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SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti

Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Z i eb a n i #1 (34), 2008

ART SCIENCE STUDIES #1(34), 2008

gamomcemloba `kentavri~ Tbilisi _ 2008

UDC(u ak) 7( 051. 2) s-364 SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #1 (34), 2008

Teatrmcodneoba

Sinaarsi

saredaqcio sabWo nodar gurabaniZe zviad doliZe uCa dvaliSvili literaturuli redaqtori mariam iaSvili

krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala uzrunvelyofili unda iyos Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan unda axldes monacemebi avtoris samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

maia goSaZe dakarguli samoTxe.......................................................................................8 mai a ki k naZe Tojinuri warmodgenebi sparseTSi fehlevan kaCal.................................................................................22 manana turiaSvili kote marjaniSvili TariRebSi werili pirveli...........................................................................................30 eka cxadaZe dadaistebi da keTrovani sinamdvile grigol robaqiZis fantasmagoria `malStremSi~..........................................46 kinomcodneoba

garekanis dizaineri levan dadiani damkabadonebeli ekaterine oqropiriZe koreqtori manana goSaZe

krebulis stamburi gamocema egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso kvleviT centrebs.

naSromebi mogvawodeT da cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT: 0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, II korpusi. tel/faqsi: +995(32) 936 408 E-Mail: [email protected] Web: www.tafu.edu.ge

ira demetraZe Tanamedrove kinoprocesi _ kulturulmiTologiuri arqeti pebi.......................................................................56 lia kalandariSvili konteqstis aspeqti `samocianelTa~ SemoqmedebaSi..................................................................................................65 ira kuWuxiZe qarTuli kinos ZiriTadi tendenciebi gasuli saukunis 70-80-iani wlebis mijnaze...................................................73 dinara maRlakeliZe kinematografi, qalTa emansi pacia da kinos feministuri Teoria..................................................................................86 eTer okujava Teatrisa da kinos mxatvrobis saTaveebTan................................99 dumitru oleresku ori kinoxelovnebis mxatvrul-poeturi Rirebuleba....................................................................................................111

oliko JRenti mzis Svilebi _ knut hamsuni da grigol robaqiZe........................................................................................121 Teo xatiaSvili teleseriali, rogorc socio-kulturuli fenomeni...........................................................................................................140 mediologia vaJa zubaSvili satelevizio politikuri reklama, rogorc politikuri komunikaciis forma.....................................................151 TinaTin Wabukiani montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba.........................................168 xelovnebaTmcodneoba nato gengiuri dekonstruqtivizmi _ Tanamedrove arqiteqturuli mimarTuleba.................................185 kulturologia fati SeylaSvili nacisturi ideologia kulturis Sesaxeb da nacionalsocialistebis danaSauli kulturis winaaRmdeg............................................................................207 badri cxadaZeD dudukisa da salamuris armomavlobisaTvis..............................213 tradiciuli xelovneba eka geliaSvili qarTuli qoreografiuli literaturis mimoxilva........................................................................................................222 saavtoro monacemebi................................................................................230 4

CONTENTS

THEATRE STUDIES MAIA GOSHADZE Paradise lost ........................................................................................................237 MAIA KIKNADZE Puppet performances in persia Pehlevan kachali....................................... 238 MANANA TURIASHVILI Marjanishvili in dates .....................................................................................239 EKA TSKHADADZE The dadaists and a leprous reality in Grigol Robakidze's phantasmagoria "Malshtrem" .......................................................................240 FILM STUDIES IRA DEMETRADZE Contemporary film process ­ culture-mythological aspects.......................241 LIA KALANDARISHVILI Aspect of the context in e. Shengelaia's "extraordinary exhibition" ...........242 IRA KUCHUKHIDZE Main tendencies of Georgian cinema at the end of the seventies and beginning of the eighties (a new generation: new problems, searches...)....................243 DINARA MAGLAKELIDZE Cinematography, women emancipation and the feminist theory of cinema ...............................................................................................244 ETER OKUJAVA At the origins of theatre and film design ......................................................245 DUMITRU OLERESCU Artistic-poetical value of two cinematographs .............................................247 OLIKO JGENTI Children of the sun ­ Knut Hamsun and Grigol Robakidze (mythological-poetical structure of "wonderland") ....................................248 TEO KHATIASHVILI Tv series as a socio-cultural phenomenon ..................................................249

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MEDIA STUDIES VAJA ZUBASHVILI Political tv advertisement as a form of political communication................ 250 TINATIN CHABUKIANI Structural consistency of editing Chapter two ­ editing, as means of artistic expression................................251 ART STUDIES NATO GENGIURI Deconstructivism ­ a contemporary architectural movement.....................252 CULTURAL STUDIES PATI SHEKLASHVILI Nazi ideology on culture and the national-socialist crime against culture.........................................................................................253 BADRI TSKHADADZE On the origins of duduki and salamuri (linguistic-etymological analysis) ..................................................................254

TRADITIONALART

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EKA GELIASHVILI Review of georgian choreographic literature.................................................255

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maia goSaZe dakarguli samoTxe (fragmenti erTiani naSromidan)

edemiseuli idiliidan gare samyarosTan erTiani harmoniis ferxulidan adre Tu gvian yovelTvis mainc gandevnili adamiani cxovrebis warmmarTveli gezisa Tu sazrisis Ziebas kvlav yovlismomcveli TviTmoqmedi we s r ig is , yo vli s m om cv el i mi zez - S ed eg ob ri vi gapirobebulobis gamomxatveli kanonzomierebisa Tu samarTlis mSobliur wiaRSi dabrunebis mcdelobiT iwyebs. dedamiwis qal-RmerT geias wiaRidan gamosulsa da kvlav mis wiaRSi moqceul pirmSoTa ms gavs ad (ganurCevlad imisa iqnebian es titanebi Tu arsebiTad maTive xvedris gamziarebeli oidi posi) adamiani versad gaeqceva pirveladi arsebobisa da cnobierebis daxSul wreze brunvis gardauvalobas. versad gaeqceva Tavisive sulieri umecrebis mZevlobas manam, sanam empiriul sinamdviles mijaWvul mzeras Sinagani zecisken ar warmarTavs. s akuTari ,,vinaobis ~ gardauvalad armcodne arqeti pul gmirTa msgavsad ra gzasac ar unda daadges adamiani, Sinagani xvedris zogad kanonzomierebas mainc ver gaeqceva. ama Tu im saxiT cxovrebis sazrisis, sicocxlis masazrdoebeli STagonebisa Tu ukvdavebis wyaros Zieba, romelime lurji frinvelisa Tu lurji yvavilis mopovebis mcdeloba yovelTvis axla da amJamad arsebulis miRmismier ,,sivrceSi~ xangrZlivi xetialiT iwyeba. cxadia, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom meterlinkis piesaSi zRapris gmirebi lurji frinvelis mosapoveblad ara mxolod mSobliuri saxlidan garbian, aramed uRimRamod miCneuli awmyoseuli realobidan xan ganvlilsa da gardasuls, xan momavals, xan ki ocnebebisa da zmanebebis samyaros miaSureben. zeciurad miCneuli lurji

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frinveli ki daWerisTanave xelidan gasxletil efemerad iqceva, an fers icvlis an usicocxlo aRmoCndeba. garemomcveli s amyaros , TiTqos , us as rulo SesaZleblobebiT macdunebel ,,horizontebSi~ sakuTari arsebisa da arsebobis sazrisis maZiebeli, Sinaganis gareganSi povnis msurveli, momTxovni Tu moimede, mudam gare samyarosken mimarTuli imedebis, survilebis, miswrafebebis mZevladve iqceva; mudam sazriss mowyurebul ,,usazrisobad~, mudam garedan Sevsebis amaod msurvel sicarieled rCeba. sakuTari ,,vinaobis" armcodne, dabadebisTanave daborkil da cxovelis tyavSi gaxveul (arsebiTad, saxarebiseul metaforas Tu davesesxebiT Zveli kaciT S e m o s i l o b i s g a mo m x a t v e l ,,t y a v S i ~ g ax v e u l ) kalderoniseul sexizmundos xvedric, adamianis Sinagani xve dris is e Tive gar dauv ali kano nzom iere bis gamomxatvelia, rogorc harmoniis dabadebis winmswrebi qaosis pirveladoba miTosur kosmogoniaSi. uflisadmi mimarTuli tyve ufliswulis samduravic, erTi mxriv, sakuTari sulieri umecrebis tusaRobis garedan Tavsmoxveul borkilebad, Tavisuflebis ki garedan boZebul jildod aRqma-gancdas warmoaCens da imavdroulad edemiseul idiliidan, gare samyarosTan erTiani TviTmoqmedi harmoniis mSobliuri ,,wesrigidan~ gandevnis miuReblobas warmoaCens. `ra mzes ixilavs nazi frinveli, zeaiWreba cisaken myisve laJvards Sehxaris, guls ixalisebs, me rom STambere cxoveli suli, Tavisufleba rad ar maRirse? Tevzi ra aris ­ sunTqvac ar icis, daudevari, civi simkvircxliT aedevneba talRebis cimcims, zRvas Seereva zvirTis Zaxilze, ubiro siRrmes gaiTavisebs, da stiqionic ar eurCeba,

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me rom STambere uryevi neba, Tavisufleba rad ar maRirse? Tu nakaduli daibadeba, brZolis SxefebiT gulaRebuli, vercxlis zoliviT miiklakneba. me rom amavse uSreti vnebiT, Tavisufleba rad ar maRirse?~1 cisken TavisTavad, yovelgvari Zalisxmevis gareSe aWrili frinvelisgan gansxvavebiT, talRebis cimcims TavisTavadi silaRiT adevnebuli Tevzisgan gansxvavebiT, daudevari SxefebiT TavisTavad morakrake nakadulisgan gansxvavebiT, adamiani, mamardaSvilis Tqmisa ar iyos, sakuTari Tavisken Sori gzidan mimaval arsebas warmoadgens. Tuki sakuTari Tavisken savali gzis siSore gardauvalobis, Tavad am gzis moZieba, nacnobisa da Cveulis, cxovrebisa da azrovnebis Cveul wesad qceulis myudro naWuWidan gamosvlis mzaoba Tavisuflebis prerogativas warmoadgens ­ ara garedan boZebul an warTmeul, aramed mudmivi Zalisxmevis gamovlenisgan ganuyreli Tavisuflebis prerogativas. samyaroSi yovelive arsebulisgan gansxvavebiT, mxolod adamiania Tavisufali SemoqmedebiTi nebiT dajildovebuli ­ ara mxolod gare samyarosTan, aramed sakuTar TavTan mimarTebaSi axlis Sobadobis unariT ga mo rC eu li. a mq vey na d mx olo d ad ami an ia a ra ,,mzamzareulad~, ara dasrulebul-srulyofili saxiT movlenili, ara TavisTavad mzardi da ganviTarebadi, aramed potenciurad SesaZlebeli arsebac ­ sakuTari Sinagani arsisganve TviTSobadobis pirmSo. s ag u li s xm o a, r om be r Zn u l m i To log i aS i WeSmaritebasTan wilnayar naTelmxilvel brZenkac samebis sacxovrisad, sulieri ganZis sauflod okeanis fskeria warmoCenili. TviT olimpos mTis mkvidrnic ki WeS m ar i te bi s S es acn o bad f s ke r z e bin adar naTelmxilvelebs mimarTavdnen. mxolod zeciuri fskeris mkvidrTaTvisaa ucxo yovelgvari sicrue.

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mxolod nacnobisa da Cveulis usafrTxo zedapiridan ucnob siRrmeSi, xilulis uxilav arsSi ,,myvinTav~ mzeras ZaluZs maias safars moxveuli sinamdvilis wiaRSi pirvelSobadobis Zilisgan gamoRviZeba, (bergsonis sityvebs Tu davesesxebiT) sinamdvilis dedanSi Wvreta. ,,hadesSi Zilisgan mxolod brZenkaci iRviZebs. WeSmariti harmonia faruli harmoniaa~, _ ambobda heraklite.2 sakuTari Tavisken savali gzis siSore, garemomcvel samyarosTan pirveladi, simbiozuri erTianobis gamomxatvel idiliaze mijaWvul Zvel kacSi dabadebis gardauvalobas, egzistencialur ,,aryofnaSi~ pirveladi yofnis gardauvalobas gulisxmobs. amitomac brZenkacs mxolod hadesSi Zilisgan gamoRviZeba ZaluZs da ara zeciuri fskeris mkvidrTan mimarTebaSi, sicocxlis Sinagan wyarosTan mimarTebaSi pirveladi Zilis Tavidan acileba. sioren kirkegoris TqmiT, WeSmarit arCevans adamiani ara sikeTesa da borotebas Soris, aramed Sinagani adamianis TviTSobadobasa da garemomcveli samyaros maradiul pirmSoobas Soris akeTebs. arsebiTad imave azrs gamoTqvams alber kamiu, rodesac ambobs, rom amqveynad imisTvis ki ar movdivarT, rom sxvas (vinmes an rames) vemsaxuroT, an sxva vimsaxuroT, aramed arsebobis sakuTari SesaZleblobebi amovwuroT. Tumc, kamius azriT, yvelaze jiutad swored im iluziebs vepotinebiT, Cvenze aRmatebulad miCneul miznebisa da idealebis ganxorcielebis saSualebad rom gvaqceven. arCevnis mravalsaxovnebisgan ganurCevlad, adamiani an mis miRmiseuli garemomcveli realobis, misi arsebisa da arsebobisTvis sazrisis momniWeblad an warTmevad miCneuli mravalgvarovani mizezobrivi gapirobebulobis ganmsazRvrel Zalas an sakuTari ,,TviTmiznuri~ da TviTmSobadi Zalisxmevis ,,uflebamosilebas~ aRiarebs. pirveli mimarTeba gare samyarosTan pirveladi, simbiozuri kavSirisa da erTianobis gamomxatvel

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idiliaze mimjaWveli nostalgiiTa da ama Tu im saxiT transformirebul samoTxeSi dabrunebis ocnebiT sazrdoobs; qaosidan harmoniis TavisTavad mSobad, sicocxlisTvis sazrisis TavisTavad momniWebel TviTmoqmedi wesrigis `frTis qveS~ dabrunebis surviliT sazrdoobs. swored pirovnuli zrdisa da ganviTarebisgan, Tavisufali SemoqmedebiTi aqtivobisgan ganuyreli rwmenis anti podad da mis ubadruk surogatad gvevlineba yovlismomcveli idiliis damkvidrebis molodinze tkbilxmianad ,,moJRurtule~ imedis goeTeseuli alegoria. imedi `ara uSavs, xval gveqceva arseboba drostarebad da zeimad da daviwyebT Sveba-lxenas, guls vijerebT udardelad, mivecemiT aRmafrenas yvela gulSi Cagvixutavs, yvelas yvela eyvareba, mwams uTuod agvixdeba sanukvari ocnebebi~.3 arsebulidan ararsebulSi, sasurvelis momlodine imedSi gaqcevisas, kamius azriT, iluziis vardebis mcoxnav virebs vemsgavsebiT. albaT, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom swored zmanebebis samyaroSi moxvedrili Seqspiriseuli titania (,,zafxulis Ramis sizmari~) mSvenierebis etalonad aRqmuli viris niRbiT moinusxeba, a r s e b i Ta d s a k u T a r i cd o m i l e b i s v e , i l u z i i T d ap ur eb u lo bi s ar s is k om i ku ri p ir o bi To bi T gamomxatvel niSan-xats etrfis. mudam axla da amJamad arsebulis, sasurvelis molodinSi dammasamarebeli, sulier sizanteSi gamaxevebeli imediani mzera Cexoviseuli dramis samyaroSi iluziis vardebis mTeli baRnaris mSobel da masazrdoebel STagonebis wyarod iqceva. warsulze, rogorc dakargul samoTxeze, nostalgia

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da imavdroulad sanetaro momavlis warmosaxviT horizontebze mokiafe idiliiT tkboba Cexoviseul gmirTa mudmivad Tanamdev ,,tandebad~ gvevlineba. warsulSi maTSi umeteswilad sevdanarev aRtacebas, mo mav ali meo cne be egz alt aci as , awm yo mZa fr daukmayofileblobas iwvevs. arsebuliT gamowveul kaeSans, naRvelsa Tu apaTias momavalze ocnebiT advilad STagonebadi, Tumc aseve advilad Camcxradi enTuziazmi enacvleba. rac ufro Zlieria Cexoviseul gmirTa sulieri sizante, miT ufro Zlieria imedis efemerul samyarosken swrafvac. rac ufro metad gaurbian realurs, miT ufro jiutad ebRauWebian iluzoruls. r ac ufro gaucxovebulni arian axla da amJamad arsebulTan, realizebadTan, aRsaqmel-gansacdelTan mimarTebaSi, miT meti enTuziazmiT epotinebian abstraqtul idealebsa da fiqtiur miznebs; naTeli momavlisken ganuxrelad da, rac mTavaria, TavisTavad, erToblivi marSirebiT ms vleli kaco br io bi s ms ax ur ebis TiTqo sd a altruistul ideebs. warsuli, rogorc naTeli momavlisken mSobliuri mzrunvelobiT warmmarTveli, TviTmoqmedi wesrigis `frTis qveS~ udardelad nebivrobis xana maTTvis, arsebobis erTaderT misaReb modelad qceula ­ mudmivad uaryofili awmyodan sanetaro momavalSi gaqcevis maradiuli STagonebis wyarod qceula. yovlismomcvel mizez-Sedegobrivi gapirobebulobis gamo mxatvel i wes r igis a T u s amar Tlis s axiT transformirebul edemSi, gare samyarosTan erTiani harmoniis momcvel idiliaSi dabrunebis moimede ver Rebulobs sicocxles ,,umizezod~ da ,,uSedegod~, damsaxurebisamebr yovelives mimzRvevi Zalebis gareSe, ,,mzamzareulad~ morTmeuli miznebisa da sazrisebis gareSe. swored amas ambobs, tipiurad Cexoviseuli gmiris msof laRqmi s gamom xatveli maSa prozor ova: ,,SeuZlebelia uflis rwmenis gareSe cxovreba. SeuZlebelia cxovrobde da ar icode, risTvis

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dafrinaven weroebi, risTvis Cndebian bavSvebi, risTvis anaTeben varskvlavebi, an unda icode risTvis cxovrob, an yvelaferi sulerTia~..4 sagulisxmoa, rom Cexoviseuli gmiris mier, arsebulad Tu araarsebulad miCnevisgan ganurCevlad, uflis saxiT swored sasjelebisa da jildoebis damsaxurebisamebr gamnawilebeli, cxovrebis ,,sazrisianobis~ garantirebadi instancia moiazreba ­ yovlismomcveli wesrigis mSobliur wiaRSi dabrunebis SesaZlebloba moiazreba. cxovreba misi adre Tu gvian gardauvalad Tanamdevi tanjviTurT misaRebi mxolod, Tundac Soreul, magram s ab ol oo d m ai nc y o vl is a m xs ne li s a zr is iT , yovlismomcvel idiliaSi warmgzavni finaliT garantirebadi dajildoebis SemTxvevaSi gaxdeba. daxSul wreze usasrulo brunvis warmomCen ,,sami dis~ finalSi, amjerad irina prozorova yovelives TavisTavad momgvarebadad miCneuli wesrigis ukvdavi imedis SeupovrobiT imeorebs: ,,mova dro da yvela Seityobs, risTvis iyo es yovelive saWiro, risTvis vitanjebodiT amdens. mova dro da yvelafers naTeli moefineba~.5 cxovrebis upirobod ver miRebis motivs alaverdiviT aitacebs olga prozorova da piesis finalur sityvebs warmoTqvams: ,,sul cotac da SevityobT, risTvis vcxovrobdiT da risTvis vitanjebodiT, oRond es gagvagebina, oRond es gagvagebina~.6 jerjerobiT gaugebari cxovrebiseuli dramis erTiani Canafiqris Secnobamde, jerjerobiT faruli uzenaesi sazrisis dRis sinaTleze `gamomzeurebamde~ Cexoviseuli gmiri bednieri saaqao Tu saiqio momavlis ,,imedSi~ miZinebas amjobinebs. sagulisxmoa, rom samxatvro TeatrSi ,,sami dis~ repeticiebis mimdinareobisas Tavisi meuRlisadmi, msaxiob kni per-Cexovasadmi miweril werilSi, piesis avtori daJinebiT moiTxovs scenuri moqmedebis ganviTarebasTan erTad personaJTa mzardi sulieri apaTiis warmoCenas: ,,Seni werilis mixedviT Tu

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vimsjelebT, warmoudgenel sisuleles CmaxavT, mesame moqmedebaSi xmauri iqnebao, _ ambob. ra dros xmauria? xmauri Soridan ismis, Torem scenaze yvelas zezeuladve sZinavs. am sayovelTao ZilquSis warmoCenis gareSe, mTeli azri ikargeba~.7 had es Si Zilis gan g amoR viZeb is ar ms urv eli Cexoviseuli gmirisTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba eniWeba ara imis gagebas, Tu vin aris da ra SeuZlia, ara arsebobis sakuTari SesaZleblobebis aRmoCenas, aramed garemomcvel samyarosTan erTiani harmoniis mSobliur wiaRSi dabrunebis imeds, kacobriobasTan erTad erTiani sazrisisken erTiani geziT TviTdinebis iluzias. aki ambobs kidec neapolis quCis xalxmravlobaSi srulad ,,gaTqvefis~ msurveli, arsebiTad ki samyarosTan simbiozuri erTianobis momcvel idiliaSi, yovelgvari Zalisxmevis gamovlenis saWiroebisgan Tavisufal ,,arsebobaSi~ dabrunebaze meocnebe dorni (piesidan ,,Tolia~): ,,genuis erT-erTi quCa saocrad momewona. mudam xalxiTaa savse. iq moxvedrisas TiTqos masasTan erTad iwyeb sunTqvas, moZraobas, cxovrebas. xalxTan sruli Serwymis gancda gi pyrobs, imis rwmena geufleba, rom, marTlac, arsebobs erTiani msoflio sulis msgavsi ram~.8 sicocxlis upirobod, ,,umizezod~ da `uSedegod~ ver mimRebi Cexoviseuli gmiri, yofna-aryofnis maradiul WidilSi ubrZolveladve damarcxebul kapituliantad iqceva. kolbidan gamousvlelad, arsebiTad ki swored pirvelad arsebobisa da cnobierebis naWuWidan gamousvlelad, dabadebis amaod msurvel goeTeseuli h o m u n k u l u s i s m s g a v s a d ( ,, f a u s t i~ ) m a r a d i u l ,,embrionadve~ rCeba. arsebobis sakuTari SesaZleblobebis aRmoCenisgan TviTmoqmedi idiliis damkvidrebis molodinSi gamqcevi imediT monusxuloba, s wored sakuTar TavTan mimarTebaSi axlis mSobadobis uunaro sulieri umwifrobis ier-saxiT gvevlineba kinomsaxiobTa Teatris speqtaklSi ,,alublis baRi~.

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edemis baRis yovlismomcveli siTeTre ,,alublis baRi~ piesisTvis Cveuli formiT, remarkiT iwyeba, romlis pirvelive fraza moqmedebis adgilis, arsebiTad ki am adgilis binadrebis Sesaxeb Cexoviseuli mravlismTqmeli lakonurobiT gvamcnobs: ,,jer kidev sabavSvod wodebuli oTaxi~. sagulisxmoa, rom oTaxs sabavSvod ara mxolod moixsenieben im saxlSi, romlis mkvidrnic raxania ukve gascdnen bavSvobis asaks, aramed marTlac, rom aseTad aRiqvamen swored ufrosi Taobis warmomadgenlebi, magram ara Tavis pirmSoebTan, aramed sakuTar TavTan, maTTvis jer kidev dausrulebeli bavSvobis xanasTan mimarTebaSi. aki dasZens kidec warsulze nostalgiiT atirebuli ranevskaia, rom Tavadac xom sabavSvo oTaxis msgavsad, jer kidev iseTi pataraa. swored dausrulebeli, maradiuli bavSvobis gadamwifebul nayofebad, zrdisa da ganviTarebis, netar inertulobis mdgomareobidan gamosvlis jiutad armsurvel, marTlac rom sabavSvo oTaxis maradiul mkvidrebad gvevlinebian kinomsaxiobTa Teatris speqtaklis gmirebi. ,,alublis baRis~ g. margvelaSviliseul scenur interpretaciaSi adamianis Sinagan bunebasa da Sinagan xvedrs, misi cxovrebis sazrissa Tu usazrisobas ar gansazRvravs iRbali Tu uiRbloba, cxovrebiseuli mdinarebis aRmaval-daRmavali xazebi, socialuri foni Tu roli. Tumc, erTi SexedviT, SemTxveviTobac ki mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs Cexoviseul gmirTa cxovrebaSi, fatalurs - mcirewlovani vaJiSvilis damkargavi ranevskaiasTvis, iRblians - vodeviluri piSCikisTvis, zafxulSi mosul TovliviT moulodnelad Tavs daferTxili dovlaTi, maradiuli mevalidan uzrunvelyofil mesakuTred rom aqcevs. ma gra m n ebi s mi eri xa s ia Tis cx ovr ebi s eu li garemoebebi ­ bednieri an ubeduri bavSvoba, qorwineba, siyvaruli, an zogadad SemTxveviToba, baraqiani

16

memkvidreoba-warmomavloba Tu uTvistomod amqveynad movlena arsobrivad arafers cvlis speqtaklis gmirTa umravlesobis ,,damCvarul~ cxovrebasa da cnobierebaSi, marad cvalebad garemoebaTa fonze marad ucvlel mimarTebebSi. bedi Tu ubedoba qariT motanilad da q ar i Tve waRebu lad iq c ev a cx o vr e bi s e uli gamocdilebis Seusmeneli, pirovnuli zrdisa da ganviTarebis armsurvel, marad isev iseTad darCenis msurvel gmirTaTvis. amqveynad movlinebidan moyolebuli, sakmaod xangrZlivi drois manZilze adamiani garemomcvelTa mzrunvelobaze damokidebuli im umweo arsebad rCeba, misTvis ucxosa da saSiS samyaroSi gzamkvlev mfarvelobas rom saWiroebs. adamianis pirveladsa da yovelive Cveulis, cxovrebisa da azrovnebis Cveul wesad qceulis msgavsad, sakmaod rTulad dasaZlev mimarTebas, sakuTari Tavis garda yvelasa da yovelives SemZleobis gancda warmoadgens ­ iqneba es pirovnul Tu upirovno ZalTa, garemomcvelTa Tu garemoebaTa gulmowyale mfarvelobis molodini. dedis rZiT mosazrdove Cvilis msgavsad, langarze morTmeuli idiliiT sazrdoobis msurvelni, alublis baRis maradiuli mkvidrni, xsnasa da Semweobas mudam maTi SesaZleblobebis miRmismier ,,sivrceSi~ eZieben ­ inglisel investorebsa Tu iaroslavel deidebSi, ojaxis wevrTa iRblian qorwinebebsa Tu latariis bednier bileTebSi, ,,droulad~ gardacvlil naTesavTa memkvidreobasa Tu cocxlad myofTa SemweobaSi, re vo lu ci ur k at ak li zm eb s a T u p r og re s i s k en TavisTavad msvleli kacobriobis naTel momavalSi. n eb i s m ie r i n ai rs a xe o bi s ­ p r ag m at ul i T u altruistuli imediT monusxuloba speqtaklSi, dauZleveli sulieri infantilizmis, maradiuli ganmeorebadobis daxSuli wris garRvevis uunaro sulieri umwifrobis ier­saxiT gvevlineba. scenuri moqmedebis adgili, ,,alublis baRis~ erTerTi personaJis, maradi studentis marad alag-alag

17

maia

goSaZ e

da kar gu l i

sam oT xe

amosuli wveris ar iyos, swored alag-alag bavSvobaSi ,,CarCenili~ oTaxia ­ speqtaklis gmirTa ara imdenad yofiTi, ramdenadac Sinagani ,,sacxovrisis~ warmomCenni ­ ,,asakobrivad~ aRreuli avej-rekvizitiT, sadac solidur avejs gverds momcro aveji umSvenebs. masiuri skivris fonze, TiTqos, Tojinebis saxlis miniaturuli interieri warmoCindeba ­ erTi cida magidiTa da skamiT. avanscenis Sua gulSi ki amayad wamoWimulia mcire zomis saTamaSo cxeni; ranevskaias wamieri SeZrwunebis mixedviT, misi bavSvobaSi daRupuli vaJis nivTi, Tumc imavdroulad bedisweris s imbolos p arodiul oreuladac aRqmuli, speqtaklis gmirTa ucvleli Sinagani bunebisa da Sinagani xvedris adekvaturi ironiiT gamomxatveli (damdgmeli mxatvari SoTa glurjiZe). mamulSi CamosvlisTanave ranevskaia upirvelesad swored SaliTebSi gaxveul avejs gaaSiSvlebs. TiTqos, xelis erTi mosmiT Zvelmanebis damtevi skivridan miniaturuli ,,edemis~ fantomur samyaros gamoixsnis. Ti Tqo s , mi viw yeb is s af ar s C amo xs n is mu dmi vi dakonservebis mdgomareobaSi gaSeSebuli bavSvobis ,,cocxal-mkvdar~ samyaros ­ aRarc ganvlilisa da gardasulis da veRarc cocxal awmyod qceuls. bavSvobis udardel wlebs, tkbil Zilsa da imedian gaRviZebas, ganvlilsa da gardasuls Senatris parizidan samSobloSi dabrunebuli ranevskaia. Tumca warsuls gulaCuyebiT esiyvaruleba ara wlebTan erTad SeZenil cxovrebiseul gamocdilebiT cnobiereba gafarToebuli, feriscvaleba gancdili pirovneba, aramed mTeli Tavisi infantilurad ucvleli bunebiT, mrwamsiT, CvevebiTa Tu warmodgenebiT, ganvlilsa da gardasulis uZraobaSi gaSeSebuli arseba. qaTqaTa mkveTr samosSi gamowyobili, jer kidev momxibvlavi mandilosani, Seunelebeli nostalgiuri aRtacebiT umzers sabavSvo oTaxis fanjridan gadaSlil, misTvis cxovrebis pirveladi aRqma-gancdiT Semosil, T eT ri a l ub li s ba R is T va l wa rm ta c p ei za Js .

18

monusxuliviT misCerebia pirquSi cxovrebiseuli realobisgan Tavisi mSvenierebiT, TiTqos Semoragul, daculsa da damcvel, realobasTan SexebiT SeuryvnelSeubRalavi edemis baRis marad norCsa da umanko siTeTres. Seunelebeli nostalgiiT Senatris miwaze mofarfate udardelobis, mSobliuri mfarvelobis kalTas amofarebuli netar inertulobis myudro savanes (niSandoblivia, rom Cexovis SemoqmedebaSi TeTri feri infantiluri cnobierebis mudmivad Tanamdev maxasiaTeblad gvevlineba. moTxroba `SetevaSi~ adamiani an gaTenebamde mo s uli p ir veli Tov liviT ,,autalaxebeli~ infantiluri ubiwoebis an cisartyelas yvela feriT Semkul saroski pos maradiul mZevlad rCeba). speqtaklSi warsulze mijaWvulobis motivi ara imdenad ganvlilsa da gardasulze dauZleveli nostalgiis, ramdenadac erTxel da samudamod aRqmulgancdilis, gagebul-morgebulis maradiuli mZevlobis saxiT warmoCindeba; sakuTari Tavisa Tu arsebuli sinamdvilisadmi Cveul mimarTebebTan, cxovrebisa da azrovnebis Cveul wesTan gamoTxovebis uunarobis saxiT v li n d eba; e so d e n m So bli u r ic aTv is e bulSesisxlxorcebuli warmodgenebis myudro naWuWidan dabadebis yovelTvis armsurveli nayofiviT, gamosvlis arsurvilis saxes iZens. gafrTxilebis miuxedavad, mainc ukan, warsulisken, mobrunebuli bibliuri lotis colis msgavsad, monusxuliviT misCerebia didi mamulis marad patara mepatrone cxovrebis mravalgvarovnad mravalferovani stiqiis erTferovan siTeTreSi mSTanTqmeli i n f a n t i l u ri s a m o T x i s T v a l w a r mt a c x e d s _ cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT xelSeuxebeli umankoebis gamomxatveli edemis baRis sterilur siTeTres, warsulis miraJebs rom warmoSobs. s wo re d as eT m i raJ ad i q ce v a sp e qt aklSi , ranevskaiasTvis wamierad gaelvebuli warsulis suraTi; TiTqos, xidan gamosul nimfasaviT gacocxlebuli, baRSi

19

maia

goSaZ e

da kar gu l i

sam oT xe

moseirne dedamisis TeTrad Semosili landis saxiT, piesaSi SesaZloa mSobliur peizaJTan Sexvedris nostalgiur-lirikuli gamoZaxili, speqtaklSi ki warsuls mijaWvulis pirmSo-pantomi. nebismier geografiul wertilSi aRmoCenisgan ganurCevlad, mSobliur mamulsa Tu parizSi yofnisgan damoukideblad, ranevskaia speqtaklSi swored sabavSvo oTaxis fanjridan, misTvis ucvleli xedvis ucvleli rakursidan, aRqmul-gancdili idiliiT samudamod monusxul personaJad rCeba. fiqrisa da Sromis, yovelgvari Zalis xmevis a da p as uxismgeblobis gamovlenis saWiroebisgan Tavisufali arsebobis pirvelad idiliaSi, `uZraobis~ uSfoTvel xanaSi, netar inertulobis myudro saTburSi dabrunebisken swrafvis gamomxatvelad gvevlineba. nineli WankvetaZis scenuri gmiri, cxovrebis p irveladi aRqma- gancdis naWuWSi narcis ulad gaxevebuli, edemiseul idiliaSi narcisuladve TviTamreklavi sakuTari arsebis xatiTve tkbeba. zamTris susxiT Seucvleli TeTri alublis baRis maradiul sinorCeSi, cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT Seucvleli, Tavisive marad umwifari sulis ,,sinorCes~ etrfis. yoveldRiuri yofisTvis xazgasmiT Seusabamo kabebiTa da realobis sruliad araadekvaturi warmodgenebiT ,,Semosili~ ranevskaia speqtaklSi ara dResaswaulad aRqmul-gancdili cxovrebis, aramed marad SemoqmedebiTad cvalebadi s icocxlis erTiani nakadisgan TiTqos ugzoukvlod amovardnil-gzaacdenli, TiTqos usasrulod dausrulebel uqme dRed qceuli arsebobis gansaxierebad iqceva. warsulis tusaRoba speqtaklSi, swored erTxel da samudamod Camoyalibebul-Camosxmulis ucvlel yalibSi momqcevi, ucvlelis mkvdar uZraobaSi gamaxevebeli, adamianisve Sinagani inertulobis saxiT vlindeba. awmyos ara mSobadi, aramed mSTanTqmeli warsulis tusaRoba speqtaklSi adamianSive arsebuli sicocxlis

20

im moSiSi sawyisis gamomxatvelad iqceva, Tavad anton Cexovis SemoqmedebaSi futliarSi moqceul kacunaTa mravalsaxovnebiT rom vlindeba; maTi biurokratiuli Tu aristokratuli warmomavlobisgan damoukideblad, maTi groteskuli Tu romantikuli ier-saxisgan ganurCevlad, yovelTvis swored TviTmoqmedi wesrigis `frTis qveS~, marad isev iseTad darCenis msurvel gmirTa mravalsaxovani variaciiT rom vlindeba.

1. pedro kalderoni, cxovreba sizmaria, Jurnali ,,xelovneba~, Tbilisi, 1992, #9/10, gv. 139. 2. . , 1969, . I, . I, . 274. 3. iohan volfgang goeTe, fausti, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 321. 4. . ., , , , , 1974, . 637. 5. iqve, . 670. 6. iqve, . 670. 7. . ., , . , 1976, . XI, .246. 8. . ., , , , , 1974, ., .271. 9. iqve, . 673. 21

Mmaia kiknaZe T o j i nu ri w a rm o d g en eb i s p a rs eT S i fehlevan kaCali

sparsuli Tojinebis Teatris saxeobebs Soris erTerTi gavrcelebuli sanaxaoba xelze Camocmuli Tojinebis warmodgenebi gaxldaT, romelsac mTavari moqmedi piris saxeli fehlevan kaCali erqva. xeimeSabazis (marionetebis) warmodgenebi Tu RamiT imarTeboda xelzeCamosacmeli Tojinebis naxva ZiriTadad dRisiT iyo SesaZlebeli. warmodgenebi oTx joxze mimagrebuli naWrisagan Sekruli 1,5 m. simaRlis karavSi ewyoboda. karvis win wvrili dafa ideboda, rac scenis iluzias qmnida. Tojinebi karavSi mjdom meTojines xelebze hqonda Camocmuli. did TiTs Tojinis erT xelSi uyrida, saCvenebelsa da Sua TiTs _ TavSi, araTiTsa da nekas ki _ Tojinis meore xelSi. meTojine Tojinas Tavad axmovanebda da amzadebda kidec (Tavi da biusti naWris agan, xanac pap ie- maSes agan mzaddeboda) . warmodgenis msvlelobis dros Teatris mepatrone karavTan idga da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi moqmedebaSi erTveboda. piesis mTavari moqmedi piri fehlevan kaCali, rac sityva-sityviT qaCal goliaTs niSnavs Tavisi xasiaTiT Zalze Camohgavs Turq yaragozsa da sxva evropel Tojinebsac. mkvexara da amayi, gaiZvera da Wkviani Tojina xSirad icvlida personaJebsa da tansacmels. is xan yadis, xan derviSis, xanac mulis rolSi evlineboda sazogadoebas, magram miuxedavad s axeTa aseTi m rav alf er o v ne bis a, mis i garegnobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mTavari niSnis, simelotis wyalobiT mayurebeli mas scenaze gamosvlisTanave cnobda. fehlevan kaCalis warmodgenebi Tavdapirvelad qalaqis moednebze, mogvianebiT ki kerZo saxlebSic imarTeboda, rasac adasturebs dRemde Semonaxuli mwiri

22

Canawerebi im evropeli diplomatebisa (oleari, onslei), romlebic TavianTi saqmianobiT iranTan iyvnen dakavSirebulni. amas emateba mogzaurTa da mkvlevarTa (iakobi, gocko) aRwerilobebic. am mxriv Zalze sayuradReboa cnobili aRmosavleTmcodneebis: r. galunovasa da i. maris mier sparseTSi yofnis dros Cawerili piesebi, romlebic warmoadgenen nimuSebs sparsuli Tojinuri dramaturgiisa da amave dros sparsuli Tojinuri sanaxaobebis saxeobebsa da misi mowyobis wesebze gviqmnis warmodgenas. piesebis gacnobis Sedegad cxadi xdeba, rom xelzeCamosacmeli Tojinebisa da marionetebis repertuari erTmaneTis msgavsia (mag.: piesis fabula, moqmedi pirebis xasiaTebi ­ mTavari gmiris fehlevanis xasiaTi arasodes icvleba. musikis roli, fulis akrefis scenebi) da maT Soris principuli ganxsvaveba mxolod TojinaTa saxeobebSia. piesa fehlevan kaCali 1 cnobili meTojinisa da Teatris mepatronis luTi ramazanis monawileobiT i m a r T e b o d a, r o m e l m a c T a v i s i k ar i e r a q u C i s momRerlobiTa da fokusebis CvenebiT gaikeTa. moqmedebac misi gamoCeniT iwyeba. gzaabneuli luTi karavs uaxlovdeba da kiTxulobs iqaurobis mepatronis vinaobas. karvidan mas fehlevan kaCalis msaxuri zangi firuzi exmianeba, romelic Tavisi batonis saxels amJRavnebs. luTi firuzis saqmianobiTac interesdeba da gaarkvevs, rom mas 10-12 Tanamdeboba ukavia da bevri saqme abaria: samzareulo, sacekvao oTaxi da sxva. moSiebuli luTi firuzisagan sakadriss gamaspinZlebas iTxovs. firuzi ­ ras SeWam? luTi ­ yvelafers, rasac momitan. firuzi ­ fehlevanis TiTsac luTi ­ nu xumrob, momitane rac gaqvs firuzi ­ badrijani musulmanuri, somxuri, Svidi saxeobis, SeWam? luTi ­ gana, arsebobs asi saxeobis badrijani? firuzi ­ ra? badrijani ar aris Savi? ... Cemi Tavia Savi.... SeWame

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maia

k i k naZ e

Tojinuri

warmodgenebi

sparseTSi

da maT Soris dawyebuli dialogi cema-tyepaSi gadaizrdeba. momdevno epizodi luTisa da fehlevan kaCalis Sexvedras eTmoba. luTi mas didi pativiscemiT esalmeba da eubneba, rom mas Tavsaburavis gareSe gamosvla ar ek adr eba , m iT ufr o, r om is as e md ida ri da saxelganTqmulia mTels aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTSi. am sityvebis gamgone metiCara fehlevani Tavs iwonebs da siamovnebas gamoxatavs, magram luTi amave dros sayvedursac eubneba misi upativcemulod miRebis gamo da daasmens firuzs. fehlevani firuzs joxs moataninebs, iatakze dawolas ubrZanebs da galaxavs (saxlidan mxolod imitom ar daiTxovs, rom gonebamaxvilia). moqmedebaSi erTveba qali sarvenazi, romelsac fehlevani mas Semdeg Seuyvardeba, roca mis namRer arias moismens. fehlevani qalis colad moyvanas da masSi 100 Tumnis gadaxdas apirebs. mogvianebiT Cndeba qurdi, romelic luTis daxmarebiT cdilobs mZinare fehlevans fuli mohparos, samagierod, mas fulis naxevars hpirdeba. moparvis Semdeg ki gayofa ar surs. fehlevani iRviZebs da qurds daniT aWris Tavs. luTi mas eubneba: `cudad moiqeci, axlandeli kanonebis mixedviT qurds vinc daiWers, policias unda Caabaros, axla seirs gviCveneben~. fehlevani gadawyvets , mkvdari gaacocxlos ingliseli eqimis daxmarebiT da vinaidan es SeuZlebeli aRmoCndeba, eqimsac klavs. Semdeg cxedrebs gadamalavs. luTis rCeviT fehlevani gadawyvets, qorwili gadaixados. fehlevani akakunebs sacolis karze, qalis magivrad ki jer misi Zma urCxuli, Semdeg ki jadoqari dedamisi gamodis, romelTac klavs fehlevani. bolos sapatarZloc gamoCndeba. luTi mas mimarTavs: `Tanaxma xar, gahyve colad fehlevans... man daxoca Seni Zmebi da deda~. servenazi pasuxobs: `mokla da mokla, jandabas magaTi Tavi~, da kiTxulobs, Tu ra fulis patronia misi saqmro da colad mihyveba. male gogonac ibadeba, romelsac akvanSi awvenen da umRerian. amiT warmodgenac mTavrdeba. 24

siuJetis simartive, piesis primitiuloba, dialogebisa da scenebis aralogikuri kavSiri, damaxasiaTebeli iyo Tojinuri warmodgenebisaTvis. magaliTad, moqmedi pirebi erTmaneTis SekiTxvaze pirdapir pasuxs ar scemen. erTi sagnis irgvliv gazviadebulia dialogebi. mag.: luTi ekiTxeba fehlevans Tu sad iyo, mas ki jer ar axsendeba. luTi: `nuTu im qalaqs sadac Sen iyavi saxeli ara aqvs?~ fehlevani _ mSieri viyavi da SevWame. luTi _ axla me CamovTvli qalaqebis saxelebs, raTa gagaxsendes: `iqneb caze iyavi~, `iqneb meoce caze iyavi~ da a. S. fehlevani ki erTsa da imaves pasuxobs. `Semdeg~ amgvar dialogs (kiTxva-pasuxs) daaxloebiT 2 gverdi aqvs daTmobili. fehlevan kaCalis warmodgenebi aseve warmoudgenelia gauTavebeli Cxubis, wivil-kivilisa da uwmawuri sityvebis xSiri gamoyenebis gareSe, rasac mayurebelTa mxiaruli SeZaxilebi axlda xolme Tan. mayureblis roli ki gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo, vinaidan Tanamonawile iyo speqtaklisa. magaliTad, rodesac luTi mobareks atyobinebs, rom misma Zmam (firuzma) saWmeli ar aWama, eubneba: `me myavs mowmeebi~. mobarekis kiTxvaze Tu sad an vin arian mowmeebi, luTi mayurebelze (bavSvebze) uTiTebs da Tan maT mimarTavs: `amisma Zmam momca me flavi?~ _ bavSvebi pasuxoben: ara, ­ vkiTxulobT remarkaSi. mayureblis aqtiuroba gansakuTrebiT aucilebeli da saWiro fulis akrefis dros iyo. fulis akrefis ceremonia ki speqtaklis erT-erTi ganuyofeli nawili gaxldaT. Tojinebis Teatris mepatrones bevri moxerxebuloba, sazrianoba da mWevrmetyveleba sWirdeboda imisaTvis, rom mayureblisTvis fulis gadaxda aeZulebina. amis gamo warmodgena ramdenjerme Sewydeboda xolme. meTojine xalxs speqtaklis dasawyisSi mimarTavda, rom isini imsaxureben mowyalebas, rom mayureblis meSveobiT maT lukma-puri unda miiRon. rodesac fuli aikrifeboda is mayurebels Semdegi

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k i k naZ e

Tojinuri

warmodgenebi

sparseTSi

sityvebiT uxdida madlobas: `ali gadagixdiT samagieros, dagajildovebT da SegewevaT. ali ise izams, rom udrood ar mokvde. ali mogcemT imdens, rom vaWrobaSi xeli mogemarToT da a. S.~ speqtaklis bolos ki mepatrone kvlav iTxovs gasamrjelos da mimarTavs mayurebels: `megobrebo, 2 saaTi me Tqven gacineT, macineT naxevari saaTi~. xelzeCamosacmeli Tojinebis warmodgenebs iranSi jer kidev XV-XVIII saukuneSi rom vxvdebiT, amas adam olearis Canawerebic adastureben. elCma olearim 1637 wels SemaxSi mogzaurobis as is eTi Toj unuri warmodgenebi naxa, sadac msaxiobi Tavze gadaWimul gadasafarebelze Tojinis demonstrirebas axerxebda. u cn a u ri is i yo , r o m s c e ni u ri m ow y ob i l ob a tradiciisamebr miwaze ki ar iyo ganTavsebuli, aramed meTojines sakuTar sxeulze hqonda mimagrebuli. amdenad mas saSualeba eZleoda, Tavisufali moZraobisa da gadaadgilebis SemTxvevaSi `scena da rekvizitic Tan waeRo. scenas aq gadasafarebeli warmoadgenda, romelic msaxiobs momrgvalebul xis CarCos saSualebiT Tavze hqonda damagrebuli. qveda nawili ki _ qamarze, ris gamoc warmodgenas `qamris karavic~ ewodeboda. amis Sesaxeb informacia iuri marma 1925 wels ispahanSi mogzaurobisas Seityo. iuri mari werilSi2 Zalzed saintereso informacias gvawvdis sparsul xalxur sanaxaobebis _ mezRapreTa, derviSTa gamosvlebisa da Tojinuri saxeobebis Sesaxeb. man Tavisi TvaliT naxa, Tu rogor warmoadgenda erTi da igive adamiani Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT jer fokusebs, xolo Semdeg _ Tojinur da fehlevan kaCalis warmodgenebs. meTojine damxmaris meSveobiT muSaobda. damxmare akeTebda niRbebs, Tavad mefokuse ki _ Tojinebs. rekvizitic warmodgenisaTvis daxarisxebuli iyo. is, rac saWiro iyo fokuzebisaTvis, patara tomaraSi ideboda, Tojinebi ki _ skivrSi, fehlevan kaCalis figurebi ki yuTSi inaxeboda. iyenebdnen Sirmas fehlevan kaCalisTvis

26

da karavs _ orive saxeobis Tojinuri warmodgenisaTvis. iuri marmac ispahanSi yofnis dros Caiwera piesis fehlevan qaClis teqsti, romelic msgavsia galunovas mier 1927 wels TegeranSi yofnis dros Cawerili piesebisa. gansxvaveba mxolod imaSia, rom aq Teatris mepatronis nacvlad mefokuse moqmedi piri da is Sedis dialogSi danarCen personaJebTan. karavSi mjdomi Segirdi ki saSineli kiviliT iwyebs speqtakls. fehlevan kaCalis popularoba imdenad didi iyo, rom mas, xelzeCamosacmeli warmodgenebis garda, TiTqmis y ve l a s a xi s T o j i n u r s an a xa o b eb S i v xv d e bi T (marionetebis, Crdilebis), Tumca zustad Zneli saTqmelia, sad da rodis Cndeba is pirvelad, rogorc damoukidebeli personaJi, mxolod danamdvilebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom ori saukunis win mas ukve saqveyno aRiareba hqonda mopovebuli, rasac 1812 wels TavrizSi onsleis mier nanaxi Tojinuri warmodgenac adasturebs. rogorc aRvniSne, xelzeCamosacmeli Tojinis garda fehlevan kaCali xis Tojinebis koleqciaSic gvxvdeba. is gaxlavT mTavari gmiri marionetebis Teatrisa `penji~ (fanji), rac sparsulad xuTs niSnavs. savaraudoa, penji erqva imitom, rom Teatris mepatrones SeeZlo imdeni personaJi gamoeyvana, ramdenic moesurveboda, magram xuTze naklebi ar unda yofiliyo. fehlevan kaCali, Seitani, rostami, axundi da zani ­ ai, is ZiriTadi saxeebi, romelTa gamoCenac garkveuli simboluri mniSvnelobis Semcvelic ki iyo. mag.: Seitani, romelic sityva-sityviT borot suls _ demons, eSmaks niSnavs adamianis macduneblad da borotebis wamqezeblad gvevlineboda. rostamis saxe gaigivebuli iyo legendarul mxedarTmTavarTan da patriotTan, amave dros is qalTa gulebis mpyrobeli da mudmivi mowinaaRmdege iyo fehlevan kaCalisa. axundi musulmanTa sasuliero pirs warmoadgenda, zani ki _ erTaderT qals, romelic iraneli qalisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela RirsebiT iyo Semkuli umwikvlo gogos rolSi, erTguli ki _ colis rolSi. aucilebeli personaJebis

27

maia

k i k naZ e

Tojinuri

warmodgenebi

sparseTSi

garda, romlis gareSec warmodgena ar tardeboda sxva ti paJebsac vxvdebiT (mag.: Turqi osmanlis komikuri saxe), magram mTavari mainc yvelasaTvis sayvareli Tojina fehlevan kaCali gaxldaT, romelzec piesis siuJeti iyo agebuli. moxerxebuli da Wkviani, eSmaki da fariseveli Tojina gardasaxvis saocar unars avlens. rodesac is qveynis mTavar musulman axundTan midis, Tvalebs zecisken miapyrobs da keTilSobilebiTa da sispetakiT aRsavse kacad gardaqmnasac iolad axerxebs. axundTan saubarSi ki gulanTebuli locvisa da wminda werilebze saubris garda, mistikuri poeziisa da religiis gasaocar codnas avlens. am TvalsazrisiT is Zalze Camohgavs Turquli Crdilebis Tojinas _ ganaTlebul hajivaTs. personaJTa Soris mSvid dialogs nel-nela fehlevanis ucnauri saqcieli mosdevs. oTaxSi, SemTxveviT aRmoCenili gitaris dakvrasa da Sirazuli Rvinis smas iwyebs da drostarebaSi ise nel-nela iTrevs partniorsac, rom amas axundic ver grZnobs. es epizodi mTlianad fehlevanis uwmawur gamonaTqvamebze da Jestebze, mis manWva-grexvaze iyo agebuli, rac, pirvel rigSi, m ay u re bli s gar To bis aTv i s i yo g am i zn u li . gansakuTrebul komikur efeqts ki Rvinis smis epizodi iwvevda, vinaidan sasmelis akrZalvis gamo iranSi Znelad Tu i povidi quCaSi mTvral adamians da amis warmodgena scenaze iranelebisaTvis akrZaluli xilis Cvenebas niSnavda. fehlevan kaCalis warmodgenebSi ZiriTadad mwiri dekoraciebi gamoiyeneboda, magram, Tu antrepreniori mdidari adamiani iyo, cdilobda, mayureblis win mTeli sakuTari Zvirfaseuloba gamoetana. mag.:3 1833 wels TeiranSi gamarTul warmodgenaze yofilma elCma p arizSi mirza abdul- hasan_xanma Tavisi vaJis gam oj an mrTe leba s Tan dak avSi rebi T ga marT ul warmodgenaze imdeni Zvirfaseuloba gamoitana scenaze, rom zogierTi 3 milioni frankic ki Rirda. Tojinuri sanaxaobis popularobam garkveuli

28

gavlena sxva quCis sanaxaobebzec iqonia. mag.: Taylidi romelic sabaleto nomrebis, simRerebis, dialogebisa da pantomimebisagan Sedgeboda, zogierTi mkvlevaris azr i T, i s w ar m oi S va m ar i on e te bis Teat ri s divertismentebisagan4. am Tavisebur cirks Tojinebis Teatris personaJebi: fqviliT gapudruli fehlevan kaCali da misi partniori gamuruli aTleti rustami amSvenebda, romelTa movaleobebSic msaxiobTa dacinva, mouridebeli da gesliani xumrobebiT mayurebelTa gamxiaruleba garToba Sedioda. rogorc Cans, Tojinur warmodgenebs Soris antraqtis dros naCvenebi divertismentebis popularoba imdenad gaizarda, rom is male damoukidebel saxeobad Camoyalibda.

1. , . II., , 1928, . 31; 2. iqve. 3. , , , 1915, . 192; 4. . ­ , . 54. 29

Mmanana turiaSvili kote marjaniSvili TariRebSi (werili pirveli)

1872 wels, 28 maiss (9 ivnisi), sofel yvarelSi daibada kote marjaniSvili. mama _ aleqsandre andrias Ze marjaniSvili. andria marjaniSvilisa da ana bibilaSvilis ufrosi vaJi (maT cxra Svili hyavdaT) _ aleqsandre, swavlobda quTaisis gimnaziaSi, Semdeg _ peterburgis universitetis samTosamxedro fakultetze. samSobloSi dabrunebis Semdeg, rogorc samxedro piri, gaamweses oficrad yvarelSi, sadac kaxeTis dasacavad qarTuli druJinis polki idga. Warel-belaqneli lekebis Semosevebisa da gamudmebuli rbeva-awiokebisagan aleqsandre marjaniSvilma yvarlis qarTul druJinaSi samsaxurisas podpolkovnikis Cins miaRwia. man kargad icoda franguli da rusuli enebi. yvarlis druJinis polkSi msaxurobda andrias meore Svili _ konstantine. deda _ elisabed solomonis asuli WavWavaZe. solomonis pirveli qorwineba tragikulad damTavrda, col-Svili Savi saxadis epidemiam imsxverpla. ojaxze gulacruebulma solomonma meore coli samocdaaTi wlisam SeirTo. mas alaverdobaze moewona vinme ivaniSvilis coli nino da moitaca. ninos pirveli qmrisagan hyavda qaliSvili salome, romelic gaTxovda Telavel moxeleze _ mixeil solomonis Ze safarovze. 1860 wels maT SeeZinaT mariam safarova (SemdegSi cnobili msaxiobi mako safarova-abaSiZisa). solomons da ninos ori qaliSvili SeeZinaT: elisabedi (liza) da ekaterine. kaxeTis SeZlebulma memamulem ganizraxa Tavisi qaliSvili _ elisabedi, mieTxovebina ilia WavWavaZisTvis, magram es ganzraxva ver ganxorcielda (nadeJda Jivokinis cnobiT, ilia elisabedze daniSnuli yofila, magram es qorwineba ar

30

Sedga). solomoni ilias Seuwyra da Tavisi qaliSvili colad misca peterburgis samxedro inJiners, oficer a. a. marjaniSvils. solomonis oj axSi xSirad ikribebodnen kaxeTis didgvarovnebi. aleqsandre marjaniSvili elisabed WavWavaZeze ocdaori wliT ufrosi iyo. maT SeeZinaT cxra Svili. pirvelTagan sami mcirewlovani gardaicvala, maT Soris vaJi giorgi. mere SeeZinaT oTxi qaliSvili: nino, sofio, mariami da Tamari _ kotes sayvareli da, SemdegSi monazoni, romelic saocrad hgavda kote marjaniSvils. kote marjaniSvili ojaxSi merve Svilia, nanatri biWi, swored amitom nebierad zrdidnen. kotes Zma _ vladimeri mecxre Svili iyo. solomonis gardacvalebis Semdeg ojaxis movlapatronoba kotes mamam aleqsandrem iTava, Tumc Zveleburi xelgaSlilobiT aRar cxovrobdnen. 1876 wels aleqsandre marjaniSvili ruseT-TurqeTis omSi wavida, baTumTan Setevis dros yelis areSi daiWra. mas arc sazRvargareT mkurnalobam uSvela, loginad Cavarda da gardaicvala. maSin kote marjaniSvili oTxi wlis iyo. elisabeds, alersians, gulmowyale da keTil dedas, kote aRmerTebda. uqmrod darCenili liza lekianobas gaecala da yvarlidan TbilisSi gadasaxlda, maSin kote marjaniSvili xuTi wlis iyo. marjaniSvilebis ojaxs xSirad stumrobdnen qarTuli Teatris moRvaweebi: akaki wereTeli, giorgi wereTeli, aleqsandre yazbegi, sergei mesxi, kote mesxi, efemia mesxi, ivane mesxi (mesxebis cnobili ojaxis cameti Svilis deda _ magdalina, kote marjaniSvilis mamida iyo) ivane maCabeli, dimitri yifiani, petre umikaSvili, aqvsenti cagareli, vaso abaSiZe, lado aleqsi-mesxiSvili, mako safarova-abaSiZisa da sxvani. qalaquri cxovreba ojaxisagan did xarjebs moiTxovda. liza yvarelSi wavida. Tan waiyvana mariami da Tamari. kote, vladimeri, da sofio TbilisSi datova. erTi avtoris cnobiT, kote gimnaziis pansionSi

31

manana

turiaSvili

ko te

mar jan iSv il i

T ari Reb Si

moaTavses, meoris cnobiT lizam TbilisSi darCenil Svilebs CuRureTSi patara bina uqirava. 1886 wels ToTxmeti wlis kote marjaniSvilma Tbilisis pirvel vaJTa gimnaziaSi iTamaSa n. gogolis komedia `qorwinebaSi~ _ agafia tixonovnas roli. mas Zalian uyvarda Cexi musikis maswavlebeli. gimnaziis orkestrSi ukravda trombonze. elisabedi da mariami tuberkulioziT iyvnen avad, magram yvarlis haerma ar uSvela. 1886 wels ufrosi qaliSvili _ nino, Zeobam Seiwira. tvinis anTebiT daavadda mariami da wlis miwuruls gardaicvala. amdeni ubedurebis Semdeg 1887 wels 36 wlisa gardaicvala elisabed (liza) WavWavaZe. maSin kote marjaniSvili TxuTmeti wlis iyo. oblebis aRzrda elisabedis ufrosma dam, ekaterinem, da misma qmarma, daviT abduSeliSvilma, iTaves. kotes ubedurebas didxans umalavdnen, roca gaigo, swavlas Tavi daaneba da yvarelSi wavida. erTxel Tavis mokvlac ganizraxa _ gulTan Tofis damiznebisas Caxmaxs mouxerxeblad gamohkra, sikvdils gadaurCa, magram erTi TiTi samudamod dauzianda. kote meurneobas Seudga. uvlida venaxebs, Rvinisa da aryis dayenebas mihyo xeli. Tanac ruseTidan gamoiwera wignebi, Jurnalebi da TviTganaTlebas Seudga. saRamoobiT masTan xSirad ikribebodnen cnobili ojaxebis wevrebi, kamaTobdnen xelovnebaze da literaturaze. swored aq Caesaxa kotes speqtaklebis gamarTvis idea. yvarelSi, solomon WavaWavaZiseuli saxlis did maranSi, kotes dadgmul warmodgenebSi monawileobdnen ardadegebze Casuli kotes da-Zmebi, naTesavebi. mayureblebi deidaSvil-biZaSvilebi da soflis mcxovrebni iyvnen. dadges piesebi: n. soloviovis da a. ostrovskis `bednieri dRe~, v. krilovis `yaCaRana~, e. babeckis `mowafeobis wlebi~... es speqtaklebi rusul enaze midioda. zogi mkvlevris cnobiT dgamdnen warmodgenebs qarTul enaze, mag., i. WavaWavaZis `kako yaCaRi~...

32

Tavad kote marjaniSvili ixsenebs, rom maranSi uxvad iyo gaSlili xoragi: leRvis Ciri, vaSli, CurCxela. Semdeg kotes brZanebiT qvevrs Tavs moxdidnen da Rvinis savse xeladas mayurebel glexTa rigebSi ramdenjerme Camoatarebdnen. es yovelive mTavrdeboda imiT, rom xeladis ramdenjerme Semovlis Semdeg mayurebeli daJinebiT iZaxebda speqtaklis sulis Camdgmels. warmodgenebis reJisori, msaxiobi, dekoratori, butafori d a s uf lio r i k ot e i y o. Te lav i s Teat ri s antrepreniorma m. ajimamudovma kote marjaniSvili msaxiobad miiwvia. man iTamaSa prokofievis roli a. sumbaTaSvilis piesa `borkilebSi~. igi TamaSobda komediebsa da vodevilebSi. k. marjaniSvilis da _ sofio gaTxovda da TbilisSi dabinavda. marjaniSvilebma mamuli ijariT gasces da kote dasTan gadavida sacxovreblad. 90-iani wlebis damdegs kote marjaniSvili pirvelad gaecno saopereto Teatrs. rusuli operetis dasma ij ariT aiRo Tbilisis Teatris Senoba. das is antrepreniori iyo mako safarova-abaSiZisa _ kote marjaniSvilis deidaSvili. kote yoveldRe eswreboda warmodgenebs. kote marjaniSvils msaxioboba undoda, magram axloblebi ewinaaRmdegebodnen, radgan im dros msaxioboba saTakilo iyo. misma naTesavma, didma moxelem _ nikoloz gulbaaTis Ze WavWavaZem, kotes SesTavaza gansakuTrebul davalebaTa moxele-aRmsruleblis adgili da brwyinvale kariera uwinaswarmetyvela, magram man uari uTxra. ganrisxebulma naTesavma SeuTvala: TvaliT ar damenaxoo da kote marjaniSvils igi aRar unaxavs. 1894 wels kote marjaniSvili, mamidaSvilma kote mesxma quTaisSi msaxiobad miiwvia. kote mesxis dadgmaSi a. diumas `codvis SvilSi~ man iTamaSa alfonsi, adrianas nuca CxeiZe asrulebda. kote marjaniSvilma fsevdonimad airCia _ yvarleli. quTaisis Teatri daiwva da kote marjaniSvili TbilisSi gadmovida. 1994 wlis 27

33

manana

turiaSvili

ko te

mar jan iSv il i

T ari Reb Si

noembers iTamaSa patara kaxi a. wereTelis `patara kaxSi~ _ reJisori v. gunia. am rolze avtorTan erTad muSaobda _ akaki wereTeli marjaniSvilebis ojaxis didi megobari iyo. partniorebi iyvnen: m. safarovaabaSiZisa, e. CerqeziSvili, b. avaliSvili... TamaSobda d. erisTavis gadmokeTebul piesebSi: `meore axalgazrdoba~, z. antonovis `me minda kneina gavxde~. 1895 wels kote marjaniSvili TamaSobs g. sundukianis `xaTabalaSi~, partniorebi iyvnen: m. safarov-abaSiZisa, n. gabunia, k. yifiani, v. abaSiZe... v. abaSiZis Targmnil piesaSi `vin aris damnaSave?~ _ dadga aleqsimesxiSvilma; n. gogolis `revizorSi~ roli daudgenelia, a. ostrovskis piesaSi `udanaSaulo damnaSave~ _ milovzorovi. 1894-1995 wlis sezonis bolos qarTul TeatrSi muSaobiT ukmayofilo kote marjaniSvili ruseTSi miemgzavreba, moskovis Teatraluri saswavleblis dramatul kursebze Sesasvlelad. moskovSi gzad mimavalma xarkovSi inaxula samkurnalod Casuli lado mesxiSvili, romelmac qalaq nikolaevSi Tavis nacnob ant r ep r e ni o rTan g aag z av n a, me o re r ole bi s Semsruleblad. lado mesxiSvilis azriT, damwyeb msaxiobs, oTxwlian swavlebaze metad praqtika ufro gamoadgeboda. nikolaevSi muSaobam kote marjaniSvili ar daakmayofila da gaemgzavra moskovSi, sadac erTerT dramatul skolaSi leqciebis kursi moismina. Semdeg kote Tbilisis dasSi miiwvies, pirvel rolebze. mas TveSi 75 maneTs uxdidnen. 1895 wlis zafxuli kotem ukanasknelad gaatara sayvarel yvarelSi. misi ukve bevrjer dagiravebuli mamuli auqcioniT gaiyida. aRebuli fuli, ramdenime aTasi maneTi kote marjaniSvilma kargi garderobis SesaZenad daxarja, radgan im dros karg garderobs scenis moRvawisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda. Semdeg 23 wlis kote amxanag-megobrebisgan Segulianebuli qeifobs, dros atarebs da fuls flangavs. 1896 wels saqarTveloSia _ Tbilisis qarTul dasSi,

34

sadac 25 seqtembers iTamaSa levan ximSiaSvili d. erisTavis `samSobloSi~. am rols lado aleqsimesxiSvilTan amzadebda. mis debiuts eswrebodnen: i. WavWavaZe, a. wereTeli, i. gogebaSvili, n. avaliSvili... recenzenti k. marjaniSvilis SesrulebaSi msaxiobis mRelvarebas aRniSnavda. Tbilisis dasSi kote marjaniSvilma iTamaSa: pieri, a. denerisa da kormonis melodrama `or obolSi~ _ partniorebi iyvnen: n. gabunia, m. safarov-abaSiZe, k. yifiani; d. erisTavis gadmokeTebul p ies aSi `droebiTi siyvaruli~; axalgazrda Cinovniki marmarovi g. sundukianis `gaCanagebul keraSi~; Seyvarebulis roli a. bisonis `col-qmrobis nayofSi~; basanio u. Seqspiris `veneciel vaWarSi~; daudgenelia mis mier Sesrulebuli roli k. guckovis `uriel akostaSi~, sadac uriels l. aleqsi-mesxiSvili TamaSobda; maqs xolminis roli l. antropovis `mocimcime CiraRdnebSi~; olivie, vakeris piesa `Jan bodrSi~; axalgazrda damcvelis _ ianelis roli gangoferisa da m. brosineris `boSa qali zanda~. kote marjaniSvilis scenaze gamoCenas presaSi didi gamoxmaureba ar mohyolia: iyo TavSekavebuli qeba, kritika da statiebi, sadac marjaniSvils saerTod ar axsenebdnen. kote marjaniSvili am faqts ganicdida, eWvebi RrRnida, misi Tavmoyvareoba Selaxuli iyo. sasowarkveTili, xSirad gulis gasaqarveblad m. safarova-abaSiZisa da lado aleqsi-mesxiSvilis ojaxebSi stumrobda. 1896 wlis agvistoSi TbilisSi Camodis nadeJda Jivokini (k. marjaniSvilis momavali meuRle). igi moskovis dramatuli kursebisa da Teatraluri saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg miiwvies TbilisSi _ n. k. Sumilinis dasSi, romelic TamaSobda qarTul saTavadaznauro TeatrSi, romelsac bankis Teatrsac uwodebdnen. rusul das Si kote marjaniSvilis nikolaeveli megobrebic iyvnen _ lepetiCebi: msaxiobma qalma n. i. lepetiCma gaacno kotes nadeJda Jivokini _ moskovis mcire Teatris cnobili msaxiobis, v. i. Jivokinis,

35

manana

turiaSvili

ko te

mar jan iSv il i

T ari Reb Si

SviliSvili. isini male daqorwindnen. gakvirvebulni da nawyenni naTesavebi misi arCevniT ukmayofiloni darCnen _ msaxiobi qali ar undodaT kotesTvis, magram nadeJdam qmris naTesavebTan male daamyara kargi urTierTobebi. 1896 wels kote marjaniSvili lado aleqsimesxiSvilis miwveviT quTaisSi wavida. rogorc damdgmelma, man gaakeTa `cocxali suraTebi~ _ iRebdnen garkveul siuJets, asrulebdnen kostiumebSi, dekoraciiT da xan udekoraciod da reJisoris miniSnebul pozebSi `SeSdebodnen~. kote marjaniSvilma ise kargad dadga cocxali suraTi `iakobis sizmari~, rom is sami dRe iTamaSes. Tbilisis qarTul dasSi damdegi zamTris sezoni aSinebda kotes, mas eCveneboda, rom recenziebi mis sasargeblod ar Seicvleboda. Tan mis meuRles _ nadeJda Jivokinsac, undoda TamaSi da maT misweres -s biuros xelmZRvanels, a. a. fadeevs, TxovniT, daxmareboda samuSaos moZebnaSi. fadeevi nadeJdasTan erTad muSaobda Sumilinis dasSi. pasuxi male movida. ale q san dr ale q san dr e s Ze m aT s Tav az o bd a elizavetgradis amxanagobaSi muSaobas, romelsac xelmZRvanelobda k. k. vitarski. 1997 wlidan iwyeba k. marjaniSvilis ruseTis periodi, romelic 25 weliwadi grZeldeba. 1897 weli _ elizavetgradis TeatrSia, msaxiobad. dasi didi ar iyo oTxi-xuTi msaxiobis garda didi niWiT aravin gamoirCeoda. col-qmari xSirad TamaSobda vodevilebSi. kote marjaniSvili piesebSi yoveldRe iyo dakavebuli. didi rolebidan kotem iTamaSa kasio u. Seqspiris `oteloSi~ da saxasiaTo rolebi: krameri _ zudermanis piesa `sodomis daRupvaSi~ da poCmeisteri _ n. gogolis `revizorSi~. 1898 weli _ zafxuli _ orioli, kurski, xarkovi; Semodgoma _ neJini; zamTari _ qerCi. axali samuSaos saZebnad gaemgzavrnen moskovSi. col36

qmari cxovrobda studentur raionSi, pliuSixaze da yoveldRe axali samuSaos gamoCenis imediT, TiTqmis mSierni midiodnen tverskize, Teatralur biuroSi, romelic Seiqmna Teatralur sazogadoebasTan. biuroSi unda Sekrebiliyo e. w. normaluri kontraqtebi, romelic gamoimuSaves sruliad ruseTis msaxiobTa pirvel yrilobaze. xuTi kviris Semdeg a. a. fadeeevma colqmari orioli-kurski-xarkovis amxanagobaSi moawyo, romelsac xelmZRvanelobda e. f. boura da n. n. sobolSikova-samarina. oriolsa da kurskSi kargi Semosavali hqondaT. xarkovSi TamaSobdnen baRSi `tivoli~ _ Ria scenze iyo kafeSantani. xarkovis kontraqti axladgacnobilma murskim daarRvevina da marjaniSvilebi neJinis antreprizaSi wavidnen. neJinSi dasi TiTqmis ar iyo. mesame speqtaklis Semdeg murskim TiTqmis mTlianad waiRo salarodan fuli da gaiqca. didi molaparakebebis Semdeg qalaqis mmarTvelobam Teatri dass im pirobiT misca, Tuki vals gadaixdidnen. amxanagobis ganmkarguleblad airCies kote marjaniSvili. yovel DdRe axal piesebSi TamaSobdnen, umetesad melodramebSi. iyo SemTxvevebi, roca afiSaze piesis saTauri miniSnebuli iyo, msaxiobebs ki rolebic ar hqondaT miRebuli. kote marjaniSvili yoveldRe TamaSobda da man iswavla `scenaze Tavisuflad siaruli~, rac samsaxiobo xelovnebis fsiqo-teqnikis dauflebis sawyisi etapi aRmoCnda. sezonis bolos moskovSi arian da kvlav a. a. fadeevs miakiTxes samsaxurisTvis. ramdenime dReSi man gauSva qerCSi, a. n. solominis antreprizaSi. qerCSi kote miiwvies fatebisa da mijnurebis rolebis Semsruleblad. a. n. solominma da misma colma, operetis cnobilma msaxobma b. n. ivanovam kote marj aniSvili kargad miiRes . s olomini saqmes keTilsindisierad ekideboda, msaxiobebs rolebs aTi dRiT adre urigebda, rac provinciis TeatrebisaTvis uCveulo iyo. fatebis rolebi kotes ar exerxeboda,

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samagierod, saxasiaTo rolebSi iyo Zlieri. SedarebiT mniSvnelovani da iRbliani ramdenime roli iyo: germani b. i. nemiroviC-danCenkos `sicoxcxlis fasSi~, vitixa g. hauptmanis `CaZirul zarSi~ _ kotem solomini daarwmuna, rom vitixa mamakacma unda Seasruloso. a. n. solominma dadga a. Cexovis `Tolia~ da `Zia vania~. k. marjaniSvilma as t rovis roli kargad Seas r ula. col- qm ari m ar j an i S vi lebi s aqv e lmo q me d o s aRam oe bSi c monawileobdnen _ kote kargad kiTxulobda da didi warmatebac hqonda. 1899 weli _ zafxuli _ luganski, baxmuti; zamTari _ baqo; gazafxuli _ aSxabadi, taSkenti. ianvris bolos kote marjaniSvilma ubralo mizezis gamo a. n. solominTan iCxuba, romelic ganxeTqilebad gadaiqca. momavali zamTris sezonisTvis a. n. solominma TiTqmis mTeli dasi miiwvia marjaniSvilebis garda da isini kvlav umuSevrad darCnen. wavidnen moskovSi da elizavetgradeli TanamSromlis meSveobiT marxvis bolos _ zafxulisTvis, moewyvnen luganskSi da baxmutSi, zamTris sezonisTvis baqoSi _ v. i. viatskis antreprizaSi. mgzavrobidan kote kmayofili Camovida: iTamaSa kargi rolebi da amxanagobam mniSvnelovani Semosavali gamoimuSava, Tan Camoitana pirveli saCuqari _ vercxlis portsigari oqros venzeliT. am sezonze ukve pirveli aRiareba moi pova da saCuqrebic miiRo, ramac k. marjaniSvils momavlis s ti mu l i m is ca . r og o rc s x va ru s m s a x io bT a mogonebebidanac irkveva, kote marjaniSvils feTqebadi xasiaTi hqonda, iyo advilad `wyenia~ da amitomac aRiareba misTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis iyo. amgvari fsiqologiuri portretis gamomzeureba komunistur periodSi kvlevisas negatiurad aRiqmeboda, radgan yvela cnobili piri komunisturi zneobis gansaxiereba unda yofiliyo da ara adamiani. roca kote gazafxulis sezonze aSxabadsa da taSkentSi iyo, nadeJda moskovSi gaemgzavra, raTa zamTris

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sezonisTvis adgili eSova. stroitelevma da de rossma rekomendacia gauwies viatkis TeatrSi a. a. prozorovTan. 1900-1901 ww. sezoni _ viatka, odincovo. sezonis dasawyisSi k. marjaniSvils konfliqti mouvida gmir-Seyvarebulebis rolebis SemsrulebelTan, d. m. karamazovTan, da radgan is da misi meuRle e. f. kutuzova kulturuli xalxi iyo, kotes meuRlem male Caaqro es konfliqti. i m dr o s p r o vi nc i is T ea t re bS i r eJ i s o ri s Tanamdeboba ar iyo. reJisoris funqciebi evaleboda pirveli rolebis Semsrulebel erT-erT msaxiobs. viatkaSi reJisorobda d. m. karamazovi, romelsac ar uyvarda es s aqme da ezareboda. kotes amgvar reJisorebTan muSaoba ar akmayofilebda. mas reJisuraSi undoda Zalebis gamocda da meuRlis sabenefisod airCia a. Cexovis `Zia vania~. nadeJda Jivokinma karamazovisgan nebarTva aiRo da isic dasTanxmda. astrovs TamaSobda d. m. karamazovi. kote mTeli arsebiT Caeba muSaobaSi. mas ramdenime Rame ar eZina, daxata gegma, puris burTebi gaakeTa da msaxiobTa moZraobebs amgvarad xazavda. kote marjaniSvilis pirveli repeticiis Semdeg msaxiobebi didxans ar iSlebodnen. 1901 wlis ianvarSi viatkaSi Sedga misi sareJisoro debiuti. a. p. Cexovis `Zia vania~ didi warmatebiT wavida. speqtakli iTamaSes samjer. realurad am periodSi k. marjaniSvils mobezrda dasis pirveli msaxiobis naucbadevad `gakeTebul~ speqtaklebSi monawileoba da Tavad iwyebs dadgmebs. 1901 weli zafxulSi n. zorelis antreprizaSia. moskovis axlo mdebare agarakze, odincovoSi. kviraSi or speqtakls TamaSobs da TiToeulSi aT maneTs iRebs. 1900 wlis 11 ivliss nadeJda Jivokinsa da kote marjanisvilis SeeZinaT qaliSvili _ daarqves Tamari, monazvnad aRkvecili sayvareli dis saxeli.

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1901-1902 wlis sezoni _ Semodgoma _ tambovi, ivanovo-voznesenski; gazafxuli _ smolenski, vitebski; zafxuli _ penza Semodgomaze tambovSi krameris antreprizaSi iyo, pirveli mijnuris ampluaSi moi pova didi warmateba. ivanovo-voznesenskidan male wavida. gazafxulze smolenskSi da vitebskSi amxanagobaSia verxovskis xelmZRvanelobiT. smolenskSi sezonis gaxs nisTvis nadionovis `vaniuSinis SvilebSi~ monawileobda. kote marjaniSvilma didi warmatebiT iTamaSa konstantines roli, magram Semosavali saSualo iyo. vitebskSi didi Teatri iyo, hyavdaT kargi mayurebeli, magram darbazi sanaxevrod ivseboda da fuladi wageba iyo. zafxulSi penzaSi TamaSobdnen qalaqis saxalxo TeatrSi, romelsac marTavda Tormeti arCeviTi mamasaxli. maT saTaveSi edga n. n. volkovi. kote marjaniSvili kvlav pirveli mijnuris ampluaSia. am TeatrSi reJisorad muSaobda gamocdili msaxiobi p. a. zaicevi. mas reJisoruli monacemebi ar hqonda. repeticiebze zaicevsa da marjaniSvils Soris Sinagani brZola gaimarTa, romelic Ria mtrobaSi gadaizarda. kote marjaniSvili mizanscenebs ar emorCileboda. msaxiobebi kotes mxareze iyvnen. bolos zaicevma konfliqts wertili dausva da gancxadeba dawera _ SinaarsiT, rom marjanovma scenaze siaruli ar icoda da mas ubedavda SeniSvnebis micemas da imdenad xels uSlis muSaobaSi, rom iTxovda mis gagdebas . mamasaxlisebma zaicevis gancxadeba miiRes da kotes samsaxurze uari uTxres. kote marjaniSvilma ar dauTmo da atyda kamaTi, romelic Tvenaxevari grZeldeboda. am p er io dS i k . marj ani Sv ili s pe qt ak lebSi ar monawileobda da xelfass ar iRebda. bolos da bolos, marjanovis dasidan daTxovna gadaido, magram sezonic mTavrdeboda.

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zamTrisTvis col-qmar marjaniSvilebs angaJimenti ar hqondaT da radgan orives ayvana ar undodaT, colqmari sasowarkveTilni iyvnen. kote marjanovs iseTi kacis saxeli gauvarda, romlis dasSi miwveva sasurveli ar iyo. antrepreniorebTan da reJisorebTan Cxubis Semdeg mas veRar warmoedgina, rogor moewyoboda maTi momavali cxovreba. moiZebna gamosavali, ramac kote marjaniSvils saSualeba misca gaeSala reJisoruli moRvaweoba. am mdgomareobidan daixsna nadeJda Jivokinis dam _ ana dimitris asulma, romelmac misca fuli saqmisTvis. 1902-1903 wlis zamTris sezonisTvis col-qmarma marjaniSvilebma -Si ganacxades kompanionis povnis survili. biurom rekomendacia gauwia provinciuli Teatris antrepnior a. i. gromovs, romelic iyo niWieri msaxiobi, Wkviani da moxerxebuli adamiani, kargi administratori. aiRes Teatri qalaq ufaSi. kontraqtis mixedviT kote marjaniSvilma samxatvro nawilis xelmZRvaneloba ikisra, xolo a. i. gromovma administraciulis. a. i. gromovis antreprizaSi man fuli daabanda da, faqtobrivad, antreprizis mepaie gaxda. 1902 wlis 4 agvistos nadeJda Jivokinsa da kote marjaniSvils SeeZinaT meore qaliSvili _ milica. 1902-1903 ww. sezoni _ ufa. ufis sezonma saSualeba misca kote marjaniSvils, gamoemJRavnebina Tavi msaxiobisa da reJisoris rolSi. mayurebelma misi didi Sroma daafasa. man iTamaSa nilis roli m. gorkis `mdabionSi~. kote marjaniSvilSi reJisurisken ltolvam msaxiobobas ajoba da man ramdenime kargi warmodgena dadga. a. n. gromovs saqme bundovnad mihyavda, igi kargad iTvisebda fulebs da sezonis daxurvamde gaiqca, msaxiobebs ki ori kviris fuli ar gadauxada. marjanovi erTpirovnuli mepaie gaxda da sezoni bolomde miiyvana. roca mayurebelma momxdari incidentis Sesaxeb gaigo, man TanaugrZno Teatrs. ufis sezonSi Semosavali kargi iyo da dass xelfasi gadauxades.

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gromovis gaqcevis Semdeg, roca kote marjaniSvili erTpirovnuli xelmZRvaneli gaxda, Teatris afiSebze maRalmxatvruli literatura gaCnda: a. Cexovis `qorwili~, a. suxovo-kobilinis `saqme~, a. ostrovskis `tye~, a. tolstois `mefe Tevdore ioanes Ze~. ufis sezonSi kote marJaniSvili iyo wamyvani rolebis Semsrulebeli, xelmZRvanel-administratori da SemoqmedebiTi administratori _ vinc repertuars adgenda da rogorc presa ambobda: `man itvirTa reJisoris mZime movaleoba~ (1903 w.). am wlebSi daiwyo brZola speqtaklebis momzadebis saqmeSi xelosnobis winaaRmdeg . Semoi Ro TiToeuli w armodg enis momzadebisTvis saTanado repeticiebi, msaxiobTan muSaoba da fiqrobda ansambluri warmodgenis Seqmnaze. 1903 wlis 12 ianvars gardaicvala nadeJda Jivokinasa da kote marjaniSvilis umcrosi qaliSvili _ milica, xolo ocdarva dRis Semdeg, 10 Tebervals _ Tamari. 1903 wlis 13 agvistos maT SeeZinaT vaJiSvili _ konstantine, kotiki _ rogorc mas kote marjaniSvili eZaxda. kotiki gaxda maTematikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, muSaobda ssr kavSiris mecnierebaTa akademiis maTematikis institutSi. 1997 wlidan 1901 wlamde kote marjaniSvili mxolod msaxiobia, 1901 wlidan 1903 wlamde _ rogorc msaxiobi da reJisori. 1903-1904 ww. irkutskSi is mTlianad reJisuras eZleva. kote marjaniSvilis Sesrulebuli rolebi (1897-1904 ww.): qarafSuta _ v. nemiroviC-danCenko, `iRbliani~. markeli, kafeSantanis laqia _ J. riSpeni, `wamebuli qali~. don Juan avstrieli, mgznebare Seyvarebuli _ k. deliavini, `imperatoris Svili~. maswavlebeli flemingi _ o. ernsti, `pedagogebi~. nikolai _ e. dubelti, `sicrue~. valter Subarti _ g. faeberi, `maradiuli siyvaruli~.

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klasikuri dramaturgiaSi: uriel akosta _ k. guckovi, `uriel akosta~. karl moori _ f. Sileri, `yaCaRebi~. Cacki _ a. griboedovi, `vai Wkuisagan~. boris godunovi _ a. tolstoi, `mefe Tedore ioanes Ze~. Tavadi _ a. suxovo-kobilini, `saqme~. astrovi _ a. Cexovi, `Zia vania~. germani _ v. nemiroviC-danCenko, `cxovrebis fasi~. nili _ m. gorki, `mdabioni~. saxasiaTo gmirebi: lomovi _ Cexovi, `xelis Txova~. bulanovi _ a. ostrovski, `tye~. vitixa, qalis roli _ g. hauptmani, `CaZiruli zari~. kote marjaniSvilis Sesrulebuli rolebi uricxvi raodenobiTa da maTi zusti cifri daudgenelia. Tu adreul wlebSi kritikosebi afasebdnen: `yovlad usicocxlo~ (1899 w.), `marjanovis TamaSze ar SeiZleba vimsjeloT, radgan mayurebels TiTqmis ar esmoda misi xma~ (1899 w.), `marjanovi iyo modunebuli da sruliad ver flobda rols, igi erTferovnad gamoiyureboda~. erT-or weliwadSi gazeTebi werdnen rolisadmi mis gulmodgine damokidebulebaze, brwyinvale warmatebebze. `rac mosalodneli iyo aseTi damsaxurebuli reputaciis msaxiobisagan~ (1900 w.), `Sesruleba... iyo Zalze gaazrebuli da saerTo STabeWdilebiT mTliani da marTali~ (1900 w.), `avtoris Cafiqrebuli ti pi didi xelovnebiT ganasaxiera~ (1901 w.). 1903-1904 ww. sezoni _ moskovis zoologiuri baRis sazafxulo Teatri irkutski, permi. am sezonSi irkutskSi, n. i. volskis antreprizaSi dadga 92 piesa, k. marjaniSvili aqedan, adre, mxolod 19 piesas icnobda. saSualod TveSi 18 speqtakls dgamda. aq msaxiobobas sabolood daaneba Tavi. irkutskSi pirvelad gamoCnda cnoba, rom konstantine aleqsandres Ze marjanovi miwveulia reJisorad. solidurobis niSnad wveric mouSva, marTalia, is xandaxan scenazec gamodioda

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eqstremalur situaciebSi, maSin, roca saswrafod vinme unda Seecvala, magram es iyo mxolod erTeuli SemTxvevebi. Teatris repertuarSi wamyvani adgili eWira griboedovis, gogolis, ostrovskis, molieris, Seqspiris, Sileris, guckovis, Seridanis, hauptmanis, gorkis da sxvaTa piesebs. dadga J. b. molieris `tartiufi~, a. ostrovskis `tye~, i. platonis `adamianebi~. ukve sezonis dasawyisSi kote marjaniSvilis speqtaklebSi aRniSnavdnen: msaxiobebis TamaSis gamarTulobas, sisadaves, cxovrebasTan miaxloebas `bunebrioba da scenis didi codna~, a. ostrovskis `udanaSaulo damnaSavenis~ dadgmaze recenzenti werda: `amaRlebuli TamaSi dramatul adgilebSi~, `savse, ase vTqvaT, harmoniuli TamaSi~ (1903 w.), irkutskSi kote marjaniSvili pirvelad dgams `hamlets~. aRn i Sn avd n e n, ro m g m ir e bi lap arak obdnen `cxovrebiseulad~, reJisoris CanafiqriT, es hamleti iyo `meocnebe, mgznebare fantaziis adamiani~ (1903 w.), `Camohyavda... gmirebi piedestalidan, romelzec piesis sazeimo tonsa da garemos ahyavs, magram, amave dros maT gasagebs xdida. aiZulebda gmirebs, daeviwyebinaT tanT Semosili fantastikuri mantiebi da metyvelebis saleqso forma~ (1903 w.). irkutskSi dgams k. guckovis `uriel akostas~. am piesaSi saqarTveloSi jer lado aleqsimesxiSvilTan erTad TamaSobda, mere rusul scenaze uriels asaxierebda da irkutskSi ki dadga. mis dadgmul a. griboedovis `vai Wkuisagans~ wamateba hqonda. permSi dadga a. sumbaTaSvilis `Ralati~ (1904). kote marjaniSvili ar scildeboda piesis romantikul stilistikas, Tan detalebis damuSaveba daiwyo, muSaobda masobriv scenebze. recenzentebi aRniSnavdnen masobrivi s ce n e bi s , g a r em o eb a T a d e ta l eb i s , y o fi s a d a mravalferovani intonaciis brwyinvale damuSavebas. Bunebrivia, recenzentebs Soris ukmayofilonic iyvnen. 1903 welis Semodgomaze irkutskSi dadga m. gorkis `mdabioni~, romelic Svidjer iTamaSes, `fskerze~ _

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TerTmetjer, es maSin Zalze didi cifri iyo. Semdeg `foma gordeevi~, Cexovis `alublis baRi~ da h. ibsenis `sazogadoebis burjebi~ ganaxorciela. irkutskSi is iTxovs mayurebelTa darbazis ganaxlebas . permSi antrep neriorebs aiZulebs , repertuaris yvela speqtaklisTvis axali dekoraciis Seqmnas. Semdeg gadaakeTa scena, ayenebs ufro Zlier ganaTebas scenaze da mayurebelTa darbazSi. Zveli farda axliT Secvala. kote marjaniSvilis saxeli da energiuloba mTel ruseTs moedo. misi SemoqmedebiT dainteresdnen cnobili antrepreniorebi. 1904 wels k. n nezlobinma, im drois ruseTis erT-erTi msxvilma antrepreniorma, rigaSi miiwvia. masTan samsaxuri iyo sagzuri did Teatralur cxovrebaSi.

(gagrZeleba Semdeg nomerSi)

1. e. guguSvili, `kote marjaniSvili~, seria `cxovreba xelovnebaSi~ (rusul enaze), gamomcemloba `iskustvo~, 1997 w. 2. kote marjaniSvili, saiubileo krebuli, gamomc. `xelovneba~, Tb., 1948 w. 3. g. kriJicki, `k. a. marjanovi da rusuli Teatri~ (rusul enaze), ruseTis Teatraluri sazogadoeba, moskovi, 1958 w. 4. g. xaratiSvili, `kote marjaniSvili rusul TeatrSi~, Tb., 1971 w. 5. k. marjaniSvili (marjanovi), SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreoba (rusul enaze), gamomc. literatura da xelovneba, Tb., 1966 w. 6. k. marjaniSvili (marjanovi), mogonebebi, statiebi da moxsenebebi (rusul enaze), gamomc. "zaria vostoka~, Tb., 1958 w. 7. kote marjaniSvili, krebuli, Tb., 1961. 8. o. kasraZe, kote marjaniSvili, gamoCenil adamianTa cxovreba, Tb., 1978. 45

eka cxadaZe dadaistebi da keTrovani sinamdvile grigol robaqiZis fantasmagoria `malStremSi~

grigol robaqiZis sxva dramaTagan (`londa~, `lamara~, `kardu~, `udega~) didad gamoirCeva fantasmagoria `malStrem~ umTavresi problematikiT _ epoqis krizisis mwvave suraTebis CvenebiT _ dadaistebisa da keTrovanTa dedoflis, anu, keTrovani sinamdvilis dapirispirebiT. `malStremi~ paradoqsebiT aris gajerebuli, ori samyaros Sepirispireba aq isedac naTelia da Rrmad ganicdeba avtoris mier, romelic mTeli arsebiT miscemia Wvretas, gancdas da Sejamebas. XX saukunis 1020-ian wlebSi evropis asparezze axali literaturuli mimdinareobebis doRi iyo gamarTuli. saSinelebis, tanjvis, simaxinjis kulti igrZnoboda da viTardeboda. `Semoqmedeba qimiuri proces i aris , romelSic s xvadas xvagvari elemen tebis gan iqmneba axali nivTierebebi, puSkinis `qeifi Jamianobis dros~, tiutCevis `malaria~, edgaris moTxrobebi, bodleris yvavilebi, apokali psi, ropsisa da goias suraTebi maxinjis gamarjvebaa xelovnebaSi. sinamdvile TavisTavad maxinjia _ lirika amarTlebs am simaxinjes da masSi naxulobs Tavis ideals. lotreamonis gombeSo ufro anaTebs poeziaSi, vidre Sileris ritorika. salomeia, ligeia, ledi makbeti gvaviwyeben gretxens da dezdemonas. esTetikis winaSe bairons gaamarTlebs mxolod misi `kaeni~ da misi koWli fexi. iniT SeRebili da cali TvaliT brma akaki ufro misaRebia CvenTvis, vidre sulikos axalgazrda avtori. wiwamuris tragediam olimpielTa simaRleze aiyvana ilia da daCrdila misi banaloba. Sellis sinaze dagvaviwya laforgis sinazem, romelsac loyebi awiTlebuli aqvs WleqiT...~.1 da ase Semdeg da ase Semdeg... `malStremis~ erT-erT suraTs ase ewodeba: `dadaistebis maidani~. SeiZleboda, sruliad

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ar CarTuliyo dadaistebis monakveTi fantasmagoriaSi, magram is mainc iqneboda zedmiwevniT originaluri da zedmiwevniT ucxour-sazRvargareTuli. gr. robaqiZis Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi s ruliad ucxo iyo evropuli krizisis problema, igi ramdenimesTvisRa Tu iqneboda gancdil- gaTavis ebuli. Tavis droze `rubikonSi~ gamoqveynda dadaistebisadmi miZRvnili werilebi da statiebi, qarTvel mkiTxvels acnobdnen am ultraTanamedrove mimdinareobas: `meore Skola frangi poetebis aris `dada~. dadaistebis wres Seadgendnen: tristan tcara, pikabia, reimonti, sopulebi. eseni Segnebulad uaryofen Zvel xelovnebas da literaturas. gazeTebi daumalavi SiSiT aRniSnaven dadaistebis winadadebas `daswviT luvri?~ dadaistebi drogamoSvebiT uSveben furclebs da proklamaciebs. ai zogierTi maTi aforizmidan: siwminde _ zedmeti RaribebisTvis, iyaviT WuWyiani ki ara. ` d ad a ~ a r s eb o b da y ov e l T vi s : m a d on n a i y o `dadaistika?~ Tu Tqven geCvenebaT Tqveni ideebi unayofod da sasac i l o d , i c o d eT , r o mT qvenT an saubar s i wyebs `d ad a~.2 aseTia ideebi `dadaistebisa~, romlebic kanidan Zvrebodnen, rom rogorme yvelaze originalurni, skandalurni da yuradRebis centrSi yofiliyvnen. `dada~ frangulad saTamaSo cxenia. dadaizme _ dekadenturi, fo rmalistu ri m imdi nar eoba lit erat uraS i, mxatvrobaSi.. . poeturi sityvis gas aformeblad dadaistebi eZeben uazro neologizms; sityvaSi azri ki araa saintereso, aramed _ bgerwera. es ukiduresi formalisturi mimdinareoba daiSala 1920-iani wlebis dasawyisSi. dadaistebis nawili siurealizmSi gadavida, na wil ma ki xar ki gad aux ada eq s p r es i oni zms ~. axalgazrdoba gansakuTrebiT iyo gatacebuli axalaxali li t er at u ru li mi m ar Tulebe bi T, rac gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobi iyo ruseTis imperiis centrSi. tician tabiZe igonebs: `maxs ovs agreTve Cvens universitetSi gamarTuli saRamo profesor samsonovis

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TavmjdomareobiT. asze meti axalgazrda poeti gamovida studentTa wreebidan. maTgan ori-sami nadsonis ganwyobilebebiT mReroda, ramdenime simbolistebis: briusovisa da kuzminis gavlenas ganicdida. ufro metad d a a v a d eb u l n i i y v n e n ig o r s e v e r i a n i ni s e b u r i futurizmiT. obivatelebi tkbebodnen severianinis poeziis saRamoebiT...~. 3 saqarTveloSic Taviseburad airekla msgavsi mdgomareoba, magram mas ukiduresi formebi ar miuRia. Salva afxaiZe igonebs t. tabiZis `dada~-Ti gatacebis periods da aRniSnavs, rom ticiani: `ar uTmobda pirvelobas dadaizmis propagandaSi grigol cecxlaZes, romelic im dros am skolis mimdevrad Tvlida Tavs. ticianma TviTon aRiara: `ra saWiroa aq pirveloba, marTla mxiblavda me erT dros `dada~, mtanjavi iyo es gaoreba, monanieba ki aris sada~.4 gr. robaqiZis `malStrem~ erTgvari zRvris gavlebis mcdelobaa am ukiduresad zedapirul mimarTulebasa da realizms Soris. iv. gomarTeli grZnobs am paToss da saerTod mis piesebze aRniSnavs: `grigol robaqiZis `londa~ gasaRebia `kardusi~ da malStremis~. aq mocemulia siyvarulis problema da miwis suli... avtoris mizania zekacis aRdgena. Cveni mtkice, udreki, gautexeli da movaleobis SegnebiT Cakiruli adamianis gacocxleba. Cven yvela sulieri Svilebi varT hamletisa...~.5 miuxedavad amisa, gr. robaqiZe da misi megobari `yanwelebi~ aqtiur propagandas ewevian qarTvel sazogadoebaSi dadas da sxva Tanamedrove mimarTulebebis gasacnobad. t. tabiZe Targmnis pikabias manifests, Fili po supos manifests da 1923 w. gaz. `rubinonSi~ aqveynebs: `rogorc Tqveni imedebi _ araraobaa. rogorc Tqveni samoTxeebi _ araraobaa. rogorc Tqveni RmerTebi _ araraobaa. rogorc Tqveni politikosebi _ araraobaa. rogorc Tqveni gmirebi _ araraobaa.

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rogorc Tqveni mxatvrebi _ araraobaa. rogorc Tqveni religiebi _ araraobaa~.6 fransis pikabias am manifestSi gamoTqmulia is uzogadesi msoflmxedveloba, romelic axasiaTebs `dadaizms~, igi aris protestantuli suliskveTebis. s ainteresoa, rogor msj eloben gr. robaqiZis `malStremis~ dadaisti personaJebi: `2 dadaisti. dRes yvelam icis: auqcionia miwis: Tumca beberia _ nasuqia kargi. planetebs CamorCa _ gaxda meti bargi RmerTma bevrjer moxna. daumJavda coxna. gaebera muceli _ aRar Svelis oyna~.7 `dadas~ eSinia sikvdilisa da amis TvalsaCinod warmoCenisaTvis gr. robaqiZe asparezze keTrovanTa dedofals gamoiyvans. yofili boSa marCieli morella keTrovanTa dedofali gaxda, man gadalaxa sikvdilis SiSi da Tavisi nebiT SeuerTda dawylulebul, dasneulebul da ganwirul masas. keTrovnebi epaeqrebian fuqsavat dadaistebs, romelTac TavianTi gularxeini saxeebis miRma ukiduresi SiSi da simxdale aqvT gamjdari: `morella. Tqveni arseba SiSia da silaCre. miwisZvris dros pirveli Tqveni fiqri ra aris: me xom gadavrCio: ai, Cemi pasuxi. me vici Tqveni zizRi Cvendami. es zizRia Tqveni xvedris _ romelsac Tqven emalebiT: dRe Rame yovel wams. Tqven smenas iyruebT rom ar isminoT. keTrovania Tqveni qveyana. raTa ar ismenT, Tu rogor RrRnis

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Wia mimaluli: qvas-xes-cxovels-kacs-qals-qveyanas?! geSiniaT fardis axdis. CamoxieT farda. ixileT sinaTle~.8 gr. robaqiZis azriT, moCvenebiTi gularxeinobis miRma dadas mimdevrebs tanjavT faruli SiSi keTrovani sinamdvilisadmi. droebiT gulis damSvidebis mizniT isini aTasgvar mxiarul oinebs , maxvilgonier paradoqsebs efarebian. sinamdvile ki morellas gaTavisuflebuli aqvs da ar aSinebs ulmobeli bediswera. aqac Tavs iCens bedisweris SiSi, SiSi sikvdilisa. es aris uZvelesi SiSi, yovelTvis Tan rom sdevs kacobriobas uZvelesi droidan gilgameSamde da gilgameSidan _ dRemde. bedisweram mTeli sisavsiT daimona morella, masac ar aqvs misi SiSi. man ukve mravalgzis igema sikvdilisa da bedisweris msaxvrali Zala. morella aris gansaxiereba gangebis batonobisa. Zveli berZnebic ulamazesi qandakebebiTa da mxatvrobiT c di lo bd ne n, bed is we ri sagan gamo et ac aT d a gaeferadebinaT TavianTi arseboba, magram amaod: `ZvelberZnul miTologiaSi imTaviTve iyo erTi momenti, erTi iseTi princi pi, rasac tragikuli disonansi Sehqonda samyaros harmoniul miTologiur wyobaSi _ es iyo bediswera, romelic qalRmerT moirebis saxiT iyo warmodgenili. Zvel berZenTa rwmeniT, isini adamianTa beds ganageben dabadebidan sikvdilamde, maT winaSe uZlurni arian TviT ukvdavi RmerTebic ki. bedisweris, moiras princi pi, ueWvelia, miTologiuri princi pia, ramdenadac aq adamianisaTvis miuwvdomel-Seucnobeli, misi bedis ganmgebeli, yovlisSemZle zebunebrivi Zala igulisxmeba, magram ramdenadac bediswera, moira adamians ZiriTadad sikvdilis saxiT evlineba (adamianis cxovrebas ki upiratesad sxva RmerTebi warmarTaven ise, rom moira an moirebi SeiZleba arc ki ereodnen masSi), amdenad bedisweris princi pi, rogorc raRaca fataluri garduvaloba, emijneba da upirispirdeba

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miTo logias, rogorc Tavisufali samyar o~,9 Tanamedrove adamiani cdilobs, originalobiT da nihilizmiT Semosos da amiT uxilavi gaxados Tavisi SiSi. dadaistebi omisa da ngrevis SiSs bohemasa da wregadasuli originaluri manifestebiT niRbavdnen. es ara marto maTTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli, aramed m rav ali s x va de k ad e nt u ri li t er atu r uli mimarTulebisaTvis. rwmenis, religiis krizisi imdenad Rrma gamodga, rom adamianebi awydebodnen xan warmarTobas, xan qristianobis sxvadasxva ganStoebas, xan aRmosavlur religiebs _ mainc yovelive amao iyo, r ad g an `w i n ar e qr i st i an u li sai d um loe ban i sikvdilisagan ar icavda _ ai, raSia maTi naklovaneba. msofliom qriste miiRo, radgan sikvdili ganagebda msoflios da msoflios gankurneba ver SeZlo warmarTulma msoflmxedvelobam. miuxedavad amisa, warmarTobis xelaxalma aRorZinebam SeiZleba TviT qristianobazec iqonios keTili gavlena, radgan igi eklesiisaTvis kosmiur safuZvels iZleva. 10 ase m sj e lobs n. be r diaev i, r o ca pir ov ne bis TviTdamkvidrebaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas da iqve aRniSnavs, rom mxolod apolonur religiaSi iRviZebda pirovneba da orfikelebTan ukvdavebis wyurviliT ­ yovelive aman da bediswerisadmi SiSma niadagi qristes gaumzada. magram amJamad, XX saukunis dasawyisSi, ukve qristianulis krizisi apoTeozs aRwevs da aravin uwyis, rodis gamoiCens Tavs nebismier adamianSi `ungehoier~ _ saSineli mxeci, swored iseTi, rogoric aris azeful..., gr. robaqiZis interpretaciiT, `esxatologiis borbali~ brunavs da iTrevs yvelas da yvelafers: `4 dadaisti. `dada~ amzadebs manifests sikvdilisas. 1 keTrovani. Tqven odesme gixilavT sikvdili?~ 2 keTrovani. Tqven odesme gixilavT deda momakvdavTan?! 3 keTrovani. Tqven odesme ginaxavT dedis ZuZu, roca mas momakvdavi bavSvi kbens?!

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4 keTrovani. Tqven odesme gixilavT TvaldaxuWuli samudamod bavSvi!? 5 keTrovani. Tqven odesme ginaxavT ukanaskneli gamoxedva?! 6 keTrovani, Tqven odesme gixilavT ukanaskneli ambori?!~.11 aq axali `ieremiada~ aris gamarTuli _ saboloo datireba uZluri kacobriuli xvedrisa da uneblie fiqri am Semzarav garemoSi adamianis daniSnulebisa. SiSi da sikvdili nebisyofas da brZolis unars aclis SemoqmedT. magram am usasoobaSi da sayovelTao nihilizmSic SeiZleba pozitiuri marcvlis povna: `misi dadebiToba imaSia, rom yofierebis es radikaluri daviwyeba-dafaruloba, es sayovelTao krizisi niadags amzadebs yofierebis axali, ufro sruli da namdvili saxiT gamovlenisaTvis, yofierebis Sesaxeb kiTxvis dasmisaTvis, yofierebaze azrovnebisaTvis~. 12 axali faseulobani, albaT, ar arsebobs, yovelive axali xom kargad daviwyebuli Zvelia..., `malStremSi~ keTrovnebs TavianTi `ieremiadis~ Semdgom siyvarulis imedi SemorCaT: `morella. siyvaruli: ukanaskneli siyvaruli... siyvaruli keTrovanTa...~.13 radgan simaxinje dekadansisaTvis silamazis gadmobrunebuli mxarea, aqedan gamomdinare, siyvaruli aris siZulvilis gadmobrunebuli mxare. igi is movlenaa, romelic sikvdilis SiSsac ki sZlevs: `adamiani Tavis TavSi atarebs samyaros, is ara marto bunebis nawils warmoadgens, aramed aris istoriis wevri. _ istoria ki meore kosmosia~,14 e. i., yoveli adamiani aris mTeli samyaro, romelic Tavis bedisweras Tavis TavSive Seicavs. gr. robaqiZis `malStremis~ gmirebi TavianT xasiaTSi Seicaven TavianT bedisweras, morella Tavisi TavganwirviT Tavidanve msxverplad gaiazreba, romelic ewireba WeSmarit siyvaruls. man sicocxleSive gadalaxa zRvari sikvdilisa, SemTxveviT gadarCa

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cocxali, mas ar surda ecocxla SemoTavazebul garemoSi da amitomac miekedla keTrovanT _ avtors morellas dadaistebTan gamarTuli scena imisTvis dasWirda, rom kidev erTxel gaesva xazi WeSmariti da moCvenebiTi grZnobebisaTvis. morellas azefTanac mouwevs Sexvedra da bedisweriT daRdasmul ucnobTanac. morellas saxis arqeti pi aris afrodite _ venusi, momxibvleli Zvelelinuri qalRmerTi; igi adamianebTan axlos movida, rom uSvelos maT, adamianebs ki aRar surT TavianTi samyaros daTmoba. Tanamedrove adamiani RmerTebis mezoblad warmoudgenelia, es mxolod Zveli samyaros esTetebs SeeZloT: `warmarTni berZenni TavianTi RmerTebis sazogadoebaSi Tavs umdables arsebad rodi grZnoben. maT olimpis mbrZaneblebs yvela adamianuri Tviseba mianiWes. maTi RmerTebi anTropomorfulni arian da mkveTrad gamoxatuli individualobiT gamoirCevian. morwmune qristianisagan gansxvavebiT warmarTi berZnebi umdables qmnilebad ar SeigrZnoben TavianT Tavs SemoqmedTan SedarebiT~. 15 gr. robaqiZe morellaSi siyvarulis qalRmerTs ganasaxierebs da TandaTanobiT mTeli qaluri sawyisis matarebladac aqcevs mas. morella aris `miwis saSo~ uTanamedroves garemoSi, dadaistebi ki fons qmnian misTvis. saerTod, Zalian Znelia gr. robaqiZis dramebis siuJetTa Txroba-moyola da detalurad damaxsovreba. ramdeni frazac aris, imdeni gasaSifri azri da saxe-simboloa masSi. am mxriv o. mandelStamis frTiani naTqvami iqneboda marTebuli: `iq, sadac SesaZlebelia moyola _ iq poezias araTu sZinebia, Tvalic ki ar mouxuWavso~.16 dadaizmis arsis ganxilva ar yofila `malStremis avtorisaTvis mTavari mizani, mas mxolod epoqis erT-erTi niSnis Cveneba surda. m. javaxiSvils aRuniSnavs epoqis stilze: `stili epoqis naSobia an misi ganuyreli nawilia, amitom igi unda gaRrmavdes, mTel cxovrebas moedos _ mecnierebas, xelovnebas, literaturas. unda SeiWras yovel TavSi, ojaxSi, unda daemCnios Senobas, simReras, tanisamoss,

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cekvas _ uklebliv yovelives~.17 grigol robaqiZis `malStremiseuli~ dadaistebi da `keTrovani~ evropa... Cvenebaa evropis yofiTi realiebis ganwirulobisa, romlis literaturuli xorcSesxma da gaTaviseba qarTul sinamdvileSi dramaturgs imTaviTve mxolod gazviadebul mcdelobad CaeTvala.

kinomcodneoba

1. v. gafrindaSvili, Teror antiques; dabeW.: qarTuli literaturuli ese. XX saukunis 20-iani wlebi, Seadgina, winasityvaoba da gamokvleva daurTo m. xelaiam, Tbilisi, 1986, gv. 111. 2. gaz. `rubikoni~. dada (avtori miTiTebuli ar aris), #3, 1923. 3. t. tabiZe, Sexvedra maiakovskisTan, dabeWd.: t. tabiZe, werilebi literaturasa da xelovnebaze, t. II, Tbilisi, 1966, gv. 234. 4. S. afxaiZe, maxsovs maradis... Tbilisi, 1988, gv. 97. 5. iv. gomarTeli, `kavkasioni~, # 3-4, 1924. 6. gr. robaqiZe, dramebi (londa, malStrem, lamara), tfilisi, 1926. 7. gr. robaqiZe, dasax. naSr,. gv. 107. 8. gr. robaqiZe, dasax. naSr., gv. 120. 9. a. popiaSvili, individis problema s. kirkegorisa da f. nicSes filosofiaSi, Tbilisi, 1988, gv. 141. 10. . ., , , 1985. . 165. 11. gr. robaqiZe, dasax. naSr., gv. 120-121. 12. . ., , , I. , , . . , , 1993, . 237. 13. gr. robaqiZe, dasax. naSr., gv. 12. 14. . . , , 1972, . 38. 15. a. popiaSvili, dasax. naSr., gv. 186. 16. . . , , 1991, . 5. 17. q. javaxiSvili. mixeil javaxiSvilis cxovreba, Tbilisi, 1991, gv. 86. 54 55

ira demetraZe Tanamedrove kinoprocesi kulturul-miTologiuri arqetipebi

post-postmodernuli epoqis kinematografi realobis gaazrebis axal aglomeratebs gvTavazobs. bolo wlebSi kinematografiuli `axali talRebis ~ eTno Tu s ociop olitikuri p erimetri mudmiv dinamikas eqvemdebareba. aRmosavluri samyarosa Tu kinos gacxadebul revanSs amerikuli damoukidebeli kino uwevda oponirebas. fragmentirebuli evropuli cnobiereba sakuTari identurobisa da TviTSemecnebis krizisTan erTad kinokulturis artikulirebasac g am oe m Sv i do ba . s k an di n av iu r i ` do gm a ~ m al ev e k oniu nq tu r ul brendad gadaiq c a. C inur i postrevoluciuri kinorenesansi iranulma kinopoeziam Caanacvla. dRes aRmosavleTevropuli postsocialisturi, posttotalitaruli cnobiereba istoriuli travmebisa Tu dramebis sublimirebas e. w. safestivalo kinos meSveobiT axdens. `navTobis eqsportis~ xarjze aRorZinebuli rusuli kinoindustria ybadaRebuli Seucnobeli rusuli sulis moxelTebas sakuTar `individualobaze~ morgebul Janruli kodebis meSveobiT axdens. amasTanave arc `ufrosi Zmis~ Cveul ritorikas iviwyebs, Tanamedrove kinoprocesi /sakvanZo movlenebi daFfilmebi/ ayalibebs suraTs, sadac nacionaluri mentaluri da kulturuli Taviseburebani aSkaradaa warmoCenili. is, Tu poetikis Taviseburebani ramdenadaa ganpirobebuli ama Tu im eris istoriuli mexsierebiTa da gamocdilebiT, aSkarad ikveTeba Tanamedrove evropuli kinoproduqciis magaliTze.Ees miT ufro TvalSisacemia vinaidan sul raRac aTi wlis win nacionaluri dominantebi evropul kinoSi TiTqmis ar arsebobda (postmodernuli esTetikis gavlenidan gamomdinare). gavixsenoT Tundac 90-iani wlebis sakulto germanuli suraTi `gaiqeci lola, gaiqeci~ (reJ. tom

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tikveri). realobis variaciuloba, rac siuJetis pirvel elements warmoadgenda, virtualur realobis Sesabamis reprezentaciis kods iTxovda. zepirobiTi ekranuli sivrce kli puri esTetikis maneraSi iyo stilizebuli, r ac , Tav is mx r i v, nac io n alu r d o mi n ant s gamoricxavda.Ffestivalze naCvenebi kris krausis `oTxi wuTi~ (2006) e. w. germanuli kompleqsis sublimaciis kidev erTi nimuSia, `axali germanuli kinosa~ da n ac i on alu r i li te r at u ri s g am oc d ile biT gaSualebuli. Aanu, kidev erTi mcdeloba cnobili istoriuli movlenebis, nevrotuli da destruqciuli fsiqo-seqsualuri fobiis prizmaSi asaxvisa.Uuaxlesi germanuli kinos petra fon kanti qalTa satusaRos musikis maswavlebelia (saerTod musika, am SemTxvevaSi Sumani, germanelTa nacionaluri identurobis ganmsazRvreli umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria. musikac am SemTxvevaSi RvTaebrivi mSvenierebis ukumxares _ demonur sawyissac moicavs), xolo Tanamedrove marlene amjerad ara marioneti, petras `sayvareli~ saTamaSo Tojina, aramed daTrgunuli da Seviwroebuli sulis amboxis ukiduresi gamovlinebaa. Dda Tu germanuli kinosaTvis saxasiaTo arqeti pebs mivyvebiT, SesaZloa filmis mTavari gmirebi Zveli da axali germaniis niSanxatebic iyvnen.Mmamis (ufro sworad, maminacvlis) mier gaupatiurebuli jeni im formaciis warmomadgenelia, visac samarcxvino warsulis mZime memkvidreoba ergo.Ggermania ara erTxel yofila `meZavi~ qali, am SemTxvevaSi ki igi `tirani mamis~ (sistemis) mieraa `gaup atiurebuli~. Nnacizmis Tanatoli musikis mas wavlebelic erTaderT siyvaruls ges tapos satusaRoSi kargavs (asakidan gamomdinare sistema misi ara `tirani mama~, aramed `despoti meuRlea~, amitomac `CamoiSora~ metoqe).Mmusika ki orTave gmirisTvis WeSmariti yofnis (egzistenciis) erTaderTi saSualebaa im sxvaobiT, rom klasikuri JReradoba `zanguri~ gamebiTaa Canacvlebuli. erTgvari kinorenesansis ganmapirobebeli erT-erTi

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mTavari mizezi ara empiriuli, aramed fundamenturi _ ontologiuri faqtorebia. eTnohi perrealizmi da socialuri diskursis gaaqtiureba, Taviseburi `neoneorealizmi~ e. w. `pirdapiri kinos~ maneraSia stilizebuli. imavdroulad adamianis problemis, egzistencialuri Tematikis inspirirebas axdens. `Seulamazebeli realoba~, Tavis mxriv miTologiure pi k ur i p las t iTaa g am y ar e bu li d a u fr o gamomsaxvelobiT rigs ganekuTvneba, vidre substanciur, siRrmiseul ganzomilebas. swored amitom mSrali sociologia Tu autentizmi TviTkmar elementad ar iqceva da yofiTi realiebi yofierebis problemebis ganzogadebisken miiltvis. CauSeskus epoqa, kriminaluri aborti mxolod Strixia, makrofonis sailustracio mikro istoriaa. Tanamedrove kinos erT-erTi mwvervali _ qristian munjus `4 Tve, 3 kvira da 2 dRe~ _ Tavad avtoris gansazRvrebiT, `ruminuli komunizmis subieqturi istoriaa~.Ffilmis moqmedeba 1987 wels xdeba da otiliasa (anamaria marinka) da gabitas (laura vasiliu) studenti daqalebis Tanaarsebobis or dRes moicavs. ori dRe, romelic mTel cxovrebas utoldeba. gamocdileba, romelic gmirebis kvaldakval mayureblis i de n tu r obaz e axd e ns ze g av len as (d a S en c mravlismomswre da ironiul kritikossac) sakuTari Tavis Secnobisken gibiZgebs. saerTo sacxovrebeli da sastumro _ es ori ZiriTadi sivrcea, sadac mimdinareobs filmis moqmedeba. orive garemo (sivrce) niSnobrivi iyo komunisturi utopiisken mimavali sicialisturi banakisaTvis. saerTo sacxovrebuli-koleqtiuri komunalurobis gansxeuleba da sastumro privat-sivrce (socialuri p r iv ile g iur o bis niSniTac atributirebuli) _ oRond erTi saerTo maxasiaTebliT: oficialuri registraciis gareSe sapirispiro sqesis adamianebis erTad Tanacxovreba dauSveblad iTvleboda. aq iseve, rogorc filmis mTavar intrigaSi _ kriminalur abortSi, reJimisTvis damaxasiaTebeli daTrgunuli

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seqsualobis motivi ikveTeba. sigareti `kenti~ da qaluri tualetis aqsesuarebi _ deficituri saqoneli da miT ufro sasurveli iseTive drois niSania, rogorc ucxouri radiosadgurebis sixSireebis CaxSobaDda, S es aZloa, imave nonk onfor mis tuli s ulis gamoxatulebadac CaiTvalos. miuxedavad drois niSnebisa da atmosferos zusti rekonstruqciisa, filmis mTavari Rirebuleba egzis tencialuri problematikis wamowevaSi mdgomareobs. anamaria marinkas gmiri (da es msaxiobi savsebiT damsaxurebulad dRes msoflio masStabis movlenad iqca) megobars arasasurveli fexmZimobisgan Tavis daRwevaSi exmareba. es sakuTari sxeulis da sulis msxverplad gaRebis xarjze xde ba SesaZlebeli. realoba mudmiv kompromisebsa Tu xarks moiTxovs adamianisgan _ iqneba es abortis Tanxis safasurad sakuTari sxeulis gaReba Tu mocilebuli nayofis bunkerSi gastumreba. swored es cxovrebiseuli inercia aris is, rasac TiToeuli Cvengani yovel fexis nabijze akeTebs (ama Tu im saxiT) da rac Cvens gardauval realobad iqceva. avtoris, reJisoris mTavar damsaxurebad misi gulwrfeli, adamianuri pozicia mesaxeba yovelgvar didaqtikasa da `moralizms~ moklebuli. Cven, adamianebs, aramc da aramc ar gvamcirebs es negatiuri, uaryofiTi cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba _ ubralod gvcvlis, SesaZloa, sulieradac gvauxeSebs, magram es gardauvali da savsebiT Cveuli ramaa. fineli kovboi kvlav gvaocebs, Tavisi Sefaruli `adamianurobiT~ da `uambicio~, magram daxvewili (lakonuri) stiliT.Ffrontaluri mizanscenebi Tuki evropuli kinokritikis metrs serJ tubianas fasbinders agonebs, CemTvis bresonisa da oZus xelwerasTan asocirdeba. xolo iseve, rogorc fasbinderTan aqac `siyvaruli sikvdilze civia~. postmodernuli epoqis realiebidan gamomdinare, kaurismiakis filmebis ironiuli modusi emociuri anesTeziis, ekranuli sivrcisgan distancirebis efeqts

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efuZneba. is, rac bresonisTvis `ekranebisgan~ Tavis daRwevas, anu, e. w. `eliminacias~ gulisxmobs, kaurismiakisTan, arsobrivad, faqtobrivad, ucvleli rCeba. samsaxiobo Sesruleba, iseve rogorc bresonTan, Sinagan Tu garegan sicarieles (anu inertulobas) moiTxovs. imave bresonisgan gansxvavebiT ki, ara avtomatizms, aramed msaxiobis srul dezorientacias, dabnevas moiazrebs.Aaqve skandinaviuri mentalur-kulturuli Taviseburebanic vlindeba. Yyofierebis s imsubuqe Cveuli yofis gausaZlisi siciviTa Tu autaneli gamouvalobis SegrZnebiTaa Canacvlebuli. `proletaruli metafizika~ ara refleqsiis, ara primitiuli sentimentalobis, aramed m Z a f ri e m o c i u r - f i z i k u r i ga n c d i s , e rT g v a r i `kaTarzisuli Sokis~ safuZveli xdeba.Ddostoevskiseuli vnebebi (mTavari gmiri miSkinis saxesTan erTgvar msgavsebas badebs, rac kaurismiakis Semoqmedebis zogadi i n te r t e qs t u a lu r i mi m a r Te b i d an g a mo m d i na r e absoluturad bunebrivia) neorealistur maneraSia mowodebuli, magram realobis ara sociologiur, aramed egzistenciur ganzomilebas gvTavazobs. qali (aqac dostoevskiseul antinomiebTan mivdivarT _ nastasia fi li p ov na da ag la ia) mx ol od ga cxa deb ul i, xelSesaxebi mizezia, mTavari gmiris sikvdilisaken g au c no bie r ebe li (Tu gacno bier ebuli) l t ol v i s a . Y y o f n a- a r y of n i s di l e m a i m T a v iT v e ufasurdeba, rodesac yofna aryofnis tolfasia. rusuli sulis kidev erTi emanacia `martivi sagnebi~ _ axalgazrda reJisoris aleqsei popogrebskis pirveli srulmetraJiani filmia.Mmravalricxovani serialebiTa Tu n ac i on alur me n talit e tz e mo r ge buli blokbasterebiT (maT Soris heroikuli eposis ambiciebis mqone erzacebi, magaliTad `9 aseuli~) atributirebuli lubokis ti pis rusuli sinamdvile ideologiur angaJirebas Cinebulad usadagebs sabazro koniunqturas. imperiuli (anu totalitaruli) intenciebis matarebeli k ult ur a s abWo u r i de o lo g em e bs u ax les i teqnologiebiT gamyarebuli `glamuruli~ kinoenis

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meSveobiT warmoaCens. Tuki kultura _ faseulobaTa sistemaa, maT kargad aqvT gacnobierebuli, Tu ra ti pis faseulobebia am SemTxvevaSi `Rirebuli~. Tundac aviRoT Tanamedrove rusuli kinos metris, nikita mixalkovis, axali `safestivalo hiti~ _ `12~ (SeTavsebiT reJisori, rogorc WeSmariti rusi `inteligenti~, e. w. `poCvennikia~ _ Tanamedrove transkrifciiT _ reJimis apologeti). CeCen ymawvils mamobilis, rusi oficris, mkvlelobaSi adanaSauleben... komunisturi formaciis niSansveti socialuri uTanasworoba, ufro mdabali, cxoveluri instinqtiT nacionalisturi fobiiTa da religiuri SuRliTaa Canacvlebuli. didaqtikuri fabula politkoniunqturis demonstrirebis farTo asparezs iZleva. msajulTa sulieri stri ptizi Tu wiaRsvlebi `moraluri~ gamarjvebiT sruldeba. da obol ymawvils (SesaZloa, ersac) axali rusi mamobili gamouCndeba. is, rom sidni lumetis pirvelwyarosgan gansxvavebiT, mixalkoviseul rimeikSi s ocialuri dis kurs i nacionalisturiTaa Canacvlebuli, aSkaraa. udaod misasalmebelia is faqti, rom es `Sedevri~ oskaris gareSe darCa. aleqsei popogrebski absolutur winaaRmdegobaSi modis rogorc meinstrimTan, aseve dominantur id eo log em ebTan . sim pt omatu ria, ro m f ilmi peterburgidanaa, Cemi azriT, is swored rusuli sulieri tradiciis am mimarTebas emxroba. Uup iveles ad, TvalSisacemia lakonuri, sada stili Serbilebuli rakursiTa da erTgvarad neitraluri (magram ara qronikaluri) kameris muSaobis reJimiT. `Seulamazebeli~ sinamdvile isea asaxuli, rom agresiuli zemoqmedebisken ar iyos mimarTuli. zedmiwevniT naturalisturi scenebi imgvaradaa mowodebuli, rom fiziologiur SegrZnebebs, Tundac zizRs ar aRZravs mayurebelSi.Mminimalisturi stili, rac yofiTi detalebis erTobliobas efuZneba, imavdroulad egzis tenciur (m e tafiz ik ur )

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ganzomilebasac moicavs. gmiris SeuTavsebloba realobasTan bevrad ufro tragikulia, vidre yofiTi SeWirveba. is uwinaresad sakuTar TavTanaa gaucxoebuli da mere garemosTan. rusuli mentalobidan gamomdinare, misTvis arsebiTia ara raime socialuri an sxva roluri stereoti pi, aramed is, Tu ras warmoadgens sakuTar TvalSi.Dda is, visTvisac garegani da Sinagani yofna disonansuria, imTaviTve axdens mocemuli modelis sakuTar Tavze proecirebas. david volahis filmi `mamaCemi, Cemi RmerTi~, Cemi azriT, unikaluri movlenaa ara mxolod festivalisTvis, aramed Tanamedrove kinoprocesSic. 37 wlis david v olahi ierusalimis er T- erT y ve laz e ultraorTodoqsur xaredimTa TemSi aRizarda. 25 wlis asakSi gamoeyo rabin mamasa da 19 da-Zmas. reJisoris s ekularuli cxovreba uwinaresad xelovnebas ukavSirdeba, rac faqtobrivad samyaros xelaxal Secnobas Tan igivdeba. Ffilmic garkveulwilad avt o bio g raf iu li a, Tan ac Zve l aRqm i s eu l reminiscenciebsac moicavs. abraamisa da isaakis bibliuri istoria axleburadaa interpretirebuli. msxverplSewirva meordeba _ locvas micemuli mamis braliT Svili iRupeba... movlenebi bavSvis cnobierebis prizmaSia asaxuli. samyaro, marTalia, mamis Toriseuli igavebiTaa (Tu dogmebiT) atributirebuli, magram realobac garkveul kiTxvebs badebs: ratom ara aqvT suli cxovelebs?Aanda imave uZlurebisa Tu sikvdilis xatTan Sejaxeba. reJisori araviTar SemTxvevaSi ironiuli skefsisis safuZvels ar gvaZlevs (rac evropuli cnobierebisTvis esoden saxasiaToa). samyaro misTvisac locvis, imperativis da, rac mTavaria, mamis (imave RmerTis xorcieli da s ulieri sawyis i gaigivebulia) saxiTaa warmodgenili. volahi sakuTari sulieri (religiuri) tradiciis SigniT inarCunebs dialeqtikur azrovnebas. is ar uaryofs arc mamaRmerTs da arc xorciel mamas. Toris Tanaxmad mtredi Tuki kargi dedaa mobrundeba da ar miatovebs sakuTar

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pirmSos. realoba araerTgvarovania da is mxolod `kanoniT~ ar aixsneba, Tundac is RvTaebrivi siyvaruliT iyos nakarnaxevi. mTavari ki isaa, rom filmi saocrad intimuria da ara didaqtikuri, sadac sazrisi da emocia erTimeoresTanaa Sezrdili. bolo aTwleulebis manZilze aRmosavlurma kinom (iseve, rogorc civilizaciam) evropas garkveuli revanSi wauyena. postmodernuli epoqis fragmentirebuli d a s a v l ur i cn o b i er e b a d i d k i n os u kv e aR a r qmnis.AaRmosavleTSi, sadac kultura garkveulwilad arqaul modelzea orie ntirebu li, erTg vari miTologiuri cnobierebaa aqtualuri.Ees ukanaskneli ki, Tavis mxriv, kinos bazisur models warmoadgens. Bberlinis festivalis `oqros daTvis~ mflobeli `tuias qorwineba~ (reJ. van Cuanani) neorealizmis er Tg var iA aR mos av lur i va ria nt ia. Ee gz oti ku ri landSafti (filmi Sida monRoleTSia gadaRebuli, saidanac reJisoria warmoSobiT) miwieri lirikulobiTa da tr agi zmi Ta a g anz ave bul i. M mel od ram atu li in ton aci ebi t rag iku lis zR var s u ax lov deb a. janmrTeloba Seryeuli lamazi qali tuia invalidi qmriTa da wvrilSviliT xelze iZulebuli xdeba, axali sabedo eZios. marTalia, erTi pirobiT, invalidi meuRlec masTan unda darCes. msurveli mravladaa.Ees epizodebi lirikuli iumoriTacaa Seferili. xolo realoba, xeibari qmris saxiT, erTob gadaulaxav winaaRmdegobas qmnis. tuias yvelaze erTguli mijnuri mravali winaRobis miuxedavad sawadels aRwevs. filmis finalSi egzotikuri qorwili ganmartoebuli tuias gulamomjdari tiriliT sruldeba. sainteresoa, rom lamaisturi tradicia bevrad ufro humanuri da civiluria. feministebis sayuradRebod isic unda aRiniSnos, rom aq tuia aramc da aramc tradiciis msxverpli araa. marTalia,Qqalis TviTgvema kulturulistoriuli konteqstsac moicavs. is erTdroulad ultrafeministicaa da msxverplic, xolo am SemTxvevaSi moZalade Tavad realobaa _ industriuli civilizacia

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Tu sulac fi zikur i ar sebo bis (gadarCen is) aucilebloba. Tumca iq, s adac arsebobs kino, fundamenturi kultura da xdeba garkveuli kulturuli ideologiis artikulireba, iq fizikuri da sulieri gadagvarebis saSiSroeba ar dgas. n ac o nalur i mentalobis akumulir eba zogadsakacobrio miTologiis eTno Tu socialur realiebze morgebis xarjze xdeba. sainteresoa aseve is, rom tradiciuli kinematografiuli qveynebi aRar ayalibeben safestivalo klimats. Ppostmodernuli miTi aRaraa aqtualuri. Eep ikuri s tili romanuli s tr uq tu ri s eq s p lu at ac i iT aa g an p i ro be bu li . Mmaxsendeba Tomas maniseuli zolas Semoqmedebis in te rp re tac ia , s a da c n at ur al izm i uk id ur es simbolizmad gardaiqmneba.AalbaT, es gansazRvreba zustad gamoxatavs axal kinematografiul da, zogadad, kulturuli paradigmis Taviseburebas.

lia kalandariSvili konteqstis aspeqti `samocianelTa~ Semoq med eba Si

(r. gabriaZisa da e. Sengelaias `araCveulebrivi gamofena~)

mixeil TumaniSvili werda: `xelovnebasTan kontaqti sixaruls mxolod maSin iwvevs, rodesac mayurebelma icis, ras TamaSobs Teatri, ra problemebze esaubreba, ra unda Seaxsenos, riT aaRelvos... scenaze mimdinare ambebSi isini TavianT mezobels cnoben... sixaruliT aRmoaCenen, rom saintereso Teatraluri forma amas da amas gulisxmobs~ .1 TumaniSvilis es sityvebi kidev erTxel gvaxseneben, Tu ra mniSvneloba gaaCnia konteqstis garemos _ mxatvrul formamde arsebul realobis pirvelad Sres, anu sawyis, apriorul konteqsts. qarTul kinoSi `samocianelebma~ Camoayalibes gamomsaxveli, metyveli, damokidebulebebiT mdidari konteqstis veli, romelic kinofilms perspeqtivas umatebda da siRrmes uqmnida. am velSi moxvedrili msubuqi miniSnebac ki azrs aniWebda bunebriv uSualobaSi mocemul formebs, ideas da mTlianad films. igulisxmeba iseTi konteqsturi veli, rogorsac vxvdebiT magaliTad, galaktionis poeziaSi, sadac ubralo fonemebi da TiTqos izolirebulad, usazrisod amosrolili morfemebi ­ damokidebulebas qmnian ara mxolod leqsis sazrisis donesTan, aramed zesazrisTan, teqstis gare yofierebasTan, erovnul da msoflio kulturasTan, ukidegano sivrcesTan. `samocianelebma~ daiwyes imiT, rom miubrundnen sakuTar daviwyebul fesvebs, garkveulad aRadgines warsulis gamocdileba da arsebul safuZvelze Seqmnes axali erovnuli RirebulebaTa sistema, e. w. qarTuli fenomeni, gamoyves da Seaxames igi Tanamedrove kulturis saerTo xedTan, warmoqmnes fardobiTi damokidebuleba sakuTarsa da ucxos, ideologiis mier

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dakanonebulsa da realurad arsebuls, tradiciasa da novacias, inertulsa da cocxal xedvas Soris; Seqmnes ironiuli konteqstis veli, sadac seriozuli sagnebi da movlenebi erTbaSad sasacilo iers iRebdnen, sadac msgavseba niSnavda gansxvavebas, faqts, romelic uaryofs TavisTavs. samociani wlebis sinamdvileSi rezo gabriaZisa da eldar Sengelaias `araCveulebriv gamofenaSi~ gaJRerebuli pasaJi, rodesac cxviri hgavs, Tvalebi hgavs, tuCebi da nikapi hgavs, savaraudoa, rom _ `ese igi hgavs~ konteqsturad rezonirebda modelisa da aslis mraval msgavs aradamTxvevadobas. laparakia imaze, rom araCveulebrivi gamofenis mowmeebs, aguli erisTavis gawbilebul `klientebs~, romelTac sruli msgavsebis miuxedavad, mainc ver amoicnes skulpturaSi sakuTari sidedri, aseT `realistur ganzogadebaSi~ eWvi eparebaT: hgavs, magram sruliad sxvaa, ar hgavs! es erTgvari esTetikuri paradoqsi komizmis niSans atarebs, mogviTxrobs damwuxrebul siZeebze, romlebic iTxoven gardacvlili sidedris zust portrets da, TiTqos, mxolod sidedris Temebze arsebuli anekdotis msubuqi, saxumaro datvirTva gaaCnia. sinamdvileSi igi filmis struqturis kodia, gansxvavebasa da msgavsebas Soris xarisxis erTeuli, anu, maTi igiveobrioba da araigiveobrioba erT saxeSi. gansxvaveba aq dgindeba SeumCnevlad, nulovan xarisxSi: `msgavseba, romelic ar aris msgavsi~. filmSi arc mkveTri xarisxis aradamTxvevadobaa iSviaTi, anu, aSkarad ironiuli atmosferos Seqmna dapirispirebul RirebulebaTa elementebiT. magaliTad, koncepti - `Zvirfasi savle~ mis i `xsovnis~ TaviseburebebiT, upirispirdeba antikur ideals _ mSvenier, jansaR, SiSvel sxeuls. dRevandeli mamakacis `ideali~ _ savle, anu, namdvili `kacuri kaci~, mWameli, msmeli da amave dros mniSvnelovani pers onac aqcentirebulia colis mier Sekeril jibeebian xalaTze _ marj vena j ibeS i s abuTebi Ta da marc xenaSi aTTumnianebiT da, ra Tqma unda, igi ar aris `homerosiviT

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brma~, iseTi, `winaT rom iyo xalxi~. `araCveulebrivi gamofenis ~ amgvari logika gulis xmobs Tavis s ap i ri s p ir o s, wam oy e n ebu li saz ri s i Tavi s sawinaaRmdegoSi poulobs gadawyvetas, Secvlili saxiT, mxiarulad `amoyvinTavs~, rogorc quTaisuri - `lampreduzo-meduzo~. f ilm is gm i ri , ag uli e r is Tav i , i xat eba dapirispirebuli niSnebiT, romlebic mas meryev, gaubedav, usaxo arsebad, valodia jinWaraZed, anu, sicocxleSive daviwyebul pirovnebad ayalibeben _ romelmac, rac ar unda gaakeTos, mainc veravin, uaxloesi megobaric ver gaixsenebs: `Zlivs gagixsenaT, masw., mkvdari egoneT~, _ atyobinebs megobrebis mokiTxvas misi moswavle. magram mxolod valodia jinWaraZeoba ar aris agulis problema, igi filmis centraluri konceptualuri figuraa da masSi Tavs iyrian agreTve, pi pinia erisTavis, glaSas, misi mowafis, provizor bonas, misi megobari SavlegisYTu sxvaTa niSnebi. agulis saxe daSlilia am saxeebad, anu gmiris gamaerTianebel saxe-ipostasebad. aguli ixliCeba pi pinias idealebsa da glaSas perspeqtivas Soris. maTi erToblioba sawinaaRmdego muxtebis erTad dajgufebis saSiS energias iZleva, isini erTmaneTs gamoricxaven da agulis pirovnebisgan aRaraferi rCeba: mas aqvs uamravi idea, magram ar gaaCnia ideali, romelmac STagonebiTa da azriT unda aavsos misi Semoqmedeba. igi, TiTqos, moxiblulia gmiruliT, masStaburiTa da grandiozuliT, Tumca gulis siRrmeSi izidavs `pikasos biWi~ _ erTdroulad SiSiTa da wyalSi gadaxtomis surviliT Sepyrobili, gaubedavi, susti da amave dros Tavisi asakis udidesi energiiT damuxtuli, agulis sulieri mdgomareobis metafora. magram misi avtoriteti, rogorc Semoqmedisa _ daTrgunulia. uaxloesi artisti megobrisTvisac ki, igi swored `la-mpreduzo-meduzoa~ da ara `pikasos biWi~. `mniSvneloba ara aqvs, ras gaakeTebs `CrdiloeTis cials~, Tu `gazafxuls~, orivesTvis araSesaferisi dro iqneba! idea calkea, realoba ­ calke, seriozuli SemoqmedebiTi `wva~ ki

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komediis sivrceSi mainc damdabldeba da `komediad~ iqceva! agulis xom yovelTvis ormagi niSniT aRiqvamen: `niWieria, magram zarmaci~ an `mTvrali~, rodesac logikur SekiTxvebs svams da mkacrad sTxoven, rom koreqtireba Seitanos ara mxolod Tavis SemoqmedebaSi, aramed sakuTar azrovnebaSi: aiZuleben gadauxvios araCveulebrivi gamofenisken, `gaxdes is~, rac `ar aris~. Sedegad ki iqmneba antikuri idealis usaxuri karikatura, socrealisturi skulptura ­ `savle~ an sidedris ganzogadebuli saxe, imdenad zogadi, rom, zusti msgavsebis miuxedavad, ukve aRar hgavs Tavis prototi ps. konteqstebis dialoguri TamaSiTaa dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan filmis struqturis dapirispirebuli elementebi: erTi mxriv, saubaria xelovanis sikvdilze, meore mxriv, ki misi xelovnebaa mkvdari; TiTqos, saxeldeba obieqturi mizezebi, Tu ratom daiRupa talanti da, meore mxriv, ­ es yvelaferi sasacilo yofierebaa, karnavali: tragikuli da komikuri erT niRabSi, rogorc SavlegTan, amaRlebuli da mdabali, rogorc savlesTan, msagavsi da aramsgavsi, rogorc sidedri... aguli dascinis, magram TviTonac im windaxeduli provizoriviT iqceva, romelmac jer saflavi moiwesriga, Zegli aRimarTa da mxolod amis Semdeg damSvidebuli guliT gaemgzavra kislavodskSi mineralur wylebze dasasveneblad. mizani, romliskenac `samocianelTa Taoba~ moZraobda, iyo yal b, g aufa s ure bul s amy aroS i na mdvi li RirebulebaTa ara mxolod gamovlena, aramed Seqmnac. maT ar akmayofilebdaT arc gayalbebuli axali, arc tradiciuli dromoWmuli Rirebulebebi. pi piniam agulis saxiT `gveli gazarda ubeSi~, radgan aguli amCnevs, rom misi maRalfardovneba uadgilo da sasciloa, moZvelebuli idealuri, rogorc Terapevti gelovani, romelic misi umwikvlo srulyofilebis miuxedavad agulis colad ar gamoadgeba ­ jer erTi, rom mamakacia, meorec moxucia da, rac mTavaria, Turme ukve gardaicvala! anu, is Taoba, romelic jer kidev pativs

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scems tradiciul Rirebulebebs, vinc am RirebulebaTa niSans atarebs, ukve aRar arsebobs, warmavalia da Seusabamo. Tumca is Rirebulebebi, romlebic Zvelis adgils imkvidreben, ucxoa da aseve Seusabamo, rogorc glaSas kultura da rogorc misi miwebebuli ulvaSi, odesRac skolis speqtaklSi peCorinis Sesrulebisas da aseve absurduli da sasacilo, rogorc dekretul SvebulebaSi mimavali, uzarmazari mucliT damZimebuli sami milicieli. filmis avtorebi: rezo gabriaZe da eldar Sengelaia im periodis realur sinamdvileSi gamosavals ver xedaven: agulis pirovneba gaxleCili da daSlilia sxvadasxva mizezobriobaze, sxvadasxva personaJad, romelTa Sewebeba da gamTlianeba ver xerxdeba, msgavsad misi skulpturebisa, rodesac: Tvalebi hgavs, cxviri hgavs, yvelaferi hgavs, magram saerTo jamSi ar hgavs! rogorc ukve aRvniSneT es kodia, filmis erTgvari genetikuri kodi, romelSic naTlad ikveTeba filmis struqtura: saxe-konceptebiT SekavSirebuli fabula, ro mleb ic S efa s ebi T da mok ideb ule baSi ari an erTimeoresTan, erTimeoris sazrisis gansxvavebaze kontrastulad yalibdebian, erTimeoreSi ireklebian da Tavis gansxvavebebSi ukve mkvidrad isazRvrebian. anu, agulis daSlili xasiaTi, midrekilebebi: musikosi, skulptori, pedagogi, mesaflave, mama, Svili, megobari, qmari da a. S., izrdeba da nawildeba sxva personaJebSi d a q mn i s W re l k o la J s , ro m li s f r ag m en t eb i SemosazRvrul bzarebad rCebian filmis kompoziciaSi, Tumca organuli fabula maT konteqs tiT is ev amTlianebs. aSkaraa, rom filmis struqtura gansxvavdeba savaldebulo socrealisturi amocanebisagan. igi aseve gansxvavdeba neorealizmisganac, romelic qarTul kinoSi pirveli gaemijna savaldebulo mimarTulebas. samocianelTa Semoqmedeba sxvagvarad ikiTxeba da warmoadgens ukve dekonstruqciis xelovnebas. amis aRiareba ki maSin da Semdeg didxans SeuZlebeli iyo. `samocianelebSi~ dekonstruqciis daintereseba

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S emo qmed eba Si

araerTgvarovania: mTliani formiT, calkeuli elementebiTa Tu sxva amocanebiT; ZiriTadad, igi Serwymulia realistur faqturasTan. anu, mxatvrul nawarmoebSi Cadebuli RirebulebiTi kodiT iqmneboda damokidebuleba `uSualod~ arsebuli konteqstis mimarT (azris dasakonkreteblad mimarTavdnen saxis gareT arsebul konteqsts). am Taviseburebaze metyvelebs im droisTvis niSandoblivi igavuri Txrobac, romelic TavisTavad gulisxmobs mayureblis mzadyofnas im pirobiTobis amosacnobad, romelsac mibaZvas, ver uwodeb, magram SesaZloa, ufro axlos iyos sinamdvilesTan, vidre gayalbebuli `damajerebeli~ realoba, zusti mibaZva. `samocianelebma~ SeamCnies, rom rac ufro logikurad dasabuTebadia ideali, miT ufro saeWvod upirispirdeba sinamdviles. kinematografistTa interesi miimarTa Cveulebrivi adamianisaken, uidealo gmirisaken, romelic arsebul saxelmwifoebriv sistemaSi sakuTar adgils ver poulobda da romelsac ukve aRarc gaaCnda TviTdamkvidrebis survili. qarTveli reJisorebi gaemijnen sabWoTa saxelmwifos kinos amocanebs: maT miznad iqca ukve _ ara realobis `gamarTleba~, aramed misi `garkveva~, rameTu socrealistur xelovnebaSi `realisturisa~ da `sinamdvilis~ cnebebi Tavis TavSi sawinaaRmdego mniSvnelobas atarebdnen, faqtobrivad, ikrZaleboda ekranebze sinamdvilis, rogorc aseTis, warmodgena. `araCveulebriv gamofenaSi~ realistur planTan erTad avtorebi fragmentulad, citatiseburad rTaven xazgasmulad pirobiT scenebs, iseTs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, bataluri epizodi _ pirobiTobis metad maRali xarisxiT da romelic filmis dasawyisSive migvaniSnebs ara sinamdvilis uSualo dakvirvebaze, aramed amosacnob, igavur formaze. Carli Caplinis `diqtatorze~ aSkara aluziiT, axalgazrda avtorebs filmSi SemoaqvT diqtatoris Tema da analogia reJimSi mcxovreb adamianTa bedze, romlebsac ar eomebaT, arc ician brZola da saerTo araferi aqvT am omTan, magram

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iZulebulni arian aqeT-iqiT irbinon brZolis qarcecxlSi. es paraleli axasiaTebs filmis saerTo paToss da simbolurad gansazRvravs gmiris beds. aq ikiTxeba, rom agulis cxovreba Tavad masze ar aris damokidebuli, rom igi erTi patara, uuflebo moqalaqea. filmis pirvelive scenaSi aguli erisTavs frontze miacileben, da sabWoTa tradiciebis Tanaxmad, misgan gmirobas veliT. marTlac, igi frontis wina xazzea: aryis meCxer, Tovlian tyeSi martodmarto `ebrZvis faSistebs~. epizodi saocrad komikuria, miT umetes, rom bedi aSkarad swyalobs da tyviamfrqvevis samizne mis simkvircxles CamorCeba. marcxena xis Ziridan igi marjvena xisken gadairbens da kidev kargi! axla sxva xisken da namdvilad saswauli, axlac gadarCa! magram, rodesac centrSi moeqceva da pirdapir mtris samiznisken aiRebs ieriSs (samizne operatoris obieqtivs emTxveva), maSin ki, rasakvirvelia, gadarCena aRar uweria [...] Tumca igi am epizodSi igavis personaJia da ukve Sin dabrunebisas yveba, rom yumbara TavSi moxvda, magram kidev kargi, ar aufeTqda _ mTeli es kadri pirobiTia _ sinamdvile, romelic eldar Sengelaiam warmoadgina, ar emTxveva Tavis Tavs. aseTi ram arasodes momxdara da saeWvoa, rodesme moxdes. reJisori ar cdilobs, ufro damajerebeli gaxados ambavi, vidre is TavisTavad aris, piriqiT, specialurad xazs usvams ararealistur niSnebs. Tumca aqedan, albaT, sinamdvilis garkveul faqtebs zogadad mainc vigebT: vxvdebiT, rom aguli namdvilad ebrZoda faSistebs Soreul, ucxo ruseTSi, aryis Tovlian tyeSi, rom igi ramdenimejer SemTxveviT, saswauliT gadaurCa ueWvel sikvdils, rom erT-erTi Setevisas mZimed daiWra, magram mainc gadarCa. am ambavSi ki aRaraferia ucnauri da daujerebeli, arc komikuri filmisgan gansxvavebiT. faqti faqtad rCeba, rom es epizodi sruliad ar asaxavs e. w. sinamdviles, meore mxriv _ man kargad gagvixsna es sinamdvile. am epizodSi niSnisa da aRsaniSnis aradamTxvevadoba, marTalia, igavuri kinos damaxasiaTebeli pirobaa, magram masSi,

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i ga vi s s ag u li s x m o da na gu l is xm e v ob i eq tT a urTierTCanacvleba ar xdeba, anu, gadataniTi azri erTi da imave obie qtis sxvag varad form irebi dan gamomdinareobs. xolo Tu am formaSi raime konkretuli azri amovikiTxeT, unda gvaxsovdes, rom is erTaderTi ar iqneba. `samocianelTa~ Semoqmedeba samarTlianad iTvleba qarTuli kinos axal dabadebad. swored maT gandevnes ekranebidan us icocxlo `idealuri~, formebis standartul-Sablonuri damuSaveba, trafaretuli finali problemis gadawyvetis SezRuduli variantiT. maT daudes safuZveli im ucnaur realobas, romelic ar emTxveoda Tavis Tavs. anu, gaaCnda faruli mniSvnelobis plani sxva, nagulisxmevi realobiT ­ simbolos, metaforis, alegoriis msgavsi struqturebiT, zogjer Sinaarsobrivad ganmartebadi, magram ufro metad auxsnadi, Tumca niSnad da obieqtad gaxleCili. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom am periodSi sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli `igavuri kino~ saqarTveloSic, SesaZloa, atarebda igavis niSnebs, magram ar gaaCnda igavis Caketili paTosi, calmxrivi didaqtika, igi Tavisuflad iSleboda konteqstebis TamaSSi da SeumCnevlad icvlida semantikur saxes. `araCveulebrivi gamofenis~ gadaRebis Semdeg TiTqmis naxevari saukune gavida, magram misi momxiblaoba ki ar qreba, piriqiT, matulobs. es Cveni tkiviliT, uiRblobiT savse warsulia, xelovnis bedi totalitalur saxelmwifoSi, dapirispirebul RirebulebaTa gadakveTaze. G

ira kuWuxiZe qarTuli kinos ZiriTadi tendenciebi gasuli saukunis 70-80-iani wlebis mijnaze (axali Taoba: axali problemebi, Ziebebi...)... II nawili

(gagrZeleba. dasawyisi ix.: wina nomerSi) SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatralur institutSi (axla ukve Teatris a da kinos univers itetSi) kinofakultetis gaxsnam qarTul kinos Sehmata kinematografistTa sakmaod didi nakadi, mTeli Taoba, romelmac Tamamad Seabija saqarTvelos kinostudiebSi da TviTdamkvidrebis gzas daadga. rogorc viciT, yoveli axali Taoba xelovnebaSi gansxvavebuli TvalTaxedviT, Tavisi Taobis uSualo gamocdilebiTa da problemebiT, axali s aTq m eli Ta d a axalg az r do bis aTvi s damaxasiaTebeli siTamamiT modis. xSirad axalgazrda xelovnis esTetikuri pozicia zedmeti TavdajerebulobiT, maqsimalizmiTa da ufrosi kolegebis gamocdilebis uaryofiTac xasiaTdeba. gasakviri arc aris, vinaidan kacobriobis istoriaSi axals a da Zvel Taobebs Soris dapirispireba, xelovnebaSi tradiciulsa da novatoruls Soris Widili, kanonzomieri da, SeiZleba iTqvas, maradiuli movlenaa. yovelive es SesaZloa, mwvave formebSi ar iCendes Tavs, magram mainc arsebobdes. da ai, am rTul procesSi garkveva, axalgazrdebisadmi didi gulisyuri, magram amave dros maTi Semoqmedebis uSeRavaTo Sefaseba, uTuod ufrosi kolegebisa da kritikis pirdapiri movaleoba iyo, rac axalgazrda Taobas namdvilad ar dahklebia. pirveli STabeWdileba, romelic `debiutis~ namuSevarTa naxvisas dageuflebodaT, iyo programis Tem atur i da Janr obriv i mra valf erovn eba: aq SevxvdebodiT istoriul novelebs (`serafita~, `Jami moqcevisa~, `farnavazi~), kinoigavs (`versaTriela~),

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1. mixeil TumaniSvili, `sanam repeticia daiwyeba~, Tb., saq. Teatral. saz-eba, 1977., gv. 25.

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inteleqtualur zRapars (`rad stvens bulbuli?~), kinomoTxrobas (`beRurebis gadafrena~), Tanamedrove novelas (`mogzauroba sopotSi~) da sxv. zogjer Zneli asaxsnelia, Tu ratom airCia reJisorma esa Tu is masala? uwyobda is xels axalgazrda xelovans Tu ara, Tavis saTqmeli gamoeTqva, uSualo dakvirvebebi, STabeWdilebebi, Taobis sulieri da socialuri gamocdileba ganezogadebina? Tuki axalgazrda xelovani Tavisi qveynis Soreuli warsulis amsaxvel masalas hkidebda xels, maSin sainteresoa, moepoveboda Tu ara mas saTanado codna, sakuTari interpretacia istoriuli movlenebisa, maTSi Cawvdomis is siRrme da warmosaxvis iseTi unari, rac faqtebis mSrali ilustraciis gzas ganaridebda da realur i st o ri u l f aq t ebs We Sm ari t ad mx atv r uli d am a j e r e bl o bi T a d a k i ne m at o gr a fi u l i e ni T a am et y ve le b da ? u Tu od ki de v a ra e rT i k iT xv a daebadeboda yvelas, vinc imJamad axali Taobis qarTvel kinematografistTa filmebs ixilavda. erT-erTi upirvelesi da bunebrivi SekiTxva iyo: moiniSna Tu ara raime siaxle wina Taobebis reJisorebisagan gansxvavebiT? Semovida axali Tema, axali gmiri?.. iqneb e qs p er ime nt uli Ziebe bi fo r mis a d a k ino s gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebaTa sferoSi gamovlinda? erTi sityviT, aris Tu ara raime novatoruli wamowyeba axalgazrdebis SemoqmedebaSi? am kiTxvaze zogadad Tavidanve SeiZleba aseTi pasuxi gavceT: diax, iyo s i ax le eb i Te ma tu ri , Ja nr ul i Tv al s a zr is iT , gansakuTrebiT ki axali kinogmiris Ziebis mimarTulebiT, wina aTwleulebTan SedarebiT, TvalSisacemi cvlileba moxda kinofaqturis prioritetebSi... savsebiT bunebrivia xelovnebaSi mosuli axali Taobis moTxovnileba, gaiazros da ganazogados ara marto is, rac uSualod gancdili, nagrZnobi da nafiqria, aramed sakuTari Tavi samSoblos mier ganvlili gamocdilebis meSveobiTac Seicnos, daamyaros Rrma, obieqturad arsebuli da amave dros piradi kavSiri

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warsulTan, im movlenebTan, romlebic qarTveli xalxis sulier gamocdilebas gansazRvraven. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTuli kino karga xania, ver axerxebs saTanadod SeiWras Tavisi xalxis istoriul warsulSi. mas es ratomRac uWirs... am dros Cveni istoria tragikuli koliziebiT, dramatuli konfliqtebiT savse q ar Tlis cx o vr e ba u kv e k ar ga xan ia e li s kinematografiul ganxorcielebas. ar mimarTavs ra intensiurad eris itorias, qarTuli kino sakuTari xalxis moralur-zneobrivi potenciis ekranul fenomenad gardaqmnis udides SesaZleblobas kargavs. amis gamarTlebad SeiZleba miviCnioT is, rom istoriuli filmebi kinowarmoebas adrec da, miT umetes, axla Zalze rTul praqtikul problemebs uqmnian. am sferoSi tradiciisa da gamocdilebis uqonloba ki, Tavis mxriv (Tuki am Janris filmi iqmneba) dabali sadadgmo kulturis mizezi xdeba: dekoraciebis, rekvizitis, Cacmulobis da sxva aqsesuarTa sasurveli xarisxis miRweva xSirad SeuZlebelia. aseTi problema qarTuli kinos winaSe imJamadac realurad idga da amitomac savsebiT gasagebi da m is asalm ebe li iy o g ae rTi an e ba `d e biu t is ~ xelmZRvanelebis survili, zogierTi axalgazrda reJisorisaTvis orientacia swored am mimarTulebiT miecaT. Sedegad amisa, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, Seiqmna moklemetraJiani istoriuli filmebi: `serafita~ (sc. avtorebi: T. abaSiZe, m. xoneliZe, reJ. m. xoneliZe), `Jami moqcevisa~ (sc. avt. a. juReli, reJ. l. omiaZe)... Tavidanve naTeli iyo, rom samnawilian filmebSi SeuZlebeli iqneboda, im amocanebis gadaWra, romlebic ramdenadme naTels mohfendnen Cveni Soreuli warsulis iseT saintereso da mniSvnelovan faqtebs, rogoric mSvenieri serafitas daRupva da qarTlis gaqristianebaa. albaT, bevrad mizanSewonili iqneboda, Tu es filmebi wminda etiudis formas ar gascdebodnen da maTi avtorebi miznad ar daisaxavdnen, erT SemTxvevaSi, dramis Seqmnas, xolo, meore SemTxvevaSi, saqarTveloSi qristianobis

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saxelmwifo religiad qcevis Rrma da araerTi obieqtursubieqturi motivis Ziebas. `serafitas~ avtorebi Seecadnen serafitas sikvdilis mizezi aexsnaT. maTi azriT, es wminda da keTili qalwuli mamisa da qmris SuRlis msxverpli gaxda. avtorebma dramatuli kvanZi ki Sekres, magram saTqmelis dakonkreteba ver moaxerxes, jer erTi, imitom, rom moklemetraJiani filmi aseT problemas ver daitevda da, meorec, gana ase advilia literaturuli safuZvlis Seqmna, romelSic tragediis ganviTarebis Cveneba, misi konkretul formaSi gansxeuleba moxerxdeba?! jer kidev 1940 wels lado gudiaSvilma Seqmna tilo `serafitas gaseirneba~. 1941 wels simon Ciqovanma dawera leqsebis cikli `armazis aCrdilebi~. es cikli, faqtobrivad, serafitas eZRvneba. imave 1941 wels simon Ciqovanma kidev erTi leqsi dawera serafitas Temaze _ `broweuli pitiaxSebis samarxze~. simon Ciqovans arcerT maTganSi ar ucdia eTqva is, rasac lirikuli leqsi ver daitevda, e. i., man sworad gansazRvra, Tu ra surda da ra SeeZlo eTqva. zustad aseve moiqca lado gudiaSvilic. man Tavisi xilva gadaitana tiloze da am tilos `serafitas gaseirneba~ daarqva. rogorc Cans, masac amaze metis Tqma imJamad arc surda da arc SeeZlo. `serafitas~ da `moqcevis~ avtorebma moindomes is, rac im etapze maT da ag reTve S emo qme debi Ti gae rTianebis SesaZleblobebs aRemateboda! goderZi Coxeli, romelsac imdroisaTvis ukve kargad icnobdnen rogorc mwerals da romelic jer kidev studentobis Jams kinoSi sakuTari TemiT, konkretuli cxovrebiseuli masalis saukeTeso codniT movida da, rac mTavaria, Tavis saTqmelsa da satkivars gvaziarebda, debiutis programaSi warmodgenili iyo filmiT `bakurxeveli xevsuri~. axalgazrda reJisorma amjeradac ar uRalata Tavis Tavs da kinos eniT kvlav imaze `gvesaubra~, rac kargad nagrZnobi da nafiqri hqonda, mimarTa im faqturasa da xasiaTebs, romlebic

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maSinac da SemdgomSic misi Semoqmedebis organuli masala gaxda. `bakurxeveli xevsuris~ siuJeti, ambavi, romelsac es filmi mogviTxrobs, Janris TvalsazrisiT andrezis ti pisaa. andrezs xevsurebi uwodeben zepir moTxrobas, romelic Taobidan Taobas gadaecema. aseTi zepiri moTxrobebi marto xevsureTSi ki ara, saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSic moiZebneba. cxadia, Cems mizans amJamad andrezis, rogorc Janruli movlenis ti pologia ar warmoadgens. vityvi mxolod, rom es Janri, Tu forma, rogorc Cans, zepirsityvaobaSi iseTi faqtis fiqsacias warmoadgens, romelic ratomRac leqsad, legendad an baladad ar gadaiqca. andrezs uTuod specifikuri cxovrebis masala, faqti qmnis da am masalad iseTi ambavi unda CaiTvalos, romelic Tavisi Tvisebebis, Sinagani bunebis gamo, ambis damafiqsirebelma xalxma arc leqsad amoTqva, arc legendad aqcia da arc igavad Camoayaliba. andrezi iseT ucnaur, RirsSesaniSnav an, Tu gnebavT, axirebul, ulogiko ambavs unda efuZnebodes, romlis poetizireba ar xerxdeba, romelic verc simbolod gadaiqceva da saigavo moralsac ar Seicavs. asea Tu ise, forma saintereso da kinosaTvis xom sruliad uCveuloa.D ucnauri da axirebuli kacis ambavs mogviTxrobs g. Coxelis `bakurxeveli xevsuri~. filmis gmiri egreT wodebuli kai ymaa, oRond potenciuri kai yma. mas sagmiro saqmeebisken miuwevs guli, sakargymo asparezi ver mounaxavs, xolo sadiaco saqmeebs (banidan Tovlis wamoyras is, eWvgareSea, aseTad Tvlis!) guls ver udebs. banze nebivrad wamogorebuli vaJi yvavis Cxavilze Tofs moimarjvebs, magram Tofi umtyunebs. ar moisvenebs, Tofs xan sakuTar fexs daumiznebs, xan pirTan miitans lulas, magram Tofi ara da ar gavardeba. avad axirebuli xevsuri soflis orRobeebs miuyveba, TanasoflelTa inertulobiT waqezebuli, TofiT afrTxobs dedakacebs da Tavis Wkuaze aTamaSebs. bolos gadaeyreba mxedars, romlis romantikuli, zeaweuli ganwyoba sasacilod

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Seusabamoa realur sinamdvilesTan: mSvidobian, Tanamedrove soflis gzaze mxedari saasparezod uxmobs ararsebul mters. Cveni gmiri kvlav moimarjvebs Tofs. lulas xan mxedars da xan isev sakuTar Tavs umiznebs. uecrad tyvia, marTlac, gavardeba da axirebul kacs imsxverplebs. TviT andrezis ti pis es siuJeti, romelic g. Coxelma filmisTvis SeTxza, mSvenieri da amaRelvebelia. kargad ikiTxeba avtoris wuxilic _ is, rom filmis gmiris arsebaSi dagubebulma energiam gza ver monaxa, swori gza, sagmiro gza! isic unda iTqvas, rom g. Coxelis ti paJi zusti da sainteresoa. araviTar eWvs ar iwvevs an civi stilizaciis SegrZnebas ar badebs personaJTa qceva, mimika, salaparako kuTxuri ena, Cacmuloba... kargad, gaazrebuladaa SerCeuli da gadaRebuli natura (op. n. suxiSvili), romelic marto samoqmedo foni ki ar aris, aramed siuJetis organuli nawilia. gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens filmisaTvis avtoris intonacia _ arc Cveulebrivad yofiTi, arc paTetikuri da arc ZaldatanebiT iumoristuli. gulwrfeloba (sadRac gulubryvilobac ki) da rbili, TiTqos, dafaruli iumori erTad Zalze individualur intonacias badeben. vfiqrob, yovelive es sakmarisi iyo imisaTvis, rom axalgazrda, SeiZleba iTqvas, debiutanti xelovnis niWierebaze emetyvela. mwerloba, Teatri, kinoxelovneba araerTxel gamosarClebia cxovrebis fskerze daleqil adamianebs. es maradi Temaa. swored aseTi adamianebi arian gmirebi filmisa `mogzauroba sopotSi~ (sc. avt.: i. kvirikaZe, n. jorjaZe, reJ. n. jorjaZe). vis ar unaxavs am filmis personaJTa msgavsi mawanwalebi, romlebic matarebelSi pikantur fotoebsa da sxva kustarul produqcias yidian. erTi SexedviT, aseTi adamianebi realur cxovrebaSi araviTar simpaTiasa da gansakuTrebul interess ar iwveven. maTi saxeebi wamiT gaielveben xolme matareblis kupis karSi da, rogorc wesi, CvenSi araviTar kvals ar toveben. magram Tu davukvirdebiT, isini xom uTuod ama

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Tu im mizezTa gamo aRmoCndnen aseT socialur mdgomareobaSi. maSasadame, saqme gvaqvs adamianis bedTan, rac xelovnebis erT-erTi umTavresi Temaa da amitomac gasakviri ar iyo, piriqiT, iyo misasalmebeli debiutanti reJisoris _ nana jorjaZis, daintereseba am ti pis movleniT, adamianebiT, romlebic ara satiruli gakicxvis obieqtad airCia, aramed humanisturi TanagrZnobiT maTSi sikeTisa da adamianurobis sawyisebs eZiebda. xelovnebaSi xdeba xolme, rom debiutanti Sedevrs qmnis. aseTi magaliTisaTvis Sors wasvla ar aris saWiro: udavod patara Sedevria mixeil kobaxiZis pirveli filmi `qorwili~. Teimuraz babluanis "beRurebis gadafrena~ Sedevri ar aris, magram uTuod sayuradRebo da RirsSesaniSnavi mxatvruli nawarmoebia. babluani imJamad aSkarad gamoirCeoda axali Taobis danarCeni avtorebisgan. man moaxerxa is, rac im Taobis debiutantebis umravlesobam bolomde ver SeZlo: filmis Tema mas, rogorc pirovnebas, namdvilad aRelvebs, aRizianebs, Tu gnebavT, aSmagebs kidec da axerxebs, rom es emociebi mayurebelsac gadasdos. reJisori aSkarad erT-erTi personaJis mxareze dgas (msax. g. burduli), swored am personaJis gaRizianebaa filmis avtoris gaRizianeba. g. burdulis personaJs ki matarebelS i Sem Txv ev iT nan ax i m gzavr is aragulwrfeloba, yalbi idealebi da, rac mTavaria, snobizmi aRelvebs da TandaTan aSmagebs. vfiqrob, es motivi, gulwrfelad da daufaravad gacxadebuli, films avtoris individualobis amsaxvel nawarmoebad xdis, xolo is nawarmoebi, romelSic cocxali adamianis, realuri pirovnebis, am SemTxvevaSi _ avtoris gulwrfel, Seulamazebel, SeuTxzav vnebaTa da survilTa ganzogadeba moxerxdeba, udavod sayuradRebo da saintereso mxatvrul movlenad unda CaiTvalos. albaT, amiTac aixsneba is, rom "beRurebis gadafrenam~ sadebiuto filmebidan erTaderTma SeZlo mayurebelSi xalasi da Z li er i em oc ie bi s aR Zv ra . ma n s o ci al ur i ukuRmarTobis mtkivneuli SegrZneba dabada, da,

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miuxedavad amisa, axalgazrda reJisorma udidesi gulwrfelobiT dasva problema imis Sesaxeb, rom adamiani nebismier situaciaSi unda darCes TavisTavadad da sayrdeni kvlav sakuTar TavSi, Tavis saukeTeso sulier moZraobebSi monaxos. T. babluani ulmoblad ikvlevs gmirTa xasiaTebs, Camohglejs maT niRbebs, romlebic, erTi mxriv, xels uSlian adamianebs adamianurobis SenarCunebaSi, meore mxriv ki, qmnian bariers maTi urTierTdaaxloebisa da urTierTgagebis gzaze. reJisori nerviuli daZabulobiT aiZulebs Tavis gmirebs simartovis, Sinagani Caketilobis gadalaxvas da adamianTa sulebis daaxloebis sakuTar gzas eZebs. ekranze Seiqmna ori Zalze saintereso mxatvruli saxe, romelSic qarTuli kinosaTvis xasiaTis axali niSnebi gamoikveTa. guja da trifona, faqtobrivad, erTi bedis, erTnairi socialuri mdgomareobis, magram ukiduresad gansxvavebuli individualuri Tvisebebisa da miswrafebisa Tu idealebis adamianebi arian. erTi _ jmuxi, mouxeSavi, cxovrebis keTilmouwyoblobiT daRdasmuli, magram, rogorc ityvian, `naRdi~, yovelgvar keklucobas moklebuli, SeuniRbavi, sulierad uTvistomo guja (msax. g. burduli); meore _ trifona (msax. T. biWiaSvili), eleganturad Cacmuli, daxvewili manerebiT, inteligentis, bedis nebieras niRabs amofarebuli ubralo mRebavi. lakoniuri, magram zusti da msuye StrixebiT axasiaTebs reJisori Tavis gmirebs: garegnoba, Jestikulacia, mimika, metyveleba, intonacia da reaqciebi _ yovelive es xasiaTis, individualobis gamovlenisa da gamokveTisTvisaa mowodebuli. amasTan, T. babluani did yuradRebas uTmobs garemos Seqmnas, gmirebis saarsebo fons, romelsac ti paJuri princi piT da individualizirebuli replikebiT akonkretebs. T. babluanis reJisura Tavisi individualobiT mkveTrad gamoirCeoda axali Taobis kinematografistTa SemoqmedebiT fonze. energiuli stiliT, gaSiSvlebuli vnebebiT, garemos daxatvisas naxevartonebis uaryofiT da analizis simkacriT mas axali dineba, axali intonacia,

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axali personaJebi da axali konfliqturi sqema Semohqonda 80-iani wlebis qarTul kinoSi. Teimuraz babluanis momdevno filmi `Zma~ (1981) upirvelesad sainteresoa Janruli TvalsazrisiT. man sisxliani kinodramis _ Trileris niSnebi Semoitana qarTul kinoSi. saerTod am wlebSi Tavi iCina deteqtiuri fabulis CarCoebSi ganviTarebulma siuJetma, saTavgadasavlo filmebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebisadmi midrekilebam. qarTuli kinos Janruli gafarToebis tendenciis kidev erTi gamomxatvelia, magaliTad, reJisor qeTevan doliZis (siko doliZesTan erTad) filmi `kukaraCa~ (1982). cnobili qarTveli mwerlis nodar dumbaZis moTxrobis ekranizacia ufro literaturis sferoSi arsebuli da, kerZod, n. dumbaZis mier damkvidrebuli tendenciebis amsaxveli nawarmoebia. rac Seexeba mis mniSvnelobas kinematografiul procesSi, `kukaraCa~ SeiZleba CaiTvalos qarTuli kinos Janruli gavrcobis, gamdidrebis tendenciis erT magaliTad: es aris sentimentaluri dramis farglebSi dadgmuli deteqtivi. 70-80-iani wlebis mijna qarTuli kinosaTvis axali gzebis Ziebis, cdis Jami iyo. rezo CxeiZem scada Tanamedrove eposis Seqmna _ heroikuli eposisa. lana RoRoberiZem erovnuli, poeturi eposis gadaReba moindoma. b. xotivarma da masTan erTad araerTma momdevno Taobis reJisorma scada istoriis `Teatris~ gaTamaSeba ilustrirebisa da qrestomatiuli dogmebis gareSe. qarTuli kino gafarTovda, siganeSi gaizarda, anu, gamdidrda JanrebiT. kinematografistebma xeli mohkides iseT Janrebs, romlebic wina periodisTvis ar iyo damaxasiaTebeli: fexs ikidebda deteqtiuri siuJetis elementebi, sentimentaluri drama, `retro~... aleqsandre rexviaSvilis Semoqmedebam qarTuli kino gaamdidra kinoazrovnebis sruliad axali formiT, axleburi esTetikiT. kargi Sedegi gamoiRo axali ti pis personaJTa Seqmnis mcdelobam. `TuSi mecxvare~, `araseriozuli kaci~, `beRurebis gadafrena~ _ es

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filmebi amgvar cdaTa Semajamebel nimuSebad unda CaiTvalos. am periodSi, Tavis mxriv, myar poziciebs inarCuneben iseTi reJisorebi, rogorebic arian: Tengiz abulaZe, eldar da giorgi Sengelaiebi, oTar ioseliani, romelic 80-iani wlebis dasawyisidan safrangeTSi moRvaweobs, magram, miuxedavad amisa, aq, CvenSi, didi kvali datova: misi kinoazrovneba da esTetika aSkara gavlenas axdenda axali Taobis kinematografistebze. Tanamedroveobisadmi interesi, p roblemis simZafre, mxatvruli enis ekonomiuroba da sisadave _ yovelive es dRes ukve sxva avtorebisTvisacaa damaxasiaTebeli. sxva saqmea, Tu ra mxatvrul Rirebulebas qmnian isini am arsenalis gamoyenebiT... ori aTwleulis gasayarze araerTma ostatma da axalgazrda reJisormac mimarTa axal Temebs, axal masalas, ufro mwvave socialur da eTikur problemebs. aSkarad gamoikveTa sadadgmo palitris meti mravalferovneba. miuxedavad SemoqmedebiT midrekilebaTa mravalgvarobisa, Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 80- ian i w le bis das aw y is S i q ar Tuli kinoazrovnebisaTvis jer kidev mwvave problemad rCeboda Tan am e dr o ve donis realis turi fsiqologizmisa da xasiaTTa ti pizaciis sakiTxebi. da mainc, es ukve sxva etapi iyo, iseTi, romelmac mogvca zogierTi axali tendenciis srulyofili nimuSebi. sxva danarCen cdaTa Sedegebi jer ver amarTlebdnen im tendenciebs, romelTa meoxebiTac iSvnen. qarTuli kinos is etapi, romelic upiratesad igavma da ucnauri, axirebuli kacis Wvretam Seqmna, 80-iani wlebisaTvis TiTqos dasrulebuli iyo, rac, cxadia, imas ar niSnavda, rom am tendenciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ganzogadebis formebi da Janrebi ukve momdevno etapze ar warmoSobdnen axal modifikaciebs. es savsebiT mosalodneli da amave dros sasurvelic iyo da kvlavac aris... im dros TviT es esTetika ki ar iqna amowuruli, formam ki ar ganicada krizisi, aramed iman, rom is araerTgzis iqna profanirebuli mimbaZvelTa

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mier, romelTaTvis, faqtobrivad, ucxo iyo ra sxvaTa mier monaxuli da Seqmnili samyaro, inerciiT mainc Tavis miznebs aprobirebul esTetikas usadagebdnen. mTlianobaSi ki qarTuli kino wina p eriodSi (mxedvelobaSi maqvs 60-70-iani wlebi) TavisTavad movlenad, fenomenad aqcia ara teqnologiurma Tu sadadgmo donem, ara wminda stilurma aRmoCenebma, aramed koncefciurma Taviseburebam. qarTuli kino farTo asparezze gavida da aRiareba pova maSin, roca moaxerxa qarTveli adamianis gaazreba imgvarad, rom ekranuli qarTuli xasiaTi aRmoCnda rogorc qarTveli, ise araqarTveli mayureblis y ur adRe bis c e nt r Si Tav is i o r ig inalur i msoflmxedvelobis wyalobiT. axirebuli adamianebi, meocnebeni _ ai, is gmirebi, romlebmac rezonansi Seuqmnes qarTul kinoxelovnebas. qarTulma kinom igavuri forma udavod aqcia iseT kinematografiul Janrad, romelmac qarTveli adamianis, marTalia, araamomwuravi, magram metad kolorituli saxe dagvixata. cxadia, aq ar igulisxmeba anekdotze agebuli is filmebi, romlebsac igavuri kinos pretenzia hqondaT. Znelia imis Tqma, rom gansaxilvel etapze qarTulma kinom naTlad gamoavlina axali Camoyalibebuli tendenciebi. miuxedavad amisa, rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, mainc SeimCneoda iseTi niSan-Tvisebani, romelnic m et y ve lebd ne n g anv i Tar e bi s am e t ap i saTvi s damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebebze, Ziebisa da ganaxlebis procesze. kinos istoriaSi aris gardamavali periodebi. Tu kinematografis ganviTarebis garkveul etapze S es aZle be li xdeba ekranuli g am o xat vi s gansakuTrebuli formebis moZebna, iqmneba TviTmyofadi erovnuli xasiaTebis galerea; Tu kinematografma moaxerxa esaubra mayurebelTan mniSvnelovan socialurzneobriv p roblemebze da amas Tan gamoavlina midrekileba garkveuli formebis, Janrebisa da stiluri

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struqturebisadmi, romelTa CarCoSi Seiqmna mxatvrulad Rirebul, srulyofil nawarmoebTa araerTi nimuSi, maSin momdevno etapze, rogorc wesi, ZalaSi Semodis an inercia, an ganviTarebis axali gzebis Zieba _ Zieba axali masalis, Temebis, gmirebis, axali konfliqturi sqemebis, gamomsaxveli formebis da xerxebisa. araferia gasakviri imaSi, rom am rTuli procesis Tanmxlebi xdeba didi nakadi meoradi, zedapiruli, zogjer profesiulad mdare nawarmoebebisa. amaze yuradReba imitom SevaCere, rom Cven jer kidev vuSvebT Secdomas, rodesac filmebze, sadac Cveni cxovrebis saWirboroto Tema ver xorcieldeba saTanado mxatvrul doneze, vmsjelobT martooden aqtualobis an Temis siaxlis kriteriumebiT. aseT dros uTuod gvaviwydeba is WeSmariteba, rom xelovnebis mxatvruli xarisxi ganuyofelia nawarmoebis ideurobis, Sinaarsianobis, Semoqmedis moqalaqeobrivi poziciisagan. xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac TviT avtorebi dabal profesiul xelweras Tu mxatvrul Rirebulebas amarTleben Temis aqtualobiT, masalis siaxliT. amgvari, me vityodi, gulubryvilo, xelovnebisTvis paradoqsuli warmodgenebi, TiTqos, nawarmoebis problematikis aqtualoba da maRalmxatvruloba, Tematikis siaxle da gansaxierebis srulyofileba ukuproporciuli sidideebia, yovlad miuRebeli pozicia iyo da mudam aseTad darCeba _ iseve, rogorc viwro utilitaruli xelovnebis idea swrafad ufasurdeba da istoriaSi ukvalod qreba. SeiZleba metic iTqvas: `[...] marTlebi arian is mxatvrebi, romlebic amtkiceben, rom ar arsebobs mo ra lu ri d a amo ra lu ri l ite ra tu ra . cu di literatura, e. i., cudad gakeTebuli teqsti, yovelTvis amoraluria~.1 cxadia, igive iTqmis sxva xelovnebebzec. sabednierod, qarTul kinoSi 70-80-iani wlebis mijnaze mainc aSkara iyo is tendencia, romelic gvauwyebda intensiuri Ziebis cdebs, rogorc koncefciuri, ise Janrul- stiluri gadawyvetis sferoSi. xSirad kinematografis simwifis niSnebi ufro advilad mJRavndeba Tanamedrove xelovanTa formiseul, stilur

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ZiebebSi, im TaviseburebebSi, romlebic kinoTxrobis, Janruli gadawyvetis da kinoenis ares ganekuTvnebian. swored am mxriv SeiniSneboda gansaxilvel periodSi mravalferovnebisa da gans xvavebul mxatvrul midrekilebaTa niSnebi. `TuSi mecxvaris~ mxatvruli dokumentalizmis, `cisferi mTebis~ yofiTi farsulobis, ` ax alg azr d a komp ozitoris mogzaurobis ~ retrospeqtuli stilizaciis, g. Coxelis prozaul niadagze `gadanergili~ metaforulobis, `mocuravis~ retro stilis, T. babluanis mkacri poeturobis, dinamikuri da energiuli reJisuris gverdiT, Zalze mniSvnelovnad warmogvidgeba agreTve is mxatvruli Ziebebi, romlebic ukavSirdeba adamianis yofierebis Zireul moralur da sulier problemaTa lirikulfilosofiur aTvisebas. am TvalsazrisiT calke gasaanalizebelia aleqsandre rexviaSvilis `gza Sinisaken~ da Tengiz abulaZis `monanieba~.

1. . . , , . 373

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Ddinara maRlakeliZe kinematografi, qalTa emansi pacia da kinos feministuri Teoria kinematografis, rogorc mas obrivi mediumis arsebobis dasawyisi, qronologiurad emTxveva qalTa emansipatoruli moZraobis dasawyiss. XIX_XX saukuneTa mijnaze aRmocenebuli qalTa emansipatoruli moZraoba miznad patriarqaluri kulturisagan gamijvnas isaxavda, Tavis mxriv, am periodSi kinamatografic emijneboda tradiciul, oficialur kulturas da, rogorc masobrivi mediumi, aqtiurad uwyobda xels axali, modernuli kulturis Camoyalibebas. kinematografis msgavsad XIX saukunis bolos, kerZod ki 1894 wels, dafuZnebul iqna qalTa gaerTianebis saxelwodebiT cnobili mniSvnelovani politikuri moZraoba. amave wlebSi Jurnal Vollserzier-Si (germania) gamoqveynda helene Stokleris statia saxelwodebiT: qalTa m osazre bani, ro me lS ic av to ri q al Ta uflebamosilebisa da maT mier sakuTari Ppirovnulobisa da sqesis axlebur gaazrebaze msjelobs.1 kinematografi, rogorc reproduqciuli mediumi, Tavisi arsebobis dasawyisSive moiazreboda iseT mediumad, romelic, gans xvavebuli socialuri warmoSobisa da klasobrivi kuTvnilebis miuxedavad, nebismier qals aZlevda sakuTar pirovnulobasa da sqesze Tvirefleqsiis saSualebas. amasTan erTad isic unda aRiniSnos, rom qalTa moZraobis mesveurebi da maT Soris, am moZraobis SedarebiT radikaluri seqsualur-politikuri frTac ki, XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi kinematografSi gatarebul radikalur reformebs j er kidev epizodurad ewinaamRdegeboda (igulisxmeba XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi evropis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi aRmocenebuli s axelmwifoebrivi da s azogadoebrivi cenzura kinematografis winaamRdeg, mag., 1907 berlinSi

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daarsebuli kinoreformistTa gaerTianebis wevrebi, aqtiurad cdilobdnen kinos garmyvneli zegavlenisagan sazogadoebis dacvas). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am periodis qalTa moZraobis mesveurebic iseve iyvnen SeSfoTebulni sazogadoebaze kinematografis gamryvneli zegavleniT, rogorc tradiciuli kulturisa da patriarqalur s azogadoebriv wes- CveulebaTa nebis mieri s xva mxardamWerni. msoflio kinematografis ganviTarebis istoriis gadaxedvisas cxadi xdeba, rom kinos istoriaSi arsebobs garkveuli epoqebi, rodesac misi, rogorc masobrivi mediumis, qalTa emansi paciuri moZraobisaTvis aqtiuri gamoyeneba xdeboda. A ase iyo, magaliTad, XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi, roca kinematografiul Temebad iqca dedebze da maT uflebebze mzrunvelobis problema, amave saukunis 20ian wlebSi kinematografi aqtiurad exmianeboda abortis Sesaxeb gamarTul cxare debatebs. meore msoflio omisa da Semdgom televiziis aRmocenebisa da masobrivi gavrcelebis epoqaSi kinematografze feministuri moZraobis gavlena SedarebiT mcirdeba, mxolod XX saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolos momxdari cnobili movlenebi (masobrivi studenturi protestebi, qalTa uflebebisaTvis ganaxlebuli aqtiuri brZola, e. w. seqsualuri revolucia) kvlav iZleva kinematografSi qalTa problemebisa da sazogadoebaSi maTi rolis kritikuli gaazrebis SesaZleblobas. qalTa emansi patorul moZraobas kinematografi 70iani wlebis dasawyisSi gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad upirveles yovlisa feminist reJisor qalTa filmebiT ukavSirdeba. swored am periodSi yalibdeba feministuri kinos Teoria, 1972 wels los-anJelesSi, xolo 1974 wels dasavleT berlinSi iwyeben Jurnalebis: `Women and Film" da `Frauen und Film" gamocemas, mZafrdeba diskusiebi qalisa da kinematografis urTierTobis Sesaxeb.Ffeministur peroidul gamocemebSi mimdinareobs kvleva qalisa da kinematografis urTierTobis

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tradiciul da alternatiul formaTa Sesaxeb. publikaciebis Tema xdeba qal reJisorTa Semoqmedebis d ap i ri s pi r e ba tr adi c iu l e . w . mam ak acu r kinematografTan, mimdinareobs diskusiebi feministuri kinos SesaZleblobebze, iwyeba aqtiuri Teoriuli gaazreba da msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori unda iyos feministuri kino da misi Teoria. F feministur kinematografs da mis Teoriul gaazrebas mWidrod ukavSirdeba iseT reJisor qalTa Semoqmedeba, rogorebic arian: qristine nol brinkmani, helka sandersi, laura malvei da sxvebi. laura malveis 1975 wels gamoqveynebuli Teoriuli s t ati a `Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" w le bi s ganmavlobaSi feministuri kinos diskursisaTvis ganmsazRvrel da tonis mimcem Teoriul naazrevad aRiqmeboda. malveis mier SemuSavebuli feministuri kinos Teoria froidisa da lakanis fsiqoanalitikur Teoriebs efuZneba, am Teoriis mixedviT klasikuri holivudis kinos struqturaSi tradiciulad aranairi adgili ar rCeba qalurobisa da qalebis problemaTa w ar m o saC en ad. avt o ri s az r iT tr adi c i uli holivudisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qalurobis xati mxolod mamakacuri aracnobieris gamoxatulebaa, amitomac malvei moiTxovs tradiciuli holivuduri kinosagan absolutur Semobrunebas, misgan dafuZnebul vizualur da dramatul konvenciebze uaris Tqmas. misi azriT, feministuri kino avangarduli unda iyos da sruliad axal, tradiciulisagan gansxvavebul kinoenas efuZnebodes. XX saukunis 80-ian wlebis dasawyisSi feministuri kinos amerikeli warmomadgenlebi tereza de lauretisi, kaia silvermani da sxvebi kinos fsiqoanalitikur Teorias ukve sauniversiteto konteqstSi aviTareben. 80-iani wlebis meore naxevridan ki feministuri kinos Teoretikosebi gansakuTrebul aqcents kinos istoriis kvlevasa da mis xelaxal gaazrebaze akeTeben. feministuri kinos Teoriis anglo-amerikuli

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ganStoebisagan gans xvavebiT, romelic siRrmis fsiqologiis, froidisa da lakanis fsiqoanalitikuri Teoriis gavleniT viTardeboda, dasavleTgermanuli feministuri kinos Teoriis warmomadgenlebi gertrud koxi da haide Sliupmani valter beniaminisa da zigfrid krakaueris kinos kritikul Teorias aviTareben da gansakuTrebul yuradRebas qali mayureblis poziciis kvlevis mniSvnelobas uTmoben. XX saukunis dasasrulis evropuli feministuri kinos TeoriaSi aseve Zalze didi mniSvneloba eniWeba fridrix nicSes esTetikuri filosofiuri tradiciis ganviTarebas. XX s aukuni s 90- iani wlebidan T anamedrove feministuri kinos Teoria yvelaze did yuradRebas e Tniku r o bis , p os tk olonializmis a da multikulturalizmis problemebze amaxvilebs da am mimarTulebiT aviTarebs kinematografis kvlevas. rogorc aRvniSneT, kinos is toriis kvleva feministuri perspeqtividan gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri XX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan xdeba. kinos istoriis feminist mkvlevarTa namuSevrebi cxadyofen, rom emansi p atoruli moZraobis pretenzia, romelic Tanemedrove kinematografSi, TiTqos, garedan Semotanil, mxolod kinos feminist mkvlevarTa mier gamogonil problemad aRiqmeba, tradiciulad axasiaTebda kinematografs misi arsebobis jer kidev adreul etapzec ki. kinos istoriaSi SedarebiT naklebadaa cnobili imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori iyo qali mayureblis damokidebuleba kinematografTan, misi Casaxvis periodSi, e. w. bazrobebisa da balaganis kinos epoqaSi. Tumca istoriuli gamokvlevani imasac cxadyofen, rom ukve adreul avangardul kinematografSi sruliad aSkarad iyo manifestirebuli axali mediumisadmi qali mayureblis mzardi interesi. XX saukunis 10-iani wlebidan sul ufro da ufro metad ganviTarebadi naratiuli kino kinodarbazebisadmi moTxovnilebas qmnida, rac, Tavis mxriv, kinos, rogorc

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masobrivi mediumis, Camoyalibebas uwyobda xels. gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am procesSi mayurebli qalebi gadamwyvet rolsac ki TamaSobdnen. axali mediumis socialuri kvleva evropaSi naratiuli kinos ganviTarebasTan erTad XX saukunis 10-iani wlebidan iwyeba. imdroindeli socialuri gamokvlevani cxadyofen, rom kinematografi yvela asakisa da socialuri fenis warmomadgeneli mayurebli qalis interes is s agans Seadgenda. am dros mamakaci mayureblebi umetes SemTxvevebSi mxolod meuRlis an megobari qalis gamcileblebi da Tanmxlebni iyvnen kinodarbazebSi. mayurebeli qalebi gansakuTrebul interess, upirveles yovlisa e. w. kinodramebisadmi, anu naratiuli filmebisadmi, amJRavnebdnen. am periodis evropul kinoSi aseve didi adgili eTmoboda msaxiob qal varskvlavTa fenomens. ase magaliTad, evropuli adreuli kinos varskvlavis, asta nilsenis, honorari gayiduli filmis mogebis mesameds Seadgenda. ufro metic, filmis warmoebis yvela etapi: scenari, gadaReba, montaJi da a.S. mniSvnelovan wilad iyo damokidebuli mis rekomendaciebsa da Tanxmobaze. istoriuli gamokvlevani aCveneben, rom adreuli xanis ara marto amerikuli, aramed evropuli naratiuli kinoc filmebis dramaturgias ara mxolod mayurebelTa interesebisa da moTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT qmnida, aramed, pirvel rigSi, axali mediumis saSualebiT sazogadoebisaTvis manamde maTTvis dafarulis gacxadebas cdilobda. amerikuli munji kinos mkvlevrisMmiriam hansenis azriT, adreuli amerikuli kino alternatiul sazogadoebaze iyo mimarTuli. igi eTnikurad da socialurad gansxvavebul emigrantul dajgufebebs exmareboda, gansxvaveba daenaxaT Zvel evropasa da maT axal samSoblos _ amerikis SeerTebul Statebs, Soris. k i n e ma t o g r a f i am a d a m i a n eb i s i n d u s tr i u l a d maRalganviTarebuli qveynis, amerikis SeerTebuli

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Statebis, moqalaqeebad Camoyalibebas uwyobda xels. mayurebel qalTa aqtiuri interesi kinematografisadmi intensiurad asustebda tradiciul sazRvars sazogadoebriv da pirad sferoebs Soris. kinematografisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuroba intimuri, Cabnelebuli sivrce, bneli darbazi, anu, sxva saxis Teatri, sxva saxis saxli swored piradulisa da sazogadoebrivis, intimurisa da koleqtiuris nazavs warmoadgens. swored aseTi specifikuri struqturis gamo kinematografi mayurebelSi gansxvavebul moTxovnilebebs aRviZebs, aviTarebs da akmayofilebs. adreuli naratiuli kinosadmi did interess kinodarbazebis gaCenam gansakuTrebiT Seuwyo xeli, kinodarbazi is adgili gaxda, sadac Tavis Sefareba, sakuTari binis fizikuri Tu fsiqologiuri siviwrovisagan Tavis daRweva xdeboda SesaZlebeli. Cabnelebuli darbazi, gansxvavebul sqesTa erT sivrceSi yofna, sxva gansxvavebuli sqesis adamianebis sxeulebTan s iaxlovis Se s aZlebloba, k in e mat og r af s mayureblisaTvis gansakuTrebul mimzidvelobas sZenda. mayurebel qalTaTvis kinoSi siaruli ufro mets niSnavda, vidre sakuTari, piradi problemebis daviwyeba. kinematografma qalebs SesaZlebloba misca, Tavi daeRwiaT im SezRudvebisagan, romlebSic isini tradiciulad saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobdnen. XX saukunis gariJraJze qalebi jer kidev ver bedavdnen gamcilebeli mamakacis gareSe quCaSi saRamoobiT gasvlas, radgan quCaSi marto yofna SeiZleboda maTTvis prostituciaSi eWvis mitanis sababi gamxdariyo. kinematografma qalebs saSualeba misca, masobrivad gamosuliyvnen saRamos quCebSi. kinos revoluciuroba ara marto imaSi gamoixateboda, rom igi qalebs masobrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi gamo Ce ni s s aS uale bas aZlev da, k in od ar bazi ga ns xv aveb uli s qes is a dam iane bTan s ia xlov is sazogadoebriv adgils warmoadgenda maTTvis, anu, iseT adgils, romelic qalebs patriarqaluri cxovrebis

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wesisa da qorwinebis Zaladobrivi urTierTobebisagan Tavis daRwevaSi exmareboda. albaT, amitomac Tvlidnen pastorebi, mRvdlebi, iuristebi Tu eqimebi, rom qalebis masobrivi siaruli kinoSi burJuaziul, tradiciul morals, sazogadoebriv kanonierebasa da mosaxleobis janmrTelobas uqmnida safrTxes. naratiuli kinos Camoyalibeba mayurebel qalTa interess kinematografisadmi sul ufro da ufro metad acxovelebda, igi maT sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisadmi aqtiuri poziciis CamoyalibebaSi exmareboda. intimuri, Cabnelebuli kinodarbazebi mdedrobiTi sqesis mayureblebs msaxur gogonaTa cxovrebaze, dedebze, meuRleebze, msubuqi yofaqcevis qalebze sTavazobdnen filmebs. mouTxrobdnen patriarqaluri ojaxis miRma ars e bu l s e qs u alu ro baz e . g ad m os c em d ne n Seyvarebulebisa Tu bordelSi momuSaveTa qalTa istoriebs, yvebodnen qalebze, romlebic winaamRdegobas uwevdnen ojaxur Zaladobas, xocavdnen sadist qmrebs an sayvarel mamakacebs iCendnen da maTTan erTad gaqceviT aRwevdnen Tavs qmrebis Zaladobasa da ojaxur tiranias. erTi sityviT, es filmebi mayureblebs iseT istoriebs uyvebodnen, romlebic tradiciuli, patriarqaluri sazogadoebis kanonebs Zirs uTxridnen da safuZvlianad aryevdnen. adreuli naratiuli filmebi TavianTi formiT Teatrisa da varietes erTgvar nazavs warmoadgendnen, erTmeneTisagan aqtebiT gamoyofili scenebiTa da subtitrebiT. XX saukunis 20-iani wlebis dasawyisSi kinematografi sakuTar vizualur esTetikas amkvidrebs da uars ambobs Teatrisa da varietesagan gadmoRebul struqturaze. igi uaryofs e. w. Cinema of Atraction stils da sakuTar, piradulisa da intimuris urTierTobis safuZvelze agebul wminda kinematografiul, vizualur esTetikas qmnis. kinos istoriis amerikeli mkvlevaris elizabet evanis gamokvlevani cxadad aCveneben, ra rols TamaSobda am er ik ul i ad re ul i kin em at og ra fi e mi gr an ti

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axalgazrda qalebis pirad cxovrebaSi. kino maT patriarqaluri ojaxis marwuxebisagan Tavis daRwevasa da pirovnuli da socialuri damoukideblobis mopovebaSi exmareboda. kinematografma qalebs saSualeba misca, TviTonve ganesazRvraT sakuTari seqsualuri cxovreba, axali mediumi mZafrad warmoaCenda im kriziss, romelSic industriuli sazogadoebis AaRmocenebis Semdeg aRmoCndnen patriarqaluri ojaxuri urTierTobani. industrializacia sul ufro da ufro metad saWiroebda qals, rogorc samuSao Zalas. igi qals saojaxo samuSaos sazogadoebrivi samsaxuriT ucvlida, qali ojaxuri karCaketilobidan gamohyavda. kinematografi exmareboda qalebs, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebs, cxovrebis damoukidebeli, sakuTari dedebis cxovrebisagan gansxvavebuli gza aerCiaT. XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi sazogadoebaSi arsebiTi cvlilebani xdeba, iwyeba qorwinebasa da ojaxur u rTi e rTo be bSi g abato n ebu l p atr i ar q alu r urTierTobaTa rRveva, patriarqaluri ojaxis modeli TandaTan imsxvreva da fexs ikidebs modernuli industriuli sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli tradiciuli urTierobebisagan gansxvavebul sqesTa urTierTobis modeli. industriuli sazogaoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli patriarqalur urTierTobaTa rRveva am periodSi saerTo iyo evropisa da amerikisaTvis, TumcaRa gansxvavebani mainc arsebobs, es sxvaobani gansakuTrebiT naTlad am drois evropuli da amerikuli filmebis Sedarebisas ikveTeba. amerikisagan gansxvavebiT, evropaSi tradiciuli, patriarqaluri ojaxis rRveva da misi gadaqceva momxmareblur sazogadoebad SedarebiT mogvianebiT xdeba. amis mizezi evropuli qveynebis istoriiTa da tradiciebiT aixsneba, rameTu evropa amerikisagan gansxvavebiT ufro metad iyo damokidebuli sakuTar t r a d i c i e b s a d a s a z o ga d o e b a S i g a b a t o n e b u l

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patriarqalur wes-CveulebebTan. modernuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebam qalis tradiciuli roli mkveTrad Secvala, qalTa realizeba tradiciul mamakacur saqmianobad miCneul profesiebSi gansakuTrebiT am drois evropaSi iwvevda kulturis TeoretikosTa skefsiss. magaliTisaTvis georg zemeli am cvlilebebs kulturis krizisis, drois tragediis niSnad miiCnevda. kulturis filosafosTa debatebis fonze kinematografi iseT fenomenad aRiqmeboda, romelic mkveTrad upirispirdeboda gabatonebul wes-Cveulebebs da aqtiurad uwyobda xels patriarqaluri sazogadoebis safuZvlebis ryevas. qalebisaTvis kinodarbazi iseTi ad gil i x deb oda , r ome lic ma T g aba ton ebu li patriarqaluri wes-Cveulebebisagan Tavis daRwevasa da emans i p irebis s aSualebas aZlevda. s wored kinematografSi xdeboda sqesTa Soris urTierTobebis emansi pacia. kinoSi siaruli qalebs tradiciuli patriarqaluri urTierTobisagan Tavis daRwevaSi, qalis tradiciuli rolisagan gaTavisuflebaSi exmareboda. K kinematografis, rogorc fizikuri da fsiqikuri realobis reproduqciis esTetikuri strategia, gansxvavebuli gemovnebis mayureblis fantaziaTa da survilebis dakmayofilebas isaxavs miznad. igi amas Tavisi arsebobis jer kidev adreul etapze sxvadasxva Janris CamoyalibebiT aRwevda. films, rogorc sinamdvilis reproduqcias, realobis abstragirebis, alegorizaciis unari Seswevs. qalurobis reproduqcias igi sasiyvarulo melodramebis, xolo mamakacurobisas ki, kriminaluri Tu saTavgadasavlo Janrebis saSualebiT aRwevs. mdedrobiTi sqesis mayurebelTaTvis gankuTvnili Janris, melodramis warmoSoba evropaSi daniur kinoSi daiwyo da TandaTanobiT evropis mTel kontinentze da amerikaSic gavrcelda. Janrul kinoSi, ra Tqma unda, rogorc qaluri, aseve mamakacuri yofis formebia asaxuli, magram maT Soris

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sazRvrebi transcendentulia. aucileblad unda aRiniSnos erTi mniSvnelovani faqtoric, kerZod ki, is, rom Janruli kinosadmi mayurebelTa sul ufro mzardi interesi cxadad aCvenebda im faqts, rom mayurebelTaTvis gadamwyveti swored qalurobisa da mamakacurobis formebis asaxva iyo ekranze. jer kidev XX saukunis aTiani wlebis filmebSi qalTa rolebis Semsrulebeli msaxiobebi sxeulis dinamikis, Jestisa da mimikis, aseve modur kostumTa rep roducirebis saSualebiT mayurebel qalTa idolebad iqceodnen. kameris moZraoba da gamosaxuleba qalur obis for mebis te qnikuri s aSualeb ebiT reproducirebas emsaxureboda. msaxiobi qalebi cdilobdnen kamera ise gamoeyenebinaT, rogorc sarke. am d r oi s s o ci alur i d r am e bis aTv i s Zalz e mniSvnelovani iyo qalis brZolis asaxva mis bunebriv qalur-mgrZnobelur instinqtebsa da socialur mdgomareobas Soris. Tumca kidev ufro didi yuradReba qalurobis iseT reproducirebas eTmoboda, romelic sruliad ar Seesabameboda mamakacebis mier Seqmnil qalurobis tradiciul xats. magaliTad, imdroindeli evropuli kinos varskvlavi asta nilseni qalebSi TviTrealizaciis, xolo mamakacebSi qalisadmi esTetur vnebebs amZafrebda, axali imijis mqone msaxiobi qali mamakac mayurebelSi aseve muqaris safrTxedac aRiqmeboda. qalis axali imijiT gamowveuli safrTxe vizualurad yvelaze metad sensaciur filmebSi vlindeboda. Tu socialuri dramebi sawyis etapze jer kidev mamakacTa warmodgenas asaxavdnen qalisa da qalurobis Sesaxeb, droTa ganmavlobaSi TviT aseTi filmebis gmir qalTa qmedeba s ul ufro met winaamRdegobaSi modioda mamakacTa warmodgenebTan qalurobis xatis Sesaxeb. Tu socialuri dramebi qalis dedobrivi auris warmosaxvas da amdenad qalurobis arqeti pis gamoxatvas axdendnen, sensaciuri filmebis

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avtorebis mizani mamakacTa aracnobierSi SeRwevasa da maTi Zaladobrivi mzeris dangrevis mcdeloba iyo.. m elo dr am ebi sag an gan s xv ave biT se n s ac i ur i filmebisaTvis qalTa mier mamakacuri aracnobieris wvdoma da aqtualuri, modernuli sinamdvilis warmosaxva xdeboda yvelaze mniSvnelovani. qalTa emansi paciis problemisa da drois realuri atmosferos gadmocema kriminaluri Janris filmebSic xdeboda. kriminaluri filmebis reJisorebi aqtiurad mimarTavdnen gare gadaRebebs, isini TavianTi filmebiT bunebrivi garemos reproduqcirebas axdendnen. kriminalur filmebSi vizualuri esTetikuri garemos Sesaqmnelad aqtiurad gamoiyeneboda mimika, imisaTvis ki, rom siCqarisa da moZraobis atmosfero Seqmniliyo, kamera xSirad matarebelze TviTmfrinavze an gemze magrdeboda. Tumca am filmebisaTvis mTavari mainc ucnob, xifaTiT aRsavse samyaroSi qali Tu mamakaci protagonistebis gadarCena iyo. kriminaluri filmebis gmiri qalebi mxsnelebs warmosaxavdnen, iseT emansi pirebul qalebs, romlebic aqtiurad iyenebdnen Tanamedrove teqnikur saSualebebs. teqnolo giebiebis mode rnizaciam qali Tavis i tradiciuli rolisagan gaaTavisufla da sazogadoebis damangraveli ZalebisaTvis winaaRmdegobis gawevis unari mianiWa. am periodis kriminalur filmebSi aqtiuri deteqtivi qalis figura, qaluri da mamakacuri Tvisebebis erTgvar naerTs warmoadgens. aseTi ti pis protagonisti qalebi kinos modernul samyaroSi tradiciuli qalurobis matarebel mdedrobiTi sqesis protagonistebs enacvlebodnen da sakuTari sqesis mayurebelTa idolebi xdebodnen. as eTi gmiri qalebi aSkaras xdidnen kinos reproduqciul, emansi patorul rols sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi, axali ti pis qalurobis damkvidrebaSi. am drois kriminaluri da deteqtiuri filmebis gmirebi warmoadgendnen qalebs, romlebic aqtiurad ebrZodnen yovelgvari ti pis damnaSaveobas... isini Zalze

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mobilurni da aqtiurni iyvnen, xolo maT qmedebaSi tradiciuli qaluri da mamakacuri qmedebani erTmaneTs enacvlebodnen. kinematografma imis mcdelobaSi, daefiqsirebina tradiciuli patriarqaluri ojaxis rRvevis procesi, melodramas res tavrirebuli Janris s akuTari esTetikuri formebic ganaviTara. am Janris filmebSi ojaxuri Cagvris reproducireba da misi negacia xdeboda. p irvelma ms oflio omma da mis mier kinematografisadmi wamoyenebulma moTxovnilebebma k in e m at o gr afi s t Ta aq t iu r i , optimisturi damokidebuleba modernisa da emansi paciis mimarT garkveuli xniT mniSvnelovnad Seasusta. pirveli msoflio omis Semdgom gadaRebuli filmebi ojaxuri urTierTobebis mniSvnelobaze, ojaxis ga da mrC en Za laz e ama xv ile bd nen ma yu reb el Ta y ur adRe bas . s w or e d am p er iod S i g anic dis gansakuTrebul ayvavebas melodramatuli Janri. melodrama dramaturgiulad socialuri dramis Janrs enaTesaveba. miuxedavad imisa, rom pirveli msoflio omis Semdgom melodramatul filmebSi qalTa siyvarulis istoriebis patriarqaluri formiT warmodgena xdeboda, qal protagonistTa moTxovnileba emansi paciaze maTSi mainc povebda Tavis gamoxatulebas. kinematografi Tavisi ganviTarebis ukve adreul etapzeve warmoadgenda metad mniSvnelovan istoriul konstalacias, igi dasabamiTve modernisadmi, teqnikuri siaxleebisadmi gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiTa da mgrZnobelobiT gamoirCeoda. amasTanave Tavis sawyis fazaSi kinematografi naklebad emorCileboda sazogadoebaSi gabatonebul ideologiebs da nayofier niadags qmnida sazogadoebisa da kulturis sferoSi eqsperimentebisaTvis. misi es Tviseba gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad sqesTa urTierTobebis sferosa da am u rTi er TobaTa e man si p ir e bi s x e lSe w yo baS i gamoixateboda.

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kinematografi mdedrobiTi sqesis mayurebels ara mxolod patriarqaluri sazogadoebis mier ukve legitimurad qceul garTobaSi Tanamonawileobas sTavazobda, aramed maTTvis qmnida iseT vizualur xatebs, romlebic qalebs sakuTari cxovrebis, sakuTari pirovnulobisa da TviTrealizaciis SesaZleblobebis gaazrebaSi exmarebodnen. msaxiobi qalebi mdedrobiTi s qes is mayureblebs qalur s urvilebs , qalur problemebsa da ocnebebs sTavazobdnen ekranis saSualebiT. kinematografi Tavisi arsebobis adreul etapze jer kidev XX saukunis aTian wlebSi iqca im adgilad, sadac oficialuri kulturisagan gamoricxuli, feministuri moZraobisa da kulturis aRmoceneba gaxda SesaZlebeli. sinamdvilis aRqmisa da misi asaxvisadmi interesi qalTa emansi patorul moZraobas mWidrod akavSirebs kinematografTan, rogorc iseT mediumTan, romelic, rogorc realobis reproduqcia, mdedrobiTi sqesis mayurebels sakuTari problemebis, cxovrebis wesis da sazogadoebaSi sakuTari rolis gaazrebasa da amiT tradiciuli patriarqaluri karCaketilobis normebidan ganT avis ufl ebas a da s aku Tari p i rovnul obis TviTrealizaciaSi uwyobda xels.

eTer okujava Teatrisa da kinos mxatvrobis saTaveebTan

istoriuli ganviTarebis yovel etapze adamiani mudmivad gamoxatavda Tavis mimarTebas sinamdvilisadmi. bevrad adre, vidre Teatraluri xelovnebis pirveli nimuSebi gamoCndeboda, igi uZveles ritualur wesCveulebebSi, qoreografiisa da musikis sinTeziT qmnida sinamdvilisadmi SemoqmedebiTi damokidebulebis pirvel formebs. etapobrivi ganviTarebis gziT am formebma scenis ficarnagze gadainacvla. Casaxvis amgvari adreuli elementebi kinematografs ar gaaCnia. adamianma igi teqnikis saukuneSi Seqmna. XX saukunea misi dabadebis TariRi. miuxedavad amisa, saTeatro da kinoxelovnebas bevri ram aqvT saerTo: Teatrica da kinoc koleqtiuri xelovnebaa, sadac mxatvruli nawarmoebis SeqmnaSi monawileobs dramaturgi, reJisori, mxatvari, kompozitori, msaxiobi da sxva profesiebis warmomadgenlebi.1 rogorc vTqviT, xelovnebis es dargebi gansxvavebul istoriul epoqebSi Caisaxa, msoflio civilizaciis gansxvavebul simaRleebze _ magram drois faqtori a r a m x o lo d a m T v a ls a z ri s i T aa s a in t e r es o . gansxvavebul istoriul epoqebSi Casaxuli xelovnebis es dargebi gamoxatavdnen drois ideur-esTetikur Taviseburebebsac da gvidastureben, rom drosTan kavSirSi iqmneba maTi ideur-esTetikuri Taviseburebebic da gvidastureben, rom drosTan kavSirSi iqmneba maTi ideur-Tematuri samyaro. amdenad, isev dro ubiZgebs mxatvruli mimarTulebis warmoqmnas, romelic xelovnebis dargebis istoriuli ganviTarebis gzaze mkv eTrad gamo vleni l es Tetik ur fa s eulo bad gvevlineba. rogorc cnobilia, profesiuli qarTuli saTeatro xelovneba welTaRricxvas iwyebs 1850 wlidan giorgi erisTavis `gayriT~. giorgi erisTavis Teatri sul ramdenime sezonis Semdeg daxures mefis moxeleebma.

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1. Heide Klipper Moderne Filmtheorie, Feministische Filmtheorie, p. 177. 2. Creed Barbara, The Monstrous-Feminine. Film, Feminism, Psycoanalysis, London, New York, 1993. 3. Koch Gertrud, Psychoanalyse des Vorsparachlichen, Das antropologische Konzept der Psychoanalyse in der kritische Theorie, In: Frauen und Film, Nr. 36, S. 5-9, 1984. 4. Heike Klippel, Feministische Filmtheorie, In: Moderne Filmtheorie, Mainz, 2002. 5. Mulvey Laura: Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, In: Screen, Vol. 16, Nr. 3, S. 6-18, 1975. 6. Silverman Kaja, Male Subjektivity at the Margins, London, New York, 1992. 98

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qarTuli GTeatris istoriaSi saTeatro koleqtivi pirvel mxatvar-dekoratorad icnobs profesional Teatralur mxatvars _ aleqsandre beriZes (1858-1917), mis Sesaxeb TeatrmcodneobiT literaturaSi Zunwi cnobebi mogvepoveba. erT-erT Tavis naSromSi profesori dimitri janeliZe mxatvris Sesaxeb wers: `ganaxlebuli qarTuli profesiuli Teatris miRwevebTan daaxlovebam, J ur n al ` Te atr S i ~ v as o abaSi Zes Tan axlo TanamSromlobam al. beriZe Teatris mxatvrad aqcia. 1886 wels al. beriZem e. w. `kruJokis Teatrs~ farda dauxata. ganaxlebuli qarTuli profesiuli Teatris axlad gadakeTebul da saukeTesod keTilmowyobil TeatrSi (SemdgomSi griboedovis sax. Teatri) al. beriZis mier Seqmnili fardiT gaixsna 1887-1888 wlis sezoni~. 2 rac Seexeba al. beriZis Teatralurdekoraciul mxatvrobas uSualod s p eqtaklis mxatvruli gaformebis mxriv igi jer kidev Sorsaa reJisoris Tanaavtorobis, Tanamoazreobis funqciisagan. Teatralur-dekoraciuli mxatvrobis Semdgomi ganviTareba, uSualodaa dakavSirebuli qarTuli saTeatro kulturis saerTo aRmavlobasTan. aq TvalsaCinod ikveTeba mxatvrul-esTetikuri principebis srulyofa da masTan erTad misi saxviTi kulturis TandaTanobiTi momwifeba, Teatraluri organizmis harmoniuli sisavsiT ganviTarebas rom uwyobda xels. SemdgomSi winaurdeba samsaxiobo Teatri da mxolod mogvianebiT mZlavrdeba saTeatro esTetikaTa aTvisebis procesi, rac gamoixata erTiani saTeatro warmodgenis, anu, ansambluri Teatris SeqmnaSi. aq ki, safiqrebelia, rom Tavisi mkveTri funqciiT warmoCindeboda mxatvris moRvaweobac. am mosazrebas adasturebs sergo amaRlobelic, 3 romelic xelovnebis ganviTarebis procesSi sam SemoqmedebiT mimarTulebas gamoarCevs: pirveli _ vaso abaSiZis da avqsenti cagarlis Teatrs, romelic qmnis erovnul yofiT Teatrs; meore _ lado mesxiSvilis Teatri, romelic ruseTis mcire Teatris princi pebis

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gamgrZelebelia da klasikur repertuars nergavs; mesame ­ kote yifianisa da kote mesxis mkafiod gamovlenili franguli orientaciis Teatraluri princi pebi. amgvarad, ukve 20-iani wlebis saTeatro kritika aR ni Sna vs mk veT ra d g am okv eT il Sem oq med eb iT t en de ci eb s , ro ml eb ma c s af uZ ve li mo um za de s Teatraluri es Tetikis Semdgom ganviTarebul formaciebs. magram, vidre maT SevexebodeT, Tvali gadavavloT qarTuli kulturuli azrovnebis process. XX saukunis 20-ian wlebi saqarTveloSi iseve, rogorc mTel sabWoTa kavSirSi axali sazogadoebrivpolitikuri urTierTobebis xanaa. am gardaqmnebs udidesi socialur-filosofiuri mniSvneloba hqonda. igi cvlida warmodgenebs samyaroze, cxovrebaze. xelovneba, rogorc azrovnebis mxatvruli forma, am gardaq mnebSi iZe nda adamian is cxovreb is euli daniSnulebis axal mxatvrul-ideur koncefciebs. cnobilia, rom am periodis sabWoTa Teatris mxatvrul s amyaroSi didi mniSvneloba mieniWa Teatralur-dekoraciul mxatvrobas. speqtaklis mxatvrul mTlianobaSi igi cxovrebiseuli simarTlis mkveTr scenur formebSi aisaxa. ra xdeboda am mxriv qarTul TeatrSi? qarTuli Teatri, romelic yovelTvis iyo qveynis socialur-politikuri moZraobis gamomxatveli mxatvruli asparezi, amjeradac mebrZoli suliskveTebis mx atv ru li as a xvi s for meb is aR moC nda . mas ze msjelobdnen, kamaTobdnen. magaliTad, erT-erT disputze, romelsac eswrebodnen kote marjaniSvili da grigol robaqiZe, msjeloba mimdinareobda 1921-1922 wlis Teatraluri sezonis krizisuli mdgomareobis daZlevis mimarTulebiT. 4 disputze iTqva, rom saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatma gadawyvita Teatris droebiT daxurva, raTa aRmoefxvra mTeli rigi CamorCenebi, magaliTad, samsaxiobo dargSi da Semdgom ganaxlebuli ZalebiT isev waremarTa CvenSi saTeatro xelovneba.

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kote marjaniSvilma kategoriulad uaryo es winadadeba, misi azriT, Seqmnil viTarebaSi msaxiobebs araviTari brali ar miuZRviT. mxatvruli formebi da repertuari _ ai, misi azriT, qarTuli Teatris dasaZlevi problemebi5 amgvarad, Teatri daixureboda, rom ara k. marjaniSvilis gancxadeba saTeatro xelovnebaSi gardaqmnebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb, romelic realur gzebs saxavda. marTlac, 1922 wlis 22 noembers dadgmulma lope de vegas `cxvris wyarom~ (`fuente ovexuna~) safuZvlianad Semoabruna qarTuli Teatris cxovreba. speqtaklis mxatvruli gadawyveta qarTul s cenaze axali cecxlovanebiT ainTo da sazogadoebis Tvalwin akiafda msaxiobTa, scenografTa, musikosTa xelovneba, romelic sul cota xnis win eWvis qveS iyo dayenebuli. speqtaklma qveynis daZabuli Sinagani cxovrebis sabrZolo suliskveTebas emociuri mxatvruli formiT upasuxa. TviT Teatraluri cxovrebisaTvis ki es iyo saetapo dadgma, romelmac daamtkica, rom qarTuli Teatri ara mxolod sicocxlisunariania, raSic eWvs gamoTqvamdnen xelovnebis maSindeli mesveurebi, aramed _ Tanamedrove cxovrebis sulieri avangardic. `cxvris wyaroSi~ programuli saxierebiT gamoCnda k. marjaniSvilis s w rafv a g mir uli Tea tris ake n. f erT a s iuxv e, optimisturi paTosi, Suq-CrdilTa dramaturgiuli mniSvnelobiT gamoyeneba da sityvis warmmarTveli daniSnuleba iqca misi gamarjvebis safuZvlad. kote marjaniSvilisa da speqtaklis mxatvris, valerian sidamon-erisTavis, urTierTTanamSromlobiT TvalsaCinod gamoCnda, rom mayurebelma am speqtaklSi ixila erTmorwmune koleqtivi, speqtaklis mxatvruli xati, sadac Teatraluri sinTezis erTmniSvnelovan monapovars mxatvris namuSevaric warmoadgenda. ram ganapiroba Teatraluri dasis mravalsaxovan k ol e q ti v S i r eJ i s or i s a d a m x at v ri s am g v ar i gansakuTrebuli kavSiri? Cveni azriT, XIX saukunis bolos, rodesac saTeatro xelovnebaSi gamoikveTa damdgmeli reJis oris

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gansakuTrebuli ti pi, romelmac lideris funqcia Seasrula TeatrSi da romelmac TavisTavad Secvala saTeatro xelovneba (am cvlilebis monapovaria ansambluri speqtaklis Seqmna) speqtaklis Tanaavtoris funqcia mxatvarmac iTamaSa. sxvaTa Soris, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa daviT kakabaZis werili `qarTuli dramatuli studia~, studiis daarsebas rom mieZRvna da sadac, avtori `qarTuli Teatris unugeSo mdgomareobasTan~ erTad gamoTqvams mosazrebebs reJisor-liderTan dakavSirebiT da kidev... daviT kakabaZe qarTvel Teatralebs `evropis Teatraluri gzebis ~ Secnobis aken, Teatraluri xelovnebis samecniero safuZvlis gamyarebisaken mouwodebs.6 rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, reJisoruli Teatris klasikur formas warmoadgenda moskovis saxelmwifo Teatri, romelmac daiwyo axali era saTeatro xelovnebaSi, sadac scenografia speqtaklis mxatvruli mTlianobis nawili aRmoCnda, mTlianobisa, romelmac dasrulebuli saxiT warmoadgina saTeatro kompoziciis yvela Semadgeneli nawili. saqarTveloSi es moZraoba axali ti pis reJisorTa wina Taobam samxatvro Teatris princi pebis gaazrebiTa da gaTvaliswinebiT daiwyo: am Taobis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen valerian SalikaSvili, aleqsandre wuwunava, akaki faRava, mixeil qoreli da safrangeTidan Camosuli, antuanis Teatris aRzrdili kote andronikaSvili. mxatvarTa mier scenografiuli saSualebebis Ziebam, reJisorebTan mxatvarTa erToblivma muSaobam qarTul TeatrSi Seamzada niadagi im procesebis danergvisaTvis, rac mimdinareobda msoflios saTeatro xelovnebaSi XX saukunis dasawyisidan. amgvarad, qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi TandaTan gamoikveTa gansakuTrebuli faza, romelmac TvalnaTliv dagvanaxa, rom qarTuli scena mzadaa aiTvisos msoflio saTeatro xelovnebaSi momZlavrebuli tendenciebi, rac ansambluri sasceno Semoqmedebis damkvidrebaSic gamoixateba. am procesSi gamoikveTa Tanamoazre

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sadadgmo xelovnebis simdidre, speqtaklis saxviTi gadawyvetis originaloba, romelic TvalnaTliv gamoCnda `cxvris wyaroSi~, rac did xans ar gahyolia sazogadoebis mexsierebas; arsebuli dokumenturi masala cxadyofs, rom Teatralebi eWvis TvaliT uyurebdnen yovel siaxles, k. marjaniSvili rom nergavda TeatrSi. magaliTad, gazeT `komunistSi~ fsevdonimiT `damswre~ istambeba werili: `qarTuli Teatris bedi~, sadac vkiTxulobT: `romeli gza ufro xelsayrelia qarTuli Teatris aRorZinebisaTvis _ eqspresionizmi, impresionizmi, elinizmi Tu sxva romelime erovnulistoriul niadagze Semdgari mimarTuleba. es sakiTxi jer kidev msjelobis procesSia. metad saintereso iqneboda, rom am sakiTxs Seexebodes TviT kote marjaniSvili. raSi xedavs is Teatris xsnas saerTod da qarTuli Teatrisas kerZod.~7 am SekiTxvidan cxadad ikiTxeba is garemoeba, Tu ra rTuli misia ekisreboda kote marjaniSvils qarTul saTeatro cxovrebaSi. am periodSi igi, faqtobrivad, erTaderTi reJisoria, romelic ganagebs qarTuli Teatris beds. kote marjaniSvilis reJisura, moskovis s amxatvro Teatris a da Tanamedrove ms oflio Teatraluri kulturis safuZvelze rom aRmocenda da mniSvnelovnad daefuZna erovnuli kulturis tradiciebs, zemoT moyvanil SekiTxvas SemoqmedebiTi ZiebebiT gamoepasuxa. maRali samsaxiobo xelovneba, speqtaklis saxviTi gadawyvetisa da xmovani rigis gansakuTrebuli funqciuri datvirTva _ ai, is sami saZirkveli, razedac afuZnebs reJisori Tavis Tamam eqsperimentebs. amgvarad, `cxvris wyaros~ Semdeg qarTveli sazogadoeba imaSic darwmunda, rom k. marjaniSvili agrZelebs misTvis metad mniSvnelovani ideuri s azrisis mravalsaxovan gamosaxvas, romlis konkretuli gamoxatulebaa `sinTezuri Teatri~, sadac udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba SemoqmedebiT ansambls. ans amblur i Te at r i, r og o rc gar kv e uli SemoqmedebiTi poziciis gamosaxuleba, mogvianebiT

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Tvisobrivad axal xarisxSi ganviTarda, kerZod, mas Semdeg, rac sabolood Camoyalibda ori qarTuli Teatris SemoqmedebiTi profili, roca Seiqmna ori dramatuli koleqtivi, reJisoruli azrovnebis gamomxatveli ori SemoqmedebiTi birTvi kote marjaniSvilisa da sandro axmetelis meTaurobiT, sadac, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba mieniWa petre ocxelis, daviT kakabaZis, irakli gamrekelis da sxvaTa yofnas Teatris dasSi. marjaniSvilisa da ocxelis, marjaniSvilisa da kakabaZis, axmetelisa da gamrekelis SemoqmedebiTi kavSirebi mkveTrad gamoxatuli eqsperimentebis gziT, erovnuli ferweridan gamomdinare, iseT saxviT gadawyvetas nergavdnen, romelic scenis kanonebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. rac Seexeba kinomxatvris profesias, unda iTqvas, rom igi, rogorc filmis sadadgmo jgufis wevri, kinematografs Tan sdevs dabadebis pirveli wlebidanve. misi arseboba imdenad mniSvnelovani iyo xelovnebis am axali dargisaTvis, rom kinos cnobili istorikosi eJi teplici ase axasiaTebs kinomxatvris funqcias: `saukunis dasawyisis kinodrama mayurebelSi iwvevda samgvar ganwyobilebas: mxiarulebis, saSinelebis da aRtacebis ganwyobilebas. es ukanaskneli ZiriTadad mxatvris damsaxureba iyo~8 an kidev: `xasiaTi ZiriTadad ganisazRvreboda kostiumiTa da grimiT. borotmoqmedi, rogorc wesi, Savi mosasxamiT gamodioda.~9 unda iTqvas, rom mxatvruli saxeebisadmi msgavs damokidebulebas qarTul kinoSic v xvdebiT. m arTalia, a mgvari ukiduresobiT ara, magram kote marjaniSvilis film `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ (1925) moqmed gmirTa garegnoba mainc gansazRvravs xasiaTs, aseTia, magaliTad, bekina samaniSvilis hi perbolizebuli garegnoba. kinomxatvrobis istoriam xangZlivi ganviTarebis gza ganvlo. bunebrivia, mas Tavidanve rodi gamoarCevda dasrulebuli mxatvruli mTlianoba. magaliTad, saTeatro xelovnebis gavleniT mas dasawyisSi pompezuri dekorireba axasiaTebda, rac xSirad kadris

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gadatvirvis mizezad iqceoda. an kidev, uZravi kameriT gadaR ebis teq nikas is e T kurioz amde mih yavda kinematografistebi, rom kinoaparatis moZraobis nacvlad dekoracia gadahqondaT sxvadasxva adgilze. mxolod droTa ganmavlobaSi gamoimuSava kinomxatvarma, s a zo ga do d k in om xa tv rob am , da ma s T an e rT ad saoperatoro xelovnebam profesiuli, specifikuri Cvevebi. 20-iani wlebis qarTuli kinos procesSi iseve, rogorc msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, Tavisi sityva Tqves xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargidan da, kerZod, ferweridan mosulma adamianebma, romlebmac Tavisi poeturi samyaroTi ara Tu gaamdidres, ufro sworad, araTu Seqmnes kinomxatvarTa skola, aramed, rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, daafuZnes igi qarTul tradiciul saxviT kulturas da amiT Tavisi wvlili Seitanes qarTuli kinos erovnul TviTmyofadobaSi. 20-iani wlebi cxadad avlens am urTierTobebis Sedegebs. kinematografSi movidnen profesionali fermwerebi: dimitri SevardnaZe, valerian sidamonerisTavi, Tamar abakelia, evgeni lansere, lado gudiaSvili, daviT kakabaZe, agreTve Teatraluri mxatvari irakli gamrekeli, arqiteqtori mixeil SaviSvili da sxvebi. rogorc cnobilia, pirveli qarTuli mxatvruli filmis _ `qristines~ (reJ. a. wuwunava, 1916) mxatvari dimitri SevardnaZea. am mosazrebas s abolood adastureben xelovnebaTmcodneebi irine abesaZe da qeTevan bagrataSvili wignSi `dimitri SevardneZe~, sadac faqtis damadasturebel argumentad mohyavT dimitri SevardnaZis mier disadmi miwerili werili, filmis gadaRebis Sesaxeb rom mouTxrobs mkiTxvels.10 qarTuli kinomxatvrobis pirveli aTwleulSi kargad gamoavlines SemoqmedebiTi xelwera hubin-hunma, leo puSma, evgeni lanserem, valerian sidamon-erisTavma da sxv. 20-iani wlebis kinomxatvroba TvalsaCinod avlenda damaxasiaTebel SemoqmedebiT tendenciebs, iseTs,

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rogoricaa: mxatvruli warmosaxvis sada da metyveli formebisa da masTan erTad pirobiTobis originaluri gzebis Zieba. magaliTad, dimitri SevardnaZis mier gaformebul filmebSi: `vin aris damnaSave~ (1925), `janyi guriaSi~ (1928), `eliso~ (1928) kadris emociuri da plastikuri naxati mxatvris originaluri xedvis gareSe ver Seiqmneboda. saTeatro xelovnebis saukeTeso warmomadgenelma irakli gamrekelma kinoSi moitana tradiciuli, damkvidrebuli dogmebis axleburi interpretacia. irakli gamrekelis scenur pirobiTobaSi Camoqnili azrovneba kinoSic avlens Tavis kvals. filmSi `Cemi bebia~ (1929) pirdapir dadgmuli kamera afiqsirebs saxelmwifo dawesebulebas, romelic scenas m o g v ag o n e b s . d id i m r g v a l i m a g i d i s ir g v l i v ganlagebuli karebi ki did saxelmwifo aparatze migviTiTebs, romlis monumenturoba kidev ufro apataravebs sulmdabal da uvic Cinovniks _ filmis mTavar moqmed pirs. mxatvris aseTi abstraqtuli asaxvis arCevani ar iqneboda gamarTlebuli, rom ar examebodes igi mis dramaturgiul sawyiss. filmi `Cemi bebia~ am periodisaTvis erT-erT saintereso da aqtualur Temaze Seqmnili nawarmoebi iyo. p roteqcionizmis a da biurokratiis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli maxvili satira Tavisi mxatvruli asaxvis arCevniT, kritikuli sawyisis w i n w a m o w e v iT , l a k o nu r d a m et y v e l f or m a s warmoadgenda. kinoSi meore profesia poves da kinomxatvris saxeli daimkvidres fermwerebma: Salva mamalaZem, serapion vawaZem, mixeil gociriZem. aRsaniSanvia, rom film `damkvrelSi~ (1931) mixeil gociriZem asaxvis saintereso xerxs miagno: obieqtivis win gaWimuli TokiTa da sivrceSi naCvenebi xaraCoebiT, qmnis ra mSeneblobis realur STabeWdilebas, mayurebels moqmedebis Tanamonawiled gadaaqcevs. filmis eqspoziciisa da finalSi naCvenebi mSenebloba, xaraCoebze asuli xalxiT `babilonis godols~ rom mogvagonebs, simbolurad asaxierebs `axali cxovrebis~ aRmSeneblobis arss.

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mxatvris mier mignebuli es detali filmis saerTo e.w. saagitacio ritms ukavSirdeba da ganamtkicebs mas. iSviaTi nayofierebiT xasiaTdeba gamoCenili qarTveli mxatvris valerian sidamon-erisTavis Semoqmedeba kinoSi. man mxatvrulad gaaforma 30-ze meti filmi. funjis ostati brwyinvaled grZnobs detals. v. sidamon-erisTavi, cxovrebiseuli detalebis xatovnad warmomsaxveli kinoSi, sazrdos Tavisive ferweruli tiloebidan iRebs, sadac yofiTi siuJetis mox deni li g amom xatv elob a ki nema togr afiu li dinamikurobiT gamoirCeva. rac Seexeba qarTuli ferweris or saukeTeso warmomadgenels: lado gudiaSvilsa da daviT kakabaZes, romelTa Semoqmedeba qarTuli Tanamedrove ferweris sawyisad da monapovrad iqca, qarTul kinoSic axali xelweris damamkvidreblad mogvevlinnen. lado gudiaSvilis saukeTeso erovnul tradiciebze Seqmnili nawarmoebebi TavianTi s tilizebuli gamosaxulebiT fantaziis iseT usazRvro gaqanebasa da silamazes amJRavneben, rogoric mxolod poeturi niWiT momadlebul adamianebs axasiaTebT, amave dros mxatvris daintereseba eTnografiulobiT da detalebiT ar midis wvrilmanebamde, misi azrovneba farTo ganzogadebis unars iCens. amgvarad, Cven mier mokled aRwerili qarTuli kinomxatvrobis suraTis safuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 20-iani wlebi saekrano esTetikis aTvisebis periodia da Zalze sainteresoa is faqti, rom am dros kinomxatvroba erT-erTi aqtiuri SemoqmedebiTi Zalaa filmis Semqmnel koleqtivSi, rom swored kinomxatvris SemoqmedebaSi moiZebneboda kinoTxrobis STambeWdavi v iz u alu ri f or m a. er Ti s it y vi T, s aek r an o gamomsaxvelobis stili da meTodi 20-ian wlebSi aRsavsea ZiebiT da gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSanvia, rom SemoqmedebiTi Ziebebis am kinematografiul procesSi gansakuTrebiT mkvidrdeba mxatvris roli filmis Semqmnel koleqtivSi.

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sayuradReboa, rom kinomxatvrebs da kinomxatvrobas am dros mopovebuli aqvT aRiareba da amis dasturia is, rom, rodesac saxkinmrewvis imdroindeli direqtori germane gogitiZe 1925 wels gaemgzavra moskovsa da berlinSi ucxour firmebTan mosalaparakeblad, agreTve filmebis gayidvisa da kinoaparaturis Sesyidvis Taobaze, 8 qarTul filmTan erTad, romlebic naCvenebi iyo parizis samrewvelo gamofenaze, aqve gamoufenia e. lanseres mier Sesrulebuli eskizebi filmisaTvis `haji murati~. aleqsandre wuwunavas, Salva dadianis, kote marjaniSvilis muSaoba Teatrsa da kinoSi erTgvar tons aZlevda saerTo SemoqmedebiT moZraobas, romelSic monawileobdnen qarTveli da saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva erovnebis cnobili profesionali mxatvrebic, maTi mozidviT dainteresebuli iyvnen TviT Teatrisa da kinos moRvaweebi, romlebic zogjer imdenad kategoriuli iyvnen TavianT SemoqmedebiT miswrafebebSi, r om uk i d ur e so bam d e m i di o dn e n. mag ali Tad , kinoxelovnebis moamageTa paTosi xSirad gamoixateboda iseTi araadekvaturi gancxadebebiT, rogoricaa, m ag a li T ad , S a lv a a l xa z iS v il i s m ow o de b iT i mniSvnelobis mos azreba _A`Cap lini amarcxebs rembrandts~.11 Zvelis dangreva da uaryofa, xolo mis nacvlad _ axlis Seneba, SemoqmedebiT princi pad ar gamoadgeboda kinoesTetikis ganviTarebisaTvis. Tundac imitom, rom rom nangrevze Seneba SeuZlebelia da rom siaxlis warmoqmnisaTvis ngrevisa da Senebis ukidures or wertils Soris arsebobs `oqros kveTa~, anu, miRweulisa da mopovebulis SemoqmedebiTi erTianoba, ganviTareba da am gziT Seneba. es ar iyo kompromisuli svla. es iyo yovelgvar naCqarev daskvnebs mocilebuli, gaazrebuli, sakuTar pirovnebiseul da SemoqmedebiT rwmenaze dafuZnebuli pozicia. XIX saukunis 20-iani wlebis xelovnebaSi Cans, rom es Tezisi qarTul Teatrsa da kinoSi Tavisi WeSmariti mniSvnelobiT, mxatvrebis mowinave jgufma daamkvidra, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, sakuTar TavSi da profesiul

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Ddumitru oleresku ori kinoxelovnebis mxatvrul-poeturi Rirebul eba

moldovas erovnuli xelovneba da kultura Tavisi arsiT xasiaTdeba samyaros Semecnebis poeturi mis wrafebiT. realuri garemos poeturi xedva gamowveulia Rrma tradiciebiT, romlebic warmoiqmna saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibebuli adamianuri sulieri gancdebidan, miTologiidan da folkloridan, istoriis saidumloebebidan, moldovuri erovnuli genis udidesi qmnilebebidan, romelTa Sorisaa zneobrivi ZaliTa da mxatvruli TaviseburebebiT aRsavse gasaocari baladebi: `miorica~ da `ostati manole~. r oc a je r i k in e m at o gr afz e mi d ga, C v e nm a kinematografistebma aseTive stilSi Seqmnes filmebi, dawyebuli samyaros metafizikuri gamokvlevebidan. moldovuri mxatvruli da dokumenturi kinos yvelaze warmatebul kinos uraTebs warmoadgenen is eTi namuSevrebi, romlebSic ostaturadaa gamoyenebuli tradiciebi, miTologiuri motivebi, warmoCenilia gansakuTrebuli poeturi xedva da warmodgena, rac gaxda moldovuri erovnuli kinematografis saxasiaToO niSani. Tumca, rogorc marTebulad aRniSna cnobilma qarTvelma kinomcodne kora wereTelma, es wyaroebi gamoadgaT sxva SemoqmedebiT pirovnebebsac: "iseTi mwerlebis, rogorebic arian: Cingiz aitmatovi, ion druce, g ran t m ate v os i an i , n o dar d u mbaZe m Tli an i TviTmyofadobisa da mxatvruli xelweris sxvaobebTan erTad, aSkaraa, rom 60-iani wlebis literaturaSi isini iyvnen erTi talRis, erTi rigis gamoxatulebebi. aqedan daiwyo kinoSic sinTezireba formebma, lirikulma sagebma, igavebma, zRaprebma [...] meore mxriv, ganaxlebis wyaroebad iqcnen xalxuri Semoqmedebisa da xelovnebis tradiciuli dargebis WeSmaritad amouwuravi da fasdaudebeli rezervebi~.1 111

1. Teatrisagan gansxvavebiT, kinoSi arsebobs operatoris profesia, romelic erT-erTi ZiriTadia kinogadamReb jgufSi, igi kinematografis specifikuri niSan-Tvisebis mauwyebelia. 2. d. janeliZe, `saxioba~, wigni II, Tbilisi, 1972, gv. 178-180. 3. s. amaRlobeli, qarTuli Teatris reformatori kote marjaniSvili, aprili, 1930 (rusul enaze manqanaze nabeWdi), k. marjaniSvilis sax. saxelmwifo akademiuri Teatris muzeumi, masalebi Teatris istoriidan, 1922-1935 ww. 4. s. amaRlobeli, qarTuli Teatris reformatori kote marjaniSvili, aprili, 1930 (rusul enaze, manqanaze nabeWdi), k. marjaniSvilis sax. saxelmwifo akademiuri Teatris muzeumi, masalebi Teatris istoriidan, 1922-1935 ww. 5. gaz. `komunisti~, 1922, 5 oqtomberi. 6. daviT kakabaZe, xelovneba da sivrce, Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 41. 7. gaz. `komunisti~, 1923, 21 ivnisi. 8. eJi teplici, `kinoxelovnebis istoria~, moskovi, 1968, t. I. gv. 49 (rusul enaze). 9. iqve; 10. i. abesaZe, q. bagratiSvili, `dimitri SevardnaZe~, gam. `saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1998, gv. 232. 11. Jurn. `memarcxeneoba~, 1927, #1, gv. 19. 110

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moldovuri kinos erT-erTi pirveli filmi `atamani kodri~ (1958) Seiqmna haiduk tudor tobultokze arsebuli xalxuri eposis safuZvelze. moldovuri folkloris gamorCeul gmirTa Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili ukaviaT haidukebs ("saxalxo SurismaZieblebs~). swored isini iRebdnen aqtiur monawileobas erovnulganmaTavisuflebel brZolaSi, maT STaberes suli samaradJamo xalxur ideals, romelic mimarTuli iyo Tavisuflebisa da samarTlianobis zeimisaken. maT Rrma kvali datoves xalxis mexsierebaSi mravalricxovani legendebisa da simRerebis saxiT. `ataman kodris~ warmateba ganpirobebuli iyo imiT, rom reJisorma m. kalikma filmis yvela komponentSi Tavi mouyara moldovas poezias, xalxuri Semoqmedebis Taviseburebasa da silamazes. operatorma v. debrenevma gansakuTrebuli brwyinvalebiT gamoiyena kinokameris SesaZleblobebi. mis xelSi aparatma `SeZlo~ aReniSna gmirTa ufaqizesi sulieri moZraobebi, satyeo bilikebis poezia, zafxulis Ramis silamaze, gamoexata doRis giJuri ritmi ­ da yovelive es mayureblis winaSe warmodga, rogorc namdvili cxovreba. filmis moqmedebam asaxva pova musikaSic, raSic gadmoica umdidresi moldovuri melodiis gansakuTrebuli lirizmi. yvela aRniSnulma Tvisebam Tavi moiyara erTian nawarmoebSi, romelmac mii pyro mayureblisa da kritikis yuradReba kievis sakavSiro kinofestivalze 1959 wels da axalgazrda kinostudia `moldova films~ moutana gamarjveba _ pirveli premia saukeTeso operatoruli namuSevrisaTvis da meore premia saukeTeso musikisaTvis. hai d uk e bi s Tematika ainteres ebda s xva kinematografistebsac. vlad iovicem (`cxeni, Tofi da laRi qari~, `eSmakis bunagTan~) i pova plastikuri gardasaxve bi moulodnel rakurs ebSi, xolo multi plikaciaSi gakeTebulma kinosuraTma "haidukma~ (scenaris avtori v. druki, reJisorebi: l. goroxovi da i. kacani) daims axura kanis s aerTaSoris o kinofestivalis didi prizi.

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60-ian wlebSi moldovur kinematografSi mwerlebis axali pleadis mosvla, romelTa Soris iyvnen vlad iovice, george vode, emil lotianu, valeriu gajiu, serafim saka, george malarCuki, anatol kodru, aureliu busuioki, iakob burgiu warmoadgenda uprecedento fenomens. maTi gamoCena daemTxva xruSCoviseul `daTbobas~, erovnuli xelovnebisa da kulturis xelaxal aRorZinebas. am moRvaweebma kinoxelovnebaSi miitanes poeturi suli rogorc mxatvrul, ise dokumentur filmebSi, romlebic gaxdnen moldovuri kinos ganviTarebis ZiriTadi etapebi, xazs usvamdnen mis poetur xasiaTs, rogorc raRac specifikursa da Rrmad individualurs. imxanad Seqmnili dokumenturi filmebi: `Wa~, `qva, qva...~, `Cveni zamTris niRbebi~ (reJ. v. iovice, op. p. balani); `qorwili~ da `Semodgomis mixedviT~ (reJ. g. vode); `brZola~, `baxusi~, `kamenotesebis jiSi~ (reJ. a. kodru) dResac ki gamorCevian erovnul kinoSi gakeTebuli sxva poeturi kinosuraTebisagan. sworedac rom 60-ian wlebSi moldovuri poeturi kino aRiares da maRal doneze Seafases. am nawarmoebebis avtorebi kinoSi mividnen poeziidan da TavianT ekranul qmnilebebSi miaRwies imas, rasac poeturi realizmi ewodeba. maTi filmebis struqtura xSirad Serwymulia miTologiur motivebTan, simboloebi da metaforebi amravleben da amaRleben filmis azrobriv mniSvnelobas, icaven ra maT utyuarobas. magaliTisaTvis SeiZleba dasaxeldes is faqti, rom dokumenturi film "Wis~ (ostatebze, romlebic Webs Txrian) safuZvlad viTardeba Wis amaRlebis aqti, ris fesvebsac vxvdebiT Cvens erTerT mTavar miTSi, kerZod, miTSi Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb. am motivebis centrSi dgas Semoqmedi adamiani, romelic adre Tu gvian aRwevs adamianuri dramis mniSvnelobas. misTvis samaradJamo dramaa is, rom misi qmnileba warmoadgens Tavisi arsebobis umTavres aqts da isic mzadaa am qmnilebisaTvis Tavic gawiros, radgan xalxis SemecnebaSi am Semoqmedebis arsi dakavSirebulia

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TviTSewirvasTan. adamiani qmnis raRac srulyofils mxolod sicocxlis fasad. am filmis ubraloeba da misi filosofiuri siRrme maRal doneze Seafasa mayurebelma da kinokritikam. es motivi, gamoxatuli RvTiuri agnicas SewirviT, anarekls poulobs filmebis: `goblenisa~ da `oi, Sen, sabralo mtredo~ struqturebSi. ...grZnobs mama, rom misi cxovrebis Semodgomis ukanaskneli Tvea da gadawyvets, SesaZloa, bolojer moinaxulos Tavisi aqa-iq mimofantuli Svilebi. aseTnairad vecnobiT, gviyvardeba am moxuci kacis STamomavlebi. amgvar, arc Tu rTul siuJetze aages Tavisi kinosuraTi `Semodgomis ukanaskneli Tve~ scenaristma, cnobilma moldovelma mweralma ion drucem da reJisorma vadim debrenevma. da TiTqmis didi araferi xdeba ekranze, araa araviTari sagangebo, uCveulo movlenebi, magram filmi mainc gviTrevs moqmedebaSi da bolos ki mTlianad ahyavxar xelSi. es imitom xdeba, rom mTeli ambavi swored Cvenkenaa momarTuli Tavisi gansakuTrebuli mxridan, ganaTebulia garkveuli gamorCeuli sinaTliT, riTac ara marto iZens mniS vnelobas, r omelic aamaRlebs am yoveldRiurobas, aramed adis zogadsakacobrio JReradobamde, rac dakavSirebulia TiToeul CvenganTan, ganurCevlad erovnulobisa da sarwmunoebisa. amis gamo filmi `Semodgomis ukanaskneli Tve~ aRelvebda da atirebda auditorias yvelgan, sadac ki is aCvenes. kinosuraTis arsi gacilebiT Rrmaa, vidre emociebi, romlebic gamowveulia moxuci mamis SexvedriT Tavis SvilebTan. is aRwevs filosofiur msoflmxedvelobas adamianis arsebobaze, mis Sedegebze. esaa Zveli da mudmivi problema. am filmSi, albaT, yvelaze rTuli iyo gadmoecaT Taviseburi poeturi ganwyoba, romelic wa rm oa dg en da s ce na ri s t i . dr uc es u mT av re s mamoZravebel Zalas. am mimarTebiT gansakuTrebuli roli iTamaSa saavtoro teqstmac, romelsac kadrsmiRma kiTxulobs cnobili rusi msaxiobi i. smoktunovski. films sicocxlisunarianobas matebs moxucis gmiri,

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romelsac asaxierebs e. lebedevi. is mimzidvelia Tavisi garegnuli sizviadiT, ris qveSac imaleba sulierebac, Rrma wes ierebac, xolo lirikul s ituaciebSi gamorCeulad vlindeba misi, rogorc pirovnebisa da rogorc mamis, mravalwaxnagovneba. es lamazi filmi eZRvneba adamians, romelic dgas cxovrebis did niSnulTan. igi iwvevs naTel azrebs, rac odnav Seferadebulia naRveliT, im naRveliT, rasac gvCuqnis Semodgomis ukanaskneli Tve ­ Wknobis xana. imis gamo, rom es kinosuraTi exeba saerTo sakacobrio problemebs, romlebic udavod aRelveben mayurebels, is dajildovda kanis saerTaSoriso kinofestivalis didi priziT saymawvilo filmebis konkursze 1967 wels. amasTanave, man miiRo mar-del-platis (argentina) saerTaSoriso kinofestivalis prizi `didi samxreTuli jvari~ 1966 wels da kidev bevri j ildo s xva kinoforumebze. `Semodgomis ukanaskneli Tve~ gaxda moldovis erovnuli kinematografis saetapo namuSevari. v. gajium da v. lisenkom film `mware marcvlebSi~ SeZles daexataT ferweruli tilo, gadmoecaT procesebi, romlebSic aRmoCnda CaTreuli moldovuri soflis yvela fena meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi da yvelaferi aReweraT rTuli, winaaRmdegobrivi cxovrebis poeturi Semecnebis fonze. 1966 wels moldovuri ekranis cnobilma poetma emil lotianum gadaiRo filmi `wiTeli velebi~, rac iTvleba poeturi kinos mwvervalad ara marto moldovaSi, aramed mis farglebs gareTac. is iyo Cafiqrebuli, rogorc balada silamazeze da adamianis daniSnulebaze. kinosuraTi gamsWvalulia garemomcveli samyaros aRqmis siaxliT. mihyvebi siuJetis ganviTarebas da xdebi mwyemsebis mZime Sromis mowme, im mwyemsebisa, romlebic midian riskze, roca gadahyavT cxvari gamomSral mindvrebze. masSi naCvenebia maTi gza, peri petiebi, problemebi. reJisori mizanmimarTulad gviCvenebs mwyemsebis yofas, maT urTules saqmianobas, bunebis stiqias (rac brwyinvaledaa gadaRebuli operatorebis:

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i. bolboCanusa da v. Curias mier), raTa yovelives organuli SeerTebiT musikasTan Seqmnas is mxatvruli nawarmoebi, romelic Zalze emociurad moqmedebs mayurebelze. e. lotianus filmebi adastureben Zalasa da gamomsaxvelobas xelovnebisa, romelic STagonebulia xalxis mxatvruli kulturis tradiciebiT. misi filmebis umetesobaSi folkloruli motivebi viTardeba, rogorc erT-erTi umTavresi faqtori. folklorTan siRrmiseuli kavSiri warmoCnda moldovuri kinos kidev erT saetapo film `lautarebSi~ (1971), raSic reJisori e. lotianu cdilobs Cas wvdes folkloruli nawarmoebebis saidumloebebs, warmoaCinos bedi erTerTi maTganisa im mraval niWier anonimur xelovanTa Soris, visac moxetiale musikosi, anu, Cveneburad, lautari hqvia. igi saTuTad icavs da avrcelebs xalxur melodiebs. lotianu Tavisi SemoqmedebisaTvis Cveuli vnebiTa da gatacebiT ikvlevs moldovuri musikaluri folkloris Tavisebur mxatvrul fenomens, iyenebs erovnuli xelovnebis unikalur magaliTebs, romlebic SedarebiT kargad gadmoscemen mis sulier simdidres, esTetikur Taviseburebebs. reJisorma SeZlo eCvenebina Tavisi xalxis TviTmyofadoba da, upirveles yovlisa, is musikaluri xelovneba, romelSic moldovelma erma mTeli sigrZe-siganiT warmoaCina Tavisi suliereba. filmis mTavari gmiriT _ Toma alistariT, romelsac asaxierebs moldovis erT-erTi saukeTeso musikosi sergei lunkeviCi, lotianum gviCvena Semoqmedi, vinc Tavis xelovnebas acnobierebs, rogorc mis Tandayolil bunebriv niWs. misi sikvdili, misi siyvaruli iseve, rogorc misi cxovreba ­ esaa namdvili poezia, romelic yvelas moswons da yvelas mouwodebs gaiTavison mSvenieri momentebi. amitomac iyo, rom `lauratebs~ msoflios prestiJul kinoforumebze ukravdnen taSs da ajildovebdnen maRali jildoebiT: san-sebastianis (espaneTi) XX saerTaSoriso kinofestivalze, 1972 wels man daimsaxura meore premia _ `vercxlis niJara~, prizi

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`antenso gipuskoano~ Temis mxatvruli gadawyvetisaTvis da p remia `gak seni~ fes tivalis s aukeTes o namuSevrisaTvis. amasTanave orvientoSi (italia) 1972 wels Catarebul xelovnebisa da folkloris filmebis saerTaSoriso kinofestivalze mas wilad ergo mTavari prizi mxatvruli kinosuraTebis konkursSi. poeturi kinos tradiciebma TavianTi gagrZeleba poves dokumenturi da mxatvruli kinematografis momdevno Taobis: i. burgius, v. breskanus, r. vierus, v. drukis, m. kistrugas, i. miJasa da sxvaTa SemoqmedebaSi. Tanadrouloba axal Tematikas karnaxobs, xolo video da satelevizio teqnikis ganviTarebis done, axali audiovizualuri teqnologiebi zegavlenas axdenen filmis esTetikaze, kinoenis ganviTarebaze. miuxedavad amisa, moldovur kinoSi yvelaze problemursa da mwvavesiuJetian dokumentur kinosuraTebSi igrZnoba poeziisa da publicistikis organuli Serwyma. aseTebia: a. kodrus `dadanaSaulebulni arian mowmeebi~, romelmac 1990 wels miiRo ostravis (Cexoslovakia) saerTaSoriso kinofestivalis mTavari prizi, v. drukis `oi, Sen, sabralo mtredo~, `sazRvrebi~, `momsvlelis fsalmuni~, m. kistrugas `tvirTi~, `vedreba~, `xval isev amova mze~. istoriuli masalisa da poeziis naerTi gamokveTilia Cveni istoriisa da kulturis moRvaweebis Sesaxeb Seqmnil iseT kinosuraTebSi, rogorebicaa: `dimitrie kantemiri~, `Stefan didi~, `mixai eminesku~, `oin kriange~, `varlaami~, `petru rareSi~ da sxv. moldovuri kinoxelovnebis specifika gamoxatulia poeturi realobis Cvenebis miswrafebaSi. Cvens filmebSi wina rigSia gamotanili lirikuli sawyisi, nostalgiuri gmiri da emociuroba. moldovuri kinos poeturoba pirdapir kavSirSia genetikur kodTan, s ulier TvalTaxedvasTan da eris kulturul tradiciebTan. rogorc aRiniSna, amgvari Tvisebebi damaxasiaTebelia saukeTeso qarTuli kinosuraTebisaTvisac. Cveni azriT, miTologiuri wyaroebiT, TematikiT, masalis faqturiT, poeturi saxeebis Seqmnis meqanizmiT erTmaneTTan axlos

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dganan emil lotianus `wiTeli velebi~ da eldar Sengelaiasa da Tamaz meliavas `TeTri qaravani~. mwyemsebis pirquSi da keTili ti paJebi, mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris arsebuli gans akuTrebuli damokidebulebebi, mwyemsebis mZime Sromis poezia, moulodnelobebiTa da xSirad dramatuli movlenebiT aRsavse, ialaRebisaken mimavali gza _ esaa arasruli CamonaTvali im ZiriTadi aspeqtebisa, romlebic ainteresebdaT am maRalpoeturi kinosuraTebis avtorebs. Tanac isic aRsaniSnavia, rom orive filmi TiTqmis erTdroulad gamovida ekranebze. samwuxaroa, rom moldovelma kinematografistebma aRar gaagrZeles es Tematika qarTveli kolegebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlebmac miaRwies saintereso mxatvrul Sedegebs am mimarTulebiT. amaSi igulisxmeba: `didi mwvane veli~ (reJ. merab kokoCaSvili), `TuSi mecxvare~ (reJ. soso CxaiZe) da sxv. bevri poeturi msgavsebaa moldoveli mixail kalikis film `adamiani miuyveba mzes~ da qarTveli Tengiz abulaZis kinosuraT `sxvis Svilebs~ Soris. maTi poeturi ganwyoba amozrdilia konkretuli cxovrebis a Rw er id an , qa la qu ri a t mo s f er os k in ok ad ri s brwyinvalebidan da simsubuqidan, rac gadaRebulia naturalur pirobebSi. orive namuSevarSi warmoCenili adamianebi, quCebi, kiSiniovisa da Tbilisis xedebi da parkebi firze aRbeWdilia utyuarobiT. es kadrebi qmnian ara marto funqcionalur atmosferos, raSic viTardeba moqmedeba, aramed am filmebis emociur gamosaxulebebsac. aqve minda xazi gavusva imas, rom, Tu m. kalikis kinosuraTi warmoadgenda moldovuri kinos pirvel nabijebs, T. abulaZis nawarmoebi iyo rigiT meore, gadaRebuli saqveynod gaxmaurebuli `magdanas lurjis~ Semdeg, romelic am ukanasknelma gaakeTa rezo CxeiZesTan erTad da romelmac miiRo kanisa da edinburgis saerTaSoriso kinofestivalebis mTavari prizebi. qarTuli kinematografis cnobili istorikosis giorgi doliZis mtkicebiT, es `filmi warmoadgens

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qarTuli kinos axali periodis saetapo namuSevars~.2 kinostudia `moldova filmSi~ vasili paskarum gadaiRo filmi `gedebi tborSi~, sadac dedis roli iT ama Sa C ven ma s axe lov anm a ms axi obm a eu Jen ia todoraSkum. filmi mieZRvna glexi qalis cxovrebas, rac mWidrodaa gadaxlarTuli xalxis sve-bedTan. gamaoca misma msgavsebam qarTul kinosuraTTan `wuTisofeli~ (reJ.: SoTa da nodar managaZeebi), romelSic dedis personaJi umaRles mxatvrul doneze ganasaxiera yvelasaTvis cnobilma sofiko Wiaurelma. erTi da igive poeturi ganwyoba daedo safuZvlad or sxvadasxva gmir qals, romlebsac aerTianebs erTnairad mZime iRbali. vadim debrenevis `Semodgomis ukanaskneli Tvis~ atmosfero, stilistika da audiovizualuri masalis miwodebis manera Zalze axlosaa oTar ioselianis `pastoralTan~. samwuxarod, moldovur kinematografSi (da ara marto masSi!) ver gamoinaxa Tematuri xasiaTebis, gmirebis sistemebis Camoyalibebisa da Rrma msoflmxedvelobis analogebi T. abulaZis trilogiasTan: `vedreba~, `natvris xe~ da `monanieba~. bevri saerTo saxasiaTo niSnebi _ poeturi saxisa da atmosferos Seqmnis meqanizmi, Tavisufali dramaturgiuli struqturebi, mravalfenovani qmedebis dialeqtika, arati puri daxasiaTebebi niSandoblivia sxva qarTuli kinosuraTebisaTvisac. aseT namuSevrebs ganekuTvneba: r. CxeiZis `jariskacis mama~, `nergebi~; o. ioselianis `giorgobisTve~, `iyo SaSvi mgalobeli~, `pastorali~; e. Sengelaias `araCveulebrivi gamofena~, l. RoRoberiZis `roca ayvavda nuSi~, g. Sengelaias ` fi r os m ani ~ d a s x v. amg v ar i k i no s u raTebi mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravdnen moldoveli kinematografistebis poetur xedvasac. bevri saerTo aqvT moldovursa da qarTul poetur dokumentur filmebsac, gansakuTrebiT maT, romlebic warmoadgenen xelovnebis Seswavlis obieqtebs. es procesi imitom mimdinareobs, rom xelovnebis erovnuli dargebis ganviTarebaSi SeimCneva araerTi erTmaneTTan

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dakavSirebuli da Tanmxvedri elementi, romlebSic Tavmoyrilia zogadsakacobrio xasiaTis problematika. amave dros or gansxvavebul kulturas _ moldovursa da qarTuls _ aerTianebs samyaros poeturi aRqma. am s ak i Tx e bs auc i le blad s Wir d eba sag an g ebo polidisci plinaruli kvleva.

oliko JRenti mzis Svilebi _ knut hamsuni da grigol ro baqi Ze (`zRapruli qveynis~ miTo-poeturi struqtura)

`netav, sad, romel qveyanaSi mdebareobda misi sulieri samSoblo? SesaZloa, mzis qveyanaSi...~ knut hamsunis novelidan "mzis Svili~

knut hamsunis novela `mzis Svili~ XIX saukunis miwuruls daiwera. novelis gmiriUucnobi mxatvaria ­ CrdiloeTis qveynis mkvidri, romelic erT ucnaur sevdas Seupyria _ sevdas Soreul mzis qveyanaze.1 `mzis qveynis~ da `mzis Svilis~ metafora mogvianebiT daukavSirda knut hamsunis samogzauro Canawerebis wign `zRapruli qveyanas~ (`gancdili da nafiqrali kavkasiaSi~), romelic 1903 wels gamoica germaniasa da norvegiaSi. 1899 wlis seqtembersHknut hamsuni fineTidan rus eTSi gaemgzavra da vladikavkazis gavliT stefanwmindaSi Cavida. saqarTvelos samxedro gzis gavliT is Tbiliss estumra da Semdeg gza gaagrZela azerbaijanSi. mweraliBbaqodan kvlav TbilisSi dabrunda da gezi baTumisken aiRo.Aase `Seikra~ misi mogzaurobis kavkasiuri wre (saqarTvelo _ azerbaijani _ saqarTvelo)YsakuTari nafiqrali da gancdili hamsunma gamoxata wignSi `zRapruli qveyana~ (wignis qvesaTauria `gancdili da nafiqrali kavkasiaSi~). `zRapruli qveyana~ ar warmoadgens mxolod samogzauro Canawerebs, arc dokumentur prozas ganekuTvneba. ver daveTanxmebiT rus kritikosebs, romlebic miiCnevdnen, rom `zRaprul qveyanaSi~ knut hamsuni ver ascda `stereoti pul, gacveTil sqemebs~, rasac norvegieli mwerali ucxo egzotikuri qveynis aRwerisas mravlad moixmobda.2 miuxedavad amisa, am garegnuli egzotikis

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miRma mogzaurobis wigni Seicavs im farul Sreebs, romelTa gaSifrvas da gamovlenas dRes seriozulad cdiloben Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi, rasac nawilobriv am statiis avtoric Seecada mxatvrul-dokumentur filmSi `knut hamsunis kavkasiuri misteriebi~ (2005 w.).3 amjerad, Cveni kvlevis mizans knut hamsunisa da grigol robaqiZis SemoqmedebiTi paralelebis moZieba warmoadgens _ orive mwerlis filosofiur-esTetikuri modeli da mxatvrul-simboluri saxeebis identuroba, amgvari paralelebis arsebobas cxadyofs. erTmaneTs uaxlovdeba da mistiurad kveTs knut hamsunisa da grigol robaqiZis biografiuli xazebi Tu msoflmxedvelobrivi princi pebi: 30-ian wlebSi aSkarad gamoikveTa orive mwerlis negatiuri, kritikuli damokidebuleba bolSevikuri reJimisa da komunisturi ideologiis mimarT; orive mwerlis Semoqmedebam garkveuli interesi gamoiwvia 30-iani wlebis germaniis saxelisuflo wreebSi (bunebrivia, 30-ian wlebSi hamsunis popularoba germaniasa da evropaSi gacilebiT ufro globaluri da masStaburi iyo). 20-ian wlebSi, roca proletkulturis damcvelebma gr. robaqiZe faSistad da moRalated moixsenies, politikuri represiebisgan TavdasaRwevad qarTvelma mweralma iZulebiT datova saqarTvelo da emigraciaSi Seafara Tavi. II msoflio omis Semdeg zustad is braldebebi wauyenes knut hamsuns, rac _ bolSevikuri reJimis dros grigol robaqiZes. qarTveli mwerlisgan gansxvavebiT, 90 wels miRweuli norvegieli mwerali Tavis samSobloSi daapatimres, cixesa da fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi iZulebiT amyofes; orive mwerali martoobaSi gardaicvala _ knut hamsuni _ norholmSi, norvegiis samxreTiT, Tavis sayvarel mamulSi. grigol robaqiZe _ saqarTvelosgan Sors, ucxo miwaze. XX saukunis dasawyisSi, gamoCenili danieli kritikosi da mwerali georg brandesi, jer kidev a xa l ga z rd a k n ut ha m s u n i s S em o qm e de b is er T mniSvnelovan aspeqts Seexo: "isic devnili iyo _

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devnili sakuTari serviliTa da arCevniT da bednier poetur samSoblos kavkasiaSi miagno, iq igi sulSi aRmarTul samefoTa idumali mbrZanebeli gaxda, roca uferulobis msxverpli iyo Tavis qristianiaSi~4 (oslos Zveli saxelwodeba ­ avt.). marTalia, brandesis es sityvebi hamsunis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis adreul etaps da, Sesabamisad, mis adrindel nawarmoebebs miesadageboda, magram danieli kritikosis es Sefaseba winaswarmetyveluri aRmoCnda: sicocxlis bolos, knut hamsuni politikur devnas ganicdida da, am tvirTs mwerali asketuri gamZleobiT, Rirseulad da moTminebiT itanda. Cven mier zemoT citirebuli brandesis sityvebi mxolod nawilia im vrceli winasityvaobisa, romelic daerTo knut hamsunis mravaltomeulis rusul gamocemas gasuli saukunis 10-ian wlebSi.Aam tomeulSi `zRapruli qveyanac~ Sevida. georg brandesis mosazrebis Tanaxmad, hamsunma kavkasiaSi Tavis `bednier poetur samSoblos miagno~. knut hamsuni iseve mieltveoda kavkasias, rogorc misive novelis `mzis Svilis~ gmiri _ Crdiloeli mxatvari eSurvoda mzis qveyanas. unda aRiniSnos, romMmzis simbolos orive mwerlisTvis misteriuli da s akraluri mniSvneloba hqonda. qarTveli simbolistebi _ cisferyanwelTa jgufi grigol robaqiZes `mzis poetsa~ da `mzis qurums~ uwodebda. gr. robaqiZis nawarmoebebSi _ romanebsa Tu calkeul e se e bSi naTlad ik v eTe bo d a m z is ku lt Tan dakavSirebuli motivebi. gr. robaqiZem qarTvelebs `mzis Svilebi~ uwoda: `rogorc mzis Svilni, Cven, qarTvelni, daudevarnica varT da ficxelnic~, _ wers igi statiaSi "ra unda agondebodes qarTvels~.5 cnobil werilSi `saqarTvelos xerxemali~ grigol robaqiZe aRniSnavda qarTuli miTis, legendis genialobas da ramdenime magaliTiT xsnida, Tu ratom izidavda ucxoelebs saqarTvelo. 6Aavtori moixseniebda XVIII saukunis italiel misionerebs da frang mogzaur Sardens,

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romlebic ise moiwevdnen saqarTvelosken, rogorc `mzis badeSi gaxveuli dedoflisken~. XVIII-XX saukuneebSi evropeli adamianis SegnebaSi arsebobda azri, romelic jer kidev antikursa da Suasaukuneebis traqtatebSi gamoiTqva, azri imis Sesaxeb, rom kavkasia iyo RmerTebisa da adamianis samSoblo. `zRaprul qveyanaSi~ hamsuni xazgasmiT mianiSnebda, rom kavkasiis Sesaxeb igi uamrav avtors gaecno, waikiTxa hegelis, bodenStatis, mari broses, erkertis, reklius da sxvaTa Sromebi. cneba `zRapruli qveyana~ uZveles miTebsa da leg e nd e bS i Cndeba da igi u k av S ir d eba kavkasias.HmogzaurobaSi knut hamsunma ramdenjerme `daadastura~ `marTlac, momxibvleli, jadosnuri samyaros~ arseboba _ is, rac man kavkasiaSi sakuTari TvaliT naxa da ganicada, zustad Seesabameboda legendebSi, TqmulebebSi, Tu sxvadasxva mecnieris, mwerlis TxzulebebSi aRwerili da xotbaSesxmuli `zRapruli qveynis~ cnebas. `zRaprul qveyanaSi~ vkiTxulobT, rom hamsuni goliaTi mTebis da caSi monavarde arwivebis `zRaprul samefoSi~, anu, RmerTebis samyaroSi moxvda, rom is `RmerTis pirispir~ aRmoCnda da saocari sulieri aRmafrena ganicada. yazbegis bumberaz mTebTan Sexvedram mas `Tavzari dasca~:A`uecrad, gzis mkveTr mosaxvevTan, xelmarjvniv, xeoba gaixsna da Cven Tvalwin aRimarTa yazbegi _ Tavisi mzeze molaplape myinvariT.Uucnauri grZnoba gveufleba: mTa _ goliaTi gamoeyo sxva mTebs, axlos movida da gviyurebs _ rogorc sxva samyarodan gadmosuli arseba. Tavbru mexveva, TiTqos, movwydi miwas, TiTqos, grigalma amitaca, wavedi maRla-maRla da RmerTis pirispir aRmovCndi...~ _ werda hamsuni.7 `goliaT mTebTan~ Sexvedris epizods mosdevs aluzia mwerlis bavSvobasTan. uneburad, hamsuns Tavisi `uzrunveli bavSvoba~ da mSobliuri norvegia gaaxsenda _ aq ikveTeba kavkasiis (civilizaciis akvani) da knut hamsunis warsulis (bavSvobis) xazi. `zRaprul qveyanaSi~

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avtorma aRwera CrdiloeT norvegiaSi gatarebuli `erTi ucnauri saRamo~, roca is wynar mdinareSi naviT micuravda. amgvarad droisa da sivrcis sazRvrebi waiSala; dro gaxda amorfuli, urTierTs gadaekveTa ori misteriuli xazi: kavkasia (`civilizaciis akvani~) da avtoris bednieri bavSvoba, anu `oqros xana~. knut hamsuns moagonda, Tu rogor mwyemsavda is bavSvobisas, saqonels tyeSi, rogor uyvarda bunebaSi ganmartoeba. mwerali "Soreuli~ warsulis nostalgiam Sei pyro _ mas `bednieri da uzrunveli bavSvoba~ hqonda. antikuri periodidan moyolebuli, pastoraluri idilia ukavSirdeba samoTxes, kacobriobis bednier, harmoniul periods (kacobriobis uzrunvel, bavSvobis, anu oqros, xanas) pastoraluri yofis motivebi gaCnda saraindo lirikaSi, Sua saukuneebis literaturasa da mini atureb Si. me cniere baMezo Terul s awyis ebs pastoralur lirikis metaforul saxeebSi, RvTaebriv g an acx ad Si eZe bd a. hams u ni s s aqar Tve loS i mogzaurobaSic Cndeba poeturi aluziebi saraindo eposTan, pastoralur idiliasTan.Mhamsuns izidavda Tanamedrove civilizaciisgan da qalaqis xmaurisgan mowyvetili mwyemsebis mSvidi, auRelvebeli yofa, is tkbeboda bunebi sa da adami anis harmoni uli urTierTobiT. saqarTvelos samxedro gzaze mimavali akvirdeboda ubralo glexis, miwaTmoqmedis mSvid, auCqarebel cxovrebis ritms, is gaitaca yoveldRiurobis poeziam. Sua saukuneebis raindebis msgavsad, is winaaRmdegobebs da xifaTebs daeZebda `goliaTebis samyaroSi~ _ cxenze amxedrebuli, rainduli SemarTebiT `gaiWra~ maRla mTebSi. mweralma aRwera `rkinasaviT gamZle~ kavkasiuri cxeni, romelmac misi `aRtaceba daimsaxura~. Tavgadasavlebis moyvarulma raindma (hamsuni) mTieli qalis gulis monadirebasac Seecada da satrfialo leqsic uZRvna (parodia saraindo eposis nimuSTan). skandinaviurLlegendebSi sibrZnis maZiebeli odini muzaradSi, abjar asxmuli cecxlovan raSzea

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amxedrebuli.Llegendebis Tanaxmad, odins uyvars g le x eb T a n g as a ub r e ba 8 E (h a m s u n ic a kv i rd e b od a adgilobriv glexebs, maT saqmianobas da Soridan Senatroda maT soflur yofas). mogzaurobisas knut hamsuns aRelvebda xaris bedi, romelsac rqebi uRelze asvloda da `kisermoRrecili, gverdulad~ midioda. xaris `xateba~ mis cnobierebaSi Rrmad CaibeWda da ramdenj erme `amotivtivda~ mogzaurobis ganmavlobaSi. mwerali aseve ganicdida cxvris avadmyofobas, romelsac mTaSi SemTxveviT farexSi waawyda (bavSvobaSi is Tavad iyo mwyemsi). cnobilia, rom xaris simbolo ukavSirdeba mzis misterias.Pplatoni mogviTxrobs atlantidis epoqis mefeebze, romlebic msxverplad xars swiravdnen. verZidan iSva miTras ariul-sparsul-atlantikuri religia.9 knut hamsunma miTras kulti vrclad ganixila azerbaijanSi mogzaurobisas, rocaMman moinaxula s urahanis e. w. cecxlis taZari. aRmos avluri civilizaciis es uZvelesi naSTi, Tavis mxriv, ukavSirdeboda mzis kults. uZveles miTebSi miTra da zigfridi bnel Zalebs upirispirdebodnen.Aam WidilSi mzis RmerTis, heliosis, saxeliT miTra klavs xars, zigfridi ­ urCxuls. eseSi `saqarTvelos sulieri misia~ zviad gamsaxurdia ganmartavda kreta-minosis xaris _ minotavris kultis mniSvnelobas da dasZenda: `amasTan dakavSirebiT, volfram fon eSenbaxi aRniSnavs, rom es aris wyaro misterialuri kulturisa, ai, am kavkasiis mTianeTze, am tauronitze, am zRaprul qveyanaze, sadac mefobs mefe-xucesi ioane, volfram fon eSenbaxi ambobs, rom es aris saTave yovelivesi _ misterialuri sibrZnisa da misterialuri kulturisa~, anu, kavkasiis qedis mimdebare qveyana _ saqarTvelo `misterialuri kulturis~ wyarod saxeldeboda.10 knut hamsuni kavkasias Tavis Tavdapirvel samSoblod aRiqvamda, dakarguli `fesvebis~ Secnobis procesSi uCndeboda `zRaprul qveyanaSi~ damkvidrebis survili: `arsad ar minaxavs aseTi kaSkaSa varskvlavebi, rogorc

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aq, kavkasiaSi, TiTqos mze arc Casula. ise momajadova yovelive aman, rom Cemi mSobliuri norvegiac ki damaviwya... ucnauri grZnoba meufleba, SegrZneba imisa, rom SemeZlo aq gamedga fesvebi, mecxovra qveynierebisgan Sors da Tavi bednierad megrZno~.11 hamsunisTvis saqarTvelo iyo `jadosnuri adgili, sadacHmze da mTvare erTdroulad anaTeben caze~ da, rom `es qveyana adre nanax arc erT qveyanas ar hgavs~ da amitom ebadeba mas survili samudamod dasaxldes am qveyanaSi, anu, odinis pirvandel (odindel) samSobloSi: `da kvlav imaves vfiqrob, SemeZlo mTeli cxovreba aq gametarebina~, _ vkiTxulobT "zRaprul qveyanaSi~. sainteresoa, rom zogierTi qarTuli sityva odinis fuZes _ `od~-s ukavSirdeba.Mmag.: odindeli, rodis, odesme, odesRac, rac gulisxmobs ZvelTaZvel, uxsovar dros, ufro zustad ganyenebul dros, maradisobas, romelic sakuTarATavSi moicavs warsulsac da momavalsac. skandinaviur miTosSi odini ganasaxierebda omis RmerTs _ oqrosbeWdian mbrZanebels, romlis cali Tvali mzea, meore Tvali _ mTvare (`zRaprul qveyanaSi~ hamsunma aRwera, rom mze da mTvare erTdroulad anaTeben). vodan-odins ukavSirdeba Zvelgermanuli sityva `voda~, anu wyali, asevea slavurSic. Zvelgermanul enaSi `voda~ niSnavs `zeSTagonebas~, `aRmafrenas~. legenda imasac mogviTxrobs, rom goliaTebis qveynidan odinma poeturi STagonebis SarbaTi _ Rvino moitaca. knut hamsuni gatacebiT aRwers kavkasiur yurZens, romelsac gemoTi da `RvTaebrivi nayofiT~ verc erTi qveynis yurZeni ver Seedreba. TbilisSi xetialisas is iseve daewafa yurZens, rogorc RvTaebriv SarbaTs: `o, kavkasia, kavkasia! tyuilad ar Camodiodnen aq mTeli samyaros didi poetebi, rom Sens wyaroebs daswafebodnen~, _ wers hamsuni `zRaprul qveyanaSi~ da TviTonac cdilobda ziareboda misteriuli sibrZnis wyaros, zeSTagonebis simbolos: Tbilisidan baqos mimarTulebiT gzad mimavalma knut hamsunma mtkvris wyali Sesva da cieb127

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cxelebisgan ganikurna: `wyali davlie, mtkvris wyali.Ees sabediswero Secdoma aRmoCnda: vinc erTxel mtkvris wyali dalia, mTeli sicocxle kavkasiaze unda idardos.~ aq kvlav gvaxsendeba hamsunis novela `mzis Svili,~ romelsac Soreul mzis qveyanaze nostalgia stanjavs ­ es aris maradiuli sevda dakargul samSobloze (odindel, Tavdapirvel samSobloze). `zRaprul qveyanaSi~ mtkvris wyali daukavSirda misteriuli sibrZnes, is aris `wyaro WeSmaritebisa~ (german. `voda~), romelic `odinis STamomavalma~ Sesva kavkasiaSi. `zRapruli qveynis~ finalSi, kavkasiasTan gamoTxovebisas, hamsuni werda: `yovelTvis momenatreba aqaur o ba, t yu ilad xo m ar d av lie m t kv ri s wyali~.Mmdinare mtkvari saTaves TurqeTSi iRebs, igi ZiriTadad saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanSi miedineba, anu, im misterialur da geografiul adgilebs moicavda, romlebic avtorma Tavad moiara da aRwera. saqarTveloSi knut hamsuni mecnieruli TeoriebiT da ZiebebiT dainteresda, rasac is ironiiT aRniSnavs wignSi `zRapruli qveyana~: `gamoricxuli ar aris, rom SevZlebdi axali Teoriis Seqmnas xalxTa gadasaxlebaze, gavaswrebdi yvela im Cems winamorbeds, vinc am sakiTxiTaa dakavebuli~. ratom dainteresda hamsuni xalxTa gadasaxlebis TeoriebiT? man aRiara kidec, rom misTvis cnobili iyo `msgavsi Teoriebi~ da ar malavda, rom Tavadac surda aRmoeCina Soreul winaparTa `nivTieri nakvalevi~ kavkasiaSi. knut hamsunis piradi asociaciebi da reminiscenciebi bavSvobasTan, rac ase mravlad gvxvdeba `zRaprul q ve y an aSi ~ , u axlo vd e ba gr i go l ro baq i Zi s avtobiografiul werils `Cemi cxovreba~. grigol robaqiZe igonebda Tavis `Caketil, melanqoliur, martosul~ bavSvobas, misi cnobiereba savse iyo `nisliT moculi xilvebiT~. 12 bavSvobidan mis cnobierebaSi ganuyoflad Tanaarsebobda sami miTiuri saxeba: xvliki, muxa da mze (am asakSi daiWira man ori xvliki, romelic CaZinebuli bavSvis gulze dacocavda): `bunebasa da

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cxovelebTan Sinagani megobroba makavSirebda.Gguli mindor-velze miwevda cxenebisa da xarebisaken, zafxulobiT mTel dReebs mdinaresa da mis napirze vatarebdi, bavSvebTan da cxovelebTan erTad.~ SeuZlebelia, asociacia ar gagviCndes hamsunis bavSvobasTan da `zRapruli qveynis~ raindul pasaJebTan, orive mwerals bunebis mTlianobis gancda, kosmiuri aRqma aqvT. bavSvobaSi hamsunic `martosuli da melanqoliuri~ iyo, uyvarda CrdiloeTis bunebaSi ganmartoeba, tyeebSi xetiali, yurs ugdebda `mudam daudegari da mborgavi~ mdinare glomas xmaurs CrdiloeT norvegiaSi _ nurlanSi, da tyeSi saqonels mwyemsavda. knut hamsunis, rogorc mwerlis, aRiareba evropaSi germaniidan daiwyo. germaniaSi bevrad ufro didi sixSiriT da intensivobiT ibeWdeboda knut hamsunis romanebi, vidre skandinaviis sxva qveynebSi, maT Soris mwerlis mSobliur norvegiaSic. knut hamsunis romanebs pirveli aRiareba da popularoba germaniam moutana. norvegieli mwerali gamorCeulad afasebda germanel gamomcemelTa Tanadgomas da inicitivas. hamsunis ` zRapr u li q ve y an a~ d a ` de d of ali Tam ari ~ Tavdapirvelad germaniaSi gamoica (1903) avtoris piradi megobrisa da cnobili gamomcemlis albert langenis TaosnobiT. grigol robaqiZis cxovreba da Semoqmedeba mWidrod daukavSirda germanul kulturas da filosofias; Tavad gr. robaqiZis informaciiT, germanul enaze gamoica misi 9 wigni. germaniaSi misi wignebis tiraJi 250.000 aRwevda. arsebobs mravali ucxouri recenzia misi wignebis irgvliv. gr. robaqiZe moxsenebebiT gamodioda germaniis qalaqebSi, maT Soris _ ciurixis universitetSi (1938), qarTvel mwerals mravlad misdioda werilebi germaniis sxvadasxva kuTxidan ­ `sul cota 10.000~, _ werda robaqiZe. studenturi wlebi gr. robaqiZem germaniaSi _ laifcigSi, gaatara, sadac is eufleboda literaturas

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da filosofias, Rrmad ecnoboda da ikvlevda goeTes Semoqmedebas: `goeTe CemTvis gamocxadeba iyo.~, _ werda Tavis avtobiografiul werilebSi. qarTveli mwerali ymawvilobidanOocnebobda goeTes `erlikioningze~, romelic `umSvenieres beladad~ warmoedgina. robaqiZe bavSvobidan daaWenebda cxens mamasTan erTad: `Wenebis dros mamis qamarSi CaWidebuli im JrJolvas vgrZnobdi, romelic goeTem ase ostaturad gadmosca leqsiT.~13 robaqiZisTvis goeTes moZRvreba `Taurfenomenis~ Sesaxeb saganTa Semecnebis safuZveli gaxda: `sinamdvilis xedva Camoyalibebis processa da mTelis dinebaSia da ara calkeul momentebSi~ _ es is ZiriTadi postulatia, romelic, gr. robaqiZis azriT, mwerlis da moazrovnis umaRles mizans unda Seadgendes. iseve, rogorc grigol robaqiZe, knut hamsunic gamorCeulad afasebda goeTes Semoqmedebas _ norholmis mamulSi, misi saxlis saZinebel oTaxs dRemde amSvenebs ori didi mwerlis fotosuraTi _ dostoevskis da goeTesi... Tavisi moRvaweobis dasawyisSi gr. robaqiZe seriozulad ikvlevda da swavlobda dionises fenomens. `tragediis dabadebis~ Semdeg qarTveli mwerali maradiuli dabrunebis ideam Sei pyro, rasac mohyva dostoevskis SemoqmdebiT daintereseba. grigol robaqiZis msgavsad, knut hamsunic Tavis adrindel romanebSi Zlier ganicdida dostoevskis gavlenas _ `norvegieli dostoevski~, _ ase uwoda knut hamsuns cnobilma norvegielma kritikosma da mkvlevarma martin nagma. dostoevskiT gatacebuli gr. robaqiZe daJinebiT eZebda pasuxs kiTxvaze: `Tuki Cems Tavs maradiulad vubrundebi, rogor SeiZleba zekaci gavxde?~14 magram dostoevskimac ver mica mas kiTxvaze pasuxi da... `bolos da bolos, aRmosavleTi movida saSvelad~, _ werda robaqiZeETavis avtobiografiaSi. aqedan daiwyo misi dain teres eba aRmos av luri lit eraturiT a da filosofiiT. germaniis Semdeg gr. robaqiZe gaemgzavra parizSi, sadac bodlerisa da rembos poeziis gavlenis qveS moeqca.

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1894-1896 wlebSi knut hamsuni axlad aRiarebuli mwerali iyo, roca parizis bohemaSi gamoCnda. hamsuni xSirad xvdeboda `mgosanTa mefes~ _ megobrebisgan da axloblebisgan gariyul pol verlens. literaturul kafeSi hamsuni da verleni poeziaze saubrobdnen. am dros parizi alaparakda gogenis taitis periodis naxatebze... gogenma gadawyvita, samudamod dasaxldes Soreul taitize. knut hamsunic ocnebobs, odesme ewvios Soreul mzis qveyanas... `magram hamsuns sxva mze swyuria~, _ SeniSnavs georg brandesi da am fraziT mianiSnebs Crdiloeli mwerlis Soreul egzotikur mogzaurobaze, r om el ic m a n ka vk a s i aS i ga n ax or ci e la : `m ze s mowyurebuli~, aRmosavluri esTetikiT gatacebulma nordielma parizis Semdeg male miaSura kavkasias. grigol robaqiZis roman `Caklul sulSi~MmTavar gmirs _ Tamaz engurs metsaxelad `mzis Svili~ hqvia; romanis prologi mkafiod mianiSnebs vaJisa da mzis sakralur kavSirze: Tamazis oTaxSi mzis sxivebi `iRvreba~ da `vaJis sxeuls sixaruli eufleba~.15 Tamazi `fundameturad~ icnobs da Rrmad aris naziarebi evropul kulturas, bolSevikurma reJimma bolomde ver daTrguna masSi arqauli tomobrivi instinqti, gvartomobis grZnoba: `masSi cocxloben tomis Zirebi~. Tamazma literaturul fsevdonimad `enguri~ airCia, radgan man icis, rom qarTuli tomebi kavkasiaSi gilgameSis eposis samSoblodan movidnen. `enguri~ mdinares hqvia svaneTSi _ mudam moZravi da mousvenari, engurs Tamazi Sumerelis an qaldevelis saxels ukavSirebda.AromanSi xazgasmulia, rom Tamazi `namdvili aRmosavlelia~ da rom Tamaz engurs `piradi mimarTeba gaaCnia mTebTan da mzesTan~. Ggr. robaqiZe Tamaz engurs mTebis Svils uwodebda; marTlac, Tamazs gatacebiT uyvars mTebi. mis mSobliur mxareSi ­ svaneTSi, ori bumberazi mTa dgas: uSba da TeTnuldi. svanur legendebSi maT nefe-dedofals uwodeben. Tbilisis erT-erTi maRlobidan Tamazs uyvarda yazbegis Wvreta, TovliT dafaruli mTebis Semyures

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maradisobis gancda eufleboda: `iyo wuTebi, roca mzeSi, mTaSi is Tavis uZveles winapars xedavda~. am winaparSi igulisxmeba `adamianic da zeadamianuric.~ mTebisa da mzis xilva TamazisTvis `Tavdapirveli elementebis gancdaa~, da im wuTebSi `mzis Svili~ usazRvrod bednieri iyo.16 Tamaz engurisTvis saamayoa Tavisi eris uZvelesi istoria, romlis Tanaxmad, 2700-dan 3000-mde wlis wi n vanis tbis napirebze qaldevelTa (xaldevelTa) Zlieri saxelmwifo Seiqmna. saukuneebma Semoinaxa mefe argiSTis droindeli lursmnuli warwerebi, romelTa gaSifvra uWirT Tanamedrove mecnierebsac. erT-erTi mtkicebulebis Tanaxmad, maTi am oc no ba m xo lo d sv an ur is d ax mare bi T iy o SesaZlebeli.Eenguris xeobaSi erT qarTul sofels xalde hqvia. gr. robaqiZis romanSi aRniSnulia, rom qarTvelebi Tavis uZveles samSoblod babilons miiCneven. literaturisa da xelovnebis irgvliv gamarTul diskusiebSi romanis personaJebi moixmoben uZveles legendas Tamuzisa da iStaris Sesaxeb, romelTa sikvdili bunebis sikvdilis tolfasia, _ ase msjelobs romanis personaJi rusi erovnebis petrovi _ yofili s oc i ali st i da revolucioneri. Pyofili revolucioneris azriT, tropikul da subtropikul qveynebSi adgili ar aqvs bunebis sikvdils da gacocxlebas, es miTi CrdiloeTSi _ kaspiis zRvis napirze _ ganviTarda. TamazisTvis babilonuri eposebi poeziis umaRlesi gamoxatuleba iyo.Pis iziarebda gamoCenil mecnierTa varauds imis Sesaxeb, rom TamuziStaris miTologiuri samSobloAazerbaijani iyo: `es miTi uTuod ukavSirdeba zoroastris miTs _ vnebiTa da aalebadi cecxliT~, rac, Tavis mxriv ukavSirdeba hereTs ­ saqarTvelos uZveles kuTxes, sadac mTvaris kulti batonobda da romlis kvali dRemdea SemorCenili, xolo `ritualurad igi Tamuz-iStaris miTs unda ukavSirdebodes~.17 azerbaijanSi mogzaurobisas knut hamsunma piradad

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moinaxula e. w. cecxlis taZari `ateS ga~ surahanSi, baqos maxloblad.Mmweralma detalurad aRwera da ganixila mzis kultis irgvliv arsebuli miTologiuri da religiuri aspeqtebi. miTrasa da mzis kultTan mimarTebaSi man axsna surahanis cecxlis taZris sakulto daniSnuleba, rac mzis misteriasTan iyo dakavSirebuli: `bevri Cveni religiuri warmodgena, ro go rc Can s , ir anu li to me bis gan v is e s xe T. . . Suamdinarelebma, rogorc maTi warwerebi gvauwyeben, es warmodgenebi sparselebisgan gadmoiRes da dasavleTiT asurel xalxebs gadasces... ai, axla vimyofebiT im adgilas, saidanac qristianobam _ maradiuli cecxlis Sesaxeb _ Tavisi poeturi warmodgena aiRo.Aaq, miwaSi, binadrobda cecxli, romelic arc sakvebs iTxovda da arc wyals. Zvelebi cecxls miTrasTan, mzesTan, akavSirebdnen, romelic aseve maradiulad enTo da RvTis xatebas warmoadgenda.~ 18 robaqiZis roman `Cakluli sulis~ miTo-poeturi struqtura Seicavda filosofiur teqstebs, reminiscenciebs uxsovar warsulTan, aRmosavluri miTologiis citatebs, magaliTad, erTerTi aseTi arqauli testia miTi miTrasa da zigfridis SeWideba bnel ZalebTan.Aam WidilSi mzis RmerTis heliosis, saxeliT miTra klavs xars, zigfridi ­ urCxuls. gr. robaqiZis amave romanSi gaSifrulia verZisa da xaris simbolika, romelic, Tavis mxriv, ukavSirdeba mzis misterias. Tamaz enguri gatacebiT kiTxulobda aRmosavlur literaturas, sadac, misi TqmiT, `sxva axali `saxeebia~~ mocemuli.Mmis mier erT-erTi aRmosavluri `ciklis~ citirebisas mkiTxvelis winaSe saocari poeturi pasaJi gadaiSleba: `sxvadasxva feris Zroxa mdinaris napirTan xarbad xvreps wyals. wylis Sesmisas TiToeuli maTgani Tavs maRla wevs da zecas uyurebs: `Zroxebi mzis moaxloebas grZnoben. Tamazi `Wvrets~ amomavali mzis sxivebiT savse cxovelis Tvalebs~19 (pastoraluri idiliis unikaluri nimuSi). kavkasiaSi mogzaurobisas naTlad ikveTeba knut

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hamsunis interesi aRmosavluri kulturisa da civilizaciis mimarT, rasac is jer kidev mogzaurobamde iCenda.ATanamedrove `teqnizaciis~ epoqas daSorebuli civilizaciis cocxal `naSTebs~ norvegieli mogzauri Tbilisis aziur ubnebSi waawyda.Mmweralma aRtacebiT aRwera sparsi gadamwerebi, romlebic jixurebSi isxdnen da TavianT wminda movaleobas mSvidad, gulmodgined asrulebdnen.Kknut hamsunisTvis mniSvnelovania, rom man moinaxula da sakuTari TvaliT ixila aziuri ubnebis mSvidi, auRelvebeli yofa, adgilobrivi xalxis keTilSobileba da aRmosavluri udrtvinveloba. isini Rirseulad itandnen yovelgvar siRaribes. hamsunisTvis fsiqologiurad sainteresoa sparsel derviSTan Sexvedra da masTan dialogi baTumSi. mwerali xan musliman moxucebs `aedevna~ quCaSi _ farulad gaecno da daakvirda maTi yofis uCveulo wvrilmanebs. aRmosavluri mentalobis mqone adamianSi mweralma ufaqizesi fsiqologiuri niuansebi ganWvrita.Hhamsunis azriT, aziuri samyaro sakuTar TavSia Caketili _ daxuruli kulturaa da is Sors dgas Tanamedrove amerikanizmis merkantiluri da konformistuli interesebisgan (amerikanizmi hamsunis mier gaigivebulia teqnikis da progresis saukunesTan). hamsuns izidavda aRmosavluri fatalizmi, dasavleTis xmauriani da urbanuli civilizaciisgan ganridebuli adamianis Sinagani simSvide, keTilSobileba da sibrZne. Tamaz enguri xSirad aanalizebs da ixilavs (garkveulwilad, gr. robaqiZe enguris prototi pia) aRmosavluri miTisa da poeziis miTo-poetur saxeebs. magaliTad, romanSi `Cakluli s uli~ erT-erT filosofiur `diskusiaSi~ saubari exeba miTiur personaJ-qals, romlisganac iSva mze (naTlis dabadeba). romanSi citirebulia egvi pteli qalRmerTi neiTis sityvebi, romlebic misive qandakebis kvarcxlbekzea amotvifruli: `nayofi, romelic me vSvi, mze iyo~. Tamazi ganmartavs am sityvebis magiur mniSvnelobas: `RvTiuri sxivi dedakacis bnel wiaRSi moxvda da ase daiwyo

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RmerTis cxovreba: `sibnelidan sinaTle warmoiSva, wiaRma Sva mze~.20 amgvarad gaSifra robaqiZem qarTuli sityvis saidumlo ­ sityva mzera (look) ukavSirdeba mzes (sun) ­ mze da mzera (mze da mzera sun and look).Aamgvarad,Mmze niSnavs samyaros mzeras.Ppirvelma dedakacma Sva nayofi, anu mze. mivyveT romanis miTiur narativs:Mmiqelanjelos adamma Sexeda mzes da igrZno, rom `TviTonac nawili iyo mzisa~, amdenad, adami RvTiuri nayofidan Seiqmna. eseSi `Tamari~ gr. robaqiZe ganixilavda qarTveli mefe-qalis esTetikur fenomens. Tamaris plastikuri saxe gr. robaqiZem mzis simbolikas daukavSira: `roca mzem pirvelad ixila nilosi, cecxlis rgolebiT eambora mis aTrTolebul tansac. mzis kocnisgan nilosis talRam `daiWira~ mzis kocna da lotosad gaiSala.21 amgvari metafora moixmo gr. robaqiZem Tamaris fenomenis warmoCenisTvis. gr. robaqiZis ganmartebiT, Tamari iyo saqarTvelos istoriis plastikuri legenda, s a q a r T ve l o s i s t o r i a Si i g i ` q a l u r m x a r e s ~ warmoadgenda da rom is mudam naRvlobda `mziuri vaJis~ mimarT. mwerlis survilia, rom Tanamedrove `cecxlisa da maxvilis~ epoqaSi, `msoflio bedis trialSi~ saqarTvelos moevlinos `Zlevamosili mzevaJi~, romelic iseTive `vaJur legendas~ Seqmnida saqarTvelos istoriaSi, rogorc qaluri legendebi Seqmna didma Tamarma. Tamaris fenomeniT STagonebulma knut hamsunma dawera piesa `dedofali Tamari~ (1903). saqarTveloSi mogzaurobisas knut hamsuni gzadagza ecnoboda mefe TamarTan dakavSirebul legendebs, man naxa Tamaris saxelobis cixe-koSkebi, xidebi... XX saukunis evropis gamoCenili mwerali gancvifrebuli darCa, rom kavkasiaSi aseTi Zlieri iyo qali ­ mefis kulti, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom hamsuni saqarTvelos aRmosavluri kulturis konteqstSi moiazrebda _ `miTiuri realizmi~, ase SeiZleba Sefasdes misi `zRap ruli qveyana~, romlis avtori kavkasias aRmosavleTis zRaprul qveynad, nostalgiur zmanebad

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uf ro a Riq vamd a, vidr e da s av luri ku ltur is wiaRad.Uunda miviCnioT, rom es metadre, mwerlis miTopoeturi aRqmaa, vidre realisturi. erT-erT esseSi robaqiZe Seexo qarTuli poeziis unikalur nimuSs _ xalxur leqss `mzev, Sin Semodio~ da aRniSna, rom amgvari mimarTva (mzisadmi) `pirdapir genialuria~, es mimarTva gamoiyena qarTvelma romantikosma poetma aleqsandre WavWavaZem Tavis leqsSi (`Zeoba~), sadac, Svilis dabadebas qarTveli poeti mzis SemosvliT `acxadebda~. speqtaklze `londa~, romelic grigol robaqiZis piesis mixedviT daidga, robaqiZe SeniSnavda: `londa~ aris namdvili dabruneba mzesTan, yvelaferi masSi aris mzisgan, sicocxle da sikvdili.Ees aris namdvili misteria mzisa~.22 statias wamZRvarebuli aqvs amgvari fraza: `sicocxle mzea mwvave da Tu sicocxle ginda, glovac unda giyvardes~. gr. robaqiZe werda, rom atomis daSla samyaros kosmiur daSlas moaswavebda: `atomi kosmiuri monadaa samyarosi, didi faraoni exnatoni, mzis Tayvanismcemeli da mzis mgosani, ase mimarTavda xalxur himnSi mzes: `O Du Amme der Ungeborenen!~. qarTvelma mweralma da moazrovnem wamoWra kiTxva: romeli msoflio mgosani swvda mzes ase genialurad? atomi aris es `Amme~ qarTulad, albaT, `gadia~.23 1916 wels grigol robaqiZe, rogorc samxedro moxele sparseTSi gaemgzavra (analogiuri survili hqonda knut hams uns, romelmac kavkas iis Semdeg s pars eTSi mogzauroba dagegma, magram sabuTebis mougvareblobisa da sabanko operaciebis Seferxebis gamo mas es mogzauroba CaeSala). sparseTSi mogzaurobas gr. robaqiZe uwodebda `cxovrebis Semobrunebis wertils~: `mesopotamiis zRurblamde mivaRwie da mqonda SegrZneba, rom saukuneTa svlaSi dakarguli samSoblo vi pove~.24 gr. robaqiZe iziarebda istorikosTa mosazrebebs, romelTa mixedviT, qarTvelTa uZvelesi, pirveli samSoblo qaldea

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iyo.Mmwerals gamZafrebuli hqonda miwis grZnoba da am grZnobam is `kosmiurad~ moicva iranSi. zoroastrizmis samSobloSi ­ iranSi, robaqiZe Tan atarebda nicSes `zaratustras~ da firdousis, hafizis, omar xaiamis qveyanaSi ar iSorebda goeTes `divans~. aseve Tan hqonda babilonuri eposis `gilgameSis~ nawyvetebi.YgoeTemde aRmosavlurma literaturam sabolood gadawyvita robaqiZis, rogorc mwerlis, bedi. gr. robaqiZisTvis mze ar warmoadgenda `ubralo astronomiul movlenas~: `iran-mesopotamiur miwaze wamoimarTnen pirvelsamyaros goliaTuri figurebi da suraTebi~ (identuri esTetikuri aRqma hqonda hamsuns, roca man yazbegis goliaTi mTebi ixila). gr. robaqiZem sparseTis wiaRSi moiZia Tavisi Semoqmedebis `gasaRebi~ _ sparseTi iyo misi "poeturi samSoblo~, aRniSna kidec, romMmisi nawarmoebi Zlier ganicdida iranisa da `gilgameSis~ gavlenas.25 sparseTSi mogzaurobis Sedegad Seiqmna gr. robaqiZis romani `gvelis perangi~ (1926), niSandoblivia, rom robaqiZis es romanic gasuli saukunis 20-ian wlebSi germaniaSi gamoica. `gvelis perangs~ winasityvaoba cnobilma avstrielma mweralma Stefan cvaigma daurTo. Ggr. robaqiZis `gveli perangSi~ arCibald mekeSis mogzaurobis traeqtoria plastikurad warmoadgens wres, romelic sparseTidan, anu aRmosavleTidan, iwyeba (ixsneba) da grZeldeba saqarTvelosken _ `gza Sinisaken~.Aam mogzaurobaSi mekeSi `Soreul fesvebSi~ iZireba da mama-mamulSi dabrunebis netari gancda eufleba. Sin (qarTul miwaze) dabrunebisas ikvreba wre ­ maradiuli dabrunebis motivi: `mama samyaros gezia... aq yoveli elementi mTels ubrundeba~. aRmosavleTis gavliT mekeSi saqarTvelos daubrunda, kvlav moi pova dakarguli samSoblo da, sabolood, mistiuri wre Seikra: `saxlis siyvaruli _ sisxlis yivilia. cxovreba TviTon gkarnaxobs mSobliuri keris siyvaruls...~ _ vkiTxulobT hamsunis ukanasknel romanSi `wre ikvreba~ (1935).26

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20-ian wlebSi `gvelis perangi~ sabWoTa ideologTa mxridan cinikuri gansjisa da mwvave kritikis sababi gaxda: `arxeologiuri saqarTveloTi SeiaraRebuli~, `niRbebSi gamowyobili cilindrosani~, `zedmeti adamiani~ _ amgvari epiTetebiT Seamkes `gvelis perangis~ avtori. 27 Pproletkulturis ideologebma romani `faSizmis apologiad~ Seracxes da mwerlis winaaRmdeg saprotesto laSqroba moawyves. sabWoTa kritikam mkacrad dagmo romanis ZiriTadi motivebi: `faSituri motivebi~: `rasis apologia~, `adamianis fiziologiuri da fsiqiuri kavSiri Tavis miwasTan~ da mis `Zirebisken swrafva~.28 II msoflio omis Semdeg knut hamsunmsac igive braldebebi wauyenes _ `nordiuli rasis~ apologetad, nacionalistad da faSistad Seracxes.

15 grigol robaqiZe, Cakluli suli, Tbilisi, 1991. gv. 5. 16. iqve, gv. 6-7. 17. iqve, gv. 49. 18. knut hamsuni, dasax. naSromi. gv. 166-167. 19. grigol robaqiZe, `Serisxulni~, t. II, 2002, gv. 227. 20. iqve, gv. 228. 21. gaz. `saqarTvelo~, Tamaris asawerad, 1918, #80-91. 22. grigol robaqiZis werili `misteriidan `londa~~, gaz.: `rubikoni~, 1923, #5, gv. 2. 23. grigol robaqiZe, `Serisxulni~, tomi II, 2002, gv. 424. 24. iqve, gv. 229. 25, iqve; 26. , . . . V., , , 1996, . 421. 27. gaz.: "axalgazrda komunisti~, 1927, 18 ianvari. 28. iqve;

1. .: . , , 1910, . IV. 2. knut hamsuni, gancdili da nafiqrali kavkasiaSi, zRapruli qveyana, dedofali Tamari, gamomc. "inteleqti~, Tbilisi, 2006. 3. dokumeturi filmi _ `knut hamsunis kavksiuri misteriebi~, 2005 weli, (reJ. oliko JRenti). 4. . , . 1., . , , 1910, . 6-7. 5. grigol robaqiZis werili _ `ra unda agondebodes qarTvels~. wignidan `Serisxulni~, tomi II., 2002, gv. 35. 6. grigol robaqiZis werili _ `saqarTvelos xerxemali~. daibeWda JurnalSi `qarTuli mwerloba~, 1927, #1, gv. 29-37. 7. knut hamsuni. dasax. naSromi, gv. 65. 8. . . ., "~ , , 1979, . 54. 9. zviad gamsaxurdia, werilebi, eseebi. saqarTvelos sulieri missia, Tbilisi, 1991, gv. 212. 10. iqve; 11. knut hamsuni. dasax. naSromi, gv. 80. 12. werili `Cemi cxovreba~ wignidan `Serisxulni~, tomi II., grigol robaqiZe, gamomcemloba `gea~, 2002, gv. 225. 13. iqve, gv. 227. 14. iqve, gv. 228. 138 139

Teo xatiaSvili teleseriali, rogorc socio-kulturuli f eno m eni

`yvela xelovnebaSi aris fizikuris raRac nawili... mas ar SeuZlia, Tavi daaRwios Tanamedrove mecnierebisa da Tanamedrove praqtikis zegavlenas. udidesi aRmoCenebi cvlis xelovnebis mTel teqnikas da amiT zegavlenas axdens Tavad SemoqmedebiT azrze, rasac sabolood mivyavarT iqamde, rom icvleba Tavad xelovnebis gagebis cneba~.

pol valeri pol valeris es citireba aqvs wamZRvarebuli valter beniaminis cnobil werils xelovnebis nawarmoebi te qn ik uri r ep ro duc ir eb is ep oq aS i , ro me li c p op kul turis Tana medrove kv levebis er T- erT fundamentur teqstad iqca. avtori SesavalSive ayenebs arsobriv sakiTxs _ raSi mdgomareobs Tanamedrove xelovnebis, an ufro sworad _ xelovnebis Tanamedrove gageba. `uamravi fuWi msjeloba daixarja imis gadaWraze, iTvleboda Tu ara fotografia xelovnebad. amasTan aravin dainteresebula: xom ar Seicvala xelovnebis xasiaTi Tavad fotografiis gamogonebiT?~ _ kiTxulobs valter beniamini,1 romlis mier ukve sakiTxis amgvarad dasma dadebiT pasuxs gavaraudebinebs. beniaminis azriT, fotografia iyo swored xelovnebis axleburi modelis pirveli precedenti, romelSic moxs ni lia origin ali- as lis winaaRmdeg obrivi damokidebulebis problema, radgan Seqmnisa da gamravleba-reproducirebis teqnologiebi identuria. Tavis mxriv, axalma teqnologiebma mniSvnelovnad ganapiroba xelovnebis nimuSebSi Cadebuli sakulto da sagamofeno daniSnulebis prioritetTa gadalageba:

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ramdenadac pirveli sul ufro kargavs funqcias, meore TandaTanobiT umTavres Rirsebad iqceva. Sesabamisad, Tu religiuri naklebad an saerTod aRar gansazRvravs xelovnebis nawarmoebs, misi ideuri safuZveli politikaSi unda veZioT, anu, imaSi, Tu ra ideologias ga mo xat av s i gi . 2 a m fa qto ri s g aT va lis wi ne ba mniSvnelovani xdeba teleserialis ganxilvisasac, romelic, rogorc kompleqsuri socio-kulturuli fenomeni, dasavlur Teoriul praqtikaSi ukve didi xania iqca mravalmxrivi kvlevis obieqtad. udavoa, rom mas aqvs gasarTobi (anu, sagamofeno) funqcia, magram amave dros is s xvadasxva ideologiis Zlieri gamavrcelebelia. g ar Tobi s g ar ant ad g v ev line ba uryevi dramaturgiuli struqtura, rac narativ(eb)is usasrulo wyebaSi gamoixateba; Txrobis wyveta xdeba yvelaze k ulminaciur momentSi, r iTic mayur eblis cnobismoyvareoba gaaqtiurebulia da aiZulebs mas, momdevno seriis yurebas. am specifikuri Tvisebis gamo teleserialis Canasaxs ukve `aTas erTi Ramis~ struqturaSi xedaven; 3 dasavlur p oligrafiul sivrceSi ki jer kidev XIX saukuneSi Cndeba komiqsebi da TavSesaqcevi istoriebi minaweriT: `gagrZeleba iqneba~. e. w. `sapnis operis~ enciklopediuri gansazRvrac gangrZobadobas gamoyofs mTavar niSnad: ` [...] es aris teleforma, romelic iqmneba gagrZelebadi Ria narativiT. yoveli epizodi mTavrdeba dapirebiT, rom T xr o b is x az i s x v a e p iz o d Si ga n v iT a r de b a ~. 4 dramaturgiuli wyoba ganapirobebs ara mxolod cnobismoyvareobis gaRvivebas, aramed mis mudmiv daZabulobasac, molodins _ Tu ra iqneba Semdeg. ufro sworad _ rogor iqneba? ramdenadac dasasruli savaraudod cnobili da prognozirebadia, interess iwvevs iqamde misasvleli bevri paraleluri xazi, uamravi personaJis sakuTrivi istoria, romelic magistralur xazSia CarTuli. isini periodulad ikvreba, mTavrdeba, samagierod, sxva Cndeba da a. S.

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paraleluri istoriebi ganapirobebs mayureblis mudmiv CarTulobas, romelsac aucileblad sWirdeba, rom misi molodini dausruleblad ki ar gadaidos, aramed raRac etapze dakmayofildes. aqve aRvniSnav, rom teleserialis, rogorc raRac erTianis, ganxilva garkveulwilad arasworia, ramdenadac arsebobs `Sida diferenciacia~, rac araTu Janrobrivad, aramed imis mixedviTac ganisazRvreba, Tu sad iwarmoeba is masiurad. magaliTad, sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom laTino-amerikuli serialebi banalurad melodramatulia maSin, roca britanuli iZleva Tanamedrove sazogadoebis SedarebiT siRrmiseul da mravalplastian suraTs. sxvaTa Soris, serialis aRsaniSnad, romelic XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi amerikul radioSi gaCnda, sxvadasxva terminic gamoiyeneba, rac swored am diferenciacias met-naklebad iTvaliswinebs. magaliTad, gamoiyeneba tele-novela, romelic ufro TiToeul seriaSi daxuruli narativis formas gulisxmobs. yvelaze metad gavrcelebuli ki mainc sapnis operaa, romelic sruliad SemTxveviT _ pirveli radio-serialis masponsorirebeli sapnis mwarmoebeli firmebis Procter and Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive da Lever Brothers-is gamo ewoda (Tumca sayuradReboa is asociaturi konotaciebi, rasac saxelwodeba badebs da rac serialis Tvisobriobas Seesatyviseba; vTqvaT, `sapnis buSti~, anu iluzoruloba an sapnisgan g aR i zi a n eb i T g am o wv e u li cr e ml i , r o ml i Ta c gaJRenTilia serialTa didi nawili). magram yovelive amis miuxedavad, mainc arsebobs garkveuli normebi da m ax a s ia T e bl e b i, r om e l Ta m ix e d vi T Se s a Zl o a ganzogadebebi, monaTesave mxatvrul formebTan ms gavs e bis gans azRvra Tu im trans fo rmaciis Tvalisgadevneba, rac serialma Tavisi arsebobis manZilze gaiara (Tundac Sefasebebis mxriv). teleserialis narativi axlos dgas melodramasa da bulvarul romanTan, romelSic farTo auditoriis mosazidad aprobirebuli dramaturgiuli kodebia Cadebuli: SemTxveviToba, Sexvedris Sansi an, piriqiT,

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misi xelidan gaSveba, moulodneli saubari, romelic intrigas naTels mohfens, bolo wuTs gadarCena da a. S. TiTqos, gadatvirTuli da daxlarTuli dramaturgia mowodebulia martivad, raTa mayurebelma nebismier momentSi SeZlos masSi CarTva; amas ganapirobebs mkveTrad opoziciur, arqeti pul p ers onaJebTan (dadebiTi/uaryofiTi) identifikaciis siadvilec, romlebic yofiT, ojaxur, zogjer ki seriozul socialur Tu sazogadoebriv konfliqtebSi arian gaxveuli. nacnobi situaciebi da universaluri Tvisebebis matarebeli ti paJebi adamianTa axlebur komunikacias waaxalis ebs . roca zogadad televiziis mavne zegavlenaze saubroben xolme, xSirad miuTiTeben mis gamTiSvel rolze da magaliTad mohyavT xolme saRamos e r Ta d Se k r eb i l i o j a xi s we v r e bi , ro m l eb i c televizoris civ ekrans misSterebian; es ukanaskneli, TiTqos, maT salaparakos aRar utovebs. mkvlevarTa didi nawili ki, piriqiT, miiCnevs, rom telegadacema (da maT Soris, teleserialic) araTu axlobel adamianebs, aramed ucnobebs Sorisac inspirirebs saubris Temas; da xSirad sakmaod emociuri da daZabuli saubrisasac. dor oTi hobs oni `gza j var edin is ~ mayu rebl is g a m ok i T x v i s S e d e g ad m i v id a d a s kv n a m d e , r o m gans xvavebuli ti pisa da Taobebis adamianebSi popularuli seriali aaqtiurebda piradulze saubris moTxovnilebas: misi ganxilvisas sakuTar gamocdilebas umateben, yvebian problemebze, romelze sajaro saubaric serialis konteqstis gareSe uxerxuli iqneboda5. Tamar libessa da eliu katcs ki teleserialis sakomunikacio funqciis magaliTad mohyavT amerikaSi sacxovreblad Casuli rusi ebraelis `aRiareba~ _ `dalasis~ yureba mosalodneli saubrebisTvis mosamzadebeli saSinao davalebis Sesrulebas hgavso.6 sxvaTa Soris, mravali kvlevis Sedegad vlindeba, rom `dalasis~ usazRvro popularobis ZiriTad kriteriumad mayurebeli mis `realisturobas~ asaxelebs

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da miiCnevs, rom is 80-iani wlebis teqsasis Statis yovlismomcvel suraTs iZleva. saerTod reitingul serialebs xSirad axasiaTeben, rogorc `cxovrebiseuls~, anu, igulisxmeba, rom isini namdvili da damajerebelni arian. es mxolod `gulubryvilo mayureblis~ aRqma ar aris; mTeli Tavisi iluzorulobis, Selamazebulobisa da glamurisadmi swrafvis miuxedavad, mkvlevrebi teleserialebSi socrealizmis gamovlinebasac xedaven. yvelaze ufro banalur serialSic ki yovelTvis aris `populisturi realizmi~. teleseriali, rogorc popkulturis erT-erTi yvelaze mZlavri produqti, realobis refleqsirebas SedarebiT martiv-masobriv enaze axdens da amdenad, xSir SemTxvevaSi ufro uadvildeba sazogadoebaSi arsebuli ama Tu im mwvave problemis reprezentireba, vidre es akademiur kulturaSia SesaZlebeli. serialTa popularobasac m aTi dr oi sadm i Se saty v is oba gans az Rv ravs . `gzajvaredinebi~, `koronaciis quCa~, `aRmosavleT raionelebi~ da a. S. 80-iani wlebidan gadis BBC-sa Tu s xvadas xva amerikuli arxis eTerSi da yovel aTwleulSi wamoiWreba da aqcentirdeba ama Tu im drois aqtualuri sakiTxebi. `aRmosavleT raionelebis~ prodiuser julia smiTis TqmiT, `gadavwyviteT, mivdioT realistur dramas, romelic SeiZleba moicavdes umuSevrobas, rasobriv Cagvras, homoseqsualobas, ojaxur Zaladobas, narkotikebis moxmarebasa Tu misiT vaWrobas...~.7 serialebSi sul ufro farTod iWreba axali Temebi, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, Sidsi, evTanazia, mentaluri problemebi da a. S. miuxedavad imisa, rom sabolood serialTa umetesoba mainc mkafiod gamoxatul konservatul ideologias atarebs, rac ojaxuri fu nd ame nt ali zm is aR iar eb as a d a m or ali zm is damkvidrebas axdens, imavdroulad generirebas uwevs axal Temebs, ganapirobebs farTo auditoriis mier maT mimReobas , ris Sedegadac tabuirebuli iqceva TanagrZnobis an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, gagebisa da `mitevebis~ sagnad. sociologebi miiCneven, rom

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`aRmosavleT raionelebma~ Tineijerebs gacilebiT meti informacia misca Sidsis Sesaxeb, vidre Sidsis prevenciis nacionalurma fondma; feministuri moZraobis erT-erTi aqtivisti erin pizi ki aRiarebs, rom qalebze Zaladobis winaaRmdeg sakiTxis dayeneba am serialidan ufro popularuli gaxda, vidre misi 25 wliani moRvaweobis Sedegad.8 unda aRiniSnos, rom saerTod ukanasknel xanebSi feministuri kritika teleserials aRar ganixilavs, rogorc erTmniSvnelovani stereoti pizaciis sivrces, romelic diasaxlisebisTvis aris gankuTvnili da romelic maT lamazi tyuilebiT kvebavs. `gaqceva~ _ am terminiT gamoxataven im negatiur konotacias, romlis Tanaxmadac teleserialebisa Tu bulvaruli romanebis momxmarebeli qali iqmnis iluzorul, virtualur samyaros, ramdenadac ar (an ver) surs realobisadmi Tvalis gasworeba; am samyaroSi is garkveulwilad iRebs sakuTari ararealizebulobis kompensacias da kmayofildeba. rogorc wesi, miCneulia, rom sapnis opera, melodramis msgavsad, sentimentalurobisken midrekili qalebis, konkretulad ki mainc ufro `usaqmuri~ diasaxlisebis `Janria~; Tumca, Tu zemoT aRniSnul mosazrebas gavixsenebT, rom teleseriali (iseve rogorc melodrama) ojaxur faseulobebs, mis stabilurobasa da uryevobas aRiarebs da ukiduresad moralisturia, moCvenebiTobis miRma aRmovaCenT mis absoluturad maskulinur ideologias. Sesabamisad teleserialis Sesaxeb Tavdapirveli feministuri kvlevebi ukiduresad uaryofiTad afaseben mis rols qalis TviTSefasebisa da identifikaciis procesSi, rodesac am ukanasknels kidev ufro uRrmavdeba ojaxis winaSe valdebulebisa da masTan mijaWvulobis gancda. Tumca mogvianebiT teleserialebTan erTad am teqstebis gadakiTxvac xdeba. mkvlevarTa azriT, qalebis mier teleserialis sistematuri yureba, marTalia, susti, magram mainc protestia yoveldRiuri ojaxuri rutinisadmi. eTiSeba ra Tundac mcire droiT saojaxo problemebsa da

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saqmianobas, is iZens avtonomias, rCeba Tavis TavTan marto sakuTari interesebiT, gancdebiT, siamovnebiT...9 gamokiTxvebis safuZvelze Catarebulma kvlevebma aCvena, rom yovelTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania droiTi Tu geografiul-kulturuli konteqstis gaTvaliswineba, rasac xSirad Sesworeba Seaqvs sayovelTaod miRebul, universalur SefasebebSi. magaliTad, jeki steisma qalTa JurnalebSi gamoaqveyna gancxadeba, raTa gamoxmaurebodnen 60 wels gadacilebuli britaneli qalbatonebi, romlebic 40-50-ian wlebSi xSirad dadiodnen kinoTeatrebSi holivudis filmebis sanaxavad. aRmoCnda, rom kinoSi siarulis motivacia sruliadac ar iyo erTgvarovani da, rac ufro mniSvnelovania, amis Sedegad miRebuli siamovneba gacilebiT meti iyo, vidre damoukideblad filmis, rogorc teqstisgan. kinoSi s iar uli Tavis ebu ri rituali iyo , r iTic xorcieldeboda `gaqceva~ ara imdenad piradi cxovrebis mouwyoblobidan da rutinidan, ramdenadac omisa da omisSemdgomi britaneTis siRaribisa da gaWirvebisgan. mayurebels ara marto holivudis TvalismomWreli dekoraciebi izidavda, aramed kinoTeatrebis mdidruli interieric, romelSic gacilebiT komfortulad grZnobdnen Tavs, vidre sakuTar saxlSi. rac Seexeba identifikaciis sakiTxs, jeki steisma am SemTxvevaSic tradiciuli warmodgenidan sapirispiro daskvnebi miiRo. aRmoCnda, rom `holivudis varskvlavebi SeiZleba davinaxoT, rogorc ufro meti, vidre seqsualuri mimzidvelobis martivi mibaZvis nimuSebi (Tumca isini amas agreTve cxadad gvTavazoben). isini aseve daamaxsovrdaT, rogorc qali mayureblisTvis ufro Zlieri da Tavdajerebuli `me~-s SeTavazebis wyaro~.10 i s , ra c h o l i v u di s v a r s k v la v T a x a z g as m u l i erotizaciiT qalze kontrolis meqanizmad miiCneoda, konservatorul da viqtorianuli SezRudvebis britaneTSi qalTa emansi paciisken garkveuli biZgi aRmoCnda. `qaluri `me~-s warmoeba amerikulobasTan kavSirSi niSnavda `avtonomias~, `individualobas~ da

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` d a mo u k i d eb l o b a s ~ i m d r oi n d e l i b e v r i q a l i mayureblisTvis~.11 jeki steisis kvlevis SedarebiT dawvrilebiTi aRwera imisTvis damWirda, rom damedasturebina, Tu interpretaciisTvis ramxela sivrces tovebs yvelaze ufro banaluri (tele)teqstic ki. Samwuxarod, am mravalferovnebisTvis nakleb masalas gvaZlevs qarTuli teleseriali. `populisturi realizmi~ masSi ZiriTadad erTi mimarTulebiT viTardeba _ mouwyobeli garemo, damTrgunveli socialuri foni da am niadagze ganviTarebuli korufciul-kriminaluri istoriebi. paraleluri dinebebi TiTqmis ar aris an Zalian sustad aris gamovlenili, rac intrigas da daZabulobas ver uzrunvelyofs. simptomaturia erTi maxasiaTebeli niSani, rac ara marto qarTul teleserialSi, aramed kinoSic iCens Tavs _ TiTqmis ignorirebulia melodramatuli xazi, rac nebismieri Janris serialis popularobis erT-erTi mTavari garantia. ra unda iyos amis mizezi, es sxva da Tanac mravalmxrivi kvlevis Temaa da amjerad ubralod SevCerdebi faqtis k on s t at aci aze , ro g or c f o r mi s k ano n e bi s gauTvaliswineblobis magaliTze. qarTuli kinowarmoebis Seferxeba-Sewyvetis p irobebSi reJisorTa didma nawilma erTgvari TavSesafari monaxa televiziaSi, Tumca xSir SemTxvevaSi ver moxerxda adaptacia monaTesave, magram sxva ti pis ekranul sanaxaobasTan. ZiriTadad teleserialze muSaoba xdeba mxatvruli kinos gadaRebis pretenziiT. Zalze simptomaturia yvelaze masStaburi serialis `qaRaldis tyviis~ reJisoris, levan TuTberiZis, mier winasareklamo interviuSi gamoTqmuli azri imis Taobaze, rom es ar iyo ti puri seriali da mayurebels sami seriis naxva mainc dasWirdeboda imis gasarkvevad, Tu vin vin iyo da, saerTod, ra xdeboda masSi. rogorc ukve aRvniSne, serialisTvis aucilebelia Txrobis simartive da lakonuroba, raTa mayurebeli nebismier momentSi CaerTos yurebis procesSi ise, rom gasagebi

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iyos winare peri petiebi. amdenad, serialis specifikaSi odnav gaTviTcnobierebuli adamianisTvisac ki ukve naxsenebi interviuTi cxadi iyo am ambiciuri proeqtis warumatebloba. frangi Teo r etiko s i r oJ e o deni Janris Taviseburebebis ganxilvisas aRniSnavs: `mxatvruli kinos kanonebiT gadaRebuli saojaxo-samoyvarulo filmi iseve autanelia mayureblisTvis, rogorc mxatvruli filmi, gakeTebuli samoyvarulo poetikaSi; Tumca es sulac ar gamoricxavs im faqts, rom yvelaze ufro daxvewilma kinomanma SeZlos, siamovnebis miReba axloblis mier gadaRebuli samoyvarulo filmisgan, Tuki daculia instituciis wesebi da pirobebi~.12 am wesebsa da pirobebzea damokidebuli mayureblis molodini, romlis uaryofis SemTxvevaSi kontaqti ekransa da auditorias Soris ver myardeba. rodesac reJisori Janruli kinos kanonebis principul darRvevas, mizanmimarTul ngrevas axdens, isic swored am kanonebiT mani pulirebs. rig SemTxvevaSi utrirebulia an, piriqiT, Tavdayiraa dayenebuli nacnobi sqema an sqema SenarCunebulia, magram mas axorcieleben personaJebi sqemis Sesabamisi tradiciuli rolebis gadacvliT (am variaciebis araCveulebrivi reprezentaciis magaliTebia kventin tarantinosa Tu pedro almodovaris filmebi) da a. S. am SemTxvevaSi reJisori Tavisuflad, magram aseve kanonebis sferoSi moZraobs da mayurebelic siamovnebas iRebs TamaSSi CarTvisgan, roca xvdeba, rom avtorma Zalze kargad icis misTvisac (mayureblisTvis) nacnobi sqemebi da kanonebi, romliTac Jongliorobs an kanonikuri ekranuli realobis ukuRma konstruirebas axdens. qarTul teleserialSi `instituciis wesebisa da pirobebis~ gauTvaliswinebloba sul sxva xasiaTisaa _ samwuxarod, is ara imdenad Semoqmedis `Tavxeduri~ improvizaciis gamovlinebaa, ramdenadac TamaSis wesebis arcodnisa. maSin, rodesac jer kidev Camouyalibebelia f or m a, ras akv i rv e li a, n aad re v i a q ar Tuli

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teleserialisadmi novaciuri Temebis wamoWris moTxovna, rac dasavleTSi gansakuTrebiT 80-iani wlebidan Zalze intensiurad, SesaZloa, cota plakaturad, magram masobrivi auditoriisTvis gasageb da misaReb enaze warmoebs. Tumca es, albaT, zogadad Cveni Tanamedrove ku ltu ris pro ble maa, r ode sac (uk idu res ad politizirebul sazogadoebaSi) TiTqmis ar arsebobs `s oc ia lur is a~ T u ` p o li tik ur is ~ gan cd a da moTxovnileba.

1. . . . . . 1988/2 2. iqve. 3. . . . . 4. www.wirkipedia.org 5. j. sTori. kulturologia da popularuli kulturis kvleva. Tbilisi, 2007. 6. iqve. 7. www.museum.tv 8. www.aber.ac.uk 9. j. sToris dasaxelebuli naSromi. 10. iqve. 11. iqve. 12. . . . . 11.

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vaJa zubaSvili satelevizio politikuri reklama, rogorc politikuri komunikaciis forma

`warmovidginoT, rogori iqneboda evropis momavali, 1917 wels muSebsa da glexebs (vinc mxari dauWira oqtombris gadatrialebas), leninis _ rogorc `beladisa da upovarTa damcvelis~ nacvlad `teroristisa da banditis~ xateba rom hqonoda.~1

politikuri s atelevizio reklama pirvelad amerikaSi gamoCnda (rogorc mkvlevarebi amboben, 1952 wels) d. eizenhaueris mxardasaWerad. amave wels amerikul televizias pirvelad gadaucia pirdapiri translaciiT respublikuri da demokratiuli partiebis yrilobebi. 60-iani wlebidan amerikuli politikuri reklamis leqsikonSi komerciuli reklamis terminebic gaCnda: `imiji~, `SefuTva~, `kandidatis gayidva~ da gaCnda azri, rom politika partiul kabinetebSi ki ara, sareklamo saagentoebis saaparatoebSi iqmneboda; da rom erTi da imave strategiiT SeiZleba gayido saponic da prezidentobis kandidatic. sareklamo rgolebi ki mxolod kozirebia kargi moTamaSis xelSi. sabWoTaA kavSiris rRvevisa da Semdgomi periodis saqarTvelos s ocialur-politikurma viTarebam mkveTrad gazada qarTuli sazogadoebis politikuri aqtivoba, romelic mkveTri polarizaciiT xasiaTdeba da postsabWoTa sindromiT jer kidev saxelmwifozea `mibmuli~. amitom `vardebis revoluciis~ Semdgomi demokratiuli reformebi susti ekonomikis pirobebSi mZime socialur fonze sazogadoebis didma nawilma Tavdasxmad, piradi uflebebis xelyofad aRiqva da iseve, rogorc araerTgzis (gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebidan moyolebuli) 2007 wlis noemberSi xalxi kvlav quCaSi gamovida. dainiSna vadamdeli saprezidento arCevnebi.

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erTi SexedviT, xalxis moTxovna da ganwyobilebebi naTelia _ is langarze devs; amitom aravis ucdia zustad gaerkvia xalxis aRSfoTebis mizezi. nebismieri PR da sareklamo kampania mxolod sazogadoebrivi azris safuZvliani Seswavlis Sedegebis mixedviT igegmeba, ris gareSec SeuZlebelia swori komunikaciis damyareba. marketologebis azriT, qarTuli sazogadoebis, rogorc momxmareblis, fenomeni, Seuswavlelia. `qarTveli momxmarebeli iracionaluri da alogikuria... Zne lia amoic no i s sti muli , ro melze c Cv eni momxmarebeli reagirebs. es imitom, rom aravis Seuswavlia saqarTveloSi momxmareblis qcevis logika.~2 politikosic marketinguli produqtia, romlis warmatebul komunikacias s azogadoebasTan PR teqnologiebi uzrunvelyofs. PR rTuli, integrirebuli komunikaciaa; misi uamravi ganmarteba arsebobs umniSvnelo sxvaobebiT, romelTac erTi mTavari azri aerTianebs: PR aris moqmedeba STagonebis saSualebaTa gamoyenebiT, romelic mimarTulia sazogadoebrivi azris formirebisa an koreqciisaken (konkurentunarianobis gaZlierebis mizniT, mraval ideaTa Soris erTi ideis gamosarCevad). politteqnologebma, marketologebma da PR-is mimarTulebiT momuSave specialistebma uzarmazari g am o c di leba d aagr o ve s d a gan Wv r it e s i s kanonzomierebani, rac xels uwyobs kandidatisa da eleqtoratis urTierTgagebas ; gans azRvres is instrumentebi, romelTa gamoyenebac kandidats saSualebas aZlevs gaxdes xalxis rCeuli. politikuri reklamis erT-erTi, magram yvelaze Zlieri instrumentia satelevizio reklama. televizia ZiriTadi Suamavali gaxda politikoss da amomrCevels Soris. televiziis mier Seqmnili sainformacio veli aris is baza, romlis saSualebiTac mayurebeli, rogorc amomrCeveli, iqmnis da icvlis Sefasebebs kandidatTa mimarT. cnobili amerikeli politkonsultanti dik morisi

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(mis klientTa Soris iyo prezidenti bil klintoni) wers, rom amerikeli amomrCevlis 40% Tavis arCevans akeTebs sainformacio nakadis, ufro konkretulad, televiziis zegavleniT; morisi maT `sainformacio narkomanebs~ uwodebs.3 PR ax dens gavle nas s a zogad oebri vi az ris Camoyalibebaze _ koreqcias ukeTebs mas an sruliad ucvlis mimarTulebas; reklama ubiZgebs sazogadoebriv azrs qmedebisaken da exmareba gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. gadamwyveti roli saarCevno kampaniaSi eniWeba kandidatis imijs. imiji _ es aris politikuri saxe, romelic winaswargamiznulad yalibdeba da sagangebod iqmneba dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad. magram imiji ar aris uZravi xati. is moqmedebaSia, mas aqvs dasawyisi, ganviTarebis etapebi. mis dinamikas ganapirobebs mravali faqtori _ eleqtoratis regionuli, demografiuli, eTno-fsiqologiuri, socialuri faqtorebi, situaciuri faqtorebi... imijs, romelic gansazRvruli strategiiT iqmneba politikuri miznis misaRwevad, reklamisa da sxva saSualebebis gamoyenebiT, ewodeba strategiuli saxe.4 politteqnologebi kandidatis reklamirebul saxes ganixilaven, rogorc `liders publikisaTvis~; umetes SemTxvevaSi `lideri publikisaTvis~ didad gansxvavdeba lideri _ realuri pirovnebisagan. kandidatis imiji kargad unda esadagebodes lideris pirad Tvisebebs, im politikas, romlis gatarebasac apirebs lideri da risi molodinic aqvs amomrCevels. es imiji, ZiriTadad, ori konkretuli formiT yalibdeba: lideri _ `erTi CvenTagani~, romelic yvela adamianuri Tvisebis matarebelia, masSi dadebiTTan erTad, negatiuric arsebobs, magram negatiuri advilad unda iTqvifebod es pozitiu rSi da iwv evdes sazogadoebis Semwynareblur damokidebulebas; lideri `gmiri~ _ misi Tvisebebi mkveTrad unda aRematebodes Cveulebrivi adamianis, `erTi CvenTaganis~

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Tvisebebs; is `Cvenze kargi~ unda iyos _ is, vinc riskiania, dagvicavs da win gagviZRveba; magram, amasTan, ar unda iy os i md en ad aRmate bu li , rom amo mr Ce ve ls TviTSefasebaSi damcirebulis grZnoba gauCndes da distancireba moxdes. man unda wagviyvanos momavlisaken, cxovrebis axali wesisaken, magram ar unda gaucxovdes Cvengan, iseTive cxovrebis wesiT unda cxovrobdes, rogorc Cven. saarCevno kampania kargad dadgmul speqtakls hgavs _ movlenaTa ganviTarebis myari dramaturgiiT, saxeTa konkretizaciiT, romelic speqtaklisagan gansxvavebiT met drosa da sivrceSi da sakomunikacio arxebSia gaSlili. mediis cnobili mkvlevari marSal maklueni aRniSnavs: televizia samyaros mozaikur suraTs qmnis da mayurebelma TiTon icis, rogor daalagos informaciis meSveobiT miRebuli calkeuli elementebi.5 2008 wlis 5 ianvris riggareSe saprezidento arCevnebSi 7 kandidati monawileobda. gazeT `24 saaTma~ gamoaqveyna mediasabWos winasaarCevno monitoringis Sedegebi, romlis mixedviTac saeTero dro, romelic telemauwyeblebma (saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli, `rusTavi 2~, `mze~) dauTmes kandidatebs, ase ganawilda: 1. levan gaCeCilaZe _ 16 saaTi, 36 wuTi, 20 wami 2. arkadi (badri) patarkaciSvili _ 11 saaTi, 10 wuTi, 37 wami 3. daviT gamyreliZe _ 14 saaTi, 31 wuTi, 6 wami 4. Salva naTelaSvili _ 14 saaTi, 30 wuTi, 3 wami 5. mixeil saakaSvili _ 19 saaTi, 46 wuTi, 47 wami 6. gia maisaSvili _ 11 saaTi, 36 wuTi, 47 wami 7. irina sariSvili _ 7 saaTi, 36 wuTi, 47 wami saeTero dro, romelic televiziebma dauTmes prezidentobis kandidatTa politikuri gundebis wevrebs: 1. levan gaCeCilaZe _ 58 saaTi, 16 wuTi, 55 wami 2. arkadi (badri) patarkaciSvili _ 26 saaTi, 13 wuTi, 30 wami 3. daviT gamyreliZe _ 26 saaTi, 35 wuTi, 47 wami

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4. Salva naTelaSvili _ 14 saaTi, 25 wuTi, 47 wami 5. mixeil saakaSvili _ 101 saaTi, 37 wuTi, 39 wami.6 aqve miTiTebulia, rom monitoringis SedegebSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli is dro, romelic prezidentobis kandidat arkadi (badri) patarkaciSvilisa da misi saarCevno Stabis yofili ufrosis valeri gelbaxianis makomprometirebli faruli audio da video Canawerebis (generaluri prokuraturis operatiuli masalebi) translirebas daeTmo. am masalebis gamoqveynebiT xelisuflebam sakmaod seriozuli dartyma miayena opoziciis liderTa nawils. badri patarkaciSvilis saarCevno kampanias kidev erTi, TiTqosda, umniSvnelo svla daupirispirda _ misi popularuli saxeli `badri~ erT mSvenier dRes sainformacio saSualebebSi Canacvlda misi oficialuri saxeliT _ `arkadi~. eqspertebi aRniSnavdnen, rom mixeil saakaS vilisaTvis mTavari k onkurenti badri patarkaciSvilia, magram `sareklamo brZola~, ZiriTadad, mixeil saakaSvilsa da levan gaCeCilaZes Soris mimdinareobda. orive kandidati da sxvebi (daviT gamyreliZe, arkadi/ badri patarkaciSvili, Salva naTelaSvili) TavianT sareklamo rgolebSi iyenebdnen e. w. `kinosimarTlis~ qronikalur-dokumentur princi ps, sadac vizualuri xati ZiriTadad amomrCevelTan maTi cocxali urTierTobaa. magram Zalian mniSvnelovania am vizualuri xatebis komunikaciuri diferenciacia da maTi zusti mimarTva erTi konkretuli miznisaken. erTi SexedviT, yvela kandidati erTi princi piT muSaobs, magram, Tu maT ganvixilavT rogorc politteqnologiur produqtebs, sxvaoba didia. mixeil saakaS vilis imiji _ ener giuli, mizanswrafuli; uyvars Seneba da yvelaferi axali da ganaxlebuli; SeuZlia Secdomebis aRiareba; icis xalxisa da qveynis problemebi; igi Tanmimdevrulia am problemebis gadawyvetaSi; man icis Tavisi mizani; igi

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aRar avlebs paralelebs aRarc SevardnaZesa da aRarc oponentebTan; is aqcentebs akeTebs mxolod istoriul warsulsa da istoriul momavalze, romlis saZirkvelic dRes aq _ awmyoSi, iqmneba misi monawileobiT. es imij i Tanabrad na wildeba s ate levizio sainformacio saSualebebis _ `iribi reklamis~ da politikuri (fasiani Tu ufaso drois) sareklamo rgolebis saSualebiT. egreT wodebul saidentifikacio etapze (sareklamo kampaniis warmoebis pirveli etapi amerikuli gamocdilebis mixedviT) amomrCevelma yuradReba unda SeaCeros kandidatis prioritetul niSan-Tvisebebze da da Seiqmnas masze warmodgena. am etapze xSirad iyeneben avtoritetTa damowmebas. gavixsenoT kli pi _ msaxiob oTar koberiZis mcdeloba literaturul-kinogmir baSi-aCukTan mixeil saakaSvilis asocirebisa. es kli pi arcTu didxans trialebda teleeTerSi; SesaZloa, imitomac, rom ukve xandazmuli `baSi-aCukis~ (oTar koberiZis) moSvelieba baSi-aCukTan mixeil saakaSvilis paralelisTvis sakmaod mouqneli da xisti svla iyo da komikuric. am kli pisagan gansxvavebiT, musikalur kli pSi `miSa magaria!~ momgebianadaa gamoyenebuli yvelanairi kodi _ portretuli, lingvisturi, xmovani; TiToeuli kodi ramdenime subkods Seicavs. kli pis moqmedeba ganaxlebul siRnaRSi viTardeba. ganaxlebuli siRnaRi _ istoria, Seneba, momavali; xalxi _ mTavari aqcenti axalgazrdobaze _ maTi yofis yvela segmentis diferenciaciiT (swavla, dasveneba, Sroma, hobi, qorwineba, momavali... sxvadasxva asakis moswavleebi, studentebi, patriotebi, jariskacebi...). qveynis ZiriTadi mamoZravebeli Zala axalgazrdobaa! kli pis melodia msubuqi da mxiarulia, teqsti _ martivi, romelic subtitrebis saxiT Cndeba da TeTri feridan wiTel ferze gadadis simReris teqstis Tanmimdevrulad. kli pis yvela monawile, yvela nakadi saqarTvelos droSebiT da mixeil saakaSvilis saarCevno nomer 5-is

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demonstrirebiT SeuCerebeli, laRi svliT, erT moedanze iyris Tavs da es STambeWdavi masa erTad da erTxmad adasturebs: `miSa magaria!~ da imarTeba ferxuli; kidev erTxel Cndeba grafikuli nomeri 5 da titri _ `gadaRebulia zustad 5 wuTSi!~ garda imisa, rom titrSi kidev erTxel figurirebs mixeil saakaSvilis saarCevno nomeri, igi gvigzavnis mesijs _ Cven Segvwevs Zala da unari aseTi didi samuSao _ aseTi didi masis organizeba, ase Cqara da xarisxianad SevasruloT! am kli pSi `piradi dadasturebis~ (komerciuli reklamis meTodi, rodesac momxmarebeli an avtoriteti piradad adasturebs produqtis Rirsebebs) masobriv saxes vxedavT _ sxvadasxva socialuri fenisa da asakis uamravi adamiani piradad adasturebs: `miSa magaria!~ mixeil saakaSvili mudmivad asocirdeba saxelmwifos mzard SesaZleblobebTan, Senebasa da siaxlesTan; saarCevno kampaniaSi amisaTvis ZiriTadad `iribi reklamaa~ gamoyenebuli, gansakuTrebiT, kampaniis pirvel etapze. xSirad xdeba satelevizio programebis gaWra specialuri gamoSvebebiT, sadac mixeil saakaSvilis Sexvedrebi amomrCevelTan ukomentarod gadaicema (Sexvedrebi Sromisa da omis veteranebTan, mecnierebTan, goris axali samxedro bazis gaxsna, mcxeTa-senakis avtobanis monakveTis gaxsna nino burjanaZesTan erTad da a. S.). arapirdapir, magram mixeil saakaSvilis sasargeblod muSaobs prezidentobis movaleobis Semsrulebel nino burjanaZisa da premierministr lado gurgeniZis mudmivi Sexvedrebi sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebTan.D paralelurad muSaobas iwyebs zumbas musikaluri kli pi, romelSic ZiriTadad lingvisturi kodebia gamoyenebuli: Jami patiebis _ Jami gamTlianebis _ Jami Senebis. vizualur xatSi samoqalaqo dapirispirebis usiamovno SegrZnebas upirispirdeba patriotTa banakisa da xalxis mxiaruli, sazeimo demons traciebi. musikaluri fraza _ `gamarjvebisaken gza gagvinaTe, mzeo!~ emTxveva mixeil s aakaSvilis gamosvlas

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amomrCevlis winaSe _ ficarnagze mdgomi mixeil saakaSvilis fonze misive proeqcia did ekranze. SemdgomSi zumbas musikaluri kli pis ZiriTadi laitmotivi ramdenime mokle variantiT mixeil saakaSvilis saarCevno nomer 5-is saidentifikacio variaciebs gvTavazobs, agebuls demografiuli da s oc ia l ur i s p e qt ri s T iT q mi s y ve la Z i ri Ta d warm omadgene lTa mier #5-is J estikulaciiT dadasturebaze _ TiToeulisTvis damaxasiaTebeli plastikiT. mTavari aqcenti mixeil saakaSvilis sareklamo kampaniaSi gadatanilia problemis ganxilvaze (saarCevno kampaniis meore etapi amerikuli gamocdilebiT). am etapze kandidati amJRavnebs sazogadoebaSi arsebuli problemebis, maTi mogvarebisa da gadaWris gzebis codnas da qmnis motivacias prezidentad misi arCevisTvis. am ti pis sareklamo rgolebSi yalibdeba mixeil saakaSvilis strategiuli saxe _ mas SeuZlia Secdomebis aRiareba, icis xalxis problemebi da SeuZlia maTi gadawyveta! amasTan, axdens sakuTari popularobis demonstrirebas, axlos midis xalxTan, zog SemTxvevaSi adgilzeve wyvets problemebs: oponentebi sayveduroben demografiis Sesaxeb kanonis Cagdebas: _ mixeil saakaSvili Cvil bavSvebTan; bavSvi umanko Rimils Cuqnis; akritikeben s o cialur i p ro blem e bis mougvareblobisTvis: _ mixeil saakaSvili moxucTa TavSesafarSi; mixeil saakaSvili avadmyof pensionerTan _ `Senma polisma gadagvarCina, Svilo!~ da prezidentobis kandidatis TanagrZnobis cremli msxvili xediT; mixeil saakaSvili martoxela moxucs stumrobs meuRlesTan, sandrasTan, erTad da adgilzeve iZleva gankargulebas, Seucvalon damsxvreuli minebi... adanaSauleben eklesiis Seviwroebasa da ngrevaSi: _ mixeil saakaSvili eklesiis saZirkvlis CayraSi

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monawileobs, esaubreba sasuliero pirebs, Cuqnian xatebs; mixeil saakaSvili ruseTis bazis mier datovebuli samonastro kompleqsis ezoSi da a. S. paralelurad, xelisufleba xels awers patriarqTan SeTanxmebas _ eklesiisaTvis miwebis gadacemis Taobaze; premierministri adgens pensiebis gazrdis konkretul vadebs, axalSobilebs eniSneba erTjeradi fuladi daxmareba, studentebs _ saxelobiTi sti pendiebi... yovelive aman unda daadasturos, rom prezidentobis kandidatis sityva da saqme erTia _ mas Seswevs unari, gadawyvitos problemebi. am ti pis sareklamo rgolebi axali ambebis stilSia gadawyvetili im gansxvavebiT, rom mixeil saakaSvilis Sexvedrebze muSaobs ramdenime kamera (moZravi satelevizio sadguris saSualebiT), kargad Cans Sexvedrebis masStaburoba, dinamika, adamianebi. saarCevno kli pebSi mixeil saakaSvils vxedavT xalxis uzarmazar masebTan, gvesmis fragmentebi misi g am o s v l eb i d an ; s u bt i tr e bi mi g vi T i Te b s , ro m geografiulad ar rCeba TiTqmis arcerTi regioni da TiTqmis arcerTi msxvili dasaxleba am regionebSi; kadris zeda kuTxeSi miTiTebuli TariRi migvaniSnebs Sexvedrebis intensivobas da xSir SemTxvevaSi _ Sexvedrebis adgilebs Soris did distancias, rac xazs usvams prezidentobis kandidatis energiulobasa da popularobas; is xan xalxis SuagulSia da xan ficarnagze; Sexvedrebi mxolod Ria cis qveS mimdinareobs, amindis miuxedavad _ amomrCevels uyvars Tavisi kandidati da ar epueba aminds; kandidatic ar epueba aminds _ mas uyvars Tavisi amomrCeveli. amomrCevelTan Sexvedrebis as prezidentobis kandidati iRebs spontanur miwvevebs _ samegreloSi moxuc meCaie qalTan erTad aTvalierebs mis plantacias; gogonas daJinebuli TxovniT mihyveba mas saxlSi da monawileobs CurCxelebis amovlebaSi; Telavel qalsac ewveva dabadebis dReze; sakuTar dabadebis dResac sofel SalaurSi atarebs, gremelaSvilebis ojaxSi...

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sareklamo rgolebSi figurireben aqtiuri adamianebi, r o m l e b ic p r e z i d e n t o bi s k a n d i d a t s T a v i a n T mosazrebebs uziareben, TavianT yofa-cxovrebaze esaubrebian; mixeil saakaSvili Tavadac cdilobs maTi cxovrebis axlos gacnobas _ meTevzeebTan erTad ezideba bades; Cadis maRaroSi meSaxteebTan; adis samSeneblo xaraCoebze; soflis avtobusSi esaubreba mgzavrebs, sinanuls gamoTqvams avtobusis siZvelis gamo da am fonze ubiZgebs maT SeRavaTiani kreditebis aRebisa da aqtiuri qmedebisaken.. . sadac amomrCevelTa problemebis gacnobas piradad ver aswrebs, agrovebs werilobiT, raSic meuRle _ sandra rulovsic, exmareba. am, e. w. `problemur rgolebSi~, sagangebod aris gamoyofili iniciativiani adamianebi, romlebic ar elodebian saxelmwifos an visime daxmarebas da sakuTari ZalebiT cdiloben sakuTari Tu saqveyno problemebis gadawyvetas. mixeil saakaSvilma ZiriTadi saarCevno kampania regionebSi gaSala da siRaribis daZlevis mTavari platforma qarTuli soflis aRorZinebis programis saxiT warmoadgina _ `Zlieri sofeli _ Zlieri saqarTvelo!~, saboloo SedegiT _ `saqarTvelo siRaribis gareSe!~ (saarCevno kampaniis mTavari slogani). mixeil saakaSvili aRiarebs Secdomebs, Tavisi moqmedebebiT da dapirebebiT pasuxs scems oponentTa braldebebs da kiTxvebs; prezidentis movaleobis Semsrulebeli da premierministri iwyeben mixeil s aak aS v ili s i ni c iat iv e bis gan xo r ci e le bas . sazogadoebaSi Cndeba kiTxva _ sad iyaviT aqamde? mas argumentirebulad SeuZlia Tavis marTleba _ aSenebda gzebs, ebrZoda korufciasa da kriminals, ris gareSec SeuZlebeli iyo qveynis winsvla... _ `axla es SesaZlebelia, xels veravin SegviSlis!~ sareklamo kampaniis yvelaze faqiz, yvelaze dramatul, mZime da saCoTiro etapad amerikuli gamocdileba miiCnevs kampaniis mesame etaps _ `opoziciis

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gamokvlevas~, anu negatiur reklamas, sadac konkurentebi cdiloben erTmaneTis uaryofiTi, mxareebis warmoCenas. es faqizi zRvris darRvevis did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli, ukiduresobebma SeiZleba Tavad maTi warmomCeni daazaralos. mixeil saakaSvili sareklamo kamp aniaSi ar mimarTavs pirdapir negatiur reklamas; Tavis sareklamo rgolebSi mxolod erTxel gamokveTs oponentebis konteqsts _ `isini gvebrZvian Cven _ Cven vebrZviT siRaribes!~ Tumca, am frazebs xSirad warmoTqvams S ex v ed r e bz e , r om l e bi c i n te n s iu r ad Su q d eb a televiziebis sainformacio gamoSvebebiT. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, jer kidev noembris movlenebis dros, masmediaSi prokuraturis mier gavrcelebuli faruli audio-video Canawerebis gamoqveyneba, mixeil saakaSvilis erT-erTi mTavari konkurentis _ arkadi (badri) patarkaciSvilisaTvis sakmaod seriozuli dartyma iyo. amdenad, saakaSvilis saarCevno kampania negatiur reklamebze arc dros xarjavs da arc fuls, mas iribi reklamis meSveobiT awarmoebs. saarCevno kampaniis bolo, meoTxe etapi _ finalia, roca yvelafris Sejameba xdeba. am etapisTvis wina planze muSaobs musikaluri reklamebi _ `miSa magaria!~ da zumbas `gamTlianebisa da patiebis Jami~ _ mokle variantebi, Sesavali akordis laitmotiviT da saarCevno nomer 5-is aqcentirebiT. mTlianobaSi, mixeil saakaSvilis saarCevno kampania moqnili da dinamikuria, kargad reagirebs eleqtoratis ganwyobilebebsa da mowinaaRmdegis taqtikaze; moxerxebulad gadaaqvs aqcenti da yuradReba erT-erT mTavar problemaze _ siRaribeze (rac ar iyo xalxis quCaSi gamosvlisa da vadamdeli saprezidento arCevnebis daniSvnis mTavari mizezi); srulad iyenebs komunikaciis yvela SesaZleblobas. mixeil saakaSvilis sabrZolo feri wiTelia _ sicocxlis, gamarjvebis, agresiuli feri; asocirdeba

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saqarTvelos droSasTan; is yovelTvis dominanturia; es feri mTeli saarCevno kampaniis organuli nawilia (kandidatis Cacmulobis CaTvliT) da kargad erwymis mixeil saakaSvilis naturas. mixeil saakaSvilis saarCevno PR kampania mkveTrad p ro p ag and i st u l x as i aTs at ar e bs , Tumc, politteqnologiurad profesiuli `namuSevaria~ da qmnis prezidentobis kandidatis, rogorc warmatebuli adamianis, imijs _ rac ufro met warmatebas vxedavT mis uaxloes warsulsa da awmyoSi, miT ufro unda virwmunoT misi momavali warmateba! levan gaCeCilaZis imiji _ daCagruli da gabrazebuli, romlis mTavari gadasawyveti problema mxolod mixeil saakaSvilia. mis mimarTvebSi konkretuli mxolod muqaris SeZaxilebia, danarCeni yvelaferi zogadia da damatebiT ganmartebebs moiTxovs. levan gaCeCilaZe cdilobs `lideri gmiris~ imijis morgebas. `Tavisi paTosiTa da im JiniT, romelsac Tavis sityvebSi debda gaCeCilaZe, Zalian hgavda antikuri xanis gmiri meomrebisa da Sua saukuneebis jvarosnebis muqaraSeZaxilebs mterTan omis dawyebis win. garkveuli Teatraluri efeqti am Jinian SeZaxils, ra Tqma unda, aqvs, magram meti araferi.~7 levan gaCeCilaZis slogani _ `saqarTvelo upirveles yovlisa!~ Zalian zogadi da mravalplastiania. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom igi cdilobs am sloganTan identificirebas. `ra Tqma unda, saqarTvelo upirveles yovlisa!~ _ am slogans avtoritetebi _ zogjer tragikulad sevdiani cnobili saxeebi warmoTqvamen _ mecnierebi, msaxiobebi, reJisorebi... da `badagonis~ reklamis asociaciiT, aqac konkretuli `brendi~ _ levan gaCeCilaZe unda vigulisxmoT. am ti pis sareklamo rgolebi sakmaod didi raodenobiT iyo warmodgenili. levan gaCeCilaZis yvelaze efeqturi SeZaxili: `miSa, movdivar!~, faqtobrivad, mis realur sloganad iqca. kidev erTi, rac met-naklebad Cans am rgolebSi, misi da misi gundis popularoba da erTobis demonstrirebaa _

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mixeil saakaSvilisagan gansxvavebiT, is xSirad Cans TanagundelebTan erTad xelixelCakidebuli. levan gaCeCilaZis sareklamo kampaniaSi arsadaa gamokveTili misi saarCevno programa; Sexvedrebi a mo mr Ce ve lT an Z ir iT ad ad d ax ur ul s iv rc eS i mimdinareobs, heroikul-paTetikuri paTosiT, misi gamosvlebi zogjer `brZnul sadRegrZeloebs~ gvagonebs; gaCeCilaZis sareklamo rgolebic `kinosimarTlis~ princi piT aris agebuli, Tumc, erTi kameriT gadaReba, daxuruli sivrcis cudi ganaTeba da akustika, perspeqtivis deficiti seriozul kvals amCnevs maT xarisxs. levan gaCeCilaZis sareklamo kampania erTgvarad xistia; mTavari yuradReba negatiur reklamazea gadatanili. gamoyenebulia iseTi nacadi xerxi, rodesac xdeba konteqstidan amoRebuli frazebis ilustracia negatiuri xatebiT. magaliTad: xedviT rigSi _ mTavrobis sxdoma, mixeil saakaSvilis gamosvla _ `es saswauli, saocreba, romelic yvelam erTad gavakeTeT...~ _ paraleluri montaJiT gadadis 2007 wlis 7 noembris mSvidobiani aqciis darbevis kadrebze; kvlav mixeil saakaSvilis gamosvla, oRond sxva adgilas _ `ar daujeroT, xalxo, Tqvens Tvalebs; es yvelaferi geCvenebaT~ da isev _ paraleluri montaJiT, kvlav 7 noembris aqciis darbeva; mixeil saakaSvili mTavrobis sxdomaze _ `me amaze d av al eb a mi ve ci S in ag an s a qm eT a mi ni s t rs . . . ~ , paralelurad _ kvlav aqciis darbeva; kadrSi _ ramdenime policieli urtyams erT kacs; paralelurad, mixeil saakaSvilis sityvebi _ `eseni namdvili inteligentebi arian~; s pe c raz me le bi ni Rbe biT da C af x ut e bi T (ucxoplanetel robotebs mogvagoneben), kvlav mixeil saakaSvilis sityvebis TanxlebiT _ `eseni namdvili inteleqtualebi arian~ da a. S. aseTi sareklamo kavSirebi, marTalia, sainteresod

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iyureba, gonebamaxviluric Cans (oRondac, mxolod `SabaTis Sous~ stilSi), magram, savaraudoa, rom Tavisi `naivuri~ pirdapirobiT seriozul gavlenas ver moaxdens mowinaaRmdegis imijze. Tumc, am mimarTulebiT ufro seriozuli namuSevari Cans sareklamo kli pi mixeil saakaSvilis musikaluri rgolis (`miSa magaria!~) Temaze: klipis kadrebi _ masobrivi msvleloba siRnaRis (Senebisa da ganaxlebis simbolo) quCebSi _ ukusvliT ukavSirdeba gaxmaurebuli specoperaciebisa da kerZo sakuTrebis ngrevis yvelasTvis cnobil kadrebsa da fotoebs, `miSa magaria!~-s permanentuli gameorebiT. rac Seexeba feris simbolos _ TeTri feri, romelic levan gaCeCilaZisa (saerTod, opoziciis) da misi momxreebis yelsaxvevebsa da xelsaxvevebSi figurirebs, feris fsiqologiaSi ganmartebulia, rogorc samoTxis feri _ sixarulis, siwmindis, sulierebis simbolo. magram aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia, rogor muSaobs is nacionalur, kulturul tradiciebSi da a. S. TeTri feri kapitulanturi fericaa, Sublze wakruli TeTri lentebi iaponel kamikaZeebTanac asocirdeba, xolo Cemi piradi aRqmiT, mcire zomis TeTri yelsaxvevebi (xSirad wesieradac rom ar swvdeba zorba adamianis Tav-kisers), siRaribesTanac asocirdeba. saerTo STabeWdilebiT, #1 (saarCevno nomriT) prezidentobis kandidatis, levan gaCeCilaZis, sareklamo kampania ZiriTadad RonisZiebaTa rigs moicavs, sadac ori konkretuli slogani gaismis: `miSa, movdivarT!~ da `miSa damTavrebulia!~; sareklamo masala ZiriTadad gamiznulia mixeil saakaSvilis mimarT uaryofiTi ganwyobis Sesaqmnelad da, saboloo jamSi, ver qmnis im gmiris imijs, romelic qveyanas ixsnis `tiranisgan~ da naTels mohfens slogans _ `saqarTvelo, upirveles yovlisa!~ sxva prezidentobis kandidatebis sareklamo kampaniaze Zalian mokled SevCerdebiT, ramdenadac isini teleeTerSi mcire raodenobis sareklamo rgolebiT iyvnen warmodgenili.

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prezidentobis kandidati #3, daviT gamyreliZe, mkveTrad iyenebs SedarebiT xerxebs da aqac iseve, rogorc levan gaCeCilaZis kli pebSi, ZiriTadi orientiri mixeil saakaSvilis Secdomebi da misi diskreditaciis mcdelobaa, plus _ Tavad gamyreliZis saarCevno dapirebebi. sareklamo rgolSi erTad aris Tavmoyrili problemebic, kandidatis saarCevno platformac, identificirebac, dapirebebic... sxvadasxva rgoli sxvadasxva negatiuri argumentis CvenebiT iwyeba (magaliTad, venaxis aCexva an Senobebis ngreva), romelsac iqve ebmis kadrebi _ gamyreliZis gamosvlebi mocemul Temaze, parlamentSi an sxvagan. yvela sareklamo rgolis bolos ekrani or _ TeTr da Sav nawilad iyofa; Sav nawilze, grafikulad da verbalurad, xelisuflebasTan gaigivebuli cxovrebiseuli Tu politikuri informacia Tavsdeba, TeTr fonze _ imave princi piT _ daviT gamyreliZis platforma (dapirebebis saxiT). miuxedavad imisa, rom gamyreliZis sareklamo rgolebis raodenoba Zalze mcirea, aq igrZnoba mcdeloba problemebis gaJRerebisa, Tumc, arcTu damajereblad gamoiyureba dapirebebi metismetad konkretuli cifrebiT da metismetad zogadia slogani _ `Cven gvwams RmerTi da Segvwevs Zala~. Salva naTelaSvili erT did saagitacio plakatSi aerTianebs Tavisi da Tavisi partiis brZolas warsulsa da awmyoSi, ukeTesi momavlisaTvis, zogadi sloganiT _ `gaimarjvebs qarTveli xalxi!~ (rodis, sad, visTan brZolaSi?! ­ v. z.); saarCevno rgoli kandidatis saqmeTa Semaxsenebli-saidentifikacio xasiaTisaa, gamoirCeva energiuli da Semtevi ritmiT. arkadi (badri) patarkaciSvilis erTi sareklamo rgoli saidentifikacio xasiaTisaa, romlis meSveobiTac k an d id ati cd i lo bs d ai bru n os of i ci alu r saprezidento maraTonSi Cabmisas `dakarguli~ saxeli `badri~. rgoli iwyeba isev da isev 7 noembris aqciis darbevis kadrebiT, kadrs miRma ki permanentulad

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meordeba moguduli SeZaxili: `badri, me badri mqvia!~ _ badri patarkaciSvilis misvla mitingze _ ovacia; _ badri patarkaciSvilis sityviT gamosvla mitingze _ `gamarjoba, qarTvelo xalxo!~ _ (erTgvarad distancirebuli mimarTva, rasac mohyveba saqarTvelos Senebisa da gabrwyinebis ambiciis demonstrireba); _ kvlav aqciis darbevis kadrebi _ permanentuli _ `badri, me badri mqvia!~; _ badri patarkaciSvili kvlav mitingze _ `saqarTvelo gabrwyindba, amis imedi gqondeT!~ _ badri patarkaciSvilis foto _ grafikuli `gjerodeT!~ meore sareklamo rgolic srulad aris agebuli 7 noembris aqciis darbevis kadrebze, kvlav daJinebuli SeZaxilis TanxlebiT: `kidev gaumarjos!~, badri patarkaciSvilis igive foto grafikiT _ `saqarTvelo saakaSvilis gareSe _ saqarTvelo teroris gareSe!~ orive am rgolSi dominirebs yviTeli (oqrosferi) da kandidatis fotoc rTuli Semadgenlobis yviTel fonze figurirebs. yviTeli feri (iseve, rogorc sxva ferebi) mkveTrad gansxvavebuli ukiduresobebiT xasiaTdeba _ siaxlisken miswrafebis, imedisa da sixarulis gancdidan _ imedgacruebisa da izolaciis gamoxatvamde; Tumca, Tavisi simkveTriTa da sirbiliT aRqma-damaxsovrebasac uwyobs xels. dasasrul, unda iTqvas, rom aSkara uTanabroba (vgulisxmobT saTqmelis moculobas) prezidentobis kandida tTa s areklamo rgolebis ganx ilvis as ganpirobebulia ara mxolod maTi raodenobis uTanabrobiT (gans axilvelad aReb uli mixeil saakaSvilisa da levan gaCeCilaZis sareklamo rgolebi TiTqmis Tanabari raodenobisa iyo*), aramed im faqtoriT, ramdenad Seesabameba isini Cveni statiis Temas _ reklama, r og or c p o li ti k ur i k om u ni ka c ii s f or m a. a m T va l s az r i s i T , a r s e b i Ti g an s xv a v eb a a m i x ei l saakaSvilisa da sxva prezidentobis kandidatebis sareklamo rgolebs Soris. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom opoziciuri kandidatebis

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PR-da politteqnologebma (visac aseTi hyavda) gasuli wlis noemberSi xalxis STambeWdavi masis quCaSi gamosvla miiCnies sakmarisad sazogadoebrivi azris gamoxatvisa da codnisTvis; Sesabamisad, naklebad. an arasaTanadod izrunes TavianTi kandidatebis saarCevno k am p an i i s p ol i tt e q no l og i ur i da g eg m vi s a d a warmarTvisTvis. * statia daiwera prezidentobis kandidatebis _ mixeil saakaSvilis 31, levan gaCeCilaZis 30, daviT gamyreliZis 7, Salva naTelaSvilis 1 da arkadi (badri) patarkaciSvilis 2 sareklamo rgolis ganxilvis safuZvelze. _ v. z.

1. n. kupreiSvili, `gza gamarTuli sareklamo xarjebisaken~, Jurnali `biznesi~, #1, marti, 2007 w. 2. - ., , « », , 2002. 3. , « », , 2003. 4. , « », , 2003. 5.« » ( .), , 2004. 6. ., « », , 2002. 7. ., ., « », , 2002. 8. ., « », htpp:// www.videoton.ru/Artikles/ symcolor.html 9. ., « » ( ), , 2001. 10.. , . , «», , 2004. 11. ix.: gazeTi `24 saaTi~, 09.01.08. 12. ix.: gazeTi `jorjian Taimsi~, 18.01.08. 167

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imisaTvis, rom sworad SevafasoT da SeviswavloT montaJi saekrano xelovnebaSi, upirvelesad, aucilebelia gavarkvioT misi esTetikuri SesaZleblobani, misi roli da adgili ekranuli enis sistemaSi. Tavisi sawyisidan dRemde icvleba montaJis gamoyenebis meTodebi da sazRvrebi, magram yovelTvis ucvleli rCeba misi, rogorc mxatvruli sinamdvilis, sivrcul-droiTi arsebobis formis, ideur-mxatvruli amocanebi. montaJi _ es aris mxatvris idea, samyaros miseuli xedva, romelic gamovlindeba kadrebis arCevaSi, dapirispirebaSi da erTobaSi, epizodebis ganlagebaSi. montaJi moqmedebaa, sadac xdeba garkveuli momentebis gamoyofa, personaJTa xasiaTebis Sejaxeba, ganviTareba da Sedegi. montaJi _ esaa teqnikuri xerxebis erToblioba, romlis meSveobiTac iqmneba moZraobis uwyveti nakadi, ritmi, swored maTi saSualebiT realuri dro da sivrce transformirebulia, Secvlilia pirobiTi ekranuli droiTa da sivrciT. montaJi saekrano xelovnebaSi gansakuTrebulad rTuli sistemaa, azrobrivi, xmovan-gamosaxulebiTi da kadrebis ritmuli urTierTobisa. misi SesaZleblobebi ganusazRvrelia. specialistebma didi xania SeamCnies, rom montaJi Tavisi arsiT orsaxovania. erTi mxriv, esaa mxatvruli azrovnebis forma, meore mxriv, montaJi asrulebs wminda funqciur daniSnulebas, igi teqnikuri saSualebaa. amas emateba kidev erTi mniSvnelovani momenti _ swored montaJis saSualebiT xdeba mayureblis emociis marTvis, misi yuradRebis organizacia.

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Tavis cnobil statiaSi _ `dikensi, grifiti da Cven~ montaJis Teoriis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli s. eizenSteini werda: `CvenTvis montaJi iqca saSualebad... migveRwia e rTi an i ideuri koncefciis organuli ganxorcielebisaTvis, romelic moicavda kinonawarmoebis yvela elements, detals~.1 ekranis nebismieri ostatisaTvis saxeobrivi azrovneba niSnavs montaJur azrovnebas _ swored montaJis saSualebiT realuri dro da s ivrce Secvlilia pirobiTi ekranuli droiTa da sivrciT. yovel calkeul kadrSi moqmedeba xdeba realur drosa da sivrceSi, magram montaJis dros es bunebrivi mdinareba irRveva _ sivrcis sxvadasxva monakveTis SeerTebiT, rakursebiT, sxvadasxvanairi fokusuri obeqtivebis gamoyenebiT iqmneba axali montaJuri dro da sivrce, sadac moqmedeba erTiandeba logikurad da uwyvetad, Tumca, igi realuri moqmedebis uwyvetobas ar emTxveva. kinos mTavari aRmoCena swored es montaJuri (xelaxla Seqmnili) sivrce da montaJuri (subieqturad gancdili) droa, sadac plastikuri kadri erTdroulad `pirobiTic~ aris da `upiroboc~, realobasac asaxavs da saxesac warmoadgens ekranuli drois erTsa da imave monakveTSi. xelTuqmneli bunebis aRbeWdva, saekrano enis tendenciaa, Tumca Tavisi mniSvnelobiT bunebrivi obieqtebi, erTdroulad konkretulicaa da zogadic, vinaidan isini usasrulo raodenobis Sesabamisobebs floben. ekranze aRbeWdvisas xelovani, mxatvruli, montaJuri azrovnebiT aniWebs maT sxvadasxva konteqsts. magaliTad, uRimRamo Semodgomis peizaJi, rodesac xeebs foTlebi scviva, Cveulebrivze met azrobriv datvirTvas miiRebs, Tuki am xis qveS yavarjenze dayrdnobili moxuci gaivlis da Camoyril foTlebTan erTad kadridan gava, gaqreba... Tuki imave xis qveS axalfexadgmuli bavSvi gaivlis da xidan Camocvenil foTlebs pawawa xelebiT iWers, rasakvirvelia, sxva azri ibadeba... igive SeiZleba iTqvas fersa da ganaTebazec, radganac es, TiTqosda, mkveTrad gamoxatuli movlenebic ki

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ganusazRvrelia im TvalsazrisiT, rom xandaxan sxvadasxva konteqstSi isinic ki icvlian Tavis myar azrs; magaliTad, filmSi `aleqsandre neveli~, tevtonel raindebs axuravs TeTri kapiSonebi, TeTri feri sayovelTaod simboloa siwmindisa, ubiwoebisa, magram am konkretul SemTxvevaSi ki gamoxatulebaa veragobisa da ulmobelobisa. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom bunebrivi obieqtebi TiTqosda, garemoculia uamravi mniSvnelobiT, romelTac aqvT unari, gamoiwvion sxvadasxvagvari ganwyobileba, gancdebi, azrebi; sxvanairad rom vTqvaT, aseTi obieqtebi floben usazRvro, usasrulo raodenobis fsiqo-fizikur Sesabamisobebs. swored reJisoris, xelovnis niWsa da fantaziaze, montaJur azrovnebazea damokidebuli, Tu ra datvirTvas miscems igi bunebriv obieqtebs, rogori fsiqo-fizikuri TanafardobebiT datvirTavs films. yovelive zemoTqmulis Sesabamisad, studentebs miecema davaleba _ realuri obieqtebi aCvenon sxvadasxva konteqstSi, feri da ganaTeba gamoiyenon sxvadasxva konteqstSi (es maT ganuviTarebs montaJur azrovnebasa da azrovnebas konteqstebiT). swored montaJuri azrovneba iZleva saSualebas, wina planze wamowios adamianuri grZnobebis iseTi niuansebi, detalebi, materialuri samyaros is nawilakebi, romelTa danaxva Cveulebrivi TvaliT SeuZlebelia. genialuri egziuperi werda: yvelaze mTavaria is, rasac TvaliT ver dainaxavo... swored am mTavaris gamoxatvaa xelovnebis yvela dargis amocana, Tumca, TiToeuli maTgani amas sxvadasxvanairad da met-naklebad axerxebs. magaliTisTvis: sayovelTaod cno bilia, rom Teatraluri xelovnebis safuZveli msaxiobia da mis mier Sesrulebuli saxe, msaxiobis gancda, grZnobebi... magram SeuZlebelia dramis reJisorma ise dadgas scena, rom zedmiwevniT aCvenos msaxiobis Sinagani mRelvareba, Tvalze momdgari cremli Tu mzeris gaelveba da kidev uamravi adamianuri grZnobis gamomxatveli niuansebi

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axlo xedebSi, im masStabebSi, rogorc es kinematografs ZaluZs. kinematografs SeuZlia SeaCeros Cveni mzera romeliRac detalze; gvaiZulos vuyuroT, ramden xansac unda. ufro metic, mas SeuZlia, wina xedze gamoitanos us ulo s agani da mTeli Semdgomi moqmedebis qv aku Txe dad a qci os . Te atr alu ri xe lov neb is mayurebeli ufro Tavisufalia arCevanSi. magaliTad, scenaze dganan qali da mamakaci, reJisors unda aqcenti gaakeTos qalze, magram, rogorc ar unda dadgas man es scena, rac ar unda gaakeTos, mayurebels mainc SeuZlia mamakacs Sexedos, Tanac martivi mizeziT _ mas is mamakaci mos wons andac mis i naTesav ia... msgavsi ram kinematografSi gamoricxulia, ekranze reJisors is kadri aqvs dafiqsirebuli, romelic Tavad surs. mayurebels arCevani ara aqvs. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia Tamamad vTqvaT, rom ekranis ena axdens mayureblis yuradRebis srul organizacias. ekranis ena amtkicebs Tavis gansakuTrebul moTxovnas _ gamoikvlios ara mxolod adamiani, aramed mTeli misi fizikuri, materialuri yofa. uamravi materialuri movlena TvalTagan gvisxlteba _ Zalze patara obieqtebis aRqma SeuZlebelia SeuiaraRebeli TvaliT, didi obieqtebis danaxva ki SeuZlebelia mTlianobaSi. xelovnebaTmcodne z. krakaueri, Tavis wignSi _ `fizikuri realobis reabilitacia~ werda: `garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, kinematografi SeiZleba SevadaroT mecnierebas, radganac mecnieruli kvlevis msgavsad kinogamosaxuleba anawevrebs materialur movlenebs mikroskopul kinofiguraciebSi da am saxiT gvaZlevs saSualebas, vigrZnoT mTlianobis uzarmazari energia. es filmis bunebaa, radgan SesaZlebelia kinogamosaxulebis ageba calkeuli nawilebisagan da TiToeul nawilSi dafiqsirebulia moZraobis calkeuli fazebi, anu mTlianoba, misi arsi mowodebulia nawilebisagan~.2 is, rom kinematografs SeuZlia dainaxos is, rasac ver dainaxavs rigiTi adamiani, cxadia da saintereso. m.

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romi Tavis statiaSi, `SeniSvnebi montaJze~, aRwers erT uCveulo ambavs: skviTebis erT-erT yorRanSi napovn samajurze gamosaxuli iyo ucnaur pozaSi myofi iremi _ cxovels oTxive fexi mucelze hqonda mikruli. iyo didi kamaTi. cxadia, skviTebis xelovneba Sors iyo stilizebuli pirobiTobisagan, e. i., iremi gamosaxuli iyo realurad; maSin gaCnda kiTxva: ratom aris iremi aseT ucnaur mdgomareobaSi? erTni varaudobdnen, rom es iyo ritualuri iremi; meoreni fiqrobdnen, samkauli viwro firfitisgan iyo gakeTebuli da mxatvars raRa gza hqonda, iZulebuli iyo, swored am pozaSi gamoesaxa iremi. rapidiT gadaRebisas ki aRmoCnda, rom samajurze gamosaxuli iremi SeSinebuli, mizanswrafuli naxtomebiT garbis, xolo naxtomebis SualedebSi, umcires wamebSi, is zustad iseT mdgomareobas iRebs, rogorc samkaulze gamosaxuli iremi, anu, mas oTxive fexi mucelze aqvs mikruli. Tumca, amis danaxva SesaZlebeli gaxda mxolod kinematografiuli gamosaxulebiT. rogorc Cans, skviTebs iseTi maxvili Tvali hqondaT, rom am wamierebasac afiqsirebdnen da swored es wamiereba, irmis saocari naxtomi gamosaxa samajurze ucnobma skviTma ostatma. m. romi miuTiTebs: `kinematografma aRmoaCina iseTi xedvis wertilebi, romlebic misawvdomi iyo mxolod erTeulebisTvis... me vfiqrob, montaJma mogvca saSualeba, davinaxoT movlenebi ise, rogorc arcerT Tvals ar SeuZlia misi danaxva. manve mogvca saSualeba, moicvas nawilebi da Tavidan moaxdinos sanaxaobis konstruqcia ise, rogorc ar SeuZlia yvelaze genialur mxatvars, yvelaze SorsmWvretel Tvals da xelovnebis arcerT dargs, kinematografis garda~.3 ud avo d c xadi a r om, ek ran is enas Se uZl ia maqsimalurad aRbeWdos realoba, Tumca, aqve unda iTqvas, rom arcTu iSviaTad filmis Semqmnelebsac aqvT problema, rogor aCvenon arsebiTi xilul samyaroSi. s xv a sit yv e biT ro m v Tqv aT, z ed m iw e v niT naturalisturad, yofiTad gadaRebul masalaSi SeiZleba daikargos mTavari da swored es aris dilema _ rogor

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unda aiZulo mayurebeli, Rrmad Caswvdes saTqmels, arsebiTs. magaliTisTvis aviRoT epizodi `samzadisi~ _ deda-Svili emzadeba stumrad wasasvlelad. deda auToebs tansacmels. mere ra? ikiTxavT, ra aris amaSi araCveulebrivi, aTasobiT deda uuToebs Svilebs tansacmels. magram es erTi SexedviT Cveulebrivi ambavi sulac ar aris Cveulebrivi. Tu kargad davukvirdebiT, aRmovaCenT, rom gogona foriaqobs, mas ver gadauwyvetia, ra Caicvas. deda cdilobs SeinarCunos wonasworoba, malavs gaRizianebas, ufro Rrmad Tu gavaanalizebT epizods, CvenTvis naTeli gaxdeba, rom saqme sul sxvagvaradaa: gogonas ar unda is kaba Caicvas, romelsac deda uuToebs, mas sulac tyavis Sarvlis Cacma unda, dedas aqvs moraluri uflebebi da ambobs, rom misma Svilma swored is kaba unda Caicvas, rac maTi ojaxis statuss Seefereba. mozardi protests gamoxatavs, misi azriT, yvelas aqvs ufleba Tavisi gemovnebiT Caicvas, mas unda Tavis sasargeblod warmarTos situacia. aqedan gamomdinare aRmoCnda, rom epizodi `samzadisi~, sinamdvileSi omia, brZola uflebebis dacvisTvis. ai, ra aris am, erTi SexedviT, yofiT epizodSi mTavari. epizodis zusti gansazRvris Semdeg Cndeba kiTxva: rogor vaCvenoT es mTavari ekranis eniT. albaT, jer unda SeiTxzas deda-Svilis qcevaTa zusti rigi, Semdeg es "vTargmnoT~, gadavitanoT ekranis enaze da iseTi TanmimdevrobiT davawyoT kadrebi, rom sasurveli mimarTulebiT warvmarToT mayureblis yuradReba. imavdroulad, unda movifiqroT epizodis struqturuli gadawyvetis forma. Tu yovelive zemoaRniSnuli ar iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli, maSin SesaZlebelia am epizodis mniSvneloba da mTavari arsi mayureblisTvis gaugebari andac umniSvnelo gaxdes. aqve isic unda aRvniSnoT, rom idealuri mayurebelic ki, romelic swrafad da sworad aRiqvams yovelives, filmis pirvelive naxvisas yvelafers ise ver gaigebs, rogorc avtors hqonda Cafiqrebuli. es bunebrivicaa, vinaidan man ar icis es yovelive, mas ar uTenebia

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Rameebi am epizodis ideisa da formis gadawyvetis ZiebaSi. mas ar gauvlia es rTuli, zogjer mtanjveli SemoqmedebiTi gza... Tumca, swored esaa avtoris misia, rom man, Semoqmedma, unda SesZlos, iseTi struqturis Seqmna, rom mayurebelma erT saaTSi gaigos mTavari, arsebiTi da amisTvis ar dasWirdes Tveebi. imisaTvis, rom yvelaferi gasagebi iyos, studentebs vaZlev davalebas, SeTxzan etiudebi, vTqvaT, Temaze _ `sauzme~. es yofiTi epizodia, magram, rasakvirvelia, es yoveldRiuri Cveulebrivi procesi, SesaZlebelia gadaiqces sul sxva ambad, saintereso movlenad. cxadia, studentebi sxvadasxvanair variantebs Txzaven da, praqtikulad, Tavidanve xvdebian, rogor icvleba ambavi saTqmelis Sesabamisad. maT mier SeTxzuli, saukeTeso etiudi TejirebSi idgmeba, xolo Semdeg viwyebT am etiudis kadrirebas. am konkretuli davalebis amocanaa `mTavaris~ gadatana ekranis enis saSualebiT. kidev erTxel aRvniSnav, rom upirvelesad mTavaria SeiTxzas saintereso ambavi, zustad dadgindes, risi Tqma unda avtors, sad aris konfliqti, rogori TanmimdevrobiT dalagdeba mizezebi da Sedegebi. unda ganisazRvros, saWiroa Tu ara, Secvalos bunebrivad mimdinare moqmedebaTa jaWvi da a. S. aqve gavixseneb gamoCenili kinoreJisorisa da Teoretikosis, iv. Pudovkinis, azrs emociuri scenaris Sesaxeb: `scenari es aris mxolod stenograma emociuri nakadebisa, romelic miiltvis gardaisaxos mozRvavebul sanaxaobriv xatebaSi~.4 axla ki isev Cemi kvlevis ZiriTad Temas _ montaJs davubrundebi, radganac Tavad idea `emociuri scenarisa~, ukve garkveulwilad moicavs montaJur gadawyvetas. imisaTvis, rom epizodi an scena mayurebelma emociurad aRiqvas, saWiroa epizodebi, scenebi agebuli iyos emociur kontrastebze. pudovkini emociuri scenaris ideaze muSaobisas askvnis, rom TavisTavad moqmedebas, moZraobas, konkretuli Sinaarsis gamo ar SeiZleba hqondes emociuri aqcentebi; e. i. saWiroa Seicvalos Cveulebrivi moqmedebis mdinareba, amis miRweva ki SesaZlebelia

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sxvadasxva saSualebiT:Lganwyobilebis, tempo-ritmis SecvliT, moulodneli axlo xedebiT da a. S. aqedan gamomdinare, ras akvirvelia, s cenari Tavidanve montaJurad unda SeiTxzas. rac Seexeba Semdgom periods, mizanscenebis awyoba, ganwyobilebis Seqmna, xasiaTebis Zerwva, personaJTa qcevaTa rigis SeTxzva, kadris ageba, maTi konstruqciis gadawyveta da a. S. gadaRebamde zedmiwevniT zustdeba, Tumca, rac ar unda moemzado, Teoriulad da praqtikuladac, gadaRebis momentSi SesaZlebelia, didi xnis nafiqri Seicvalos, epizodma, scenam moiTxovos montaJuri konstruqciis Secvla... ra gaewyoba, reJisors muSaobis yvela etapze moeTxoveba montaJuri azrovneba yvelgan da yvelaferSi. Aucilebelia, isic aRvniSnoT, rom montaJuri wyoba ganisazRvreba ara mxolod reJisoris koncefciiT, aramed mis i gans akuTrebuli xedviT, romelic garkveulwilad pirdapir aris dakavSirebuli dasavlur an aRmosavlur kulturasa da religiasTan. qristianuli religiis warmodgeniT, Tu adamiani Rirseulad icxovrebs, mas elodeba maradiuli netareba, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ki jojoxeTi ar ascdeba. aqedan gamomdinare, adamiani Tavad Wedavs Tavis momavals, Tumca, am SemTxvevaSic uamravi niuansia gasaTvaliswinebeli. qristianuli samyaro iyofa marTlmadideblebad da kaTolikeebad, amas garda, arsebobs uamravi qristianuli seqta, TiToeul maTgans aqvs Tavisi specifikuri, konkretuli Sexedulebebi. cxadia, Sesabamisad icvleba TiToeuli maTganis damokidebulebac samyarosadmi. amis magaliTad gamodgeba rusi reJisoris, p. lenginis, filmi `kunZuli~. es filmi gadaRebulia marTlmadidebluri religiis Rrma codniTa da misi yvela aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT. meore msoflio omis dros, brZolis Semdeg, erT kunZulze gairiya gemi, sadac yvela daiRupa, ori megobris garda, magram maTi sixaruli naadrevi aRmoCnda, radganac germanelebma aqac miagnes, xelSi Caigdes anatoli, romelmac SiSi ver daZlia da damaluli megobari mters Caabara... germanelebma,

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sanacvlod, anatolis sicocxle aCuqes, Tumca, swored aqedan iwyeba ambavi kacisa, romelsac megobris gayidviT mopovebuli sicocxle jojoxeTad eqca... anatolim im wamidan igrZno sulis umZimesi mdgomareoba da sikvdilamde sicocxle locviT, marxviT da mware sinanulis cremlebiT ganvlo... is RmerTs sTxovs patiebas, magram Sveba ar modis. Cvens Tvalwin Cveulebrivi mxdali anatoli, RvTis meSveobiT jer beri, Semdgom winaswarmetyveli, bolos ki mkurnalic xdeba. aqedan gamomdinare, filmis mTavari arsi, anatolis sulis ganwmenda, kaTarzisi, gadmoicema mizezSedegobrivi montaJuri SeerTebiT. sruliad sawinaaRmdego suraTia aRmosavlur xelovnebaSi; misi koncefciaa: dro maradiulia, sikvdili ar aris saSiSi, es mxolod mizezia sxva cxovrebaSi, sxva i posTazebSi gadasasvlelad, mas unda Sexvde Rirseulad... adamiani SeiZleba gardaiqmnas peplad an yvavilad... rogorc daimsaxureb, rasac daimsaxureb... aqedan gamomdinare, aRmosavlelisTvis Rirseuli an uRirsi saqcielis gansja Zalian mniSvnelovania, amitom is koncentracias axdens mTel Tavis energiaze, raTa Caidinos esa Tu is saqcieli. wamiereba gadaizrdeba maradiulobaSi. dro aRiqmeba ufro Senelebulad. aseT SemTxvevaSi montaJisas iyeneben iseT kadrebs, sadac gadmocemulia ara moqmedeba andac saqcieli, aramed sivrce, romelsac mayurebeli gmirTan erTad ganWvrets, xSir SemTxvevaSi montaJur xedebs Soris gamoiyeneba ufro asociaciuri SeerTebebi. TvalsaCinoebisTvis sakmarisia gavixsenoT akura kurosavas filmebi da Tanamedrove koreeli reJisoris kim kidukis filmi `gazafxuli, zafxuli, Semodgoma, zamTari da isev gazafxuli~. amasTan dakavSirebiT gavixseneb erT istorias: iaponurma televiziam sabWoTa kavSiris centralur televizias SeukveTa leningradSi mdinare nevis wyaldidobis gadaReba. operatorma b. ki parosovma davaleba Seasrula Tu ara, iaponelebs monitorze aCvena

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mis mier gadaRebuli masala. operatoris kamera dinamikuri moZraobiT s wrafad uaxlovdeboda aboboqrebul mdinares... aqoCrili talRebi axlodan... sxvadasxva rakursiTa da myisieri moZraobebiT... magram, ki parosovis gasakvirad, kompaniis warmomadgenelma moiTxova TiToeuli kadri gadaeRoT orjer ufro grZeli panoramebiT, kategoriulad uaryves swrafi miaxloeba talRebTan, aseTi moTxovna ki imiT daasabuTes, rom, maTi mosazrebiT, TiToeuli mayurebeli Tavad unda afiqsirebdes situacias. cxadia, xalxuri tradiciebi did gavlenas axdens gamosaxviTi saSualebebis arCevanze, magram aqve isic unda vaRiaroT, rom TiToeuli ostati uflebamosilia ise aRbeWdos xiluli samyaro, rogorc surs, rac ganpirobebulia ara mxolod misi konkretuli xasiaTiTa da temperamentiT, aramed uamravi obieqturi da subieqturi garemoebiT. italieli reJisori f. felini Tavis samontaJo rigSi aucileblad CarTavs xolme axlo msxvil xeds, rogorc kvintesencias, scenis kulminacias, rogorc emociur aqcentsa da moZraobis dagvirgvinebas. es axlo xedi felinisTan aucileblad did fsiqologiur datvirTvas iZens. Wamiereba _ es aris sadac xdeba gmiris fsiqologiis ngreva, es aris Sejaxeba xilulisa da uxilavisa, gareganisa da Sinaganisa, fiqsacia, gaerTianeba traged iisa da ir oniisa. em ociuri aqc entis gasaZliereblad reJisori iyenebs Rrma mizanscenas, sadac kameris dinamikuri moZraobiT saerTo xedidan mivdivarT axlo xedamde. magaliTad, film `kabirias RameebSi~ am xerxis gamoyenebiT mTavari gmiris saxe mayureblis Tvalwin ganicdis transformacias, erTi ganwyobilebidan gadadis meoreSi, is iRimeba cremlebs miRma da, TiTqos gauwonasworebeli kompoziciidan naxtomiT gadavdivarT `plastikur portretSi~. es wamiereba aris ara mxolod gmiris Sinagani ganwyobis gamoxatuleba, aramed personaJis fsiqologiis fiqsacia, avtorisa da mayureblis koncentraciis

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sinTezi. Tumca, meore italieli reJis oris, m. a nt o ni o ni s Tv i s m Ta v ar i s ae r To xe d eb i a. mi s SemoqmedebaSi saerTo xedebi montaJis sayrdeni werti lebia. i deaSi, r eJisoris Tvis adamiani sazogadoebaSi, samyaroSi mxolod dakarguli qviSis nawilakia. aqedan gamomdinare, antionionisTan xSirad kadris moZraoba, TiTqos, ar sruldeba, logikurobas moklebulia, ufro metic, zogjer es moZraoba iwvevs maradiuli moZraobis SegrZnebebs. magaliTad, filmSi `obervaldis cixis saidumloeba~ TeTri cxeni realurad arsebuli cxovelia, magram imavdroulad auxdeneli ocnebis simbolocaa. is, TiTqos moswydeba dedamiwas da zecaSi gauCinardeba... ise Seerwymeba Rrublebs, rom Znelad Tu dalandav mis siluets Soreul xedze. felinisagan gansxvavebiT, antonionisTan moZraoba `gaWimulia~. film `profesia reportioris~ finalur scenarSi gmiri mkvdaria, magram kamera kidev didxans daxetialebs usaxur, uCrdilebo udabnos quCebSi, Semdeg gadadis saxlze. ar Cerdeba, TiTqosda, zlazvniT gadauvlis gmiris usulo sxeuls da fanjridan gasxlteba... midis arsad _ maradisobaSi. sikvdili antonionisTan grZnobebidan gaTavisuflebaa, gadasvlaa maradiulobaSi. studentebs, cxadia, TvalsaCinoebisTvis vuCveneb fragmentebs aRniSnuli filmidan da xazs vusvam, rom saekrano enaSi kadris masStabebi (simsxvile), moZraobis forma exmareba avtors qveteqstebis gamovlenaSi; rom samontaJo kadrebis SeerTebis struqtura, xasiaTi, maTi Sejaxeba, Taviseburi komentatoria da avlens avtoris pozicias. rasakvirvelia, montaJis saSualebiT xdeba mayureblis yuradRebis organizacia da, cxadia, unda davicvaT kadrebis Serwymisa da kadrebis Sekrebis kanonebi. kinosa da televiziis Teoretikosi n. utilova wers: `SemoqmedebiTi procesi Tavisufalia, magram garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, radgan xelovanma unda moaxerxos, erTi mxriv, sworad, montaJuri wyobiT, sistemiT gamosces individualuri `xedva~, meore mxriv ki, montaJis

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saSualebiT gasagebi gaxados idea, saTqmeli.~5 mayurebeli TiTqmis ar fiqrobs imaze, Tu ra kanonebiT igeba kadri, ratom aris saWiro da aucilebeli kadris organizebisas gansazRvruli princi pebis Tanmimdevroba. saqme imaSia, rom, rogorc ki Cveni TvalTaxedvis arealSi moxvdeba raRac sivrce, Cven, TiTqosda, vsazRvravT mis sazRvrebs da rodesac kamera mkacrad afiqsirebs sivrces Tavisi CarCoTi, mkveTrad mwvavdeba Cveni interesi CarCoSi moxvedrili scenis elementebisadmi. gamoCenili kinooperatori medinski wers: `mxatvarfermwerebi yovelTvis mniSvnelovan yuradRebas uTmobdnen ferweruli tiloebis zomas, formas da sazRvrebs. maT aRmoaCines, rom naxatis CarCo (sazRvrebi) mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli kompoziciasTan da qmnis STabeWdilebas, romelsac xelovnebaTmcodneebma uwodes `antici pacia~, es termini aRniSnavs winaswar aRtacebas, winaswargamocnobas, rom naxatis sibrtyeze, siRrmeSi aucileblad raRac mniSvnelovania, romelic Rirsia mayureblis yuradRebisa da aRmocendeba sivrcis iluzia~.6 SeuZlebelia ar daeTanxmo medinskis, rom kadris Sedgenisas operatori aiZulebs mayurebels, uyuros mis mier arCeul obieqts im damokidebulebiT, ise, rogorc is aRiqvams samyaros. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom sinamdvilis plastikuri gamoxatvis erTeuli samontaJo kadria... TiToeuli kadris agebaze, maT montaJurad ganlagebazea damokidebuli momavali filmis erTiani struqtura, amitomac yuradRebas isev gavamaxvileb kadrze. kadri (fr. cadre) es aris nawili moqmedebisa an ganviTarebuli Temis a, romelic gadawyvetilia gansazRvruli xerxiT da organulad Seerwymis nawarmoebis dramatul struqturas. saekrano kadri orbunovania, erTi mxriv, kadri ekranuli moqmedebis teqnikuri erTeulia... am SemTxvevaSi is `dasrulebulia~, anu, aqvs gansazRvruli agebuleba da gamoxatavs romeliRac lokalur moqmedebas. meore mxriv, kadri

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atarebs garkveul azrobriv da emociur datvirTvas, igi aris siuJetis konteqsti, warmoadgens mTlianobis nawils; am TvalsazrisiT aris `dausrulebeli~, damokidebuli. amowuravs ra Tavis SesaZleblobebs (wminda xedviTs), Seasrulebs ra Tavis dramatul funqcias, kadri, TiTqosda, amsxvrevs Tavis `sazRvrebs~, iZens Semdgom ganviTarebas da Seerwymeba winamdebare da Semdgom kadrebs~.7 kadri erTdroulad `pirobiTic~ aris da `upiroboc~, is aRbeWdavs rogorc realur dros, aseve _ saekrano dros. kinematografma da televiziam warmoSva e. w. saekrano montaJuri dro (subieqturad gancdili) da montaJuri sivrce (romelic miRebulia konstruqciis Sedegad). Cineli filosofosi lao Zi ambobda: saxli ar aris saxuravi da kedlebi, saxli is sivrcea, sadac cxovrobeno; es gamonaTqvami zustad Seesabameba kinogadaRebas: rogorc ki kameris CarCo SemosazRvravs gadasaRebi obieqtis nawils, sadac moqmedeba viTardeba, iq, SigniT, iqmneba sxva, SeTxzuli cxovreba, iqmneba axali ekranuli sivrce... kinematografiaSi sxvagvarad w ar m ou d ge n eli a. satelevizio videofiri naklebmgrZnobiarea, Tumca, cifruli teqnologiebi HD (maRali simkveTris televizia) miuaxlovda kinofiris gamosaxulebas, magram jerjerobiT kinofiri rCeba kadris siRrmiseuli gradaciis unikalur saSualebad. Tundac didi teleekranis gamosaxulebis xarisxi SedarebiT dabalia, is ver egueba gamosaxulebis gadidebas, aseT SemTxvevaSi xarisxi sruliad ikargeba. aqedan gamomdinare, dResdReobiT Tavad televiziis specifika ar iZleva saSualebas Seiqmnas kadris siRrmis gradaciebi, Tumca, msoflios wamyvani televiziebi ukve gadadian HD sistemaze, sadac yvelaferi: kamera, samontaJo da gadamcemi s aSualebebic, am sis temiT aris dakompleqtebuli da, Sesabamisad, gamosaxulebis xarisxic maRalia.

unda aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTveloSic gaCnda kamerebi, samontaJoebi, magram am sistemiT gadaRebuli da damontaJebuli filmebis gamosaxuleba, eTerSi gasvlisas, rasakvirvelia, dakargavs Tavisi simkveTris xarisxs, vinaidan Cveni televiziebis gadamcemebi ar aris aRWurvili am sixSiris sistemebiT. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, CvenSi sakmaod rTulia saintereso satelevizio sivrcis Seqmna, rom kompozicia ar iyos brtyeli da usaxuri. am mimarTebiT isev Sevexebi kompoziciis agebis ZiriTad princi pebs, proporciebs, ritms, Suq-Crdilebs, tonalur gadawyvetas rogorc calkeul kadrSi, aseve mTlianad filmsa Tu gadacemaSi, fsiqofizikuri zemoqmedebis gamomsaxvel xerxebs: rakursul gadaRebas, panoramas, gadaRebas moZravi kameriT da a. S. isev gavaxseneb studentebs, rom kompoziciis ZiriTadi amocanaa mayureblis koncentracia _ Tu sad xdeba moqmedeba, ra aris mTavari ama Tu im kadrSi, moqmedeba Tu p er s on aJi ; ro m a uci lebe lia ko mp oz ici am gamoavlinos arsebiTi urTierTdamokidebulebebi personaJTa Soris, kompoziciaSi unda vizualurad Candes zusti dramatuli aqcentebi; rom sworedac kompoziciam unda uzrunvelyos scenebis aRqma avtoris Canafiqris Sesabamisad. Semdeg ki konkretulad ganvixilav kompoziciis erT-erT elements _ mxareTa Tanafardobas (kadris sigane da sigrZe). kadri odnav wagrZelebulia, amitom kompoziciebi umravles SemTxvevaSi horizontalurad aigeba, xolo rodesac kompozicia vertikalurad igeba, maSin siRrmiseuli sivrcis STabeWdileba iqmneba. kadrs gansakuTrebul eqspresias matebs sxvadasxva mxares mimarTuli k omp onentebi, magaliT ad, rodes ac kompoziciaSi sagnobrivi samyaro horizontalurad aris ganlagebuli, magram personaJebi siRrmeSi moZraoben, andac, piriqiT, sagnobrivi samyaro ganlagebulia sivrcis siRrmeSi, personaJis moZraoba ki horizontaluria.

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is ic u nda aRv niS noT, ro m f arTo ekr ania ni kinematografi, kadris gamosaxulebas sxvadasxva optikuri saSualebiT cvlis. a. golovnia wignSi `kinooperatoris ostatoba~ wers: `farToekranianma kinematografma ekranis p rop orciebi gazarda, gaafarTova gadasaRebi moedani msaxiobebis TamaSisTvis (saSualo da axlo xedebze), Tumca, amis gamo SeizRuda montaJuri gadas vlebi, rakurs uli gadaRebebi mravalxedian siRrmiseul mizanscenebSi.8 amis gamo, aucilebeli gaxda kompoziciebi aegoT frontalurad da mizanscenebSi gamoeyenebinaT saSualo xedebi, xolo rodesac viRebT 70 mm. firze, maSin gamosaxuleba ufro d am a j er e b el i a, n am d vi l i a, f er T a g a ma u fr o materialisturad gamoiyureba, kadris formati ki ufro Seesabameba mxedvelobis kuTxes. maSin ufro Tavisuflad, bunebrivad TamaSoben msaxiobebi mizanscenebSi, SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes dinamiuri, efeqturi, masiuri da bataluri scenebi. rac Seexeba televizias, aq mxareTa Tanafardobebis Secvla SesaZlebelia montaJis dros eleqtronuli teqnikis saSualebiT. videofirze gamosaxuleba SesaZlebelia SekumSo an gaafarToo. erTsa da igive sibrtyeze ori sxvadasxva formati SeaerTo, erTi da imave gamosaxuleba gaamravlo TanafardobiT 2/4, 8/16. gadaanacvlo gamosaxuleba erT sibrtyeze. SesaZlebelia, kadrSi gamoyo calkeuli detali, Semdeg wina xedze gamoitano. aqve unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom videofirze gamosaxuleba rogorc pirvel, aseve meore xedze erTi da imave simkveTriT fiqsirdeba. amitom Tuki romelime xeds montaJis dros davamsxvilebT (aqac arsebobs zRvari), maSin kadri, TiTqosda, dakargavs simkveTres, gaidRabneba. Tumca, zogjer es momenti SeiZleba gamoiyeno rogorc xerxi, gadawyveta. aqve vuxsni studentebs, rom TiToeuli specefeqti gamoyenebuli unda iyos ideidan gamomdinare da, ara ise, ubralod, formalurad. magaliTisTvis momyavs Cemi studentis d. Citaias videofilmi `pirveli~. filmi eZRvneba kldeze

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mcocav sportsmens, romelic erT-erT mwvervalze asvlisas daiRupa... filmSi myinvaris dapyrobas sami mcocavi cdilobs, cxadia, isini cal-calke miiweven miznisken... daTom ki videosamontaJoSi erT kadrSi erT sibrtyeze ganalaga mowinaaRmdegeni da epizodi: `brZola gamarjvebisTvis~ ufr o sainteres o gaxada.. . filmis finalS i gamarjvebuls TasiT ajildoeben, Semdeg gaxarebuli sportsmenis saxe, stop-kadri, Cabneleba; amodis titri _ `eZRvneba giorgis xsovnas~... imisaTvis, rom finali ufro emociuri gamxdariyo, students vurCieT, Cabnelebis Semdeg kadris sazRvarTan emoZrava sxvadasxva rakursiT gadaRebul videokadrebs, sadac giorgi i pyrobs mwvervalebs, SuaSi ki, Sav fonze, amosuliyo titri: `eZRvneba giorgis xsovnas~... aseTi xerxiT gadawyvetilma finalurma kadrma films sruliad sxva azrobrivi datvirTva da dramatizmi Semata. (gagrZeleba Semdeg nomerSi)

1. . 6- , . 2, . 87. 2. . , ., "~, 1974, . 70. 3. . , ., "~, 1964, . 140. 4. . , ., 1926, . 45. 5. . , ., 1998, . 50. 6. . , ., "~, 1992. . 19. 7. . , ., 1998. . 75. 8. . , ., "~, 1965, . 72. 183

xelovnebaTmcodneoba

nato gengiuri dekonstruqtivizmi _ Tanamedrove arqiteqturuli mimarTuleba

cnobilia, rom arqiteqtori Tavis nawarmoebSi arasdros ixsneba mayureblis winaSe im doniT, rogoriTac fermweri, musikosi anda poeti. xelovnebis istoriidan SeiZleba gavixsenoT araerTi mxatvari, romelic uaryo epoqam, radgan konfliqtSi iyvnen TanamedroveTa gemovnebasTan da sakuTari gziT midiodnen... sagulisxmoa, rom maT Soris ar iyo arc erTi arqiteqtori. es, bunebrivia, ar gulisxmobs imas, rom arqiteqtorebi naklebad SemoqmedebiTni arian. saqme isaa, rom maTi yvelaze Tamami da Tavisufali fantaziac ki asaxavs misi Tanamedrove sazogadoebis xasiaTs, epoqis suls. amas Tavisi mizezebi aqvs. erT-erTia is, rom arqiteqturas utilitaruli daniSnuleba gaaCnia; is SeuZlebelia gaTavisufldes socialuri funqciisagan da Tavisi droisagan mowyvetilad iarsebos. b. vi peris marTebuli SeniSvniT, mxatvrobasTan dakavSirebiT Tavisuflad SeiZleba iTqvas: `stili esaa mxatvari~. arqiteqturis SemTxvevaSi ki marTebulia aRiareba: `stili epoqaa~. 1 gamonaklisad arc Tanamedrove arqiteqtura unda CaiTvalos. Tavisuflad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom misi ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi Cvens epoqas exmianeba. XX saukunis bolo meoTxedis arqiteqturisaTvis gadamwyvetia Tanamedrove teqnologiebis CarTva arqiteqturul procesSi. Tanamedrove teqnologiebi gamoiyeneba rogorc Canafiqris proeqtad `gardaqmnis~ da misi damuSavebis dros, ise nagebobis mSeneblobisas. Zalze niSandoblivia sxva tendenciac: saerTaSoriso eko nomi kis glob aliz acii s p i robe bSi wamy van arqiteqtorTa moRvaweobis areali Zalze gafarTovda. maTi saxelosnoebi, igive arqiteqturuli biuroebi, ki TandaTanobiT solidur, transnacionalur kompaniebad

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gardaiqmna. isini aSeneben sxvadasxva qalaqSi, qveyanSi, mTels msoflioSi. es ganapirobebs msgavsi tendenciebis gamovlenas msoflio masStabiT, rac princi pulad ganasxvavebs Tanamedroveobas wina epoqebisgan. romelime Zveli xuroTmoZRvris qmnilebebis gasacnobad, sakmarisia, erT qveyanaSi Caxvide da Tundac erTi qalaqi moiaro. Tu, magaliTad, bruneleskis Sedevrebs sanaxavad mxolod florencia iqneba Cveni mogzaurobis mizani, Tanamedrove arqiteqtoris Semoqmedebis gasacnobad erT qveyanaSi Casvla sakmarisi ar aris, aucilebelia qveynebi da kontinentebi Semoiaro. Tanamedrove arqiteqturisaTvis TiTqmis ar arsebobs arc geografiuli da arc SemoqmedebiTi sazRvrebi: sruliad warmoudgeneli, TiTqos, utopiuri Canafiqrebic ki mowinave teqnologiebis wyalobiT ganxorcielebadi xdeba. masSi frTebs isxams Tamami fantazia da, TiTqos, miuw vdomel i Cana fiqreb i. muz eumebi , s axl ebi, magistralebi korporaciaTa ofisebi mogagonebT frTebgaSlil Citebs, teqnikur danadgarebs, gaqvavebul mcenareebs, kldidan mowyvetil lodebs, fantastikur arsebebs, romelnic statikis kanonebs `ar emorCilebian~, TiTqos, formas icvlian ganaTebis cvalebadobasTan erTad. arqiteqturis ZiriTadi princi pebi _ funqciis, kons tru qciis da mxatv ruli gamoms ax velobis harmoniuli Tanxvedra, romelnic antikurobidanve xuroTmoZRvarTa traqtatebSi aucilebel moTxovnadaa aRiarebuli, XX saukunem kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayena. es jer funqcionalurobis aqcentirebaSi gamoixata, saukunis bolos ki arqiteqturis iseT teqnikur mxares Seexo, rogoric konstruqciaa. dRevandeli arqiteqtura postmodernizmis zemoqmedebis qveS viTardeba. masSi, TiTqosda, ar arsebobs stilisturi erTianoba. SeimCneva sxvadasxva mimarTuleba, romelTac arqiteqtorebi sakuTari miswrafebebisa da damkveTTa moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT mimarTaven. am mimarTulebaTa Soris arian iseTebic, romelnic istoriul stilebs `ixseneben~

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(klasicizmi, neomodernizmi). es, rogorc Cans, reaqciaa internacionaluri stilis racionaluri midgomis batonobaze. amis gverdiT, funqcionalizmis ideebi, romelTac XX saukunis dasawyisSi CaeyaraT safuZveli, jer kidev aqtualuria. neomodernizmis gverdiT arsebobs hai-teki, mimarTuleba, romelic mecnierebisa da te qni kis i nov aci ebs aTvis ebasTan erTad k on s tr u qt i v is t ul te n de n ci e bs avi Tar e bs . modernizmisgan Sors araa minimalizmis ideebi, romelic formaTa TavSekavebul da sada xasiaTs aniWebs upiratesobas. ekologiuri arqiteqturac ikvebeba zogierTi postulatiT, romelic modernizmis epoqaSi Semovida. yvela am mimarTulebisgan gansxvavdeba Tanamedrove avangardi, romelsac ekuTvnis dekonstruqtivizmi. is iswrafvis mxatvruli enis ganaxlebisken, axali g am o ms axv e lo biTi fo rm e bis Ziebisaken. dekonstruqtivistuli stilisaTvis saxas iaToa arqiteqturul formaTa vizualuri sirTule, maTi moulodneli `gadatexva~, qalaqis garemoSi xazgasmulad agresiuli SeWra. mis i mxatvruli tendenciebi radikaluria, tradiciul stilebTan mimarTeba ki _ mkveTri da polemikuri. yovelTvis arqiteqturaSi garkveuli doniT saqme exeboda da exeba sufTa formebs; nebismieri Senobis safuZvelSi ubralo, geometriuli (cilindri, piramida, kubi da a. S.) formebi Zevs da mas mowesrigebuli, stabiluri xasiaTi aqvs miniWebuli. dekonstruqtivistuli mxatvruli midgomidan ki iseTi Rirebulebebi, rogoricaa: arqiteqtonika, harmoniuli erTianoba da stabiluroba arqiteqturis struqturidan amovarda. dekonstruqtivizms, TiTqos, surs geometrizmis struqturaSi SeiWras, masSi arastabiluroba moiZios da TvalsaCino gaxados. dekonstruqtivizmi efuZneba frangi filosofosis Jak deridas (1930-2004)2 ideebs. man dekonstruqtivizmi Semoitana rogorc filosofiuri da literaturuli mimdinareoba. is akritikebda logikis, logocentrizmis

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evropul tradicias. aRniSnavda dekonstruqciis aucileblobas. misi azriT, am procesSi mJRavndeba, rom teqsti _ esaa citatebis, niSnebis nakrebi.3 derida Tvlis, rom saWiroa safuZvlis, istoriuli wyaroebis Zieba. swored amisTvis unda moxdes humanitaruli kulturis s xv a da s xv a te q s t i s a na l it i ku r i d a na w ev r eb a (`dekonstruqcia~), raTa maTSi gamovavlinoT sayrdeni cnebebi da Semdgomi epoqebis metaforuli kvali. rogorc aRiniSna, deridas msoflmxedveloba ZiriTadad enasa da literaturas exeba, magram am Teorias is arqiteqturasac ukavSirebs. arqiteqturuli dekonstruqtivizmis Teoriuli s af uZ ve l i iy o d er id as Se md e gi S ex e du le ba : arqiteqturas aqvs SesaZlebloba, Sevides konfliqtSi da `qaauqmos~ sakuTari Tavi. am ideebma Semdgomi ganviTareba moi poves arqiteqtorisa da arqiteqturis Teoretikosis rem koolxaasis gamocemebSi. mark viglei, romelic dekonstruqtivistTa pirveli gamofenis erT-erTi organizatori iyo, ase ganmartavs am mimarTulebas: `dekonstruqtivisti arqiteqtori aris ara is, vinc Senobis demontaJiTaa dakavebuli, aramed is, vinc SenobaSi Sinagani, organuli problemebis lokalizebas axdens. dekonstruqtivisti arqiteqtori tradiciuli arqiteqturis sufTa formebs ise epyroba, rogorc _ fsiqiatri Tavis pacients: is adgens simptomebs, romlebic Seviwrovebul, dafarul `uwesrigobas~ avlens. es uwesrigoba rbili mliqvnelobiTa da Zaladobrivi wamebiT zeda sibrtyeze amodis: forma ikargeba.~4 meore wyaro, romelmac SemoqmedebiTi biZgis roli Seasrula dekonstruqtivizmisaTvis, iyo 1920-iani wlebis sabWoTa konstruqtivizmi. kerZod, vladimer tatlinis (1885-1953)5 proeqtebi. rogorc cnobilia, XX saukunis dasawyisSi rusulma avangardma kavSiri gawyvita kompoziciis klasikur wesebTan da gamoiyena sufTa geometriuli formebi. v. tatlini kidev ufro Sors wavida: is Seecada daxrili, mrudi geometriuli,

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dinamikuri arqiteqturuli kompoziciebi Seeqmna, magram misi ideebi CanafiqrTa doneze darCa. `tatlinis koSki~ avtoris yvelaze cnobili nawarmoebia (sur. 1), romelic XX saukunis novatoruli miswrafebebis gamoxatulebaa. Zeglis 5 m.-iani modeli moskovSi 1920 wlis dekemberSi daidga. am dros iq sabWoebis VIII yriloba mimdinareobda da am movlenas eZRvneboda gamofenac. nagebobis simaRle eifelis koSkze erTnaxevarjer didi unda yofiliyo. am 400 metrian Senobas konkretuli utilitaruli daniSnuleba hqonda: is Cafiqrebuli iyo rogorc adminis traciuli Senoba da msoflio revoluciis komitetis saagitacio-propagandistuli centri. konstruqcia Sedgeboda liTonis burjebisagan da oTxi sxvadasxva siCqariT moZravi gamWvirvale moculobisagan. v. tatlinis CanafiqriT, masSi unda g an Tav s ebu liy o k o mi t et i s aRm as ru lebe li , sakanonmdeblo da propagandistuli dawesebulebebi. grandiozuli Senoba-monumenti konstruirebuli iqneboda novatoruli mxatvrul-plastikuri da sainJinro-teqnikuri formebiT. tatlini iTvleba `manqanuri xelovnebis~ winamorbedad, radgan is xazs usvams teqnikis esTetikas. misi koSkic xom Cafiqrebuli iyo rogorc giganturi manqana, romelSic iqneboda s ak o mf e re n ci o d arbaze bi , o Tax e bi , k i be e bi , radiomauwyebloba. misi burjebi ki yovelives ciur sxeulebTan aiyvanda. es fantastikuri proeqti ver ganxorcielda, magram dRemde iTvleba arqiteqturis istoriis gzis maCvenebel niSnad.6 daxrili, TiTqosda, ateqtonikuri forma, dinamikuri masebi sruliad axali arqiteqturuli tendenciis maCvenebeli iyo, maSin am mimarTulebs ar hqonda ganxorcielebis pirobebi, magram XX saukunis bolos dekonstruqciulma arqiteqturam swored es ideebi ganaviTara. dekonstruqtivistebi efuZnebian konstruqtivistTa kompoziciur motivebs, magram axdenen maT deformacias. es ki maT aSenebul Senobebs dinamikas da simkveTres aniWebs.

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dekonstruqtivizmi, rogorc arqiteqturuli mimdinareoba, yalibdeba 80-ian wlebSi. misi dabadebis TariRad 1988 weli iTvleba. am wels fili p jonsonma da mark vigleim niu-orkis Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumSi moawyves gamofena `dekonstruqtivistuli arqiteqtura~. winasityvaoba gamofenis katalogisTvis dawera fili p jonsonma (1906-2005), arqiteqtorma, romelmac 50 wlis win henri-rusel xiCkokTan erTad moawyo gamofena `Tanamedrove arqiteqtura~ da amerikas gaacno evropuli modernizmi. Semdgom gamosca wigni `internacionaluri stili: arqiteqtura 1922 wlidan~, romelmac ars ebiTi wvlili Seitana amerikaSi Tan ame d ro v e tendenciebis g av r c ele baS i. 7 niSandoblivia, rom saukunis bolosken misive xeldasmiT axalma arqiteqturulma momdinareobam gaakeTa ganacxadi. dekonstruqtivistTa gamofenas Svidi monawile hyavda: frank geri (Frank Gehry), daniel libeskindi (Daniel Libeskind), rem koolhaasi (Rem Koolhaas), peter eizenmani (Peter Eisenman, zaha hadidi (Zaha Hadid), bernard Cumi (Bernard Tschumi) da koop himelbau _ venis arqiteqturuli biuro (Coop Himmelbau). yvela es avtori Tanamedrove arqiteqturis avangardSi dgas. maT mxatvrul meTodSi msgavsia mimarTuleba, ZiriTadi tendenciebi, magram imavdroulad TiToeuli maTgani mkafiod gamoxatuli individualuri `xelweris~ ostatia. dekonstruqtivizmis Taviseburebebze mkafio azris Sesaqmnelad, zogierTi maTganis mTavari nawarmoebebis daxasiaTebas mivmarTavT. dekonstruqtivistTa Soris gamorCeuli adgili ukavia frank geris (dab. 1929)8, romlis Semoqmedeba jer kidev zemoxsenebul gamofenamde avlenda dekonstruqciul tendenciebs. mis mier 1978 wels aSenebuli sakuTari saxli santa-monikaSi pirvel dekonstruqtivistul nagebobadaa aRiarebuli. es aris vardisferi solyavariT gadaxuruli mansardiani saxli. arqiteqtori farTod iyenebs sxvadasxva masalas. zogan is aSiSvlebs Senobis struqturas: kedlebs mopirkeTeba ar gaaCnia. saxasiaToa

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rkinis, liTonis badis, minis da faneris sxvadasxva kuTxiT dayenebuli sibrtyeebi. Semdgom geris SemoqmedebisTvis ufro da ufro saxasiaTo xdeba arqiteqturuli masebi, romelnic, TiTq os d a, k ar g av e n S em o mf arg lavi ke d li s sibrtyulobas da Seuval simyares, giqmnian iolad modelirebadi, damyoli mas alis agan Seqmnilis STabeWdilebas. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT saxli praRaSi (1995), romelsac `mocekvave saxls~, zogjer ki `jinjeri da fredi~-s uwodeben (sur. 2). saxelwodeba esityveba am Senobis arqiteqturuli formebis erTgvarad cvalebad, dinamikur xasiaTs. 1989 wels gaixsna vitras dizainis muzeumi vail am reinSi (samx. germania), romelic frank geris proeqtiT ganxorcielda. aq gamofenilia avejis da interieris dizainis nimuSebi, romelnic XIX saukunis dasawyisidan Cvens dromde periodSia Sesrulebuli. es aris geris evropaSi aSenebuli pirveli Senoba. aq SeiniSneba axali tendencia: frank geri uars ambobs mis mier aqamde farTod gamoyenebul mravalferovani masalebis enaze. sxvadasxva masalis narevis magivrad is Semoifargla TeTri mopirkeTebiTa da titanTuTiiT (sur. 3). Senobis ezoSi dgas plastika `balansirebuli samuSao iaraRebi~ (Balancing Tools), romelic moqandake klaes oldenburgma Seqmna. realur zomebze gacilebiT didi masStabis samuSao iaraRebiT Sedgenili plastikuri kompozicia kompleqsis ganuyofeli nawilia. plastikisa da arqiteqturis kavSiri f. geris daproeqtebul sxva S en obebsac axasi aTebs . magali Tad , bi lbao s saxelganTqmul muzeums, romelsac qvemoT SevexebiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom vitras kompleqsis nawilia sxva dekonstruqtivistis, warmoSobiT erayeli arqiteqtori qalis zaha hadidis (dab. 1950) saxanZro sadguris Senoba, romelic muzeumis eqspoziciisTvisaa gamoyenebuli da, Tavis mxriv, dekonstruqtivizmis manifestad iTvleba. frank geris gansakuTrebiT cnobili nawarmoebia gugenhaimis muzeumi bilbaoSi (espaneTi, baskeTi). muzeumi

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(sur. 4, 5) gaixsna 1997 wels. dRes is msoflios yvelaze warmtac SenobaTa ricxvSia. nageboba dgas mdinare nervionis napiras. geri arqiteqturuli kompoziciis Seqmnisas momgebianad iyenebs garemos, wyalTan siaxloves da Senobas gansakuTrebul gamomsaxvelobas aniWebs. wylis dinamika arqiteqturul formebzec `gadadis~: arcerTi brtyeli zedapiri mas ar aqvs, Sedgeba m ru d x az o van i m o cu lobe bi s agan , r om e lni c mrudxazovanive konturebiT ikveTeba. arqiteqturuli moculobebis didi wili dafarulia titaniumis firfitebiT, Soridan is Tevzis qercls mogagonebT da saocar haerovnebas aniWebs nagebobas. dakvirvebisas SeiZleba mogeCvenoT, rom dRis ganmavlobaSi Senoba formas icvlis . bilbaos gugenhaimis muzeumis mSeneblobisas gamoiyenes uaxlesi teqnologiebi. kompiuterulma grafikam saSualeba misca inJinrebs, SeeqmnaT iseTi formebi, rogoric adre SeuZlebeli iyo. konstruqciebis mSeneblobisas qvis panelebi sasurvel formebad lazeriT daiWra. aRsaniSnavia is midgoma, romelsac iCens arqiteqtori qalaqis struqturaSi axali Senobis CarTvisas: quCis mxridan misi sada formebi garemos ar Crdilavs, masSi bunebrivad iwereba maSin, rodesac mdinaris mxridan grandiozuli da STambeWdavi Cans. SenobaSi Tanamedrove xelovnebis gamofenebi ewyoba, magram misi koleqcia sruliad daCrdilulia muzeumis STambeWdavi arqiteqturis fonze. qandakeba, romelic SenobasTan dgas da uzarmazar obobas warmoadgens ekuTvnis frang moqandakes luiza burJuas (dab. 1911) . is cnobilia s xva ms gavs i qandakebebiTac. erT-erTi maTgani, aseTive grandiozuli oboba dgas kanadis nacionaluri muzeumis win. daniel libeskindi (dab. 1946) dekonstruqtivistuli ar qi te qt uri s ki de v erT i li de ria . ma s T an ac TvalSisacemia mkveTrad gamoxatuli individualuri xelwera. libeskindis nagebobebSi aqtualuria mkafio xazebi, maxvili kuTxeebi, lentisebri sarkmlebi. d. libeskindi gamoirCeva ara mxolod arqiteqturuli

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`xelweris~ individualizmiT, aramed saintereso biografiiTa da pirovnuli TvisebebiT. mas axasiaTeben rogorc artistul, maxvilgonier, mcired sarkastul adamians. dRes is amerikaSi cxovrobs, Tumca poloneTSia dabadebuli, arqiteqturas esekis universitetSi swavlobda. Semdgom, rogorc emigranti, cxovrobda israelSi, sadac musikaluri ganaTlebac miiRo. rogorc aRniSnaven, libeskindi virtuozi-pianistia,9 magram man arqiteqtura airCia. niSandoblivia, rom d. libeskindis proeqtma gaimarjva nui-iorkSi 11 seqtembers ganadgurebuli msoflio savaWro centris rekonstruqciisTvis gamocxadebul konkursSi. aqamde ki iyo ebrauli muzeumi berlinSi (1993), imperial var muzeumi manCesterSi (msoflio omebis muzeumi _ gaixsna 2001), torontos samefo galereis Tanamedrove frTa (2007), denveris xelovnebis muzeumi (2006). misi namuSevrebis CamonaTvali gviCvenebs, rom d. libeskindi samarTlianad iTvleba samuzeumo da memorialur mSeneblobaTa specialistad. denveris xelovnebis muzeumis federik s. hemiltonis korpusi dReis aTv is d ani el libesk ind is e rTader Ti dasrulebuli Senobaa aSS-Si (sur. 6, 7). muzeumis Senoba didi araa, magram Tavisi gansakuTrebuli arqiteqturuli masebiT gvtacebs mzeras. is, TiTqos, ucnauri geom etriuli figure bis na krebs w armoadg ens . diagonalebi, sxvadasxva mxares mimarTuli maxvili kuTxeebi agresiulad iWreba qalaqis sivrceSi da mTlianad cvlis garemos. Tavad daniel libeskindma ganacxada, rom muzeumis forma bunebrivi kldeebis moxazulobidan aiRo. formebi, marTlac, mogvagonebs kldidan mowyvetil lodebs, magram mxatvruli gardaqmna, gaangariSeba, Sesruleba imdenad ostaturi da damajerebelia, rom muzeumi Tavad gardaiqmneba mxatvrul `eqsponatad~. formebis, masebis, kuTxeebis, anareklebis TamaSi ma s gadaaqcevs s imbolod Tanamedrove xelovnebisa, romlis gagebac rTulia, magram,

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samagierod, mimzidvelobis saocar Zalas flobs. azrobriv-simboluri momentebis win wamoweva daniel libeskindma daiwyo Tavisi pirveli saxelganTqmuli berlinuri proeqtebiT. 1993 wels dasrulda mis mier daproeqtebuli ebrauli muzeumis Senoba berlinSi,10 romelic muzeum-Zeglad gadaiqca. berlinis muzeumSi ebrauli ganyofileba 1970-ian wlebSi gaixsna. male dadga ebrauli eqspoziciisaTvis ufro meti adgilis gamoyofis sakiTxi. 1989 wels moewyo konkursi muzeumis Zveli Senobis gafarToebis proeqtze. 165 proeqts Soris gaimarjva daniel libeskindis proeqtma. sanam mSenebloba mimdinareobda, ar wydeboda kamaTi Senobis mxatvruli koncefciis Taobaze. misi gaxsnis Semdeg ki yvela gaognebuli darCa nagebobis gansakuTrebuli saxiTa da efeqtiT. gamoCndnen kritikosebi, iyvnen iseTebic, romelnic ironiiT uyurebdnen libeskindis Tavisebur midgomas da Senobas dis nei- l ends adar ebdne n. l ibes k indma aaS ena aRsaqmelad rTuli nageboba, romelSic adamiani Tavs arakomfortulad grZnobs da amiT mnaxvels Tavad xdis ebraelTa tragediis monawiled. Senoba Sedgeba `datexili~, bneli derefnebisgan da ufanjro, Wisebri formis darbazebisgan. fasadebze viwro, sxvadasxva konfiguraciis fanjrebia mimobneuli. muzeumi mogagonebT afeTqebisgan dazianebul Senobas. is TviTon aris monumenti, romelic ebraelTa tragedias ganasaxierebs da amiT, TiTqos, epaeqreba kidec e qs p oz i ci a s . mu z eu m is x e lm Z Rv a ne l ob a m a in c ukmayofilo darCa: Senoba funqcionalur amocanebs ver asrulebs, _ ambobdnen isini, _ koleqciis ganTavseba Zne lad xe r x de ba. am pr aqt i ku li m i zn e bi s SesrulebisaTvis interieri ramdenadme gadaakeTes da daSordnen Tavdapirvel proeqts. miuxedavad amisa, muzeumi rogorc ki gaixsna, berlinis erT-erTi mTavari RirsSesaniSnaoba gaxda da dRes dekonstruqtivizmis Sedevradaa aRiarebuli. muzeumis pop ularobam ganapiroba mravalfunqciuri darbazis Seqmnis

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aucilebloba. misma xelmZRvanelobam, miuxedavad Zveli uTanxmoebebis a, konkursis gareSe pirdapir d. lib es ki nds m imar Ta. S enoba Si a xali nawi lis ganTavsebisaTvis arqiteqtorma 1735 wels aSenebuli muzeumis Sida ezo airCia. amgvari gadawyveta, Tavis mxriv, axali ar aris arqiteqturis istoriaSi: 2000 wels norman fosterma britaneTis muzeumis Sida ezo S uS is g um baTiT g adax ur a. d . libe s kindis g ad a w yv e t il e b iT a c e z o f o la d i s k o lo n e bz e dayrdnobili SuSis saxuraviT unda gadaexuraT. erTi SexedviT ubralo gadawyvetas gansakuTrebuli koncefcia udevs safuZvlad. is agrZelebs ebraul Temas: oTx burjze dayrdnobili brtyeli gadaxurva imeorebs ebrauli sukos formas. suko ebrauli dResaswaulis sukotis mniSvnelovani elementia da ukavSirdeba egvi ptidan gamosvlis ambavs. roca ebraelebma adgil sukotamde miaRwies, RmerTma mouvlinaT xis totebisagan gakeTebuli qoxebi, sukebi, romelSic maT Tavi daaRwies udabnos sicxes da daisvenes. amis Semdeg ebraelebi sukoebs ezoebSi da verandebze aSeneben sukotis dResaswaulisas, romelic rva dRe grZeldeba. mas odiTganve saxasiaTo forma hqonda: sami kedeli da totebis naxevrad Ria saxuravi (sur. 8). libeskindis proeqtic am maxasiaTeblebs imeorebs. kedlebis rols Zveli Senobis ukve arsebuli kedlebi asrulebs. meoTxe kedeli mTlianad SuSisaa. oTxi masiuri kolona xis Reroebis asociacias qmnis, xolo saxuravqveS erTmaneTSi gadawnuli milebi totebs mogagonebT. mSeneblobis teqnikuri mxare seriozuli problema gaxda. Zveli Senobis kedlebi ver daiWerda saxuravis simZimes. gadawyda, Zvel kedlebs sul ar Sexebodnen da saxuravi sakuTar burjebze daeyrdnoT. ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi midioda muSaoba sayrdenebze, romelTac erTdroulad plastikuri, gadazneqili forma da sakmarisi simtkice unda hqonodaT. saxuravisa da fasadisaTvis gamoiyenes cxra ti pis SuSa, raTa sinaTlis Cafiqrebuli gradaciisTvis

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mieRwiaT.11 sabolood gamovida Senoba, romelic ideis gansaxierebaa da erTgvarad metaforulia: TviT muzeumi yru, nervulad zigzagisebri formebiT ebraelTa rTuli istoriis simbolod warmogvidgeba, axali darbazi ki gamWvirvale, naTeli da sazeimoa. is aris ritualuri qoxi, romelic tanjvis Semdgomi simSvidisa da dResaswaulis gansaxierebaa. ebraelTa muzeumis mkafiod gamoxatuli metaforuli xasiaTi, masSi simboluri mniSvnelobis xazgasma, mxolod libeskindis SemoqmedebiT meTodad ar unda miviCnioT. es zogadad dekonstruqtivizmis saxasiaTo niSania da imave tendencias am mimarTulebis sxva ostatebic amJRavneben. magaliTad, holandieli dekonstruqtivisti arqiteqtori da Teoretikosi rem koohaasi erT-erT interviuSi aRniSnavs: `arqiteqtura Tavisebur speqtaklad gadaiqca. Senobas ... mxolod simbolos mniSvneloba aqvs~12 rem koohaasi (dab. 1944) iTvleba Tanamedroveobis erT-erT saintereso arqiteqtorad. dRes is harvardis universitetis profesoria dizainisa da urbanuli arqiteqturis mimarTulebiT. koohaasi mravali wignis avtoria, maT Soris _ arqiteqturis saxelmZRvanelosi.13 Tavidan is kinoscenarebsac werda, magram mere SeeSva am saqmes da Tavi mxolod arqiteqturas miuZRvna. rem koohasi gaxlavT praqtikosi arqiteqtoric da Tanamedrove arqiteqturis Teoretikosic. mas sakuTari biuroebi aqvs rotredamSi, niu-orkSi da pekinSi. misi proeqtebiT aSenda saxelganTqmuli Senobebi: sietlis centraluri biblioTeka (2004), CineTis centraluri televiziis Senoba pekinSi. yvela mis nagebobas axasiaTebs Taviseburi formebi da daxvewili Sida sivrceebi. Canafiqris gansakuTrebuli siTamamiT gamorCeuli CineTis centraluri televiziis Senobis proeqtiT (sur. 9) koohaasma msoflios yuradReba mii pyro. misi mSenebloba 2004 wels daiwyo da wels, 2008-Si, dasruldeba.

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o ri ko l o s a l ur i k o Sk i , r o me l ic p ek i ni s m rav als arTu li ani Se n o be bid an amo i z rd e ba, Tavbrudamxvev simaRleze uCveulo kuTxiT erwymis erTmaneTs. msgavsi SeerTeba Senobis safuZvelTanac xdeba. mnaxvels uCndeba STabeWdileba, rom nageboba konstruqciulad aramyaria, magram realurad misi konstruqcia 8 balian miwisZvrazea gaTvlili. Tanamedrove arqiteqturaSi caTambjenebis uzarmazari zomebi, Tvalmiuwvdeneli simaRle ukve Cveuli movlenaa, romelic aRaravis acvifrebs. pekinis televiziis SenobaSi ki ikveTeba ramdenime momenti, romelic simaRlesTan Serwymuli mis gansakuTrebulobas ganapirobebs: koSkebi erTmaneTiskenaa gadaxrili 10 gradusiani kuTxiT, rac pizis koSkis daxris kuTxeze 2-jer metia. axali da uCveulo am nagebobaSi sivrcisa da a rqi te qto ru li ma s eb is me ta d T av is e bu ri damokidebulebacaa: Senobis silueti sivrceSi uzarmazar, deformirebul sworkuTxeds Semowers. esaa T av is e bu r i `C a rC o ~, r o me l ic d i d s iv rc e ze a Semovlebuli. arqiteqturul masebs Soris moqceuli Ria sivrce misi iseTive ganuyofeli nawili xdeba, rogorc Sida sivrce interierSi. dekonstruqtivistTa arqiteqturuli kompoziciebi Cveni epoqis Tavisebur simbolod warmogvidgeba. is Sors gaiWra, aqamde warmoudgenel masStabebs miaRwia. is iswrafvis vrceli sivrceebis aTvisebisken da iTvisebs kidec... sivrceSi agresiulad SeWrili, TiTqos, sivrcis damamorCilebeli axali arqiteqturuli formebi `xmamaRla acxadeben~: adamiani daSorda bunebas, teqnikis samyaro misi Canacvlebisken iswrafvis... da, raoden paradoqsulic ar unda iyos, dRes, roca warmoudgeneli fantaziebis ganxorcielebasac ki, TiTqos, win araferi eRobeba, bunebrivi garemo aqtiurad gvaxsenebs Tavs. is aqriteqtor-mSenebelTa winaSe kvlav ayenebs amocanebs, romelTa gadaWrac yvela epoqaSi aqtualuri iyo. klimati, reliefi, garemo _ arc erTi patiobs mSenebelTa mxridan `uyuradRebobas~.

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am kuTxiT niSandoblivia is procesi, romelic amJamad mimdinareobs: Tanamedroveobis erT-erT yvelaze warmatebul arqiteqtor frank geris 2007 wels uCivla masaCusetsis teqnologiurma universitetma uxarisxod daproeqtebuli SenobisaTvis. sainteresoa, mainc ra pretenzia hqonda damkveTs arqiteqtorisadmi? rogorc aRmoCnda, aSenebidan mokle xanSi SeuZlebeli gaxda nagebobiT usafrTxo sargebloba. universitetis mesveurebi Civian: SenobaSi wyali Cadis, mudmivi nestisgan kedlebi obiT daifara, zamTrobiT ki yinulis didi lodebi cviva gare kedlebidan, romelTac daxrili moxazuloba aqvT (sur. 10). yovelive safrTxes uqmnis universitetis TanamSromlebs, quCaSi mimaval xalxs da xSirad Senobis blokirebasac ki axdens. universitetis axali Senobis mSenebloba oTxi wlis winaT, 2004 wels, dasrulda. proeqti, rogorc misi avtorisgan iyo mosalodneli, dekonstruqtivizmis sulSia Sesrulebuli: nagebobis gare masebi erTgvarad deformirebulia. Senobas ar aqvs arc erTi swori kedeli, isini sxvadasxva kuTxiT arian daxrili. aman gamoiwvia Tovlis dagroveba kedlebze da masTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. cxadia, is rac kargad imuSavebda mSral klimatur pirobebSi, ver funqcionirebs uxvTovlian garemoSi. es imis maCvenebelia, rom arsebobs garemoebebi, romelTa gaTvaliswineba Tanamedrove teqnologiebis ganviTarebis pirobebSic ki aucilebelia. amr ig ad , m Tlian obaS i de k on st ru q ti vi zm i mravalferovania, Tumca aSkaradaa gamoxatuli zogadi maxasiaTeblebi. unda aRiniSnos arqiteqturuli struqturis vizualuri sirTule, `moulodneli~ k om p o zi c ie bi, m xat vr u li s ax i s e rTg v ar i aras tabilur oba da dinami zmi. ni Sandobl ivia arqiteqturuli kompoziciebis azrobrivi qveteqstebi, simbolizmi, romelic zogierT dekonstruqtivistTan gansakuTrebul mkafioebas iZens (magaliTad, daniel libeskindTan). Taviseburia dekonstruqtivistuli nagebobebisa da garemos damokidebuleba. mraval

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SemTxvevaSi maT axas iaTebT qalaqis garemoSi xazgasmulad agresiuli SeWra, rac, erTi mxriv, arqiteqturuli masebis gansakuTrebuli formebiT aris ganpirobebuli da, meore mxriv, Senobis masStaburobiT. masStabebis mkveTr cvalebadobaze gaTvla am stilis Taviseburebad unda CaiTvalos. am mxriv niSandoblivia qandakebisa da arqiteqturis kavSiri: plastika, romelic nagebobis uSualo siaxlovesaa ganTavsebuli Tavisi bunebrivi p rototi pis realur mas Stabebs a da proporciebs arRvevs (magaliTad, l. burJuas `oboba~ bilbaos gugenhaimis muzeumTan an k. oldenburgis `Balancing Tools~ vitras dizainis muzeumTan). iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom mikrosamyaro makrosamyaros TvalSisacem nawilad gadaqcevis pretenzias acxadebs. s am u z eu m o S en o bebi s S eq m n a Tan ame d r ov e arqiteqturis erT-erTi amocanaa. Tanac Cans, rom muzeumis, rogorc xelovnebis samyoflis gaazreba arqiteqtorisTvis mxatvrulobis, SemoqmedebiTi Tavisuflebis gansakuTrebuli gaqanebis biZgia. amas ukve ganxiluli muzeumebis arqiteqturac gviCvenebs. erTi ki metad niSandoblivia, dekonstruqtivisti arqiteqtorebi sruliad ar iziareben Zvel, ukve arsebul arqiteqturasTan harmoniuli Serwymis princi pebs. piriqiT, Zvel SenobebSi dekunstruqtivistuli `minaSenCanaSenebic~ da calke mdgari Senobebic metismetad aqtiurad gamodian win. isini yovelTvis TvalSisacemia, izidaven mnaxvelis mzeras. arsebuli arqiteqtura ki maTTvis fonia, romelzec isini mTavar `movlenad~, gansakuTrebul `eqsponatad~ aRiqmebian.

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sur. 4. f. geri. gugenhaimis muzeumi bilbaoSi. 1997 w.

xur. 1. `taltinis koSki~ 1920 w.

sur. 2. f. geri mocekvave saxli praRaSi. 1995 w.

sur. 3. f. geri. vitras dizainis muzeumi da klaes oldenburgis plastika "Balancing Tools". 1989.

sur. 5. f. geri. gugenhaimis muzeumi bilbaoSi. 1997 w.

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sur. 6. d. libeskindi. denveris muzeumis federik s. hemiltonis korpusi. 2006 w.

sur. 9. r. kohaasi. centraluri biblioTeka sietlSi.

sur. 7. d. libeskindi. denveris muzeumis federik s. hemiltonis korpusi da moedani mis win. 2006 w.

sur. 10. r. kohaasi. CineTis centraluri televizia pekinSi. 2007 w.

sur. 8. d. libeskindi. ebrauli muzeumu berlinSi. sakonferencio darbazi. 2001 w.

sur. 11. f. geri. masaCusesis teqnikuri universiteti. 2004 w.

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1. ., , ., 1970, . 124. 2. Jak derida (1930-2004), ebraeli, postmodernizmis erT-erTi yvelaze avtoritetuli filosofosia. didi popularobiT sargeblobda aSS-Sic. misi azriT samyaro, romelic a da m ia ni s T v i sa a m is a w v do m i n iS ne b is us as r ul o interpretacias warmoadgens. naTqvami sityva ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre dawerili. laparakisas sityvis avtoris arseboba aniWebs mas mniSvnelobas, dawerili ki kargavs Rirebulebas avtoris aryofnis gamo. man filosofiur da sagazeTo enaSi Seitana cnebebi dekonstruqcia, werili (rogorc informaciis Senaxvis saSualeba), diferansi, kvali. dawera daaxloebiT 80 wigni. 3.Wigley, Mark: Architektur und Dekonstruktion. Derridas Phantom. Basel: Birkhäuser, 1994. . , , 1997, 11. 4.Mark Wigley, in: Johnson 1988, p.11 5. vladimer tatlini swavlobda penzis samxatvro saswavlebelSi, aseve moskovisa da peterburgis avangardul samxatvro studiebSi. Tavidan mxolod ferweriTa da grafikiT iyo dakavebuli. 1900-1910-ian ww.-Si dauaxlovda rus avangardistebs, aformebda futuristul wignebs, speqtaklebs, daaarsa sakuTari studia, sadac maravali `memarcxene~ mxatvari muSaobda. 1914 wlis maisSi `ferweruli reliefebis pirveli gamofenis~ organizatori gaxda. gamofenil nawarmoebebs sxvagvarad erqvaT: `masalebis SerCeva~, `kontrreliefebi~. tatlinis kontrreliefebiT daiwyo rusuli avangardis konstruqtivistuli mimarTuleba, romelic upirispirdeboda _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, avtoris mier _ k. maleviCis ganyenebulniSnebian supermatizms. mogvianebiT tatlini dizainiT dainteresda da qmnida iseT proeqtebsac, romelTa ganxorcieleba ukeTes SemTxvevaSi momavalSi gaxdeboda SesaZlebeli. aseTia `tatlinis koSki~ (1919-20) da safreni aparati e. w. `maxaloti~, igive `letatlini~ (1929-1932). sabWoTa periodSi tatlinma Tavidan aqtiuri sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba daiwyo. Semdgom, 30-ian wlebSi avangardizmis ganadgureba daiwyo. tatlins aRar hqonda SesaZlebloba, 204

Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi ideebi ganexorcielebina da iZulebuli gaxda Tavisi moRvaweoba Teatris mxatvrobiT Semoefargla. 1938 wels misi pano, romelic sasoflo-sameurneo gamofenisTvis daxata, gaanadgures rogorc `politikurad mavnebluri~. sicocxlis bolo wlebSi tatlini puris fuls imiT Soulobda, rom moskovis universitetisTvis TvalsaCinoebebs akeTebda. tatlinis `aRmoCena~ 1960-ian wlebSi moxda. Jonathan Lee: 50 große Abenteuer. Besondere Orte und die Menschen, die sie geschaffen haben. München: Prestel Verlag, 2006. aseve, .. . : , .-: R A, 2001. 6.1930 wels misi 5 m.-iani modeli ukanasknelad gamoifina da mere daikarga. 1992-93 wlebSi aRadgines. 7. Joedicke, J.: Architekturgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Karl ramer Verlag Stuttgart+Zuerich, 1998,p. .223. 8.Ragheb, J. Fiona u.a.: Frank Gehry. Architect. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern, 2001. 9. «», 193 (3524), 14.10.2006. 10. . ., ., M., 2002. 11. Dorner Elke: Daniel Libeskind - Jüdisches Museum Berlin. Gebr. Mann Verlag Berlin, 2006, 3. Auflage, 112 S. mit 54 Abb. 12. : « », «», 16(7526), 27 -3 , 2006. 13. Koolhaas Rem, Werlemann Hans and Bruce Mau, S,M,L,XL, The Monacelli Press, New York, 1994 (2nd edition 1997).

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kulturologia

Ffati SeylaSvili nacisturi ideologia kulturis Sesaxeb da nacional-socialistebis danaSauli kulturis winaaRmdeg

mravalricxovan samxedro danaSaulTa Soris, romelic Caidines faSistebma, erT-erTi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs kulturis mimarT gamovlenil sisastikes. 1941 wlis 1 maiss herman geringma xeli moawera direqtivas, romlis Tanaxmad unda daarsebuliyo maT mier okupirebul yvela teritoriaze specialuri Stabebi, romlebic Seiswavlidnen, Sekrebdnen da gaitandnen germaniaSi kulturul Rirebulebebs. partiul, saxelmwifo da samxedro organizaciebs miecaT miTiTeba, rom mxari daeWiraT da daxmareba aRmoeCinaT am operatiuli Stabebis ufrosi rozenbergisaTvis da misi moadgilis, germaniis wiTeli jvris savele ganyofilebis ufrosi fon bervisTvis. germaniis sagareo saqmeTa ministr ribentrops ar surda am miTiTebas damorCileboda im martivi mizeziT, rom Tavad cdilobda okupirebuli teritoriebis gaZarcvas. am mizniT daaarsa `SS~-is spec. daniSnulebis jgufebi baron fon kiunsbergis meTaurobiT. maT Tvalyuri unda edevnebinaT okupirebul teritoriebze muzeumebis, biblioTekebis, suraTebis galereebis da ar qi veb is Tvi s , ro mle bi c g ad aur Ca ge rma ne li jariskacebisgan Zarcvas da ganadgurebas. raTa Semdeg yvelaferi, rac warmoadgenda kulturul da istoriul Rirebulebas, gaetanaT germaniaSi. es yovelive paradoqsulad Cans imis fonze, rasac nacistebis fiureri Tavis wignSi `Cemi brZola~ xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom imperiis TandaTanobiTi ngrevis aCrdili jer kidev pirvel msoflio omamde iyo germaniaSi - eris kulturuli donis sistematiuri daqveiTeba. rom saxelmwifos xelmZRvanelebi unda eswrafodnen eris

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sulieri cxovrebis amaRlebas. Tu gasaqani ar mieca namdvil xelovnebasa da kulturas kacobriobis progresuli ganviTarebis nacvlad daiwyeba misi degradacia, unda vebrZoloT iseT `daavadebebs~, rac adre Tu gvian Cvens kulturas daRupvamde miiyvans, rom kulturam da xelovnebam Tavis mTavar amocanad unda gaixados axalgazrdobis aRzrda, ris gamoc igi udides mniSvnelobas aniWebs, ra doneze iqneba germanuli poezia, proza, Teatri da sxv. fiureri gamodis maT winaaRmdeg, vinc cdilobs ubadruki xelovnebiT kacobriobis mexsierebidan waSalos kulturis da xelovnebis dargSi arsebuli mdidari memkvidreoba. `uaryofa yvelaferi genialurisa, rasac flobda kacobrioba warsulSi, zizRi mis mimarT SeuZlia mas, visac TviTon ar Seswevs unari misces msoflios raime Rirebuli da mniSvnelovani~1 _ am sityvebiT SeiZleba iTqvas fiurerma garkveulwilad Tavadve gamoutana ganaCeni nacistebis `damsaxurebas~ jer TviT germaneli eris kulturis da mere msoflio kulturis winaSe. nacional-socialistebis gamarjvebas germaniaSi maleve mohyva savalalo Sedegebi. sxva mravalTa Soris kulturis, ganaTlebis da xelovnebis dargSi moRvawe germaneli antifaSistebisTvisac. 5 aTasi cnobili mecnieri, mwerali, poeti da mxatvari gandevnes qveynidan an daapatimres. germania datoves iseTma cnobilma adamianebma, rogorebic iyvnen: hainrix da Tomas manebi, lion foixtvangeri, fridrix volfi, iohanes bexeri, bertold brexti, franc vaiskofi da sxv. aseve saukeTeso reJisorebma da msaxiobebma. aikrZala mendelsonis, ofenbaxisa da meierberis musikaluri nawarmoebebis Sesruleba. am adamianebis qoneba (5 mlrd. markis odenobis) faSistebma miiTvises. iozef gebelsis meTaurobiT Seiqmna propagandis saministro da mis kontrols dauqvemdebares radio, presa, kino, Teatri. m uz e um e bid an g ai t an e s s u raTebi . n axe v rad gaasamxedroves umaRlesi saswavleblebi, eweodnen istoriis falsifikacias da sxv.

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gemraniaSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis Semdgom gasakviri ar aris is risxva, rac Tavs daatyda naiconalsocialistebis mier okupirebuli teritoriebis xalxTa kulturul memkvidreobas. maT saZarcvavad, rogorc zemoTac mivuTiTeT, amuSavda specialuri StabebiT dakompleqtebuli aparati. leningradis axlos carskoe selodan srulad gaitanes msoflioSi cnobili ekaterine II-is kuTvnili sasaxle _ muzeumis RirsSesaniSnaobani. kedlidan Camoxsnes Cinuri abreSumis Spaleri, aseve oqros samkaulebi, suraTebi, ekaterine II-is Zvirfasi qvebis uzarmazari koleqcia. imperator aleqsandre I-is sasaxleSi maTi yuradReba mii pyro uZvelesma avejma da unikalurma biblioTekam, romelic 7 aTasi tomisgan Sedgeboda. maT Soris iyo Zveli berZeni da romaeli klasikosebis araerTi Txzuleba. gaitanes aseve 5 aTasi uZvelesi xelnaweri.2 ukrainis biblioTekebidan waiRes uiSviaTesi sparsuli da Cinuri xelnawerebi, rusuli da ukrainuli matianeebi, pirveli wignebis egzempliarebi da mravali sxv. kiev peCoris lavridan germaniaSi gaitanes saeklesio literatura. xarkovidan _ rubensis naxatebi, volteris Txzulebebis 59 tomi.3 yvelaze RirsSesaniSnav kultrul memkvidreobas mesame raixis mesveurebi inawilebdnen _ geringi, rozenbergi, ribentropi, gebelsi da TavisTavad hitleri, romelsac gadasces frangul enaze dawerili 80-mde tomi napoleonis egvi pteSi laSqrobis Sesaxeb. fiureri, romelic Tavis wignSi xazgasmiT miuTiTebda, rom `qalaqebi, romlebic ar warmoadgenen kulturis centrebs an kargaven am mniSvnelobas, sul ufro metad emsgavsebian ubralod xalxis brbos TavSeyris adgils~4 da ganicdida, rom germanel qalaqebs ar daekargaT es Rirebuleba, daundoblad anadgurebda da Telavda dapyrobili xalxis kulturul memkvidreobas. arsebobs hitleris 1942 wlis 1 martis brZanebuleba rozenbergis specialuri Stabis Seqmnis Sesaxeb, romlis

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Tanaxmadac okupirebul raionebSi unda gadaesinjaT sxvadasxva saxis kulturuli organizaciebi da maTTvis konfiskacia gaekeTebinaT.5 belorusiis gen. komisris mier rozenbergis saxelze gagzavnil werilSi vkiTxulobT: `minskSi aRmoCnda mdidari, Zalzed Rirebuli koleqcia mxatvruli gamocemebisa da tiloebis, romelic uklebliv gaitanes germaniaSi....~ am mizniT gamoyofilma spec. jgufebis meTaurebma sami satvirTo manqana xelovnebis nimuSebiTa da s uraTebiT gaavs es. 6 nacional-socialistebi dagegmilad Zarcvavdnen aseve baltiispireTis qveynebis kulturul simdidreebs (talinis arqivi), xelovnebis nimuSebi muzeumebidan an gaitanes, an gaanadgures. 800 aTasi wigni dawves da, maTi azriT, 100 aTasi yvelaze Rirebuli germaniaSi gaagzavnes. rigaSi gaanadgures XV-XVII ss.-Si arqiteqturuli nagebobis mTeli rigi. maSin, rodesac uZveles unikalur Senobebs, xelovnebis Sedevrebs hitleri Tavis wignSi `Cemi brZola~ moixseniebda, rogorc mTeli epoqis simbolos, miuTiTebda antikuri qalaqebis sidiades da aRniSnavda, rom `xelovnebis Sedevrebi Seqmnilia ara erTi wamisTvis, aramed saukuneebisTvis~.7 misive miTiTebiT germaneli nacistebi umowyalod Zarcvavdnen evropis xalxTa kulturas. evropis rig qveyanaSi am Zarcvas `jentlmenuri~ ieri misces da xelovnebis nimuSebs yidulobdnen lincisa da kenigsbergis muzeumebisTvis, Tumca iq, sadac SeuTanxmeblobas hqonda adgili, Zalis gamoyenebas ar eridebodnen. ungreTidan Zvelgermanel mxatvarTa s ur aTe bi d r ez d en i s g ale re i sTv i s w ai Res , niderlandebidan - frangi, holandieli, germaneli mxatvrebis suraTebi da fiureris piradi davalebiT oqros, emalis, faifuris da minis namuSevrebi.8 evropis totaluri Zarcvisas miRebuli nadavli faSistebma gadamales sawyobebSi. erT-erTi ZiriTadi sawyobi datacebuli Zvirfaseulobis Sesanaxad moawyves avstriaSi, kremsmunsteris monasterSi. specialurad

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mowyobil sacavebSi Taroebze iyo ganTavsebuli wignebi, suraTebi, romlebic xelT igdes belgiis, holandiis, poloneTis, safrangeTis, sabWoTa kavSiris, Cexoslovakiis Zarcvisas. miqelanjelos originalebi, diureris graviurebi, rotSildebis venis koleqcia, saukeTeso naxatebi da Zvirfasi nivTebi montekarlos monastridan, ticianis naxatebi, miqelanjelos marmarilos `madona~, oqros sakurTxevlebi. laufenTan maRaroebSi gadamaluli iyo msoflioSi cnobili 6500-mde naxati, 1500 yuTi xelnawerebiT, miniaturebiT da xeze Sesrulebuli graviurebiT, saeklesio daniSnulebis mosarTavebi, asobiT Zvirfasi ulamazesi xaliCa, oqrosa da vercxlis nakeTobani. inventaris aRweriloba, romlis raodenoba mudmivad izrdeboda, 6 aTas gverdze mets moicavda. 1944 wlis Semdeg ungreTidan gatanili kulturuli Rirebulebani aRricxulic ar iyo. rodesac ganaiaraRes faSistebi, marto erT-erT SaxtaSi gadamaluli aRmoCnda Zveli ostatebis 5350 naxati, 1039 graviura, 95 gobeleni, 68 skulptura, 32 yuTi monetebi, 40 yuTi rotSildebis Zvirfaseuloba, 237 yuTi wignebi da mr av ali s xv. e s m xolod ar as ruli siaa im RirsSesaniSnaobebis CamonaTvalisa, rac `fiureris muzeumisTvis~ iyo gankuTvnili. Aamrigad, is, rasac nacional-socialistebis beladi uqadagebda germanel ers, rom saTanadod daefasebinaT kulturis RirsSesaniSnaobani, romlebsac sazogadoebis progresuli ganviTarebis udao pirobad miiCnevda, d a u n d o bl a d i q n a S e la x u l i , g a Z a r cv u l i d a ganadgurebuli misive miTiTebiT. auracxeli iyo zarali, romelic nacional-socialistebma kacobriobis kulturas miayenes.

1. , ( ) «-», 1990, . 218 2. ( ), . 24, , 1998, . 312. 3. iqve, gv. 313. 211

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4. , ( ), «-». 1990, . 220. 5. ., . . , 6, 2002. 6.Das Russlandbield im Dritten Reich. Kln. 1999.p. 117. 7. . ( ) «-», 1990, . 220. 8. ( ), . 24, , 1998, . 315.

Bbadri cxadaZeD dudukisa da salamuris warmomavlobisaTvis (lingvistur-etimologiuri analizi)

s ax elo vn e bo d arg e bi s t er m in Ta kv lev as , lingvis tur -etimologiur i Tvalsazris iT, enaTmecnierebi iSviaTad aqcevdnen yuradRebas, Tumca sakvlevi sfero yovelTvis iyo da aris aqtualuri da saintereso rogorc sakuTriv qarTuli, ise ucxouri enebidan sxvadasxva gziT Semosuli axali Tu ZirZveli nasesxobebis araiSviaTi TavCeniT. xSirad mkvlevarT v er g au rk ve vi aT d a daud ge ni aT, es a Tu i s xe lov nebaTmc odn eobiTi Sin aar sis Sem cve li sityvaforma sakuTriv qarTulia, ucxouri nasesxebi Tu gaqarTulebuli. swored aseT musikalur terminTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba ori saxelovnebo-samusiko termini duduki da salamuri, romelTa warmomavlobiT araerTi mkvlevari dainteresebula, magram damajerebeli lingvistur-etimologiuri an leqsikologiuri axsna ver dauZebniaT da ar S e mo u Tav aze biaT specialistebisaTvis. CvenTvis es ori saZiebo da saanalizo termini im kuTxiTac aris Rirssacnobi, rom orive maTgani Zvel qarTul saliteraturo enasa da e. w. aRorZinebis xanis mwerlobaSic (XVIII s.-is CaTvliT) sruliad ucnobi leqsemebia. 1. duduki. duduki, rogorc sayovelTaod cnobilia, musikaluri terminia, romelic qarTul xalxur enian Casaber sakravs ewodeba. ZiriTadad mas ansamblSi gamoiyeneben (igulisxmeba ori meduduke da erTi medole) . 1 aRsaniSnavia isic, rom medudukeTa qarTuli dasta (trio) ormxriv, zomierxmian dolsac umatebs (ori joxis saSualebiT). Tu Zvelad saqarTveloSi mokle da rvaTvliani duduki iyo gavrcelebuli, amJamad dudukis sami saxeoba gvaqvs: cxraTvliani, TerTmetTvliani da

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TormetTvliani. specialur literaturaSi cnobilia isic, rom dudukis damzadebis zogi qarTveli ostati cametTvliani dudukis Seqmnazec muSaobda (mag., m. adamaSvili). 2 aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom dudukis kultura _ gavrcelebis areali ufro aRmosavleT saqarTvelos moicavs. dudukis warmoeba-damzadebis moqmed centrebad aRiarebulia Tbilisi, gori, dirbi, iyalTo... duduks Wermisa da bzis xisgan akeTeben. Wermisagan damzadebuli duduki, saerTod, Zalze xmiania, farTo rezonansis mqonea, bzis duduki ki mtkice da mkvrivia, magram xmis sinarnariTa da JReradobiT pirvels ver Seedreba. samasale xe, rogorc specialistebi gvamcnoben, mzvare adgilasaa ukeTesi. saqarTveloSi yvelaze karg saduduke masalad avWala da diRomia miCneuli.3 dudukis saqarTveloSi gavrcelebis, damzadebisa da warmoSobis Sesaxeb, informatorTa cnobebze damyarebiT, vrclad msjelobs d. alaviZe. mkvlevari dudukis arsebobas saqarTveloSi ufro sakuTriv qarTul warmomavlobisad miiCnevs. Rirssacnobia, rom sulxansaba orbeliani, raoden ar unda gagvikvirdes, duduks Tavis `sityvis konaSi~ ar asaxelebs.4 riT unda aixsnas es? d. alaviZis TqmiT, es ar unda niSnavdes imas, rom duduki, rogorc sakravi, manamde CvenSi ar arsebobda, s ab as l eqs i konS i xo m ar c ud i d a larWem i a moxsenebulio.5 duduki Tavis leqsikonSi calke, damoukidebel sityvad Seutania cnobil qarTvel leqsikografs daviT CubinaSvils. miseuli ganmarteba am sityvisa aseTia: `duduki _ salamuri, , .6 rac Seexeba niko CubinaSvilis leqsikons, igi am sityvas ar icnobs.7 i. kargareTelis mosazrebiT, duduki _ samusiko iaraRi saqarTveloSi arabeT-sparseTidan unda iyos Semotanili ise, rogorc zurna. TviT s axeli instrumentisa gviCvenebs arabeTidan momdinareobas.8 v. beliaevis mosazrebiTac, duduki, iseve rogorc zurna, SedarebiT gvian unda iyos Semosuli qarTul xalxur

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musikalur instrumentTa nusxaSi.9 Cveni axsniT, duduk leqsema warmomavlobiT xmabaZviTi sityva unda iyos. Sdr. du-du <_*dun-dun, du-duk, rasac gvafiqrebinebs d. CubinaSviliseuli duduk sityvaformis zemoT moyvanili ganmarteba , es ukanaskneli ki stvirs, salamurs aRniSnavs.10 m. fasmeris rusuli enis etimologiuri leqsikonis mixedviT, es leqsema sxvadasxva variaciuli formiT dRemde Semounaxavs slavur enebs (rusuls, ukrainuls..., agreTve slavur enaTa gverdiT axlos mdgom litvursa da latviurs).11 aRsaniSnavia, rom duduki ddk Turqul enaSic ixmareba amave mniSvnelobiT.12 TurqeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa metyvelebaSic duduks sastvenis, salamuris, fleitis mniSvneloba aqvs.13 qarTul enaSic duduk'is xmabaZviT sityvad SeiZleba davsaxoT dudun, dudRun leqsemebi: duduni _ dabali xmiT daunawevrebeli bgerebis gadmocema, yru da wynari xmianoba, butbuti;14 Sdr. durdo `gafuWebuli yurZeni~ (saba); dudRuni _ cxvirSi laparaki. Sdr. cnebadqceuli gamonaTqvami duduna metyveleba, duduni _ `ukafio ubnoba~ (saba). ra SeiZleba davaskvnaT zemoTqmulis safuZvelze? duduki sakuTriv qarTulia Tu rusulslavuri an Turqul-sparsuli? vfiqrobT, es sityva damoukidebliv yvela zemonaxseneb enaSi xmabaZviTobis niadagze warmoiSva. ase rom, sityva duduki qarTulia, romlis warmoqmnaSi didi roli eniWeba xmabaZviTobas da bgeriT simbolikas. analogiuri fuZis dialeqturi saxesxvaobanic Tanamedrove qarTul enasa da mis dialeqtebSic mravlad gvaqvs: duduni (`ukafiod ubnoba,Ddune `gauWimavi~ (saba), moduneba, Sdr. din, din!, don, don! dudu, dudu! cxvris moxmobis SeZaxilad gamoiyeneba qarTuli enis javaxur kiloSi.15 dudRuni > dudRuna, Sdr. dudRuba `ontkofa~ (balaxia erTgvari) didRini > didRina dadRani > dadRana

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tityini >tityina tatyani > tatyana... aseTive warmoSobisa da aRnagobisaa bardRuni (simebiani sakravia, imerul kiloSi igi agreTve uxeirod, xmaSeuwyoblad da didi xmaurobiT dakvrasac niSnavs),16 partyuni (sakrav instrumentze uxeSad cema), bardRan _ burdRuni, bardRali (boxi xmiT uSno, ulamazo bgerebis gadmocemiT metyveleba; uazro, uSinaarso laparaki).17 aseTi zmnuri xmabaZviTi fleqsiuri fuZeebi gamowvlilviT aqvs Seswavlili enaTmecniersa da toponimists, f. erTeliSvils18. dudRun (Sdr. dudun-i), didRin (Sdr. din-din), dadRan, tityin (Sdr. titin-i), tatyan (Sdr. tatan, dautatana)... sityvaformebSi bgeriT simbolikas qmnian rogorc Tanxmovnebi, ise xmovnebi, aq fonetikuri procesebi nairgvaria (gvaqvs: bgeris gaCenaganviTareba, bgeris dayrueba, bgeraTSenacvleba...), rac qarTulis Tvis damaxas iaTebelia da, s aerTod, qarTveluri enebisaTvis Cveulebrivi movlenebia. duduk sityvaforma rom warmoSobiT qarTulia, amaze migvaniSnebs kidev erTi dialeqturi, kilouri s ityvaforma dudura, romelic fSauri kilos kuTvnilebaa da `xmeli balaxis Reris gaxvretul lulas~,19 gamxmari diyis Rru Reros aRniSnavs: dudura iseTive warmoebisaa, rogorc beRura `beRlis Citi~, kex(v)ura `sofel kexvis Tvis damaxas iaTebeli, kexviseuli (vaSli da misT.), Sdr. durduri `ukafio wignis kiTxva~ (saba). amrigad, dudura da duduk saerTo fuZiT, aRnagobiTac da SinaarsiTac erTnairia, Sdr. saxeldeba dudgula, romlisganac saqarTveloSi salamurs amzadebdnen. dudgula'Si dud igivea, rac dudura s dud Ziri. dudgulas, rogorc kompozitis meore Semadgeneli nawili gula -a sufiqsiani gul Ziria. araa gamoricxuli dudura dudgura's gan dakarguli variaciuli forma iyos: dudgura<-dudgula, erTi mxriv. da dudgula_>// dudgura _> dudura, meore mxriv. pirvel SemTxvevaSi u la's ­u r a Se e n ac v la, me o re S em Txv e v aS i

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kompozitiseuli gul sityvis g Tanxmovani gauCinarda. rogorc Cans, dudukic (romelSic -uk sxvagvari axsniT -uk sityvis sawarmoebeli sufiqsi SeiZleba iyos, xolo dud aq gaanalizebul sityvaTa saerTo Ziri), ise rogorc dudura , Tavdapirvelad gamxmar Rruian Reros aRniSnavda. amrigad, rogorc gairkva, Turquli, slavuri, qarTuli da misT. duduk fuZeebis saerTo warmomavloba (erTi enisagan momdinareoba) moCvenebiTia, safiqrebelia, es sityvebi yvela zemoT dasaxelebul enaSi aranasesxebi da xmabaZviTi iyos ise, rogorc `qarT. guguli (aqedan sakuTari saxelebi: guguSa, guula, gugulika), germanuli Kùckuck `guguli~ da rusuli `guguli~ da misT., romlebic sxvadasxva enaze arsebuli Sesabamisi sametyvelo bazisiT _ fonaciiT da fonemebiTaa warmodgenili~.20 miuxedavad amisa, Cven mainc ar gamovricxavT da xelaRebiT ar uarvyofT dudukis, rogorc sakravi instrumentis, ucxour (aRmosavlur) warmomavlobas, radgan misi gaCena CvenSi, qarTul kulturul sivrceSi, gviandelia, anu, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, SesaZloa aRmosavleT da samxreTiT mdebare mahmadian mezobelTa kulturis gavlenis Sedegic iyos, misi gavrcelebis areali xom mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos baria _ qarTli da kaxeTi (samxreT da dasavleT, agreTve mTian saqarTveloSi misi kvalic ar SeiniSneba). 2. salamuri. x is g an (le rw m is g an ) damzadebuli salamurilsnmcodneobiTi terminebi qarTulsi: kalami, Cala, Calamkalami, kalamgiri, yalami, frTa, lerwami ()q dRes mTel saqarTveloSia gavrcelebuli. masze dRemdea SemorCenili legendebi da gadmocemebi. arqeologiuri monacemebic am mxriv STambeWdavia. mag., 1938 wels mcxeTis arqeologiurma eqs pediciam samTavros CrdiloeT ubanze aRmoaCina Zvlis salamuri, romelic damzadebulia gedis lulovani Zvlisagan.

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salamuris Tavi da bolo sworad warkveTilia, uenoa da aqvs sami mcire naxvreti. mkvlevrebi samarxs Cv. w. aR.-mde XII-XI ss. miakuTvneben. saqarTveloSi dRemde moRweuli s alamurebi ornairia: eniani da ueno, cxadia, maTi gansxvaveba mxolod amiT ar amoiwureba (isini gansxvavdebian masaliT, formiT, bgeraTa rigiTa da diapazoniT). rogorc cnobilia, ueno salamuri umetesad Wermis an dudgulis xisgan mzaddeba, eniani salamuri ki lerwmisgan an lelisgan (Calis gan) . amis Sesaxeb s agangebod, specialurad vrclad msjelobs d. alaviZe.21 Rirssacnobia, rom z. CxikvaZem qarTuli xalxuri simRerebi salamuris monawileobiT notebze gadaitana XIX saukunis miwuruls.22 salamuris (rogorc sityvis da ara mxolod instrumentis) warmoSobiT, Tavis droze dainteresda akad. i. javaxiSvilic. igi Zalian gakvirda, roca samusiko terminebis kvlevisas es sityva sulxan-sabas `sityvis konaSi~ ver daadastura. 23 gaocebuli istorikosi dasZenda: nuTu qarTvelebs es qarTuli sityva adre ar gvqoniao. marTlac, arc salamuri da arc duduki sulxan-sabas leqsikonSi, miT ufro, Zvel qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi ar mogvepoveba. maTi mniSvnelobiT sxva sityvebi ixmareboda (stviri, sastvineli da misT.). salamuri (Tavis leqsikonSi Seutania) frangul sityvad miuCnevia d. CubinaSvils.24 n. CubinaSvili ki am sityvas mxolod sastvinel, zurnakad, -ad ganmartavs.25 cxadia, am sityvas saerTo araferi aqvs nebismier frangul musikalur terminTan, Tundac `menestrelTan~ (Sdr. galaktion tabiZiseuli amonaridi erT-erTi leqsidan: `aRara var menestreli mSvenieri damisa~, sadac `menestreli~ momRarals~ aRniSnavs). salamuri sakuTriv qarTuli sityvaa da warmomdgaria Cala sityvisagan, rogorc erTgan vwerdiT, `safiqrebelia, istoriulad qarTul enaSi an mis romelime dialeqtSi gvqonda Cal'is varianti Calami, es ukanasnkneli ki megrulSi axlacaa

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SemorCenili da niSnavs `Calians~, `lerwmians~, Calamuri ki lerwmisagan damzadebuls. am sityvisagan unda warmoSobiliyo musikaluri instrumentis salamuris saxelwodeba: salamuri <_//*Salamuri//<_Calamuri26 (Sdr. msgavsi warmoSobisa da aRnagobis sityva Txilamuri `Txilisagan, Txilis xisgan damzadebuli~, `Txiliani~). amrigad, rogorc irkveva, salamuri, ise rogorc duduki, fuZiTa da aRnagoba-warmoebiT, sakuTriv qarTuli leqsemebia da qarTuli enis wiaRidan warmoiSvnen.

1. xelovnebis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni (rusul-qarTuli), Seadgina a. yifSiZem, Tbilisi, 1985, gv. 228. 2. d. alaviZe, qarTuli da saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli xalxuri musikaluri sakravebi, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 60-61. 3. iqve, gv. 56. 4. sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, ix. s-s orbeliani, Txzulebani, t. IV., avtografuli nusxebis mixedviT gamosacemad moamzada ilia abulaZem, Tbilisi, 1965. 5. d. alaviZe, dasax. naSr., gv. 58. 6. d. CubinaSvili, qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, meore gamocema, aRdgenili ofsetis wesiT, sastambod moamzada da winasityvaoba daurTo a. SaniZem, Tbilisi, 1984, gv. 483. 7. n. CubinaSvili, qarTuli leqsikoni rusuli TargmaniTurT, al. Rlontis redaqciiTa da gamokvleviT, Tbilisi, 1961. 8. i. kargareTeli, mokle popularuli samusiko enciklopedia, Tbilisi, 1934, gv. 29. 9.. ., , . , II., , 1940. 10. rusul-qarTuli leqsikoni. enaTmecnierebis institutis gamocema, Tbilisi, 1983. gv. 155. 219

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11.. , , . . , , , , . I., , 1986, . 550. 12.. . ., - , , 1989, . 133. 13. S.FfutkaraZe, Cveneburebis qarTuli, wigni pirveli, baTumi, 1993. gv. 439. 14. qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. III, arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 1953. 15. gr.BberiZe, javaxuri dialeqtis saleqsikono masala, Tbilisi, 1981. 16. ix.: ar. cxadaZe, imeruli dialeqtis margvuli metyveleba, gramatikuli mimoxilva da leqsikoni (sakandidato disertacia), Tbilisi, 1953. 17. ar. cxadaZe, dasax. naSr. 18. f. erTeliSvili, zmnuri fuZeebis fonematuri struqturisa da istoriis sakiTxebi qarTulSi, Tbilisi, 1970. gv. 107. 19. ix.: i. Wyonia, sityvis kona, saba-sulxan orbelianis da daviT CubinaSvilis leqsikonebSi gamotovebuli sityvebi, sankt-peterburgi, 1910. 20. b. cxadaZe, paleografiul-wignmcodneobiTi terminebi qarTulSi: kalami, Cala, Calam-kalami, kalamgiri, yalami, frTa, lerwami (werili meore). Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, #4, Tbilisi, 2001, gv. 35. 21. d. AalaviZe, dasax. naSr., gv. 49-53. 22. ix.: z. CxikvaZe, salamuri, saxalxo simRerebi gadaRebuli notebze, Tbilisi, 1896 23. i. javaxiSvili. qarTuli musikis istoriis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1938, gv. 49. 24. d. CubinaSvili, dasax. naSr. 25. n. CubinaSvili, dasax. naSr. 26. b. cxadaZe, paleografiul-wignmcodneobiTi terminebi qarTulSi: kalami, Cala, Calamkalami, kalamgiri, yalami, frTa, lerwami (werili pirveli). Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, #3(4), Tbilisi, 2001. gv. 23.

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qarTuli cekvebis uaRresad mdidari istoriuli warsulis Sesaxeb cnobebs rogorc ucxoel, aseve q ar Tve l m w er alTa ar aer T i s to r iu l d a li te ra tur ul n aSr om ebS i vx vde bi T. Cv en Tv is s ainteres o mas alebs gv awvdian Zveli berZeni istorikosebi: straboni da qsenofonte. aranakleb mniSvnelovania arqanjelo lambertis, de buas, a. zisermanis, k. ganis, a. dolguSinis, n. maris, e.lanseres, j. frezeris, a. tepcovis, b. kovalevskis, al. diumas da sxvaTa naSromebi. q or eo gr af iu l ma s a le b s vx vd eb iT q ar Tu l istoriul, eTnografiul da folklorul (musika, zepirsityviereba...) literaturaSi. am mxriv mniSvnelovania eqvTime TayaiSvilis `xelmwifis karis garigeba~, vaxtang batoniSvilis `istoriuli aRwera~, ioane batoniSvilis `kalmasoba~, Teimuraz II-is ~sarke TqmulTa~, mefe-poet arCilis `saqarTvelos zneobani~ da sxva. agreTve mkvlevrebis: ivane javaxiSvilis, Salva amiranaSvilis, vera bardaveliZis, elene virsalaZis, giorgi Citaias, valerian iToniSvilis, vaxtang kotetiSvilis, besarion niJaraZis, sergi makalaTias da sxvaTa naSromebis. sacekvao terminTa gamokvlevaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikons. gansakuTrebulad aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli qoreografiis kvlevis saqmeSi udidesi wvlili Seitana xelovnebaTmcodne dimitri janeliZem, romelmac araerTi sacekvao nimuSi aRwera da gadmogvca. rac Seexeba qarTul qoreografiul literaturas, masalebis simcire aq TvalsaCinoa. qarTuli cekvis mkvlevrebma mxolod XX saukunis dasawyisSi mohkides xeli xalxuri qoreografiuli xelovnebis Seswavlis

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saqmes, rac ganpirobebuli iyo samecniero kvlevis meTodologiisa da profesiuli kadrebis ararsebobiT. winamdebare naSromSi qarTul qoreografiaSi arsebuli literaturis Tematuri diferencireba da erTian klasifikaciur sistemaSi moqcevis mcdelobaa warmodgenili, rac qoreografiuli xelovnebis SeswavliT dainteresebulTaTvis metad mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia. m is i m i mo x i lv a m i nd a d avi w y o q ar Tve l qoreografTaTvis umniSvnelovanesi wigniT, romelsac warmoadgens lili gvaramaZis `qarTuli sacekvao folklori~1 (istoriul-eTnografiuli eqskursi). am naSromSi qalbatoni lili sakmaod mravalferovan qoreografiul masalas ganixilavs. aanalizebs istoriul, literaturul, materialur Zeglebs da mecnierulad as abuTebs TiToeul warmoTqmul mosazrebas. igi exeba qarTuli xalxuri cekvebis Tem ati k as, st r uq t ur as , s ac e kv ao leqsikis Taviseburebebs. naSromSi avtori ganixilavs vaJTa da qalTa rogorc uZveles sacekvao elementebs, aseve Tanamedrove qarTul qoreografiasac. bolo TavSi qalbatoni lili yuradRebas amaxvilebs qal-vaJTa jgufobriv da wyvilad cekvebze. dasasruls avtori akeTebs sakmaod vrcel da saintereso daskvnas. aRniSnuli wigni avtoris gamocemuli naSromebis Sevsebul variants warmoadgens. Aaqve davZenT, rom lili gvaramaZem amave saxelwodebis naSromiT 1947 wels xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtoris xarisxi moi pova. misive `qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia~ /ZiriTadi sakiTxebi/ mkiTxvelisTvis 1957 wlidanaa cnobili, Semdeg wlebSi ki gamoica rusul enaze. 2 naSromSi fundamenturad gaSuqebulia qarTuli cekvis Casaxvisa da ganviTarebis problemebi. l. gvaramaZis wigni `qarTuli xalxuri cekvis zogierTi specifikuri Taviseburebis Sesaxeb~ gamovida rusul da inglisur enebze. garda amisa, mas ekuTvnis asze meti statia sxvadasxva Jurnal-gazeTsa da enciklopediaSi, sadac

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ganxilulia qoreografiis istoriul-mxatvruli aspeqtebi. qarTuli cekvisa da misi istoriuli ganviTarebis kvlevis saqmeSi udidesi wvlili Seitana qoreologma avTandil TaTaraZem. misi naSromi `qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriis sakiTxebi~ rekomendebulia studentebisa da qoreografiul dargSi momuSave specialistTaTvis. 3 wignis avtori cdilobs, SeZlebisdagvarad Tavi mouyaros qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriul warsuls da mkiTxvels gaacnos qarTuli cekvebis uZvelesi nimuSebi, romelTa warmoSobac jer kidev warmarTul xanaSi iRebs saTaves. avtori wignSi Tavdapirvelad ganixilavs yvelaze adrindel, Semdeg ki, _ momdevno s afexurebze aRmocenebul sacekvao nimuSebs. aseve, gvTavazobs qarTuli xalxuri ferxulebis miseul klasifikacias formisa da Sinaarsis mixedviT. avtors warmodgenili aqvs aTeuli wlebis manZilze Catarebuli kvleviTi samuSaoebis Sedegad Seswavlili masalebi, eqspediciebis dros Segrovebuli da aRdgenili qarTuli ferxulebi. aRwerili ferxulebis umetesobas Tan axlavs misi Sesrulebis wesi, musikaluri masala notebis saxiT da teqsti. miuxedavad naSromSi arsebuli rigi sakamaTo sakiTxisa, masSi udidesi saintereso da unikaluri masalaa Tavmoyrili ferxulebis saxiT. am mxriv es wigni fasdaudebelia qoreografiuli samyarosTvis. qarTul qoreografiul literaturaSi xSiria iseTi naSromebi, sadac vxvdebiT cekvebis zogad mimoxilvas da mis i Sesrulebis wes ebs . magaliTad: daviT javriSvilis `mTiuluri cekvebi~;4 avTandil TaTaraZis `qarTuli xalxuri cekvebis mokle mimoxilva~;5 misive `Zveli qarTuli (svanuri) ferxulebi~ da `qarTul cekvaTa ganmartebani~, sadac Tavmoyrilia xalxuri da sasceno xalxuri cekvebis nimuSebi mciredi aRweriT. aqve SeiZleba davasaxeloT aseve revaz WaniSvilis `werilebi qoreografiaze~; a. jijeiSvilis `aWaruli s acekvao folklori da mis i mes veurebi~; al.

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farcxalaZis `aWaruli xalxuri cekvebi da simRerebi~; g. kokelaZis `zogi ram qarTul cekvaze~ da sxva. qoreografiul literaturaSi vxvdebiT konkretuli cekvebis aRwerasac, aseTebia: daviT javriSvilis cekva `qarTuli~;6 misive `cekva xorumi~;7 avTandil TaTaraZis `cekva qarTuli~;8 T. bagrationis `cekva gandagana~;9 mixeil SubaSikelis `ori moxevuri cekva~; `mosxletil zvavTa zriali~ _ mTielTa cekvebi (`moxeuri~), Semdgeneli T. RvinaZe, kons. mix. SubaSukeli da sxva. qarTul qoreografiul literaturaSi sakmaod saintereso da mniSvnelovani monografiuli naSromebia, rogorebicaa: a. burTikaSvilis vaxtang Wabukianisadmi miZRvnili monografia `cekvis jadoqari~;10 l. gvaramaZis pirveli profesionali mocekvavis, aleqsi aleqsiZis (sonRulaSvili) cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis amsaxveli monografiuli naSromi `mTawmindeli mocekvave~;11 n. eliaSvilis `nino ramiSvili, iliko suxiSvili~; v. gogolaSvilis `jano bagrationi~; biWiko patariZis `cekvis raindi~ (daviT uSveriZe); g. gurgeniZis `qarTuli qoreografiis patriarqi~ (daviT javriSvili); e. weroZis `cekvis aristokratebi~, romelic eZRvneba vaxtang gunaSvils, r. failoZis _ avTandil TaTaraZisa12 da d a v i T j a v r i S v i l i s 13 f o t o i l u s t r i r e b u l i monografiuli naSromebi, romlebic uZvirfasesi saCuqaria qarTuli qoreografiuli samyarosTvis; aseve sainteresoa buxuti daraxveliZisadmi miZRvnili, besik svaniZis mier axlad gamocemuli monografia `cekvisa da qcevis raindi~14 da sxva. wigniT `qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis moRvaweni~ giorgi suxiSvili cdilobs, mkiTxvels gaacnos is adamianebi, romlebmac Tavisi cxovreba da moRvaweoba qarTul qoreografias daukavSires.15 naSromi atarebs sacnobaro xasiaTs, sadac met-naklebad Tavmoyrilia qarTvel qoreografTa da mocekvaveTa sia, maTi SemoqmedebiTi biografiebis mciredi aRweriT. s ai nt er e s o a ans am b li s m og z au ro b eb i sa d a warmatebebis aRweris mizniT Seqmnili qarTlos

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kasraZis wignebi: `triumfi msoflios gzebze~ da `triumfi grZeldeba~,16 romelic exeba dRevandeli iliko suxiSvilis saxelobis qarTuli nacionaluri baletis gastrolebs. amave ansambls eZRvneba nino suxiSvilis mier Sedgenili fotoalbomi `qarTuli nacionaluri baleti~.17 qoreografiul naSromTa Soris arsebobs uamravi meToduri werili, miTiTeba da rekomendacia, romelic aseve sainteresoa mkiTxvelisTvis. aseTebia: av. TaTaraZis `mxatvrul TviTmoqmed koleqtivSi muSaobis Sinaarsi, organizacia da meTodika~; daviT javriSvilis `TviTmoqmedi qoreografiuli wris organizaciuli, s as w av lo d a m xat vr u li mu S ao ba s ak lubo dawesebulebebSi~; revaz WaniSvilis `xalxuri qoreografiuli xelovneba moswavle-axalgazrdobis aRzrdis samsaxurSi~; r. WoxoneliZis `rekomendaciebi saskolo qoreografiuli wris muSaobisaTvis~; oTar papiaSvilis `meti yuradReba siuJetur cekvebs~ (TviTmoqmedi qoreografiuli wreebisa da ansamblebis dasaxmareblad); gaioz gogoliZis `qarTuli xalxuri cekvis gakveTilis organizacia da cnobebi ansamblebis tanTCacmulobis Sesaxeb~ da sxvaTa werilebi da miTiTebani. aqve unda aRiniSnos avTandil TaTaraZis da daviT javriSvilis mier cekvis Caweris sistemebze gamocemuli naSromebis: `cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebi~ 18 da `qarTuli cekvis Casaweri p irobiTi niSnebi~ 19 Rirebulebac. qoreografiuli literaturis mimoxilvisas aRsaniSnavia aseve qoreografTa mier umaRlesi saswavleblisTvis, qoreografiuli wreebisa da studiebisaTvis Seqmnili programebis arsebobac. aseTebia: profesorebis: uCa dvaliSvilisa da revaz WaniSvilis mier Seqmnili qarTuli cekvisa da sadadgmo xelovnebis programebi (umaRlesi saswavleblisTvis); avTandil TaTaraZis qarTuli cekvis programa (qoreografiuli studentebisTvis); gaioz gogoliZis

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qarTuli cekvis programa (qoreografiuli wreebisa da studiebisaTvis); da sxv. aRniSnul literaturaSi vxvdebiT iseT wignebs, romlebic eZRvneba klasikur qoreografias. magaliTad: oTar egaZis `qarTuli baleti~, misive `gastrolebi, Sexvedrebi, STabeWdilebebi~,20 romelic eZRvneba zaqaria faliaSvilis sax. Tbilisis operisa da baletis Teatris gastrolebs. avtori profesiuli, publicisturi ganzogadebiT aRwers da gadmogvcems xelovnebis g am o Ce n il m oRv aw e ebTan Se x ve d r ebi s Rrm a STabeWdilebebs. wigni dasuraTebulia dokomunturi masaliT da gamiznulia farTo mkiTxvelisaTvis. aseve sainteresoa larisa nadareiSvilis `Tanamedrove qarTuli baleti~; misive `baleti da misi kerpebi~, romelSic warmodgenilia werilebi, monografiebi, recenziebi da statiebi. aRniS nulTa gar da, qarTu l qoreogr afiul literaturaSi arsebobs iseTi wignebic, romlebic zogadinformaciul xasiaTs atareben. magaliTad, revaz WaniSvilis `fiqrebi qarTul xalxur qoreografiaze~.21 wignSi ganxilulia qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiuli xelovnebis dRevandelobisa da samomavlo ganviTarebis s ak i T xe b i . m o ce m u li a av t o ri s mr a v al w l ia n i gamocdilebisa da fiqris Sedegad dagrovili STabeWdilebebis analizi; aseve sainteresoa misive `qarTuli cekvis sadidebeli~, sadac gamoCenili adamianebis mier qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli mosazrebebia warmodgenili. garda amisa, saarqivo masalebSi, samecniero gamocemebSi, Jurnalebsa da gazeTebSi moi poveba uamravi masala qarTuli xalxuri cekvebis Sesaxeb, romelTa gacnoba udides codnas SesZens qarTuli qoreografiiT dainteresebul mkiTxvels. magaliTis saxiT SeiZleba aRvniSnoT 1924 wels Jurnal `Teatri da cxovrebaSi~, aleqsi aleqsiZis mier gamoqveynebuli statia `ra aris cekva da ra mniSvneloba aqvs mas~. savaraudod, es statia SeiZleba CaiTvalos profesionalis mier qarTuli

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qoreografiuli xelovnebis Sefas ebis p irvel mcdelobad. arsebul masalebze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTuli qoreografiuli bibliografia moicavs qoreografiuli xelovnebis istoriul da eTnografiul as peqtSi ganxilul naSromebs ; cekvebis zogad mimoxilvas, aRwerasa da analizs; monografiebs; ansamblis mogzaurobebisa da warmatebebis aRweris mizniT Seqmnil wignebs; damxmare literaturas; meTodur werilebs, miTiTebebsa da rekomendaciebs; naSromebs qarTul klasikur qoreografiaze. amasTanave, qarTul saarqivo masalebSi, samecniero gamocemebSi, Ju rna leb s a da gaz eTeb Si mra vla d m oi p ove ba qoreografiuli masala, romelic warmodgenil naSromSi ar ganixileba. mravalferovani Sinaarsis matarebeli naSromebis miuxedavad, s p ec i alu ri literatur a qoreografebisaTvis mainc mcirea da gamdidrebas saWiroebs. qarTuli cekvis mkvlevarTa mier SemdgomSi gamoqveynebuli TiToeuli naSromi Tu statia, romelsac gamalebiT elis dainteresebuli mkiTxveli, kidev erTi Zvirfasi SenaZeni iqneba udidesi warsulis mqone q ar Tuli q o re o gr afi i s j er j er o bi T m c ir e bibliografiuli samyarosaTvis.

7. javriSvili daviT, cekva `xorumi~, Tb., 1957. 8. TaTaraZe avTandil, cekva `qarTuli~, Tb., 1956. 9. bagrationi T., cekva `gandagana~, baTumi, 1997. 10. burTikaSvili a., cekvis jadoqari (vaxtang Wabukiani), Tb., 1960. 11. gvaramaZe lili, mTawmindeli mocekvave (al. aleqsiZesonRulaSvili), Tb., 1962. 12. failoZe rusudan, qoreografiuli xelovnebis siyvarulSi daferflili xelovani avTandil TaTaraZe, monografia., Tb., 2005. 13. failoZe rusudan, SemoqmedebiT WidilSi ganvlili gza (daviT javriSvili) monografia, Tb., 2000. 14. svaniZe besik, cekvisa da qcevis raindi (buxuti daraxveliZe), Tb., 2007. 15. suxiSvili g, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis moRvaweni, Tb., 1988. 16. ix.: kasraZe qarTlos, triumfiT msoflios gzebze, Tb., 1971; triumfi grZeldeba Tb., 1982. 17. qarTuli nacionaluri baleti, Semdg. n. suxiSvili, stambuli, 1996. 18. TaTaraZe avTandil, cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebi, Tb., 1966. 19. javriSvili daviT, qarTuli cekvis Casaweri pirobiTi niSnebi, Tb., 1961. 20. egaZe oTar, `gastrolebi, Sexvedrebi, STabeWdilebebi~, Tb., 1975. 21. WaniSvili revaz, fiqrebi qarTul xalxur qoreografiaze, Tb., 1997.

1.gvaramaZe lili, qarTuli sacekvao folklori (istoriuleTnografiuli mimoxilva), me-2 gamocema, Tb., 1997. 2. gvaramaZe lili, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia (ZiriTadi sakiTxebi), Tb., 1957. 3.TaTaraZe avTandil, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1999. 4. javriSvili daviT, mTiuluri cekvebi, Tb., 1953. 5. TaTaraZe avTandil, qarTuli xalxuri cekvebis mokle mimoxilva, Tb., 1970; Tb., 1974; Tb., 1977. 6. javriSvili daviT, cekva `qarTuli~, Tb., 1951. 228 229

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maia goSaZe xelovnebaTmcodnebis doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. sxvadasxva dros, gamoqveynebuli aqvs publikaciebi amerikuli, antikuri da renesansis dramaturgiis Sesaxeb. amJamad muSaobs Temaze `variaciebi miTosur motivebze~. tel: + 995 (32) 99 65 64 maia kiknaZe xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori. So Ta r usTa veli s Te atr i s da k in o s u nive r sit is asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti Teatrmcodneobis ganxriT. 1992 wlidan muSaobs amave universitetSi da uZRveba seminars Teatris kritikaSi. kiTxulobs leqciebs qarTul Teatrze. sadisertacio Tezisi: `eqspresionizmi qarTul TeatrSi~. amJamad muSao bs mario netebis Teatr is isto r iaze. gamoqveynebuli aqvs ormocdaaTze meti naSromi JurnalgazeTebSi. tel: + 995 (99) 72 95 21 manana turiaSvili xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asistentprofesori. daamTavra amave universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. sxvadasxva dros muSaobda kote marjaniSvilis saxelmwifo dramatul Teatris muzeumSi; aseeve kote marjaniSvilis saxl-muzeumis eqspoziciis istoriuli da Teoriuli nawilis teqstis damuSaveba-Seswavlaze.A aris avtoris wignebisa: `mixeil TumaniSvilis Ziebebi kinomsaxiobTa TeatrSi~; `mixeil TumaniSvilis Ziebebi fantaziisa da warmosaxvis sferoSi.~ gamoqveynebuli aqvs 50-mde recenzia, portreti, interviu. Tbilisis sxvadasxva J u r n a l - g a z e Te b S i : " l i te r a t ur u l i s a q ar T v e lo ~ , "Teatraluri moambe~, "sabWoTa xelovneba~, "xelovneba~, "arili~, "axali Taoba~, "saqarTvelos respublika~, "omega~. tel: +995 (32) 98 43 03

eka cxadaZe filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori daamTavra ivane javaxiSvilis sax elobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis kavkasiur enaTa ganyofileba aris filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, literatori, folkloristi, kritikosi, literaturuli premia `saba~ 2004 wlis nominanti, 130-ze meti samecniero statiisa da sagazeTo publikaciis avtori. mis mier gamoqveynebuli statiebi exeba qarTul folklorsa da miTologias, meoce saukunis qarTuli inteleqtualuri mwerlobis miTosur paradigmebs amJamad muSaobs uaxlesi postsabWouri qarTuli literaturuli procesebis (proza, poezia) Seswavlaze. tel: + 995 (32) 53 90 76 ira demetraZe xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, kinomcodne. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori (kinomcodneobis mimarTulebiT). daamTavra VGIK-is kinomcodneobis fakulteti. kvlevis sfero: realobis socialuri konstruireba mxatvruli teqstebis mxriv; nacionalur-mxatvruli dominantebiT samyaros enobrivi suraTi. tel: +995 (32) 22 49 45; +335 (77) 71 02 43 el.fosta: [email protected] lia kalandariSvili xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, kinomcodne. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis samecniero kvleviT centris wamyvani mecnier-TanamSromeli. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asistentprofesori. daamTavra amave universitetis kinomcodneobis fakulteti. profesiul da samecniero JurnalebSi werilebs aqveynebs 1974 wlidan. 1979-80 wlebSi staJirebas gadis moskovis kinos istoriisa da Teoriis samecniero institutSi esTetik isa da Teo r iis ganx r iT. 1990 w els iR ebs kinematografistTa kavSiris premias `wlis saukeTeso naSromisaTvis kinomcodneobisa da kritikis dargSi~.Pwlebis manZilze msaxurobda kinos Teoriisa da istoriis samecniero centrSi. tel: + 995 (32) 98 57 06

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ira kuWuxiZe saxviTi xelovnebis doqtori, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos sruli profesori. 70iani wlebidan moyolebuli igi CarTulia kvleviT da pedagogiur saqmianobaSi. mas gamoqveynebuli aqvs uamravi statia qarTuli kinos ganviTarebaze aseve SemoqmedTa mxatvrul da esTetiur Taviseburebebze. universitetis samecniero da kvleviTi centris (igi mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi xelmZRvanelobda am centrs) kino seqtoris bazaze mas dawerili aqvs uamravi samecniero naSromi kinos Teoriis sakiTxebze. tel: + 995 (32) 23 19 27

dinara maRlakeliZe kino da mediaTmecnierebaTa doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatris, kinos, mediis, menejmentis da tradiciuli xelovnebis saswavlosamecniero kvleviTi institutis mecnier-TanamSromeli. damTavrebuli aqvs ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo da berlinis humboldtis saxelobis universitetebi. aseve saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis aspirantura da fraiburgis albert ludvigis saxelobis universitetisa da berlinis humboldtis universitetis doqtorantura. berlinis humboldtis universitetSi daicva sadoqtoro disertacia Temaze: erovnuli identuroba dasavleT germanul da qarTul saavtoro kinoSi /SedarebiTi analizi/. samecniero moRvaweobas eweva saqarTvelosa da germaniis federaciul respublikaSi. monawileobs saerTaSoriso kinosimpoziumebsa da seminarebSi, rogorc Jiuris wevri muSaobda saerTaSoriso kinofestivalebze goEast da Prix-Europa. Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis universitetSi ekava ufrosi mecnier-TanamSromelis Tanamdeboba. sxvadasxva dros kiTxulobda leqciebs msoflio kinos istoriasa da TeoriaSi ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetsa da Tbilisis samxatvro akademiaSi. gamoqveynebuli aqvs monografia (germanul enaze) da samecniero statiebi kinos istoriasa da TeoriaSi germanul da qarTul enebze. misi samecniero kvlevis ZiriTadi sferoa saavtoro kino da Tanamedrove Teoriebi kinematografSi. amJamad muSaobs samecniero proeqtze interkulturaloba Tanamedrove evropul kinoSi.

eTer okujava xelovnebaTmcodneoobis doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis sruli profesori. muSaobs SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetiSi, aris kinos istoriisa da Teoriis samecniero kvleviTi centris wevri. daamTavra Tbilis saxelmwifo universiteti. staJireba gaiara kinomcodnis specialobiT moskovis sax.institutSi (e.surkovis jgufSi) samecniero kvlevebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebaa sazogadod kinoTeoriis sakiTxebi, qarTuli kinos SemoqmedebiTi tendenciebi, Janrebi, f i l m i s s a x v i T i g a d a w y v e t i s p r o b le m e b i , z og a d a d gam om sa xv elobi Ti struq tu rebi, c alke u l xe lova nT a SemoqmedebaTa kvleva drois faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT (xelovani da dro), Tematuri Ziebani da filmis esTetikuri gadawyveta da a.S. amJamad muSaobs Temaze: qarTuli kino: 50-iani wlebi (ukonfliqtobis Teoria da `lakirebis meTodi~) tel: + 995 (32) 37 06 29; +995 (99) 92 11 92 el-fosta: [email protected] dumitro oleresko xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, Kkinodramaturgi, xelovnebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe, moldovis kulturuli memkvidreobis mecnierebis akademiis `kinosa da televiziis xelovnebis~ seqtoris xelmZRvaneli, moldovis musikis, Teatrisa da natifi xelovnebis akademiis docenti, moldovis respublikis saxelmwifo premiis laureanti, asamde srulmetraJiani da mciremetraJiani fimebis avtori. tel: + 373 27 00 48 el-fosta: [email protected] oliko JRenti xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, kinomcodne. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis samecniero kvleviT centris wamyvani mecnier-TnamSromeli, baTumis univesritetis universitetis miwveuli pedagogi, muSaobs qaeTuli da amerikuli kinos istoriis daTeoriis sakiTxebze. 2005 wels disertacia daicva Temaze: `erovnuli da socialuri sakiTxi qarTul kinoSi _ 10-20-iani clabis kinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi~. kvlevis sfero: 20-iani wlebis qarTuli kinomodernizmi da amerikuli kinos miTo-naratiuli struqtura. aris dokumenturi filmebis `knut hamsunis kavkasiuri misteriebisa~, (2005) da `jon steinbekis qarTuli dRiuris~@avtori da reJisori. tel: + 995 (99) 27 18 15

tel: + 995 (32) 22 02 21; + 995 (99) 36 78 73 el.fosta : [email protected] veb-gverdi: www.dinara maglakelidse.de

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Teo xatiaSvili xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saexlobis saxelmwifo universitetis xelovnebis istoriisa da Teoriis fakulteti. disertacia daicva Temaze: `sergo farajanovis miTologiur- metaforuli samyaro~ .iyo saqarTvelos erovnuli kinocentris sascenaro komisiis wevri; `Ria sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelos~ qalTa programikomisiis wevri; RSS-s jgufuri samecniero-kvleviTi proeqtis _ `qali da mamkaci kinoSi~ _ xelmZRvaneli; aseve sxvadasxva beWdviTi mediis kulturis mimomxilveli: `rezonansi~, `24 saaTi~, `Tbilisi~, `kakadu~ da a.S. aris saqarTvelos kinematografistTa kavSiris wevri; "saRamo mSvidobisa, babilon~ _ avtori da wamyvani (sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis I radio); misi statiebi intensiurad ibeWdeba Jurnal "kino~­sa da Jurnal `amartaSi~. tel: + 995 (32) 62 66 13; + 995 (99) 55 28 92 E el-fosta: [email protected]

TinaTin Wabukiani SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori, reJisori. damTavrebuli aqvs Tbilisis amave universitetis dramis sareJisoro fakulteti. 1980 wlidan 1989 wlamde muSaobda saqarTvelos televiziaSi (I arxi) _ jer satelevizio TeatrSi, Semdeg musikalur redaqciaSi, damdgmel reJisorad; 1989 wlidan 2004 wlamde muSaobda sabavSvo programebis mTavar reJisorad. misi sadisertacio Temaa: `sabavSvo telemauwyeblo bis sazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba da esTetikuri Taviseburebani~ (qarTuli teleproeqtebis mixedviT). amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba~. tel: + 995 (99) 94 47 00 nato gengiuri xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis sruli profesori.. daamTavra Tbilisis iv. javaxiSvilis sax. saxelmwifo universitetis xelovnebis istoriis da Teoriis fakulteti. aris damfuZnebeli da gamgeobis Tavjdomare saqarTvelos kulturuli memkvidreobis Seswavlisa da popularizebis kavSirisa `signeti~. aris wevri miunxenis bizantiologiis mxardamWeri asociaciisa `gvianantikuri arqeologia da bizantiologia~. samecniero interesebis sfero: kulturuli memkvidreoba, Sua saukuneebis xelovneba, qarTuli arqiteqturis istoria, xelovnebis terminologiis sakiTxebi. gamoqveynebuli aqvs Teqvsmeti samecniero naSromi, maT Soris erTi monografia. tel: + 995 (93) 24 42 78 el-fosta: [email protected] fati SeylaSvili istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori iv. javax iSvilis saxelo bis Tbilisis sax elmw ifo universitetis asistent-profesori. daamTavra Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis istoriis fakulteti. amave universitetshi kiTxulobs leqciebs evropisa da amerikis qveknebis axal da uaxles istoriaSi da di plomatiur p ro to ko lSi. gamo qvynebuli aqvs publikaciebi evropis sxvadasxva qveynebis uaxlesi istoriis

vaJa zubaSvili SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori, telereJisuris mimarTulebis lideri. daamTavra amave universitetis kinosareJisoro fakulteti. gadaRebuli aqvs ocdaaTamde mokle da srulmetraJiani dokumenturi filmi _ studia `mematianeSi~ da "qarTul telefilmSi~. miRebuli aqvs sakavSiro da saerTaSoriso festivalebis prizebi. muSaobda: reJisorad saqarTvelos samecniero-popularuli da dokumenturi filmebis studiaSi; telekompania "me-9 arxis~ sainformacio programebis mTavar reJisorad; telekompania `iberias~ mTavar reJisorad; telekompania `mzis~ sainformacio programebis mTavar reJisorad. amJamad aris telekompania `mzis~ sainformacio samsaxuris prodiuseri. sxvadasxva umaRles saswavlebelSi kiTxulobda leqciebis kurss _ satelevizio `reklama~. amJamad am kurss ukiTxavs Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis magistrantebs.

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Tematikaze. amJamad muSaobs sakiTxze: `samxreT-aRmosavleT evropis qveynebi da evropuli politika XX saukuneSi~ tel: + 995 (32) 68 85 45

badri cxadaZe filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori. kavkasiis xalxTa mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvili wevri (akademikosi) saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, aseve Tsu i. vekuas saxelobis gamoyenebiTi maTematikis institutis konsultanti. aseve amave institutTan arsebuli `logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli jgufis~ mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli (sazogadoebriv sawyisebze) da Jurnal `qarTuli ena da logika~-s, saqarTvelos arqeologiis institutis samecniero krebulis `guria~-s redkolegiis wevri da saqarTvelos politeknikur universitetTan arsebuli enisa da literaturis sadisertacio kolegiis wevri. daamTavra iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis sax elmw ifo univer siteti filolog iis fakulteti qarTvelur enaTa (resp. samxreTkavkasiuri enebi) specialobiT. aris 170-ze meti samecniero naSromisa da sagazeTo publikacis avtori. maT Soris ori monografiisa da erTi wignis (`SuSanikis wamebis~ testebi). tel: + 995 (32) 53 90 76 eka geliaSvili SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos univesritetis asistent profesori. qoreografi. magistraturis I kursis studenti qarTuli cekvis mkvlevaris specialobiT. daamTavra Tbilisis kulturisa da xelovnebis saxelmwifo universitetis (dRevandeli SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti) qarTuli cekvis damdgmeli qoreografis specialoba. 1998 wlidan muSaobs amave universitetSi qarTuli cekvisa da sadadgmo xelovnebis pedagogad. ikvlevs qarTuli qoreografiuli literaturis problematikas. tel: + 995 (99) 18 82 24

THEATRE STUDIES

Maia Goshadze PARADISE LOST (Fragment from an entire work) Summery The article "Paradise Lost" examines the problem of infantilism of human soul in the form of the desire to return to the idyll which encompasses symbiotic correlation with the surrounding world. The motif of resisting to be chased out of the Eden like idyll lies at the base of the perspective from which the staging of the "Cherry Orchard" by Giorgi Margvelashvili in theatre of film actors is examined. The constant dwellers of the "Cherry Orchard" are haunted on one hand by the nostalgia for the past as for the lost paradise as well as by the shimmering idyll on horizons of the great future. In the opinion of the author, the characters of the film actors theatre are depicted as the ones obstinately resisting to come out of state of constant childhood, growth, development and blissful inertia. All kinds of life circumstances are unable to make any significant changes in consciousness of the majority of characters. Stroke of luck or bad luck is perceived by the characters with indifference as they resist life experience, personal growth and development wanting to stay the same for the rest of their lives. From the opinion of the author captivity in the past is revealed in form of once and for all formed permanent state of stagnation and dead immobility, in face of inner human inertia. ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's Faculty of Theatre Studies. Since 1986 until now she has been working as a lecturer of European and American dramatic art. She is the author of dissertation "The dramatic art of Tennessee Williams" (1990). From 1994 until 2002, she worked in Georgian TV-Radio Corporation as an editor in the department of the arts. She is an author of a theatre program and scientific publication on American, Antique and Renaissance drama. From 1990 she acquired master's degree in the arts. She is fluent in Georgian, Russian and English. Currently she works on the problem of interpretation of mythological themes. Tel: +995 (32) 99 65 64 237

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Maia Kiknadze PUPPET PERFORMANCES IN PERSIA PEHLEVAN KACHALI Summary In the letter "Puppet theatre in Parsian Phechlevan Kachali", there are narrated the view in the tent of the hand puppets and the rule of their arrangement. There are discussed the play with its main character Pekhlevan Kachali and all the rules characteristic to the play are underlined (for example: the scene of money collecting). Here is also discussed "Kamri tent" and the important details by a famous orientalist I. Mari's letter "Something about Pekhlevan Kachali and other kinds of folk theatre in Persia". It is underlined the importance of puppet theatre "Penji"; the characters of the main personages (Pekhlevan Kachali, Sheitan, Rostam, Akhundi, Zani) and their symbolic meaning. At the end of the letter it is narrated about the popularity of puppet shows and their influence on other street performances; for example circus shows "Taklidi" which originated from the divertissements of the puppets.

Manana Turiashvili MARJANISHVILI IN DATES (LETTER ONE) Summery Marjanishvili's contribution to Georgian theatre is great. We don't have to forget about the fact that K. Marjanishvili has worked in several theatres of Russia for 25 years and participated in difficult work of establishment of professional directing in Russian and entire European theatre realm. K. Marjanishvili starts to appear in Georgian theatre in the nineties of the nineteenth century. First he worked as an actor. He spent his childhood and youth with representatives of Georgian theatre gathered in his family. Filled with curiosity from the start the young boy was not satisfied with the condition of Georgian theatre of that time and decided to travel to Russia. He starts with acting and becomes a director in a couple of years. The work "Marjanishvili in Dates" Letter One encompasses childhood years and youth of the Georgian director spent in Georgia. Then it goes over to examining his kaleidoscopic work in provincial theatres of Russia, starting from 1897 to 1904. The goal of the work is to unify the scattered material about Kote Marjanishvili and "purify" it from the pressure of the Communist thinking. In the system of dates, along with certain informative phrases follow the artistic path of Kote Marjanishvili, where his character and the process of his formation as a director become visible. ABOUT AUTHOR Art History Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. She has graduated from the faculty of theatre studies of the same university. In various time periods she has worked in the museum of Kote Marjanishvili Theatre as well as on study of the text of historic and theoretic section of exposition in Kote Marjanishvili museum. She is the author of the books: "Mikheil Tumanishvili's search in film actors' theatre"; "Mikheil Tumanishvili's search in the field of fantasy and imagination". She has published about 50 works, profiles, interviews in various newspapers and magazines of Tbilisi: "Literaturuli Sakartvelo", "Teatraluri Moambe", "Sabchota Khelovneba", "Khelovneba", "Arili", "Akhali Taoba", "Sakartvelos Respublika", "Omega". Tel: +995 (32) 98 43 03

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major in theatre studies in the year of 1989. From 1992 works at the same University and guides the seminar of theatre criticism. Lectures on Georgian theatre history. Dissertation thesis: "Expressionism in Georgian Theatre". Is an Assistant Professor. Currently works on the puppet theatre history. Published 50 works in newspaper-magazines. Mob: +995 (99) 72 95 21

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Eka Tskhadadze

THE DADAISTS AND A LEPROUS REALITY IN GRIGOL ROBAKIDZE'S PHANTASMAGORIA "MALSHTREM" Summery The fall of the western civilization was reflected in the works of Georgian writers as well. The proof of it can be found in "Malshtrem" by Grigol Robakidze, short stories by K. Gamsakhurdia and his "Dionysus's smile". M. Javakhishvili paid a considerable attention to the problem of civilization, although neither the rise nor the fall of the civilization was much evident in Georgia. The urban civilization with its completely new problems has become a subject of special debate in every aspect of intellectual existence and among them philosophy, psychology and literature. A poetry piece "City Phenomenon" by Grigol Robakidze can easily be viewed as a short intro to his phantasmagoria "Malshtrem". In his novel Robakidze compares Leviathan to an urbannd encompasses the problem of civilization in general. It must be said, that the problematic issues are not of a pure literary character. They are more of a psychological and philosophical character and need to be viewed and analyzed from different perspectives. In his phantasmagoria Grigol Robakidze tried to demonstrate clearly the spleen like existence of Europe and spiritual fall of its civilization. Great thinkers and artists became aware of the fall of European civilization from the mid nineteenth century and from this time period on there seams to be a clear dominance of skepticism in philosophy and art in general. One scene from G. Robakidze's "Malshtrem" is entirely dedicated to reflection of two confronting sides of the European crisis ­ the Dadaists and the lepers (the leader and the Queen of the latter is a fortune teller gypsy girl called Morella).

FILM STUDIES

Ira Demetradze CONTEMPORARY FILMPROCESS ­ CULTURE-MYTHOLOGICAL ASPECTS Summery Post-Post Modern Cinematography offers new agglomerates for reality analysis. In recent years ethno and sociopolitical perimeter of cinematographic "New Wave" is in constant motion. Opponent of oriental world and cinema was American independent film. Fragmented and divided European consciousness along with its identity and crisis of self perception has bid farewell to articulation of film culture as well. Scandinavian "Dogma" has rapidly transformed into an official brand. Chinese Post revolutionary film Renaissance has been replaced by a Persian film poetry. Today, East European Post socialist, post totalitarian consciousness undergoes sublimation of its historic traumas and dramas by means of so-called festival film. Revived Russian film Industry at expense of "Oil export" tries to capture the undiscovered Russian soul via "individualized" genre codes. At the same time it does not forget the usual rhetoric of the "older brother". Contemporary film processes/key events and films form a picture, where the national mental and cultural characteristics clearly stand out. On basis of contemporary European film products it is easy to identify whether poetical characteristics are determined by this or that nation's historic memory and experience.

ABOUT AUTHOR She has graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University's faculty of Caucasian languages. Ph.D. in Philology, literary scholar, folk scholar, critic, the nominee of 2004 literary award "Saba", author of more than 130 scientific and newspaper articles. Her publications refer to Georgian folk studies and mythology, paradigms of 20th century Georgian intellectual prose. Currently she works on the research of post-soviet Georgian literary processes (prose and poetry)

ABOUT AUTHOR Art History Ph.D. Film Historian Associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University (In the field of Cinema Studies) Graduate of VGIK's Faculty of Cinema Studies Research Field: Social construction of reality according to literary text; verbal picture of the world in terms of national-artistic dominants. Tel: +995 (32) 22 49 45; + (33577) 71 02 43 E-mail: [email protected] 241

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Lia Kalandarishvili ASPECT OF THE CONTEXT IN E. SHENGELAIA'S "EXTRAORDINARY EXHIBITION" Summery Georgian "Samotsianelebi" (Representatives of the sixties) formed an expressive, attitude rich ironic context field, which brought new perspectives and depth to the motion picture. Aguli Eristavi is a central conceptual figure of "Extraordinary Exhibition". The main hero is a blend of conflicting moods, split and decomposed into various personages. Gluing these characters together is as impossible as sticking the part of Aguli's scultures together to make them into one, when "the eyes are similar, the nose is similar, everything is simila", but still an entire sculptural piece does not look like the original. The idea is like a genetic codes of the movie, which clearly shows its structure: A fable is united by face-concepts, which stand in an evaluative interdependence towards each other. Tragedy and comedy in the movie are united into one single mask.

Ira Kuchukhidze

MMAIN TENDENCIES OF GEORGIAN CINEMAAT THE END OF THE SEVENTIES AND BEGINNING OF THE EIGHTIES (A NEW GENERATION: NEW PROBLEMS, SEARCHES...)

Part II (See the beginning of the article in the previous issue) Summery In the 80s of the past century a group of outstanding and widely acclaimed Georgian film directors was joined by a stream of new generation: These were the graduates of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. The new tendencies of Georgian film were partially determined by this very event. It has to be stated, that the life itself was a source of inspiration for these young directors, but still the shift of emphasis was clearly visible, their attention to the layers of life, topics and problems previously unknown for the screen. New characters start to emerge: confused and angry, obstinate and earthly, empty and infantile young people. The drug problem starts to emerge, a problem of generation gap, absence of moral principles... Instead of the characteristic pro life intonation the critical attitude towards society becomes dominant in Georgian film. The article examines several debut films by directors of new generation from a thematic, genre and conceptual perspective.

ABOUT AUTHOR Film historian, Ph.D. in Art History. Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major in film studies in 1977. Her publications appear in professional and scientific magazines from the year 1974. In the years from 1979 to 1980 she is an intern at Moscow State Scientific Institute of Film Studies and Theory in the field of esthetics and theory. In 1999 she received an award of Cinematographer's Union for the best annual research in the field of film studies and criticism. She worked for a number of years in the scientific center for film theory and history. Lia Kalandarishvili is currently an assistant Professor in Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Tel: +995 (32) 98 57 06

ABOUT AUTHOR Doctor of Arts, Full Professor at Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Since 70s of the past century she is engaged in the research work and pedagogical practice. She has published numerous articles as on development of Georgian cinema in general, also artistic and esthetic features of some personalities. At the Cinema Sector of the Scientific-Research Center of the University (this center operated under her leadership for many years) she has written numerous scientific works on the issues of theory of cinema. Tel: + 995 (32) 23 19 27

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Dinara Maglakelidze

CINEMATO GRAPHY, WOMEN EMANCIPATION AND THE FEMINIST THEORY OF CINEMA Summery The article is devoted to the relation of cinematography as means of mass media to the emancipative movement of women and the history of development of an alternative feminist cinema culture. Cinematography as a new medium appeared at the end of the nineteenth century, which at the beginning was separated from a traditional culture, now having been developed as a new mass media, was performing a more active, one might say, a revolutionary role in social changes of that time period. In America and Europe of the first decade of the nineteenth century began a rupture of patriarchal society and development of a new modern society. The development of this new society was sharply changing a traditional, passive role of a woman within the society. The modern, industrial society needed women more and more as labor force thus disengaging them from their families. Cinematography as a mass media was expressing interests of women spectators of all ages and social groups from the start. It was helping women to get away from the patriarchal rules dominant in the society, family and marriage and enabled them to feel like real members of a new, industrial and modern community. This article in the discourse of a feminist cinema discusses ideas of American and European theorists like Laura Mulvey, Teresa DeLaurentis, Gertrud Koch, Heide Schluepmann and at the same time analyses their vision of cinema history. ABOUT AUTHOR Doctor of film and media sciences, a research worker of the study-science research Institute of Theatre, Cinema, Media, Management and Traditional Art at Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. She has graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University and Humbolt University of Berlin. She has also finished a post graduate course at the Science Academy of Georgia and a Ph. D. Degree course at Albert Ludvig University of Freiburg and Humbolt University of Berlin.

At Humbolt University of Berlin she upheld a doctoral thesis on the topic: National Identity in the Western German and Georgian Author Cinema/ Comparative Analysis/ She performs scientific work in Georgia and Germany. She is participating in international cinema symposiums and seminars, was one of the members of the jury at the international film festival GoEast and Prix-Europa. She is holding a post of a senior researcher in I. Javakhishvili State University. In different time periods she delivered lectures on history and theory of the world cinema at I. Javakhishvili State University and Tbilisi State Academy of the Arts. She has published a monograph (in German) and scientific articles about history and theory of cinema in German and Georgian languages. The main field of her scientific research is an author cinema and modern theories in cinematography. At preset she is working on a scientific project: Inter culture in Modern Cinema. Tel: +995 (32) 22 02 21; +995 (99) 36 78 73 E-mail: [email protected] www.dinaramaglakelidse.de

Eter Okujava AT THE ORIGINS OF THEATRE AND FILM DESIGN Summery The article is a try of an in-depth study of Georgian theatre and film design, which is a natural part of theatre and film University's scientific thematic. On every level of historic development a human being constantly expressed his attitude towards reality. Long before the art of theatre was born, humans expressed first forms of creative attitude towards reality in a form of synthesizing ancient ritual rites, choreography and music. By means of step by step development these forms found themselves on stage. Cinematography lacks early origins like these. Humans created it in the era of technology. It was born in the twentieth century. In spite of this, theatre and cinema have lots in common: theatre as well as cinema represents a 245

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collective art, where playwright, director, stage designer, composer, actor and others are all involved in creating art. Theatre and film directors were interested in attracting professional stage and film designers to an extent when they were so categorical in their artistic inclinations, that they would go to the extremes. Ignoring the old and establishing the new as a creative principle would have not been useful for the development of the film aesthetics. First of all it is impossible to build upon ruins and second of all for creation of the new there is a middle point between destruction and building in other words a creative unity of the achieved and gained, development and building in this direction. This was not a compromising move. This was a well thought out and analyzed position based on own personal and creative beliefs. In the art of the twenties of the twentieth century it is apparent, that this thesis in Georgian theatre and film in its true sense was coined by the group of artists, who carried in themselves as well as in their creative baggage basics of creative thinking that were strengthened by experience and time.

Dumitru Olerescu

ARTISTIC-POETICAL VALUE OF TWO CINEMATOGRAPHS Summery The article of Dr. Dumitru Olerescu, Moldavian screenwriter, cinema and art critic, "Artistic-poetical value of two cinematographs" is dedicated to artistic paths of Moldavian and Georgian cinematographs, the works of their representatives clearly showing the poetical view of world perception bringing worldwide recognition to their authors. The author reviews film production of fifties and seventies of these two countries, where authentic national character is clearly revealed, strive for reflection of reality and strong ties to the national culture. From this perspective the Moldavian and Georgian films have contributed a lot to history of world cinematography. They have demonstrated examples of their characters' spiritual strength and authenticity, aesthetical characteristics, poetic world outlook of this or that director, attempt to confront problems of general kind, emotional sides, free style and cinematography structures. Reviewer ­Art History Ph.D., Full Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University Zviad Dolidze

ABOUT AUTHOR Full Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Works in Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. She is a member of Cinema History and Theory Scientific Research Center. Graduated from Tbilisi State University. Was an intern at Moscow State Institute as cinema historian in E. Surkov class. The main research directions are: issues of public cinema theory, artistic tendencies of Georgian cinema, genres, problems of artistic movie solutions, general expressive structures, research of individual artists and time-considering research (artist and time), thematic research and esthetic solutions of the movie. Currently she works on the following topic: Georgian Cinema of the 1950s (Theory of non-conflict and "method of applying"). Tel: +995 (32) 37 06 29; +995 (32) 99 92 11 92 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR Art History Ph. D, screenwriter, leader of the sector "Film and TV Art" of Moldavian Science Academy of cultural heritage. Associate Professor of Moldavian music, theatre and fine arts Academy, laureate of Moldavian Republic State Award, author of about hundred feature and short films. Tel: + 373 27 00 48 E-mail: [email protected]

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Oliko Jgenti

CHILDREN OF THE SUN ­ KNUT HAMSUN AND GRIGOL ROBAKIDZE (MYTHOLOGICAL-POETICAL STRUCTURE OF "WONDERLAND") Summery

Teo Khatiashvili

TV SERIES AS A SOCIO-CULTURAL PHENOMENON

Summery In this article it is dicussed soap opera's, as work of media, dramaticalstructural and ideological characters. Soap-opera as one of the powerful product of pop-culture, reflects reality in a simplier form and so it is easier to represent socially actual topics, than it is available in academic style. While analysing georgian soap-operas, tendency ­ Ignoring specific characters of soap-opera - reveals, that is the main reason of failure.

The article examines common artistic aspects and literary concept of famous Norwegian twentieth century modernist writer Knut Hamsun and Georgian writer and thinker Grigol Robakidze. It analyzes the very philosophical-esthetical model, which is on one hand the core of Hamsun's travel book "In Wonderland" and on the other works and essays ("Killed Spirit") by Grigol Robakidze. Both writers sought answers to their philosophical questions in works of Goethe and Dostoevsky, but finally both of them turned to the East ­ Hamsun found his mystical wisdom in the Caucasus, Robakidze found his in Persia ­ this spiritual journey is described in their works. They view the East as the origin of culture of mysteries. The researcher examines characteristics of mythological-poetical thinking of both writers and refers to the metaphor of the Sun, which is itself connected to Oriental culture and philosophy. The latter played an important role in life and work of two writers. Both writers came close not only in a creative but also in a biographical aspect as well. Specifically reference to German culture and poetry as well as "mythical realism" (Robakidze's term) was an important factor for both artists. They were unable to accept the Bolshevik propaganda and communist ideology. "Wonderland" or the Caucasus represented a spiritual homeland for Hamsun, a world of deities and myths ­ birthplace of ancient civilization. The book is full with the author's personal allusions and memories, which are connected with Hamsun's happy and careless childhood ­ period of the shepherd. Pastoral idyll is itself connected to the pre history of the mankind ­ "Golden Age". "Wonderland" also contains allusions of Scandinavian mythology, heroic epos and elements of Oriental mythology. ABOUT AUTHOR Leading science-worker of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's scientific research center, art historian, Doctor of Philosophy. In 2005 she wrote her dissertation on the topic "National and social issue in Georgian film in relation to a film process of the twenties". From 2000 she is a guest teacher of Batumi University. She works on the issues of Georgian and American film history. Research field: Georgian Film Modernism of the twenties and mythological-narrative structure of American film. She is the author and director of documentaries "Knut Hamsun's Caucasian mysteries~ (2005) and "John Steinbeck's Georgian Journal". Tel: +995( 99) 27 18 15 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.D. in Art History Associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University She has graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University, faculty of Art History and Theory. Her dissertation topic was: "Mythological and Metaphoric World of Sergo Parajanov". She was the member of the script committee of Georgian National Film Center; member of women program of "Open Society Institute of Georgia"; leader of "A man and a woman in film" science-research project of RSS; as well as the art reviewer of many newspapers like "Rezonansi", "24 Saati", "Tbilisi", "Kakadu" and many more. She is the member of Georgian Cinematographers' Union; author and host of "Good Evening, Babylon" (I Radio of the First Channel); Her articles are published on a regular basis in magazines "Kino" and "Amarta". Tel: + 995 (32) 62 66 13; + 995 (99) 55 28 92 E-mail: teovangogh@hotmail.

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MEDIA STUDIES

Vaja Zubashvili POLITICAL TV ADVERTISEMENT AS A FORM OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION Summery

Deciding role in an election campaign plays an image of a candidate. An image ­ is a political face, which is formed in advance and created in order to reach a set goal. But an image is not permanent. It is in motion. It has its start and levels of development. Its dynamic is determined by a number of factors ­ regional, demographic, ethnopsychological, social and situational factors of the electorate. An image which is created by a determined strategy in order to reach a political goal by use of advertisement and other means is called a strategic image. The following article was written based on TV ads of January 5th, 2007 presidential election participant candidates (Mikheil Saakashvili ­ 31, Levan Gachechiladze ­ 30, Davit Gamkrelidze ­ 7. Shalva Natelashvili ­ 1 and Arkadi (Badri) Patarkatsishvili). Experts remarked that the main rival of Mikheil Saakashvili in presidential run was Arkadi (Badri) Patarkatsishvili, but "advertisement rivalry" was mainly between Mikheil Saakashvili and Levan Gachechiladze. Both candidates as well as the others (Davit Gamkrelidze, Arkadi/Badri Patarkatsishvili, Shalva Natelashvili) used a principle of the so-called "Film Truth" which is a chronological-documentary principle, where the visual image is mainly their live communication with the electorate. But it is very important to differentiate these visual images communicatively and direct them to one specific goal. At a glance, every candidate works the same way, but if we examine their TV ads as products of political technology we will see a big difference. ABOUT AUTHOR Associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Leader in the direction of TV Directing. He has graduated from faculty of film directing of the same university. He is the author of about thirty short and feature documentary films ­ in studios "Mematiane" and "Kartuli TelePilmi". He is the owner of union and international festival prizes. Work experience: He has worked as a director in the studio of science-fiction and documentary films; Leading director of news programs of "Channel 9"; leading director of news programs of channel "Mze". Currently he is the producer of news agency of channel "Mze". He has delivered lectures in various universities on ­ "TV Advertisemenet". Presently he delivers this course to the students of master's program of Tbilisi State University of the Arts.

Tinatin Chabukiani STRUCTURAL CONSISTENCY OF EDITING CHAPTER TWO ­ EDITING, AS MEANS OF ARTISTIC EXPRESSION Summery

Editing is an especially difficult system in screen art. As time passes, methods of editing and its boundaries change, although its thematic tasks as a form of space-time existence of an artistic reality stays the same. For every master of screen art imagery thinking means thinking in terms of editing. By means of editing real time and space is replaced by edited (newly created) space and edited (subjectively experienced) time. This is the main discovery of film. Expression of nature is a tendency of screen language, although natural objects in a sense are certain and common at once, because they virtually have numerous numbers of meanings to themselves and director by means of artistic and editing thinking puts them in diverse contexts. Editing thinking gives us opportunity to put forth nuances of human emotions, details and parts of the world on screen, that are invisible to an eye. Creative process is free, but individual vision should be displayed by editing, system. An idea should become clear by use of editing. Spectator rarely thinks about the regulations, used in constructing a single shot, although an entire structure of the movie depends on constructing and editing of each and every shot. Judging from this I will examine a shot, its nature, composition and one element of a shot composition that is called relativity. In this part of my work, I tried to state clear, how will I teach the students art of editing. Method is based on the experience of acclaimed film directors and theoreticians. ABOUT AUTHOR Director, researcher. An associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. She has graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's Drama Directing Faculty. From 1980 to 1989 worked on Georgian Broadcasting Company (Channel 1) ­ first in television theatre, then in music editorial board as an artistic director; From 1989 to 2004 worked as an artistic director of child programs. Her dissertation thesis is: "Civil designation of child broadcast and its aesthetical characteristics" (according to Georgian TV projects) Currently she works on a topic: "Structural Consistency of Editing" Tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00

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ART STUDIES

Nato Gengiuri

CULTURAL STUDIES

Pati Sheklashvili

DECONSTRUCTIVISM ­ A CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENT Summery The paper deals with contemporary architectural movement called Deconstructivism. In the introduction attention is focused on the characteristics of contemporary architecture such as the inclusion of current technologies in the architectural process, condition of the globalization of international economy, spreading of the area of activity of architects on global scale and the tendency to realize incredibly bold fantasies. Along a brief history of Deconstructivism, the paper offers an overview of theoretical and historical foundations of this movement: on one hand, this is the significance of ideas of French philosopher Jacques Derrida for Deconstructivists and on the other hand Soviet Constructivism of the 1920s and namely the projects of Vladimir Tatlin. For the purpose of demonstrating artistic-architectural peculiarities of Deconstructivism, the paper discusses the main works by several architects of this movement. Frank Gehry's Vitra Design Museum in Weil am Rhein, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Daniel Libeskind's Jewish Museum in Berlin, Denver Art Museum, Rem Koolhaas' projects and many more. Set against this background, the basic features of Deconstructivism are singled out: search for new forms of expression, the visual complexity of architectural structure, "unexpected" compositions, in most cases, pronouncedly aggressive intrusion in the city environment and a certain instability and dynamics of artistic image. ABOUT AUTHOR Full Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. She graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University's Faculty of Art History and Theory. She is a founder and a chairman for Study and Popularization of Cultural Heritage of Georgia "Signeti". Member of Munich Association "Late Classical Archaeology and Byzantine Studies". She is a member of the Committee for Immovable Monuments at the Georgian Ministry of Culture, Sport and Monument Protection. Field of scholarly interests: cultural heritage, medieval art, history of Georgian architecture, issues of art terminology. She has published 16 scientific works, including one monograph. Tel: +995 (93) 24 42 78 E-mail: [email protected]

NAZI IDEOLOGY ON CULTURE AND THE NATIONAL-SOCIALIST CRIME AGAINST CULTURE Summery

The work concerns atrocities committed against the cultural heritage of people occupied by the German national-socialists. While the leader of the national-socialists wrote in his book "My Battle" about the importance of correct upbringing of the German youth and their proper knowledge of German past and its heritage, he would be the one to direct the nationalsocialists to rob and destroy masterpieces of culture and artworks of occupied people. There were special headquarters created for this very purpose. The damage caused to the heritage of humanity by the national-socialists was enormous.

ABOUT AUTHOR History Ph.D. Assistant Professor at I. Javakhishvili State University She has graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University, faculty of history. She reads lectures at the same university on new and contemporary history of Europe and American countries and diplomatic protocol. She has published works on topics of contemporary history of various European countries. Currently she works on the issue: "South-Eastern countries and European politics in twentieth century". Tel: + 995 (32) 68 85 45

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Badri Tskhadadze ON THE ORIGINS OF DUDUKI AND SALAMURI (LINGUISTIC-ETYMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS) Summery

TRADITIONAL ART

Eka Geliashvili REVIEW OF GEORGIAN CHOREOGRAPHIC LITERATURE Summery

Nowadays contemporary art of Georgian folk ethno music is absolutely unthinkable without these two music terms (Duduki and Salamuri). There is no evidence of them in ancient Georgian written texts and literature of the Renaissance era (sixteenth-eighteenth centuries), as well as in "Sitkvis Kona" by S-S Orbeliani; Evidently Duduki and Salamuri are of later origin. Evidently Duduki originated from the name of a plant Dudura/Dudugula, which is being used to make this particular instrument in Georgia up to this day: Dudura/Dudugula ­ Duduki have a common core Dud, as for uk, -a are generative suffixes, Dudugula composite Gul(a) stands for stem. As for Salamuri, it also originates from the name of a plant. Chalamuri ­ Shalamuri ­ Salamuri, which means "made from the straw". Thus both of these ethno musical terms core wise as well as structure wise are of Georgian origin. They have nothing in common with the similar cores and words of Russian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Latvian and Turkish languages. In each of these languages they have been formed independently, supposedly by way of sound symbolism. ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.D. of Philology (Cartvelologist-Caucasiologist), Professor, member of science academy of Caucasian People. Associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University (Faculty of Art History and Sociology) as well as consultant of I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics. He is the leading science worker of the "United Georgian Group of logic and language". He is the member of editing committee of the magazine "Georgian language and logic", science volume "Guria" of Georgian Institute of Archeology and member of dissertation committee of language and literature of Georgian polytechnic University. He graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University of Tbilisi majoring in South Caucasian language studies (Faculty of Philology). He is the author of more than 170 scientific works and newspaper articles. Among them two monographs and one book (tests of "Shushaniki's Torture").

Facts about Georgian dance which has a broad historic past can be found in historic and literary sources by foreign as well as Georgian authors. Materials that are of a particular interest are brought to us by Greek, Italian, French historians, missionaries and travelers. There is abundance of choreographic material commonly in ethnographic and folklore literature. As for a special Georgian choreographic literature, there is a lack of material. Only in the beginning of the twentieth century did Georgian professional researchers start to study Georgian folk choreographic art, which was caused by the absence of scientific research methodology and professional staff. In spite of the above said, today's Georgian choreographic bibliography counts up to sixty books, among which there are works examined in the historic and ethnographic aspect of choreographic art. These are common examinations of dance, description and analysis; monographs; books written for description of ensemble's travel and success; methodic letters, recommendations; programs designed for choreographic groups, studios and schools; works written about dance recording systems; books on classical Georgian choreography. Besides there is a lot of choreographic material stored in archives, scientific publications, magazines and newspapers that will not be discussed in the following work. In spite of interesting books, there is still a shortage of special choreographic literature which needs to be enlarged. The following work tries to differentiate thematically the existing literature and gather it into one classified system, which is of a particular interest for those interested in study of choreographic art. ABOUT AUTHOR Choreographer. First year student of master's program in research of Georgian dance. She has graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University in 1997 with major in dance choreography. From 1998 she has been working at Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University as a teacher of Georgian dance and staging art. Currently she is Professor's assistant.

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