, sadac mowveuli iqna specialistebi moskovidan da estoneTidan. seminarebis Sedegad ramdenime pedagogi damoukideblad amzadebs mocekvaveebs respublikur konkursSi monawileobisaTvis. Semdeg imarTeba cekvis maswavlebelTa daxelovnebis 10 dRiani seminari, romelsac xelmZRvaneloben T. sanaZe, T. gaCeCilaZe, k. saxvaZe.7 1976 wlis mesame respublikuri konkursidan `gazafxulis mejlisi-76~ 1977 wlamde 5 sakvalifikacio konkursi tardeba, romelTa ucvleli gamarjvebulebi arian: zurab margiSvili da TinaTiT SavdaTuaSvili.8 samejliso cekvebi ufro popularuli xdeba. imarTeba konkursebi: `oqros verZi ­ 78~,9 `ai ia~,10 `ai ia ­ 82~,11 `Tbilisi ­ 84~,13 `ai ia ­ 85~14 da sxva. xolo 1988 wels TbilisSi Sedga pirveli respublikuri Ria konkursi samejliso cekvebSi, romlis organizatorebi iyvnen Tengiz gaCeCilaZe da larisa gaCeCilaZe. am konkursis gamarjvebulebi `A~ klasSi gaxdnen Tbiliselebi Sorena gaCeCilaZe da goCa Certkoevi.15 Semdeg imarTeba `oqros sawmisi ­ 90~, `oqros sawmisi ­ 91~,16 `Tbilisi ­ 92~,17 `Tbilisi ­ 94~18 da sxva. 1997 wels ki saqarTvelos sportuli cekvebis erovnul federacias ufleba eZleva Caataros saerTaSoriso konkursi `kavkasiis Tasi~. aRniSnuli RonisZieba aqedan moyolebuli tradiciuli xdeba da yovelTvis tardeba. Aam konkursze gamarjvebuli wyvili kavkasiis Tasis mflobeli xdeba.19 zemoT naxsenebi konkursebis mowyoba da saerTod samejliso cekvebis gavrcelebisa da propagandis saqmeSi udidesi wvlili miuZRvis dRes ukve saqarTvelos sportcekvebis erovnuli federaciis prezidents, studia da ansambl `Telas~

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xelmZRvanel-qoreografs, saerTaSoriso kategoriis msajs, Tengiz gaCeCilaZes. naSromis mizans warmoadgens `SeZlebisdagvarad~ mouTxros mkiTxvels batoni Tengizis, misi meuRlis larisa gaCeCilaZis maTi ojaxisa da saqmianobis Sesaxeb. `SeZlebisdagvarado~,_ imitom vambobT, rom es naSromi am Temaze warmoebul kvlevis pirvel nabijebs warmoadgens saqarTveloSi. aqedan gamomdinare mkiTxvels winaswar vuxdiT bodiSs Tu igi informaciis mcire raodenobas an uzustobas ganicdis. Cven ki siamovnebiT gaviTvaliwinebT am TemiT dainteresebuli pirebis Sexedulebebs da SeniSvnebs. erT-erT interviuSi batoni Tengizi ambobs: `vnanob, rom cekva Zalze gvian daviwye~.20 sanam batoni Tengizis cekvasTan Sexebis pirvel nabijebs SevexebiT, mogiTxrobT misi biografiuli Tu SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. Tengiz ivanes Ze gaCeCilaZe daibada 1941 wlis 5 seqtembers TbilisSi; mama ivane gaCeCilaZe saqarTvelos damsaxurebuli veteqimi yofila, xolo deda evgenia nioraZe aseve dawyebiTi klasebis damsaxurebuli pedagogi. hyavs sami da: meri ­ pedagogi, amJamad pensioneri, qeTevani ­ pedagogi, biblioTekaTmcodne, eTeri ­ filologi musikis mimarTulebiT. 1947 wels Tengiz gaCeCilaZe Sedis rkinigzis #1 skolaSi, romelsac amTavrebs 1958 wels. 1961 wels abarebs politeqnikur institutSi meqanika ­ manqanaTmSeneblobis fakultetze. pirvel kurss daCqarebiT gaivlis da 1964 wels amTavrebs saswavlebels. 1964 wlidan igi muSaobas iwyebs filarmoniaSi, ukravs simebian sakravebze kirile vaSakiZis xalxur sakravTa orkestrSi, aris musikalur-qoreografiuli sazogadoebis msaxiobi. `42 nomeri hqondaT programaSi da erT kviraSi viswavleo~ ­ ixsenebs batoni Tengizi. cota xanSi es orkestri sagastrolod unda wasuliyo Soreul aRmosavleTSi. batonma Tengizma uari Tqva am gastrolze da orkestrSi muSaobas Tavs anebebs. Semdeg TanmimdevrobiT, xanmokle drois monakveTebSi muSaobs:

eleqtro vagonSemkeTebel qarxanaSi me-6 Tanrigis zeinklad, saaparato saamqroSi tyav-sagalanterio fabrikaSi,Mmaudkamvolis kombinatSi da isnis fexsacmelebis fabrikaSi. sruliad SemTxveviT moxda misi cxovrebis dakavSireba qoreografiul samyarosTan: ,,voroSilovis klubSi~, romelic mdebareobda axlandeli griboedovis Teatris mimdebare teritoriaze, igi eZebda Turme salaros bileTi rom aeRo da kinoSi Sesuliyo.Aam Zebnisas, aRmoCnda erT did darbazSi, sadac Semdegi situacia daxvda: axalgazrdebi ewerebodnen imdroindeli sazogadoebrivi cekvebis studiaSi, romelsac xelmZRvanelobda pedagogi mixeil kafievi. batoni Tengizic moxvedrila am axalgazrdaTa rigSi, gadauxdia erTi Tvis gadasaxadi 5 maneTi.Mmixeil kafievs misTvis afiSebi miucia da uTxovia, rom gamoekra isnis fexsacmelebis fabrikaSi. `kargi organizatori iyoo~,­ ambobs batoni Tengizi pirvel pedagogze, romelsac im droisTvis Turme 700-mde moswavle hyolia. am sazogadoebrivi cekvebiT daintereseba imdroindeli axalgazrdobisa garkveuli midgomiT gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom mas hqonda `gacnobis~ xasiaTi: gogonebi ­ biWebis, biWebi ki gogonebis gasacnobad iyenebdnen am cekvebis studiaSi arsebul situacias~. damwyebi mocekvave Tengiz gaCeCilaZe pirvelive repeticiaze gaciebula, Semdeg erTi Tve uvlia, erTi Tvis mere ki damjdari uyurebda Turme repeticiebs. cota xanSi gadadis ufro gamocdil jgufSi, `mecotava is, rac vicodio~ ­ ambobs igi. ramdenjerme Turme mixel kafievs gauCerebia jgufi, miuTiTebia damjdar Tengiz gaCeCilaZeze da aRuniSnavs, rom `es kaci verasodes iswavlis cekvaso~. magaram batoni Tengizis interesi cekvisadmi am gamoTqmas ver SeuCerebia, piriqiT, igi Turme Tavad igonebda moZraobebs, romlebsac zedmeti varjiSis procesSi amuSavebda Tavis pirvel partniorTan lia babaevasTan erTad. `ori Tvis Semdeg amovwure im studiis codnis maragio~, _ ambobs igi. yvelas ajoba mixel kafievis studiaSi, sadac im droisTvis iswavleboda: ,,valsi~, ,,vals-bostoni~, ,,bluzi~, ,,CaCa-Cas~ raRac moZraobebi, ,,tangos~ raRac stili, ,,krakoviaki~, ,,bit-ritmi~, ,,bugi-vugi~, ,,marSfoqstroti~.

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am periodis ganmavlobaSi uyalibdeba Tengiz gaCeCilaZes cekvisadmi seriozuli interesi da iwyebs pedagogiur moRvaweobas q. gorSi.Aam saqmianobas ise CauTrevia, rom sxva yvelafrisTvis Tavi miunebebia, Tbilisidan gorSi dadioda Tavis partniorTan erTad ramdenjerme kviraSi. saqme kargad wavida, Sedegi rom dainaxes, pedagogiur institutSi miiwvies. Semdeg ki TbilisSi plexanovis klubSi iwyebs moRvaweobas.Aam droisaTvis sazogadoebriv cekvebs aswavlis, mogvianebiT ki ruseTSi turnirze xvdeba, sadac Jiuris wevria.A`am konkursma Cemze imdenad didi STabeWdileba moaxdina, rom Rameebi ar meZina, Cveulebrivi cekvis nacvlad araCveulebrivi sanaxaoba, `Sejibri~ vnaxe, es CemTvis siurprizi iyo~.21 1974 wels mas iwveven ,,Tbilisis mxatvruli TviTmoqmedebis respublikur saxlSi~ samejliso cekvebis meTodistad. igi ecnoba sabWoTa kavSirSi arsebul 128 amgvari saxlis muSaobis sistemas.Aatarebs seminarebs, risi meSveobiTac saqarTvelos masStabiT TandaTan vrceldeba samejliso cekvebi. igi Tavis meuRlesTan, qalbaton larisasTan erTad 1975 wlidan moyolebuli dRemde kiTxulobs leqciebs sxvadasxva saswavlebelSi (Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, s. zaqariaZis saxelobis saganmanaTleblo saswavlebeli, adre sacirkosaestrado saswavlebeli da fizkulturis instituti, ucxo enebis instituti...). garda teqnikuri ganaTlebisa Tengiz gaCeCilaZem 1980 wels daamTavra q. leningradis profkavSirTa kulturis umaRlesi skola, kulturis muSakis specialobiT. misi TaosnobiT 1986 wels iqmneba kulturis saministrosTan arsebuli samejliso cekvebis gaerTianeba. 1991 wels am organizacias hqvia saqarTvelos samejliso cekvebis asociacia. 1991-1992 ww. asociacia xdeba wevri `IDSF~-isa (samejliso sportuli cekvebis asociacia), romelic, Tavis mxriv, Sedis saerTaSoriso olimpiur komitetSi. 1997 wlidan dRemde zemoT xsenebul organizacias ewodeba `saqarTvelos sportuli cekvebis erovnuli federacia~, romlis prezidentic gaxlavT Tengiz gaCeCilaZe. 1973 wlidan batoni Tengizis cxovrebaSi Semodis qali. maTi gzebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba da mogvianebiT, 1986 wels

qmnian lamaz ojaxs es qalbatoni gaxlavT larisa qurdaZe. larisa qurdaZe daibada 1950 wlis 19 marts TbilisSi. mama ­ giorgi qurdaZe samamulo omis monawile, II jgufis invalidi. deda ­ ekaterine qurdaZe (orloveckaia) (poloneli) muSaobda Cais gadamwon fabrikaSi telefonistis Tanamdebobaze. qalbaton larisas hyavs ori Zma: aleqsandre qurdaZe polkovniki, leninis ordenosani artileristi, amJamad cxovrobs omskSi ojaxTan erTad da vladimer quraZe, romelsac damTavrebuli aqvs politeqnikuri teqnikumi, colSviliani da amJamad droebiT umuSevari. 1958 wels larisa qurdaZe Sedis Tbilis me-16 saSualo skolaSi, romelsac amTavrebs 1967 wels. amave wels abarebs aleqsandre puSkinis saxelobis pedagogiur institutSi, xdeba dawyebiTi klasebis pedagogikis specialobis studenti (rusuli seqtoriT). paralelurad muSaobs Tbilisis koniakis qarxanaSi, jer muSad, Semdeg mdivan-memanqaned, cota xanSi ki sadegustacio darbazis ufrosi xdeba amave periodSi igi aris komkavSiris komitetis mdivani. 1972 wels larisa gaCeCilaZe amTavrebs pedagogiur instituts da iwyebs muSaobas q. Tbilisis 129-e skolis pedagogad. erTi wlis Semdeg ki misi cxovrebac SemTxveviT daukavSirdeba cekvas. `bavSobidanve saocrad miyvarda cekva~,­ ambobs erT-erT interviuSi qalbatoni larisa,­ jer kidev pataras andamativiT mizidavda quCebSi gamokruli lamazad gaformebuli is afiSebi da reklamebi sadac mocekvave wyvili exata. etyoba genSic iyo raRac, Tumca gamoCenili mocekvave Cems saaxlobloSi aravin yofila. skolaSi rom vswavlobdi, specialuri gadacemebis seria gadioda televiziiT, sadac maSindel Zalian modur cekva _ `Carlstons~ aswavlidnen. viswavle telegadacemidan cekva da Semdeg Cems TanaklaselebTan daviwye `qoreografoba~.22 ufro seriozulad ki qalbatoni larisas cekvis samyaroSi moxvedra Semdegnairad moxda: `plexanovis klubSi komkavSiris mdivnebis konferencia tardeboda. isic, rogorc komkavSiris mdivani, monawileobas iRebda am konferenciaSi. Sesvenebaze, foieSi, axalgazrdebs

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radiola CaurTavT da cekva dauwyiaT. erTi rusi ymawvili miaxloebula masTan da cekva uTxovia. uari ar uTqvams da `valsze gayolia~. cekvis dros partniors jer marjvena bruni gaukeTebia, Semdeg _ marcxena. ileTi mSvenivrad gamomividao _ igonebs qalbatoni larisa. `Tqven ra cekvavT?~, _ gaocebuli ukiTxavs partniors da rodesac am kiTxvaze pasuxad uari miuRia, axla `kvadratul rumbaze~ miuwvevia, arc es cekva gamosula urigo. maSin am biWma SesTavaza mas: Tengiz gaCeCilaZesTan samejliso cekvebis studiaSi wagiyvano. isic sixaruliT Tanxmdeba. `Tumca, pirvel Sexvedraze es sixaruli cota ar iyos gamixuna Tengizma~,_ ambobs qalbatoni larisa. sxvaTa Soris, Semomxeda da biWis aRtacebul replikas, rom me studiaSi arasodes mivlia da SesaniSnavad vcekvav, mSrali da Zunwi fraza Seageba: `Tu unda, movideso~.23 _ `maxsovs, erT-erTma Cemma moswavlem moiyvana,_ ambobs qalbatoni larisas yofili pedagogi, amJamad meuRle ­ Tengiz gaCeCilaZe,_ Zalian niWieri moswavle iyo, varjiSis dawyebidan sami Tvis Semdeg ufro Zlier jgufSi gadaviyvane. xuTi Tvis Semdeg, konkursSic mivaRebine monawileoba. im periodSi televiziiT samejliso cekvebis Sesaswavl gadacemas vuZRvebodi da larisa CemTan waviyvane. albaT, cekvisadmi uzomo siyvarulma da didma nebisyofam ganapiroba is, rom larisas studia ar miutovebia. igi ukve profesionali mocekvave iyo da partnioroba SevTavaze, Semdeg ki colobaco~.24 1975 wlidan eleqtrovagonSemkeTebel qarxanasTan arsebuli studia Tengiz da larisa gaCeCilaZeebs gadaaqvT oficerTa saxlSi, Semdeg ki s. orjonikiZis saxelobis kulturis da dasvenebis axlandel, `muStaedis~ parkSi da dRemde iq moRvaweoben. amave wlidan qalbatoni larisa baton TengizTan erTad kiTxulobs leqciebs yvela zemoT xsenebul saswavlebelSi. 2005 wlis 5 ianvars, Tbilisis e. TayaiSvilis sax. kulturisa da xelovnebis saxelmwifo universitetma maT mianiWa docentis xarisxi. xolo 2006 wlidan isini arian asocirebuli profesorebi saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetSi.

larisa gaCeCilaZe 1991 wlidan aris `saqarTvelos sportcekvebis erovnuli federaciis~ generaluri mdivani. 1992 wlidan mieniWa saerTaSoriso kategoriis msajis wodeba. Tengiz da larisa gaCeCilaZeebi partniorebi arian rogorc cekvaSi, aseve cxovrebaSi. maT lamaz ojaxSi yvela cekvavs. ufrosi Svili Sorena, Tavis meuRlesTan goCa CertkoevTan da Svil levanTan erTad 1992 wlidan cxovrobs da moRvaweobs aSS-Si (q. dalasi). Sorena gaCeCilaZe da goCa Certkoevi arian saerTaSoriso kategoriis mocekvaveebi, turnir `amomavali varskvlavis~ ToTxmeti gzis gamarjvebulebi. amerikis sazogadoebis maRal wreebSi isini sasurvel da miRebul stumrebad iTvlebian. aqvT studia, sadac uamravi msurveli swavlobs samejliso cekvebs. ori vaJidan: ufrosi, giorgi, swavlobs Tbilisis di plomatiur akademiaSi, aris saerTaSoriso kategoriis mocekvave, uamravi turniris priziori. umcrosi vaJi, rati, me-11 kalsis moswavlea, swavlobs Tbilisis #1 klasikur gimnaziaSi. aris saqarTvelos Cempioni, kavkasiis Tasis mflobeli sxvadasxva saSinao Tu saerTaSoriso turnirebis priziori. maTi meoTxe Svili ­ Telaa, romelmac ukve mravali Taoba daafrTiana. Tela saqarTveloSi Zalian iSviaTi da lamazi xea, Tengizisa da larisas inicialebicaa. 1979 wlidan igi funqcionirebs `muStaedis~ baRSi. studiasTan arsebobs ansambli, romelic aseve Telas saxels atarebs.25 1986 wlis aprilSi moskovSi `krilia sovetovis~ sportul darbazSi, kulturis saministrom moawyo samejliso cekvebis pirveli sakavSiro festivali. konkursis programaSi iyo oTxi nomeri: sabWoTa qoreografiis safuZvelze Seqmnili, laTinoamerikuli samejliso cekvebi, evropuli da originaluri popurebi. 24 ansambli iyo wardgenili festivalze da aqedan ansamblma `Telam~ brinjaos medali daimsaxura. amave wels Telas mieniWa saxalxo ansamblis wodeba.26 studiaSi bavSvebs 7 wlidan iReben, asakobrivi jgufebis mixedviT: patarebs _ 7-dan 10 wlamde, mozardebs 11-dan 15

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wlamde da ufrosebs _ 16 wlis zemoT. studia muSaobs seqtembridan ivlisis CaTvliT. wlis bolos tardeba kursidan kursze gadasasvleli da gamosaSvebi gamocdebi. oTxi kursis daxurvis Semdeg, mocekvave iRebs studiis di ploms. damwyebi mocekvavis sakonkurso programa 10 cekvas moicavs. wlis ganmavlobaSi mocekvave iRebs CaTvlis wignaks. misi mflobeli saqarTvelos sportcekvebis erovnuli federaciisa da (GNDSF) da sportcekvebis saerTaSoriso federaciis (IDSF) wevri xdeba. studia `TelaSi~ ukve uamravi aseTi mocekvave da cnobili pedagogi aRizarda. zogi maTgani sazRvargareT moRvaweobs, zogic saqarTveloSi agrZelebs Tavis karieras. esenia: Sorena gaCeCilaZe, goCa Certkoevi, nunuka azmaifaraSvili, ekaterine da zurab metrevelebi, elene da giorgi orvelaSvilebi, ruzana da boris odikaZeebi, salome lomsaZe, daviT kulumbegaSvili, ia kvirikaSvili, TaTuli gogiSvili, giorgi tabataZe da sxvebi. maT Sesaxeb ukve calke SeiZleba Zalian bevri iTqvas da daiweros. Tengiz da larisa gaCeCilaZeebi dResac didi enTuziazmiT, Tavisi saqmis uzomo siyvaruliT, aswavlian da zrdian mocekvaveebs. Tqveni mona-morCilic am mocekvaveebis rigs ganekuTvneba. ar vici ramdenad gavamarTleb Cemi pedagogebis Sromas, magram amJamad es SemiZlia vTqva: maT Zalian Semayvares samejliso cekvebi da is faqti, rom 2008 wlis dekemberSi saerTaSoriso konkursze `saaxalwlo Tbilisi-2008~ I adgilis mflobeli gavxdi `8 cekva didebis~ qvejgufSi, es am siyvarulis nayofia. didi madloba Tengiz da larisa maswavlebels am siyvarulisTvis, maTi Sromisa da saqmianobisTvis!!!

5. ix.: gazeTi: `komunisti~. 1975 wlis 14 Tebervali. 6. ix.: gazeTi: ` ~ 1975 . 8 . 7. ix.: gazeTi: `Tbilisi~. 1976 wlis 19 aprili. 8. ix.: gazeTi: `lelo~. 1977 wlis 18 ivnisi. 9. ix.: gazeTi: `axalgazrda komunisti~ 1978 wlis 25 ivlisi. 10. ix.: gazeTi: ` ~ 1980 . 13 . 11. ix.: gazeTi: `Tbilisi~ 1982 wlis 30 marti. 12. ix.: gazeTi: `Tbilisi~ 1984 wlis 2 aprili. 13. ix.: gazeTi: ` ~ 1985 . 19 . 14. ix.: gazeTi: ` ~ 1988 . 12 . 15. ix.: gazeTi: `Tbilisi~ 1990 wlis 14 noemberi. 16. ix.: gazeTi: `quTaisi~. 1991 wlis 14 noemberi. 17. ix.: gazeTi: `eri~ 1992 wlis 3-9 ivlisi. 18. ix.: gazeTi: `saqarTvelos respublika~ 1994 wlis 7 ianvari. 19. ix.: T. gaCeCilaZe `kavkasiis Tasi ­ 97~ _ programa. 20. ix.: gazeTi:`harmonia~ 2002 wlis 18.09.-02.10. 21. ix.: gazeTi:`aqcenti~. 2003 wlis 8-10 agvisto. 22. ix.: `qalis saidumlo~ #3. 23. ix.: `qalis saidumlo~ #3. 24. ix.: `qalis saidumlo~ #3. 25. ix.: `qalTa gazeTi~ 1997 wlis ivnisi. 26. ix.: gazeTi: `Tbilisi~ 1986 wlis 20 maisi.

1. gazeTi: `lelo~, 1990 wlis 23 ianvari. 2. gazeTi: `lelo~, 1990 wlis 31 ianvari. 3. gazeTi: `lelo~. 1990 wlis 31 ianvari. 4. ix.: gazeTi: `Tbilisi~. 1975 wlis 28 Tebervali.

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eka geliaSvili magistraturis II kursi xelmZRvaneli - anano samsonaZe `sarTulebiani~ ferxulebis simbolika (qarTuli nimuSebis magaliTze) sarTulebis princi piT agebuli, unikaluri formis, wriuli iarusebiani ferxuli gavrcelebuli iyo TiTqmis mTel saqarTveloSi. qarTlSi mas `zemyrelos~ uwodebdnen, romlis sinonimia `orsarTula~, javaxeTSi _ `samyrelos~ (an `cixebuna~), raWaSi gvxvdeba _ `maRla mTas modga~, xevSi _ `abarbare~, TuSeTSi _ ` qorbeRela~, svaneTSi _ `mirmi(n)q ela~. `orsarTuliani ferxulis~ saxelwodebiT SemorCa qarTul sacekvao folklors guruli ferxuli, romelic cekva `xorumis~ kompoziciis erT-erT nawilSic gvxvdeba. rogorc profesori l. gvaramaZe aRniSnavs, am formis ferxuli, gavrcelebuli yofila imereTSi saxelwodebiT `madli maxarobelsa~. mis teqstSi gazafxulisa da zamTris brZola aisaxeboda.1 aseve arsebobs cnoba, rom `vaxtang gorgaslis ferxuli~, romlis gavrcelebis areali ZiriTadad aRmosavleT saqarTveloa, imereTSic scodniaT da iq es simRera mravalsarTuliani ferxulis ayolebiT sruldeboda.2 aRsaniSnavia, rom am ferxulTa zogierTi nimuSi dResac gvxvdeba qarTvelTa yofaSi. magaliTad, `samyrelo~, 3 `zemyrelo~4 da `qorbeRela~, romlis TviTmxilveli Tavad gaxldiT 2005 wels, xatobis dros, TuSeTis sofel xaxaboSi. msgavsi struqturuli formis ferxuls vxvdebiT mezobeli kavkasieli tomebis cekvebSi, rogoric aris osuri `narTon simdi~, 5 aseve _ skandinaviaSi, alpebze da balkaneTis naxevarkunZulzec. 6 sarTulebianma ferxulebma mravali mecnieri daainteresa. mas ikvlevdnen: v. bardaveliZe,7 d. janeliZe,8 av. TaTaraZe,9 l. gvaramaZe.10 am formis ferxulebs exebian da aRweren: r. erisTavi,11 g. svaniZe,12 b. niJaraZe,13 p. umikaSvili,14 T. mamalaZe,15 i. qavTaraZe,16 ap. wulaZe,17 s. makalaTia,18 g. cocaniZe,19 n.

maisuraZe20 da sxvani. ferxuli `zemyrelo~ ganxilulia `qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSic~.21 mkvlevarTa mier warmodgenil aRwerebSi sarTulebiani ferxuli igeba wriulad, mxolod mamakacebis mier da ori, zogjer ki, sami sarTulis formas iRebs. ferxuli wris trialiT sruldeba da igi mgzavrulia, anu, gzad mavalni asruleben. ferxulis rTuli konstruqciidan gamomdinare, masSi monawileTa fexis moZraoba primitiulia. ZiriTadad vxvdebiT fexis midgmiT svlas wreze. SemsrulebelTa raodenoba SezRuduli araa. misi simRera ZiriTadad orpirulia. miuxedavad am ferxulTa gansxvavebuli Sinaarsisa, misi struqturuli forma yvelgan erTnaeria. am ferxulTa dasasruli xSirad gulisxmobs zeda sarTulebis qveda sarTulis monawileTagan Camoyras. gansxvavebas warmoadgens ferxuli `maRla mTas modga~, `zemyrelos~ ramdenime varianti (zeda sarTulis monawileni Zirs Tavad xtebian) da TuSuri `qorbeRela~, romlis waqcevac cudis maniSnebeli iyo. `qorbeRelas~ dasasrulis Sesaxeb, Cven mier mopovebul yvela masalaSi, erTxmad aRiniSneba, rom igi aucileblad dauSlelad unda misuliyo sakulto adgilamde. misi Segnebulad areva da SemsrulebelTa Camoyra yovlad dauSvebeli iyo. rogorc v. bardaveliZe gadmogvcems, `qorbeRelaze~ TuSi Tavis momavals ikvlevda: `Tu qorbeRela iqceoda da simRera ireoda, maSin saqoneli da adamiani dagvexocebao da piriqiT...~22 imave cnobas gvawvdis s. makalaTia,23 g. cocaniZe24 da n. maisuraZe.25 sarTulebiani ferxulebis simbolurma Sinaarsma mecnierTa Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaoba gamoiwvia. qoreologi avTandil TaTaraZe ganmartavs, rom aseTi wyobis ferxulebi sabrZolo Sinaarsisaa. erTmaneTis mxrebze asvla erTgvari xerxia simagris galavnis gadasalaxad da mas, mSvidobianobis periodSi, mebrZolTa gavarjiSebis daniSnuleba gaaCnia.26 gansxvavebuli azri wamoayena vera bardaveliZem. 27 man TuSuri `qorbeRela~ sicocxlisa da nayofierebis xis Sesaxeb damadasturebel wyarod gamoiyena da daadgina, rom swored aseTi xe igulisxmeboda `qorbeRelas~ teqstSi. lili gvaramaZe aRniSnavs, rom: `samsarTuliani ferxuli Soreul warsulSi

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bunebaze magiuri zemoqmedebis xasiaTs atarebda~. 28 magram, svanur `mirmiqelaze~ da `zemyreloze~ saubrisas mkvlevari miuTiTebs, rom igi sabrZolo xasiaTisaa.29 amdenad, mkvlevari mxolod calkeuli ferxulis sakulto daniSnulebaze saubrobs, msgavsi formis ferxulebs ki mimoixilavs rogorc sabrZolo an gasarTob saSualebad. qarTlos kasraZe samsarTula ferxuls mzis simbolikis demonstraciad miiCnevs.30 mzes ukavSirebs gurul ferxuls apolon wulaZec, naSromSi `eTnografiuli guria~.31 sainteresoa, ram ganapiroba am identuri formis ferxulTa Sinaarsis aseTi variaciebiT arseboba? sainteresoa es ferxulebi namdvilad cixe-galavnebis gadasalax sawvrTno-savarjiSo daniSnulebas atarebdnen, rogorc amas zogierTi mkvlevari miiCnevs? vgonebT, saferxulo teqstebSi aqa-iq gabneuli simboluri miniSnebebi naTels mohfenen am SekiTxvebs. i. qavTaraZisa32 da al. yazbegis33 mier gadmocemul `abarbares~ saferxulo teqstSi barbares raRacis Camoyras da gadmoyras evedrebian. savaraudoa, rom mas zemodan qvemoT baraqisa da nayofis sakeTildReod wvimis mosvlas SesTxovdnen. amas adasturebs barbares mimarT mimarTuli Txovnac, romelic kaxeTSi, siRnaRis raionis sofel zemo maCxaanSi, 1962 wels Caweril teqstSia (mTqmeli n. bibilaSvili) naTqvami: `a, barbare, barbare, cxra Rrubeli Savyare. CamouSvi wvima, CamouZex wina. aRar gvinda goraxi, RmerTo, gvinda talaxi!~ 34 Cvens yuradRebas i pyrobs teqstSi naxsenebi a-barbare. mze Sumerul enaze warmoiTqmeboda, rogorc barbar. akademikos iv. javaxiSvilisa35 da v. bardaveliZis36 specialuri kvlevis Sedegad dadasturda qarTuli mzeqalis barbaresa da Sumeruli mzis RvTaebis `barbaris~ identuroba. igi, erTi mxriv, miCneuli iyo Sinauri cxovelebis uzenaes patronad, aseve qalTa mfarvelad, sicocxlis, siTbos, nayofierebis mimniWeblad. xolo meore mxriv, mosavlianobis mfarvelad. rogorc g. Citaia askvnis, `mesaqonleobis RvTaebaTa funqciebi, mzes, rogorc mosavlianobis baton-patrons, miwaTmoqmedebis xanis uZveles RvTaebas, gaziarebuli aqvs da mis gamgebladac iTvleba~.37

aRsaniSnavia, rom barbalobam svaneTSi dRemde moaRwia simRera `barbal dolaSis~ saxelwodebiT.38 igi sruldeboda uqme dReebSi qal-RvTaeba barbalesa da lamarias saxelze. Tovlis koSkis agebis Semdeg, mis win muxls moiyridnen da barbales mosavlis siuxvesa da gamarjvebis mopovebas evedrebodnen. muryvamobis dResaswaulze, romelic nayofierebis RvTaeba kviriasadmi iyo miZRvnili, Tovlis koSkis waqceviT arkvevdnen momavali wlis mosavlis beds. garda amisa, xe Catanebuli Tovlis koSkis ngreva, simboloa zamTris aRsasrulisa. rogorc el. virsalaZe gadmogvcems, muryvamobis dros maRal koSkze imarTeboda orsarTuliani ferxulic, romelic beTqilis ukanaskneli survilis mosagoneblad sruldeboda. 39 l. ioselianis aRweriT svanuri mirminqela _ svifze, wminda cacxvTan samjer Tormetma mamakacma Caaba.40 svanuri sarTulebiani ferxulis Taobaze saintereso cnobas gvawvdis msoflio ekologiuri akademiis akademikosi, fsiqologi leonid kitaev-smiki. 41 ritualur ferxulze saubrisas igi aRniSnavs, rom qristian svanebTan dResaswaulze stumrobisas Tavad gamxdara mowme, Tu rogor asrulebdnen Tormet-Tormeti mamakaci sam sarTulad ferxuls. misi SekiTxvisTvis, Tu ras unda niSnavdes es ferxuli, svanebs upasuxiaT: Sen Tu Cvens eklesiaSi namyofi xar, SeamCnevdi iarusebs, sadac 12 epistolea gamosaxuli. aq cekvaven isini. maTi saubris mosmenisas meore svani CarTula da uTqvams, rom zeda rigi, es mTis arwivebia, zeciuri suli; meore _ mTis cxvrebi, mTis suli, xolo mesame ­ Cveni xarebia, romlebic miwas xnaveno. sarTulebis amgvarad ganlagebas mkvlevari ukavSirebs socialur da tomobriv ierarqias. Cven ki vvaraudobT, rom am c nob aSi kosmogoni ur ierarq iaz ea saub ari. v fi q ro b T , r o m sv a ni z e da wr e Si , z ec i ur s u lS i gulisxmobda zecas da iq arsebul RvTaebebs, meoreSi _ mTebSi _ zecasa da miwas Soris arsebul fenas, xolo qvedaSi _ miwas. amis garda, aRsaniSnavia, rom ferx ulS i Sem srulebelTa Torm etkaciani r goli

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sakralurobis maniSnebelia, romelic xSirad figurirebs qarTul saferxulo cekvebSi. ricxvi Tormeti ­ es aris umaRlesi wesrigis, sisrulis da keTildReobis gansaxovneba. misi saSualebiT struqturulad lagdeba sivrce da dro. igi aseve dakavSirebulia wresTan da borbalTan. ferxulis sawyisi figura wre ki, rogorc astraluri RvTaebis monograma, aRniSnavs mis srulyofilebas da maradiulobas. igi uZvelesi mistikuri simboloa, romelic tradiciulad cas gamoxatavs. erTmaneTSi Casmuli ramdenime wre ki _ kosmoss.42 CvenTvis saintereso masalas vxvdebiT aseve `zemyrelos~ teq stSic. 43 masSi naxsenebi p u ri , q e ri d a T xo v n a uzenaesisadmi nayofierebis RvTaebasTan kavSirs amJRavnebs. aq naxsenebi sityva Tovli da mze kvlav Segvaxsenebs zamTris dasasrulsa da bunebis gamococxlebas. sarTulebiani ferxulebis kosmogoniur simbolikaze saubrisas minda, yuradReba SevaCero aseve ferxul `zemyrelos~ saxelwodebazec. vvaraudobT, rom qve- da ze- myrelo mxolod zemodan qvemoT Camoyris mniSvnelobiT ar aris naxmari, rogorc es zogierTi ferxulis Sesrulebis aRweridan ikiTxeba. enaTmecnierTa ganmartebiT,44 termini zemyrelo niSnavs _ zemoT da qvemoT Seyril da xelgayril (xelgadaxveul) SemsrulebelTa arsebobas saferxulo cekvaSi. yuradRebas iqcevs qarTvelTa warmodgenebi garesamyaros Sesaxeb. sivrce rogorc vertikalur, ise horizontalur WrilSi ramdenime erTeulad iyofa da ZiriTadad gamijnavs kacTa, RvTaebaTa da sulTa sauflos. msgavsi warmodgenebi Senaxulia dapirispirebaSi `ze~ da `qve~, romelic ciurisa da miwieris dap irispirebas gulisxmobs. qarT velT a warmodgenebSi samyaros vertikalur RerZze arsebuli `zeskneli~, anu, cis samyaro, RvTaebaTa sabrZanisia. rogorc i. surgulaZe ganmartavs: `qve mis sapirispiro mniSvnelobas atarebs. rogorc kosmosis nawili, igi dabla samyaros unda udrides, romlis Tayvaniscema miwis, nayofierebis kultis saxiT damowmebulia qarTvelTa ritualur praqtikaSi.45

q ar T velT a kosmogoniur i TvalT ax ed viT T u vimsj elebT , saxelw odeba `z emyrelo~ kosmiur simb olikas ukavSirdeba. yovelive es gvafiqrebinebs, r om f e rx u li s z ed a - q v ed a s ar T ul eb i c a sa d a dedamiwas unda asaxavdes. aqve aRvniSnav, rom d. janeliZes ferxuli `samyrelo~ ritualurad miaCnia. misive cnobiT, mesxeTSi, sof. udes `b erob anaSi~ bolo dromde asrulebdnen samsarTula `samyrelos~. g. cocaniZis mier mowodebuli cnobiT `qorbeRelas~ simReris teqstSi vxvdebiT Semdeg frazebs: `...xe alvad amosuliyo~, `zeda mosxmiyo yurZeni~..., aseve `ymaTaR umate giorgi, cxvarsaR umate, giorgi, pursaR umate, giorgi...~46 da sxv. `qorbeRelas~ teqstis msgavs variants gvawodebs profesori vera bardaveliZe. 47 misi gamokvleviT, saweso saferxulo simReraTa variantebSi aRbeWdilia mosavlianobisa da gamravlebis mfarveli saTemo RvTaebebis e. w. RvTisSvilebisadmi mimarTva. g. cocaniZe `qorbeRelas~ sxva variantis arsebobazec miuTiTebs, sadac finali gansxvavebulia: `Sulta xatis yoreze ludian tiks dadebs. `qorbeRelas~ daSlisTanave yvela monawile am tiks miaSurebs. vinc moaswrebs da am tiks moitacebs, igi misia, is asmevs meqorbeRelaveebs gamarjvebisas~.48 aRsaniSnavia, rom ferxulis finalSi ludiani tikis mopoveba erTgvarad simboluria. ludi figurirebs g. cocaniZis mier mopovebul `qorbeRelas~ sxva teqstSic: `pursaR umate, giorgi, Tu gindan kodni samsveni~. ludis arseboba dasturdeba aseve moxeuri `abarbares~ teqstSi da kompoziciaSic. ferxulis wreSi erTi Semsrulebeli dgas da ludiT umaspinZldeba.49 ludi qarTvel mTielTa yofaSi sakulto sasmeli iyo da misi religiur ritualSi arsebobac gasakviri ara a. a Rmosa vleT saq a rT vel os m T iele b isT v is i gi, r o go r c sa k u l t o s a s me l i , r e l i gi u r c xo v r e b a S i mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda. amrigad, Cven mier mopovebul masalebSi TvalnaTliv ikveTeba kosmogoniuri simbolizmisa da nayofierebis kultis kvali. vvaraudob T , r om T avd ap ir velad

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sarTulebiani ferxulebi saqarTveloSi miZRvnili iyo astraluri sim bolikiT Semkuli, miwis, rogorc nayofierebis dedaRvTaebis, mzisadmi pativsacemad. Cven ar uarvyofT dRemde moRweuli sarTulebiani ferxulebis teqstebSi sabrZolo xasiaTis arsebobas, magram vfiqrobT, rom es ufro gviani periodis Sesuli unda iyos, rodesac kultma mniSvneloba da Sesabamisad, ferxulmac ritualuri datvirTva dakarga. gansaxilvel ferxulTa wriuli, sarTulebiani forma cixekoSks mogvagonebs. koS ki qarTvelTa yofaSi sakmaod gavrcelebuli struqturuli nagebobaa da misi, rogorc sakulto nagebobis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb, araerTi cnobaa daculi materialur-kulturul ZeglebSi. misi simboluri datvirTva Cveni winaprebis winaqristianul rwmena-warmodgenebSi unda veZioT. koSki naxsenebia cnobil amiranis eposSi, sadac yamaris ukaro, caze dakidebul koSkzea saubari. koSki aseve xSirad gvxvdeba qarTul xalxur zRaprebSi, sadac mzeTunaxavi lamazmanebi arian gamomwyvdeulni. cixe-koSkma suleTze arsebul fSav-xevsurTa warmodgenebSic pova gamoxatuleba. xalxis rwmeniT, suleTSi arsebul cixemde miRweuli sulebi yoveldRe asrulebdnen mis garSemo cekvas.50 saintereso masalaa daculi legendaSi kopalas salocavis daarsebis Sesaxeb,51 saidanac irkveva, rom axalgazrda qal-vaJs karatis wverze cidan daSvebuli Tasi da vercxlis jaWvi SeuniSnavT, romelic imave adgilas miwaSi CauflavT da zed patara koSki, liqoqkSi ki sa mloc vel o auSenebiaT . am de nad , koS ki z e ci ur samyarosTan pirdapir kavSirSia. is simboloa RvTiuri nivTebis sadgomisa da am SemT xvevaSi mas aranairad sabrZolo daniSnuleba ar gaaCnia. amave mniSvnelobiT ganixilavs i. surgulaZe koSks, romelic xisa da am uZvelesi nagebobis simbolikis kosmogoniur bunebaze miuTiTebs. 5 2 v. iToniSvili koSkis Sesaxeb wers: `moxeveebi sacxovreblad, maragis Sesanaxad, saqonlis sadgomad da Tavis dasacavad iyenebdnen koSkuri moyvanilobis mravalsarTulian saxlebsac. cixe-saxlebi xevis yvela sofelSi mdgara~.53 erT-erTi aseTi

koSkis banze, oTxive kuTxeSi, xelovnurad gamoTlil mrgval qvebze jixvis rqebi yofila dawyobili. yuradReba mivaqcioT sityvebs, koSkuri moyvanilobis mravalsarTuliani saxli, aseve mrgvali qva (mrgvali _ astraluri simbolo) da masze jixvis rqebi _ nayofierebis simbolo. dameTanxmebiT, aseTi simbolikiT morTuli koSki sakulto nagebobis iers iRebs da udides msgavsebas avlens Cvens sakvlev obieqtTan. mecnieri g. Citaia miuTiTebs, rom koSki damaxasiTebelia svanuri saxlisTvis, romelsac svanurad qor ewodeba.54 svanuri qor ori sarTulisagan Sedgeba. avtori iqve aRniSnavs, rom misi Seswavlisas aucilebelia, yuradReba mieqces mis ara mx olod yofiT d a sabrZolo, a r a m e d r el ig iu r daniSnulebasac. amdenad, g. Citaia miuTiTebs qoris sakulto daniSnulebaze. albaT, arc is aris SemTxveviTi, rom svanurad saxls qor ewodeba da TuSeTSi arsebul orsarTulian ferxuls ki _ `qor-beRela~, anu, orsarTuliani saxli an koSki beRliT. cnobilia, rom qarTvel mTielTa salocavebSi droSa mTavar sakulto SenobaSi `beRelSi~ iyo dasvenebuli. arsebobda specialuri nageboba, `droSaT sabrZani koSki~,55 sadac droSas amagrebdnen dResaswaulebisas. aRniSnul cnobaSic koSki wminda nivTebis, kerZod ki, droSis droebiT sadgomad gvevlineba. rac Seexeba mis mudmiv samyofels, is beRelia. qorbeRela ori sityvisagan Semdgari kompozitia, ganmartavs i. abulaZe. qori Zvel qarTulSi zeda saxls, zeda sarTuls niSnavs, xolo qoredi qorians, zeda sarTulians.56 beReli _ siuxvis simboloa, qorbeRela ki saxlis siuxvis, saqonlis gamravlebis da mosavlianobis simbolo. `qorbeRela~ rom ritualuri ferxulia da mas nayofiereb is kultTan kavSiri aq vs, T iT qmis yvela m k vl e v a r i e r T xm a d a Ri a r e b s . i s , r o g or c s a we s o ferxuli, mkacrad daculi ritualobiT vlindeba da masSi ufro sruladaa Semonaxuli sakulto msaxurebis kvali, rasac ver vityviT struqturulad analogiur ferxulebze. magram faqtia, rom msgavsi formis sxva ferxulebic Tavisi astraluri simbolizmiT, pirdapir

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ukavSirdebian nayofierebis sawyiss ­ mzes, rac mtkicdeba maT struqturul formaSi, saxelwodebaSi da teqstobriv masalaSi SemorCenili niSnebiT: 1). moxeuri ferxulis `abarbares~ saxelwodeba pirdapir miuTiTebs mosavlianobis mfarvel mze-qal barbaresTan kavSiris Sesaxeb. ferxulis qveteqstidan ikiTxeba, rom RvTaeba barbares baraqisa da nayofis sakeTildReod wvimis mosvlas SesTxovdnen. 2). TuSuri `qorbeRela~ xatSi sruldeboda da misi Sesrulebisas TuSi Tavis momavals ikvlevda. misi ritualoba sasimRero teqstidanac irkveva. rac Seexeba mis saxelwodebas, `qorbeRela~ saxlis siuxvis, saqonlis gamravlebis da mosavlianobis simboloa. 3). mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia TuSur da moxeur ferxulebSi ludis, rogorc sakulto sasmelis, arsebobis faqtic. 4). svanuri sarTulebiani ferxuli `mirminqela~ _ svifze, wminda cacxvTan sruldeboda. xe ki rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, sicocxlis simboloa. amis garda, is kvirias sadidebeli ritualis nawilic iyo. aseve vfiqrobT, rom leonid kitaevsmikis svanuri ferxulis Sesaxeb mier mowodebul cnobaSi kosmogoniur ierarqiazea saubari. 5). is faqti, rom mesxeTSi, nayofierebis ritualSi, berikaobaSi, abamen samsarTula `samyrelos~, kidev erTxel miuTiTebs am ferxulebis nayofierebis kultTan kavSirze. 6). profesori lili gvaramaZis ganmartebiT, ferxulis `madli maxarobelis~ teqstSi gazafxulisa da zamTris brZola aisaxeboda. 7). aRsaniSnavia aseve, rom ferxuli `zemyreloc~ nayofierebisa da ciuri RvTaebisadmia miZRvnili, rac dasturdeba rogorc terminiT, aseve sasimRero teqstiT. masSi naxsenebi puri, qeri, mze, Tovli amis magaliTia. es ukanaskneli paralels poulobs muryvamis svanur koSkTan, romelic nayofierebis RvTaeba kviriasadmi iyo miZRvnili. qarTvelTa kosmogoniuri TvalTaxedviT Tu vimsjelebT, saxelwodeba `zemyrelo~ kosmiur simbolikas ukavSirdeba. SesaZloa, ferxulis zeda - qveda sarTulebi casa da dedamiwas asaxavdes. erTiani simbolos sxvadasxva variantiT gaazrebas, rac am formis ferxulTa sxvadasxvagvar Sinaarsobriv datvirTvas

gulisxmobs, Semdegnairad avxsniT: rogorc Cans, aq saqme gvaqvs simbolos, rogorc erTiani niSnis, im TvisebasTan, rasac Sinaarsis gamqrqaleba, gauferuleba ewodeba. savaraudod, simbolos Tavdapirvelma Sinaarsma Tavisi aqtualoba dakarga da TandaTan mas sxva, kerZod sabrZolo Sinaarsi, sabolood ki garTobaTamaSobis saxeRa SemorCa. forma ki rogorc mogexsenebaT ucvleli darCa, rac uciloblad ase iqneboda simbolos Tvisebidan gamomdinare. iarusebiani ferxulebis struqturuli forma ara sabrZolo aramed, sakulto daniSnulebis koSkis simboloa (ris gamoc zogierTi mkvlevari SecdomaSi Sedis). qarTuli legendebidan da miTosidan irkveva, rom koSki zeciur samyarosTan pirdapir kavSirSia. amdenad, aRniSnul formaSi misi astraluri simbolizmi ikveTeba. sarTulebis princi piT agebuli wriuli ferxulis sivrciTi ganfeniloba (vertikaluri da horizontaluri forma), msgavsebas poulobs qarTvelTa kosmogoniur msoflmxedvelobasTan. savaraudod, ferxulis zeda - qveda sarTulebi casa da dedamiwas unda asaxavdes. igive SeiZleba iTqvas samsarTuliani kompoziciis SemTxvevaSic: zeskneli, skneli da qveskneli. Cveni varaudiT, sarTulebiani ferxuli samyaros modelia, qarTvelTa mier samyaros aRqmis Taviseburi modeli. igi imavdroulad ze da qve samyaroTa Soris, sakomunikacio, d am a ka v Si r e b e l f u nq c ia s ac a sr u le b da , rogoradac moiazreba qarTul miTosSi wminda xe, dedaboZi da sxv. is RvT aeb aT a savali kib ea d a SesaZloa maT i miwieri sadgur is simb oloc. R vT aeb a ki astralur i simbolizaciiT Semkuli miwis, sawyisis deda - mze ­ aris.

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sarTulebiani ferxulis struqturuli forma samyaros modelia

ca, mze, maradiuli RvTis monog rama

sa my ar o RvTaeb aTa savali k i b e sakomunikacio saSualeb a

zeskneli (iq)

skneli (aq) q veskneli

dasasruls davZenT, rom sarTulebiani ferxulis simb oluri formis amgvar i gaazr eb a, r ac mis samyaroseul modelad aRqmas gulisxmobs, pirvelia da msgavsi d ekod ir eb a qarT uli qoreografiis mkvlevarTa arcerT naSromSi ar aris.

1. l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli sacekvao folklori, meore gamocema, Tb., 1997. gv. 24.

2. qs. sixaruliZe, el. virsalaZe, T. oqroSiZe, quTaisisa da tyibulis raionebSi 1951 wlis samecniero-folkloruli eqspediciis angariSi, literaturuli Ziebani, t. VIII, Tb., 1953. gv. 398. 3. d. janeliZe, saxioba, werilebis krebuli, wigni IV. Tb., 1990. gv. 118119. 4. l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli sacekvao folklori, meore gamocema, Tb., 1997. gv. 22. 5. eufyjd V. Jctnbycrbt yfhjlyst nfyws. Cnfkbybhb. 1957. gv. 8-10 6. ckfybidbkb I. Yfhjlyfz nfyctdfkmyfz vepsrf d c, . `Uhepbycrfz vepsrfkmyfz reknehf~. V. 1957. gv. 7 7. v. bardaveliZe, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTveli mTielebis sasuliero teqstebi: masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, nakv. I. tf., 1938. gv. 7 8. d. janeliZe, saxioba, werilebis krebuli, wigni IV. Tb., 1990. gv. 8 9. ix.: TaTaraZe av. qarTuli xalxuri cekvebis mokle mimoxilva, Tb., 1974; qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1999; qarTul cekvaTa ganmartebani, Tb., 1986. 10. ix.: l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli sacekvao folklori, meore gamocema, Tb., 1997. 11. ix.: r. erisTavi, folklorul eTnografiuli werilebi, gamosacemad moamzada, winasityvaoba, SeniSvnebi da komentarebi daurTo T. jogodniSvilma, Tb., 1986. 12. ix.: g. svaniZe, qarTuli xalxuri simRerebi da Tqmulebebi, Tb., 1957. 13. ix.: b. niJaraZe (Tavisufali svani), istoriul-eTnografiuli werilebi, I. Tb., 1962. 14. ix.: p. umikaSvili, xalxuri sityviereba, naw. I, Tb., 1937. 15. ix.: T. mamalaZe, svanuri saweso simRerebis struqtura. masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, XVI-XVII, Tb., 1972. 16. ix.: i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri dialeqti, Tb., 1985. 17. ix.: ap. wulaZe, eTnografiuli guria, Tb., 1997. 18. ix.: s. makalaTia, TuSeTi, Tb., 1983. 19. ix.: g. cocaniZe, giorgobidan giorgobamde (eTnografiuli eqskursebi TuSeTis axlo warsulSi), Tb., 1987; ferxulebi da saferxulo simRerebis teqstebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, Tbilisis kulturis saxelmwifo institutis Sromebi, t. I. 20. ix.: n. maisuraZe, qarTuli xalxuri musika da misi istoriul eTnografiuli aspeqtebi, Tb., 1989. 21. ix.: g. cocaniZe, ferxulebi da saferxulo simRerebis teqstebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, Tbilisis kulturis saxelmwifo institutis Sromebi, t. I.

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22. v. bardaveliZe, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTveli mTielebis sasuliero teqstebi: masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, nakv. I. tf., 1938. gv. 9. 23. i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri dialeqti, Tb., 1985. gv. 202. 24. ix.: ap. wulaZe, eTnografiuli guria, Tb., 1997. 25. ix.: g. cocaniZe, giorgobidan giorgobamde (eTnografiuli eqskursebi TuSeTis axlo warsulSi), Tb., 1987. 26. av. TaTaraZe, qarTul cekvaTa ganmartebani, Tb., 1986. gv. 12. 27. v. bardaveliZe, sicocxlisa da siuxvis xe qarTvelTa sarwmunoebaSi, saqarTvelos eTnografiis sakiTxebi, XIV. Tb., 1968. gv. 47. 28. l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli sacekvao folklori, meore gamocema, Tb., 1997. gv.24. 29. iqve: gv. 26. 30. q. kasraZe, triumfiT msoflios gzebze, Tb., 1971, gv. 14. 31. ap. wulaZe, eTnografiuli guria, Tb., 1997. gv. 98. 32. i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri dialeqti, Tb., 1985. gv. 161. 33. al. yazbegi, Txzulebani, t. V, Tb., 1950. gv. 47. 34. i. gagulaSvili, qarTuli magiuri poezia, Tb., 1986. gv. 221 35. ix.: iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, Tb., 1940. 36. ix.: v. bardaveliZe, qarTvelTa uZvelesi sarwmunoebis istoriidan, Tb., 1941. 37. giorgi Citaia, IV sauniversiteto leqciebis kursi eTnografiaSi, gamosacemad moamzades z. wereTelma da T. cagareiSvilma, Tb., 2001. gv. 224. 38. v. axobaZe, qarTuli (svanuri) xalxuri simRerebis krebuli, Tb., 1957. gv. 11. 39. el. virsalaZe, zemo svaneTSi folkloruli mivlinebis mokle angariSi, literaturuli Ziebani, VIII, Tb., 1953. gv. 386-387. 40. l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli sacekvao folklori, meore gamocema, Tb., 1997. gv. 22. 41. -, "", " " . www.kitaev-smyk.ru 42. «, , », www.slovari.yandex.ru 43. g. svaniZe, qarTuli xalxuri simRerebi da Tqmulebebi, Tb., 1957. gv. 24. 44. b. cxadaZe, zemyrelo, xelnaweri 45. i. surgulaZe, qarTuli xalxuri ornamentis simbolika, Tb., 1993. gv. 202.

46. g. cocaniZe, ferxulebi da saferxulo simRerebis teqstebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, Tbilisis kulturis saxelmwifo institutis Sromebi, t. I. gv. 224-234. 47. v. bardaveliZe, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTveli mTielebis sasuliero teqstebi: masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, nakv. I. tf., 1938. gv. 40-47. 48. g. cocaniZe, ferxulebi da saferxulo simRerebis teqstebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, Tbilisis kulturis saxelmwifo institutis Sromebi, t. I. gv. 224.234. 49. i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri dialeqti, Tb., 1985. gv. 161. 50. g. kopaleiSvili, `samzeo da suleTi~ fSav-xevsurTa warmodgenebis mixedviT. masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis, t. XXIII. Tb., 1987. gv. 161. 51. T. oCiauri, miTologiuri gadmocemebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, Tb., 1957. gv. 160. 52. i. surgulaZe, qarTuli xalxuri ornamentis simbolika, Tb., 1993. gv. 183-192. 53. v. iToniSvili, `xevi Zvelad da axla~, Tb., 1967. gv. 41. 54. giorgi Citaia, IV sauniversiteto leqciebis kursi eTnografiaSi, gamosacemad moamzades z. wereTelma da T. cagareiSvilma, Tb., 2001. gv. 170. 55. T. oCiauri, miTologiuri gadmocemebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi, Tb., 1957. gv. 129. 56. ix.: iqve. .

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Tamar munjiSvili magistraturis II kursi Temis xelmZRvaneli - oleg alaviZe qoreografiaSi sabavSvo repertuaris sakiTxisaTvis qarTul sacekvao folklors uaRresad didi istoriuli warsuli aqvs. amis dasturia Cvenamde moRweuli mravali nimuSi, romelmac saukuneebs gauZlo. es ki Taobidan Taobaze gadacemis xarjze moxda. xSirad ismis kiTxva ­ viTardeba Tu ara qarTuli qoreografia? am kiTxvaze SeiZleba gaices dadebiTi pasuxi. miTumetes dRes, roca qarTuli cekvebis Seswavlis msurvelTa raodenoba sul ufro da ufro izrdeba, roca arasodes CvenSi ar umuSavia amden sabavSvo koleqtivs. magram, miuxedavad koleqtivTa simravlisa, xSirad isini arsebiTad arafriT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan. Camoyalibda erTgvari saerTo, yvelgan da yvelasaTvis misaRebi repertuari, romelic sruldeba TiTqmis yvela sakoncerto gamosvlaSi. Seiqmna calkeuli cekvebi, romelTa Sesrulebac `sakmarisi~ aRmoCnda TiTqmis yvela sabavSvo koleqtivisaTvis, raTa gamovidnen sxvadasxva koncertebze, monawileoba miiRon ucxoeTSi gamarTul festivalebSi. xSirad swored es garemoebebi xdeba mizezi bavSvis cekvis Semswavlel wreze miyvanisa. mSobeli miznad isaxavs, rom misi Svili rac SeiZleba xSirad ixilos scenaze da imogzauros sazRvargareT. aq ki Tavs iCens axali problema: aris Tu ara bavSvi mzad scenaze gasasvlelad da asrulebs Tu ara igi misi asakisaTvis Sesaferis, anu sabavSvo repertuars. es metad problematuri sakiTxia, romlis gadaWrac mraval aspeqtzea damokidebuli. pirvel rigSi ki pedagogiur kadrebze. dRes qoreografobs yvela, visac odesme ucekvia da axsovs Tu rogor sruldeba esa Tu is ileTi, rogori saxe aqvs ama Tu im cekvas da a. S. bevri maTganisaTvis sruliad ucxoa iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa qoreografiuli azrovneba, individualizmi da, rac mTavaria, sxvadasxva asakobriv jgufTan muSaobis Taviseburebani. es ki metad mniSvnelovani sakiTxia, radgan saqme gvaqvs bavSvTan,

mis fiziologiasTan da fsiqologiasTan. aq daSvebuli uxeSi Secdoma ki SeiZleba sabediswero aRmoCndes. swored amitom saWiroa sabavSvo qoreografiis specialistTa maRali kvalifikacia, Rrma codna ara marto Tavisi specialobiT, aramed bavSvis fsiqologiisa da fiziologiis mxolod am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba umtkivneulod miviRoT sasurveli Sedegi. qarTul folklorSi sabavSvo cekva-TamaSobani mravlad moi poveba. niWier da moazrovne qoreografs ki ar unda gauWirdes maTi sascenod damuSaveba da dRevandel moTxovnebTan morgeba. mokled ganvixiloT, Tu ra mdgomareobaa am mxriv qarTul saistorio yofasa da tradiciebSi. samwuxarod, bolomde araa Seswavlili, Tu ra ti pis cekvebs iyenebdnen Zvelad momavali Taobis aRzrdisaTvis, maTi gawvrTnisaTvis. aq gasaTvaliswinebelia sxvadasxva periodSi qveynis realuri yofa, arsebuli problemebi. savaraudoa, rom Zvelad uTuod gamoyenebuli iqneboda sanadiro, sportuli da SromiTi, ritualuri cekvebi. eTnografebi imasac aRniSnaven, rom mraval sabavSvo TamaSSi Semonaxulia adamianis astraluri warmodgenebi, maTi gamocdileba, zne-Cveulebebi. qarTuli folkloris araerTi nimuSi adasturebs, rom CvenSi gavrcelebuli TamaSebi mozards amzadebdnen cxovrebisaTvis, awrTobda rogorc fizikurad, aseve sulierad, aZlevda samomavlod gamosayenebel codnas.1 profesori aleqsandre cabaZe aRwers erT-erT sabavSvo TamaSobas, sadac cekvis elementebic gvxdeba. es TamaSoba SromasTanaa dakavSirebuli: `bavSvebis gundi zis mdeloze. erTi maTgani leqsad svams kiTxvas da danarCenebi aseve leqsad pasuxoben, Sepasuxebis dros bavSvebi asruleben saTanado riTmul moZraobebs. leqsi sakmaod grZelia da masSi asaxulia mTeli suraTi simindis moyvanisa ­ daTesvidan dafqvamde da gamoxcobamde~. 2 akaki wereTeli Tavisi bavSvobidan igonebs: `qarTvelebisodena sxvadasxva saTamaSo arc erT xalxs ara aqvs da yovelgvari saTamaSoc uTuod iseTia, romelic Wkua-gonebasa da sxeuls swvrTnis, avarjiSebs... davasaxeleb mxolod burTaobas. aba romeli `gimnastika~ Seedreba mas? burTaobis dros Tvali, fexi, xeli, Tavi, tani da yvelaferi Tanasworad eCveva simardes~.3

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cnobilia is faqtic, rom mozardebi aqtiurad monawileobdnen iseT Teatralizebul sanaxaobebSi, rogoricaa: `berikaoba~, `gonjaoba~, `cxenaoba~, `lazaroba~, `aqlemkacoba~ da sxva. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis erT-erT werilSi `pedagogikis safuZvlebi~ wers: `tanis da agebulebis varjiSobas didi adgili uWiravs: burTaoba, kenWoba, cxenzed jdoma, curva, Widaoba ­ yovelive es saWirod unda iqnes danaxuli~.4 qoreografiis mkvlevarTa mier (d. janeliZe, a. TaTaraZe, l. gvaramaZe) gamoiTqva azri, rom axalgazrdebis esTetikuri g an v iT a re b is mi z ni T t r ad i c iu l i c ek v a- T am a So b an i diferencirebuli saxiT unda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli. jer kidev sulxan-saba orbeliani ambobda, rom WabukTaTvis gankuTvnil cekva-moZraobebs `fundruki~ erqva, xolo qalebisaTvis gankuTvnils, SedarebiT Serbilebul moZraobebs ­ `xuntruci~. misive ganmartebebSi vxdebiT iseT terminebs, rogoricaa: `basti~, `buqna~, `koWa~, sakuTriv `cekva~, anu fexis cerebze dgoma da sxv. vaJebis aRzrdisaTvis gamoiyeneboda sawvrTnel-savarjiSo, sportTan dakavSirebuli TamaSobani: `CoganburTi~, anu `cxenburTi~, `isindi~, `yabaxoba~, `mkerdaoba~, `marula~, agreTve `lelo~, `Widaoba~, `laxtis cema~ da sxv.5 xelovnebis rolze bavSvis aRzrdaSi saubrobs iakob gogebaSvili: `xalxis ganviTareba da gaZliereba yovlad SeuZlebelia erovnuli princi pebis gareSe. istoriaSi ver moZebniT erT magaliTs, rom ers eRalatnos Tavisi erovnebisaTvis, erovnuli kulturisaT vis da ar gaxrwniliyos, ar aRmofxvriliyos. Cvenda samwuxarod, qarTvelebs naklebad esmiT erovnuli princi pebis mniSvneloba da xSirad Ralatobs mas da amiT imzadebs Savbnel momavals. am ZiriTad sakiTxs Cven bevr werilSi vmarTavT da mkiTxvels Tvalwin vudgenT im sasikvdilo Sedegs, romelic mohyveba erovnuli princi pebis Ralats~.6 am werilidan naTlad Cans, Tu ra mniSvnelobas aniWebda iakob gogebaSvili tradiciuli qarTuli kulturis, folkloris Seswavlas. aRsaniSnavia cnobili qarTveli eTnografis grigol naTaZis damsaxureba qarTuli tradiciuli TamaSobebis Senaxvis saqmeSi. man imogzaura mTel saqarTveloSi, Caiwera mravali sabavSvo

TamaSoba da es masalebi SemdgomSi wignadac gamosca. ase rom, qarTul folklorSi arsebuli sabavSvo TamaSebis nimuSebi namdvilad iZleva imis realur SesaZleblobas, rom Seiqmnas da damuSavdes sabavSvo cekvebi. niWieri Semoqmedis mier Seqmnili amgvari sacekvao nomrebi ki, darwmunebuli var, Tavis sapatio adgils daimkvidrebs bavSvTa koleqtivebis repertuarSi. adamianis saerTo ganviTareba, rogorc viciT, mis fizikur srulyofasac gulisxmobs. swored amitomaa Semonaxuli Zvelad arsebuli amgvari TamaSobani, romlebic uSualod fizikur srulyofas emsaxureboda. magram fizikuri srulyofa iSviaTad gvxvdeba sulier da zneobriv srulyofasTan ganuyrelad. amitom, cekva SeiZleba ganvixiloT, ara marto rogorc fizikuri wvrTnisa da jansaRi sxeulis aucilebeli piroba, aramed sulieri, esTetikuri da zneobrivi srulyofis erT-erTi aucilebeli komponenti. xelovnebis yvela dargs gaaCnia repertuari, romelic uSualod bavSvebisTvisaa gankuTvnili. magaliTad, bavSvi TeatrSi TamaSobs wiTelqudas, kombles da ara otelos da hamlets, bavSvi mReris sabavSvo simRerebs da ara ufrosebisaTvis gankuTvnil romansebs, bavSvi ukravs sabavSvo nawarmoebebs, kiTxulobs sabavSvo literaturas da a. S. ra Tqma unda, aris gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi, roca es piroba ar sruldeba. swored misi Seusrulebloba iwvevs sanaxaobis araesTetikurobas da gaumarTleblobas. yvela dargSi bavSvisaTvis gankuTvnili repertuari gaTvlilia maT SesaZleblobaze, rogorc fizikurze, ise gonebrivzec. qoreografs, rogorc pedagogs, urTierToba uxdeba bavSvebTanac da mozardebTanac. qveda zRvari, roca bavSvi sacekvao anbanis gacnobas iwyebs, gadis sabavSvo baRis asakze, Tumca aseve xSiria cekvis Seswavla dawyebiTi skolis periodSi. es ki aris asaki, roca Zalian intensiurad izrdeba, yalibdeba da viTardeba fizikuradac da gonebrivadac, zneobrivadac da esTetikuradac. aq gasaTvaliswinebelia kidev erTi mniSvnelovani garemoeba ­ sxvadasxva biologiuri asakis bavSvi gansxvavebulad reagirebs saswavlo, SromiT da sportul datvirTvaze. CvenSi moqmed sabavSvo ansamblebSi wesad iqca e. w. saufroso repertuarebis Sesruleba TviT umcrosi saskolo asakis

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moswavleTa mier. es ki metad sarisko da saxifaTo saqmea. bavSvis organizmi, misi ZvalkunTovani sistema ar aris mzad Seasrulos iseTi teqnikurad rTuli ileTebi, rogoricaa: brunebi, muxlileTebi, cerileTebi da a. S. am SemTxvevaSi xSirad Tavs iCens, rogorc fiziologiuri, aseve fsiqologiuri problemebic. qarTul qoreografiaSi ki amgvari rTuli cekva Zalian bevria. maTi Seswavlis procesSi bevri qoreografi cdilobs daSvebuli Tu dauSvebeli meTodebiT sasurvel Sedegs miaRwios. es ki swa vleb is p roce sSi m raval p rob l emas w armoSo b s. magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT mTiuluri cekvebi, romlebic Sedis TiTqmis yvela sabavSvo koleqtivis repertuarSi. bavSvis organizmi mzad ar aris am cekvebis im saxiT SesrulebisaTvis, romelsac mas sTavazobs qoreografi. bavSvs uWirs amgvari datvirTvis atana, ufro metic, am mxriv SeiZleba warmoiSvas seriozuli problemebi Semdeg etapebzec. fiziologebi adastureben, rom xerxermlis da ZiriTadad, organizmis Camoyalibebis procesSi arasworma fizikurma datvirTvam SeiZleba sabediswero Sedegebamde migviyvanos. menjis Zvlebis Camoyalibeba 20-21 wlis asakSi mTavrdeba, amitom maTi deformacia Tavisuflad SeiZleba gamoiwvios adreul asakSi didi simaRlidan xtomam. aseve Zalian xSiria muxlis dazianebebi, rac gamowveulia bavSvobaSi moWarbebulad da arasworad muxlileTebis SesrulebiT. fiziologiuri aspeqti am problemis mxolod erTi mxarea. meore mxriv, aucileblad unda ganvixiloT esTetikuri da SemecnebiTi aspeqti. Zveli berZeni filosofosi platoni cekvas adamianis gonebrivi ganviTarebisa da fizikuri gakaJebis saukeTeso saSualebad miiCnevda. marTalia, cekvis formad sxeulis fizikuri moqmedeba gvevlineba, magram misi ZiriTadi mizani mainc ar emsaxureba adamianis fizikuri aRzrdis problemebs, radgan cekvaSi sxeulis fizikuri moqmedeba mainc, ZiriTadad sulieri gancdebisa da ganwyobilebis karnaxiTaa gamowveuli. qarTuli cekvebi ki imdenad gajerebulia swored am sulieri gancdebiTa da romantizmiT, rom SeuZlebelia mas Caswvdes da gaiziaros 5-7 wlis bavSvi. amitom, rogorc wesi, es gancdebi nakarnaxevi, an qoreografis mier sagangebodaa daswavlili, rac Zalian xelovnurad, arabunebrivad da xSir

SemTxvevaSi sasacilod gamoiyureba. es ki mayurebels arasodes rCeba SeumCneveli. magaliTisaTvis aviRoT cekva `qarTuli~ ­ `siyvarulis poema~ ­ ase uwodeben am cekvas. aq mimikiT, plastikiT, udidesi TavSekavebiT, Sinagani grZnobebiT gadmoicema qalisa da vaJis usazRvro ltolva da siyvaruli. damerwmunebiT, am yvelafris gadmocema mozardisaTvis sakmaod rTulia, amitom qoreografebi mimarTaven daswavlis meTods, magram bevr maTgans aviwydeba, rom moZraobebis daswavla met-naklebad SesaZlebelia, xolo rac Seexeba cekvis xasiaTs, is imdenad gaugebari da ucxoa bavSvisTvis, rom igi ver axerxebs amxela Sinagani grZnobisa da gancdis gaziarebas da xelovnurad axdens maT gadmocemas. am SemTxvevaSi ki es grZnobebi yalbia da ar Seesabameba bavSvis asaks. amitom amgvari cekvebi ara marto fizikurad rTuli Sesasrulebelia, aramed Sinaganadac. sabavSvo repertuari bavSvisTvis advilad gadmosacemi da mis SesrulebasTan SesabamisobaSi myofi unda iyos. marTebulad mimaCnia, Seiqmnas axali sacekvao nomrebi, romlebsac safuZvlad daedeba sabavSvo Tematika. es SeiZleba iyos qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi, qarTuli tradiciuli sabavSvo TamaSobani, romlebic sascenod damuSavdeba da miiRebs srulyofil saxes. minda ganvixilo am problemis kidev erTi fsiqologiuri aspeqti. imis gamo, rom pedagogis mier SeTavazebuli esa Tu is ileT i konkretuli asakis b avSveb isT vis Znelad Sesasrulebelia, Tavs iCens gadaWarbebuli simkacre, rac xSir SemTxvevaSi gamoixateba iZulebiT, ZalmomreobiT Seswavlis meTodSi. es ki bavSvis pirovnuli ganviTarebisaTvis metad saSiSi tendenciaa. am meTodiT muSaoba dadebiT Zvrebs da sasurvel Sedegs ar mogvcems. iZulebisa da diqtatis pirobebSi aRzrdili adamianis ganviTarebis gza umTavresad arasworad miemarTeba da Tavs iCens misi cxovrebis sxvadasxva monakveTze, rom araferi vTqvaT bavSvis uflebebis xSir darRvevaze. aq ki aucilebelia mSoblis rolis gaaqtiureba. msgavs SemTxvevaSi mSoblis pasiuroba pedagogis agresiuli qcevis erTgvari waxalisebaa. aseTi midgomiT gamowveuli araerTi savalalo Sedegia cnobili, rac aucileblad imsaxurebs saTanado yuradRebas. sayuradReboa isic, rom gardatexis asakSi myofi

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bavSvi gamZafrebulad ganicdis mis irgvliv momxdar movlenebs, rac emociurad usiamovno reaqciebSi gadadis. gamocdili pedagogi aseT movlenebs uceb SeniSnavs da datvirTvebis dozirebas bavSvis rTuli asakis gaTvaliswinebiT Seecdeba. gamoucdeli ki daaskvnis, saqme gvaqvs sizarmacesTan da Seecdeba, garkveuli sadamsjelo sanqciebis gatarebiT, mdgomareobis Semobrunebas. aseTi moqmedeba ki ara marto pedagogiurad gaumarTlebelia, aramed saSiSi da saxifaToa. swored am dros, bavSvs emarTeba cekvis Seswavlis procesisadmi erTgvari ukureaqcia. is Tavisi surviliTaa misuli wreze. cota xanSi ki pedagogis msgavsi qmedebebis gamo, bavSvSi Tavs iCens fsiqologiuri problemebi da mas cekvis Seswavlis survili saerTod uqreba. bolo dros, qarTul qoreografiaSi damkvidrebulma Tanamedrove tendenciebma sabavSvo qoreografiaSic SeaRwia. saxelovani ansamblebi yovelTvis tonis mimcemad iTvlebodnen. swored amitom gaxda esoden popularuli `suxiSvilebis~ ansamblis mier dadgmuli axleburi sacekvao nomrebi. isini sruldeba sakoncerto gamosvlebze, gadmoicema televiziiT, Sedegmac ar daayovna, msgavsi sacekvao nomrebi gaCnda bevri sabavSvo koleqtivis repertuarSi, ufro metic, zogi koleqtivis mi er m T li anad iq n a u gule b el yofi li t rad iciu li qoreografiuli repertuarebi. es ki erTgvar saSiS tendenciad iqca.

saSemsruleblo xelovneba

dramis fakulteti

1.rezo WaniSvili, fiqrebi qarTul qoreografiaze, Tbilisi, 1997.gv.75 2. aleqsandre cabaZe, mxedrobasa Sina kadnierni, Tbilisi, 1980. gv. 209 3. akaki wereTeli, Txzulebani, tomi 12. gv. 14 4. ilia WavWavaZe, pedagogiuri Txzulebani, Tbilisi, 1938. gv. 117. 5. avTandil TaTaraZe, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1999. gv. 210 6. ix.: iakob gogebaSvili, Txzulebani, tomi 4, Tbilisi, 1955.

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Tamar firosmanaSvili magistraturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli - daviT kobaxiZe qoreografiis roli TeatrSi

SemoqmedebiTi pedagogika

universitetis swavlebis samsafexurian sistemaze gadasvlam saSualeba mogvca Segveqmna Teatraluri xelovnebis pedagogebis aRzrdis axali sistema: _ magisitratura, romlis mizania Teatraluri xelovnebis magistris ­ reJisurisa da msaxiobis ostatobis pedagogis momzadeba, rogorc SeqmoqmedebiTi pedagogikis, aseve samecniero-kvleviTi saqmianobisaTvis. am konferenciaSi monawileobis miReba pirveli mcdelobaa, samagistro programis farglebSi gamovlindes magistrantis mecnieruli codna, rac TavisTavad srulyofs SemdgomSi misi, rogorc SemoqmedebiTi pedagogis kvalifikacias. samagistro programis xelmZRvaneli: xelovnebaTmcodne, doqtori daviT kobaxiZe

speqtaklis dadgmisas reJisorebi xSirad mimarTaven warmodgenaSi qoreografiisa da qoreografiuli elementebis gamoyenebas. saerTod msaxiobebi scenaze Cveulebrivi moZraobebiT gadaadgildebian, magram mxatvruli saxis Seqmnis mizniT saWiroa xaz i gaesvas personaJis individualurobas, misT vis damaxasiaTebel Jests, mimikas, moZraobis maneras, svlas, am dros saWiro xdeba qoreografis daxmareba, raTa plastikuri gadawyvetiT srulyos personaJis garegnuli maxasiaTeblebi da amiT xazi gausvas mis Sinagan bunebas. speqtaklis qoreografia aucileblad unda iTvaliswinebdes warmodgenis saerTo Canafiqrs, Janrs, stils, moqmed pirTa xasiaTebs, grZnobaTa bunebas, konfliqts... qoreografia unda emorCilebodes speqtaklis ideas, igi unda iyos wina epizodis gagrZeleba da momdevnos dasawyisi da speqtaklis gamWoli moqmedebis organuli nawili, qoreografia unda exmarebodes da biZgs aZlevdes speqtaklis Semdgom ganviTarebas. samwuxarod xSirad speqtaklSi qoreografiuli nomeri, cekva, TviTmiznuradaa CarTuli. zogjer es xdeba ubralod remarkis safuZvelze, vTqvaT lxinis dros cekvaven, magram Tu am cekvas raime siuJeturi datvirTva ara aqvs, _ es speqtakls arafers matebs (mayurebels SeuZlia aseTi cekva sxvaganac naxos, oRond namdvili mocekvaveebis SesrulebiT da ukeTesadac dadgmuli). zogjer cekvas CarTaven imitom, rom esa Tu is msaxiobi kargad cekvavs da meti araferi. zogjer cekvaven popularuli, moduri cekvis saCveneblad. calke cekva rac ar unda kargi iyos Tu is speqtaklis ZiriTadi konfliqtis ganviTarebas ar uwyobs xals, _ es mxolod Casmuli nomeria da xals uSlis warmodgenis msvlelobas, mis dinamikas. minda SemogTavazoT ramdenime magaliTi qoreografiisa, sadac, Cemi azriT, qoreografia warmoadgens siuJetis ganviTarebisa da gamokveTis saukeTeso nimuSs.

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aviRoT SoTa rusTavelis Teatris speqtakli `pepo~ (reJ. d. aleqsiZe). Tu gavixsenebT am speqtaklidan erosi manjgalaZis cekvas, danamdvilebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom es aris saukeTeso nimuSi imisa, Tu rogor viTardeba piesis moqmedeba cekvaSi: vidre cekva daiwyeba, wina epizodidan Cven vigebT, rom moxuc aruTin zimzimovs hyavs axalgazrda da lamazi coli, romelsac yvela survilsa da axirebas usrulebs. ai, axlac, Wirveulma colma mialersebis sanacvlod axali survili gamostyua da gamarjvebuli iwyebs cekvas, zimzimovi muxlze CaiCoqebs, raTa taSiT mainc gaamxnevos Tavis lamazi fefena, magram rodesac qali mas sacekvaod gaiwvevs, _ fexze veRar dgeba, ramdenjerme wamoiwevs, mere didi gaWirvebiT wamodgeba da viTomc aq araferiao iwyebs cekvas. ratom cekvavs zimzimovi? anda rogor cekvavs? ra Tqma unda, erosi manjgalaZe cekvavs ise, rogorc unda icekvos moxucma kacma, romelic cdilobs Tavisi ax alg az rda da lamazi colis TvalS i T viTonac axalgazrdulad gamoiyurebodes. marTalia man cekva ar icis, magram maqsimalurad iqnevs xelebs da fexebs, dakuntruSebs, irgvliv uvlis sanukvar meuRles da aviwydeba, rom mis moxuc sxeulsa da guls amdeni ar SeuZlia da rodesac uceb igrZnobs gulis tkivils misi cekvac iq mTavrdeba _ vaime guli! _ daiZaxebs da gaSeSdeba... swored aseTi dasasrulidan vxvdebiT, rom igi cekvavda ara imitom, rom ubralod cekva undoda, aramed moqmedebda, mis cekvas hqonda mizani, qveteqsti: `SemomxedeT, me axalgazrda var! me vcekvav!~ _ skamze damjdaric, roca Sublidan ofls iwmends da iniavebs, ixtibars mainc ar itexs da ambobs: gana daviRale, vRelav! ra Tqma unda, Zneli warmosadgenia am cekvis gareSe zimzimovi, mas mTeli speqtaklis ganmavlobaSi mihyveba es xasiaTi, ganwyoba, damokidebuleba colTan da mis irgvliv myofebTan. sandro axmeteli Tavis dadgmebSi Zalian did mniSvnelobas aniWebda plastikas.Mmas gansakuTrebiT ainteresebda msaxiobis fsiqo fizikuri refleqsis fiqsireba SegrZnebebis safuZvelze, anu, rogor unda gamoewvia msaxiobs scenaze garkveuli moZraobiT esa Tu is grZnoba. speqtaklSi `anzori~ uxvad iyo gamoyenebuli plastika, moZraobaze agebuli urTierTobebi, magram qoreografiis

qmediTobis da aucileblobis saukeTeso magaliTi iyo zairas cekva. mebrZolebs ver gadauwyvetiaT vin unda wavides xidis asafeTqeblad.Aanzorma icis, rom sasikvdilod gzavnis da uWirs xeli daados romelimes, swored am dros uxmoben zairas, kraven wres da wreSi am mSvenier qals uSveben sacekvaod, piroba aseTia: visac zaira gamoiwvevs is unda wavides xidis asafeTqeblad, unda gawiros sicocxle da gaxdes xalxis rCeuli da gmiri. zaira msubuqad dasrialebs wreSi, misi yoveli Semdegi nabiji axal SiSs badebs meomrebSi, ramdenime maTgani mzadaa gmirobisaTvis da Sinaganad emzadeba kidec ukanaskneli cekvisTvis, magram umravlesoba axalgazrdaa, jer kidev gamoucdeli da maTTvis gmiroba didi msxverplia.Mmamakacebi moziduli mSvildebiviT dganan da elian, Tvals arideben mis Sexedvas, magram zaira ar Cqarobs arCevanis gakeTebas da laRad agrZelebs wreze Camovlas. sxva dros cekvisas Tu mas vnebiT anTebuli Tvalebi dahyvebodnen, axla SiSCamdgari da gayinuli Tvalebi dahyvebian da rac ufro uaxlovdeba am Tvalebs TiTqos grZnobs sicives da es sicive ukan agdebs, ai, SeCerda erT-erTi mebrZolis win, adgilze datrialda da gza ganagrZo, magram es erTi triali sakmarisi iyo meomrisaTvis, rom ramdenime wamSi ganecada SiSi, wuxili, tkivili, sikvdili da rodesac mixvda rom is ar airCia, madlieri Tvalebi gaayola wreSi monarnare qals. zaira ki udardelad cekvavs da TvalebiT eZebs Tavis satrfos, axmas, bednieria, rom saSualeba eZleva gulis sworTan icekvos, ai, SeamCnia kidec, sxeulis nazi rxeviT uaxlovdeba axmas, wreSi daZabuloba matulobs, uceb zaira Cerdeba, es wamieri pauza ufro Zabavs situacias, zaira ki auCqareblad, morcxvad, odnavi Tavis dakvriT gamoicekvebs axmas. `mSvidobiT!~ _ daiZaxebs axma da wridan gasxlteba, mamakacebi SvebiT amoisunTqeben, TiToeuli maTgani TvalebiT madlobasac ki uxdis zairas, rom swored is ar airCia, zaira dabneulia, nel-nela uSvebs xelebs da cdilobs garSemo myofTa TvalebSi amoikiTxos pasuxi kiTxvaze `ra moxda?!~ am speqtaklSi zairas cekvas aqvs sikvdil-sicocxlis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba, aseT SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebelia am

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cekvis gamoyofa speqtaklidan, radgan igi organuladaa Serwymuli speqtaklis ganviTarebasTan. Tuki pirvel SemTxvevaSi zimzimovis cekvas hqonda is datvirTva, rom moeTxro, Tu ra awuxebs aRa aruTinas, meore SemTxvevaSi zairas cekva aris erTgvari latarea, romelic trialebs wreze mdgar mamakacebs Soris da aravin icis visze gaCerdeba.Ees aris ukiduresi daZabulobisa da molodinis wuTebi, rodesac mayurebeli sunTqvaSekruli elodeba dasasruls. pantomimis Teatris speqtaklSi `firosmani mefe~ (reJ. a. SalikaSvili) amiran SalikaSvili Tavad TamaSobda niko firosmanaSvilis rols, am speqtaklSi aris erTi scena, rodesac nikalam duqanSi xatva daasrula da Rvinis dasalevad Camojda, duqani savsea mTvrali yaraCoxlebiTa da kintoebiT, romlebic Rvinis dalevasa da cekvaSi ejibrebian erTmaneTs. uceb erTma yaraCoxelma SeamCnia duqnis kuTxeSi Camomjdari nikala, jer sadRegrZelo SesTavaza, Semdeg ki sacekvaodac gaiwvia, yvela erTdroulad axmaurda da taSiT gaamxneves SezarxoSebuli mxatvari... morcxvi kacia nikala, ar uyvars Tavis gamoCena, Tanac arc cekva gamoudis rigianad da erTxans uarze dgas, magram amden mTvral yaraCoxelebTan ras gaxdeba?Nnel-nela dgeba magididan, frTxilad miiwevs darbazisaken, duqani ki gugunebs da SeZaxilebiT amxnevebs mxatvars, nikala darbazis SuagulSi Cerdeba da Zalian dinjad Slis xelebs, nelnela zeviT miiwevs, TiTqos gasafrenad emzadebao, ramdenime wams rCeba ase, gasafrenad gamzadebuli, Semdeg uceb Slis marcxena xelisguls da zed marjvena TiTebiT ise dgeba sacekvaod, rogorc funjebi gaSlil palitraze. TandaTan ufro Tamami xdebian ostatis TiTebi da ufro da ufro mkveTri ileTebiT cekvaven, uamravi gaocebuli Tvali misCerebia mxatvris TiTebs da tkbebian, aseTi kintouri arasdros unaxavT, magram es araa mTavari, nikala mTavar nomers Semdeg SesTavazebs mayurebels, uceb misi marcxena xelisguli trialdeba, marjvena xelis TiTebi qvemodan eqceva da Werze ukuRma dakidebuli cekvavs mTvrali nikala. igi TavdaviwyebiT uvlis xelisguls da es erTi cida sivrce sakmarisia misi saocari TiTebisaTvis, rom

duqanSi Tavmoyrili cekvis ostatebic ki gaaocos Tavisi xelovnebiT. sxva iyo nikalas kintouri, daxvewili, eleganturi, dinamiuri da Tavdaviwyebamde emociuri... nikala mxatvari iyo, xelebis ostati da man swored is icekva, rac saukeTesod gamouvidoda, ufro sworad ki ar icekva, daxata cekva. miuxedavad imisa, rom pantomima isedac sxeuliT metyvelebaa, am cekvis datvirTva imaze bevrad metia vidre ubralod cekva, amiran SalikaSvilis mier Sesrulebuli es patara epizodi Tavisuflad SeiZleba gamoviyenoT dramatul speqtaklSic da kinofilmSic, Tanac ise, rom es cekva Tavis funqcias ar dakargavs.Ees aris SesaniSnavi migneba imisa, Tu rogor SeiZleba icekvos mxatvarma, romelmac ar icis cekva, magram SesaniSnavad icis xatva da mTeli misi Zala, emocia, SesaZleblobebi da survilebi TiTebiskenaa mimarTuli. Cven ukve ganvixileT magaliTebi dramatuli Teatridan da p anto mimidan, axla v naxoT rogor Sei Zleb a es g anx or cield es filmS i. aviRoT film i `q alis surneli.~Mmayurebels gansakuTrebiT daamaxsovrda am filmidan erTi epizodi, rodesac brma samxedro polkovnikma sacekvaod gaiwvia axalgazrda, damwyebi mocekvave gogona, axalgazrda qali Tanxmdeba cekvaze da am momentidan polkovniki iwyebs nabijebisa da moqmedebebis saocari sizustiT gaTvlas, igi ar Cqarobs, mSvidad ekiTxeba damxmare biWs darbazis farTobs da gonebaSi angariSobs nabijebis raodenobas. iwyeba saocrad melodiuri tango da polkovniki pirvel warmatebul nabijebs dgams, gogona dabneuli cekvavs, mxrebSi odnav moxrili da gaubedavia, uxerxulad iRimeba, Tan cdilobs damalos es uxerxuloba.Ppolkovniki ki Zlieri kacia, sxeuli da suli brZolebSi aqvs gamowrTobili, yoveli nabiji da mixvra-moxvra xazs usvams misi xasiaTis simtkicesa da gambedaobas, pirvelive moZraobiT gadascems gogonas Tavis Zalas da aZlevs impulss, rom SeuZlia Tamamad miendos, cekvas is waiyvans da Tan ise waiyvans, rom qaliSvils ar Sercxveba mayureblis. Axalgazrda qalic grZnobs mis Zalas da Zlier mamakacs mindobili ufro da ufro Tamamad cekvavs, moZraobebis sirTulec TandaTan ufro matulobs, yoveli axali moZraoba axali safrTxea

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brma polkovnikisTvis, yoveli warmatebuli ileTi ki saocar Svebas gvris mas, magram xanmoklea es sixaruli, radgan musika ar Cerdeba da mamakaci iZulebulia axali svla gaakeTos, romelic SeiZleba sabediswero aRmoCndes, radgan Wadrakis dafasaviT gaSlili darbazi yoveli mxridan safrTxes uqadis, radgan erTi araswori gaTvla da dajaxeba magidasTan, mis damarcxebas niSnavs da polkovnikic gamalebuli icavs Tavis laziers. restoranSi savaxSmod Sekrebili xalxi nel-nela saWmels Tavs anebebs da sunTqvaSekruli Sehyurebs wyvils, mamakaci yovel mesame meoTxe nabijze frTxilobs da yurs ugdebs xalxis sunTqvas, es wamieri SeCereba sakmarisia misTvis, rom manZili gazomos maTsa da maT irgvliv msxdom xalxs Soris.Uukanaskneli akordi gaismeba da mamakaci bolo warmatebul ileTs asrulebs, muxlze isvams qals da mis gayinul TvalebSi kmayofilebisa da gamarjvebis sxivi gakrTeba, albaT, aseTi sxivi ukrToda jer kidev naTel TvalebSi brZolas rom moigebda, radgan mas Semdeg rac TvalSi sxivi Cauqra es misi pirveli gamarjveba iyo, am cekvis mTavari azric esaa, rom gaimarjvos, darwmundes sakuTar TavSi, rom sibrmave ar niSnavs siglaxakes, am cekvis Semdeg is TviTon xdeba Tavisi damxmare biWis mfarveli, mas swored es Wirdeboda. ra iyo es? cekva? ara, _ es iyo polkovnikis kidev erTi, oRond mTavari samxedro operacia, romelsac sunTqvaSekruli Tvalyurs adevnebs mayurebeli. es iyo al paCinos maRali aqtioruli xelovneba. aqve minda moviyvano magaliTi profesor naTela uruSaZis wignidan (`wavideT TeatrSi~), Tu rogor aRwers igi nato gabunias mier Sesrulebul madam froSars (a. denerisa da f. diumanuaris `or obolSi~). `esaa epizodi, sadac madam froSaris ori vaJi: sayvareli Svili (boroti Jaki) da saZulveli Svili (keTili pieri) erTmaneTs daerevian, ra saSineli suraTi iyo, roca Zmebi daeZgerebian erTmaneTs danebiT. sisxls mowyurebuli afTari, madam froSari, darwmunebulia, rom Jaki moklavs piers; aqezebs Jaks, winaswarve ganicdis siames da TiTqos davlurs uvliso, ise dastrialebs garSemo. magram xdeba saswauli da susti pieri klavs Jaks.Uunda genaxaT, ra saSineli mxecuri

Rriali aRmoxdeboda xolme gulidan froSars da ra sasowarkveTili ecemoda Jakis gaciebul gvamze. saSineli iyo im wuTSi froSari.~ epizodis aRwera aSkarad gvauwyebs, rom gmiris cxovrebis es monakveTi msaxiobs gadawyvetili hqonda ritmulad: sacekvao elementi `TiTqos davlurs uvlis~ bunebrivi iyo, vinaidan froSars undoda orTabrZola yvela wertilidan daenaxa. cekvis ritmi saSualebas aZlevda msaxiobs brZolis ritmisTvis gaesva xazi. ritmuli daZabulobis momentSi ki, rodesac pieris danam gangmira Jaki _ es madam froSaris gangmirvasac niSnavda _ isic daeca, zed daemxo mkvdar Svils da amiT zusti wertili dausva epizodSi sakuTar cxovrebas da am epizods saerTod.~1 sabednierod uamravi aseTi magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba qarTul da ucxour SemoqmedebaSic. Cem mier zemoT moyvanili magaliTebi, Cemi azriT, is SemTxvevebia, rodesac qoreografiam zustad Tqva Tavisi saTqmeli, mWidrod Seekra speqtaklis ideas da xeli Seuwyo mis Semdgom ganviTarebas.Eerosi manjgalaZis komikuri, aleqsandre axmetelis tragikuli, amiran SalikaSvilis romantiuli da al paCinos esTetikuri gmirebi erT saerTo niSans atareben, isini mogviTxroben maT Sinagan bunebaze, xasiaTze da cxovrebis im patar-patara magram mniSvnelovan detalebze, risi gamoTqmac sityviT TiTqmis SeuZlebelia da am SemTxvevaSi qoreografias iyeneben rogorc azris gadmocemis saukeTeso saSualebas. aseve cekva SeiZleba warmoiSvas rogorc Sedegi personaJis Sinagani grZnobebis afeTqebisa. amis saukeTeso magaliTia qalbaton naTela uruSaZis mier aRwerili nato gabunias davluri. samwuxarod moxsenebis formati saSualebas ar maZlevs, rom sxva magaliTebzec visaubro. minda davasrulo kote marjaniSvilis sityvebiT, rodesac igi Sileris `yaCaRebs~ dgamda amalias rolis Semsrulebel veriko anjafariZes mimarTa: `cekvas ar davdgamT. icekve ise, rogorc amas Seni suli isurvebs _ es xom Seni sulis aRtacebaa, ganmuxtva Seni Sinagani mdgomareobisa, amitom cekva

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unda aRmocendes, rogorc Sedegi grZnobaTa aRzevebisa, magram Tu ki SenSi qariSxali ar amovardeba, _ nu icekveb.~2 rogorc mogaxseneT, Cemi dRevandeli moxseneba gaxlavT momavali Sromis erTi mciredi nawili, naSromze muSaoba grZeldeba, grZeldeba wyaroebis moZieba, maTi klasifikacia, analizi da imedi maqvs, momaval wels davasruleb am samuSaos.

vano sarajiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoria

1. ix.: n.uruSaZe. wavideT TeatrSi, Tbilisi, 1986. 2. n. uruSaZe, Teatris samyaro, `grigol robaqiZis sax. un-ti~, 2005.

· a. vaganova, `klasikuri cekvis safuZvlebi~, Targmani lili

gvaramaZisa. Tb.1940.

· a.AsamsonaZe, `qoreografiuli xelovneba da misi Seswavlis ZiriTadi

mimarTulebebi~, (sadisertacio naSromi), 2003. · r. WaniSvili, `werilebi qoreografiaze~, Tb. 2002. · al. burTikaSvili, `cekvis jadoqari~, Tb. 1960. · l.LnadareiSvili, `Tanamedrove qarTuli baleti~, Tb, `universali~, 2002. · . ,. , . 1985. · . , , . 1963. · . . , , , . 1987.

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Tamar miqaZe magistraturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli - asoc. prof. marina qavTaraZe jazisa da klasikis urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis jazi aris Tavisuflebis da tolerantobis simbolo. igi Slis sazRvrebs sxvadasxva asakis, sarwmunoebis, erovnebisa da rasis warmomadgenelTa Soris da did SemoqmedebiT sixaruls aniWebs, rogorc Semsruleblebs, aseve msmenelebs. dResdReobiT jazma mTeli msoflio moicva, magram is upirveles yovlisa amerikuli kulturis pirmSoa. spiriCuelsi, menestrelebis musikaluri Teatri, regtaimi, bluzi dabolos, adreuli saestrado jazi _ ai, mniSvnelovani pirvelsaxeebi axali musikisa, romelic afroamerikuli folkloris da amerikuli kulturebis SerwymiT daibada `axali samyaros~ CrdiloeTSi XIX-XX ss.-is mijnaze.1 am musikis umTavresi Tviseba aris improvizaciuli sawyisis prioriteti, rac gulisxmobs imas, rom jazuri nawarmoebi uSualod Sesrulebis procesSi iqmneba, srulyofil formas iZens da aseTi saxiT aRarasdros ganmeordeba. klasikuri musikis nebismier nawarmoebs dasrulebuli Sinagani mTlianoba axasiaTebs, imisda miuxedavad, Tu vin asrulebs mas. Semsrulebels ZaluZs mxolod azrobrivi Tu emociuri maxvilebis gadanacvlebiT miaRwios gansxvavebul Sinaarsobriv interpretacias. jazSi ki uSualod Semsrulebeli qmnis musikas da kompoziciis Semqmnelis sworuflebiani Tanaavtoria. jer kidev 1956 wels leonard berstainma amerikuli televiziiT cbc-arxiT wakiTxul leqciaze ganacxada: ` jazi iseTive seriozulia, rogorc klasikuri musika~ ,2 evropul tradiciebze aRzrdilni uneblied vadarebT jazs evropul musikas. imisaTvis, rom jazi adekvaturad iqnas aRqmuli _ unda gavacnobieroT, rom igi warmoiSva rogorc amerikuli movlena da mxolod Tavisi ganviTarebis Semdgom periodebSi gaidga fesvebi evropuli musikis sxvadasxva SreebSi.3

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im dros, roca evropuli akademiuri nawarmoebi zustad aris fiqsirebuli, jazi rogorc improvizaciuli xelovneba, iseve, rogorc zepiri tradiciis klasikuri musika, magaliTad induri klasikuri musika, sanoto Caweris SemTxvevaSi, kargavs Tavis imanentur Tvisebebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom jazuri kompoziciis sanoto Canawerebis arsebobis faqti eWvs ar iwvevs, jazmenebi fiqsirebul sanoto Canawerebs erTxmad uaryofen (`Zirs wignebi~); maTTvis es musika araa imis identuri, rasac jazis xelovneba hqvia. magaliTisTvis SeiZleba moviyvanoT dizi gilespi, erTxel rodesac man sakuT ari solo improvizaciis sanoto Canaweri ixila, Tvalebi auWrelda meTeqvsmetedi wilebisagan da gancvifrebulma ikiTxa `nuTu am yvelafers me vukravo?~. zogierT musikoss am faqtze kidev ufro mwvave reaqcia aReniSneba.4 sanoto transkrifcia, aris jazis mxolod mkrTali aCrdili. aqedan gamomdinare, nawarmoebebi Seqmnili evropuli akademiuri stilis kompozitorebis mier, Tundac iseTi saxelganTqmuli amerikelebisa, rogoric gerSvini da berstaini arian, ar aris jazi. im SemTxvevaSi ki, Tu es piesebi jazmusikosebis mier iqneba interpretirebuli, TiToeuli maTgani SeiZleba iqces aseTad. jazuri improvizacia evristul movlenaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba da masze saubrisas, upirveles yovlisa, unda gamoiyos iseTi imanenturi Tvisebebi, romlebic am kavSirze miuTiTeben: SemoqmedebiTi Tavisufleba, emociuri gaxsniloba, impulsurob a, grZnobadi aRq ma, miznisa da xerxeb is `erTmomenturoba~, fantaziurobis farTo gaqaneba. rac ufro metad aris kompoziciaSi gamovlenili es niSnebi, miT ufro nakleb reglamentirebulad, kanonikurad aRiqmeba igi. am TvalsazrisiT improvizaciuloba rogorc saazrovno princi pi, WeSmariti xelovnebis Tanmsdevi movlenaa, misi Tandayolili Tvisebaa, Tumca improvizaciuli bunebis mqone yvela xelovneba erTnairad ar avlens am niSnebs. am mxriv jazi unikaluri movlenaa. 5 Tavad am musikis arsiT aixsneba jazis qaRaldze mouxelTebloba, rasac `Freedom prinziple~ uwodeben; es princi pi qreba maSin, rodesac iwyeba misi danawevrebulad

ganxilva. rogorc dakuwuli nawilebidan ver aawyob sxeulis cocxal organizms, aseTive Znelia misi danawevrebisas jazuri kompoziciis ZiriTadi ideis daWera.6 The New Grove Dictionery of Music and Musicians-Si jazi Semdegnairad aris ganmartebuli: `musikis nairsaxeoba, romelic Seqmnilia XX s.-is dasawyisSi, ZiriTadad, Savkaniani amerikelebis mier, im elementebis Serwymis Sedegad, romelic amozrdilia evropul-amerikuli da afrikuli tomebis musikisagan. es unikaluri, movlena SesaZlebelia erTi da imave dros sxvadasxva dasabuTebisas SeiZleba ganekuTvnos xalxuri, popularuli da mravalmxatvruli musikis sferos, Tumca igi Seicavs am samive saxesxvaobis aspeqtebs. jazma iqonia didi zegavlena ucxour kulturaze, ara marto Tavisi udidesi popularobis gamo, aramed im mniSvnelobiTac, romelic man Seasrula popmusikis mravali formis CamoyalibebaSi~.7 Tu gadavxedavT jazis istorias, davrwmundebiT imaSi, rom am Janris warmomadgenlebi, maT Soris afroamerikelebic, mudam iswrafvodnen gaeziarebinaT evropuli klasikuri gamocdileba. gavixsenoT skot joplini, romelmac scada daewera opera, baleti, riTac evropel klasikos kompozitorebTan miaxlovebis survili gamoavlina, aseve diuk elingtoni, romelsac evropuli simfonizmis da jazuri enis Serwymis mcdeloba hqonda. igive iTqmis _ gerSvinis, zes komfris, pol vaiTmenis, bad pouelis, beni gudmenis, stefan grapelis, deiv brubekis, leni tristanos, Jak lusieris, bobi makferenis, Cik koreas, jit jaretis, herbi henkokis, vokalur ansambl ~Swingle singers~, ~KLAZZ Brothers~, ~Modern Jazz Quartet~-is da sxvaTa mimarT. Tu sawyis etapze jazi da klasikuri musika erTmaneTis antagonistur, polarul cnebebad moiazreboda, XX saukunis 40-50-ani wlebidan dgeba periodi, rodesac jazi da klasika intensiur dialogs iwyeben, es aris e. w. cool jazis _ ` d am cx ral i~ ja z i s xan a. z ogi er T i mk vl eva ri m as `evropeizirebul jazs~ uwodebs, es periodi aseve cnobilia `dasavleTis sanapiros jazis~ saxelwodebiT. cool jazs axasiaTebs arsebiTi gansxvaveba bopisagan. magaliTad, aq ukugdebulia ritmuli eqspresiuloba da intonaciuri aramdgradoba _ specifikuri afroamerikuli maxasiaTeblebi.

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cool jazs gaaCnia iseTi niSnebi, rogoricaa emociuri TavSekavebuloba, inteleqtualuri sawyisis gaZliereba, tonalur-modulaciuri logikis garTuleba, faqturis polifonizacia, yovelive es mas aaxloebs evropul akademiur musikasTan, gansakuTrebiT barokosTan (es procesi gamoikveTa iseT musikosebTan, rogorebic arian: bil evansi, leni tristano, deiv brubeki). droTa ganmavlobaSi jazma axali TvisebebiT gaamdidra XX saukunis klasikuri musikis yvela Janri. amis magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT j. gerSvinis (`rafsodia bluzis stilSi~), i. stravinskis (`eboni konCerti~), m. ravelis (`foqstroti~ da e. w. `bluzuri sonata~ violonisa da fortepianosaTvis), d. miios (baleti `samyaros Seqmna~), f. pulenkis, h. kouelis, e. e. vila-lobosis, a. Snitkes, qarTvelTagan b. kvernaZis, g. yanCelis, n. gabunias, s. bardanaSvilis, v. kaxiZis da sxvaTa nawarmoebebi. sinTezisadmi swrafva jazmenebis mxridanac yovelTvis arsebobda: `jazingi~ (Jazzing), `klasikis gasvingva~ (Jazzing The Classics) _ interpretacia, gadamuSaveba jazur sulSi Temebisa an mTlianad nawarmoebisa, niSnavs klasikuri stilis jazur imitacias. zogierTi mkvlevari, maT Soris uinton sarjenti Zalzed kritikulad udgeba aseT procesebs. 8 garkveulwilad SeiZleba mas daveTanxmoT, radgan klasikuri masalis jazmusikosebis mier gadamuSavebis Sedegad, yovelTvis rodi miiReba mxatvrulad srulfasovani nawarmoebi. aseTi eqsperimentebis Rirebuleba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra esTetikur, eTikur safuZvelze da ra mizniT tardeba isini; ramdenad eTanawyoba gamosayenebeli masalis gamomsaxvelobiTi Tvisebebi mxatvrulad gamiznul amocanebs da profesionalizmis ra donesTan gvaqvs saqme. rac Seexeba dasesxebas musikaSi (iqneba es melodiis citireba, stilizacia, damuSaveba, transkrifcia, redaqcia an axali saSemsruleblo versia), is warmoadgens savsebiT kanonzomier da gavrcelebul movlenas SemoqmedebaSi. `klasikis gajazebis~ tradicia, jazis jer kidev adreul etapze gvxvdeba: zanguri samxedro orkestrebi, romlebic gavrcelebuli iyo XIX-XX s.-Si; axalorleanuri marSirebuli

orkestrebi; xSirad klasikur nawarmoebs sinkopirebul maneraSi amuSavebdnen pianisti-regtaimerebic; italiuri, franguli, germanuli operebis jazur stilSi parodirebas akeTebdnen menestrelebi. jazis istoriaSi amis uZveles magaliTs warmoadgens jeli rol mortonis safortepiano piaesa `Miserere", romelic verdis `trubaduris~ Temis gadamuSavebuli versiaa. 20-30-ian wlebSi mravali klasikuri melodia aJRerda Sweet jazis aranJirebiTa da damuSavebiT. klasikuri nawarmoebis Temebze gakeTebuli pretenziuli da teqnikurad msuye popurebi xSirad ismoda pol vaiTmenis simfo-jazuri orkestris da sxva analogiuri koleqtivebis koncertebze. jazisa da klasikuri musikis urTierTobis WrilSi gansakuTr ebi T gvinda ,,Baroque Jazz"-ze gavamaxviloT yuradReba. barokos epoqa msoflio kulturis istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso epoqaa Tavisi dramatizmiT, intensiurobiT, dinamikiT da harmoniiT. sagulisxmoa, is faqti, rom jaz musikosebs gansakuTrebiT izidavdaT barokos musikis es Tvisebebi da kerZod i. s. baxis Semoqmedeba. mimdinareoba ,,Baroque Jazz" ukavSirdeba barokos evropuli musikis jazur interpretacias, aseve jazmenebis mcdelobas am ti pis musikis Seqmnisa. yvelaze adrindeli nimuSebi baroko-jazisa ekuTvnis svingis periods. Cveni azriT jazisaTvis yvelaze axlobeli barokos Semdegi niSnebia: 1. Tavis devizad baroko "inventio ~-s (`aRmoCenas,~ `gamogonebas~) da `moZraoba, dro, sivrcis~ princi ps irCevs _ rac aseve jazuri improvizaciis upirvelesi Tvisebaa. 2. `TamaSis~ princi pi.~ stiluri TamaSis xerxebi Zalzed gavrcelebulni iyo barokos epoqaSi. TamaSis princi pi metad qmediTia stilur da Janrul sistemebSi. _ jazSi `Zveli~ stilebi da Janrebi warmatebiT esadagebian `axal~ sunTqvas da `axlebi,~ romlebic kargad asimilirebdnen `ZvelTan~ erTgvari transformaciiT. 3. barokos musikis damaxasiaTebeli niSania _ `wamebis aTvla~, mudam pulsirebuli ritmi, romelic xSirad erwymis daklaknil ritmul suraTs. barokos musikam Seqmna kontrastis

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gansxvavebuli saxec: mimdinare, cvalebadi dro (adamianuri cxovrebis dro) da gayinuli dro (maradiuli dro): tempebis kontrasti mravalnawilian nawarmoebebSi; _ variaciis Janrebi ucvlel, ostinatur banze, qoraluri preludiebi...9 jazic uaRresi dinamikurobiTa da impulsurobiT xasiaTdeba. ritmi aris jazis namdvili suli, misi impulsi, ritmis mkveTri gamoxatva mas gansakuTrebul energiasa da winswrafvas aniWebs. jazuri `baxiana~ istorikosebis mosazrebiT daiwyo 1937 wels, rodesac Sesrulda baxis ormagi koncerti re minori gadamuSavebuli svingis stilSi _ e. sautis (violino), s. grapelis (violino), j. reihardis (gitara) mier, aman SemdgomSi gagrZeleba pova beni gudmanis orkestrSi _ jazuri fuga ~Buch goes to town~. 10 mogvianebiT am stilSi Tavis Zalebs cdidnen d. brubekis kvarteti, vokaluri ansambli ~Swingle singers~, pianistebi: Jak lusieri, jon luisi, ~Modern Jazz Quartet~, bil evansi k. ogermanis orkestrTan erTad, bobi makfereni da sxva. jazi da baxi _ erTi SexedviT, es aris ori sxvadasxva samyaro. zedapiruli midgomisas Cndeba iseTi azri, rom es aris klasikuri musikis jazuri gadamuSaveba, magram saWiroa garkveuli CaRrmaveba, raTa gamovavlinoT orive mimdinareobis maxasiaTeblebi wminda saxiT. gansakuTrebiT naTeli magaliTia am mxriv jak lusieris _ `Play Bach~-i da jgufi `Swingle Singers~-is vokalizi. kiTxvaze, Tu ratom mimarTaven ufro xSirad jazuri gadamuSavebisaTvis baxs, da ara, vTqvaT, Suberts, romlis simRerebi erTi SexedviT ufro axlosaa bluzTan, an Caikovskis, romlis melodiuri Temebi savsebiT gamodgeboda `jazur standartad~ an bolos da bolos debiusis, romlis harmoniuli ena axlosaa jazTan; vfiqrobT, pasuxi aseTia: jazi da baxiseul stili Rrma naTesaur kavSirSia, romlis fesvebze miuTiTebs esa Tu is interpretacia. zogjer Tavad baxiseul musikalur teqstSi SeiniSneba svingis niSnebi da jaz-musikoss SesaZloa didi jafa ar dasWirdes baxis musikis jazSi gadatanisaTvis. Tumca, msgavsi gardaqmnebis Sedegad, xSirad iqmneba iseTi jazuri damuSaveba,

romelic ufro instumentul svings gamokveTavs, vidre mis improvizaciul bunebas, rac sruliad zedmetia. imisaTvis, rom gamoikveTos svingis SegrZneba baxis musikaSi, sulac araa saWiro kontrabasis an dasartyamebis moSvelieba. svingis `baxiseburi~ SegrZnebis magaliTad gamodgeba misi nebismieri nawarmoebidan Temis sawyisi frazebi. jango reinhardis azriT, es elementi ucbad rodi Seimecneba. misi aRqma SeuZlia mxolod jazze kargad gawaful smenas ­ reinhardis mosazrebiT, Temis me-13 me-14 notSi kargad ismineba bluzis tonebi, ris gamoc, baxiseuli Temis ganviTarebis logika gacilebiT advilad eTanawyoba jazur improvizacias, vidre magaliTad, haidnis musikaluri Temebi.11 da mainc, rogor SeiZleba baxis musikaze improvizacia? cnobilia, rom improvizacia arsebobda jer kidev barokos periodSi. Tavad baxic araCveulebrivad improvizirebda organsa da Cembaloze. barokos musikaSi SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT mkafio paralelebi jazur ritm-jgufsa da kontrabasTan: jaz-musikosi improvizirebs akordebis Tanmimdevrobis TanxlebiT, barokos epoqis musikosi _ bas-kontinius TanxlebiT. markus velfles sayovelTao Tezisi aseTia: baxis TxzulebebSi TiToeul nots gaaCnia imdenad zustad gaTvlili adgili, rom misi frazebi SeiZleba maTematikur formulebs SevadaroT. safuZvlianad Tvlian, rom klasikur musikoss ar ZaluZs melodiuri xazis ganviTareba ise, rogorc amas akeTebs jaz improvizatori. magaliTad, SeiZleba moviyvanoT ori erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli piesa koleman hokinsis `Picasso~ da leni tristanos "Line Up"-i; maTSi yvela toni jazurad intensiuria magram Tanmimdevroba TiTqosda spontanuria. kritikosebi am piesebs xSirad adareben baxis musikas. erTxel stefan grapelma Tavis Tavze saubrisas aRniSna, rom igi improvizaciebSi cdilobs iseT xarisxobriv masStabebs miaRwios, romlebic baxis musikas axasiaTebs. jazmeni ar uaryofs sulier siaxloves baxis musikasTan, magram sulac ar moswons, da samarTlianadac, rodesac misi musikis mimarT iyeneben klasikuri musikis kriteriumebs. `goldberg-variaciebi~ baxis pirveli biografis, iohan nikosaus forkelis mtkicebulebiT (1802) _ `warmoadgens

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models, romlis mixedviTac unda aigos yvela variacia.~ am Teziss dResac ar daukargavs mniSvneloba; is, rom bevri `variacia~ emyareba baxiseul metrul, harmoniul models kanonzomieria ara mxolod barokos periodisaTvis, aramed XIX-XX saukuneebisTvisac. ra Tqma unda, es gansakuTrebiT robert Sumans exeba (Tumca, am ti pis variaciebis nimuSebi gvxvdeba Sumanamdec, beThovenTan da mis Semdegac, mag., bramsTan). baxiseul `wyaros~ etanebian umetesad jaz pianistebi, bevri maTgani _ elingtonidan evansamde _ ukravs baxs Sinaganad, garkveuli `intimiT~, TiTqos TavisTvis, zogierTi uZRvnis mas Tavis Canawerebs. bad pauelis...`Bud on Bach~-dan mel uoldronis `Back to bach~-iT damTavrebuli. momReral nina simones popularoba metadaa davalebuli fugis stilSi safortepiano improvizaciebisgan. barokos, baxis musikis zegavlena igrZnoba cool jazis pianistebze, gansakuTrebiT ki leni tristanoze, misi koncertebi xSirad iwyeboda baxis romelime nawarmoebis teqstis zusti SesrulebiT da mxolod amis Semdeg ukravda igi `Tavis musikas~. albaT, verc deiv brubeki miaRwevda baxis gareSe didebas. aseve jon luisma jguf `Modern Jazz Quartet~-Si miuZRvna Tavis Canawerebi baxs `Blues on Bach~ da solo `Preludes and Fuges~. unda aRiniSnos, rom baxis zogierTi kompoziciis interpretaciaSi da mis jazur standartSi metad TvalnaTliv Cans polifoniurobisaken swrafva. es ti puri iyo niuorleanis jazSi; svingisa da bibopis epoqaSi aRniSnuli niSnebi naklebad vlindeba. cool jazis musikosebi ki, romlebsac akademiuri ganaTleb a hq ondaT miRebuli, kvlav ub runeben jazs polifonizaciis princi ps da baxi maT mudmiv orientirad rCeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom TemebSi da mravali jazuri standartebis harmoniul safuZvelSi (magaliTad, piesaSi `Softly, As In A Morning Sunrise~) polifoniuri modgoma ar aris, melodiur qsovilis improvizacia mainc waagavs baxisas. amis naTeli magaliTia `All The Things You Are~: aramarto cool jazSi, aramed parkeriseul bopSi, gansakuTrebiT ki brazilieli gitaristis baden pauelis improvizaciebSi _ nebismier

SemTxvevaSi jerom kernis, es standarti mogvagonebs barokos epoqas. dabolos, baxisa da jazis mimarTebaSi, unda gavixsenoT li konici, romelmac erT-erT interviuSi ganacxada `me vusmen Cems baxs, da yovelTvis vcdilob ar daviviwyo, rom jazi swored misgan warmodga. me vfiqrob, baxi iyo pirveli jazmusikosi. mis musikaSi aris igive svingi da igive Sinaarsi, rac CemTvis jazs warmoadgens... me TiTqmis yoveldRe vusmen mis suitebs violonCelosaTvis, ufro grandiozuli, ufro amaRlebuli musika me ar meguleba~. 50-iani wlebis bolos jazis princi pebisa da Tanamedrove akademiuri musikis elementebis Serwymis Sedegad warmoiSva Tanamedrove stiluri mimarTuleba saxelwodebiT `mesame mimdinareoba~ (Third Stream), `mesame mimdinareoba~ warmoiSva akademiuri musikalur xelovnebisa da jazis sinTezis safuZvelze da mas ukavia Sualeduri pozicia maT Soris (termini ekuTvnis am mimarTulebis fuZemdebels giunTer Siulers). amdenad, musikis es ori sfero _ jazi da klasika urTierT zemoqmedebda, da es ormxrivi procesi paralelurad mimdinareobda. dRes, jazur da klasikur musikas erTi da igive procentuli maCvenebeli ukavia amerikuli musikis bazarze. dRevandeli jazuri musika axal-axali ideebiT amdidrebs Tanamedrove musikalur sivrces _ xdeba musikaluri xelovnebis sxvadasxva sferoebis, Janrebis, mimarTulebis integracia, maT Soris kvlavac aqtualuria jazisa da klasikuri musikis Serwyma, ramac gamoiwvia e. w. zRvris waSla _ klasikuri musikis da jazis Semsruleblebs Soris. amis dasadastureblad mravali magaliTi SeiZleba moviyvanoT: oskar pitersoniT... dawyebuli, bred meldauTa da iaron hermaniT damTavrebuli. sagulisxmoa isic, rom aRniSnuli musikosebi umaRlesi akademiuri ganaTleba miRebuli arian da SesaniSnavad asruleben klasikur musikas, rogorc pirveladi originalis saxiT (magaliTad, kit jaretis SesrulebiT baxis `ktk~-s I da II tomi da SostakoviCis preludiebis da fugebis I da II tomi, Cik koreas da bobi makferenis mocartis #23 koncerti, kit

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jaretis mocartis #23 koncerti, uinton marsalisis vivaldis #2 koncerti sayvirisaTvis, mocartis re maJoruli koncerti sayvirisaTvis da sxv.), aseve mis jazur stilSi interpretaciisas.

maia sigua magistraturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli - asoc. prof. qeTevan bolaSvili antikuri tragedia XX saukunis musikalur-scenur nawarmoebebSi _ Janris interpretaciis sakiTxebi kacobriobis istoriaSi erT-erTi pirveli maRalganviTarebuli civilizaciis _ Zveli saberZneTis kulturuli memkvidreoba aswleulebis manZilze araerTxel gaxda sxvadasxva erovnebis did xelovanTa STagonebis wyaro. swored maTi Semoqmedebis wyalobiT Seiqmna da damkvidrda warmodgena Zvel saberZneTze, rogorc harmoniul, daxvewil, idealur samyaroze, magram maT Soris arc erTisTvis yofila es samyaro Cveulebrivi yoveldRiuroba, amitomac iyo es warmodgenebi pirobiTi. swored antikuri musikis aRorZinebis mcdelobas daukavSirda operis dabadeba XVI-XVII saukuneebis mijnaze, magram, rogorc germaneli kompozitori karl orfi werda, operis istoria, romelic, cxadia, musikaluri Janrebis da gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis ganviTarebis procesSi aRmocenda, mainc SecdomiT daiwyo.1 aq igulisxmeba faqti _ florenciis wris wevrebi daaxloebiT 1600 wlisTvis berZnul tragedias musikalurad miiCnevdnen ara marto sagundo partiebSi, aramed mTlianad. pirveli italiuri opera da saerTod, evropuli musikaluri Teatris pirveli nawarmoebi perisa da rinuCinis `dafne~, iyo mcdeloba SeesrulebinaT _ emReraT berZnuli tragedia. oTxi aswleulis win dawyebulma am procesma _ interesma antikuri Teatrisadmi _ saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi ramdenjerme, maT Soris gasuli saukuneSi, kidev erTxel iCina Tavi. antikur siuJetebze mravalricxovani nawarmoebi Seiqmna: operebi _ rihard Strausis `eleqtra~, ernst krJenekis `orestes cxovreba~, jorje eneskus `oidi pos mefe~, karl orfis amave saxelwodebis musikaluri tragedia, miio-klodelis `orestea~ da mTeli rigi `wuT-operebisa~; igor stravinskis `oidi pos

1. ., , ., 1990. gv. 5-44. 2. ., ? «.», 1998, #43. gv. 15. 3. ., . 1978 gv. 75-81. 4. Shipton A., Groovin' High: the Life of Dizzy Gillespie, New York, 1999. 5. e. buCukuri, improvizaciuloba rogorc saazrovno princi pi da

jazi//amerikis Seswavlis sakiTxebi, N 2, 2003, gv. 352-357. 6. ., -- , , 2007. 7.The New GROVE Dictionary of Music and Musicians, #9, 1989, gv. 561579. 8. ., ., 1987. gv. 218-225. 9. ., : , ., 1994. 10. ., . 1978 gv. 234. 11. . ., _ ? ?, Jazz, 2007.gv. 27.

www.swingtime.ru www.apassion4jazz.net www.jazz.ru/eng/history/default.htm

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mefe~, artur onegeris, aseve karl orfis `antigone~ da sxva. mogvianebiT am Tematikas TavianT scenur opus-ebSi mimarTaven pier bulezi, ianis qsenakisi, luiji nono, hans verner hence. TiToeul maTganTan sxvadasxvagvarad gaiazreba dramaturgiis, stilis, musikaluri enis da, rac erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovania, Janris sakiTxi. saerTod, ama Tu im Janrisadmi mikuTvnebulobis problema gasul saukuneSi gansakuTrebiT gamwvavda da erTnairad Seexo rogorc instrumentuli, ise vokaluri musikis yvela nairsaxeobas, maT Soris, musikalur-scenursac. moxsenebaSi operis niSnebis matarebel mravalricxovan opus-Ta Soris yuradRebas mxolod imaTze SevaCerebT, romlebic swored antikuri, ufro zustad ki Zveli berZnuli tragediis klasikosebis SemoqmedebiT arian inspirirebulni, ganvixilavT, Tu rogor xdeba maTSi am yvela droisTvis aqtualuri Tematikis axal drosa da sivrceSi gadmotana _ gaTanamedroveba da rogor aisaxeba es nawarmoebis Janrul bunebaze. konkretulad ki SevexebiT igor stravinskis `oidi pos mefes~, artur onegeris, aseve karl orfis `antigones~, ianis qsenakisis `oresteas~. XX saukunis 20-ian wlebidan aRorZinebuli antikuri siuJetebi, sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva Janruli da stiluri damuSavebebis saxiT gvxvdeba. maT vxedavT jer kidev eqspresionistebTan, neoklasicistebTan, axal pozitivistebTan. maT mimarTavdnen p. klodeli, o. kokoSka, da p. pikaso, J. kokto. cnobilia Jan koktos sityvebi: `TviTmfrinavidan visurvebdi Zveli saberZneTis fotografirebas~2. es sityvebi aSkarad miuTiTebs antikurobis gaTanamedrovebis im miswrafebaze, romelic antikur siuJetebze Seqmnili musikalur-scenuri nawarmoebebisTvis daweril mis teqstebSi gamovlinda. gansaxilveli nawarmoebebis Seqmnis TariRebs erTmaneTisgan miaxloebiT ocwliani droiTi intervalebi aSorebT3, magram antikurobisa da Tanamedroveobis Serwymis mcdeloba aaxloebT, Tumca gansxvavebulia avtorTa miznebi da Sesabamisad Sedegebic. Tu qsenakisi miznad isaxavda Zveli berZnuli Teatris elementebis rekonstruirebas, Tanamedroveobis sarkeSi Taviseburi arqeologiuri suraTis anareklis Seqmnas, da mTeli rigi originaluri xerxebis gamoyenebis wyalobiT srulad

miaRwia mizans4, onegerTan da stravinskisTan antikuris gaTanamedrovebis tendencia da zogadad, interesi antikuri Tematikisadmi neoklasicizmTan aris dakavSirebuli. `antigone~ da `oidi posi~ erTsa da imave periodSi (1926-1927 ww.), erTsa da imave kulturul sivrceSi iqmneboda, magram maT Soris Tvisobrivi gansxvavebebia. stravinski miznad isaxavs aRadginos opera-oratoriis 5 Janri antikur siuJetze dramaturgiis, formis, musikaluri enis, teqstis arqaizaciis niSniT; onegeri ki `antigones~ qmnis, rogorc musikalur dramas, magram, Tavad mas `musikalur tragedias~ uwodeb s 6 . kompozitorisTvis operis miaxloeba oratoriasTan im periodSi Seqmnili situaciidan gamosavali iyo: `operaSi sami didi musikosi batonobs: vagneri, debiusi da rihard Strausi. Tu debiusis gavlenas gaeqcevi, meore ukiduresobisken _ masnesken waxval; Strausidan puCinisken gadadian _ es kidev ufro uaresia. ukandaxevis nacvlad (ukandaxeva xom damarcxebas niSnavs), ratom ar veZeboT axali gzebi?~7 _ werda onegeri. aseTi gza misTvis iyo operis gamdidreba epikuri, gmirulxalxuri TematikiT, misi daaxloeba oratoriasTan, rac `mefe daviTSi~ da `ivdiTSi~, mogvianebiT, metnaklebad `antigoneSi~ gamovlinda. Tu stravinski da orfi miznis gansaxorcieleblad stiliz acias mimarTaven, onegeri antikur siuJetebs zogadsakacobrio Tematikis TvalsazrisiT iazrebs. mas miaCnia, rom stilizaciis gziT aseTi marad cocxali da aqtualuri problemebis gadmocema aRaribebs mas da amasTanave boWavs SemoqmedebiT rols. amitom igi kritikulad ekideba stravinskis neoklasicisturi operebis da baletebis mTel serias. antikuris gaTanamedroveba onegerTan gamoixateba saxeobriv daxasiaTebebSi da musikalur enaSi da, rac Zalian mniSvnelovania, teqstSi. koktos teqstis Sesaxeb igi ambobda, rom esaa teqsti, romelic `cru `literaturSCinis~ (brWyalebi Cemia ­ m. s.), arqeologiis, yalbi didebulebis gareSe gadmoscems warsulis am WeSmaritebas, romelic maradiuli gaxda~8. mkveTrma, yovelgvar romantizms moklebulma koktos teqstma ubiZga onegers, rom Tavisi saxeebisTvis eZebna Sesatyvisi mkveTri Seferilobebi, moklebuli umcires sirbilesa da sentimentalobas. garda amisa,

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kompozitori axdenda movlenebis droSi SemWidroebas, iyenebda damdablebul stilistikas, TiTqmis yofiT, leqsikas, rom am gziT antikuri tragedia ufro gasagebi gaexada XX saukunis msmenelisaTvis. `teqstis SemWidroebam gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegebi moitana: mkveTri, xisti scenebis da mravalricxovani `sikvdilebis~ droSi daaxloeba mis zemoqmedebas ki ar aZlierebs, aramed piriqiT, asustebs, radgan msmeneli maT aRqmas da gaazrebas ver aswrebs [...] koktos mier sofokles teqstis Tavisufali adaptacia dramatuli poeziis am Sedevrs mSral sagazeTo qronikas amsgavsebs~ 9 . dramatizmis, scenuri daZabulobis mxriv `antigone~ Sordeba oratorias da ufro metad uaxlovdeba `wminda~ operas, vidre onegeris am ti pis adrindeli qmnilebebi, romlebSic sagundo epizodebis siWarbe da dramaturgiis epikuroba aSkarad SeiniSneba. musikaluri ganviTarebis swrafviTi dinamika, naTeli, mkafio Teatraluri qmedeba, deklamaciuri monodiis batonoba `antigones~ saopero dramaturgiis niSan-Tvisebebia. kompozitori Teatraluri dramaturgiis kanonebs emorCileba da cdilobs mis Taviseburebebs operis specifika miusadagos. `antigone~ sinTeturi nawarmoebia, moqmedebis ganviTarebuli elementebiT (swrafi tempi da ritmi, Teatraluri dramaturgiis kanonzomierebebis mixedviT scenebis ganlageba, moqmedebis koncentrirebuloba, misi mimarTeba erTiani kulminaciisken da a. S.). magram gundi-xalxis mudmivi _ xilulad da uxilavad _ yofna scenaze, maRali ganzogadebis momenti da pozitiuri ideis ganmtkiceba (kvanZis tragikuli gaxsnis miuxedavad) aaxloebs mas onegerisve sxva opera-oratoriebTan, amitom, zogierTi mkvlevari `antigonesac~ opera-oratorias uwodebs. stravinski sxva gziT midis. upirveles yovlisa, is iRebs sofok les ` oi di p o s mef is~ T emat ikas imit om, rom zogadsakacobrio siuJeti sWirdeba, an, im zomamde cnobili, rom ar saWiroebdes dawvrilebiT gadmocemas. `mindoda piesa, rogorc aseTi, ukana planze gadamewia, radgan vfiqrobdi amiT gamomekveTa misi dramatuli arsi da Tavi gameTavisuflebina, rom ufro metad CavRrmavebodi musikalur dramatizacias~ _ werda kompozitori10. SesaZloa, amitomac ar moeqca igi koktos teqstis gavlenis qveS, piriqiT, Zalze aqtiurad Caeria libretos

SeqmnaSi, vidre ar Seiqmna ara drama moqmedebiT, aramed `raRac `naturmortis~ msgavsi~. `ra ekuTvnis libretoSi koktos? [...] vfiqrob ufro naklebad forma, vidre frazebis aRnagoba [...] magram musika modis sityvebis gverdis avliT da mTlianad STagonebulia sofokles tragediiT~11. kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori teqstTan dakavSirebiT aris isic, rom koktoseuli franguli teqsti laTinurad iTargmna da msmenelisTvis kvlav gaugebari darCa. amasac Tavisi mizezi hqonda, romelsac kompozitori ase xsnida: `didi xania mindoda damewera opera mkvdar enaze. laTinurs sulac ar aRviqvamdi mis kaTolikur-klerikalur aspeqtSi, aramed saafTiaqo, iurisprudenciul, notarialur, samecniero ­ erTi sityviT, metad zust da myar enad mesaxeboda. igi Cems operaSi dekoratiulia, statikuri, uZravi, masiuri~12. garda amisa, laTinuris saSualebiT stravinski neolascisturi TeatrisTvis damaxasiaTebel gaucxoebis efeqtsac aRwevs, magram nawarmoebis Sinaarsisgan mayureblis sruli gamijvnis Tavidan asacileblad Semohyavs spikeri (mTxrobeli), romelsac orgvari funqcia akisria: igi publikas maTTvis gasageb enaze esaubreba da amiT exmareba gahyves movlenebis msvlelobas. meore mxriv, gvevlineba ra Sualedur `rgolad~ Semsruleblebsa da mayurebels Soris, aZlierebs gaucxoebas da kidev ufro met obieqtivizacias axdens. aRsaniSnavia, rom am statikur nawarmoebSi mxolod spikeri moZraobs. m. druskini gamoTqvams varauds, rom es SesaZloa meierholdis zegavlena iyos, romelic 1908 wels werda: `saWiroa umoZrao Teatri. es araa arnaxuli, arasdros arsebuli ram. aseTi Teatri ukve iyo. saukeTeso tragediebi: `evmenidebi~, `antigone~, `eleqtra~, `oidi posi kolonosSi~, `p romeTe~, `qoeforeb i~ umoZrao tragediebia. maT Si fsiqologiuri qmedebac araa, materialurze rom araferi vTqvaT. anu, araa is, rasac siuJets vuwodebT~13. stravinskis `oidi pos mefeSi~ oratoriis wili gacilebiT aRemateba operisas. Zalze mcirea ariebis raodenoba, maSin, roca moqmedebis mTavari warmmarTveli gundia. Sekruli, mkacri sagundo scenebi hendelis oratoriebTanac avlenen garkveul msgavsebas. kompozitori upirvelesad ganviTarebis wminda musikalur kanonzomierebebs emorCileba da amas literaturuli

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da Teatraluri mxare ewireba (aqedan _ laTinuri teqsti da moqmedebis statikuroba, ris wyalobiT stravinskisTan oratoriis niSnebi Warbobs). `Sinaarsis mixedviT `oidi pos mefe~ SeiZleba operad CavTvaloT, an ara. magram moZraobis TvalsazrisiT sruliad arasaopero nawarmoebia~ _ werda kompozitori `dialogebSi~14. antikur tragediebze Seqmnil karl orfis scenur nawarmoebebs, maT Soris `antigonesac~ (1949 w.) stravinskis `oidi pos mefesTan~ akavSirebT antikuri TeatrisTvis damaxasiaTebeli formebis daKJanruli Taviseburebebis aRorZinebis mcdeloba. amasTan, orfi aTanamedrovebda Zvel berZnul siuJetebs mxolod musikis saSualebiT. literaturuli wyaros dramaturgiul qsovils, teqsts, uZveles problematikas (romelTac onegeris msgavsad yvela droisTvis aqtualurad miiCnevda) _ xeluxleblad tovebda. ` antigonesTan~ dakavSirebiT kompozitori werda: `Cemi amocana iyo, araferi mimematebina sofokles tragediisTvis, mxolod interpretireba momexdina Tanamedrove saSualebebiT [...] `antigone~ araa Cveulebrivi sarepertuaro nawarmoebi saopero TeatrebisTvis, esaa sakulto Teatris sazeimo warmodgena [...] aq Cems nawarmoebze araa saubari, aramed sofokles tragediaze, romlis miRma mTeli samyaroa~15. sainteresoa, rom Tavad kompozitori Tavis antikur tragediebs `sakulto dramebs~ uwodebs16. `antigoneSi~ antikuri drama Rrma tragikul ganzogadebas inarCunebs. musika sanaxaobis erT-erTi atributia, romelic Teatris kanonebs emorCileba, am SemTxvevaSi _ berZnuli tragediis. orfi antikur tragediebs aRiqvamda ara rogorc wminda musikalur, aramed sinTetur nawarmoebebs. man uari Tqva specialurad Sedgenil libretoze da `antigoneSi~ sofokles teqstis germanul enaze helderliniseuli Targmani gamoiyena. esqiles mixedviT Seqmnil `promeTeSi~ ki, qsenakisis msgavsad, saerTod uaryo yovelgvari Targmani da SeinarCuna Zveli berZnuli ena, romelic misTvis simboluri mniSvnelobis iyo, rogorc pirveli ena, romelzec Seiqmna evropuli kultura17. kompozitori cdilobs Tanamedrove scenis pirobebSi klasikuri tragediis utyuari forma Tanamedrove musikaluri

enisa da instrumentebis saSualebiT gaacocxlos. magaliTad, teqstis musikaluri interpretaciisTvis igi irCevs Zunw, mkacr deklamaciur stils: iyenebs erTxmian foburdonul gundebs Zveli italiuri madrigalebis stilSi da soloebs gamokveTilad fiqsirebuli ritmiT, mkveTrad SezRudul saorkestro palitras. melodia rac ufro iSviaTad Cndeba, miT naTlad da mniSvnelovnad JRers. kompozitori cdilobs Seqmnas ritmulad organizebuli reCitaciis gansakuTrebuli ti pi, romelic cnobili iyo, rogorc gavrcelebuli da miRebuli Zvel berZnul TeatrSi. deklamaciis da reCitaciis Secvla erT bgeraze fsalmodirebiT _ RvTismsaxurebis ritualiT aris STagonebuli. bizantiuri liturgia ufro axloa berZnul tragediasTan, vidre opera. orkestri maq sim alurad uax lovd eb a antikur instrumentariums (vxvdebiT iSviaT instrumentebs, `arqaul dasartyamebs~, aratradiciul Semadgenlobas) 18; gamoxatvis saSualebebi Zunwia, tembrebi _ erTmniSvnelovani, erTfunqciuri, gansaz Rvruli personaJisT vis Tu simb olo-ideisTvis misadagebuli. orfi uars ambobs simfoniuri orkestrisTvis tradiciul Sinagan organizebaze da iyenebs originalur instrumentul Semadgenlobas. masTan pirvel adgilze simRera, sityva, metyvelebis musikaa, instrumentuli Tanxleba ­ daqvemdebarebul rolSia. sxvadasxvaoba, saxasiaTo detalebi minimaluria, maqsimaluri koncentracia, ZiriTadad, erT ganwyobilebazea, daculia stilis siwminde, musikaluri da ferwerul-dekoratiuli saSualebebi mkacrad SeirCeva, ar viTardeba fsiqologiuri konfliqtebi, dapirispirebulia mxolod pirobiTad Savi da TeTri. am TvisebebiT orfis nawarmoebi onegeris `antigones~ sruli anti podia. Tu stravinskim `oidi posSi~ koktos teqstis laTinuri Targmani gamoiyena, onegerma _ koktos mierve frangulad adaptirebuli sofokles teqsti, orfma _ sofokles helderliniseuli Targmani, romelSic antikuri metri organulad erwymis germanul sintaqsur struqturebs. Sesabamisad, orfis `antigone~ berZnul originalTan yvelaze axloa da, am mxriv, erTgvarad enaTesaveba qsenakisis `oresteas~ _ sofokleseuli teqstis ucvlelad gadmocemis gamo da

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meore mxriv, _ stravinskis da qsenakiss stilizaciis gamoyenebis gamo. T u z emoT ganxiluli sami nawarmoeb is Janruli mikuTvnebulobis sakiTxi metnaklebad garkveulia, es problema namdvilad dgas qsenakisTan. zogadad, es nawarmoebi mravali parametriTaa saintereso. amitom, `oresteas~ SedarebiT vrclad mimovixilavT. upirvelesad, aRsaniSnavia misi adgili da mniSvneloba Tavad kompozitoris SemoqmedebaSi, romelsac xSirad, farTod gavrcelebuli da arcTu marTebuli warmodgenebis mixedviT mxolod rTuli da rigiTi musikosisTvis gaugebari Teoriebis Sedegad Seqmnilis iarliys akraven. `orestea~ iseve amsxvrevs qsenakisis Sesaxeb farTod gavrcelebul Sexedulebebs, rogor Tavad qsenakisi, romelic am opus-iT antikur samyaroze sayovelTaod gavrcelebul warmodgenebs cvlis. `oresteas~ Tamamad SeiZleba vuwodoT unikaluri nawarmoebi _ igi berZnul Tematikaze berZeni kompozitoris qmnilebaa. `Cem mier damuSavebul antikur tragediebSi, vcdilob movaxdino antikuri Teatraluri deklamaciis, melodikis rekonstruireba, Tanamedroveobis sarkeSi arqeologiuri suraTis anarekli Sevqmna~19 _ ase axasiaTebs qsenakisi antikur teqstebze Seqmnil Tavis opus-ebs, maT Soris `oresteasac~, romelic kompozitoris SemoqmedebaSi am ti pis nawarmoebebis erT-erT yvelaze srulyofil nimuSad iTvleba. 1965-1966 wlebSi, roca nawarmoebi iqmneboda, evropaSi jer kidev batonobdnen avangardistuli ideebi, romelsac qsenakisic iziarebda. am fonze erTgvari kontrasti Seqmna `oresteam~, Tavisi uCveulo, SeiZleba iTqvas, avangardisTvis miuRebeli JReradobiT, antikur tradiciebTan mWidro kavSiriT, rac musikaluri enis calkeul TvisebebSi, aRnagobis da rac mTavaria,¬Janris TaviseburebebSi gamovlinda. sxvadasxva mkvlevarTan nawarmoebis Janris problema sxvadasxvagvaradaa gadaWrili. `orestea~ cnobilia, rogorc opera, imavdroulad, kompozitori kategoriulad acxadebs, rom opera misTvis mkvdari Janria da am sferoSi sakuTar Tavs ver xedavs. Tuki kompozitori gadawyvets operis daweras,

unda i povos gamosaxvis sruliad gansxvavebuli saSualebebi... mas veravin acdunebs am winadadebiT20. Grove-s leqsikonSi `oresteasTan~ dakavSirebiT vkiTxulobT: `operebis Seqmnis nacvlad qsenakisma ganaviTara `xelovnebaTa sinTezis~ sakuTari xedva antikuri dramis safuZvelze~. Boosey & Hawkes-is gamocemaSi `orestea~ gansazRvrulia, rogorc nawarmoebi gundisa da kameruli ansamblisaTvis; e. ferapontova uwodebs `msxvil vokalur-instrumentul nawarmoebs, raRaciT axlos mdgoms oratoriasTan~21. qsenakisis `oresteas~ Janris dasadgenad Cven, upirveles yovlisa, davinteresdiT, Tu romel Janrs miekuTvneboda esqiles trilogia. rogorc gamoirkva, `gundebis didi raodenobis, maTi mniSvnelovani masStabebis gamo esqiles `oresteas~ Janri jer kidev oratoriulad kvalificirdeba, Tumca, aq oratoria Tavis kriziss aRwevs da calkeul adgilebSi namdvil dramad gardaiqmneba~ 22 . amgvarad, xelT gvaqvs ramdenime cneba: opera, oratoriuloba, kameruloba, xelovnebaTa sinTezi. Tu maT saTiTaod ganvixilavT, aRmoCndeba, rom: `oresteas~ namdvilad gaaCnia operis rigi niSnebisa. esaa musikisa da dramis sinTezi, damaxasiaTebeli peri petiebiT, personaJebiT, maTi met-naklebad gamokveTili xasiaTebiT, kvanZis SekvriT, kulminaciiT da gaxsniT da, rac mTavaria, scenuri moZraobiT da ara scenuri qmedebiT (partituraSi kompozitori Tavad miuTiTebs, sad, rodis, rogor gadaadgildebian monawileni, rogor arian Cacmulni da a. S). scenuri qmedeba, rac gamoarCevs operas sxva msxvili vokalur-instrumentuli Janrebisagan, `oresteaSi~ saerTod ar gvxvdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom drama Tavis TavSi Seicavs amis resurss, scenaze arc erTi aqtiuri qmedeba ar xorcieldeba. es, Cveni azriT, antikuri tragediis gamoZaxilia. literaturuli pirvelwyaros Sesabamisad, aqtiuri scenuri qmedebis ararseboba, Cveni azriT, operis, rogorc Janris wils nawarmoebSi ar unda amcirebdes. saopero literaturaSi cnobilia e. w. statikuri operebi, mag: vagneris `tristan da izolda~, `parsifali~, debiusis `peleas da melizanda~, faliaSvilis `abesalom da eTeri~.

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oratorias operis msgavsi dramaturgia gaaCnia, magram sruliad gamoricxulia raime saxis moZraoba23. `oresteaSi~ oratoriis sasargeblod metyvelebs gundebis didi raodenoba, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom calkeuli personaJis vokalur partiasac gundi asrulebs (agamemnonis, egisTes, orestes, eleqtras, aTenas, qoros gamZRoli qalis). aseT SemTxvevaSi dramis mxriv wminda sagundo epizodebis wili nawarmoebSi sakmaod iklebs, Tumca, musikalur-akustikuri TvalsazrisiT, gundebis raodenobis mniSvnelobas ver gaveqceviT. maT `oresteaSi~ Zalze saintereso funqcia akisriaT24. mesame cneba kamerulobaa. esqiles `oresteas~ stili gansazRvrulia, rogorc monumentur-paTetikuri25, rasac namdvilad ver gavimeorebT qsenakisis qmnilebasTan dakavSirebiT. kamerulad nawarmoebi SeiZleba upirvelesad SemsrulebelTa da personaJTa mcire raodenobis gamo miviCnioT, magram arsebobs ramdenime sapirispiro argumentic. aucileblad unda miviRoT mxedvelobaSi dasartyam sakravTa didi da warmoudgenlad mravalferovani Semadgenloba, rac abaTilebs instrumentalistTa saerTo mcirericxovnebas. garda amisa, XX saukuneSi am ti pis opus-ebs xSirad axasiaTebT personaJTa simcire, magram maTi mravalfunqciuri datvirTva, ris TiTqmis qrestomaTiuli magaliTia Stokhauzenis heptalogia, sadac sul sami personaJia, TiToeuli maTgani _ ramdenime saxes ganasaxierebs. msgavs SemTxvevas (erTi personaJis mravalfunqciurobas) vxvdebiT TviT Zvel berZnul TeatrSic esqilemde26 . rac Seexeba xelovnebaTa sinTezs antikuri dramis safuZvelze: saprogramo teqstSi `Notes sur la Musique du Theatre Antique~ qsenakisma axsna `abstraqtuli zogadi mReris~ idea, romelic warmoiSva `droSi da sivrceSi invariantuli~ struqturebis formalizaciis Sedegad. am droidan moyolebuli es idea Seicavs qsenakisis orive koncefcias: reCitativis koncefcias antikur TeatrSi da reCitativis gamocdilebas iaponuri kabukis da noos TeatrebSi27. amgvarad, Cven ganvixileT qsenakisis `oresteas~ JanrTan dakavSirebuli oTxi cneba. maTgan kameruloba nawarmoebis zogadi maxasiaTebelia, xolo xelovnebaTa sinTezi _ zogadi

koncefcia.Aaqedan gamomdinare, gvrCeba ori `wminda~ musikalurscenuri Janri: opera da oratoria. drama da oratoria, scenuri qmedeba da scenuri statika ki, rogorc cnobilia, uZvelesi droidan urTierTSeRwevadi movlenebia. es Janruli maxasiaTeblebi rogorc ukve SevniSneT, winamorbed nawarmoebebSic umTavresia. Zveli berZeni moazrovneebis mier saukuneebis manZilze damkvidrebuli tragediis sqemas qsenakisi ucvlelad inarCunebs. es saSualebas gvaZlevs `oresteas~ Sesaxeb msjelobisas Tamamad da damatebiTi axsna-ganmartebebis gareSe gamoviyenoT termini `tragedia~. es klasikuri sqema aseve sinTetur kompoziciaSi cocxldeba, romlis TiToeuli nawili dasrulebuli musikaluri nagebobaa da, imavdroulad, ganuyofel mTlianobas warmoadgens. magram, amasTan, mas miznad ar dausaxavs ucvlelad daecva yvela parametri antikuri Teatrisa. am ukanasknelisTvis damaxasiaTebeli calkeuli Tvisebebis da originaluri mignebebis sinTezis wyalobiT kompozitori qmnis sruliad axal Janrs, romelsac pirobiTad SeiZleba vuwodoT sinTeturi musikaluri tragedia antikuri Teatris safuZvelze. amgvarad, irkveva, rom Cven mier ganxilul musikalurscenur nawarmoebebs safuZvlad erTi da imave Zveli berZnuli tragediis gaTanamedrovebis idea udevT da sxvadasxva doziT gamovlenili, magram mainc saerTo Janruli maxasiaTeblebi gaaCniaT. miuxedavad amisa, isini saboloo jamSi. oTx princi pulad gansxvavebul suraTs gvaZleven. Tu stravinskis `oidi posi~ yvelaze zustad opera-oratoriis Janrs Seesabameba, onegeris `antigoneSi~ operis wili Warbobs oratoriisas, orfTan ki es ori Janri iseT erTobliobas qmnis, rom rTuldeba gansazRvra, raa saopero da ra oratoruli. swored amitom aridebs kompozitori Tavs konkretuli Janris dasaxelebas _ `sakulto dramebs~ uwodebs maT. orfis antikur tragediebze Seqmnili nawarmoebebi, rogorc o. leontieva wers, `arc operaa, arc `antiopera~. kompozitoris Canafiqri rom gavigoT, unda daviviwyoT operis niSnebi da gavixsenoT sityvis, bgeris da plastikis erTianobis berZnuli ideali~28. swored am idealis aRorZinebasa da Tanamedrove scenaze damkvidrebas cdilobs qsenakisi antikuri tragediebis

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safuZvelze Seqmnil Tavis scenur qmnilebebSi. misi berZnuli fesvebi mTeli nawarmoebis manZilze igrZnoba, miuxedavad imisa, rom zedapirze ar `devs~. `qmnis musikas, romelic axalia da, miuxedavad amisa, `fizikurad~ cocxal kosmoss, esqiles enas usadagebs~29. imavdroulad, qsenakisi WeSmaritad XX saukunis kompozitoria da es `oresteaSi~ aranakleb mkafiod aisaxeba. sinTeturoba, romelic zemoT aRvniSneT, am epoqisTvisac savsebiT bunebrivi maxasiaTebelia. sinTeturobas TavisTavad gulisxmobs koncefcia, romelic qsenakisis am qmnilebas udevs safuZvlad _ es Tanamedrove scenisa da antikuri tradiciebis sinTezia. Tavisi arsiT sinTeturia nawarmoebis Janruli buneba. masSi erTmaneTs erwymis opera _ bolo oTxi aswleulis monapovari, oratoria, romelic fesvebs swored antikur periodTan mivyavarT, qsenakisis originaluri ideebi da antikuri memkvidreobis TanamedroveobasTan `morgebis~ tradicia, romelic XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi kidev erTxel, morigi saxiT aRorZinda. swored amitom migvaCnia SesaZleblad, `oresteas~ Janri ganvsazRvroT, rogorc sinTeturi musikaluri tragedia antikuri Teatris safuZvelze. Cvens moxsenebaSi XX saukuneSi antikur Tematikaze Seqmnili musikalur-scenuri opus-ebis mxolod oTxi konkretuli nimuSi ganvixileT da SevecadeT Segveqmna Janris sferoSi arsebuli rTuli suraTi, romelic magaliTebis zrdasTan erTad kidev ufro garTuldeba da romelic Semdgomi xangrZlivi kvlevis sagania.

1 2

ix.: ., // , , : «», 1983. 7 ., . : «», 1967, . 107. . .: Bruyr J. Honegger et son oeuvre, p. 113. 8 Ibid ­ c.127 9 ., Op.cit. - c. 156. 10 ., . : «», 1971, . 177. 11 Ibid ­ 178. 12 ., , : , 2001, . 59. 13 ix.: ., : , , . ., 1974.

14 15

., Op. cit. - c. 179. ., . : «», 1984, c. 161. 16 Ibid ­ c. 161. 17 Tumca, Sesrulebisas programa Seicavda srul Targmans germanul enaze. 18 CamonaTvali ix.: . Op. cit. 19 Baculevski K. Kwadransz Iannisem Xenakisem // Ruch Muzyczny, 1980 - s. 11. 20 ix.: Ibidem. 21 . : . // . 2007, 2 - c. 174. 22 ix.: , , 1973. 23 Tumca, gamonaklisis saxiT, arsebobs stravinskis `oidi pos mefis~ seiji ozavaseuli dadgma The Saito Kinen Festival

matsumoto, Japan,1993.

24

., . : «», 1984, c. 105. ., , , : «». 2000, . 11. 3 igor stravinskis `oidi pos mefe~ 1927 wels daiwera, artur onegeris `antigone~ _ 1926 wels, karl orfis `antigone~ _ 1949, ianis qsenakisis `orestea~ _ 1965-66 wlebSi. 4 amasTan, qsenakiss erTi `upiratesobac~ aqvs: antikuri Tematika misTvis iseTive axlobelia, rogorc `saRvTo gazafxulis~ an `qorwilis~ stravinskisTvis an `Jana d'arkisa~ onegerisTvis. 5 aq, hendelis gviani periodis oratoriebi igulisxmeba.

sainteresoa agreTve, rom XX saukunis saopero literaturaSi sagundo operis nimuSic arsebobs karlhainc Stokhauzenis Atmen gibt das Leben-is saxiT. 25 ix.: . , 1973 26 esqile iyo pirveli, vinc tragediaSi meore msaxiobi Semoiyvana da amiT gza gaukvala dramis dabadebas. ix.: . , 1973. 27 Hoffmann P. Xenakis Iannis // The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006. 28 . Op. cit.- c. 160. 29 Restagno E. Die "Oresteïa" von Iannis Xenakis // Wien-Modern ­ lektronik. Raum. "Musique Spectrale". Ein Festival mit Musik unserer Zeit. ien, 2000 ­ s. 192.

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Aeschylus The Oresteia translated by Ian Johnston // http://records.viu.ca/\ Baculevski K. Kwadrans z Iannisem Xenakisem // Ruch Muzyczny, 1980. Hoffmann P. Xenakis Iannis // The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006. Restagno E. Die `Oresteïa~ von Iannis Xenakis // Wien-Modern ­ Elektronik. Raum. `Musique Spectrale~. Ein Festival mit Musik unserer Zeit. Wien, 2000. . , 1973. . : , , . ., 1974. . . . : «». 2000. . . :«». 1984. . . : «». 1967. . . : , 2001. . . : «», 1971. . : . // . 2007, 2 . // . . : «», 1983.

qeTevan WitaZe doqtoranturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli - asoc. prof. qeTevan bolaSvili axali Janr uli modelebis Zieba XX sa uk un is m us ik aS i XX saukuneSi momxdarma mniSvnelovanma miRwevebma mecnierebasa da teqnikaSi, gardaqmnebma sociumSi Secvala samyaros modeli, ramac imoqmeda adamianis ara mxolod yoveldRiur saqmianobaze, aramed mis sulier samyaroze, am sferoSi mis aqtivobaze. xelovnebis yvela dargSi radikaluri gardatexa moxda. cxadia, cvlilebebi Seexo musikasac, sadac kaleidoskopuri siCqariT erTmaneTs enacvleboda, xSir SemTxvevaSi ki Tanaarsebobda sxvadasxva stili, mimdinareoba, msoflmxedveloba. yovel axal esTetikur pozicias misTvis Sesabamisi, axali gamomsaxveli xerxebis sistemis Camoyalibeba mohyveboda Sedegad. bunebrivia, musikaluri enis gardasaxvis procesi TandaTan xorcieldeboda, ramac gamoiwvia jer tonalobis resursebis TandaTanobiTi amowurva da Semdgom iseTi sistemebis warmoSoba, rogorebicaa atonaloba (Tavisufali da organizebuli), neomodaloba, serializmi, aleatorika da sxv. axali enis warmoSobam ganapiroba musikaluri azrovnebis mTeli sistemis, misi yvela donis gardaqmna. es cvlilebebi jer enis Sesabamisi struqturebis CamoyalibebaSi gamovlinda, Semdeg ki aisaxa musikaluri azrovnebis yvelaze `maRal~, mdgrad da, erTi SexedviT uryev, Janris doneze. moxda tradiciuli Janruli modelebis uaryofa, rac upirveles yovlisa, avangardis esTetikas ukavSirdeba. swored am mimarTulebis kompozitorebma moaxdines mniSvnelovani gardatexa Janrebis istoriaSi: erTi mxriv, maT SemoqmedebaSi ikveTeba swrafva tradiciuli Janrebis samsaukunovani kliSesgan gaTavisuflebisken, xolo meore mxriv ­ axali modelebis Seqmnisken, calkeul SemTxvevebSi tradiciuli Janrebis urTierTqmedebis safuZvelze.

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axali saazrovno sistemis Seqmnis Taobaze Teodor adorno wers: `axali epoqa eZebs adekvatur formebs da es ukve eqsperimentia; xSir SemTxvevaSi eqsperiments, rogorc saSualebaTa Seswavlis process mivyavarT ti pebisa da Janrebis kristalizaciisken~ 1. tradiciuli Janrebis resursebis amowurvis paralelurad mimdinareobda da dResac grZeldeba axali Janruli modelebis Ziebis procesi. es procesi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, gansakuTrebiT XX saukunis meore naxevarSi, avangardis esTetikis damkvidrebasTan erTad gaaqtiurda, rodesac individualizms gadamwyveti mniSvneloba mieniWa, xolo tradicia ki ignorirebul iqna: `Tu Tqven ar uaryofT, ar gadaaqcevT memkvidreobas tabula rasa-d, Tu fundamenturi eWvis qveS ar ayenebT yvelafers, rac aqamde iyo Rirebuli, maSin ver SeZlebT progresirebas. CvenTvis es eWvebi absoluturi kontrolis wertilamde ganviTarda~ 2 _ werda musikaluri avangardis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, kompozitori, diriJori da Teoretikosi pier bulezi. kompozitorebma gansxvavebuli, arati puri, `Janrulad neitraluri~3 dasaxelebebis mqone nawarmoebebis Seqmna daiwyes. XX saukunis meore naxevridan klasikuri Janrebis mimarT interesma sul ufro iklo. es periodi SeiZleba SevadaroT XVII-XVIII saukuneebis mijnas, rodesac polifoniuri azrovneba Caanacvla homofoniurma, Tumca XX saukuneSi moxda adrindeli gamocdilebis imgvari radikaluri ignorireba, rogoric musikis istorias ar axsovs. axali drois amocana tradiciis uaryofa da yvelafris aTvlis axali wertilidan dawyeba gaxda. am pirobebSi upiratesoba individualizaciis process mieniWa musikaluri azrovnebis yvela doneze. axali drois axali saSualebebiT aRfrTovanebuli pier bulezi amerikel megobars da kolegas, jon keijs werda: `yvela sagans sakuTari, damoukidebeli universumi, struqtura da modusi eqneba, romelic yvela doneze imuSavebs~4. totaluri individualizmis epoqisTvis saxasiaTo arastabiluroba iyo. amgvarad, winamdebare moxsenebis obieqtma Janrma, romlisTvisac, pirvel rigSi, stabilurobaa saxasiaTo, dakarga Tavisi CarCoebi, axal magistralze gadavida da aTvla kvlav nulidan daiwyo. amis erT-erTi gamovlineba ki

aratradiciuli dasaxelebis nawarmoebebis Seqmna iyo, rac gansakuTrebiT xSirad avangardis periodSi gvxvdeba, Tumca amis niSnebi XX saukunis dasawyisidanve vlindeba. magaliTad, iseT nawarmoebebSi, rogoricaa varezis Intégrales, Arcana, Hyperprism; bartokis `musika simebianebis, dasartyamebis da CelestasT vis~ , pieseb is (Stück) ciklebi (sxvadasxva Semadgenlobis da solo sakravebisTvis) Sonbergis, bergis da vebernis SemoqmedebaSi, romlebic ar Seicaven Janrul gansazRvrebas da sxv. gasuli saukunis 50-iani wlebisaTvis ki, avangardis esTetikis damkvidrebasTan erTad, sul ufro xSirdeba nawarmoebebis arati puri saxelwodebebi, romelTa dasaxeleba arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar aRZravs tradiciul Janrul asociaciebs (winaswar ganwyobas). aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom aseT TxzulebebSi avtoriseul komentarebs udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs musikaluri nawarmoebebis analizisas. Cvens moxsenebaSi saubari ramdenime aseT nawarmoebze gveqneba. aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom amgvari nawarmoebebis konstruirebaSi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, mTavaria zogadlogikuri princi pebi da umetesad mTavar rols maTSi Cadebuli aramusikaluri ideebi TamaSobs, romlebic maT `damoukidebel universums, struqturas da moduss~5 gansazRvravs. erT-erTi aseTi nawarmoebia geometriuli figuris agebulebiT inspirirebuli edgar varezis Hyperprism (cxra Casaberi sakravisa da amave raodenobis dasartyamisTvis), romelic 1921-1923 wlebSia Seqmnili. igi arati puri dasaxelebis mqone nawarmoebis erT-erTi pirveli nimuSia. am mxriv, edgar varezis figura gancalkevebiT dgas XX saukunis pirveli naxevris musikaSi. misi mcirericxovani nawarmoebebidan arc erTs ar aqvs klasikuri Janruli gansazRvreba. TiToeuli Txzuleba garkveul ideas, verbalur teqstsa Tu princi ps emyareba, romelic umTavresad aramusikaluri sferodanaa nasesxebi. amis gamo mkvlevarTa didi nawili saubrobs musikis mimarT kompozitoris `mecnierul~ midgomaze. varezi musikaSi e. w. `teqnikuri esTetizmis~, Ars Scientia-s (mecnieruli xelovnebis) fuZemdebelia. kompozitori aRniSnavda: `Tu xelovnebis nimuSi iwyebs cqeras warsulSi, igi ver Seesatyviseba sinamdviles da Tavs aridebs Tanamedroveobis problemebTan

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pirispir Sexvedras~6. axal bgerasTan erTad varezi misTvis organuli formebis ZiebaSi iyo. swored aseTia Hyperprism, romlis aramusikaluri, geometriis sferodan momdinare idea sxvagvar ganxorcielebas moiTxovda, rasac kompozitorma, SeiZleba iTqvas, samagaliTod miaRwia. varezis Hyperprism ramdenime monakveTisgan Sedgeba. mis partituraSi, instrumentebis urTierTobaSi mkafiod ikveTeba sami plasti-ganzomileba. esaa: dasartyami, liTonis Casaberi da xis Casaberi instrumentebi. TiToeul plasts sibrtyeTa gadakveTis Tavisi wertili aqvs, romelic sxvadasxva monakveTSi sxvadasxva sivrceSi iCens Tavs. Hyperprism struqturuli TvalsazrisiT ar avlens kavSirs romelime klasikur formasTan. Cveni azriT, nawarmoebis dasaxelebidan gamomdinare, aq saqme gvaqvs geometriuli figuris musikalur analogTan. wertilebTan, sibrtyeebTan romlebic ramdenime ganz omilebaSi moZraob en da q mnian rT ul mravawaxnagovan, kristalur kompozicias. Hyperprism-is msgavsi, arati puri, ab strahireb uli dasaxelebis mqonea 1945 wels dawerili bulezis Notations (notaciebi) 7. sagulisxmoa Notations-is dasaxelebisadmi rusi mkvlevaris, d. smirnovis midgoma: `<...> sityva «Notations», romelic bulezma airCia, TiTqos poeturi asociaciebisgan Tavis daxsnis da Cveni yuradRebis sanoto teqstze gamaxvilebis mcdelobaa~8. da marTlac, TiToeuli piesa gansxvavebuli faqturiT, dinamikiTa da artikulaciaa mocemuli. esaa Tormeti gansxvavebuli musikaluri azri, Jesti, aforizmi. aRsaniSnavia, rom ricxvi Tormeti yvela doneze dominirebs. ciklSi Tormeti piesaa, romelTagan TiToeuli Tormettaqtiania. yvela piesa Tormettonian seriazea dafuZnebuli, romelic amave raodenobis gansxvavebul rotaciaSia mocemuli. piesebSi dafiqsirebulia Sesrulebis tempisa da xasiaTis ganmsazRvreli Tormeti aRniSvna. yovelive es erTi, universaluri meTodis totalurobaze miuTiTebs. rac Seexeba sakuTriv piesebs, TiToeul maTganSi konkretuli amocanaa gadawyvetili.

bulezis Notations _ esaa cikli, romelic Semadgeneli nawilebis diskretulobis miuxedavad uCveulo erTianobiT xasiaTdeba. gamaerTianebel faqtorad, pirvel rigSi seria gvevlineba, Tumca aranakleb mniSvnelovania melodiuri Tu intervaluri kavSirebi. rac Seexeba Cveni kvlevis obieqts _ Janrul gaazrebas, Notations Tavis zogad gansazRvrebas imiT pasuxobs, rom masSi gansxvavebuli notaciebi _ niSnebi, Jestebi, simboloebi, faqturebi erTiandeba. Notations-is msgavsi, Tumca amjerad musikasTan kavSiris armqone, zogadlogikuri princi pidan gamomdinareobs karlhainc Stokhauzenis Kreuzspiel, anu `jvaredini TamaSi~, romelic 1951 welsaa Seqmnili. igi Stokhauzenis erT-erTi pirveli opus-ia da masSi kompozitoris TiTqmis yvela adrindeli Teoriuli mosazrebaa materializebuli. avangardis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli am nawarmoebiT deklarirebs SemoqmedebiT Credo-s. am mxriv, pirvel rigSi unda aRiniSnos musikaluri qsovilis totaluri integraciis idea. Kreuzspiel-Si, jvaredini gadakveTis princi pi Sejerebulia kompoziciis serialur meTodTan. unda aRiniSnos, ro m jv ar ed in i T a ma Si s p r in ci p i k on kr et ul ad a m nawarmoebisTvis yvela donezea damaxasiaTebeli. avtoriseul komentarSi vkiTxulobT: `Kreuzspiel-Si droisa da sivrcis gadakveTis idea sam stadiadaa warmodgenili~9. pirvel stadiaSi ukiduresi registrebidan iwyeba moZraoba gadakveTisken, Semdeg ukuprocesi mimdinareobs, meoreSi tembruli gadakveTis ideaa ganxorcielebuli, mesame stadiaSi ki orive procesi erTdrouladaa warmodgenili. rac Seexeba sakuTriv musikaluri masalis organizebis princi ps, aq serializmis erTob saintereso saxea gamoyenebuli _ jvaredini TamaSi seriebis donezec vlindeba: `TiToeuli bgera rigebis gadajvaredinebis Sedegad ganisazRvreba da fiqsirdeba~ 10. Kreuzspiel-Si rigebis sxvadasxva parametri _ simaRle, intensivob a, xangrZlivob a da tembri araa mudmivi. gadajvaredinebis gamo isini yovel jerze icvlebian, xdeba maTi xelaxali formireba. gadakveTis princi pi agreTve sivrcul parametrze, musikaluri instrumentebis ganlagebaze vrceldeba. partituris pirvel gverdze SemsruleblebisTvis specialuri

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miTiTebebia. msxvili planiT erTmaneTs gadakveTs Casaberebisa da dasartyamebis tembrebi, registrebi11. instrumentebis ganlageba

`erTxel roca 1964 wlis pirvel agvistos dilas gaviRviZe, ucbad gavacnobiere, rom uCveulo detaluri sizustiT, dasrulebuli saxiT musikaluri nawarmoebi damesizmra. upirveles yovlisa, kargad maxsovda musikosTa ganlageba: ori Celisti ijda scenis wina ganapira nawilze, maT Soris ki dasartyam instrumentze Semsrulebeli rogorc `msaji~. cnobierebaSi mkafiod SeminarCunda Sesrulebis detalebi JReradobis ti pebTan, artikulaciasa da JestikulaciasTan erTad, aseve nawarmoebis gamokveTilad `sportuli~ xasiaTi. im periodSi vmuSaobdi nawarmoebze, romelic sizmrisgan sruliad gansxvavdeboda SemadgenlobiT da masalis ganlagebiT. veraviTar kavSirs ver vxedavdi am ori nawarmoebis akustikur samyaros Soris, verc formis da verc Sinaarsis doneze. ar mindoda Semewyvita muSaoba Txzulebaze, romelzec ukve vmuSaobdi, raTa zmanebisTvis xorci Semesxa, Tumca cxra Ramis Semdeg sizmari imave sicxadiT gamimeorda. Tavgza amebna! amjerad raRac CaviniSne, vcade warmosaxviTi musikaluri nawarmoebis idumali droiTi elementi konkretul tempebSi gardamesaxa. meore dilas gavacnobiere, rom sizmari xelaxla gamimeorda _ amjerad yvelaferi gverdze gadavde _ CavTvale, rom bedma samjer damikakuna da swored is dro iyo, rom ganmexorcielebina Cemi movaleoba. `Match~ Svidi dRis ganmavlobaSi xilvidan realur JRerad masalad gadavaqcie _ is sizmari aRarasdros ganmeorebula. samwuxaroa, radgan mindoda igi dasrulebuli partiturisTvis Semedarebina. Match eZRvneba diter Snebels~12.

amrigad, Kreuzspiel-is analizma gviCvena, rom masSi gadajvaredinebis princi pi TamaSobs mTavar rols. igi organuladaa Sejerebuli erTi SexedviT iseT reglamentirebul kompoziciur meTodTan, rogoricaa serializmi. Stokhauzenis erT-erTi pirveli opus-isTvis damaxasiaTebeli ukiduresi racionalizmisgan sruliad gansxvavebulia maurisio kagelis Match (matCi). igi Cven mier gaanalizebul nawarmoebebs Soris erT-erTi yvelaze uCveuloa, radgan ukavSirdeba iseT irealur sferos, rogoricaa sizmari. cnobili faqtia, rom Match-i kompozitorma sizmris naxvis Sedegad Seqmna da avtoriseuli komentari am SemTxvevaSic did rols asrulebs nawarmoebis gaazrebaSi:

unda aRiniSnos, rom Match-Si sizmrisTvis damaxasiaTebeli alogikuri, qvecnobieri kavSirebis demonstrirebis mcdelobaa, rac rogorc vizualur, aseve akustikur mxares exeba. karl gustav iungis koncefciiT sizmari warmoadgens `aracnobieris pirdapir manifestacias. misi enis arcodna gviSlis xels gavigoT misi gzavnili~13. Sesabamisad, sizmars realobisgan gansxvavebuli, CvenTvis bolomde amoucnobi logika, asociaturi kavSirebi axasiaTebs. swored aseTia Match-i. amitom misi gaanalizeba romelime, aqamde aprobirebuli meTodiT sruliad warmoudgenelia. Match-Si aranakleb mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs TamaSis esTetika. Match-is SemTxvevaSi esaa erTgvari, pirobiTad, sportuli Sejibri or Celos Soris, sadac msajis funqcias

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dasartyami sakravebi asruleben, am mosazrebas aZlierebs isic, rom Match-is SuaS i ` msaji~ (d asartyam sak raveb z e Semsrulebeli) sastvens namdvili safexburTo arbitriviT iyenebs14. kagelis es `sportuli sizmari~ koncertis erTgvar parodiasac warmoadgens, sadac Semsruleblebs Soris xSirad musikaluri Sejibri imarTeba. Match-is partituris pirveli xuTi gverdi wesdebas, anda debulebas mogvagonebs15. masSi struqturulad gamoiyofa ZiriTadi da qvepunqtebi, romlebSic Sesrulebis wesebzea saubari, anu, nawarmoebs aqvs rogorc JReradi, aseve vizualuri datvirTva. es ukanaskneli udides rols asrulebs sportuli Sejibris yurebisas. garda amisa, am opus-Si mniSvnelovania TamaSis _ instrumentuli Teatris esTetika, romelsac kageli keijis kvaldakval aviTarebda. igi mimarTulia smenadis vizualizaciis da vizualuris smenadobisken16. XX saukunis musikaSi xSiria nawarmoebebi, romelTa dasaxeleba garkveul adgils ukavSirdeba. magaliTad: aivzis `axali inglisis sami adgili~, keijis `warmosaxviTi landSafti~, varezis `amerikebi~. swored aseTia jon keijis Ryoanji, romlis saxelwodeba toponims ukavSirdeba, xolo musikaluri kanonzomirebebi uSualod am adgilis _ Zen-budisturi baRis Sida struqturidan gamomdinareoben. Ryoanji keijis gviandeli nawarmoebia. TiTqmis aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, sicocxlis bolomde kompozitors cvlilebebi Sehqonda masSi. Ryoanji warmoadgens e. w. work in progress-s. mis Sesaxeb kompozitori wers: `1983 wels daviwye muSaoba nawarmoebze, romelsac saxeli kiotoSi (iaponia) mdebare kldovani qvebis baRis mixedviT ewoda~17. am uCveulo opus-s win uZRoda 1982 wlis zafxulSi muSaoba naxatebis seriaze saxelwodebiT Where R=Ryoanji, sadac gamoiyena gansxvavebuli formis TxuTmeti qvis konturi: 1983-85 wlebSi `musikalur~ Ryoanji-s erTi nawili da oTxi instrumentis partia daumata (xma, fleita, kontrabasi da tromboni). 1992 wlis ivlisSi joan reteleksa da maikl baxTan interviuSi (romelic SemdgomSi Sevida wignSi: Musicage-Cage muses on Words, Art, Music) keijma Celos partiis eskizebze isaubra18. aqve unda

aRiniSnos, rom cvlilebebi, romlebic kompozitors wlebis ganmavlobaSi Sehqonda, ar iyo radikaluri. Ryoanji-s TiTo piesa orgverdiania, yoveli gverdi, Tavis mxriv, or oTxkuTxeds moicavs. TiToeul oTxkuTxeds keiji mocemuli lodis perimetris (monacemebis, nawilebis) mixedviT agebs. rogorc magaliTidan Cans, mrude xazebi vizualurad qvebis konturebTan asocirdeba. isini unda Sesruldes rogorc glisandoebi miTiTebul bgerasimaRlebriv diapazonSi19. keiji

diapazons sazRvravs rogorc mikro (glisandos diapazoni), ise makrodoneze (mTliani piesis diapazoni). ramdenime adgilSi konturebi kveTen erTmaneTs da amitom solistisTvis misi Sesruleba SeuZlebeli xdeba. es adgilebi audioCanawerTan erTad sruldeba da solo duetad an triod iqceva. nawarmoebSi yoveli solistis partia zemoaRniSnul, glisandirebis princi ps emyareba. keijis warmodgeniT solistebi Seesatyvisebian baRis lodebs, xolo Tanmxlebi instrumentalistebi _ `davarcxnil~ qviSas.

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Sesabamisad, Tanmxleb instrumentebs perioduli, xolo solistebs aperioduli pulsacia aqvT. amrigad, Ryoanji-s musikaluri kompozicia gamomdinareobs Zen-budisturi baRis kanonzomierebebidan. iseve rogorc baRSi, sxvadasxva rakursidan SeiZleba qvebis sxvadasxva naxazis danaxva, aseve am nawarmoebis TiToeuli axali Sesruleba axal musikalur rakursebs gvixsnis. da kidev erTi, jon keiji am nawarmoebze sicocxlis bolomde muSaobda, amatebda axal soloebs, axal gaazrebebs, Tumca is bolomde ver an ar amowura da iseTive amouxsnel gamocanad datova, rogoric Ryoanji-s baRi da misi TxuTmeti qvaa. moxsenebaSi saanalizod SevarCieT imgvari nawarmoebebi, romleb ic atareben aratradiciul dasaxelebebs. es saxelwodebebi araa dakavSirebuli programasTan am sityvis XVIII-XIX saukunis musikis tradiciasTan mimarTebiT, maT arc tradiciul JanrebTan aqvT kavSiri, romlebic raime garkveul winaswar ganwyobas qmnian. Sesabamisad, es nawarmoebebi ar Seicaven winaswar dadgenil universalur maxasiaTeblebs, rac Janris erT-erTi aucilebeli ti pologiuri Tvisebaa. amgvarad, analizi cxadyofs, rom, rogorc wesi, nawarmoebebis dasaxelebebi zogadlogikuri xasiaTisaa, xolo musikaluri masalis yvela komponenti masalis Tvisobrivi maxasiaTeblebidan gamomdinareobs, romelsac, Tavis mxriv, saxelwodeba, anu idea, ganapirobebs. e. i., nawarmoebis saxelwodeba gansazRvravs misi struqturis yvela dones. amgvarad, Janris cneba ramdenadme icvlis semantikas: `arati puri dasaxelebis nawarmoebebSi Janri, rogorc wesi, uSualod ukavSirdeba weris teqnikas. amiT ierarqiul kibeze misi adgili dabldeba _ Janri inacvlebs kompoziciisa da konkretuli saSualebebis sferoSi~20. amis mkafio magaliTebia Cven mier ganxiluli nawarmoebebi: e. varezis Hyperprism, p. bulezis Notations, k. Stokhauzenis Kreuzspiel, m. kagelis Match, j. keijis Ryoanji, Tumca, Janris erT-erTi mTavari maxasiaTebeli misi stabilurobaa. swored amitom, imisTvis, rom amgvari nawarmoebebis saTaurebs Janris statusi mivaniWoT, vfiqrobT, aucilebelia maTi ganmeorebiToba `tiraJireba~, anu, sayovelTaos doneze gasvla, unificireba.

dRes, rodesac globalizacia Tanamedrove samyaros mowyobis erT-erTi wamyvani princi pia, situacia siWreliT gamoirCeva. Se saZl oa komp oz i tore b i dau b run dne n kl asi ciz m is unificirebul kategoriebs, radgan isini yvelaze ganzogadebul princi pebs emyarebian. SesaZloa TandaTanobiT Seqmnan axali universaluri Janruli mo deleb i. T umca SesaZloa, individualobis, gansakuTrebulobis SesanarCuneblad, Tanamedrove realobis mimarT erTgvar protestad kidev ufro metad gamZafrdes individualizaciis procesi xelovnebaSi. erTi ram ki faqtia. musika, rogorc komunikaciis erT-erTi forma ver iarsebebs kompozitorsa da msmenels Soris garkveuli pirobiTi sistemis gareSe, romelic gasagebs, aRqmads gaxdis mxatvrul Semoqmedebas, anu, misadagebuli iqneba garkveul myar Janrul models. romelic, rogorc cnobilia, gulisxmobs garkveul molodins, prognozs, romlis gamarTleba kmayofilebis SegrZnebas iwvevs. bolos davamTavrebT T. adornos sityvebiT: `Janrebi ibadebian da qrebian. maT raRac aqvT saerTo platonis ideebTan. Janrebsa da formebs im dromde aqvT subieqtze upiratesoba, vidre nawarmoebTa erToblioba damTxveva maT~21.

1 2

., , .: «», 2001 ­ . 57. ix.: Griffiths P. Modern Music. Lnd. ­ N. Y., 1979, p. 146-147. 3 m. lobanovas termini. 4 ixileT kompaqtdiskis anotacia: Boulez ­ orchestral works & chamber music. Col legno College, AAD, WWE 1 CD 20509, 1951/58/59/61 SWR. 5 ixileT kompaqtdiskis anotacia: Boulez ­ orchestral works & chamber music. Col legno College, AAD, WWE 1 CD 20509, 1951/58/59/61 SWR. 6 Oullette F. Edgard Varese. New York: Da Capo Press Music Erprint Series, 1981-p. 4. 7 Notatio - romelime sferos pirobiTi aRniSvnebis sistemaa. igi Seicavs mravalricxovan simboloebs, romlebic gamoiyeneba azrebis da maTi urTierTqmedebebis warmosadgenad. yvelaze gavrcelebulia maTematikuri, musikaluri, fizikuri, qimiuri, Wadrakis notacia da sxv. 8 . ., «» , «» // , 2003, 4, . 112. 9 Stockhausen K. Kreuzspiel. CD 1, Stockhausen Verlag, 1991 ­ s. 6. 10 Dibelius U. Moderne Musik nach 1945 (Mit 75 Abbildungen und 87 Notenbeispielen). München, Zürich: Piper, 1998, s. 108

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aRsaniSnavia, rom msgavs xerxs Stokhauzenma mogvianebiT Guppen-Si mimarTa, Tumca, Kreuzspiel-isgan gansxvavebiT, Semsruleblebi auditoriis irgvliv arian moTavsebulni, Guppen-s avtoris miTiTebiT orjer asruleben da Sesrulebebs Soris msmenelma unda Seicvalos adgili. 12 Mauricio Kagel. Match für 3 Spieler (1964), Christoph Caskel ­ percussion, Siegfried Palm, Klaus Storck ­ violoncello. Deutsche Grammophon 137 006 [1967]. 13 ix.: http://library.evro-bit.ru/ 14 sainteresoa is faqti, rom nawarmoebis bolos erT-erTi Celisti `msajs~ xels arTmevs. am mxrivac SeiZleba pirdapiri paralelis gavleba sportTan. 15 amgvari winaTqma XX saukunis mravali kompozitoris partituras uZRvis win. magaliTisTvis SeiZleba moviyvanoT varezis TiTqmis yvela nawarmoebi, Stokhauzenis Stimmung-i da Kreuzspiel-i, Sarinos mesame safortepiano sonata, kagelis Pas de cinq da sxv. 16 m. kagelis instrumentuli Teatris JanrSi Seqmnili cnobili nawarmoebebia: Ludwig van - `metakolaJi~, miZRvnili beThovenis dabadebidan 200 wlisTavisadmi (1969 weli); `Staatstheater~ (premiera hamburgSi, 1971 weli); Aus Deutschland _ `sasimRero opera~ (premiera dasavleT berlinSi, 1981 weli). ix.: . ., . ., . . . .: , 1989, . 37-38. 17 http://www.johncage.info/workscage/ryoanji.html 18 http://www.johncage.info/workscage/ryoanji.html 19 aq SeiZleba gavixsenoT qsenakisis Metastasis-i, Tumca Ryoanji -sgan gansxvavebiT, inspiraciis wyaro musikaluri nawarmoebi gaxldaT, romlis mixedviTac aigo Phillips­is cnobili pavilioni 1958 wlis briuselis msoflio gamofenisTvis. 20 ., . . .: , 1990, . 227. 21 . Op. cit. ­ . 292

· Cage J. Conversation with William Duckworth, 1995 · Dibelius U. Moderne Musik nach 1945 (Mit 75 Abbildungen und 87

Notenbeispielen). München, Zürich: Piper, 1998 · Diliberto J. In Conversation with John Cage. Electronic Musician ­ January 2005 · Frisius R. Karlheinz Stockhausen. Mainz, Schott Musik International, 1996 · Frisius R. Pierre Boulez: NOTATIONS pour piano / http://www.jstor.org/ pss/833632 · Kostelanetz R. Conversing with Cage. Second Edition. New York and London, 2003 · Oullette F. Edgard Varese. New York: Da Capo Press Music Erprint Series, 1981 · Peyser J. Conversing with Cage. 1976 · .Stockhausen K. Texte zur elektronischen und instrumentalen Musik. Band 1. Köln, DuMont Buchverlag, 1988 · http://www.japantoday.ru/japanaz/r3.shtml, · http://www.johncage.info/workscage/ryoanji.html · .http://www.specialradio.ru/i/varese_edgar/ · . ., . . E, 2005. · ., : . . ­ . .: , 1999. · ., « » // . . .: , 1975. · . ., . .: 2001. · . ., I. . . .: «», "Eccehomo", 2004. · . ., . ., . . . .: «», 1989. · . ., . . .: , 1990. ·. ., // . , , . . 54. , 2005 · . . ., «» , «» // , 2003, 4.

· T. kaxiZe, teqnikuri esTetikis roli e. varezis sakompozitoro

azrovnebis ganviTarebaSi // sadi plomo naSromi, Tbilisi, 1992 · Boulez P. Piano Sonatas Nos. 1-3. NAXOS, DDD, 8.553353

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eka WabaSvili doqturanturis I kursi xelmZRvaneli _ prof. nodar mamisaSvili at omalur -bir Tvuli sakompozicio teqnika (problemis dasmisTvis) kacobriobis istoriaSi XX saukune yvelaze gadatvirTulia samecniero siaxleebiT, rac aseve aqtiurad aisaxa msoflio kulturaze da maT Soris musikazec. am epoqisTvis yvelaze damaxasiaTebelia xelovnebaSi mecnieruli aRmoCenebis pirdapirproporciulad gamovlenis tendencia. amis Sedegad warmoiSvnen originaluri, hibriduli ti pis moRvaweebi xelovnebis sxvadasxva sferoSi, maT Soris mecnierkompozitorebic. xelovnebis dargebis sinkretizaciis Sedegad iqmneba gansxvavebuli specifikis mxatvruli nimuSebi (sinkretuli azrovneba axasiaTebda uZvelesi samyaros xelovnebasac, ris safuZvelzec iqmneboda iseTi Janrebi, rogoricaa fsalmuni, satura da sxva). swored msgavsi movlenebis fonze XX saukunis II naxevarSi da XXI saukuneSi xelovanTa umetesobaSi SeimCneva ltolva `gamTlianebuli azrovnebisken~ 1. is, rom azrovnebis cvla xdeba, xSirad ismis sxvadasxva xelovnis gamonaTqvamebSi, erT-erTi aseTi azri ekuTvnis musikaluri avangardis erT-erT liders, germanel kompozitor karlhainc Stokhauzens:

Tu mwignobrobiT misi marwuxebidan Tavis daRweva SeuZlebelia. ara da gamTlianebul azrovnebaze gadasvla Tanamedrove civilizaciis sasicocxlo procesebis aRmavlobisaTvis aucilebeli pirobaa~.3

zemoT moyvanili mosazrebebi Seesabameba epoqalur saazrovno potencials da exmaureba momavlis mecnierebasac. xSirad xelovneba da literatura winaswar saxavs siaxleebs, romelTa realizeba epoqalur sinamdvileSi jer kidev iluziuria. xelovanebi am movlenebs mxolod mxatvruli xerxebiT asaxaven sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi, rac Semdgom mecnierul aRmoCenebSi gamovlenila, risi naTeli magaliTia, Tundac, Jiul vernis Semoqmedeba. ram SeiZleba axsnas es movlena? SesaZloa genetikam... informacia romelic Cawerilia genSi aqtiurdeba da geniosebi iwyeben am informaciis wakiTxvas _ gacnobierebas. azrovnebis cvladobis miuxedavad, genur kodSi Cawerili informacia mudam muSaobs. Tu cnobierebas SeuZlia momavlis informacias miagnos, miT umetes, warsulSi miRebul informacias kidev ufro gaufrTxildeba. ase rom, rogorc ar unda vecadoT wavSaloT warsuli _ es SeuZlebelia. Sesabamisad, XX saukunis kompozitor-avangardistebis mxridan gasuli saukuneebis musikaluri kulturis uaryofisa da yvelafris axlidan dawyebis mcdeloba ganuxorcielebel ambiciad darCa. `or msoflio omgadaxdil kacobriobas, ufro swored, inteleqtualTa nawils protesti uCndeba saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli esTetikuri faseulobebis mimarT. gansxvavebuli stilis kompozitorebs _ bulezs, Stokhauzens, ligetis, nonos, berios _ daaxloebiT erTdroulad i pyrobs survili, miRweul iqnes cnobierebis iseTi mdgomareoba, romelsac metaforulad tabula rasa SeiZleba ewodos (tabula rasa musikaSi _ es aris mcdeloba, mexsierebidan amoiSalos warsulis musikaluri struqtura da SemoqmedebiTi procesi ,,nulidan~ daiwyos _ Null Punkt, Punkt Zero). 1945 weli pirobiTad aRiarebulia aTvlis wertilad, romelic axal

,,epoqa, romelic daiwyo aseulobiT wlis win, ufro swored 2500 wlis win da romelic efuZneba ZvelberZnuli ti pis azrovnebas, dasrulda!`2

aseve cnobili qarTveli mecnier-kompozitorisa da gamomgoneblis nodar mamisaSvilis azriT, `Tanamedrove teqnicizmis pirobebSi logikuri azrovnebis formebi da formaluri logikis maqsimaluri procesebi imdenad gabatonda dRevandel yofierebaSi, rom raime meTodologiuri saswaulebiT

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epoqas, axal kulturasa da WeSmaritad axal musikas4 aZlevs dasabams.~ (nawyveti n. Jvanias sadisertacio naSromidan) aseTi radikalizmi maT SemoqmedebaSi mimdinare procesebis arasworad gagebam gamoiwvia. Taoba, romelic `gamTlianebuli azrovnebis~ sazRvarze dgas, jer kidev dabneulia im gaucnobierebeli movlenebis gamo, romelic maT azrovnebaSi xdeba. igi usazRvro energiis morevSi trialebs _ energiisa, romelic kacobriobas siaxleSi naxtomisTvis amzadebs. kacobriobis axal eraSi Sesvlas swored `gamTlianebuli azrovnebis~ procesebi ganapirobebs, Tumca mas upirispirdeba zombirebis meTodiT miRebuli cnobierebis umartivesi formebi. amitom xelovnebis nebismier dargSi iseTi saazrovno sistemebis Seqmna, sadac intuicias inerciiT mivyavarT, momavlis adamianis gadarCenis iaraRia. sazogadoebasa da individis inteleqtualur arealSi gaCnda, arsebulisgan gansxvavebuli, sxvagvari produqtis gasinjvisa da miRebis moTxovnileba. msmenelisTvis axali produqtis miwodeba, zogadad, xelovnebis mudmivi procesia, Tumca sxva epoqebis adamianebisgan gansxvavebiT dRevandeli auditoriis garkveuli nawili iTxovs siaxles, is inteleqtualurad gacilebiT momzadebuli da progresulia. roca warsul, XX saukuneSic ki protestisa da agresiis fonze inergeboda siaxle, dRes momxmareblis inovaciisaken swrafva aSkara interesisa da intuiciuri TviTganwyobis fonze vlindeba, es procesic `gamTlianebuli azrovnebis~ sawindaria. mimwodeblis da momxmareblis interesebis erToblioba gana identuria, aramed informaciulad harmoniulia da atarebs SexedulebaTa cvladobis impulss. musikaluri genetikuri kodebi sakiTxi, romelsac ganvixilavT, sinkretuli azrovnebis fenomens exeba. vgulisxmobT `atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnikas~, romelic aseve `gamTlianebuli azrovnebis~ nayofs warmoadgens, sadac mu si ka lu ri g en et ik ur i ko de b i Taviseburad aqtiurdebian. swored es musikaluri genetikuri

kodebi `unarCuneben~ kompozitoris Semoqmedebas erovnul elfers da Tvidmyofadobis muxts. sxva SemTxvevaSi nebismieri sakompozicio teqnika STanTqavda kompozitoris individualobas. dRidan musikaluri azrovnebis gaCenisa arsebobs garkveuli kanonzomierebebi, romlebic ama Tu im epoqaSi icvleba, adamiani ki cdilobs am movlenebs raRac logikuri axsna mouZebnos da moaxdinos misi klasifikacia. magaliTad, rusi kompozitori v. martinovi sakuTari wignis `Opus Posth~ bolo TavSi konspeqturad ayalibebs evropuli azrovnebis, istoriis da musikaluri Semoqmedebis transformaciis process. cxrili 1

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XX saukuneSi gacilebiT momravlda aseTi mosazrebebi musikis filosofiaSi. musikaluri genetikuri kodebis dasadgenad Cven dagvWirda erTgvari klasifikaciis mofiqreba, sadac aisaxeboda musikaluri azrovnebis sxvadasxva ti pebis Casaxvis periodebi da maTi Tanmimdevroba. saklasifikacio modelis Seqmnisas daveyrdeniT qarTveli kompozitoris nodar mamisaSvilis sqemas, sadac 7 bgeras akavSirebs 7 speqtrul ferTan da azrovnebis 7 donesTan. cxrili 2

bgeraSi konservirebulia informacia genetikuri kodebis saxiT. civilizaciis yovel periodSi obertonebis rigis gansazRvruli nawili iwyebda aqtiurobas, romlis mixedviTac adamianis sxeuli, msgavsad instrumentisa, ewyoboda. obertonebis kodebad daSifris Sedegad Zalian saintereso vizualur gamosaxulebas miviRebT. bgeraTrigi horizontalSi aCqardeba _ rac aisaxeba obertonebs Soris manZilebis TandaTanobiTi damoklebiT. am SemTxvevaSi viRebT gamosaxulebas, rasac SegviZlia davarqvaT `aCqareba droSi~ (naxazi 1). xolo Tu bgeraTrigs sivrceSi ganvalagebT, is Seqmnis siRrmiseul mravalSrian perspeqtivas, rasac SegviZlia davarqvaT `aCqareba sivrceSi~.

musikaluri azrovnebis yoveli forma damoukideblad gaivlis evoluciuri ganviTarebis etapebs momdevno periodebSi. am periodebis ampituda drois sixSiris aCqarebasTan erTad ufro da ufro mokldeba. gadavwyviteT genetikuri kodebis saZiebeli areali bgeris umcires nawilakebSi mogveZebna da es nawilakebi metaforulad gagveigivebina nukleotidebTan5. amgvarad rogorc dezoqsirebuli nukleinis mJavaSia (dnm-Si) Cawerili genetikuri informacia, aseve SesaZloa bgeraSi iyos daSifruli musikaluri genetikuri informaciac.

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nodar mamisaSvilis kvlevis mixedviT arsebobs musikaluri genis sami ti pi: fonogeni, intrageni da hologeni. fonogeni _ bgeris obertonebis dayofa musikalur genetikur kodebad da maTi dakavSireba civilizaciis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva periodebTan. gaaqtiurebuli kodi genSi Caiwereba musikaluri fonis funqciiT. intrageni (mexsiereba, intuicia, ganwyoba) warmoebs fonogenidan, romelsac Tan erTvis evfoniis movlena. evfonia, Cveni azriT, aris samyaros saerTo harmoniidan nebismieri smenadi materiis adamianis mier sakuTari sxeuliT (garedan miR eb uli musika luri inform aciis T vis a kustik uri sarezonatori garemo) SerCeuli, misTvis sasurveli keTilxmovaneba da cnobierebaSi gardaqmnis Sedegad _ individualuri aRqma. swored es geni aaqtiurebs individualur sawyiss. hologeni6 ki fsiqodroSi gadaadgilebis saSualebas da genSi daSifruli saerTo informaciis wakiTxvis SesaZleblobas iZleva. Tumca sakiTxis gacnobiereba xdeba subieqtis realur droSi da Seimecnebs im semantikiT, rac misi epoqisTvisaa Sesaferisi. am azrs mivyavarT kidev erT movlenasTan _ SemoqmedebiTi meditirebisas droSi gadaadgileba da informaciis mopoveba genetikas da azrovnebas ar cvlis. mocartis an baxis, beThovenisa Tu haidnis zogierTi nimuSis magaliTze Cans, rom isini ubadlod iWerdnen saerTo informaciuli bankidan gaJonil talRebs, sadac momaval musikalur siaxleebze iyo informacia Cawerili. Tumca es intuiciurad gaSifruli azrebi, ar aisaxebodan maTi musikaluri azrovnebis sistemaze, igi ubralod gamonaklisi idea-fantaziis saxiT vlindeboda maT SemoqmedebaSi * * * mecnierTa interesis sfero didia ukve Camoyalibebuli musikaluri sistemebis klasifikaciisa da sakompozicio teqnikis sxvadasxva saxeebis mimarT, razec metyvelebs sakmao raodenobis

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literatura. Tumca samecniero Sroma Tanamedrove atomalurbirTvuli musikaluri sistemis da sakompozicio teqnikaSi misi gamoyenebis Sesaxeb ar Segvxvedria, Sesabamisad, es problematuri sakiTxia da unda iqnas gamokvleuli. ratom daerqva am sakompozicio teqnikas atomalurbirTvuli? Tu XX saukunis mniSvnelovan movlenebs gadavxedavT, erT-erTi maTgani aucileblad atomi da masTan dakavSirebul kvlevebi aRmoCndeba. atombirTvul fizikaSi miRweuli aRmoCenebi, dameTanxmdebiT, epoqaluri azrovnebis sistemis Sedegia da bunebrivia es movlenebi aseve aisaxa xelovnebazec. ` atom alur -b ir T vuli~ sakom pozic io teqnikis saxelwodebidan naTlad Cans, rom igi exmianeba atombirvTis fizikis sakiTxebs. igi metaforulad efuZvneba atombirTvis fizikis princi pebs da kanonzomierebebs, aseve iTvaliswinebs garkveul akustikur da optikur procesebs, musikalur genetikas, akustikuri garemos virtualuri aRqmis xerxebs, mistikuri SegrZnebebis fsiqoganwyobas da Tanamedrove mecnierebaSi mimdinare rig aqtualur sakiTxebs. es aris meditaciuri7 musikis ganviTarebis momdevno etapi. meditaciuri musika gulisxmobs realurastronomiur droSi ganfenili musikaluri masalis sxvadasxva sivrcul SreebSi ganviTarebas; am sivrceebis individualuri f si qodr o i wyebs pul si r ebas (poli- t). 8 pirvel xanebSi meditaciur musikaSi, meditaciuri ganwyobis misaRwevad, mimarTavdnen erTferovani ritmuli masalis ganmeorebis meTods, romelic realuri drois dakargvis iluzias iwvevs. irCeven sivrcis ramdenime Sres da yovel maTganSi erTmaneTisgan metrulad da ritmulad gansxvavebul musikalur masalas imeoreben, aseTi saSemsruleblo meTodiT miiRweva meditirebis erT-erTi forma. am movlenas minimalizmi ewodeba (meditaciuri musikis amerikuli skola _ s. raixi, t. raili, f. glasi da sxva). radgan musikaluri masalis gameorebis efeqti anelebs adamianis reaqcias astronomiul droSi, amgvar xerxs jer kidev uZveles xanaSi sxvadasxva qveynis Samanebi didi warmatebiT iyenebdnen `xalxze~ sakuTari magiis zegavlenis

moxdenis iluziis Sesaqmnelad. zogjer minimalizmis warmoqmnis erT-erT wyarod jazsac miiCneven, albaT afrikuli fesvebis gamo, sadac igrZnoba Samanuri musikis meditaciuri muxti. warmoiSva intuitiuri musika _ Tavisufali improvizacia an aleatorika, rac aseve saSemsruleblo meditirebis meSveobiT warmoebs. meditaciuri musikis Sesrulebis procesi, SesaZloa, musikaluri masalis sxvadasxva xazebze gameorebis princi ps sulac ar eyrdnobodes. igi sivrceTa SreebSi gadanawilebuli musikaluri masalis erTobliobiT miiRweodes. amgvarad, musikaluri qsovilis statiuri buneba moculobiT musikalur organizms qmnis, sadac `siCumec~ ki meditirebis nawilia. magaliTad, j. keijis an d. ligetis nawarmoebebSi. zog SemTxvevaSi radikalurad gansxvavebuli sakompozicio stilis kompozitorebis SemoqmedebaSi ibadeba meditaciuri musikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebis mqone nawarmoebebi, ganurCevlad imisa Tu romel sakompozicio teqnikas mimarTavs esa Tu is avtori. Sesabamisad, meditaciuri musikis nimuSebi SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT, rogorc amerikeli jon keijis, aseve argentineli maurisio kagelis an poloneli kSiStof pendereckis, da Tundac qarTveli sulxan nasiZis SemoqmedebaSi. meditaciur musikaSi sakmaod didi adgili ukavia musikis axaleburad Caweris formebs. axali notacia _ rodesac nawarmoebi Cawerilia vizualur-gamomsaxveli aradeterminirebuli metafoSemsrulebels aniWebs uflebas sakuTari fantaziis wyalobiT, Tumca avtoriseuli survilebis da stilis gaTvaliswinebiT, monawileoba miiRos axali nawarmoebis Seqmnis SemoqmedebiT procesSi. (am SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs Semsruleblisa da kompozitoris meditirebis sinTezs).

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mag.: j. keijis "Cartridge Music"

meTods da sxv.). am SemTxvevas bgerisa da leqsikuri erTeulebis musikalur `mikrosamyarosTan~ ufro mivyavarT, vidre minimalizmTan.

musikaluri meditaciis gansxvavebuli formebi gamoCnda evropaSi. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom evropisTvis meditaciuri musikis pirvelwyaro Tavad Sua saukuneebis evropuli musika iyo. Tumca, iseve rogorc amerikul skolas, arc maT auvliaT gverdi aziuri musikaluri azrovnebisTvis (induri, arabuli, Cinuri musika da maTi filosofia). evropaSi musikaluri meditirebis xerxebad xSirad minimalizmisTvis arati piur meTodebsac iyeneben, gacilebiT rTul da inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebs mimarTaven. maT Soris, maTematikur an mecnierebis sxva dargebTan dakavSirebul princi pebs, romelTa gadmotaniT kompoziciis Semqmnel kanonzomierebebs adgenen. ase magaliTia, karlhainc Stokhauzenis sagundo nawarmoebi `Stimmung~-i, romelsac safuZvlad udevs erTi akordis modifikaciis meSveobiT meditireba (aqve avtori aqtiurad iyenebs lingvistikis wesebs, notaciis verbalur xerxs, musikaluri kompoziciis Sesaqmnelad maTematikuri gamoTvlis

mag.: k. Stokhauzenis `Stimmung~(partitura) aseTi mecnieruli damokidebuleba da maTematikuri meTodebiT meditireba axasiaTebs qsenakissac9, misi azriT, `musika _ ar aris xelovneba, is mecnierebaa, mecniereba logikisa da zusti maTematikuri gaTvlebis~. 10 igi, Tavis Tanamedrove kompozitorebis msgavsad, scildeba bgeriTi temperaciis farglebs da iyenebs bgeris mTel SesaZleblobas, swored ase Seiqmna `bgeriTi Rrublebic~, romlis warmoSobasac gazSi Semavali mikronawilakebis moZraobis imitireba daedo safuZvlad. mag.: i. qsenakisi `Pitoprakta~ simebiani orkestrisTvis

(partitura)

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* * * r o go r c u k v e a R v n iS n e T , ` a t o m a l u r - b i r T v u l i sakompozicio teqnika~ meditaciuri musikis ganviTarebis momdevno etapisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. meditaciuri musikis arsebul nimuSebSi ukve SeiniSneba is tendenciebi, rac SemdgomSi am sakompozicio teqnikis Camoyalibebas Seuwyobs xels. esaa droisa da sivrcis gansxvavebuli mdgomareoba musikalur nawarmoebSi, musikaluri masalis ganviTarebis pirobiToba da kompozitoris, Semsruleblisa da msmenelis Sinagani Tavisuflebis `didi doza~. musikaluri kompoziciis Seqmnis procesSi albaTobis imdenad didi procentia, rom met-naklebad samive monawileobs nawarmoebis saboloo saxis CamoyalibebaSi (SesaZloa samive erTi personac iyos). atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnikis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi kompozitoris mier miwodebuli masala imdenad ritualuri unda iyos, rom yvela variantSi ar daikargos misi originaloba, Semsrulebeli kargad unda mani pulirebdes am stilisTvis damaxasiaTebel drosa da sivrceSi, rom misi Tavisufali nebeloba aireklos msmenelis aRqmaze, sadac usazRvro fantazia amoqmeddeba da CaerTveba procesSi. am SemTxvevaSi b. asafievis gamoTqma `musikaluri forma, rogorc procesi~ Sebrundeba, da piriqiT, procesi iqceva musikalur formad. amis naTeli nimuSebia zemoT xsenebul kompozitorTa nawarmoebebi. meditaciuri musikis ganviTarebis istoriul WrilSi, CvenTvis sainteresoa maT mier Seqmnili sinkretuli xelovnebis formebi, multimediebi da hepeningebi, rac `atomalurbirTvul sakompozocio teqnikisaTan~ gvakavSirebs. atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnikiT daweril musikalur nawarmoebSi musikaluri masalis sivrcesa da droSi gadanawileba xdeba msgavsad atomebis ganlagebisa (metaforul aspeqtSi). bgeris moZraobis traeqtoria ise gadaitaneba musikis plastikaSi, TiTqos atomebi an maTSi arsebuli nawilakebi moZraobdnen. es niuansebi xmovani masalis akustikur Taviseburebebs qmnis. Sedegad viRebT sivrculi musikisTvis damaxasiaTebel bgeris akustikuri gadanawilebis meTods da

misi ganfenis princi pebs erTi astrologiuri drois farglebSi sxvadasxva sivrceebSi, romelTa individualuri fsiqodroebi erTmaneTTan `poli-t~-s damokidebulebaSia (am movlenis Canasaxebi jer kidev i. stravinskis, prokofievis, vebernis da sxva XX saukunis kompozitorebis SemoqmedebaSi Cndeba). a m t e q n i ki s m i er S e m oT a v a z eb u l s ia x l e e b s d a kanonzomierebebs Cems11 mier Seqmnili simfoniis `ukuniTi ukunisamde~ magaliTze wamogidgenT. nimuSi 1. fsiqodroebi - `kompoziciis partitura~ ukuniTi ukunisamde

(sami fsiqodro)

kubis (aura) _ topofonuri plasti (7 rotacia) _ instrumentebi ganlagebulia 3 iarusze, marTva xdeba yursasmeniT diriJorisTvis Seqmnili specialuri partituriT sasignalo sityvebis meSveobiT (magaliTad, brZaneba: `Sesvla~ _ saerTo ritmuli pulsaris ansamblurobisaTvis. piramidis (informaciuli veli) _ topofonuri plasti (13 rotacia) _ eleqtronuli plasti, moZrav meqanizmze dakiduli 13 cali gamaZliereblebi spiralisebur xazze ganlagebuli imarTeba operatorisgan, bgeris transformaciisTvis aqvs specialuri gegma da el. plastis partitura tembrul-ritmuli miTiTebebiT. jvris (literaturuli plasti) _ gundi da instrumentebi parterSi centrSi. sami faza _ siuJeturi wyaro biblia, I faza _`7 dRe~, II faza _ `sameba~, III faza _ `oTxTavi~, Coda faza _ `erTarsi~. saorkestro balansi Wadrakuli da birTvulia. saorkestro dramaturgia eyrdnoba 2 ganzomilebiani grafikuli naxazebis plastikas (vTqvaT, spirali, klaknili, wyvetili, ori sxvadasxva erTdroulad da a.S.). naxazis bgeris akustikur gavrcelebasTan identifikacia xmovanebis moZraobas aniWebs erTgvar akustikur plastikas (zogjer moicavs iarusebis Tavisufal instrumentebsac). sfero (aerTianebs yvelas) _ moicavs yvela sakravs da dinamiks, Cndeba 4jer 2-jer I fazaSi _ dRe I (`da iqmna naTeli~), dRe IV `kosmosi~, II da III fazebis mijnaze _kulminacia musikaluri siCume da ukuni sibnele `samebis~ bolos da `oTxTavis~ dawyebamde, Coda `erTarsi~. mimarTuli-sxivuri, moWrili-gamosaxavs figurebs): sfero _ lurji, cisferi, iasamnisferi; kubi _ wiTeli-mewamulis feri; piramida _ yviTelinarinjisferi; jvari _ TeTri-rZisferi (kompoziciaSi cisferiTaa aRniSnuli) partituraSi mocemuli sxvadasxva feri miuTiTebs sivrcis sxvadasxva Sreebs. is SeiZleba iyos aseve igive feris Suqis TanxlebiT, romelic bgerasTan erTad warmoiSveba da igive intensiobiT qreba (feri xmis gavrcelebis vizualizacias axdens).

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nimuSi 2. akustikuri gadanawileba `ganlagebis partitura~

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nimuSi 3. bgeris moZraoba-traeqtoria ``I faza _ I dRe~

atomalur-birTvuli musikis SemTxvevaSi adamiani _ msmeneli Tu Semsrulebeli _ eqceva arati piur xmovan velSi, sadac is musikis mikrosamyaros centrSia da TiTqos mis garSemo moZrav umcires nawilakebs SeigZnobs. am p rocesis mZafrad SegrZnebisTvis da aRqmisTvis, saukeTesoa Tu vizualuri xerxebic iqneba CarTuli. vTqvaT, Tu feri, plastika, Suqi, Crdili da sxva vizualuri niuansebi bgeras Seerwymeba da dinamikis, ritmis, tempis realizebaSi daexmareba. nimuSi 4. bgeris moZraoba da feri `ganaTebis partitura~

instrumentebis da gamaZliereblebis ganlageba darbazSi

ganaTebis partitura da sivrculi Sreebi (ferSi)

bgerisa da Suqis gavrcelebis plastika (mTavari partituris TanxlebiT, sadac miTiTebulia ra droSi da ra mimarTulebiT vrceldeba bgera da Suqic mihyveba bgeras)

yoveli instrumenti aRniSnulia im feriT, romliTac unda ganaTdes, mxolod yviTeli feriT aRniSnuli instrumentebi miuniSneben rom isini gamoiyeneba eleqtronuli plastisTvis da maTi ganaTeba xdeba an lokalurad pultis gasanaTebeli SuqiT an mxolod jvris TeTri ganaTebiT. TeTri SuqiT ganaTebuli sakravebi araa aRniSnuli ZiriTad partituraSi, igi erwymis sxva feris ganaTebas da gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac musikaSi jvris gamosaxulebaa gamosaxatavi. (es miTiTebulia gamnaTeblis partituraSi sityvieri SeniSvniT). I. lazeruli ganaTeba aerTebs figurebis wverebs, xolo ferdebi warmoiqmneba rampis mimarTuli Suqis meSveobiT. wiTeli Suqi _ xazavs kubis sxvadasxva rotacias. yviTeli Suqi _ xazavs sxvadasxva kuTxovani fuZis mqone piramidas. feradi ganaTeba _ rodesac sakravebs Soris bgera moZraobs da warmoqmnis figuras. SeniSvna: piramidis wveros gamaZliereblidan momavali xazebi lazeruli sxivebia, romlebic erTdroulad vrceldeba fuZis wveroebis gamaZliereblebisken, maT Soris ki sxivebi rig-rigobiT Sekraven piramidis fuZes da Seavseben ferdebs. spiralis dros yviTeli gafantuli Suqi moemarTeba yoveli CarTuli gamaZliereblidan qveviT. II. TeTri ganaTeba ekuTvnis jvris formaze ganlagebul Semsruleblebs, Suqi v rceldeba konusurad da Semsrulebels anaTebs zevidan (dan 2 an 3 metris simaRleze). III. jvris feradi ganaTeba (cisferi, lurji, iisferi, vardisferi, iasamnisferi, Sindisferi da a.S.) vrceldeba iatakidan

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(sanaTi mowyobiloba damontaJebulia iatakze TiToeuli Semsruleblis garSemo). Semsrulebeli gaSemortymulia oTxi erTferi sxiviT, romlebic erTmaneTs hkveTen musikosis Tavs zeviT da Tu amvdroulad mas TeTri ganaTebac erwymis, maSin feradi sxivebi ikargeba TeTri konusis wveroSi. IV. sferos feradi ganaTeba vrceldeba rogorc darbazis garSemo gafantuli Suqis meSveobiT da sferos imitacias qmnis (improvizaciuli variantebi), aseve Semsruleblis garSemo iatakze damontaJebuli sanaTebiT, romelic afeTqebis efeqtiT erTgvar ritmul dinamikas qmnis da sakravebis Sesvlas afiqsirebs.

`

nimuSi 5. kubis rotacia lazeris SuqiT wiTel ferSi ``kubis partitura~

am SemTxvevaSi, zogadad, musika statikuria, dinamiuri procesebis gaaqtiureba ki musikaluri materiis SigniT xdeba. (aseT movlenas vxvdebiT ungreli d. ligetis SemoqmedebaSi). ligetis SemTxvevaSi musikaluri statika ufro wina planze gadmodis, radgan msmeneli garedan ismens. Cvens SemTxvevaSi ki msmeneli Sida akustikur plastikas12 miyveba da iqmneba holo13 efeqti, amitom musikaluri statika msmenelis mier aRar SeigrZnoba ise mkveTrad, rogorc winamorbedis musikaSi. atomalur-birTvuli musikis mxatvruli gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebi. atomis struqturis da Tvisebebis metaforulad gadmotanis mizniT, gansakuTrebul modifikacias ganicdis zemoT xsenebuli sakompozicio teqnikaSi nawarmoebis SeqmnisTvis aucilebeli formis Semqmneli musikaluri elementebi, rac z og je r sa in t er es o no va ci e b s ac g vT av a z o b s . as ev e gasaTvaliswinebelia maTi gamoyenebis konkretuli meTodologia. Zalian mniSvnelovania gamsuyebuli tonis cneba, romlis moculoba obertonebis rigSi aRmoCenili musikaluri genetikuri kodebis sul bolo kods Seesabameba. magaliTad bgera `do~-s obertonul rigSi: (`la~ bemolidan _ TiTqmis `do~-mde) gamsuyebuli toni Tavis TavSi itevs am ori bgeris garSemo myof mikrotonebis mTels `grovas~, rac mis gamsuyebas iwvevs. gamsuyebuli toni Seicavs a tom T a ganu saz Rvr el raodenobas. atomi warmoiSveba gamsuyebul tonSi Semavali b ger is m ier sx vad asx va r aod enob is naw ilakebis (harmonikebis) SemokrebiT. TiTo gamsuyebuli toni TiTo atom-birTvul doneze arsebobs da misi tonebi-harmonikebi qmnian sxvadasxva kombinaciebs erT romelime akustikur SreSi.

nimuSi 6. atomebis cxrili `kubis partitura~

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maTi modulacia ki Seesabameba atomTa difuziis kanons,

erTi gamsu yeb uli ton is nawilak eb i SesaZloa sxva gamsuyebuli tonis nawilakebs Seezavos, ase warmoiSveba virtualuri harmonia. Tanamedrove musikalur azrovnebaSi `atomalur-birTvuli sakompozitoro teqnika~ iseTi siaxlea, romelic musikaSi albaTobis princi pebis gavlenas ganavrcobs da Tavis TavSi Caitevs zogadad sociometriis14 problemebsac metnaklebad koreqtirebuli saxiT. albaToba, romelic improvizaciisa da T undac aleatorikis cneb eb isgan gansxvaveb iT ufro globaluria, Seiswavlis ara marto ubralo SemTxveviTobis process, aramed mowesrigebul Tavisuflebas gasxvavebul sakompozicio teqnikasTan mimarTebaSi. rac gulisxmobs, `atomalur-birTvuli sakompozitoro teqnikiT~ Seqmnil nawarmoebebSi sxva musikaluri azrovnebis farglebSi warmoSobili sakompozicio teqnikis CarTulobas. aseTma

Tavisuflebam da sazRvrebis gaxsnam rom sistemis rRveva ar gamoiwvios, `sistemuri wonasworoba~ unda iyos daculi. sistemis dacvis meqanizmebi ki kargad dakompleqtebul formis Semqmnel ZiriTad kriteriumebSi unda iqnas Cadebuli. rogoricaa: kompoziciuri naxazi, romelic umeteswilad mohyveba nawarmoebs, misi struqturis swored aRqmisTvis. faza (forma) [vertikaluri dayofa] nawarmoebis struqturuli msxvili nawilebi. astronomiuli dro [vertikaluri dayofa] nawarmoebis struqturuli msxvili da mcire nawilebis realur droSi gadanawileba. sivrculi Sefardebebi [horizontaluri dayofa] samoZrao baza musikaluri masalis ganlagebisTvis damoukidebel fsiqodroebSi da maTi daSrevebis meSveobiT sivrculi polifoniisTvis warmoeba. fsiq odroebis sib rtyeebi sivrceebTan mimarTebaSi [dinamika-agogika, ritmi-tempi] atom-birTvuli done (bgeriTi safuZveli) [melodia, harmonia] melodia da harmonia _ modificirebulia, miiReba bgeriTi materiis Seqmnisas gamsuyebuli tonis farglebSi. akustikuri bade da Sreebi [faqtura, instrumentaria] bgeris moZraobis plastika, akustikuri winaRoba, bgeris virtualuri kedeli. a r a m J R e r i k a t e g o r i e b i s g am o y en e b a m u si k a lu r kompoziciaSi. romelic organulad erwymis formis Semqmnel sxva elementebs. Sedegad vaRwevT akustikur uwonadobas, SegrZneba, romelic msmenels eqmneba gaJRerebuli nawarmoebis bgeriTi velis arealSi yofnisas. atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnikis damaxasiaTebeli musikaluri Tvisebebi: 1.sakuTari notaciis Camoyalibeba, determinirebuli an aradeterminirebuli; 2.axali musikaluri formisa da hibriduli Janrebis warmoqmna;

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3.musikalur bgeraTa kategoriaSi uaxlesi damokidebulebebis Seqmna da maTi akustikuri ganlageba drosa da sivrceSi (gamsuyebuli toni da difuziis meSveobiT sxvadasxva atombirTvul doneze miRebuli bgeriTi materia). 4.harmoniis mimarT gansakuTrebuli midgoma (virtualuri harmoniis cneba, romelic akustikuri plastikis meSveobiT warmoiSveba mikrotonebis meSveobiT, aqve Cndeba virtualuri akustikuri kedelic feris dadebiTa da Suqis meSveobiT. S uq i s m o Zr a o b i T Se s aZ l o a i lu z i ur i JR e ra d o b i s provocirebac). 5.ritmis roli (fsiqodroebi Semqmneli ZiriTadi elementi). 6.originaluri faqturis da grafikuli Caweris teqnika (feradi partitura, akustikuri da Suqis bade). 7.gaorkestrebis meTodika da tembris palitra da misi gamoyenebis akustikuri plastika, akustikuri winaRoba, rac niSnavs erT sivrcul mdgomarebaSi gatarebul tembrul ferTa Seuzaveblobas sxvasTan erTdrouli JReradobis pirobebSic. 8.saSemsruleblo damokidebulebis siaxleebi (sruli koncentracia, m editaciuri ganwyoba, d ir iJ o r i s kompiuteruli teqnikiT aRWurva da sxva.) nimuSi 7. pulti da sasignalo brZanebebi `diriJoris partitura~.

Tu zemoT CamoTvlil mxatvrul gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs SevinarCunebT, rac `sistemur wonasworobas~ daicavs, SesaZloa, aqamde cnobili musikaluri sistemebisTvis da sakompozicio teqnikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebis gamoyenebiT amave teqnikaSi SevqmnaT nawarmoebi. amis saSualebas iZleva difuziis unari, romelic am sakompozicio teqnikas axasiaTebs. aRmoCenili kanonzomierebebis safuZvelze Camoyalibda atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnikisTvis damaxasiaTebeli erTgvari dogmaturi wesrigic. Tumca mxatvruli nimuSis Seqmnisas sasurvelia es wesrigi Tavisuflad davarRvioT, vidre mis tyveobaSi moveqceT. vfiqrob, es meqanizmi, rac am sakompozicio teqnikas sZens TviTmyofadobasa da ganumeoreblobis SesaZleblobas, adgils daumkvidrebs mas saerTo musikalur informaciul velSi. SesaZloa, igi XXI saukunis musikis erT-erT sawyis etapadac CaiTvalos.

1

mzadyofna erTdrouli brZanebisTvis:

Sesvla; gamosvla; Sewyveta; ataka;

tonebi ferTa gamaSi:

(kubi) wiTeli Sre; (el. musikis masala) yviTeli Sre; iisferi Sre; iasamnisferi Sre; Sindisferi Sre; mewamuriferis Sre; vardisferi Sre; Sabiamnisferi Sre; cisferi Sre; lurji Sre; agurisferi Sre.

xmamaRlob a:

maRali done; saSualo done; dabali done eqo; gadaZaxili; aqcenti gadavdivarT sferos reJimze; Sedis kubis reJimi; kubis rotacia, pozicia .... iwyeba jvris danawevrebis reJimi; bgeriTi rezervuari da a.S.

1. gamTlianebuli azrovneba niSnavs intuitiuri azrovnebis intersifikacias, e. i., intuitiuri azrovnebis subdominanturobidan gamosvlas, racionaluris Tanabrad dominanturad qcevas da aseTnairad racionalurisa da intuitiuris gawonasworebas. (`noosfero~, irina kalandaZe, gamomcemloba `universali~, Tbilisi-2007, gv. 70). 2. sadisertacio naSromi xelovn. kand. xarisxis mosapoveblad `karlhain Stokhauzenis safortepiano Semoqmedeba da pianistis saSemsruleblo SesaZleblobebis speqtris gafarToebis problema axal musikaSi~, Tb., 2006, nino Jvania, Sesavali, gv. 3. 3. saleqcio kursidan `mistikuri anatomia~, n. mamisaSvili. 4. miuxedavad imisa, rom termini didi xania damkvidrda musikismcodneobaSi, Cven saWirod miviCnevT, ramdenime sityviT SevexoT mas. cneba axali musika jer kidev XX saukunis 20-ian ww. gamoiyena paul bekerma, magram sabolood igi II msoflio omis Semdeg damkvidrda, raSic did roli iTamaSa T. adornom. farTo gagebiT, cneba aerTianebs XX saukunis im kompozitorTa Semoqmedebas, romelTa musika `axlad~ aRiqva sazogadoebam (Sonbergi, bartoki, hindemiti, stravinski, veberni...). mogvianebiT man moicva 1945 wlis Semdeg Camoyalibebuli serializmi. dRes am aRniSvnis aseTi pluralizmis winaaRmdeg bevri musikismcodne gamodis. misi Semofargvlis mizniT, k. blumroderi gamoyofs cnebis

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or umniSvnelovanes konstantas _ omis Semdgom avangardsa da 1950 wli s S e mde g S e q mn i l e q s p e r i m e n t u l m u s i k a s . a mJ a ma d dasavleTevropul musikismcodneobaSi axali musika ZiriTadad am mimdinareobebis mimarTebiT gamoiyeneba. 5. nukleonis mJavebis molekulaSi memkvidruli informaciis daSifvris sistema. cxovelebSi, mcenareebSi, baqteriebsa da virusebSi igi nukleoditebis TanmimdevrobiT gamoixateba da cilis molekulaSi aminomJavaTa Tanmimdevrobas gansazRvravs. 6. `virtualur SesaZleblobaTa fazobrioba, sadac sivrciT ganzomilebaTa monacvleoba qmnis gamTlianebuli drois efeqts~- nodar mamisaSvilis ganmarteba. 7. sityva `meditacia~ Cvens droSi mravali mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba, Tumca yvela maTgani gulisxmobs Sinagan CaRrmavebas, gare STabeWdilebebisgan gaTavisuflebas, modunebas, Wvretas sulierebaSi da simSvides. 8. nodar mamisaSvilis termini. 9. ianis qsenakisi XX saukunis berZeni kompozitori da arqiteqtori. 1947 wlidan cxovrobda parizSi, iyo le korpuzias moswavle. maTematikuri da meqanikuri musikis profesori aSS-s universitetSi. Tavis SemoqmedebaSi xSirad iyenebs uaxlesi saxis sakompozitoro teqnikas, maT Soris maTematikursac. dawerili aqvs statiebi da wignebi eqsperimentul musikaze. 10. . . , « XX », gv. .23. 11. eka WabaSvili, qarTveli kompozitori, atomalur-birTvuli sakompozicio teqnikiT da musikaluri genetikiT dainteresda 2006 wlidan. es teqnika gamoyenebuli aqvs bolo nawarmoebebSi, Tumca Tvlis rom sxvadasxva doziT vlindeboda yovelTvis. 12. bgeris gadaadgilebis traeqtoria, romelic naTlad igrZnoba da vizualurad xedvadi xdeba Suqis mimarTvis SemTxvevaSi, ra Tqma unda es procesi iluziuri, radgan realur droSi bgeris da Suqis moZraobis danaxva SeuZlebelia. 13. nodar mamisaSvilis kvlevebi holofoniaze. 14. socialuri fsiqologiis dargi, romelic Seiswavlis pirovnebaTaSoris urTierTobebs, j. morenos azriT, sociometriuli revolucia ufro harmoniuls gaxdida sazogadoebriv urTierTobebs.

· klaini b., `ZiebaSi fizikosebi da kvanturi Teoria~, gamomcemloba

`sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi 1984 · mamisaSvilis n., leqciebi `mistikur anatomia~. · Jvania n., `karlhain Stokhauzenis safortepiano Semoqmedeba da pianistis saSemsruleblo SesaZleblobebis speqtris gafarToebis problema axal musikaSi~, sadisertacio naSromi xelovn. kand. xarisxis mosapoveblad. Tb., 2006 · qomeTiani p. `zogadi bioqimiis kursi~ Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1971

·Michael Talbot ­ The Holographic Universe, http://www.tobyjohnson.com/

michaeltalbot.html

· . . , . . , . . , «

», , «», 1989. · , « XX », «», , 1976. · . , « », «», , 1988. · . . , « XX », gv. 23. · . « » 60- a, « », 01 2006

· vaSaymaZe v., `fizika~, `ganaTleba~, Tbilisi 1985w. · kalandaZe i., `noosfero _ momavlis mecnierebis saTaveeebTan~,

gamomcemloba `universali~, Tbilisi - 2007

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Faculty of Humanitarian Studies Social Sciences, Business and Management

THEATRE STUDIES

CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN THEATRE STUDY PhD Program

First Year Ph D. Student Irakli Gogia Supervisor: Full Professor Levan Khetaguri Ph D. SHOTA RUSTAVELI THEATRE AND FILM UNIVERSITY'S FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Summary "The importance of teaching rhythm in the process of actor's formation" Irakli Gogia's refers to the problem caused by the traditional system acting trainings in Georgia. In author's opinion it is essential to implement European way of teaching drama. In his view, experiments of the first half of the twentieth century pretty much shaped the future of theatre art. He brings examples of Rudolf Laban's, Isadora Duncan's and Jerzy Grotowsky's experiments. The author makes a special emphasis on the importance of Rhythm Institute of Emile Jaques-Dalcroze and its systematic teaching approach. His answer to what is the main factor for out of date theatre is the actor whose formation process does not respond to a rhythm of that given time period. Along with the foreign examples, the author brings examples from Georgian theatre history as well. In his viewpoint it is important to determine the inner Georgian rhythm. He points at the components that Georgian actors lack in the development process. Author thinks, that actor's rhythmic formation will make Georgian theatre much more interesting. He assumes that it is absolutely necessary (based on the example of Dalcroze's lessons) to formulate methods of teaching Georgian rhythm and form an actor with outstanding successive thinking and acting.

First Year Ph D. Student Mikheil Mestvirishvili Supervisor: Full Professor Levan Khetaguri Ph D. THEATRE IN CYBER-UNIVERSE Summary On the being of the ends of the centuries theatre had promised its past's self experience and such future, which had all changed or refused whole culture study. Modern theatres new discover memories scientist begin to study, such as theatre begin to study scientists. On one sight, this branch of the art take more different face and whole other positions put down in the every day life of the modern universe. "New Medias'" had born whole change humans idea. Modern world's fast education always goes at the art's all branch fast development, which is always in search and look for it, it demands to look at it. For to day many thinks, which theatre had lost it's really face, but I think, that this simple choose is very far from realness, because Schiller said, too "Der Mensch ist nur da ganz Mensch, wo er spielt" ("Man is a whole there, where he is playing"). If we think in Schiller's idea, than we would sure, to day modern multimedia performance have a long tradition for performance's made space. "Web dance's" best examples are Sara Morrison's "Leaping into the net!", New-York's "Cassandra project" and Laura Nott's "World wide simultaneous dance" I think, that these three projects can three different structures demonstration, because to show us different internet performances stenographic particularity.

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First Year Ph D. Student Lasha Chkhartishvili Supervisor: Full Professor Levan Khetaguri Ph D. NEW INTERPRETATION OF SHAKESPEARE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX CENTURY (based on "King Lear" by Mikheil Tumanishvili) Summary The work by Lasha Chkhartishvili "New interpretation of Shakespeare in the second half of the XX century" (based on "King Lear" by Mikheil Tumanishvili) examines Mikheil Tumanishvili's staging of "King Lear". The author makes a historical overview of the performance and tries to determine its place in history of Georgian staging of Shakespeare. The author talks about the positive and negative sides of the performance. The summary makes it clear that modernization of Shakespeare in Georgia began with Mikheil Tumanishvili's different stage interpretations of Shakespeare among those that of "King Lear" is of utmost importance. The staging of "King Lear" during the sixties of the XX century was of a particular importance in life of Rustaveli Theatre. The rivalry between the "traditionalists" and the ones supportive of novelties was still hot. Debate took on a radical form and often the precious discoveries and novel findings that new theatre aesthetics was accompanied by were left out of attention. The first efforts of Tumanishvili to stage Shakespeare on Georgian stage were actually the first efforts in the direction of its modernization. Despite this controversial performance and the fact that there were a lot of things that were reinterpreted in a whole new way, characters were not fully outlined and performance lacked a single unified ensemble. A lot of things in Tumanishvili's staging of "King Lear" were later used by the following generation of directors in stage interpretations of the very same tragedy. This is the reason for this unsuccessful performance to be of a crucial importance not only in history of Georgian stage interpretations of Shakespeare but in entire history of Georgian Theatre.

First Year Ph D. Student Tamar Tsagareli Supervisor: Full Professor Levan Khetaguri Ph D. CHURCH SHOW IN MEDIEVALEUROPE AND IN GEORGIA (Based on Theatre Antropology Method) Summary Performance study has tended to prioritise theories and utopian ideas, neglecting the empirical approach. Theatre Anthropology directs its attention to this empirical territory in order to trace a path between the different techniques, aesthetics, genres and specialisations that deal with stage practice. It does not seek to fuse, accumulate or catalogue acting techniques. It seeks the elementary: the technique of techniques. The remarkable fact that the revival of the drama in Medieval Europe and in Georgia was due to the Christian Church has been abundantly proved and illustrated. At first, certain parts of the church ritual were expanded in action, and especially at the great religious festivals of Christmas and Easter attempts were made to exhibit vividly before the faithful what the service was intended to commemorate. The Wise Men from the East, who had been guided by a miraculous star, worshipped and presented their gifts before the cradle of the Divine babe; the Virgin Mother was represented by a girl with a child in her arms; the Resurrection was suggested by a priest rising from a mimic sepulcher. Later the action was extended, and dialogues were added. These were, of course, in Latin, the universal language of the Church. Gradually scenes from other Scripture stories were combined with those strictly belonging to the service. These church dramas may have been inartistic, but they were characterized by strict simplicity and earnest devotion. Characterized in itself by a simple dignity befitting the treatment of such themes, it was acted with all the pomp and circumstances associated with Roman Catholic worship; and nowhere shall we find a grander or more impressive spectacle than a Mystery of the Passion, as performed in one of these grand old Gothic piles. Banners hung above the fretted arches; the odor of incense filled the air; tapers shone brightly in the dim light from storied and diversely-colored windows; elaborate processions wound their way through the aisle to the strains of solemn music; the figures of the priest-players stood out in clear relief against the splendor of the altar, as, facing thousands of rapt spectators, they gravely declaimed, with appropriate gestures, the dialogue intended to set forth the events which led up to the Crucifixion.

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FILM STUDIES

WORLD FILM HISTORY MA Program

Second Year MA Student Olga Eliashvili Supervisor: Zviad Dolidze Ph D. THE GANGSTER FILM Summary "Gang" is English word and means "a group of villains". The gangster film as an independent cinema genre established in the end of twenties in the USA and had developed in the other capitalist countries. These genre's films narrate about organized crime world and professional outlaws. Firstly those films got the criticized position from press and society. The press declared this film production in propaganda of gangsters' life and in creating the romantic style of negative heroes. After that there were made new films, the main characters of those were policemen and these heroes fought against organized crime. Thus there was appeared the new direction of genres ­ the criminal dramas in film. In 1903 it was shot one of the first gangster films ­ Edwin Porter's "The Great Train Robbery". They say that this film had founded two film genres ­ the gangster film and the western simultaneously. Since World War II new direction appeared in the gangster films ­ the biographies of well-known gangsters. Today the gangster film is one of the popular film genres, on base of which there were shot many interesting films. Second Year MA Student Sofio Tsulaia Supervisor: Zviad Dolidze Ph D. EVOLUTION PROCESS OF SCIENCE FICTION FILM Summary Film-fantasy is one of the most popular and interesting genres in cinema. This article wants to show, that film-fantasy isn't only for exhibition of special effects. It is one of the most difficult genres, and was changing from time to

time. Sometimes it presented political symbols and metaphors for directors and authors film wise. For a long time it was experimental, political and intellectual. Unfortunately lot of spectators thinks so. The theme of this article isn't a history of this genre. It is about its shortcomings, positive sides and major peculiarities of film-fantasy.

CONTEMPORARY FILM TEORIES AND CRITICISM MA Program

Second Year MA Student Rusudan Papunashvili Supervisor: Manana Lekborashvili Ph D. REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN THE SPANISH FILM OF THE FRANCO PERIOD

Summary

In the history of Spain cinematography considerable period includes post civil war (1936-1939) films. Film production of the mentioned period, held by the CIFESA state patronage has sharply expressed propagandistic functions. CIFESA was founded in 1932 in Valencia and its goal is to "make Spain" 30 years film, to strengthen feeling of racial distinguish and to deep feeling of patriotisms. Politically it subordinates ideological interest of conservators and right wing. During the Spain republican years cinematographic production entirely included comedy and country drama that without exception are united with the following elements: religion, historical idyll among the classes and those archaic moral norms such as dignity (traditionally the bearer is a woman). Spanish is inspired in the city, it embodiments traditions visually, nation unity and racial holiness. Frankist social system protects "family expansion" as Sanchez Lopez called ant that is established "Woman's belonging toward the state (mother, family, nation)"; creation of "charter of women's public unity" that is impossible to reject it should be "get and feel". Transmitter of national mentality is a chief hero - mother, who is obliged transmitter of the national mentality. The discussed films; "Morena Clara", "Dolores", "Orosia", "Raza" give information about woman representation in Franco's Spain that isn't an example of holiness, beauty, dignity, ethics and tradition protector. It must protect future of the nation and must be a transmitter of national selfconsciousness.

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CULTURE MANAGEMENT CULTURAL POLICY

CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT IN ARTS AND CULTURE MA Program

Second Year MA Student Elene Babakishvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. THE ROLE OF SPONSORSHIP IN THE POLICY OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATION Summary Noncommercial cultural organizations in the whole world, including Georgia, are in a rather complicated situation from the perspective of finance. The State reduces financial support of the similar institutions from year to year. The above organizations differ from other organizations in diversification of sources of financing. In such circumstances cultural organizations try to attract sums from alternative sources, such as charity as well as sponsorship resources, grants from funds, membership fees, etc. For normal functioning and development of own activity cultural organizations in increasing frequency build their actions upon economic calculations. This is a better way to realize and popularize cultural product. Promotion of the latter is planned in the same manner as of the classical marketing product. They work out a strategy for attracting both their own returns and external sources of financing for conducting expensive advertising and PR campaigns. Amounts derived from sponsorship arrangement form a solid part of the budget of cultural organizations. Sponsorship is a widespread and reasonable form among the sources of financing attracted. In the contemporary market conditions more and more companies switch from philanthropy to sponsorship activity to carry out their marketing purposes. Sponsorship differs from charity with its marketing and commercial purposes. Sponsorship is an economic arrangement targeting at exchange of funds, production, service, advertising funds, PR campaigns and events.

Sponsorship activity supports establishing of favorable relationships between the society and the organization. Companies supporting public initiatives win the recognition of consumers who are socially and politically active. To finance certain events and projects cultural organizations apply to various companies. The sponsorship application should be drawn up diligently and professionally to awake the sponsor's interest in the proposal of organization. First of all such application should be in compliance with the purposes and criteria being substantial to certain company. Sponsorship application should meet the company's requirements. It is crucial as well to form a profitable alliance with the sponsor which is not achievable by the alternative means. Based on the aforesaid, the policy of cultural organization highly depends on the sponsor. Cultural organization should work up certain criteria with respect to the sponsor which will support determination of rights and obligations of the sponsor and cultural organization. Such attitude will support to elaborate sponsorship activity in Georgia. Sponsors will find their valuable partner in cultural organizations and the amount invested in this sector will enable them to develop their activity. Fulfillment of these two factors will secure establishing of firm alliance between the culture and business sectors.

Second Year MA Student: Ia Gabunia Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. THE ADVERTISING POLICY AND MAIN POINT OF THE ADVERTISEMENT (Film fest `Sesily') Summary The mission of a film fest `Sesili' is to look for new talents, popularization, introduce new foreign movies to Georgian spectators and to develop new cinema traditions and relations. The aim of the film fest is to display talented youth and promote to become skilful masters. The film fest received comparatively high financing in 2005, in 2006 the financiering slightly decreased to 6000 GEL, in 2007 the financing amount equaled to ­ 5000 GEL and in 2008 remained unchained. Without organizers'

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enthusiasm, holding festival with such minimal financing would become impossible. Without possessed funds the management of the festival faces different troubles. Reasoning from low financiering, what basically depends on lack of sponsors, the festival does not manage to succeed. The proper advertising campaign should be held to attract resources and raise sponsors' interest in the festival business. The advertising campaign demands vast of means. E.g. settling advertisements on `Rustavi 2' costs as follows: from 07:40 to 18:00 prices vary between $ 40400, evening and night tariffs differ from $ 400-1300. Prices at `Print-Georgia' Ltd. also could be represented: e.g. designing of advertising-polygraph production cost $ 40-300. Advertising state in Georgia is following: the most expensive advertising service is TV. The Georgian art organizations enter the market without having any financial support. To overcome financiering problems, I think it is necessary to look for means for correct advertising campaign, possible via making sponsors become interested in the festival. Due to interest potential sponsors in the festival, convenient and advantageous offer should be produced. The film fest's management should work out a strategy, to show the importance and concernment of the festival to potential sponsors. Sponsoring is the strategically planned effort, serving to increase sells and promotion. Advertisement is the best way. As a result, thank advertisements the public get informed about the festival and sponsors.

responsibility when it comes to "wrapping" a book as a product and making it attractive to a maximum number of readers. Although before the publisher decides to publish a book, he/she should definitely find out the reader's opinion first, find out which book the market is really in need of, what the cost of the book should be, what the quantity of the book should be and etc. Research of a customer market is of an essential importance in marketing theory. There are several research models based on practical experience. Any of the publishing houses may choose one of them and work out a strategy according to that specific research model or create a brand new plan - one suitable for its organization and its characteristics. Market research as determination of customer's needs is quite an interesting process. In a big organization research may be conducted by a marketing department, research committee, agency or a department. Whatever the research team is it should definitely consist of professionals. In a small publishing house research can easily be done by a manager and several assistants. In my conference work I have offered you a mini strategy of publishing organization's market research, on basis of which an organization's administration may conduct a marketing research. After the research is done, results should be put together and analyzed. Outcome should be handed over to the organization's administration or a marketing team in order to create a new product by the requirements of the customer. It should also be said, that customer market research for publishing houses is not only important for update of products. Through market research these types of organizations are able to determine the average price for the desired book among the customers. Last but not least they can determine the level of competition, place and status on the market and set forth a suitable plan for

Second Year MA Student: Sofio Komladze Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. "SEVERAL ISSUES ON PUBLISHING MARKET RESEARCH" Summary For culture organization marketing is essential and a rather necessary direction. It is an aiding tool which we can wisely use in order to attract maximum number of people towards our product may it be theatre, Opera, Library, Gallery, Publishing house and etc. A correct research of customer market is an essential part of marketing. Especially when talking about an art product - an intellectual product - a book. Publishing houses carry a big

becoming or just maintaining a steady place and outstanding leadership in publishing business.

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Second Year MA Student Natalia Murjikneli Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. STRESS IN ORGANIZATION AND STRATEGIES OF ITS MANAGEMENT Summary According to one of the rules of Japanese management, efficiency of an organization depends upon the way the manager handles the stress of the coworkers and transforms it into the energy for success. What is stress? Majority of people think that stress is just another term for tension. Stress was first scientifically founded by a famous Canadian biologist Hans Selie. According to him, stress is a peculiar reaction of the body towards any requirement set forth to it. Stress is an inseparable part of contemporary business and influences every coworker of a company. For instance: A regular coworker is stressed for working long hours with a low salary, has lots of responsibilities but just a few rights. People working under stress are generally not efficient and make wrong decisions most of the time. Stress accounts for the loss of staff which itself results in company's low work efficiency, decrease in productivity and increase in cost (for instance hiring new workers and their training).

In most cases stress is caused by several complex reasons requiring an adequate strategy to overcome it. These strategies are as follows: -Self perception; -Harmony with oneself and high self-esteem; -Reasonable selfishness; -Risk; -Being moderate; -Emotional and behavioral responsibility; -Flexibility; -Acceptance of reality; Standards of stress management account for six basic aspects: -Requirements; -Control; -Support; -Relationships; -Role; -Change; Improving work conditions also supports stress prevention and reduction. For instance good lighting, room conditioning and ventilation, convenient work place, walls painted in calm colors, maximum reduction of noise. In companies where these conditions are not neglected, productivity remains high.

Symptoms of Stress -First of all people start to feel that they are not able to deal with obstacles; -They are in a constant hurry and are always short of time; -They cannot concentrate on work; -They are constantly complaining of being tired; -They are unable to rest at home and switch from work to relaxation; -In sever cases they may develop fear of going to work; Causes of stress and ways of its reduction -Problems associated with work; -Additional office hours; -Style of management; -Lack of communication; -Family problems; -Management stress;

Second Year MA Student Tsatsa Jorjiashvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. PR (PUBLIC RELATIONS) ROLE IN CULTURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Summary In the term of significance of the resource potential Georgia is one of the distinguished countries the interest towards which has existed since olden times, and the legend of Argonauts speaks of it. During the last years cultural tourism is becoming especially important that is the best opportunity for acquainting with the other cultures. Cultural Tourism covers all these directions connected to the popularization of history, culture, ethnography, the spiritual and material cultural

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heritage of the nation. This direction of Tourism enables tourists to make acquaintance with the historical and cultural heritage, our country is very rich of which. The maximal operation of the existing resources in Georgia is necessary for cultural tourism development. It is important that our country will launch the world-wide international PR Campaign aiming at popularization of cultural tourism direction that will be placed in the world leading television-channels and printing media with highquality advertising films and materials. With the aim of the inner tourism development it is necessary to create such TV broadcast or radio broadcast program that will provide the permanent promotion to the different tourism places of Georgia. It is significant to prepare advertisement materials, especially to print travelling maps, lists of the resorts of Georgia as brochures, guidelines of Hotels and Houses and etc. Therefore the informational web page is needed to be prepared. Much more active involvement of the governmental structures will support the development of cultural tourism in Georgia. Government is to play the leading role as politics has a great impact on the whole country and its society. Role of PR (Public Relations) in the development of cultural tourism is of great importance as without a vigorous involvement of the society tourism development will be impossible. And this is a prerogative of PR. For cultural tourism and tourism development in general PR aims: 1) Awareness of Society, Providing the information on the tourism products; Formation of Travelling Companies and Product image. 2) Persuasion, Attracting to purchase a tour product; And changing the attitude towards it; Introduction of better reputation compared with the competitive product. 3) Pressure on memory, Permanent existence of the company and its product on the tourism market and what's important maintaining its positive image. Diversity of Georgian nature and richness of the cultural-historical heritage give us an opportunity to make conclusion that Georgia has got a great potential to become an immense centre of cultural tourism in the world, though the implementation of it will be impossible without taking the interests of the society into account. PR (Public Relations) acquires greater and greater importance in this field and plays a particular role in the development of cultural tourism.

Second Year MA Student: Tamar Pirosmanashvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. ART MARKET IN GEORGIAN GALLERIES Summary All creators must introduce their masterpieces to public for real appreciation. They need to keep their real names in art and became well known for society. They try to show their crafts using art galleries. Though only exhibitions can't get the sources of existence, if art samples are not sold and art markets are not supported. Just for that it is the main to manage the activity of galleries and this management must be right. Nowadays political, economical and legislative problems in Georgia do not give the real possibilities to lots of private galleries to incarnate their whole plans. Generally, gallery important activity is exhibited service collaboration with painters, sculptures, making popularization of creators and their works. Unfortunately, our art markets can not give opportunity to galleries because of their low income which hardly improves their international standard installation. That's why the galleries must investigate various sources of finance using sponsorship, benevolence, charity, state support (partly financing) or private capital. Commonly, all private gallery owners try to find out proper sponsors or supporters. They attempt to have competent, qualified personnel for having good relationship with creators and society members, making their works popular. They also try to advertise the masterpieces showing them on exhibitions or on sale. They must have good cooperation with mass media avoiding low quality exhibition arrangement. Georgian culture laws can not support art business development in Georgia. Unfortunately, art samples are not free of charge and they are taxed like any agricultural product. The state must have such laws to help the businessmen and all businessmen must be interested in art transferring investments in art business. Galleries must support all kind of art business exhibitions, commercial, advertising or charity business. Also they must have good collaboration with foreign courtiers to introduce them own culture and creation. One main step is made ­ participation in the International art market "Art Caucasus". All in all, Creators' work must be seen at first like art samples and than commercial investments.

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Second Year MA Student Nino Kurashvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. RESEARCH OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OFADVERTISMENT Summary The effective advertisment imply of the group art. Without the group, without the recource of the man the advertisemen t won't become. The first thing what is advertisement company has to remember is the client, because the advertisment is made for clients and definitely the main subject is clients. The base of the advertisemnet estimation is to study and understand the behavoir of the clients. Which main goal is to study the essense and interests of the clients. If you don't have enough information abour the behavoir of the clients there is possibility that you will face the great risk. Before making the advertisment the most importatnt information you have to know is: who is your clietn. which sources the one is using most often to receive the information, what is ones life style, how you can get one's attention, and motivation for purchasing the product. Generally the main idea of the advertisment is to offer the client not only the product, but also the style of the life and the thinking, which is acctually define the purchase. With this the client is belongs or try to belong of the distinct social statum, seeks to such life style, of which the one was dreaming. The authors of the advertisment companies' offer to client the some kind of values, the thoughts and have the influence on the choices. So they are participating to change the behavior of the society and from this taking part to form the modern culture. Presumably if the advertisemnt group will take in consideration all this and set this his main goal, do his best in experience and professionalizm, in this case the cultural life will be more various, valuable, dynamic, interesting and rich. Nowadays in the developed countries the advertisment is considered as an art and sience unity. For today we can suppose for sure that in a very near future the effectiveness of the advertisment will be the standart concept for Georgia and as it is considered in developed countries and it's using won't have any doubt. Generally the priority of the advertisement is its laconism and and fast result. The advertisemnt specialist has very difficult mission, he has to put lot of stuff in the advertisment's little frame. Creativity is helping the specialist to do all this on a proffesional level. Creativity ­ is such a talent. such a ability, which the new or original idieas and thought are unite. It is proved that spectator perceive, remembers and understand the information better which is offere to them creativetly.

Second Year MA Student Lika Kuparadze Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D PR- RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CINEMA FESTIVAL ,,SESILY" Summary Role of festivals is very significant for propagation and strengthening of cultural values. Festival Movement, appeared at the beginning of XX century, became very popular and now it attracts high attention of specialists and admirer in this field of art. The festival ,,Sesily'' held in Tbilisi supports integration of different cultures and development of international relationships. Producers from different countries are able to familiarize with others, to share their experience and opinions. That is very important particularly for developing countries like Georgia; it is a good opportunity to develop our cinematography, to introduce Georgia to the whole world and vice versa. For implementation the mission and aims of the festival ,,Sesily'' it is necessary to conduct appropriate PR campaign. It is clear that any PR campaign needs financial resources but at the same time successful PR campaign is guarantee for popularization of ,,Sesily'' on the local and international market, for its development and growth. PR campaign of the festival ,,Sesily'' should be implemented according the following scheme: Situation Assessment; Primary and secondary marketing research; Situational Analyse; Demography. Choosing the target market and determining of its major characteristics; Psychology. Environment Analyse (potential contractors and opponents) and formulation of tactics; Formation of purpose (what can be reached factually); Knowledge; relationship; behaviour; formulation of general strategy; Determining the possible results and forming the detailed plan; Formulation a massage for society and selection of communication channels; Testing the selected massage (focus-groups, interviews); Implementation of campaign; Estimation of campaign's effectiveness.

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PR companies or individual PR specialists existing today usually follow their personal ethic code that can be justified in some cases, but sometimes personal values oppose international values. That is why all PR companies and specialists should take in consideration European (Lisbon) code of professional behaviour in PR.

sector is in charge of the technical part of the performance (e.g. lighting, props, sound editing etc.). As for the administrative sector, it involves accounting and commercial services. The theatre goes a long way to prepare each show. This is called Theatrical Production Cycle and involves multiple stages (e.g. choosing a theme of the play, preparation of the play, performance preparation, joining aspects, marketing plan, premiere and post premiere data analysis). Theoretical and practical marketing and management skills are needed for the success of the theatre. The most important thing in theatrical management is dealing with internal organizational issues. In case of the correct theatrical management structure, the manager of the organization controls every link of the management chain and actions undertaken by any one of these links are helping the success of the whole company. Georgian theatre is in need of a large audience. The audience needs a good performance which in turn involves an interesting play, a professional team and a lot of work. All of this in my opinion will eventually eliminate the lack of viewers in the academic theatres of Georgia and every performance will be sold out.

Second Year MA Student Nino Sharmiashvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. AUDIENCE AT TENDANCE PROBLEM IN ACADEMIC THEATRES Summary Georgian theatre has a special, unique history. However, the aim of my research is not to learn the history of Georgian theatre but to focus on one particular problem. This problem is attendance problem in modern Georgian academic theatres. To find out what kind of viewers attend shows in a particular theatre, their personal taste and what kind of performance they prefer and attend the most inquiries among viewers must be made in this theatre. It is also important that the manager of the theatre must be a professional cultural manager. The manager should come up with the company strategy and review the internal documentation quite often. A manager can use data received from the box-office or the documentation presented by the clients. It is also important that the Public Relations manager is a professional too. Public Relations manager is in charge of information exchange and communication with the public. The success of the theatre depends on this person. This manager should manage a PR campaign so that all of the viewers are interested and the performance is not aimed only at a certain part of an audience. Internal organization structure is also very important for the theatrical management as it is a very complex link in the chain. Creative sector plays a key role in the management along with the technical and general administrative sectors. Creative sector is in fact the core of the theatre as it defines the main principle of the theatre, its repertoire, actors and creative control. Technical

Second Year MA Student Mariam Tschumburidze Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. SEVERAL PROBLEMS OF MANAGEMENT IN MODERN ART Summary The presented work discusses particular management problems of culture and art branch in modern society. The shocking changes in social-political, economic, ecological and cultural branch of our epoch, changes priorities and ways of their realization. Pragmatic ideas are opening new ways of achieving one's aims, among which penetrating spheres of influence, obtaining power, and achieving material well-being have become preferable. Goals of modern culture and art, the ways for achieving them, the system of management and so on have changed. It's impossible to discuss modern management independently from successful management.

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Culture and its non-profitable sector in which theatre and art in general is meant can not be discussed among commercial field. It's difficult to speak about any system and organization of theatres today because of not having state policy of art. A range of subjects can't be solved without the support of the government. It's desirable for the manager to have all the qualities of the leader for the successful management of the theatre, creating proper organizational environment that will naturally stipulate normal functioning of the theatre that depends on the ability of the manager to make proper decision in every particular case, foresee the direction of the organization, make the right organizational plan, motivation and human recourses management, financial management is also related to him. In State theaters financed by the Ministry of Culture finances are distributed on concrete projects and utilitarian necessities as keeping the building, light and so on. As a result very small sum is remained for staging new performances. Solving the problem depends on skillful management and marketing. By finding a specific permanent sponsor. Arranging this will be obviously reflected in the quality of staged performances. Attention of the managers of the theatre should be paid to altering ways of attracting audience, taking their wishes into consideration. To achieve these goals questionnaires can be used, investigation of the interests of modern audience and planning the repertoire accordingly. In the discussed context, problems of theatre, modern Georgian cinematography, imitative arts and so on are also of great importance. It would be desirable for Georgian culture and art often to take part in international contests, exhibitions, and so on for its popularization. Because the existing static environment in Georgia and economic crisis threatens cultural organizations and the development of art and culture in general, it is important to change the whole system, elaborate state policy of supporting culture and art and do high level management of art and marketing.

Second Year MA Student Nino Khutsishvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D. INTERNET-TECHNOLOGIES IN MARKETING Summary Information-Communication Global technologies developing process is very dynamic, and its potential is dimensionally growing. Internet, the world global net, is a useful tool to develop any kind of business. The advantages are: easily reachable, fast, confidential, and cheap. It is obligatory to use in practical work in nowadays. It gives us opportunity to find information easily and quickly. The aims of marketing in culture is oriented on, first of all, identifying a market, the studying it, and finally, growing the marketing manager, first of all, is the advertisement in the internet which less expensive, plus it helps to present a new product. Nowadays, in the internet, there is much information on different organizations, analytical, financial, and economic, etc. The results of marketing survey, conducted through internet, show that the organization quite fast. Thus, the organization's website, and its visual design are crucial; the design should be simple and understandable and the most important ­ easily perceptible by the consumer. The internet is a global communication tool for providing the exchange of textual, graphical, audio/video information. It is an effective survey tool development of the internet altered management approach in business and marketing.

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PhD Program

First Year Ph D. Student Nino Azmaiparashvili Supervisor: Iuri Mgebrishvili Ph D.

THE MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION Summary The world civilizations interchange and transformation, during the being continual current processes of mankind, is passing in activity by the local civilization. Globalization is result of the long historical processes. Today the unprecedented development of communication, transportation and computer technologies gives processes new stimulation. The improvement of sciences and technique what provokes fast growth of communications, increased processes of integration between communities. After as a result there was a globalization their various of typical habits, culture, lifestyles and other elements. Globalization is cultural phenomenon what includes in the redistribution of ideas, value systems, histories by the spread information in the all earth. In the world market are shown new united consumer spaces where local cultures and identities were lost roots and will be changed from product and advertisement of multinational corporations. The Internet, satellites and TV are sweeping away cultural boundaries. The workforce has become more multicultural as a result of globalization. As a result of communication simplification and technical improved are formed multicultural society and spread values, norms, and culture tends to promote Western ideals of capitalism. Perhaps local cultures inevitably will be fall victim to this global "consumer" culture. But there is a fear perhaps globalisation will be the end of cultural diversity. George Ritzer most known in the globalization theory offers possible results of cultural development in the processes of globalization: Cultural differentialism, Cultural convergence, and Cultural hybridization. To not lose the roots of local cultures and identities, globalization demands culture management necessity. Arts managers today Cannot deny processes of globalization. They can moves more quickly and spread the information about cultural products, to

connect cultural differences and organize great arts festivals etc. Arts managers explain that it is possible to identify, manage and benefit from cultural differences. Perhaps a common culture can lead the way to greater shared values and political unity. As a result of right management cultural differences will be help to the building of a global village. Perhaps global culture can preserves the unique and necessity and will rise the influence on social groups. Globalization make managing culture a must and Cultural management will enables art and culture.

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TRADITIONAL ARTS

GEORGIAN CHOREOGRAPHY STUDIES ETHNO-COREOLOGIST

MA Program Second Year MA Student Aleko Gelashvili Supervisor: Anano Samsonadze Ph D. E ENTREPRENEURS OF BALL DANCES IN GEORGIA (Tengiz and Larisa Gachechiladze) Summary Ball and Sports Dances are 10 best dances chosen out of the modern ball choreography program, with 5 of them as European dances (`Slow waltz', `Tango', `Waltz', `Foxtrot', `Quickstep') and 5 as Latin-American dances (`Samba', `Cha-cha-cha', `Rumba', Pasadobl', `Jive'). The principal feature distinguishing these dances from others is that they are subject to sports competitions with a judge's institution. In Georgia, the sports competition in ball dances was laid a foundation to in 1976. Before that (after the I Republican Competition in 1972), the school of these dances was divided into two groups: `Ball-and-domestic' dances headed by Mikheil Kapiev and `ball-and-sports' dances headed by Tengiz Gachechiladze. A greatest contribution to the spread and propagation of the ball dances was made by Tengiz Gachechiladze, the president of the National Federation of Sports Dances of Georgia and Head of the company `Tela', a choreographer and international judge. The aim of the work is to tell a reader about Mr. Tengiz Gachechiladze, his wife Larisa Gachechiladze, their family and business as far as possible'. We say `as far as possible' because this work is the first step in the investigation of the given topic in Georgia. Therefore, we ask a reader many apologies because of possible scarcity or inaccuracy of the information. Readers' views and notes are welcomed!

Second Year MA Student Eka Geliashvili Supervisor: Anano Samsonadze Ph D.

E

SYMBOLISM OF "MULTI STORY" PERKHULI DANCE Summary Constructed around the multi story principle and having a unique form a circular Perkhuli was widespread in most part of Georgia. Research material makes it clear that these Perkhuli dances are constructed by men only and have a form of two or three story construction. Number of participants is not limited. Judging from the complex structure of Perkhuli leg movement of its participants is quite primitive. Its song has two voices in it. Perkhuli ends with the motion of a circle and this is done with singing. The above mentioned Perkhuli dances have an identical form despite their differences in content. Symbolic content of a multi story Perkhuli dance has generated a lot of debate among scientists. Some of them view the dance as having a war spirit, others view it as a symbol of fertility and connect it with star symbolism. Based on material, historic and literary sources we can conclude that, every multi story circular Perkhuli is directly connected with the origins of fertility ­ the Sun, which manifests itself in the structural form of the dance, its title and remaining signs in text materials. As for the different interpretation of a unifying symbol, which itself amounts to different contents of Perkhuli dances, we can explain this in a following way: Supposedly, the original content of the symbol has lost its importance and has acquired a war spirit over time having eventually transformed into a common form of entertainment. The form itself has remained unchanged, which is not surprising judging from the character of the symbol itself. The spatial configuration of the circular Perkhuli is closely linked with Georgian cosmic world outlook. Supposedly, the upper and lower stories of Perkhuli represent the sky and the earth. The same can be applied in case of a three story Perkhuli: The sky, the earth and the underworld. We suppose that the multi story Perkhuli represents the model of the universe, a unique model of the universe as perceived by Georgian people. It was kind of a communication, connection place for the upper and lower worlds represented in Georgian mythology by the sacred tree, "Dedabodzi" and others. It is a ladder for the Gods and maybe even a representation of their earthly dwelling place. The Sun itself is a divinity, mother of all living. At the end I would like to state, that decoding symbolism of multi story Perkhuli in the way of perceiving it as a model of universe is not mentioned in any of the works by Georgian choreographers.

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Second Year MA Student Tamar Munjishvili (Currently First Year Ph D. Student) Supervisor: Oleg Alavidze Ph D. ON CHILDREN'S PROGRAMS IN CHOREOGRAPHY Summary Discussing the problems of the children's choreography takes us to the conclusion that there are too many problems to be solved in that sphere. They must be solved successively with the ideas of the competent specialists. All in these must be interfered not only the choreographers but the specialists of pedagogic, psychologists, physiologists, ethnographers and so on. That's why I think that there must be planed and conducted the trainings for the children's choreographs. After that the results and the interesting experiences must be described and published as a book as there is very little methodic literature about the children's choreography. There are only "Recommendations for the Working of the School Children's choreography" by Roman Chokhonelidze, "Folk Choreographic Art in the Matter of the pupil's upbringing" by Revaz Chanishvili, "Thinking about Georgian Choreography" and "Letters about the Choreography" by the same author. There is spoken in these works about the specific of the working with children, the meaning of the right compiling of the repertoire and the different methods of the teaching. The new books will help to be solved many problems in this matter. There must be created and improved the repertoire for the children which must be based on the games, tales, legends and the stories already being in Georgian existence. I think that their treatment for the stage will create interesting and easy to access choreographic patterns for children. To do these patterns will be more funny, cognitive and easy to overcome for children. To do such kind of repertoire will not cause psychological and physiological problems which are during the doing of the adults repertoire by children. I think that there are much more research problems in the children's choreography than it appears at one sight. There is hope that in the future will be not only one specialist who will be interested in that problem and will seriously think to solve them.

Drama Faculty

CREATIVE TEACHING MA Program

First Year MA Student Tamar Pirosmanashvili Supervisor: David Kobaxidze Ph D. IMPORTANCE OF CHOREOGRAPHY IN THEATRE The aim of my article is to deeply study the role of choreography in the theatre, it's history and developmental levels, which was influenced by the way of live, style, habits, manners and etc. Certainly, the main aim of this article is not only historical review. Base of searched material, we try to show the clear role and ability of choreography in the performance. The choreography of the play should consider the main idea of the performance, personage's character and conflict. The choreography must obey the idea of performance. Naturally, the examples of effective choreography are described in the work for much illustration, where the dance is used not only as the show, but as the continuation of the scenic act, which is described by plastic language. We try to introduce only one chapter of our future work, where we will describe the examples of effective choreography in films and plays.

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THE VANO SARAJISHVILI TBILISI STATE CONSERVATORY MUSIC STUDIES

First Year MA Student of Music Studies Tamar Mikadze Supervisor: Associated Professor Marina Kavtaradze ISSUES OF INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JAZZ AND CLASSICAL MUSIC Summary The given article concerns research of relations between jazz and classical music. Our objective is to define the tendencies, in which the process of this relation is distinctly revealed influencing jazz and academic music; the report considers what common and distinguishing features they have. On one hand, such jazz currencies originated as a result of interaction defined as "jazzing", "Jazzing the Classics" and "Baroque Jazz", and on the other hand, works of academic music of the XX century, originated as a result of this relation. Jazz was enriched with classics, symphonic, chamber music. Such examples are as follows: works of Gershwin, Stravinsky, Ravelli, Milhaud, Polyanskiy, Cowell, Villa-Lobos, Schnittke, Kvernadze, Kancheli, V. Kakhidze, Bardanashvili and others works. As a result of merging of jazz and classics the verges between classical and jazz players are broken down.

ancient music. The greatest interest to the ancient music that begun four hundred years ago has several times improved itself, especially last century. In our topic we shall try to refer our attention to the opuses, having the characteristic science of Opera, that are based on the works of the greatest Greek Tragedy writers. We shall discuss how the most actual themes of all time are interpreted in modern time and space. In this respect we shall also pay attention to "Oedipus Rex" By Igor Stravinsky; "Antigone" by Arthur Honegger ; "Antigone" by Carl Orff and also"Oresteia"by Iannis Xenakis.

First Year Ph D. student Ms. Ketevan Chitadze Supervisor: Associate Professor Ketevan Bolashvili, Ph.D. SEARCH FOR NEW GENRE MODELS IN THE 20TH CENTURY MUSIC Summary The present paper explores some issues related to the drastic transformation of the genre category in the 20th century music. As a matter of fact, the 20th century music, like other field of art, was subject to the series of processes that led to defragmentation of thraditional ganre models. The paper aims at identifing the replacement of existing, century-old paradigm and any newly created genres. The paper reviews the following musical pieces whose's titles are not genre oriented and bear abstract character: Hyperprism by Edgard Varèse, Notationen by Pierre Boulez, Kreuzspiel by Karlheinz Stokhausen, Match by Mauricio Kagel and Rioanji by John Cage. The pieces that had been selected for analysis are oriented on most general principles. We purposefully avoided those pieces whose titles would indicated their link to specific program. The analysis has revealed within the context of total individualism there are number of common characteristics and reasonability as well as links between titles of musical pieces and thris structure, dramatic development and the language of music. Therefore, in the musical pieces similar to those above listed, the title generally determines the form, content, dramatic development and that is the reason it equals to genre definition.

First Year MA Student Ms. Maia Sigua Supervisor: Assistant Professor Ketevan Bolashvili, Ph.D. THE ANTIQUE TRAGEDY IN XX CENTURY MUSICALAND STAGE WORKS ISSUES OF GENRE INTERPRETATION Summary In the history of mankind the cultural inheritance of ancient Greece, one of the first high-developed civilizations, has many times become the source of inspiration for the greatest artists of various nations. The birth of Opera at bound of XVI-XVII centuries is just connected with an attempt to restore the

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First Year Ph D. student Ms. Eka Tchabashvili Supervisor: Associate Professor Nodar Mamisashvili

ATOMIC-NUCLEAR COMPOSITION TECHNIQUE Summary The XX century offered a significant amount of scientific innovations, which influenced the world culture including music. As a result a large number of science oriented composers appeared in the world of art, as well as hybrid artists. These and similar events prepare the mankind for so called "United Thinking". In the epoch of Genetics and Atomic Physics the musical thinking reflects the most important achievements of these spheres. The Paper reviews a hypothesis on the musical genes and genetic codes. The author describes different arts of musical genes - Phonogene, Intragene (including Euphony), Hologene and classifies the musical codes enciphered in the Overtones' series. The Paper aims at analyzing the new "atomic-nuclear composition technique", which emerged in the heart of Meditative Music. The Meditative Music represents the art of composition, where the musical materials with the different "psycho-times" are disposed in the different space layers. The basic structural and mental principles of the "atomic-nuclear composition technique" are metaphorically connected with the rules of the nuclear Physics. The paper describes the so called "Enriched Tone" (f. e. A flat ­ B sharp), the expressive methods of the "atomic-nuclear music" and the characteristics of these composition techniques.

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