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saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universiteti

Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film Georgian Stage University

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Z i eb a n i #1 (38), 2009

ART SCIENCE STUDIES #1 (38), 2009

gamomcemloba `kentavri~ Tbilisi _ 2009

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UDC(u ak) 7( 051. 2) s-364 saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universiteti saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani saredaqcio sabWo

guliko javaSvili nana doliZe nino sanadiraZe

Sinaarsi

T e a t r m c o d n e o b a maia goSaZe zeciuri fskeris mkvidri ............................................................................10 maka vasaZe robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis ......................................................................................................15 maia kiknaZe taiuri da qmeruli nangi .............................................................22 marika mamacaSvili eqsperimentatori bruki ..................................................................................28 lamara RonRaZe msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis mogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSi ...........................................................32 laSa CxartiSvili msaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezis safuZvlis sakiTxisTvis XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi .............................................47 levan xeTaguri mesame realoba ...............................................................................................................54 k i n o m c o d n e o b a oliko JRenti rusuli kinovesternis `namdvili kavkasielebi~ ............................62 m e d i o l o g i a Tea mJavanaZe saqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumenti (1957-1990) .....................................................................................72 TinaTin Wabukiani montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba .....................................................88

#1 (38), 2009

literaturuli redaqtori mariam iaSvili garekanis dizaineri levan dadiani damkabadonebeli ekaterine oqropiriZe koreqtori manana goSaZe gamomcemlobis xelmZRvaneli maka vasaZe

krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala uzrunvelyofili unda iyos Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan unda axldes monacemebi avtoris samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

krebulis stamburi gamocema egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso kvleviT centrebs.

naSromebi mogvawodeT da cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT: 0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, II korpusi. tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408 mob: +995 (95) 305 060 +995 (55) 218 292 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.tafu.edu.ge

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k u l t u r i s m e n e j m e n t i iuri mRebriSvili rogor unda daisaxos mizani .......................................................................98

universitetis samagistro programa

`Z v e l i q a r T u l i s a T e a t r o x e l o v n e b i s a n T r o p o l o g i a ~ nino darsalia micvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiT xelovnebaSi ...................................................................................................................108 sofiko xaCiZe saferxulo cekvebis arsi da daniSnuleba .............................................115 `T a n a m e d r o v e menejmenti kulturasa da xelovnebaSi~ elene babakiSvili sponsoroba, rogorc PR-is instrumenti ...............................................123 marina balanCivaZe marketingi menejeris saqmianobaSi .................................................................127 ia gabunia, lika yufaraZe kinofestival `sesilis~ menejmentis zogierTi sakiTxi ........................................................................................................................132 sofio komlaZe organizaciis marketinguli kvleva da misi marTva sagamomcemlo saqmianobaSi ............................................................................136 natalia murjikneli pirovnebisa da jgufis marTva koleqtivSi ............................................142 Tamar firosmanaSvili biblioTekebis fasiani momsaxurebis ganviTareba ............................145 caca jorjiaSvili turistuli firmis PR ...............................................................................150

nino yuraSvili organizaciis sareklamo saqmianoba, misi organizeba da srulyofa ..........................................................................154 nino SarmiaSvili Sromis motivaciis marTvis gaumjobeseba turistul kompaniaSi .............................................................................................159 mariam CxeiZe kulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSi kanonmdeblobis analizi, efeqturoba da naklovanebebi ........................................................163 mariam WumburiZe personalis miRebisa da SerCevis princi pebi organizaciaSi ...........................................................................................................168 nino xuciSvili internet-teqnologiebis gamoyeneba marketingul saqmianobaSi .............................................................................................................173

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CONTENTS THEATRE STUDIES MAIA GOSHADZE "Dweller Of Earthly Surface" ...........................................................................180 MAKA VASADZE Formation Of Robert Sturua's Theatrical Language (Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua) ...............181 MAIA KIKNADZE Thailand And Khmere Nang ...............................................................................182 MARIKA MAMATSASHVILI Brook as Innovator .............................................................................................183 LAMARA GONGADZE Solutions To The Problem Of Actor's Development...........................................184 LASHA CHKHARTISHVILI On The Issue Of The Basis Of Actor's And Director's Synthesis In Teh 40s Of The Twentieth Century (On Basis Of W. Shakespear's "King Lear") ........................................................184 LEVAN KHETAGURI Third Reality .......................................................................................................185 CINEMA STUDIES OLGA ZHGENTI "Authentic Caucasians" Of The Russian Western Movies Conceptual And Aesthetical Aspects Of Lermontov's Screening In Georgian Film ....................189 MEDIA STUDIES TEA MZHAVANADZE Georgian Radio As The Instrument Of State Governing .....................................191 TINATIN CHABUKIANI Structural Body Of Editing Chapter Two Editing As Means Of Fictional Depiction (Organization of time).............................................................................................192 CULTURE MANAGEMENT IURI MGEBRISHVILI Goal Setting ...............................................................................................................193

UNIVERSITY'S MA PROGRAM "ANTHROPOLOGY OFANCIENT GEORGIAN THEATREART" NINO DARSALIA The Cult Of The Dead In Georgian Performance Art ............................................194 SOPO KHACHIDZE The Idea Behind Step Dance And Its Designation ..............................................195 "CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT IN CULTURE AND ARTS" ELENE BABAKISHVILI Sponsorship As An Instrument Of PR ..................................................................196 MARINA BALANCHIVADZE Marketing In Manager Activities .......................................................................196 IA GABUNIA LIKA KUPARADZE "Sesily" Film Festival, Some Management Issues ..............................................197 SOFIO KOMLADZE Marketing Research Of Organization And Its Management In The Sphere Of Publishing ...............................................................................................198 NATALIA MURJIKNELI Managing Teams And Individuals .........................................................................198 TAMAR PIROSMANASHVILI Development Of Library's Paid Service ................................................................199 TSATSA JORJIASHVILI Pr In Tour Agency .................................................................................................199 NINO KURASHVILI Organization's Advertisement Activity, Its Management And Improvement . .................................................................................................200 NINO SHARMIASHVILI Management Of Labor Motivation Development ............................................200 MARIAM CHKEIDZE Analysis Of Legislation In The Sphere Of Culture And Arts: Effectiveness And Shortcomings .................................................................................................201 MARIAM CHUMBURIDZE Principals Of Selection And Recruitment Of Staff In The Organization .............201 NINO KHUTSISHVILI Applying Internet-Technologies In Marketing ..............................................202

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Teatrmcodneoba

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maia goSaZe zeciuri fskeris mkvidri , , , .1 adamianis pirovnebad qcevis, misi cnobierebis zrdisa da gafarToebis gza ama Tu im saxiT yovelTvis gareganidan Sinaganze mimarTebis gadatanis, siRrmiseulis, arsobrivis, farulis wvdomisken swrafvis gamomxatvelia _ nacnobisa da Cveulis damcveli myudroebidan ucxosa da ucnobis miusafrobaSi mogzaurobis maradiuli odiseis warmomCenni. albaT, amitomac goeTeseul `faustSi~ kolbaSi moqceulsa da srulad dabadebis msurvel embrion homunkulus naTelmxilvelebi (berZnuli miTologiidan cnobil brZenkacTa sameba) usafrTxo zedapiris mitovebasa da okeanis fskerze gadasaxlebas urCeven. WeSmaritebis naTlisken (romlis simbolodac uxsovari droidan moyolebuli mzis metafora moiazreba iseve, rogorc sicocxlis daudgromeli stiqiis gamomxatvelad wylis stiqia) gasvlis SesaZleblobas Sinagani sacxovrisis SecvlaSi xedaven. P protevsi: `mzis cxovelmyofel naTel sxivTaTvis mkvdari qmedeba fuWia, uqmi xmeleTze yofna ar rgebs sicocxles, udReurobas amkvidrebs mxolod, gxdis mowuwune araraobad, maS, gadasaxldiT wylis stiqiaSi, okeaneSi daideT bina.~2 embrionul mdgomareobaSi `gaWedil~ homunkulus, okeanis fskeris mkvidrni xmeleTidan wylis moZrav stiqiaSi gadasaxlebas urCeven, uZravidan ­ moZravSi, gareganidan ­

SinaganSi, zedapirulidan ­ siRrmiseulSi, xilulidan ­ uxilavSi, nacnobidan ­ ucnobSi `CayvinTvisken~ mouxmoben arsebiTad, sicocxlis Sinagan wyarosTan ziarebiT, garedan ganpirobebulobis ZaliTa da inerciiT arsebobis daxSuli wris garRvevisken mouwodeben. aRsaniSnavia, rom okeanis fskeris mkvidris rCevebi Tu mowodebebi simbolur niSan-xatTa, metaforaTa, alegoriul miniSnebaTa saxiT gamoiTqmis. yovelTvis amouwuravi siRrmiseuli mravalsazrisianobiT damuxtuli simboluri niSan-xati ukve TavisTavadaa yovelive sworxazovnis, erTmniSvnelovnis, zedapirulis, calmxrivis, calsaxad gacxadebulis, mzamzareulad mowodebul-axsnilisa Tu erTxel da samudamod dadgenilgagebulis uarmyofeli, marad axlis mSobadi SemoqmedebiTi stiqiis gamomxatveli. zeciuri fskeris mkvidris Sesmena, upirvelesad, swored Secnobas, wvdomas, CaRrmavebas _ gareganidan Sinaganze, zedap ir uli dan si Rr mis eul ze, c xadida n f ar ulz e, erTmniSvnelovnidan mravalsazrisianze mimarTebis gadatanas moiTxovs. homerosis `odiseaSi~ (romlis erT-erT personaJad kvlav okeanis fskeris mkvidri protevsi gvevlineba) naTelmxilveli `mzamzareulad~ aravis umxels simarTles. rCevis miReba misgan ara ubralod msurvels, aramed simarTlis gasagebad dauRalavad da Seupovrad mebrZols ZaluZs mxolod. okeanidan xmeleTze drodadro amosul misans miZinebisas dadarajebuli menelaosi Sei pyrobs. aTasgvari saxecvlilebis miuxedavad, sxvadasxva mtaceblad, urCxulad, cecxlad da wylad gardaqcevis miuxedavad, protevsi verafriT gausxlteba xelidan Seupovar, uSiSarsa da sxart menelaos. mxolod metoqis RirsebebSi darwmunebisas ibrunebs protevsi Tavis namdvil, pirvandel saxes da menelaos sasurvel simarTles amcnobs. RmerTebic da misnebic ara mxolod qaragmebiT, miniSnebebiT, alegoriebiT, mxatvruli metaforebiTa da simboloebiT amxelen TavianT saTqmels, aramed mudmivad saxecvlilni evlinebian homerosiseul gmirebs. sibrZnis qal-RmerTi aTina-paladec Tavisi rCeuli gmirebis winaSe sxvadasxva saxiT _ maTTvis nacnob Tu ucnob adamianis

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maia goSaZe

zeciuri

fskeris

mkvidri

anda frinvelis saxiT, `wardgeba~, ufro swored ki gaielvebs. WeSmaritebis naTelis am gaelvebis aRqma-gancdis, misi `daWeris~, misi cnobisa da mis winaSe `SeCerebis~ unari, arsebiTad, yofiTi realobisa da cnobierebis sazRvrebidan gasvlis, cxovrebisa da azrovnebis Cveul nakadidan `amovardnis~ unari homerosiseul gmirTa rCeulobis utyuar dasturad iqceva. odisevsis TqmiT, yvelaze goniersac ki uWirs misi mfarveli RmerTebisa da maT mier qaragmebiT naTqvamis gageba _ arsebiTad ki, garegani sinamdvilis macduri mravalsaxovnebis miRma movlenebis faruli, siRrmiseuli arsis wvdoma. RvTaebrivTan Sexvedrisa da misi cnobis mzaobas avlens odisevsis Rirseuli vaJiSvili da memkvidre telemaqe. telemaqe erTaderTia, vinc mis saxlSi gamarTul wveulebaze mosulTa Soris taviis mbrZanebel mendesSi qalRmerT aTinas Seicnobs. swored sxvebisTvis miuwvdomlis wvdomis unariT gamorCeul maspinZels gaumxels aTena-palada Tavis saTqmels, Semdgom ki frinvelad qceuli myisierad gauCinardeba. sibrZnis qalRmerTis sityvebi uryev rwmenas Caunergaven RvTaebrivis Sesmenis niWiT gamorCeul telemaqes. `mTeli arsebiT SeigrZno idumalTan Sexvedris mniSvneloba _ RmerTis cnobisas TrTolvam Sei pyro~.3 RvTaebrivTan Sinagani Sexvedris mistikuri wami moulodnelad gaielvebs mokvdavis winaSe da mxolod yofniseul sifxizleSi mdgomisTvisaa SesaZlebeli misi SegrZneba da masTan ziareba. aTasgvarad gardasaxuli protevsis msgavsad mudam maias safariT Semosili sinamdvile arasodes gvevlineba pirdapiri, zedapirze `motivtive~ TvalsaCinoebiT, arasodes gveZleva langarze morTmeuli ZRvnis _ amomwuravi pasuxebis, `mzamzareuli~ rCevebis, miznebis, sazrisebis, axsna-ganmartebebis, mowodebebisa Tu cxovrebis warmmarTvel gezTa saxiT. sinamdvilis WeSmariti, siRrmiseuli arsi Secnobisken mudmiv swrafvas, mudmiv Sinagan aqtivobas, garedan gapirobebulobis Cvevisa da inerciis ZaliT azrovnebis daZlevas, merab mamardaSvils Tu davesesxebiT, azrovnebis sizarmacis daZlevas moiTxovs. zRvasaviT cvalebadi, sxvadasxva feris da ier-saxis mimRebi da am garegan metamorfozebSi TiTqmis mouxelTebeli protevsis

alegoriuli saxe xiluli sinamdvilis uxilavi arsis wvdomis, masTan `Sexebisa~ da masTan ziarebis sirTules warmoaCens. nebismieri Semosilobis miRma RmerTebis mcnob, gareganis miRma Sinaganis, farulis, arsobrivis mwvdom homerosis gmirTa msgavsad, Seqspiris pirmSo daniis ufliswulsac ar surs zedapirze motivtive TvalsaCinoebas dasjerdes, swored xilulis sadarajoze mdgari cixe-simagris sapatio memkvidred iqces. `sulac ar msurs is, rac Cans mxolod~4, _ ambobs amjerad aCrdilis saxiT warmoCenil, ara amasofliseuli xmis Semsmeneli hamleti. merab mamardaSvilis TqmiT, sicocxle (cxadia, ara vitaluri TvalsazrisiT) swored arsiseulis wvdomaSi vlindeba, imis wvdomaSi, Tu ra xdeba, ras grZnob an ra gsurs sinamdvileSi. `dakargulia is dro, rodesac SegeZlo cocxali yofiliyavi, magram aryofna amjobine. mogeca niSani, Sen ki xelidan gauSvi, xelidan gauSvi imiT, rom ar SeCerdi da ar imuSave, STabeWdilebis im SuqSi, pirdapir sulSi rom girtyams elvasaviT. unda SegeZlos Senken momarTuli sityvis wakiTxva. TviTrealizaciis sfero swored cnoba-arcnobis sferoa. SesaZloa Sexvde RmerTs da ver icno masSi RmerTi, Sexvde SenTvis kuTvnil grZnobasa Tu STabeWdilebas, magram gverdi auaro~.5 nacnobisa Tu ucnobis, RmerTebisa Tu misnebis, aCrdilebisa Tu frinvelebis _ arsebiTad ki ama Tu im saxiT warmoCenili zeciuri fskeris mkvidris Sesmena, sinamdvilis zedapiris zantad mijaWvul mzeris uZraobidan, movlenebis siRrmiseuli arsis wvdomisken moZraobis dawyebis _ empiriul Zvel kacSi (okeanis fskerze CaZiruli ganZiviT) CaZiruli TviTobisken savali gzis Ziebis gamomxatvelia. Sinagani `sinamdvilis~ idumali gzavnilis cnoba-arcnobis motivi sxvadasxva variaciiT meordeba vladimer nabokovis _ ambebis SemTxzveli mwerlobis moZule da marsel prustis msgavsad, marTlac, `arsismieri~ STabeWdilebis SuqSi momuSave mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi. sakuTari Seucnobeli grZnoba miusafari mgzavriviT amaod `ukakunebs~ Carazul saxliviT Seusmenel nabokoviseul gmirs (moTxrobidan `gazafxuli fialtaSi~).

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mudam SemTxveviTobis wyalobiT Semxvedri da aseve `SemTxveviTad~ aRqmuli sayvarlis saxe drodadro gaielvebda xolme `misi cxovrebis velze, ZiriTadi teqstis xelSeuxeblad - misi arsebis CrdiloeT, naTel polisze gamJRavnebuli ojaxuri _ marTalia, idiliis, magram ratomRac yovelTvis mis miRma mcuravi idiliuri peizaJis xelSeuxeblad~.6 maTi bednierebis xangrZliv SesvenebebSi qalis saxe abezari ganmeorebadobiT ubrundeboda cxadsa Tu sizmarSi - xan romelime wignis furclidan Tavs daukravda, xan romelime sakidze amocnobili qurqiT Tavs axsenebda anda akviatebuli musikaluri melodiisa Tu sizmriseuli zmanebis talRaze wamierad SemoWrili isev uCinardeboda. TiTqos, drodadro ukan mouxedavad gverdiT Cauqrolebda, sulSi ki gaurkveveli wuxilis bundovan nakvalevs tovebda raRac gaurkvevelze, magram imavdroulad fuWad daxarjulze sinanulis saxiT. TiTqos raRac ucnobi gaurkveveli CurCuliviT imis faseulobas amcnobda, romlis SemTxveviTi namcecebiT kmayofils, swored umTavresi xelidan usxlteboda. Zalze gvian mixvda, Tu ratom iyo maTi SemTxveviTi Sexvedrebis adgilad qceul zRvispira qalaqSi aseTi ganumeorebeli, wvimiT danamuli iis aromatiT gajerebuli haeri, ratom livlivebda ase jadosnurad zRva fialtaSi da ratom cimcimebdnen aseTi gamomwvevi sikaSkaSiT varskvlavebi fialtis Tavze. Sinagani xmis Sesmena Tu ver Sesmena - SenTvis kuTvnili azris, grZnobisa Tu STabeWdilebis cnoba-arcnoba, swored garedan ganusazRvrel-ganupirobebeli TviTobiT yofna-aryofnis maradiuli dilemis gamomxatvelia mudam - sakuTar TavTan Semdgari an Seumdgari Sexvedris gamomxatveli.

maka vasaZe robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis (qarTuli klasikis sturuaseuli interpretacia, 1968 _ 1975 wlebi) (gagrZeleba, dasawyisi ix.: Jur. `saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani~, #3 (36), 2008; #4 (37), 2008). robert sturuam yvaryvares mkrebelobiTi saxis warmosaCenad, princi pulad mimarTa ekleqtizmsa da aplikaciur meTodebs. speqtaklSi erTmaneTis gverdiT arsebobdnen da erTmaneTs erwymodnen fotoilustraciebi, amonaWrebi gazeTebidan, dekoracia, musika: xalxuri, jazi, klasika da sxva. swored am princi piT iyo gamarTlebuli scenis Casma speqtaklSi, brextis piesidan `arturo uis kariera~. zogadidan reJisorma konkretuli magaliTi aCvena. amasTanave bertold brextis piesa dawerilia, rogorc tragikuli farsi da amiTac Seerwya igi `yvaryvares~. ai, ras wers am scenis Camatebis Sesaxeb literaturis kritikosi g. gaCeCilaZe: `aq aucilebelia erTi momentis sagangebo gaTvaliswineba. iseve, rogorc yvaryvare, uic karnavaluri `gmiria~, am SemTxvevaSi mis istoriul `kostiums~, romelSic hitleri igulisxmeba, aqvs ukiduresad pirobiTi mniSvneloba. saqme isaa, rom p. kakabaZis komediis ganzogadebis sibrtyeSi, yvaryvares adgilas igulisxmeba istoriis nebismieri karnavaluri mefe... brextis mier konkretuli adresatis miniSnebas hqonda TviT germanuli sazogadoebis mimarT meti publicisturi simaxvilis mniSvneloba~.1 SemTxveviTi ar iyo is faqti, rom reJisorma speqtaklis sxva rekvizitTan erTad scenaze globusi gamoitana. am globuss simboluri daniSnuleba mieniWa. reJisori kidev erTxel usvamda xazs misi gmiris masStaburobas. amas garda mayurebels mianiSnebda imaze, rom yvaryvare msoflios yvela kuTxeSi

1. ., , , . II, 1969, . 106. 2. iohan volfgan goeTe, fausti, Tb., 1996, gv. 437. 3. homerosi, odisea, Tb., 1986, gv. 19. 4. Shakespeare William, Four great tragedies, Hamlet, New-ork, 1982, p. 43 . 5. ., , -, 1997, . 62. 6. ., , , . IV, , 1990, . 306.

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robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis

SeiZleba gaCndes, Tu amas dauSvebs da xels Seuwyobs sazogadoeba. is faqti, rom yvaryvarem xalxis meSveobiT miaRwia gandidebis zenits, kidev erTxel mtkicdeboda `SeTqmulebis~ sceniT. mtkicdeboda is faqtic, rom yvaryvares arseboba ubralod awyobs im xalxs, radganac am SemTxvevaSi maTac, `ubralo mokvdavT~, SeeZloT TavianT gandidebaze ocneba da am ocnebis realurad ganxorcieleba. `SeTqmuleba, o, SeTqmuleba!~ _ amcnobda mayurebels speqtaklis wamyvani. yvaryvares winaaRmdeg SeTqmulebaa. ufro swored, iwyeboda brZola Zalauflebis mopovebisaTvis yvaryvaresa da mowafeTa Soris. TamaSdeboda `qveynis mamisa da mis `mowafeTa~ Soris `ideuri~ ganxeTqileba~.2 yvaryvares kimano ecva. ragbisa da Ziudos ileTebis gamoyenebiT mimdinareobda es scena. erT mxares yvaryvare idga, meore mxares ­ mowinaaRmdegeTa mTeli jgufi. isini TavebiT awvebodnen erTmaneTs. es Serkineba mTavrdeboda imiT, rom yvaryvare erTi naxtomiT yvelas aswrebda `savarZelSi~ Cajdomas. xolo savarZeli ki Zalauflebis simbolos warmoadgenda. yvaryvares mowinaaRmdegeni marcxdebodnen, magram Cemi azriT, am scenaSi yvelaze saintereso momenti Semdegi iyo: ramaz CxikvaZe ­ yvaryvare ­ eTiSeboda moqmedebis msvlelobas, `simarTlisaTvis~ mebrZol `meamboxeTa~ zedaxoras da mayurebels mimarTavda cinikuri toniT: simarTlis ambavi aseTia! sabolood, speqtaklSi yvaryvare `mxilebul iqna~. rodesac mas niRabs Camoxsnidnen da gaaSiSvlebdnen, igi Tavisi gandidebis saboloo xriks mimarTavda ­ yvaryvares gmiruli sikvdili surda. magram mas, es bolo imedic ucruvdeboda. `golgoTis gzaze~ mimavals bolSeviki sevastis sityvebi eweoda: Tavi daanebeT, niRabi Camoxsnili aqvs, Cven veRaras gvavnebs da icxovros Tavisi namdvili saxiT. nacarqeqias saxeliT iaros qveyanaze. yvaryvares ar undoda jvarcmidan Camosvla, ebRauWeboda mas, magram... jvarcmidan Camoxsnidnen, sanagve yuTSic gadauZaxebdnen da speqtakli `parad aleTi~ mTavrdeboda. magram speqtaklis finalis pirveladi varianti ufro esadageboda da amarTlebda mis mTlian reJisorul struqturas.

yvaryvare kvlav aRdgeboda sanagve yuTidan da brundeboda scenaze. `Cven speqtakls sul sxvagvari finali hqonda. radgan qristed movlenili antiqristes saxe mudmiv modernizebas ganicdis, logikuri da bunebrivi iqneboda misi aRdgomis scenac. Cven es scena gvqonda kidec speqtaklSi. raSi mdgomareobda am scenis arsi? uaryofili, gandevnili yvaryvare xelaxla evlineboda xalxs. amiT mindoda, kidev erTxel gamesva xazi imisaTvis, Tu raoden fxizlad unda iyvnen adamianebi.~3 Cemi azriT, sruliad gaumarTlebeli iyo amgvari finalis Secvla. speqtaklSi, piesis aseTi cvlilebebis miuxedavad, robert sturuas polikarpe kakabaZis dramaturgiis ZiriTadi arsi ar daurRvevia, vinaidan TviT polikarpe kakabaZeATavisi Semoqmedebis manZilze yovelTvis amxilebda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mankier mxareebs da es SeimCneva ara marto `yvaryvare TuTaberSi~, aramed mis mier daweril sxva komediebSic: `kolmeurnis qorwineba~, `kaxabris xmali~, `cxovrebis jara~ da sxva. am komediebis gmirebi didi ostatobiT xmaroben sxvadasxva niRabs. reJisorma swored es erT-erTi mTavari Tema wamoswia wina planze kakabaZis Semoqmedebidan. gaaerTiana isini erT saxeSi da Seqmna mTliani, krebiTi, globaluri masStabebis Tema `yvaryvarizmisa~, swored amaSia reJisoris mTavari da didi damsaxureba. rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, robert sturuam `Ralatis~ Taviseburi interpretaciac SemogvTavaza. Cemi azriT ­ Tanadrouli da progresuli. dResdReobiT ratomRac miaCniaT, rom robert sturuas es speqtakli ar gamouvida. magram, rodesac me gavecani masze daweril recenziebs, raTa aRmedgina speqtakli, mivxvdi, rom es azri ar unda yofiliyo marTali. reJisorma piesis sruliad axleburi koncefcia mogvca da SeiZleba am Tamamma nabijmac gamoiwvia sturuaseuli dadgmis `armowoneba~. magram konkretulad ras warmoadgenda piesis wakiTxvis es axleburi varianti? Sevecdebi am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas. pirvel rigSi, unda aRiniSnos, rom speqtaklSi aRar arsebobdnen mkveTrad gayofili keTili da boroti saxeebi. reJisori ecada aexsna TiToeuli personaJis qmedebis xasiaTi, misi arsi. soleimani aRar warmoadgenda mxolod borot

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dampyrobels, isic raRaciT tragikuli adamiani iyo, vinaidan TviTonacATavisze zemdgomis mona gaxldaT. soleimans sruliadac ar surda saqarTvelos dapyroba, mas es daavales. soleimans sparseTSi yofna urCevnia. erTi suli aqvs, rodis datovebs saqarTvelos da dabrundeba Tavis samSobloSi. arc misi cxovrebaa saxarbielo, radgan isic ar aris Sinaganad ATavisufali. reJisorma piesidan mTlianad amoiRo daTosa da gaianes mijnurobis scenebi, radgan Tavisi koncefciis warmosaCenad es siuJeturi xazi ar esaWiroeboda. xolo ruqaias da giorgis (igive erekles) sasiyvarulo scenebi imdenad iyo datovebuli, ramdenadac maT siuJeturi kvanZis Sekvrisa da Semdgom gaxsnis funqcia ekisrebodaT. Secvlili iyo agreTve giorgis sikvdilis scena. igi reJisorma soleimanis jalaTebis xeliT mokla da amiT misi saxe daCrdila, rogorc gonebaClungi da ususuri arsebisa. sul sxvagvarad iyo warmoCenili oTar-begis saxe, romelsac e. manjgalaZe ganasaxierebda. oTar-begi gamoyvanili iyo rogorc medrove, romelsac SeuZlia yovel dros miesadagos da kmayofili iyos. ra Cveni saqme ariso omi _ Cven, qarTvelebi, omisaTvis ki ara sicil-xarxarisTvis varT gaCenilebio, _ ambobs oTar-begi. amgvari msoflmxedvelobiT cxovrobs igi.Aamitom ra gasakviria, rom robert sturuam oTar-begis aseTi xasiaTi dagvixata? gana, cotani arian dResdReobiT amgva ri qarTvelebi, rom elTac ara feri da a ravin awuxebTATavisTavis garda. sabolood, speqtaklSi zeinabisa (z. kverenCxilaZe) da saba beris (g. saRaraZe) meSveobiT oTar-begi Seignebs Tavis Secdomas da Semobrundba saqarTvelosken. robert sturuam imisaTvis, rom ufro naTlad daenaxvebina mayureblisaTvis misi dacemisa da Semobrunebis procesi, yara-iusufis Ralatis scena bolo moqmedebidan pirvelSi gadmoitana da oTar-begis Tanamzraxvelad aqcia. speqtaklSi oTar-begis pirovnebis erTgvari metamorfoza iyo naCvenebi. piesasTan SedarebiT, metad iyo datvirTuli sababeris saxe guram saRaraZis SesrulebiT. igi zeinabTan erTad saTaveSi edga samSoblos daxsnisTvis brZolas. sainteresod Canda misi saubari soleimanTan, rodesac ganumartavda, rom dampyrobelic damonebulia, raki man sxvas daado borkili.

gogi gegeWkoris anania erT-erTi im rolTagania, romelic TiTqmis ucvlelad iqna gadmotanili piesidan speqtaklSi. g. gegeWkori TamaSobda patiosan, vaJkac, patriot glexs, romelic TavganwirviT ibrZvis Tavisi mamulisa da xalxis keTildReobisTvis. ananias Tavisi RviZli Svilis gawirvac ki SeuZlia am saqmisaTvis. zina kverenCxilaZe misTvis Cveuli dramtuli maneriT axorcielebda zeinabis _ATamar dedoflis _ saxes. mis TamaSSi Serwymuli iyo temperamenti daATavSekavebuloba. Zalian kargad gamosdioda msaxiobs SvilTan Sexvedris scena, dialogi oTar-begTan da sikvdilis finaluri scena. ai, ras wers oTar-begTan dialogis Sesaxeb kritikosi m. kostava: `oTar-begTan dialogis scena sasaubro intonaciisa da reCitativis sazRvarze mihyavda msaxiobs, rasac moiTxovs ambis uCveuloba da Tavad faqti, rom saubrobs dedofali da ara ubralo mokvdavi. saubris siTbom unda SeZras dacemuli adamiani, sindisis cecxlad unda STaegznos skepsisiT daserili adamianis guls, magram zedmetma mgrZnobelobam rodi unda Seasustos sityvis Zala, movaleobis mTeli simkacriT mimaniSnebeli~.4 reJisoruli TvalsazrisiT, speqtakli mTlianobaSi pirobiT formaSi iqna gadawyvetili. aseve pirobiTi iyo speqtaklis gaformebac. msaxiobTa qmedeba Serwymulad aRiqmeboda ferTa simbolikasTan da dekoraciul simboloebTan, risi damamtkicebelic speqtaklis finali gaxldaT: rodesac damarcxebuli soleimani nel-nela qreboda scenidan, kibeze wiTel mosasxams tovebda. aseT simbolikas mravalgvari axsna SeiZleba movuZebnoT. magram, Cemi azriT, wiTeli mosasxamis datoveba imis mimaniSnebeli iyo, rom soleimanma, anu mterma, ki datova saqarTvelo, magram sisxlisRvra aq kvlavac gagrZeldeba, qarTvelebi axla erTmaneTis `Wamas~ moundebian, radganac soleimanis wasvlis Semdeg maT ar darCaT Zlieri winamZRoli erisa, Zlieri mefe. rogorc davinaxeT, am speqtaklSic klasikuri memkvidreobis axleburi wakiTxva moxda. `Temebis, motivebisa da problemebis siaxliT kacobriobas veRaravin acvifrebs dRes. sworad amitomaa saintereso Semoqmedis axali TvalTaxedva, is axali kuTxe, is rakursi,

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saidanac cnobili ATemebisa da problemebis axali mniSvneloba ixsneba.~5 robert sturua xSirad mimarTavs klasikas da es savsebiT gasagebia. klasika xom imitomac aris klasika, rom mudam cocxalia, mudam Tanamedrovea. igi mudam iZleva axali SemoqmedebiTi gzebis, axali interpretaciis saSualebas.ATanamedroveoba WeSmariti xelovanisa ar niSnavs, rom mis Seqmnil mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi aisaxos mxolod da mxolod dRevandeli dRe, dRevandeli dro. rogorc brexti ambobda: Tanadroul problemebs dRevandel cxovrebaSi ufro Znelad davinaxavT, vidre maSin, rodesac maT gavitanT Cveni qveynisa da Cveni drois farglebs gareT. robert sturuasaTvis, rogorc adamianis, reJisorisa da SemoqmedisaTvis, erT-erTi mniSvnelovani problemaa brZola yovelgvari borotebis (socialuri, moraluri, zneobrivi da sxva) winaaRmdeg _ `garkveva imisa, Tu rogor itans adamiani Cagvras, monobas, monobas fulisas, nivTisas, meore adamianisas. ra xdeba masSi, ratom eCveva kaci amas da ar ibrZvis gamostacos suli am mwuxarebas~,6 _ rogorc Tavad reJisori ambobs. robert sturuas speqtaklebSi forma da problema yovelTvis harmoniulad aris Serwymuli erTmaneTTan. erTaderTi speqtakli, romelic ar warmoadgens formisa da problemis, formisa da koncefciis harmoniul erTianobas, `xanumaa~, magram rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, miswrafeba brextis Teatris esTetikisaken `Canasaxovan mdgomareobaSi~ swored am speqtaklSi gamoCnda, xolo saboloo, Camoyalibebuli saxiT Tavi iCina speqtakl `yvaryvareSi~. robert sturua erT-erT interviuSi ityvis: CemTvis TeatrSi mTavaria sazeimo ganwyobilebis Seqmna. swored aseTi sazeimo ganwyobilebis apoTeozi iyo speqtakli `xanuma~. robert sturua _ reJisori, TiTqmis yvela Tavis speqtaklSi mimarTavs grotesks. xolo groteski da gulgriloba erTmaneTTan SeuTavsebeli cnebebia. rogorc kritikosi g. orjonikiZe ambobs: « « », , :

, , .»7 Tu `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~ r. sturua adamianTa urTierTobis rTul sulier da socialur procesebs ikvlevda da warmoaCenda, `RalatSi~ da Semdgom ufro mZafrad `yvaryvareSi~ politikuri Teatris princi pebi Cndeba, rac Semdgom `kavkasiur carcis wreSi~, `riCardSi~ da sxva speqtaklebSi viTardeba. es speqtaklebi TavianTi arsiT ebrZvian yovelgvar usamarTlobas. reJisori ar erideba situaciebis gaRrmavebas da gamwvavebas, raTa ukeT warmoaCinos keTili. am gziT afxizlebs igi Cvens gonebas da aqtiurad gangvawyobs samarTlianobis dasacavad.

1. Jurn. `ciskari~: g. gaCeCilaZe `yvaryvares metamorfozebi~, 1974, #7. 2. ix. iqve. 3. Jurn. `Teatraluri moambe~: `dialogi yvaryvareze~, 1974, #4. 4. Jurn. `sabWoTa xelovneba: m. kostava, `Ralati~ S. rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifo akademiuri Teatris scenaze~, 1975, #4. 5. Jurn. `TeatrmcodenobiTi Ziebani~: d. mumlaZe, `yvaryvare~, 1978-79, t. VIII_IX. 6. gaz. `axalgazrda komunisti~: `Teatri, Cemi siyvaruli~, 1979, #7. 05. 7. « »: . ., «», 1976. 10.

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maia kiknaZe ta iur i d a qm eru li nan gi Teatraluri formebis aRmoceneba da Camoyalibeba indoCineTis qveynebSi dakavSirebuli iyo religiur msoflmxedvelobasTan, saritualo praqtikasa da kulturul tradiciebTan. angkoris imperiisa (IX-XIV) da 16-17 ss.-is tais saxelmwifoebis arsebobis periodSi sasaxlis karze gamarTul sakulto ceremonialSi meTojineebisa da mocekvaveebis gamosvla ritualis Semadgeneli nawili gaxldaT. sacekvao pantomimuri da brtyeli tyavis Tojinebis sanaxaobis Janruli sxvadasxvaobis miuxedavad, maT saerTo musikalur, deklamaciuri Tanxleba da erTgvarovani repertuari hqondaT. Tu Tavdapirvelad Teatralur warmodgenebSi iseTi teqstebi gamoiyeneboda, romelic ar iyo scenisaTvis gankuTvnili, magram poulobda scenur interpretacias, mogvianebiT me-17 saukuneSi specialurad TeatrisaTvis `niangi~ da `kxoni~ (niRbiani pantomimuri sanaxaoba) iwereboda da iqmneboda poemebi Zveli induri eposis `ramaianas~ motivebis mixedviT, romelic warmoadgenda im periodis indoCineTis (birma, kampuCia, tailandi) Teatralur xelovnebaSi gavrcelebuli ori ZiriTadi saxeobis ­ brtyeli tyavis Tojinebis (Crdilebis) Teatrisa da sacekvao pantomimuri sanaxaobis repertuaris ZiriTad Temebs. indoCineTis wamyvan Teatralur xelovnebaSi scenuri moqmedeba dakavSirebuli iyo, pirvel rigSi, sityvasTan, deklamaciasTan (wamRerebiT), romelsac warmodgenaSi `teqstis mkiTxveli~, deklamatori kiTxulobda. aseTi saSemsruleblo praqtika, sadac warmodgenas komentatori hyavda da is iyo ambis mTxrobeli, xolo msaxiobi (mocekvave, meTojine) usityvo Semsrulebeli damaxasiaTebeli iyo upirvelesad Tojinuri sanaxaobebis taiuri nangisa da qmeruli nangis `sbeak Txom~isTvis. tailanduri termini `nangi iai~1 taiuri sityvaa. sbeak da Txom ­ qmeruli. `nangi~ da `sbeak~ niSnavs tyavs. `iai~ da `Txom~ _ dids gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT nangebs eZaxian tyavisagan gamoWril Teatralur suraTebs, amitom terminebi

iTargmneba, rogorc didi tyavis pano (tailandSi da kampuCiaSi sityva `nangiSi~ igulisxmeba dasaxeleba siluetebis Teatris sxva formebisa). vinaidan sityva nangi taiuri warmoSobisaa da saxelwodeba SenarCunebulia qmeris siluetebis Teatris dasaxelebaSi, am saxeobis taiur warmoSobaze miuTiTebs. Tumca nangis warmodgenebis safuZveli Zv. induri siluetebis TeatrSi unda veZeboT, magram udidesi roli mis ganviTarebaSi adgilobrivma nacionalurma tradiciam da kulturam iTamaSa. tais saxelmwifoSi, utyuari faqtebi nangis arsebobis Sesaxeb moxseniebulia 1458 wlis siamis sasaxlis karis kanonebis Sesaxeb arsebul dokumentebSi2. nangi, romlis arsebobac ukavSirdeboda sasaxlis karze gamarTul ritualebs, tradicias inarCunebda da agrZelebda tais mefeTa mmarTvelobis rama I (1782-1809), rama II (18091824) da rama III (1824-1851) periodSic3. kxonisa da lakon nais 4 sanaxaobebTan erTad nangi viTardeboda sasaxlis karzec da amave dros ­ misgan damoukideblad. misi gamarTva damokidebuli iyo SemkveTis survilsa da mizanze. iqneboda es saxelmwifo, religiuri Tu saojaxo dResaswauli, jaris dalocva, qorwineba, dabadeba, kremacia an sxva raime mniSvnelovani movlena tyavis Tojinebis monawileobiT aRiniSneboda. warmodgenas specialuri Senoba ar gaaCnda da is yovelTvis Ria cis qveS tardeboda mefis baRSi, glexis ojaxSi an taZarTan axlos (kremaciis dros), sadac didi TeTri tilosagan gadaWimuli ekrani magrdeboda. ekrani, romelic gansxvavdeboda aziuri Crdilebis Teatrisagan Tavisi zomiT (sigrZe 15 m., sigane 4-5 m.), ukana mxridan danTebuli koconis saSualebiT naTdeboda. mis win ki mamakacebisagan Semdgari orkestri da qalebis gundi ganlagdeboda. meTojineebis raodenoba, romelic amave dros mocekvaveebic iyvnen, 12-15 kacamde aRwevda. monawileTa aseTi simravle damaxasiaTebeli iyo qmeruli Crdilebis warmodgenisaTvis, romelic tyavis suraTebis damzadebiT, repertuariT, speqtaklis mowyobis organizebiT msgavsia taiuri nangisa. mxolod tyavis damuSavebis wesiT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan, Tumca orive SemTxvevaSi tyavi gaumWvirvale xdeboda, Savad iRebeboda, prialdeboda da ixateboda. figurebi

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taiuri

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nangi

koconis Suqze Sav TeTrad gamoiyureboda. feri mxolod wminda portretebis Seqmnisas gamoiyeneboda. viSnu lurjad iRebeboda, Siva ­ oqrosfrad da magiuri rituali, romelic tyavis suraTebis damzadebisas tardeboda, upirvelesad gandegilis, Sivas, viSnus portretebis moxatvas ukavSirdeboda. danarCeni figurebisagan gansxvavebiT isini gansakuTrebuli masaliT iqmneboda, Siva da viSnu ­ daTvis an vefxvis tyavisagan, gandegili ki ­ make furisagan. damzadebul panoebs gancalkevebiT debdnen sakurTxevelze, pativs miagebdnen, ZRvens miarTmevdnen da locvas kiTxulobdnen. mxolod am proceduris damTavrebis Semdeg iwyebdnen sxva figurebis gamoWras. figurebisadmi pativiscemis gamoxatva msaxiobebisTvisac savaldebulo iyo, amitom ekranis win iCoqebdnen da patiJebdnen mTavar figurebs: Sivas, viSnus da gandegils, romlebic amave dros nangis mfarvelebic iyvnen da romlebsac unda uzrunveleyoT kargi speqtaklis Catareba. amisaTvis sami meTojine wminda suraTebs cekviT Semoatarebda ekrans, xolo Semdeg masze ganaTavsebda. am dros dasi umReroda portretebs, adidebda viSnusa da Sivas, aqebda gandegilis keTilSobilebas. sTxovda RmerTebsa da sulebs, daeloca dasi da mayurebeli. amiT ceremoniali mTavrdeboda. qmerul nangSi gandegili ritualis saSualebiT uxmobda personaJTa sulebs msaxiobTa sxeulSi da panoSi Casaxlebuliyvnen, amitom msaxiobsa da suraTs Soris gavla ar SeiZleboda, radgan suli datovebda droebiT sacxovrebels. amave dros gandegili icavda im msaxiobebs ubedurebisagan, romelTa gansaxierebuli personaJebic dramaSi ixocebodnen, vinaidan `gacocxlebul sulebs~ SeeZloT, ziani mieyenebinaT moTamaSisTvis, rituali tardeboda ubedurebis Tavidan asacileblad. aseTi rwmena damaxasiaTebeli iyo im qveynebisTvis, sadac suli CrdilTan iyo gaigivebuli, rac sazogadoebaSi garkveul SiSs iwvevda Crdilebis figurebisadmi. mag., kunZul iavaze sjerodaT, rom, Tu aCvenebdnen pandavebisa da kauravebis brZolebs, saxli, sadac warmodgena gaimarTeboda, daiwveboda an raime ubedureba daatydeboda. amitom mizanSewonilad miiCneoda sikvdilis scenebis epizodebi gamoetovebinaT an Tu aCvenebdnen, mxolod specialurad Catarebuli ritualis Semdeg. e. w. `boroti sulebis~

gamaneitralebel rituals vxvdebiT zogierTi panos (Siva, ravana) gamoWris ­ Seqmnis drosac, radgan maT sulebs ostatisaTvis zianis miyeneba SeeZloT. warmodgena yovelTvis musikis TanxlebiT iwyeboda, rodesac mTxrobeli ityoda sityvas: `amjerad~ amiT niSans aZlevda orkestrs, rom dakvra daewyoT. amis Semdeg meTojineebi iwyebdnen gamosvlas. yovel msaxiobs Tavisi qoreografiuli monaxazi hqonda. gansxvavebiT indoneziuri, Turquli an sparsuli Tojinebisagan, sadac Cacmuloba, tanis agebuleba, garegnoba avlenda personaJis individualobas, aq es Tviseba ZiriTadad cekvaSi vlindeboda, amitom cekva mkacrad gansazRvruli monaxaziT sruldeboda. es damokidebuli iyo imaze, Tu ra pano eWira xelSi mocekvave msaxiobs. sacekvao nabiji Seesatyviseboda personaJis ti ps. Tu princesa seirnobda, meTojine moZraobda patara nabijebiT, TiTqmis exeboda muxliT iataks, Tu ravanas pano eWira, msaxiobi moZraobda xtunviT da a. S. rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSne, nangis warmodgenebis ZiriTadi siuJetebi dafuZnebuli iyo induri eposis `ramaianas~ mixedviT Seqmnil motivebze, romelmac udidesi gavlena iqonia indoCinur kulturaze, literaturasa da xelovnebaze. laosis, birmis, qmerisa da taiur literaturaSi ramas TqmulebiT Seqmnilma nawarmoebebma (ramkeri-qmeruli, ramakiana-taiuri) upirvelesad pantomimur da Tojinur sanaxaobebSi pova asaxva. yvelaze Zveli varianti (VII) `ramaianas~ teqstisa warmodgenilia qmerulenovan literaturaSi, xolo XI saukunis angkoris taZarze gamosaxuli reliefi `ramaianas~5 nawyvetebisa zustadaa gadatanili tyavis panoze da Crdilebis Teatris warmodgenaSia CarTuli. ramasadmi miZRvnil taiur Teatralur poemebSi (sitas tani, sitas gauCinareba, xanZari lankaze da sxva), romlebic iwereboda siamis sasaxlis karis poetebis mier, ramas sasiyvarulo da saTavgadasavlo istorias mogviTxrobs. Tavad ramas roli ki Semcirebulia da pasiur personaJad gvevlineba. misi mTavari Tvisebebi: gambedaoba, erTguleba, qmediTunarianoba, iniciativebi gadatanil iqna maimuni-xanumanis figuraze, romelic saomari saqmis codniTa da mamacobiT gamoirCeoda. ravanas erTguli ramas mtrebis: rakSasebis da Tavad ravanas personaJebi aqtiurobas inarCuneben, xolo sita (sida) iSviaTad Cndeba

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ekranze. ramas Zma lakSmani ki kvlav induri gmirisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli erTguli Zmis idealuri TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba. tailandur nangSi aseve Cndeba induri poemisaTvis ucxo personaJi ravanas tyve beniakai, romelic Crdilebis TeatrSi daibada. `ramanas~ siuJetebis popularoba imdenad didi iyo, gansakuTrebiT autias periodSi, rom (XIV s.-is Sua wlebi XVII s.-mde) taiuri `ramakiana~ ganixileboda, rogorc nacionaluri kulturis sakuTreba da rogorc `ramaiana~ indoeTSi `ramakianac~ wminda teqstad miiCneoda. amitom misi siuJetebis damuSaveba sasaxlis karze gaxda privilegia samefo ojaxis wevrebisa da aikrZala misi Sesruleba sasaxlis karis gareT (Tavad mefe rama II-m Seqmna ramdenime scena `ramakianadan~ lakoni naisTvis, romelic mxolod sasaxlis karze sruldeboda). nangis warmodgenebSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceoda maimunTa gamosvlas. mocekvaveebi warmoadgendnen Savi da TeTri maimunis brZolebs, romelTa panoebic scenaze or msaxiobs cal-calke Semohqonda. Semdeg gamodioda mesame msaxiobi, romelsac xelSi orive maimunis xelCarTuli brZolis amsaxveli pano eWira (tiloze ori bambukis joxze magrdeboda). aseve calke tilozea gamosaxuli TeTri maimunis gamarjveba. mTxroblisgan mayurebeli Seityobda gamarjvebuli maimunis mier damarcxebuli maimunis gakoWvis ambavs, romelic Semdeg gandegilTan mihyavda. gandegili daarwmunebda mas, rom gamoeCina didsulovneba da gaeTavisuflebina Savi maimuni. gandegilis Txovna sruldeboda. damarcxebuli madlobas uxdida gandegils da scenas tovebda. siCumes musika arRvevda. Semdeg epizodSi ravanas Spionebi gamodiodnen da yvebodnen. Tu ra xdeboda ramas banakSi. SpionTa gamosvla taiur nangSi aucilebeli niSani iyo erTi epizodidan meoreze gadasasvlelad. panoze Cndeboda omis scena, romlis Sesaxebac mTxrobeli winaswar amcnobda mayurebels. nangSi, piesis Sinaarsis gadmocema win uswrebda moqmedebas. mTeli warmodgena am princi pze iyo agebuli, anu, yoveli moqmedeba orjer aiwereboda, jer sityvieri gadmocema, Semdeg Cveneba-ilustracia. es aris nangis mxatvruli

ena, misi gamosaxvis formebi, rac saerToa qmeruli da taiuri warmodgenisaTvis. aseve mxolod nangisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia: tyavis figurebis Cveneba ekranis ukan da ekranis win, romlis drosac msaxiobs da panos mayurebeli erTdroulad xedavs. panoze gamosaxuli figurebi ki yovelTvis dinamikaSia. tailanduri da qmeruli nangis msaxiobebi meTojineebic arian da mocekvaveebic, amdenad, nangSi, sxva Tojinuri Teatrisgan gansxvavebiT, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba qoreografias eqceva (zogj er warmodgenebSi pr ofesional i mocekva veebi monawileoben), samagierod, Sesustebulia ferTa gamoyeneba da mis simboluri datvirTva. taiuri da qmeruli tyavis suraTebi yvelaze didia msoflios siluetebis Teatris istoriaSi.

1. . ., . ., 1983, . 46. 2. iqve, gv. 47. 3. ., , ., 1971. 4. lakon nai, taiuri klasikuri dramis erT-erTi saxeoba. masSi mxolod qalebi monawileobdnen. warmodgenaSi teqsts deklamatori kiTxulobda. TamaSdeboda epizodebi `ramakianadan~. 5. . ., . ., 1980, . 36.

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marika mamacaSvili eqsperimentatori bruki arian reJisorebi _ mkvlevrebi, isini mudmivad cdiloben gaerkvnen, gamoiZion is kavSirebi da urTierTobebi, romlebic Teatrsa da cxovrebas, msaxiobsa da mayurebels, mayurebelsa da Teatrs Soris arseboben. es urTierTkavSirebi mudmivad moiTxoven ganaxlebas, cxovrebis axali ritmis ayolas. isini eWvqveS ayeneben arsebuls, ukve ganvlils da tradiciulSi sul axal-axal Sreebs pouloben. maT ricxvs miekuTvneba piter bruki, ingliseli warmoSobiT da msoflio moqalaqe msoflmxedvelobiT. bruki, romelsac Teatris `veSapad~, `lomad~ moixsenieben, erT-erTia maT Soris, vinc Teatrs dideba moutana. es ucnauri persona gansxvavebuli kulturebis moyvarulia. vfiqrob, is XX saukunis yvelaze didi eqsperimentatoria. brukma xangrZlivi moRvaweobis manZilze Teatris istoriis yvela etapi gaiara, yvela Sre gaSifra. piter brukis erT-erTi axireba afrikaSi gamgzavreba da iqaur mcxovreblebTan erTad speqtaklis dadgma gaxldaT. gansxvavebuli auditoriis Zebna reJisorisTvis kidev erTi eqsperimenti iyo: SeZlebs Tu ara, `marsianelebs~ `alublis baRi~ ise warmoudginos, rom maTSi emocia aRZras. Tu speqtakli Sedga `... male unda warmoiSvas yvelaze mniSvnelovani ram: moTxrobili ambavis azrisa da adamianis sxeulis sinTezi. reJisori unda grZnobdes saubris rogori ritmi, rogori saxeebia misaRebi swored am konkretuli auditoriisaTvis~.1 reJisoris samxreT afrikuli avantiura gacocxlebul micvalebulze _ sabuTebis gadacemis scena, masTan erTad sulisac _ es aris kontaminaciis, daavadebis magia. ai, pirveli animizmi primitiuli rwmenisa, romelmac moulodneli asaxva pova imigraciuli politikis biurokratiul formalobaSi, roca pasporti ukve sulis identuricaa.2 `Sizwe Banzi est mort~ (`sizve banzi mokvda~) speqtakli reCitativi, speqtakli monologi _ es lirikuli, Zalian piraduli, Zalian intimuri teqstia, speqtakli ki am teqstis ironiuli gamovlineba.Ppiesis avtorebi samxreT afrikelebi arian, msaxiobebi _ habib dembele

(Abib Dembele) da vomba konga (Womba Konga) _ malidan da kongodan arian (TviTon bruki ganmartavs, rom inglisurenovani afrikelebi ar gamodgebian am saqmisaTvis, vinaidan britanulma imperiam meTodurad moaxdina ucxo kulturebis asimilacia maTTan. xolo frankofonebi yvelas aZlevdnen Tavisuflebas _ swored imas, rac Teatrs ase sWirdeba). swored amitom msaxiobebi gaoceben sakuTari organulobiT _ eseni arian zangebi TavisiATavisufali, ukompleqso, cota Senelebuli JestebiTa da mimoxvriT. gardasaxva micvalebul donorad, TiTqos, sxva samyaroSi gadasvlas, sxvis cxovrebaSi moxvedras hgavs _ es warmodgenilia, rogorc kargi anekdoti, xumroba. dgeba XXI saukune da `hamletidan~ moyolebuli (speqtakli `vin aris mand~, 2000 w.) bruki kamerul speqtaklebis dadgmas iwyebs. misi Ziebebi erT mosaxvevs, erTaderT xatebas, erTaderT ideas ukavSirdeba. is minimalisti xdeba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom bruki erT-erTia im mcirericxovan xelovanTa Soris, vinc cdilobs TeatrSi gadalaxos verbaluri mravalsityvebiani tirania da saRi azri, misi eTnografiuli miswrafebebi savsebiT gasagebia (TviT bruki werda, rom TeatrSi mas, pirvel rigSi, sxeulis Tavgadasavali ainteresebs). piesis RerZi Zveli da tradiciuli Temaa. sulis gayidva, gind 30 vercxlad gind sicocxlis fasad, ra mniSvneloba aqvs. medals ori mxare aqvs... gamarTleba yvelas moepoveba. am SemTxvevaSi sizve Tavis cxovrebas moCvenebas uyofs. es piesa 1972 wels TeTrkanianma mweralma thol fugardma da Savkanianma msaxiobebma John anim da Winston Ntshonam daweres. es aris moZravi TeatrisTvis dawerili piesa.Aes Teatraluri forma saSualebas iZleva, siciliT da moZraobiT ganmuxtos is tkivili da damcireba, romlebsac zangebi TeTrebisgan saukuneebis manZilze iRebdnen. sizve banzi erT-erTi im mravalTagania, visac afrikuli aparteidi devnida. samuSaos uflebis gareSe darCena misTvis mSobliur qalaqSi dabrunebis riskTanaa dakavSirebuli. da ai, erT dResac is gzaze mkvdars gadauvlis, romlis jibeSic pasporti devs. Tavidan sizve orWofobs, magram bolos mainc gadawyvets, sxvis tyavSi SeZvres. sizve roberti xdeba. man icis, ras tovebs, magram ar icis, ra elis.

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roca `sizve banzi mokvda~ daiwera, es problema yvela patara dasaxlebaSi mcxovrebi SavkanianisaTvis erTnairad mtkivneuli iyo. dRes mosaxleobis 80%-s pasporti, anu, pirovnebis damadasturebeli sabuTi unda hqondeT. amis gareSe adamianebi, faqtobrivad, ar arseboben. es aris oficialuri dokumenti, romelic adasturebs imas, rom am qveynad namdvilad arsebob. sizves surs iSovos samsaxuri da gamokvebos sakuTari col-Svili. is uiliamsTounSi daibada, sadac col-Svilic hyavs, magram ara aqvs samsaxuri. rogorc sxva bevr samxreTafrikels, masac primitiuli, magram sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis moTxovnebi aqvs _ gamokvebos da Semosos sakuTari ojaxi, bavSvebs misces elementaruli ganaTleba. gana, ase bevri surs? magram amisaTvis aucilebelia pasporti, romelic mas ar aqvs. da ai, uecari SemTxveva Zirfesvianad cvlis sizves cxovrebas. is iRebs micvalebulis pasports da roberti xdeba. es arakanonieri saqcielia, Tanac, Tu sizve mokvda, man uari unda Tqvas sakuTar TviTmyofadobaze, ojaxze, Temze da mTel istoriaze. rac scenaze TamaSdeba ti puri Townships-is (sityva-sityviT ­ qalaquri Teatri) Teatria: dinamikuri, saintereso da Zalian sasacilo. am konkretuli speqtaklis pirdapiri adresati mayurebelia, anu, reJisorisaTvis mniSvnelovania publikis qmedebaSi CarTva.Aamis misaRwevad damdgmeli jgufi yvela Rones xmarobs:Hhabib dembele araCveulebrivia _ is gulubryvilo, marTali da mimndobis sizavea. pitCo vomba kongosATavisi universaluri energiiT mayureblamde erTdroulad ramdenime xasiaTi moaqvs. misi gmiri mdabiosaTvis Sesaferad Tavxedia, tradiciuli komediis gonebamaxvili msaxuria, mimicaa da masxarac. es yvelaferi auditoriasTan uSualo kontaqtiT TamaSdeba. am SemTxvevaSi brukis reJisura mogvagonebs mis samxreTafrikul namuSevars.@`Le Gostume~ (kostiumi). `carieli sivrce~ bevri sagnis gamoyenebiT, xan sawarmod, xan quCad, xan fotografis studiad gardaiqmneba. es aris Teatri, romelic eyrdnoba auditoriasTan Serwymis princi ps.Qqmedeba pirdapir proporciulia warmosaxvisa, anu, aseTi ti pis TeatrSi mayurebeli ara mxolod usmens da

uyurebs, aramed fiqrobs da warmosaxvas aZlevs stimuls. es muSaobs, rogorc TamaSi msaxiobebs Soris da msaxiobsa da mayurebels Soris. es Zalian brukiseuli midgomaa: TamaSi Serwymuli realobasTan. speqtakli Zalian gvagonebs b. brextis politikur Teatrs, imavdroulad bruki Tavisi xangrZlivi SemoqmedebiT brextis tradiciebis uarmyofelia. `b. brexts SeiZleba pativi sce, rogorc dramaturgsa da reJisors, magram misi piesebis morali imdenad martivia, rom ver esadageba dRevandel ukiduresad rTul viTarebas.~3 es ganacxadi reJisorma 2005 wlis martSi gaakeTa. piter brukisATeatri TiTqos wreze brunavs. lirikuli Teatridan isev politikur Teatramde, magram yvela am mimdinareobas Teatris mTavari princi pi _ TamaSi _ aerTianebs. reJisorisTvisATeatri aris is, rac iwvevs sixaruls.ATamaSis sixaruli, mayurebelTan Serwyma, scenaze gaTamaSebuli ambiT gamowveuli sixaruli da sicili aris mTavari da mniSvnelovani. `mahabharatas~, `marat sadis~, `mefe liris~ Semqmneli reJisori koncentracias patara adamianis problemebze akeTebs. afrika _ es ideebis vulkani, mTxroblebis kontinenti,AsakuTari pirvelyofili bunebiT realuri instinqtebiT is samyaroa, sadac masStaburobas konkretulamde Zalian primitiul, magram realur gancdebamde mihyavxar. amitomac ubrundeba Teatris ZiriTad elementebs: msaxiobs, xmas, moZraobas, cariel scenas. `Tu Teatri cxovrebidan aRmocenda, maSin TviT cxovreba dgeba kiTxvis niSnis qveS~, _ werda bruki. am cxovrebis `namdvili~ cxovrebis Ziebisas aRmoaCina man afrika. misi kvlevebis `akumulatori~ afrika piterisTvisATanamoazred 1970 wlidan iqca. is erT-erTi pirveli evropeli gaxldaT, vinc iq Cavida sakuTari siaxleebiT da afrikuls, tradiciuls daewafa. swored afrikaSi gamoemSvidoba efemerulsa da ganyenebuls da pirvelyofili, xelSeuxebeli kulturis saSualebiT miagno mTavars ­ adamians, patara sixaruliTa da tkiviliT, didi vnebiTa da sikeTiT.

1. "". 03.2005 2. Margaret Croyden. Conversations with Peter Brook : 1970-200. http// mybooks.su/story/2530997.html 3."". 03.2005

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lamara RonRaZe msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis mogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSi adamianebi, romlebic saxeobriv qmedebas eweodnen, imaze gacilebiT adre gaCndnen, vidre maT wvrTna-daostatebaze fiqrs Seudgebodnen. isini saweso ritualebidan da erTmaneTis gasamxiarulebeli mibaZva-garTobis sanaxaobebidan modian. Tavdapirvelad im niWierebiT, RmerTisgan rom hqondaT boZebuli. maT daostatebaze fiqri individis, rogorc damoukideblad moqmedi piris gaCenasTan erTad Cndeba. sayovelTao-saxalxo masiurobidan individualuri Semsruleblis gamocalkevebis es procesi gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa berZnul TeatrSi. msaxiobis iseve, rogorc tragediisa Tu komediis warmoSoba dionisesadmi miZRvnil dResaswaulebs ukavSirdeba. Zveli welaRricxvis VII-VI ss. saberZneTi. dionise _ venaxisa da Rvinis kulturis damnergavi RvTaebaa, berZen RmerTTa Soris yvelaze axalgazrda da yvelaze popularuli. mas siamovnebac moaqvs da baraqac. amitomac adideben didi TavdaviwyebiT berZnebi. soflad Tu qalaqad grandiozul dResaswaulebs umarTaven yovelwliurad. mis sadidebel diTirambebs mReris yvela. gamorCeulebze jer-jerobiT niWi mianiSnebs. masiur-stiqiurobidan garkveuli sistemurobisken svlis moTxovnilebas dro aCens. Cndeba pirveli poeti a r i o n i romelmac improvizaciuli sawyisi winaswar gansazRvrul CarCoebSi moaqcia, diTirambis magivrad sagundo simRerebis Txzvas mihyo xeli. SemdegSi, dionises magivrad, realurad arsebul gmirTa gandideba da gmirTa Tavgadasavlis Txrobac daiwyes da mis Tavs gadamxdari epizodebis warmosaxvac. RvTaebis sadidebeli simReridan konkretuli gmiris Tavgadasavlis Txrobaze da calkeuli epizodebis warmosaxvaze gadasvlam bunebrivad warmoSva moTxovnileba adamianisa, romelic sadidebel gmirs ganasaxierebda. rogorc gvamcnoben, aseT ganmasaxiereblad pirvelad, 534 wels, dionises dResaswaulze poeti Tespide mogvevlina. meore tragikosi poeti esqilec, romelmac oramde gazarda msaxiobis ricxvi, Tavadve TamaSobda

mTavar moqmed gmirebs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom msaxiobis damoukidebel profesiad qcevis procesi sofoklesTan mTavrdeba. mis mier gamoyvanil sam msaxiobSi protagonisti _ mTavari moqmedi gmiris Semsrulebeli, ukve profesionali msaxiobia. poeti tragikosebi ki msaxiobTa wvrTna-daostatebas hkideben xels. Teatraluri ganaTlebis pirveli profesiuli saswavlebeli Cv. w.-mde I saukuneSi romSi Seiqmna. misi damaarsebelia cnobili romaeli komikosi msaxiobi da imxanad didad aRiarebuli Teatraluri pedagogi kvintus galus rosciusi (130-62 ww.). saswavlebelmac swored ase `rosciusis skolis~ saxeliT moaRwia Cvenamde. deklamaciis xelovneba mas TviT ciceronisaTvis uswavlebia, romelic Turme didad afasebda mis xelovnebas. didi romaeli poet horaciusis (65-8 ww.) mowmobiT, rosciuss sascenosa da oratoruli xelovnebis Sesaxeb traqtati, anu saxelmZRvaneloc, Seuqmnia. aRmosavleTis qveynebidan Teatraluri saswavleblebis arseboba yvelaze adre, VIII saukunidan, CineTSia dafiqsirebuli. aRorZinebis epoqam antikuri Teatrebis gamocdileba msaxiobis aRzrdis TvalsazrisiTac aaRorZina. msaxiobebis aRzrdas TeatrebSi dramaturgebi da ukve cnobili da gamocdili msaxiobebi uZRvebodnen. evropuli qveynebis Teatraluri pedagogikis ganviTarebaSi, didi wvlili aqvT saskolo TeatrebSi momuSave pedagogebs. Teatraluri pedagogikis ganviTareba ki gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobia klasicizmis periodSi, rac didad iyo ganpirobebuli imiT, rom misi esTetika mtkiced gansazRvrul kanonebs emorCileboda. Teatraluri saswavleblebis ganskuTrebuli siuxviT gamoirCeva XIX s.-is dasawyisis evropa da ruseTi. aq axali Teatrebis warmoSoba-ganviTareba dRis wesrigSi TavisTavad ayenebs saTeatro xelovnebis swavlebis profesiuli kerebis raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi zrdis moTxovnilebas. XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi reJisoris, rogorc damoukidebeli profesiis, gaCenisas bevri ram Secvala saTeatro ganaTlebis TvalsazrisiTac. msaxiobTa aRzrda-daostatebis saqme dramaturgebidan da msaxiobebidan reJisorebma gadaibares. amas isini warmatebiT axorcielebdnen, rogorc Teatralur saswavleblebSi, ise TeatrSi repeticiebze.

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msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis mogvarebis gzebi Zvel saqarTveloSi

saqarTveloSic Teatraluri ganaTlebis profesiuli keris daarseba swored reJisorebis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli. manamde, anu XX saukunis dasawyisamde, SeiZleba vilaparakoT msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis sxvadasxva gzasa da saSualebaze. msaxiobis xelovnebis aRmniSvneli Zveli qarTuli terminebia: `maxiobeli~ da `msaxiobeli~. trifon ruxaZis cnobiT, `maxiobeli~ iSviaTad, magram mainc mxolod uZveles qarTul ZeglebSia moxseniebuli. sayovelTao xmarebaSi ZiriTadad ufro `msaxiobelia~ SemorCenili. amasTan, yofilan, rogorc `saRmrTo saxiobelni~, anu saeklesio, ise `msaxiobelni soflisani~, anu saero msaxiobni. xolo, Tavad `saxioba Zveli mwerlebis rwmeniT, iyo `xelovnebai~, romelsac `xelovanT moZRvari hyavda~. (1_29). es cnoba gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasia CvenTvis, radgan gvimowmebs, rom iyvnen isinic, vinc msaxiobobas `swavlobda, inaxavda da amdidrebda~ da isinic, vinc aswavlida, wvrTnida, aostatebda. am mimarTulebiT warmarTuli kvleva-Zieba ki imasac adasturebs, rom qarTuli TeatrSi, msaxiobTa aRzrdis sxvadasxva forma arsebobda. iyvnen TviTnaswavlebic, arsebobda msaxiobTa ojaxuri aRzrdis tradiciac, ostatebic wvrTnidnen da iyvnen `Teatronsa Sina aRzrdilnic~. kacobriobis mTeli istoria, albaT, TavisTavad aris T v i Ts r u l y o f i s , Tv i T a R z r d i s u w y v e ti p r o c e s i , pirvelyofilebidan umaRlesi civilizaciisken swrafvaSi rom poulobs gamoxatulebas. am gzaze kacobriobis aRmzrdelmaswavlebeli iyo misive gamocdileba da is codna, ukeTesi arsebobisaTvis brZolaSi rom ugrovdeboda. TviTswavleba gulisxmobs garkveuli saqmianobis mimarT gansakuTrebul interess, danaxulisa da gagonilis gaTavisebis survilsa da muSaobis procesSi dagrovili codna-gamocdilebis gamdidrebisaTvis Tavdauzogav zrunvas. Tu ramdenad nayofieri iyo swavlebis es forma, isic adasturebs, rom mudmivi qarTuli Teatric swored TviTnaswavlma adamianebma aRadgines. am Teatris sulisCamdgmelTa saukeTeso skola praqtika, TviTdakvirvebaze damyarebuli daskvnebi da TviTwvrTna iyo. uZveles qarTul TeatrSi msaxiobTa ojaxebSi aRzrdis gzac arsebobda. safiqrebelia, rom es iyo yvelaze efeqturi

gza, radgan momavali msaxiobis bavSvoba misi mSoblebisa da maT TanamoRvaweTa saqmianobiT gansazRvrul atmosferoSi mimdinareobda da specialur wvrTnasTan erTad maTi yoveldRiuri saqmianobis yurebiTac iZenda codnis garkveul marags. momavali msaxiobis garSemo bunebrivad iyo Seqmnili garemo, sadac yvelaferi dakavSirebuli iyo mSoblebis saqmianobasTan, awvdida informacias mis Sesaxeb da avsebda mis codnas. rasakvirvelia, maswavleblebi, romlebic Tavadve iyvnen saukeTeso Semsruleblebi, ojaxis wevrebis garda sxvebsac zrdidnen. berikaoba-yeenobis monawileTa ricxvi xSirad asamde aRwevda, maSasadame, misi organizatorebi ojaxis, Tundac mravalricxovani, magram mainc gansazRvruli raodenobis imedad ver iqnebodnen. savaraudoa, rom ostatebi ara marto erT, sxvadasxva sofelSic eZebdnen, agrovebdnen da wvrTnidnen am saqmisaTvis gamosadeg, niWier axalgazrdebs. `moZRvari yrmasa yovliTa saxiobiTa da musikiTa aswavebda; swrafl swavlobda, mciresa xanSi ostats gardaemata: mgosnobisa da saxiobisa oinebi sxvadasxva rigi gardaaWarba~... (1_79). ufro metic, Zveli qarTuli Teatris mkvlevar dimitri janeliZes miaCnia, rom, `XVII_XVIII saukuneebSi saxiobis SemsrulebelTa swavlebis saqmiT daintereseba imdenad didi iyo, rom mis mogvarebas saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvneloba eZleoda... mefis sasaxlis karis sanaRaroSi dadasturebuli gvaqvs amqruli wesiT _ ostatebTan Segirdebis mimagrebiT _ memusikeTa swavla-momzadeba~ (2_183). imas, rom qarTvelebs imTaviTve Segnebuli hqondaT Teatraluri xelovnebis swavlebis saWiroeba da rom Zvel saqarTveloSi mefe-didebulTa karze imyofeboda ostati an moZRvari, romelsac yrmebis gawvrTna evaleboda am mimarTulebiT, daviT reqtoric gvimowmebs Tavis poema-xotbaSi `cxovreba leon batoniSvilisa~ _ `irakli mefis am Rirseul da saxelovan memkvidres muSaiToba-asparezobis xelovneba swavliT, gamocdilebiT da xSiri varjiSobiT hqonda SeZenilio~ (1_84). rac Seexeba `Teatronsa Sina aRzrdilT~, rasakvirvelia, TeatrSi vinme rom aRezardaT, pirvel rigSi, Teatri unda arsebuliyo. sityvas `Teatroni~ sulxan-saba orbeliani ase

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ganm artavs _ `Tiatro (uc x.) sa xedvel i. ese ars zRudeSemovlebuli, Sua adgili samRerel-sarokavi da garemos mWureteli sadgomi, sadac stanjvidian mowameTa~. xolo, rac Seexeba Tavad sityvas `Teatroni~, trifon ruxaZis mowmobiT, `qarTul wyaroebSi pirvelad VI saukuneSi abibos nekreselisa da Sio mRvimelis `wameba-cxovrebis~ momTxrob ZeglebSi~ gvxvdeba. saqarTveloSi msaxiobis aRzrdis uZvelesi kera rom Teatric iyo, gvafiqrebinebs, rom Teatris arseboba saqarTveloSi antikur epoqaSivea dadasturebuli. prokopi kesarielis (VI s. istorikosi) mixedviT, `kolxeTis qalaqi afsaru... (amJamindeli sarfi. l. R.), Zvelad mravalricxovani yofila. mas garSemo uvlida mravali kedeli da Semkuli iyo TeatriTa da i podromiT da mas mravali sxva ramec hqonda, rac Cveulebriv qalaqis sididis momaswavebelia. amJamad iqidan sxva araferia darCenili, garda naSenobaTa saZirkvelisa~ (3_32). Cveni Teatris mkvlevrebi uZveles saqarTveloSi Teatris arsebobis faqts kolxeTis ganTqmul akademiasac ukavSireben, sadac ritorikis xelovnebas euflebodnen da filosofias swavlobdnen qarTveli da ucxoeli axalgazrdebi. `mowmoba imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor maRal dones aRwevs kolxTa wvrTna xelovnebaSi, rogor imarjvebdnen isini elinur dReobebze, aris agreTve arapirdapiri dadastureba kolxeTSi Teatraluri xelovnebis ganviTarebisa... gimnasionebsa da umaRles skolebSi, saswavlo mizniT, warmodgenebi imarTeboda... kanonebis Seswavla mimdinareobda Teatralur tansacmelSi. skolis damTavrebulTa gamoSvebisas imarTeboda speqtaklebi~... (4_140, 141). d. janeliZes mikvleuli aqvs agreTve Zalze saintereso cnoba imis Sesaxeb rom `giorgi mTawmindelis `did qvnaqsarSi~ aqtior porfiris Sesaxeb naTqvamia: aRzrdili iyo TeatronTa Sina mgosnobasaTa da sxvaTa memRereTa kicxevasa da basrobasa da ese viTarTa amaT gancxromaTa da mimosobaTa Sina uaRres iyo yovelTa sworTa~ (4_140, 141). dRes ukve damtkicebulia isic, rom `daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamaris dros naWarmagevSi arsebobda `saTamaSo saxli~. Tamaris pirveli istorikosi gadmogvcems: 1161 wels daapires dakarguli anisis ukan dabruneba, `xolo cna ese mefeman

mefeTaman naWarmagevsa saxlsa saTamaSosa Sina~ (1_74). Tu iyo Senoba, maSasadame, iyvnen moTamaSenic da is adamianebic, vinc maT am saqmisaTvis wvrTnida da aostatebda. qarTveli poetebica da mefe-poetebic msaxiobobas iseT saqmed miiCnevdnen, romelsac wvrTna da daxelovneba unda. rusTaveli pirdapir aTqmevinebs fridons: `Cemsa simcrosa aRmzrdelni samuSaiTod mzrdidian, maswavlnes maTni saqmeni, maxltunebdian, mwvrTidian...~ amasTan miCneulia, rom qarTvel msaxiobTa aRzrdis saqmeSi garkveul funqcias is kavSirurTierTobebic asrulebdnen, romelic saqarTvelosa da sxva qveynebs Soris arsebobda. kulturaTa gacvlis, urTierTgamdidrebis procesi yvela sferoze Tu vrceldeboda, rasakvirvelia, igi Teatralur xelovnebazec gavrceldeboda. korneli kekeliZes mikvleuli aqvs cnoba saqarTveloSi egvi ptidan akrobat-muSaiTTa Camosvlis Sesaxeb. amas garda `arCilis dros (XVII s.) saqarTveloSi sagastrolod Camosula viRac indoeli jambazi. yvelas moswonebia misi TamaSi. arCili ambobs: `inatres bevrman vaJebman: `neta, vin es maswavlao! misi sificxe, simale, ise Tamamad wavlao~. magram is Savi ar dadga, aravis ar aswavlao, da mizezi es Tqva: `mwadian sul xelmwifebis davlao~ (1_70). am TvalsazrisiT Zalze sainteresoa naTela uruSaZis mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom `jer kidev XIII saukunidan moedineboda evropidan Cvenken ara marto kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis ideebi, aramed evropuli kulturis sioc. es ideebi CamohqondaT, rogorc kaTolike misionerebs, ise im qarTvelebs, romelTac swavla romis kolegiebSi hqondaT miRebuli. xuT saukunes grZeldeboda es procesi, gansakuTrebiT momZlavrda igi XVIII saukuneSi~. sazRvargareT mogzaurobdnen qarTvelebic. magaliTad, 1459 wels nikoloz Tbilelsa da qasadan yarCexans umogzauriaT ungreTSi, germaniasa, italiasa da safrangeTSi. safrangeTSi daswrebian ludoviko XI gamefebis ceremonials. `mogzaurebma:

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iona gedevaniSvilma, gabriel ratiSvilma, nikoloz onikaSvilma, giorgi onikaSvilma, giorgi avaliSvilma, grigol batoniSvilma da gaioz reqtorma dagvitoves cnobebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori STabeWdileba moaxdines maTzed ucxourma Teatralurma sanaxaobebma~ (1 _64). sainteresoa, rom swored qarTuli profesiuli Teatris erT-erT fuZemdebel gaioz reqtors uTargmnia rusulidan 1776 wels frangi mogzauris karl ludovis, anu, `baron-depolicas mimosvla~. am wignis meSveobiT qarTvel mkiTxvels saSualeba eZleoda, sakmaod saintereso cnobebs gascnoboda romis, neapolis, lionis, marselis, genuis, bavariis, venis, londonisa da sxva qalaqebis Teatrebis Sesaxeb. garkveuli informacia mieRo iqauri `akteris moqmedebasa~ Tu komediis Sesrulebis xelovnebaze. saqarTveloSi profesiuli Teatris daarsebasa (1791-1795 ww.) da misTvis kadrebis aRzrdis saqmeSi gadamwyveti roli iTamaSes saskolo-saeklesio Teatrebma, romelic, Tavis mxriv, jer Tbilisisa da Semdeg Telavis sasuliero seminariebis bazaze arsebobdnen. saskolo-saeklesio Teatrebi evropaSi XV s. gaCnda, ruseTSi ­ XVII s. saqarTveloSi ­ XVIII s. saskolo Teatrebi sasuliero saswavleblebSi laTinuri enis swavlebis gaadvilebis mizniT iqmnebodnen. aRsazrdelebi warmoadgendnen laTinur enaze daweril saskolo dramebs. amave enaze dawerili teqstebiT xdeboda deklamaciis xelovnebis swavlebac. amiT eklesia erTgvarad Tavis samsaxurSi ayenebda imas, rac SeiZleba cdunebad qceuliyo. safiqrebelia, rom am xerxs miT ufro didi xalisiT gamoiyenebdnen qarTveli saeklesio moRvaweni. amis mtkicebis safuZvels maZlevs is garemoebac, rom maSin, rodesac X_XII saukunidan moyolebuli saqarTveloSi Teatralur sanaxaobaTa winaaRmdeg mimarTuli gansakuTrebuli kritikuli simZafriT gamorCeuli mravali Targmnili Zegli Cndeba, arc erT originalur qarTul ZeglSi Teatris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli uxerxuli gamonaTqvamis kvalic ki arsad Cans. is, rom qarTuli eklesia ara Tu loialurad ganwyobili, profesiuli Teatris daarsebisaTvis aqtiurad mebrZolic iyo, is, rom samefo karica da eklesiis ganswavluli nawilic

aserigad iyo dainteresebuli Teatris SeqmniTa da msaxiobTa wvrTna-aRzrdiT, SemTxveviTi ar iyo. qarTuli Teatri mosvenebasa da nebivrobaSi ar Sobila, raTa mxolod salaRobod da dros gasatareblad arsebuliyo. mas yovelTvis didi socialuri da erovnuli funqcia hqonda dakisrebuli da yoveli qarTveli, mefe iqneboda is Tu eklesiis winamZRoli, meomari Tu artisti, mamulisaTvis msaxurebis mowamebrivi misiis valiT iyo daRdasmuli. amitomaa, rom erekle II sasaxlis karis Teatris daarsebas samefo karis aristokratiasTan erTad saeklesio moRvaweebic edgnen saTaveSi, Tavad anton I kaTalikosis winamZRolobiT. anton I (1720 _1788), eriskacobaSi Teimuraz bagrations, SviliSvils erekle mefisa, exmarebodnen misi mowafeebi dosiTeoz CerqeziSvil-nekreseli, Tbilisis seminariis pirveli reqtori, filosofosi filipe yaiTmazaSvili da mRvdeli ioseb amiriZe, romelsac `qeSiS-dardimands~, anu `xumara mRvdels~, eZaxdnen. calke unda movixsenioT seminariis reqtorebi: daviT aleqsi-mesxiSvili (1745-1824), mecnieri, mwignobari, pedagogi. mas agreTve moixsenieben, rogorc `xumara komiks, masxara filosofoss~, `cukia _ masxaras~, romelic piesebsac Targmnida, Tavadac siamovnebiT TamaSobda da seminariel axalgazrdebsac wvrTnida. maT mier wakiTxuli leqsebisa da warmodginili speqtaklebis repertuari dRemdea moRweuli. da gaioz reqtori, mkvlevarTa azriT, baraTaSvil-TayaiSvili (1746_1821), agreTve mecnieri, literatori, mTargmneli, pedagogi, di plomati. damTavrebuli hqonda moskovis slavurberZnul-laTinuri akademia. mis mier Seqmnil Telavis seminariis wesdebaSi pirdapir iyo miTiTebuli, rom `seminaristebs neba eZleodaT, kviraSi erTxel daswrebodnen `komedias an sxva raime saCino TamaSobaTa~ (1_111). safiqrebelia, rom Tbilisisa (1755_1795 ww.) da Telavis (1782-1801 ww.) seminariebi erTgvarad agrZelebdnen im tradiciebs, kolxeTis akademiaSi rom Caeyara safuZveli. am seminariebSic iseve, rogorc kolxeTis akademiaSi, erT-erTi ZiriTadi sagani ritorikis xelovneba iyo. eWvi ar aris, rom anton I kaTalikosi, romlis mier Sedgenili programiTac ikiTxeboda seminariebSi `ritoroba~, anu sityvierebis Teoria,

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misi Sedgenis dros im codnasTan erTad, Tanadrouli rusuli Tu evropuli sasceno xelovnebis Sesaxeb rom gaaCnda, uTuod gaiTvaliswinebda qarTuli kulturis mdidar gamocdilebasa da uZveles tradiciebs. anton I kaTalikosis SemweobiT seminariebSi xSirad ewyoboda deklamaciebi da disputebi. seminarielebs agreTve SeeZloT `dakrua muzikurisa iaraRisa~, `Seqceva patiosnebiTa TamaSobiTa~ da... `orgzis weliwadsa Sina anu umetes qmna romlisame moqmedebisa, baasisa, komediisa da ritorulis gamocdilebisa~ (1_82). rac Seexeba saTeatro xelovnebaSi Tanadrouli msoflios miRwevebs, mkvlevrebi Tvlian, rom XVIII saukunis qarTveli mwerlebi, pirvel rigSi, Targmnidnen yvelafer imas, rac aRiarebuli iyo `rosiasa da evropiasa Sina~ (1_147), rom qarTuli profesiuli Teatris Semqmnelebi `...cdilobdnen mxari aebaT evropuli da rusuli Teatrebis SemoqmedebiTi miswrafebebisaTvis _ daenergaT klasicizmi, im drois wamyvani SemoqmedebiTi meTodi~ (6_19). naTela uruSaZe am saqmeSi gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs giorgi avaliSvilisa da daviT ColoyaSvilis wvlils. giorgi avaliSvili (1769-1850) gaxldaT mwerali, dramaturgi da politikur moRvawe, mogzauri. moskovSi ganswavluli. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi iyo qarTl-kaxeTis sa mefos w arm om adg eneli ru seTSi , xol o qar Tu li kulturisaTvis gaweul mis ganusazRvrel Rvawlze is garemoebac miuTiTebs, rom 1791_1795 ww. arsebul pirvel qarTul profesiul Teatrs istorikosebi moixsenieben, rogorc av al iSv ili s Tea tr s . Teatrze fiqri da qarTveli sazogadoebisTvis sxvagan arsebuli Teatrebis Sesaxeb cnobebis miwodeba mas erekle meoris sasaxlis karze arsebuli profesiuli Teatris daxurvis Semdegac ar Seuwyvetia. Tavis 1819_1820 wlebis mogzaurobis CanawerebSi igi qarTvel mkiTxvels mouTxrobda sazRvargareT nanaxi i podromis Teatrebis Sesaxeb. daviT ColoyaSvili (1735-1810) iyo erekle II mdivanbegi, poeti, dramaturgi, mTargmneli. ganaTleba masac ruseTSi hqonda miRebuli. kargad icnobda berZnul miTologias.

qarTuli Teatris erT-erT mkvlevar trifon ruxaZes, mravali mikvleuli sabuTi imis mtkicebis safuZvels aZlevs, rom `iraklis dros CvenSi kargad icnobdnen franguli klasicisturi `Stilis~ kanonebs~ (1_146). da, maSasadame, iyenebdnen kidec msaxiobis xelovnebis Sesaxeb arsebul im literaturas, romelic im droisTvis arsebobda romelime evropulsa Tu rusul enaze. is, rom qarTuli profesiuli Teatris daarseba swored klasicizms daemTxva, im drois moRvaweT mniSvnelovnad uadvilebda msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis amocanas. msgavs literaturaSi xom TiTqmis zedmiwevniT iyo miTiTebuli, Tu ra da rogor unda Seesrulebina msaxiobs, rogori mimoxvra Tu sxvadasxva grZnobis gamoxatvisTvis xmis rogori modulacia iyo saWiro. magaliTad, `siyvaruli moiTxovs naz, vnebian xmas; siZulvili _ mkacrsa da mkveTrs; bedniereba _ msubuqs, mRelvares; mrisxaneba _ momTxovn, swraf, daunawevrebel metyvelebas; gakvirveba _ SeZrul, moCurCule, Zlivs gasagons; daCivleba _ myvirala, Wirveul, tanjul xmas~ da a. S. (f. lange `gansja scenur TamaSze~, 1727). klasicizmi laTinuri warmoSobis sityvaa da sanimuSos niSnavs. nimuSi da etaloni am mimarTulebis damnergvelTaTvis antikuri qmnilebebi iyo. qarTuli Teatris damaarsebelTaTvis ki Tavad Teatri unda yofiliyo. amasTanave, klasicizmis erTerTi fundamenturi moTxovna gonebas ebatona grZnobaze da grZnoba movaleobas damorCileboda, rom pirad interess ar unda daejabna sazogadoebrivi, zedmiwevniT exmianeboda im zneobriv idealebs, romelsac Teatrs usaxavdnen misi Semqmneli qarTveli moRvaweni. dRes Zneli ar aris imis varaudi, rom dasclodaT, rogor gadawyvetdnen qarTuli Teatris moRvaweni msaxiobis aRzrdis problemas, magram ar dascaldaT. qarTulma Teatrma 1795 wels krwanisis velze daasrula Tavisi arseboba. pirveli qarTuli profesiuli Teatris msaxiobTa dasis moqalaqeobriv Segnebasa, zneobriv simaRlesa da samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebaze ki mogviTxrobs Teimuraz batoniSvili: `kvalad mcxovrebTagan tfilisisaTa gamorCeul iqmnes kacni mamacni da marjveni, romelTaca aRirCies winamZRvarad Tvisad kacni vinme msaxiobi

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(romelsac sazandrad uxmoben). ese iyo erTi warCinebulTa mesakraveTa da msaxiobTagan mefisaTa, musiki da komedianti. da ese iyo ufrosi msaxiobTa da cnobili iyo samefosa saxlsa Sina. es iyo gvareulobiTa da sarwmunoebiTaca qarTveli, romelsac saxelad debden maCabelad. ese miuZRva gundsa mas tfiliselTasa mterTa mimarT. da epyra xelTa misTa barbiTi, e. i. daira, da ukravda mas zeda Sadiansa, e. i. xmasa mas, romelsaca lxinsa Sina daukvren Jamsa Sina umetes sixarulisasa, vinaidan xmai ese ganamxiarulebs msmenelTa. xolo mebrZolni ese iyvnes mkvircxlni da mimarTes qveiTTa amaT da brZodes mterTa ficxelad da SeerTda gundica ese gundsa mas fSav-xevsurTa, aragvelTa da qiziyelTasa. da hyves maT ataka mterTa mimarT da miiwivnes vidreve droSebamde aRa-mahmad-xanisa, da mistacnes droSani raodenime mxedrobaTa aRamahmad-xanisa, da mravalni sparsTaganni moswyitnes winaSe missa. ixila ra aRa-mahmad-xanma simxne ese viTari qarTvelTa xedrobisa, gankvirda friad da ityoda: `siyrmiTagan CemiT vidre aqamomde damiyofies brZolasa Sina da arasodes mixilavs me winaaRmdegni viTar ese kacni Cemda momarT hyofen brZolasa~. maCabelas gundi Seewirnes sayvarelsa mamulsa Tvissa... saxelovnad dasTxivnes sisxlni Tvisni~... (1_111,112). pirveli qarTuli profesiuli Teatris daxurvasTan erTad mTavrdeba qarTuli profesiuli Teatrisa da masTan erTad msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis gzebis Ziebis erTi etapi. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi ruseTi didi xniT daeufla saqarTvelos. qarTuli samefos gauqmebidan, naxevari saukune mainc gaivlis, vidre ruseTis imperiis mmarTvel wreebSi momwifdeba azri, rom `...maT batonobas erTgvari kulturuli zemoqmedebac unda xleboda, rasac politikuri damorCilebis kompensacia unda gaewia~ (5_236), Tumca saqarTvelos sazRvrebs miRma arsebuli Teatrebisadmi interesi ar ganelebula. aziisa da evropis rigi Teatrebis Sesaxeb saubrobs iona gedevaniSvili 1805_1810 wlebSi daweril Tavis wignSi: `mimosvla anu mogzauroba~... grigol ioanes Ze batoniSvili 1815 wels evropaSi mogzaurobis Tavis STabeWdilebebSi, mniSvnelovan adgils uTmobs nanaxi Teatrebis Sesaxeb Txrobas. amas garda `1800-ian wlebis

ruseTSi, kerZod ki voroneJ moskovSi, mowyobil sanaxaobebs gabriel ratiSvili da nikoloz onikaSvili aRweren~ (1_66). rac CvenTvis yvelaze sayuradReboa, gabriel ratiSvili aqve dawvrilebiT mimoixilavs im periodis ruseTSi momuSave qarTveli msaxiobebisa da jambazebis xelovnebas. vfiqrob, msgavsi publikaciebi Taviseburad amzadebda da saxavda rogorc profesiuli Teatris aRdgenis, ise msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis gadawyvetis Semdgom perspeqtivas. msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis mogvarebis axali gzebis Zieba qarTuli profesiuli Teatris morig etapsa da didi qarTveli komediografis, giorgi erisTavis, saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli. XIX s. 40-iani wlebis Sua xanebSi saqarTveloSi movlinebulma axalma mefisnacvalma mixeil voroncovma daiwyo ra Teatris aRdgenisaTvis zrunva, misi organizacia da xelmZRvaneloba daavala im dros ukve cnobil dramaturgs, `qarTvel molierad~ wodebul giorgi erisTavs. giorgi erisTavi (1813_1864) gaxldaT dramaturgi, poeti, mTargmneli, 1850 wels qarTuli profesiuli Teatris aRmdgeneli, xelmZRvaneli, reJisori, msaxiobi da, rac mTavaria, msaxiobTa aRmzrdeli da maswavlebeli. ganaTleba miRebuli hqonda Tbilisis keTilSobilTa saswavlebelsa da moskovSi, kerZo pansionSi. 1832 wels dapatimrebul iqna `mamulis gamoxsnis SeTqmaSi~ monawileobis gamo. 1834-1842 wlebSi gadasaxlebuli iyo poloneTSi. msaxurobda iqaur qveiT diviziaSi. poloneTSi yofnisas mas saSualeba hqonda, kargad Seeswavla polonuri ena, literatura, Teatri. msaxiobTa aRzrdis mimarTulebiT mis warmatebul praqtikaze miuTiTebs is gamoxmaurebebi, romelic mis mier dadgmul pirvelive speqtakl `gayras~ mohyva _ `piesis Sinaarsi da saqmis viTarebis wvrilmanebi maTTvisac ki gasagebi xdeba, vinc qarTuli erTi sityvac ar ician. amas isini gaigeben gansacvifrebelis mimikisa, bunebrivi TamaSisa da diqciis saSualebiT. erTi sityviT, `gayra~ ise iyo gaTamaSebuli, rogorc SeeZloT SeesrulebiaT mxolod yvelaze ufro gamocdil, yvelaze ufro niWier msaxiobebs~ (7_#5).

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pirvel warmodgenas mohyva meore _ 1850 wlis 3 maiss g. erisTavma `maneJis TeatrSi~ kvlav scenismoyvareebTan erTad warmoadgina Tavisi meore komedia `dava~. radgan moqmed pirTa raodenoba am komediaSi gacilebiT metia, winandel moTamaSeebs sxvebic daematnen da ukve TiTqmis ocamde Semsruleblis wvrTna mouxdeboda erisTavs. am or warmodgenas Soris arsebuli Sualedi ki, TiTqmis xuTi Tve, miuTiTebs imaze, Tu ramdenad seriozulad ekideboda igi msaxiobebis momzadebis saqmes. g. erisTavs Teatris aRdgenisas, momxreTa garda, mowinaaRmdegeebic hyavda. maT Soris yvelaze aqtiur-agresiulebi iyvnen: platon ioseliani da revaz erisTavi. Teatri `meZavkuroobas gaamravlebso~, _ amtkicebdnen. giorgi erisTavis araCveulebriv taqtianobas, adamianebTan kontaqtis damyarebis gansakuTrebul niWierebasa da pedagogiur-aRmzrdelobiT alRoianobaze miuTiTebs is faqti, rom meore warmodgenaSi orive maTgani monawileobda!.. saerTod, am or speqtaklSi giorgi erisTavis uaxloesi naTesavebi da nacnob-megobrebi TamaSobdnen, gansxvavebiT Semdgomi wlebisagan. saqarTveloSi msaxiobis aRzrdis istoriisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania giorgi erisTavis moRvaweobis swored is Semdgomi periodi, roca man Tavisi Teatris momavali msaxiobebi gorsa da mis Semogaren soflebSi Seagrova da maT swavlebas Seudga. dokumenturi masala, Tu ra princi piT arCevda maT, ar gvaqvs. ZiriTadi kriteriumi, albaT, maTi niWiereba da saqmis siyvaruli iyo. amasTan, mas kargad esmoda, rom arc dro iyo da arc saSualeba imisa, jer kadrebi aRezardaT da mxolod amis Semdeg Sesdgomodnen praqtikul saqmianobas. es erTdroulad unda momxdariyo. `giorgi erisTavma msaxiobebi waiyvana Tavis sofel xidisTavSi da iq dauwyo wvrTna da Seudga speqtaklebis samzadiss. is axalgazrda msaxiobebs acnobda sasceno xelovnebis mniSvnelobas, paralelurad gadioda repeticiebs. aseTi muSaoba gagrZelda Semodgomis damlevamde, TiTqmis 5-6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi. g. erisTavma dasi TbilisSi Camoiyvana, daabinava da ganagrZo muSaoba. amrigad, pirveli qarTuli saTeatro studia g. erisTavma moawyo Tavis sofel xidisTavSi~ (8_76, 77).

amasve adasturebs erisTavis Teatris mematiane, misive speqtaklebis piruTvneli Teatraluri kritikosi mixeil birTvelis Ze TumaniSvili: `Tavadi erisTavi, romelic, uwinares yovlisa, poetia... kidev bevrs gvpirdeba da eWvs ar iwvevs, rom Seasrulebs. msaxiob vaJebis: jafariZis, dvanaZis, korZaiasa da msaxiob qalis tatiSvilis saxiT mas hyavs uaRresad moxdenili Semsrulebelni sceniuri xelovnebisa. xolo msaxiob antonovis saxiT ki _ niWieri da gulmodgine dramaturgi. yvela iseni erisTavis mier aris aRzrdili. eWvi ar aris, rom igi maT kidev metad gawvrTnis, uCvenebs maT Secdomebs da misi gamosworebis saSualebas~ (9_90). Semodgomaze xidisTavidan msaxiobebTan erTad TbilisSi gadmosul g. erisTavs sezoni maSinve ar gauxsnia. garkveuli dr ois g anm avl oba Si kv lav gu lm odg ined m uS aob da axalgazrdebTan da `darwmunda ra imaSi, rom isini ukve gacnobili arian scenis umTavres pirobebs, SeZlo scenaze maTi gamoSveba. es iyo gabeduli da yoCaRuri nabiji, rac maSinve sakmao warmatebiT dagvirgvinda~... (9_10). g. erisTavi rogorc xidisTavSi, ise TbilisSi msaxiobebs ZiriTadad sakuTar saxlSi amecadinebda, repeticiebic iqve hqondaT. bevr maTgans ki acxovrebda kidec. amiT, etyoba, ara marto Teatrze gulis acruebisgan, yovelgvari arasasurveli gavlenisagan icavda maT. `g. erisTavi TeatrSi muSaobis dawyebis msurvelT da TviT msaxiobebs Zlier Tavazianad epyroboda. yovelnair zomebs Rebulobda, dasSi yofiliyo disci plina, msaxiobebi amaRlebuliyvnen zneobrivad... scenaze ar Separuliyo garyvnileba da msaxiobebs hqonodaT iseTi Sexeduleba, rom Teatri aris umaRlesi kulturuli dawesebuleba, romelic emsaxureba adamianTa zneobis ganspetakebas da gonebriv amaRlebas~... giorgi erisTavis Teatraluri eTikis Sesaxeb werilobiTi dokumenti ar dautovebia, arc misi repeticiebisa Tu saubrebis Canawerebi mogvepoveba. Teatraluri eTikis Taviseul princi pebs igi Tavisi Teatris yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi nergavda. am mxriv fasdaudebelia misi erT-erTi wamyvani msaxiobis, giorgi dvanaZis, leqsad dawerili avtobiografia `siymawvilidan Cemi cxovreba~. masSi kargad Cans, rogori mkacri da daundobeli

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iyo imaT mimarT, vinc daapirebda zneobrivi normebis farglebs gascdenoda. giorgi erisTavi realizmis damamkvidrebelia qarTul literaturasa da TeatrSi. igia qarTul scenaze kritikulad gaazrebuli cxovrebiseulad marTali xelovnebis damnergavi, rogorc dramaturgi, reJisori da, rac mTavaria, msaxiobTa aRmzrdeli. misi Teatris faseuloba imiTac ganisazRvreba, rom misi da misi msaxiobebis mier Tanadroul yoveldRiurobaSi arsebuli mankierebebis Cveneba-gamasxaraveba sicilTan erTad sagangaSo, tragikuli perspeqtivis eqosac gamoscemda. giorgi erisTavis Teatris arseboba, misi winamorbedis msgavsad, xanmokle gamodga. sul eqvsi weli _ 1850-dan 1856 wlamde arsebobda. profesiuli Teatris arsebobis SewyvetasTan erTad, rasakvirvelia, droebiT, magram mainc Sewyda msaxiobis aRzrdis problemis gadaWris gzebis Ziebac.

laSa CxartiSvili msaxiobisa da reJisoris sinTezis safuZvlis sakiTxisTvis XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi (Seqspiris `mefe liris~ magaliTze) XX saukunis 30-iani wlebis bolos droebiT Sewyda qarTuli reJisuris universalizmis xana. TeatrSi lideri kvlav msaxiobi gaxda, romelic tradiciulad cdilobda ecada Tavisi Zalebi reJisuraSi. `me-19 saukunis didi msaxiobebisagan (v. abaSiZe, l. mesxiSvili, k. yifiani, k. mesxi da sxvebi) gansxvavebiT axal Taobis msaxiobebi (a. vasaZe, a. xorava, u. CxeiZe, v. anjafariZe) ufro Rrmad iyvnen garkveulni reJisuris arsSi. isini aRizardnen marjaniSvilis da axmetelis universaluri da sinTeturi Teatris princi pebze, amitom gasagebia maTi cduneba, reJisoris profesiac SeeTvisebinaT~ (1; gv. 47), magram `tradiciaTa restavracia~ sruliad axal politikur da socialur garemoSi mimdinareobda. am Taobis msaxiobTa lideri akaki vasaZe iyo. msaxiobTa Semdgomi Taobebi daavadda e. w. `vasaZis kompleqsiT~, raSic igulisxmeboda msaxiobTaAmiswrafeba reJisorobisaken. msaxiobTagan es `saqme~ yvelaze ukeT a. vasaZes gamosdioda. XX saukunis 30-iani wlebis bolos da 40-iani wlebis dasawyisSi kidev ufro gaZlierda cenzura TeatrSi. Teatris moRvaweebs, Sesabamisad, gamoumuSavdaT TviTcenzuris mZlavri meqanizmis grZnoba, romelic mudam TavisTavad muSaobda. aseT rTul, umZimesi ideologiuri wnexis da 1937 wlis represiebiT gamowveuli SiSis pirobebSi uwevdaT moRvaweoba `sabWoTa Teatris muSakebs~, ramac `garkveuli safuZveli Cauyara stabilur scenur formebs, welSi `gamarTa ideurad~, moi pova mTavrobis ndoba da mxardaWera, yvelaferi moeqca aqtioruli monosistemis farglebSi~ (1; gv.84). konceftualuri qarTuli saTeatro reJisura XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi kriziss ganicdida, es gamowveuli iyo ara mxolod reJisorTa farTo, globaluri azrovnebis simwiriT, aramed politikur-ideuri

1. tr. ruxaZe, `Zveli qarTuli Teatri da dramaturgia~, Tb., 1949. 2. dimitri janeliZe, saxioba, Tb., 1980. 3. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi, Tb., 1948. 4. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris istoria, Tb., 1965. 5. Salva nucubiZe, kritikuli narkvevebi, Tb., 1966. 6, naTela uruSaZe, qarTuli Teatris ambavi, Tb., 1982. 7. gaz., `kavkazi~, 1850, #5. 8. sergi gersamia, giorgi erisTavis Teatri, Tb., 1950. 9. d. gamezardaSvili, giorgi erisTavi, 1949, gv. 90.

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wnexiTac, amitomac iyo, rom lideris pozicia TeatrSi XIX saukunis qarTuli Teatris msgavsad msaxiobebma Caigdes xelSi. Sedegad, idgmeboda e. w. `aqtioruli speqtaklebi~, romelmac didi wvlili Seitanes qarTuli samsaxiobo skolis daxvewasa da gaZlierebaSi, mxatvruli donis amaRlebaSi. XX sau kuni s 4 0-ia n wl ebS i qa rTu li Teatr is sarepertuaro politikas sabWoTa kavSiris mTavroba gansazRvravda. qarTul TeatrSi dasadgmeli piesisTvis mwvane Suqi moskovs unda aenTo. iq unda gadawyvetiliyo, ra daidgmeboda nebismier, yvelaze miyruebul sabWoTa TeatrSic ki, did scenebze aprobirebul piesebs axorcielebda regionis Teatrebi. mTavroba Teatrs miuTiTebda, yuradReba mieqcia axali adamianis problemebisTvis, rac Tanamedrove da klasikuri dramaturgiis urTierTSerwymis an monacvleobis princi pze dayrdnobiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo. ufro metic, `mTavlits~ klasificirebuli hqonda konkretuli piesebi, romlebic unda dadgmuliyo qarTul sabWoTa scenebze da isinic, romlis dadgmac ar SeiZleboda. Seqspiris `mefe liri~ mesame variantSi moxvda, roca misi dadgma arc akrZaluli iyo da arc sasurveli. aman gaxada SesaZlebeli, rom qarTuli sabWoTa Teatris scenaze `mefe liri~ sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis 20 wlis Tavze, 1941 wels, ganxorcielebuliyo. sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg `liris~ axali dadgma quTaisis Teatrma ganaxorciela dodo anTaZis reJisuriT, liris rols warmatebiT asrulebda aleqsandre imedaSvili. quTaisis TeatrSi dadgmuli `mefe liris~ magaliTze naTlad Cans, rom XX saukunis 40-ian wlebSi reJisorTa lideris pozicias TeatrSi fesvebi Seryeuli aqvs. kvarcxlbekze am periodis TeatrSi kvlav msaxiobi dgas. xSiria SemTxveva, roca Tavad msaxiobi axorcielebs speqtakls. am mxriv gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs ak. vasaZes, romlis reJisoruli memkvidreoba calke Seswavlis Temaa. misi reJisura CvenTvis sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac mas 1948 wels ekuTvnis `mefe liris~ ganxorcieleba rusTavelis Teatris scenaze. akaki vasaZem Tavi mouyara SesaniSnav Zalebs. mxatvrad moiwvia sergo qobulaZe, speqtaklisaTvis musika daweres aleqsadre maWavarianma da andria balanCivaZem. rolebi ki

ase gaanawila: liri ­ ak. xorava, glosteri ­ g. daviTaSvili, masxara ­ e. afxaiZe, gonerola ­ T. WavWavaZe, regana ­ n. lafaCi, kordelia ­ a. ToiZe, edgari ­ n. CxeiZe, edmundi ­ g. saRaraZe. `ZalTa aseTi ganawilebiT speqtaklis warmateba TiTqosda garantirebuli iyo da mainc igi qarTuli sasceno SeqspirianaSi darCa, rogorc umniSvnelo epizodi, Tumca ara SemTxveviTi~ (2; gv. 59). akaki xoravas ukve Sesrulebuli hqonda otelo, romelmac sayovelTaod gauTqva saxeli msaxiobs mTel sabWoTa kavSirSi. igi kargad icnobda Seqspiris gmirebis samyaros, mis bunebas, xasiaTs, im atmosferos, raSic Seqspiris gmirebs uxdebaT cxovreba da moqmedeba. xorava ukve mesamed Seecada liris saxis scenur ganxorcielebas, arcerT mcdelobas sasurveli Sedegi ar gamouRia. `xoravam bevri sixaruli ganacdevina mayurebels, magram zogjer sinanulis grZnobac mohgvara. roca Tavis brwyinvale scenur saxeTa galereis kari advilad gauRo uferul scenur rolebs, ­ wers oTar egaZe, ­ mefe liris roliT xorava scenuri gardasaxvis sasurvel da mosalodnel simaRlemde ver avida. mxolod erTi weli gaZlo xoravas rolma rusTavelis Teatris scenaze da Semdeg, rogorc am piesis erT-erTi gmiri ambobda: suli dalia da saukunod ganisvena~ (3; gv.19). ucnauri isaa, rom speqtaklis avtorebma: vasaZem da xoravam Tavidanve icodnen, rom maTi mcdeloba kraxisaTvis iyo ganwiruli. ak. vasaZe pirdapir ambobs: `vicodi, rom Cavardeboda speqtakli, xoravas Cemi ar sjeroda _ me misi. Cans, arcerTi viyaviT swori~ (4; gv.400). mixeil TumaniSvili igonebs: `maxsovs, xorava `liris~ repeticiaze rogori ukmayofilo iyo dadgmiT, rogor itanjeboda premieris dRes, rogor SemogvCioda Cven, jer kidev studentebs: am speqtaklSi yvelaferi mcdariao. didi bavSviviT imuqreboda, yvelafers mivatoveb, fexs davkrav da lirs mcire TeatrSi (ratomRac!) viTamaSebo, iq mimiwvieso, maxsovs rogor ar undoda gagiJebis scenaSi TamaSi. es misi marcxi iyo~ (5; gv.37). amis miuxedavad, faqtia, rom man nemiroviC-danCenkos SesTavaza TbilisSi `mefe liris~ dadgma, sadac lirs Tavad Seasrulebda, razedac maestrosagan aseTi pasuxi miiRo: `o, ara! bneli piesaa, ar

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miyvars! sistemis bralia! sistemis~. am sityvebiT stanislavskis sistemas gadahkra nemiroviCma. xoravas TqmiT, samxatvro Teatris gandgomas Seqspirisagan nemiroviCi sistemis TaviseburebiT xsnida~ (6; gv.127). a. xoravas kargad esmoda, rom `SeqspirTan~ megobroba saamayocaa, sasiamovnoc da saSiSic. Tu swored ver amoikiTxe misi azrebi, misi filosofia, nawarmoebis gamWoli moqmedeba, sastikad dagamarcxebs, axlos ar migiSvebs, masxrad gagxdis~ (7; gv.211). xorava liris rolSi damarcxebas Zalian ganicdida. ak. dvaliSvili igonebs: `scenidan gamosulma xoravam xeli Camavlo, vigrZeni, rom mTeli sxeulic caxcaxebda, dabneuli vcdilobdi fardis ukan mis gayvanas, is ki zluquniT meubneoda: ra davuSave am xalxs, ratom ar vuyvarvar?~ (8; gv.73). rogorc Cans, dausrulebeli SemoqmedebiTi Widili mimdinareobda `liris~ repeticiebze xoravasa da vasaZes Soris. a. dvaliSvilis TqmiT, `reJisori ak. vasaZe cdilobda a. xoravas mier gansaxorcielebeli mefe liri yofiliyo cxovrebiT daRlili, sulierad gatexili, jiuti, Tavneba, axirebuli moxuci, romelic sibralulsa da cremls gamoiwvevda mayurebelSi. msaxiobi a. xorava ki zviad, Tavneba da yovlisSemZle mefe lirs qmnida. scenaze dapirispireba reJisorsa da msaxiobs Soris ufro gaRrmavda da erT mSvenier dRes naTeli gaxda, rom reJisori vasaZe danebda msaxiob xoravas Canafiqrs~ (8; gv.72). speqtaklis warumateblobas hqonda araerTi obieqturi mizezi: 1). klasikis ganxorcielebisas, sabWoTa sistemis mkacri pirobebidan gamomdinare, aravis gaxsenebia is udavo WeSmariteba, rom misi realizacia scenaze Tanadrouli mxatvruli saSualebebis gareSe SeuZlebelia. 2). vasaZexoravas `mefe liri~ ar moergo rusTavelis Teatris Janrulstilistur fons. gmirul-romantikul planSi gadawyvetili speqtakli qmnida cru paTetikas. `scenidan adamianuri siTbo ar modioda, xSirad mSrali, ritorikuli, magram paTetikurad amaRlebuli xmebi ismoda~, _ igonebs vasil kiknaZe (1; gv.191). 3). xoravas warmatebas liris rolSi xels uSlida vasaZis, rogorc reJisoris mier SeTavazebuli amocana,

mxatvruli saxis xasiaTis marcvali. xoravasaTvis liri daupyrobel mwvervalad darCa. ak. vasaZem gazeTSi `literatura da xelovneba~ (1949#1) gamoaqveyna werili, romelSic cdilobda ganemarta sazogadoebisaTvis speqtaklis marcxis mizezebi: `Tavisi uaRresad ideur-filosofiuri azris gamo `mefe liri~ dasadgmelad erT-erTi yvelaze Zneli da rTuli piesaa. Seqspiris tragediis ambebi da saxeebi yovelTvis konkretul epoqasTan aris dakavSirebuli. am movlenebisa da saxeebis g a x s n a i s to r i u l i s i na m d v i l i s a g a n m o w y v et i l a d, sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis kanonisagan gamoTiSulad, reJisorisa da Semsrulebels Semoiyvans abstraqciamde da daZvelebuli tradiciebiT dakanonebul sqematurobamde~. mogonebis wignSi ki, romelic 30 wlis Semdeg dawera vasaZem, ufro akonkr etebs s peqtakl is marc xis mizezs: `TviTdajerebulobis sibrmave damemarTa 1948 wels, arc marjaniSvilis da axmetelis marcxi, arc nemiroviC-danCenkos daeWveba da rCevebi ar gaviTvaliswine. TiTqos sakuTar Tavs veqiSpebodi, ise daviwye `lirze~ muSaoba, darwmunebuli viyavi, lirs akaki kargad iTamaSebda, mec nacadi xerxebiT Sevuwyobdi xels, magram ar gamxsenebia, rom Zveli meTodebiT da xerxebiT Tanamedorve speqtakls ver davdgamdiT~ (4; gv.400). vasaZe-xoravas speqtakli Seiqmna `pirovnebis kultis~ periodSi, roca omis Semdgomi qaosi, totaluri SiSi da yalbi paTetikuroba, gabatonebulia realur yofaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZloa, reJisori vasaZe wavida kompromisebze, aqcenti gadaitana liris sxva mxareebze. `liris tragediis azri davinaxe mis ara ganyenebul idealizmSi, ara mis donkixotisebur romantizmSi, aramed Seqspiris genialuri niWis im tendenciaSi, romelTac igi amkvidrebda Tavisi drois humanistur idealebs, vidre liri Tavisi sasaxlis kedlebs gareT mimdinare cxovrebis mefuri ski ptris simaRlidan dahyurebda, igi sastiki xdeboda Tavis SexedulebebSi adamianebze da mis daniSnulebaze. `mefe liri~ me mesmis, rogorc tragedia titanuri brZolisa da tanjvisa, namdvili adamianis dabadebisaTvis, im WeSmaritebis TandaTanobiT SecnobisaTvis, rom ar SeiZleba idealebis

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mxolod rwmeniT gardaqmnas qveyana. saWiroa brZola da moqmedeba~ (4, gv. 401). vasaZe cdilobda, ganviTarebaSi daexata liris saxe, sxva saSualebebs aZlevda igi xoravas, msaxiobi ki, reJisoris TqmiT, sul sxva mxares eqaCeboda. speqtaklis Cavardnis miuxedavad, Teatrmcodneebi gamoyofen ramdenime epizods, sadac xorava Tavis simaRleze idga. `saintereso iyo scena Weqa-quxilis dros, aq xoravas TiToeuli sityva Tavad warmoadgenda wvimas, grigals, qars. xoravas lirs esmoda Tavisi ubedureba da motexili, davrdomili SehRaRadebda zecas~ (9; gv. 43). miuxedavad ramdenime saintereso epizodisa, speqtakli mTlianobaSi ar idga maRalmxatvrul doneze, mas gansakuTrebuli sityva ar uTqvams arc Teatris, arc xoravas SemoqmedebaSi. `scenaze idga usaSvelod didi `saopero dekoraciebi~, _ igonebs Teatrmcodne n. SalutaSvili, ­ `romlebic pirdapir nTqavdnen msaxiobebs. xorava TeTr samosSi, grZeli TeTri wveriT, RmerTis ieRovas gamosaxulebas magonebda. am dadgmaSi yvelaferi yalbi iyo, yalb oCofexebze Semdgari. rodesac kulisebSi SevixedeT, xorava cremlebs ver malavda. lirs igi aRar mibrunebia~ (10; gv. 97). yvelaferi es unda gaviazroT epoqis da misi moTxovnebis SesabamisobasTan konteqstSi. imdenad didi iyo politikuri wnexis gavlena, rom TviT iseTi didi moazrovneebi xelovnebaSi, rogorebic iyvnen: xorava, vasaZe, qobulaZe, maWavariani da sxvebi, ver axerxebdnen alternatiuli xedvis ara Tu damkvidrebas saTeatro xelovnebaSi, aramed Ziebebsac ki. amitomac iyo mTeli speqtakli hi porbolizirebuli. 40-iani wlebis `mefe liri~ rusTavelis TeatrSi mTlianad gamoxatvda im periodis Teatrs da TeatrTan dakavSirebul sxva xelovnebas (saTeatro mxatvroba da saTeatro musika). cnobilia, rom, roca vasaZem s. qobulaZes SesTavaza speqtaklis gaformeba, mas TiTqmis mzad hqonda ilustraciebi Seqspiris `mefe lirisaTvis~, igi damoukideblad 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi muS a ob da. s. qob ul a Zi s es kizebS i p ers ona Jeb i hi perbolizirebulia, TiTqmis yvela scena `amaRlebulis ganwyobileba s gadmogvcems, saocrad m onumenturia. imavdroulad, s. qobulaZem Seqmna Zalze realisturi, TiTqmis naturalizmamde dasuli dekoraciebi. oTar egaZis TqmiT,

`scenaze cixis galavnebi ki ara, TiTqos moRrubluli cac ki granitidan aris gamokveTili. glosteris sasaxle luvrs waagavda. am speqtaklSi ugulebelyofili iyo siRrmisa da perspeqtivis kanoni, ratom aris, rom avanscenaze daSvebulia metad moTenTili maneriT Sesrulebuli tyis panorama glosteris xizanTan Sexvedris scenaSi~ (3; gv. 92). faqtia, rom speqtakls aklda Sinagani aqtioruli siTbo da sWarbobda yalbi paTetika. aSkara iyo isic, rom vasaZis `mefe liri~ dadgmuli iyo moZvelebuli Teatraluri meTodebiTa da formebiT, romelic Tanagancdas parterSi ukve aRar iwvevda. Teatraluri formebi saswrafo ganaxlebas saWiroebda. TeatrSi Seiqmna krizisis foni da saWiro iyo saswrafod Seqmnili situaciis gamosworebisaTvis brZolis dawyeba. cxadia, monumenturi speqtaklebi ufro sqematuri iyo, vidre realobasTan miaxloebuli nawarmoebi. meore mxriv, formalizmis dawamebis SiSiT iTrguneboda mravalsaxovan formaTa Ziebis survili, Tumca es droebiTi procesi iyo. TeatrSi ganaxlebis siom XX saukunis 50iani wlebidan daubera da igi uSualodaa dakavSirebuli stalinis gardacvalebasTan da xruSCovis xelisuflebis saTaveSi mosvlasTan. daiwyo Teatraluri Ziebebis axali, Seuqcevadi procesi. ganaxlebis talRam xelovnebis yvela sferoSi SeaRwia da daiwyo sruliad axali epoqa sabWoTa xelovnebaSi, romelsac axali Taoba qmnis.

1. v. kiknaZe, qarTuli dramatuli Teatris istoria, t. 2, Tb., 2001. 2. p. uruSaZe, ,,mefe liri~ qarTul scenaze, werili I, Jurnali ,,Teatraluri moambe~, Tb., 1988, #4. 3. oT. egaZe, TeatrSi da Teatrs miRma, Tb., 1969. 4. ak. vasaZe, mogonebebi, fiqrebi, t. 2, Tb,. 1983. 5. m. TumaniSvili, reJisori Teatridan wavida, Tb., 1989. 6. v. kiknaZe, didi da gasaocari talanti, krebuli ,,xorava 100~, Tb., 1997. 7. ak. xorava, Cemi Seqspiruli rolebi, qarTuli Seqspiriana, t. 3, Tb., 1973. 8. ak. dvaliSvili, Sexvedrebi akaki xoravasTan, Jurnali ,,Teatri da cxovreba~, #1. Tb., 2005. 9. d. cekvava, a. xoravas Semoqmedeba 40-50-ian wlebSi (sadi plomo Sroma), Tb., 1980. 10. n. SalutaSvili. xorava, rogorsac me vicnobdi, krebuli ,,xorava 100~, Tb., 1997.

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levan xeTaguri mesame realoba saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi seriozuli mcdelobebi imisa, rom gagverkvia sad viyaviT warumateblad mTavrdeboda. filosofosTa Taobebi, miuxedavad skolebisa da mimarTulebebis dasaxelebaTa simravlisa, antikurobaSi dasmul SekiTxvebs ver gacdnen da verc axali ver SemogvTavazes. droisa da istoriis labirinTebSi moZraobisas axali kari ar gagviRia _ erTidaimave movlenebisadmi saxelTa miniWebaSi vejibrebodiT erTmaneTs. sul ufro da ufro vSordebodiT sakralursa da ezoTeruls. sul ufro ukeT da ukeT cxovrobda kacobriobis didi nawili. sul ufro da ufro Raribdeboda Cveni suliereba. mokled da konkretulad, Cven XXI saukuneSi varT, _ siyvarulis religiaze dafuZnebuli welTaRricxvisa, romelSiac erTmaneTis siyvarulis deficitma sulier gamyinvarebamde, magram globalur daTbobamde migviyvana. Cven vcxovrobT da varsebobT, magram sad da romel ganzomilebaSi? es p a nu r i a R o r Zi n eb i s g v i r g v i no s a n m a k a l d er o n m a mravalsaukunovani Tavsatexi ase gamoxata _ cxovreba sizmaria?! calsaxaa is garemoeba, rom mravalsaukunovani warmodgena or samyaros Soris arsebobda, or-or ganzomilebas gvTavazobda. cxovreba _ sizmari

sicocxle _ sikvdili samoTxe _ jojoxeTi Tumca religias mesame samyaroc Semohqonda gansawmendeli, rogorc mesame ganzomileba. kalderoni gvekiTxeboda: sad aris WeSmariti realoba, sad varsebobT Cven sinamdvileSi _ iq, rasac Cven cxovrebas vuwodebT Tu iq, rasac Cven sizmars veZaxiT. sad aris Cveni namdvili arsi? erTi SexedviT martivad Tu SevxedavT am sakiTxs vityviT: fizikurad Cven varsebobT e. w. realur cxovrebaSi, xolo Cveni cnobiereba SiSvldeba e. w. warmosaxviT sizmrebis samyaroSi _ aseve realurSi Cveni cnobierebisaTvis. sad aris adamiani, is rac is aris sinamdvileSi? anu iseTi, roca aRasrulebs antikurobidan moyolebul Segonebas _ `Seican Tavi Seni~ anda `iyavi is rac xar~ aq, Tu iq? egreT wodebul cxovrebaSi, Tu sizmarSi? fsiqologebi albaT ityvian, rom iq _ sizmrebSi. axali ganzomileba samyaros ganviTareba interaqtiuloba _ ... xelovnebis mibaZva _ cnobierebis nakadisadmi postmodernizmidan _ kvlav neo inteleqtualizmamde

erTma Cemma nacnobma amaswinaT miTxra: `ukve mTavrdeba Stainerisa da masTan dakavSirebuli postmodernis epoqao~ ... da mravali neoizmebis epoqa _ maS ra iwyeba axla? post post?

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90-ian wlebSi espaneli Teatrmcodne xose angeli gomesi barselonidan farTod iyenebda da popularizacias uwevda `post Teatris~ Teorias. igi werda statiebsa da wignebs posthamletis, postdonJuanis anu e. w. postTeatris Sesaxeb axali Teatris molodinis imediT. xelovnebis Seswavla _ xelovnebis filosofosobaSi gadasvla; Tanamedrove xelovneba _ mcodneebi ukve arian kulturis anTropologebi. interaqtiulobidan _ multimediur gamosaxvamde... Cveni aRqmis procesia interaqtiuli, rac ganapirobebs Cveni TviTgamoxatvis dros interaqtiulobis dacvas _ amis saSualeba ki mxolod multimediuri saSualebebiTaa SesaZlebeli. Cveni arseboba erTdroulad ramodenime realobaSia ­ maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovani _ es kiber realobaa _ romelic moiTxovs _ Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gamoyenebas, rogorc TviTgamoxatvis saSualebas. _ Cven erTdroulad vusmenT, vuyurebT, vfiqrobT, vwerT da vkiTxulobT _ kibersamyaroSi erTdroulad vurTierTobT ramdenime adamianTan, SeiZleba aTeulTanac ki ise, rom maT es ar ician, Cven viniRbebiT kibersamyaroSi SeTxzuli biografiebiT, nasesxebi individualobebiTa da saxeebiT. (pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT _ Tuki antikuri Teatridan moyolebuli Cveni sakuTari survilebis sublimirebas scenaze moTamaSe msaxiobisa da gmiris saSualebiT vaxdendiT _ axla es procesi uSualod Cvens xelSia _ kiber realobam mogvca saSualeba kiber sivrceSi viqceT imaT, rac gvinda da gavxdeT kiber materialuri da ara warmosaxviTi mxolod); Cven vyidulobT axal sicocxles (meore sicocxlis _ meore realobis internetsivrce) da amitomac Cveni gamoxatvis ena

xdeba kiber ena ­ cifrebiT arsebuli samyaros Tanamedrove teqnologiebi. _ kibersamyaroSi Cven varsebobT drosa da sazRvrebs miRma, enasa da realobas miRma, praqtikulad zedroul da zerealur ganzomilebaSi. rogoria am drois xelovneba, ra aris misi gamoxatvis saSualebebi _ Teatri _ performansi xdeba xelovnebaTa sinTezis, adamianis naazrevis misi kiberzmanebaTa gamoxatvis erTaderTi saSualeba. ise rogorc arasdros dRes xelovneba sinTezuria. _ TviTgamoxatvis procesi _ usazRvro, Rrma da dausrulebeli; _ Cven aRara varT ambebis samyaroSi; _ Cven varT SeCerebuli wamisa da wamebis usasrulod qcevis samyaroSi; _ Cven aRara varT dasrulebuli nawarmoebebis epoqaSi, Cven varT sivrceSi gawelili moZraobis, sityvis, bgeris, da a. S. usasrulo samyaroSi da kosmosSi gagzavnili gzavnilebis epoqaSi. tradiciuli azrovneba da formebi kvdeba ise, rogorc arasdros; TaobaTa omi sastikia, rogorc arasdros; _ samyaros daSla dawyebuli babilonSi _ aRdgenis gzazea kibersamyaroSi; Cven vxvdebiT kibersamyaros moqalaqeebi; viciT Tu ara teqnika, axali teqnologiebi _ miuxedavad amisa Cveni gamoxatvis saSualeba mxolod teqnikaa; Cven SeiZleba bolo aTwleuls viTvliT qaRaldze dabeWdili wignebisa _ ekologiis dacvasTan erTad _ qaRaldis magivrad

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yvela wigni _ kibersamyaroSi gardaicvleba da cifruli formiT daibadeba; Cven male davibadebiT da gardavicvlebiT kibersamyaroSi _ Cveni arseboba kosmosSi gadadis; _ Cveni arseboba xdeba usasrulo; rogori SeiZleba iyos Teatri axla? Teatri _ interaqtiuli. Teatri erTdroulad mosaubre yvela enaze, yvelasTan sazRvrebis gareSe, mosaubre yvelasaTvis gasageb enaze _ bgerebiT, xmauriT, feriT, moZraobiT, musikiT, sinaTliTa da CrdiliT; gamosaxulebiT, proeqciiT da translaciiT, erTdroulad ramdenime mimarTulebiT, erTdroulad mTels sivrceSi. sivrce aRar aris mxolod saTeatro, sivrce gascda Teatris kedlebs, igi gaxda usazRvro. maRal teqnologiebTan erTad Teatri xdeba ufro saidumlo da ufro mistiuri, is ise rogorc arasdros yvelaze axlosaa sulis gasaSiSvleblad, gonebis saCveneblad... Tuki adre Teatri cxovrebas aCvenebda da masSi adamianebs, axla igi imas aCvenebs, Tu ra xdeba adamianebSi cxovrebis dros. igi aSiSvlebs gonebaSi mimdinare cnobierebis nakads, usasrulobaSi gadasul azrovnebas, asociaciebis rigs da yvelafers rac gonebaSi xdeba, sizmrebis gamoxatva gaxda SesaZlebeli, fiqris Cveneba gaxda realuri _ Teatrs SeuZlia ukve aCvenos ras vfiqrobT, ras vakeTebT da risi gakeTeba gvsurs.

amis saSualebas iZleva multimediuri Teatri, Tanamedrove teqnologiebi. scenaze sinaTliT daRvrili ferTa laqebi, Teatris yvela kuTxe gadaqceulia proeqciis adgilad _ yvelgan midis Cvens gonebaSi mimdinare procesis, xatebebis proeqcia _ da Cven vaRwevT adamianis sulSi mimdinare procesebSi _ ara monaTxrobiT, aramed uSualo cqeriT, saidumlo labirinTebSi SeRweviT. Teatri arasodes ar yofila ase axlos _ saidumlo samyaros gamoxatvasTan _ Teatri xdeba globaluri da amavedros Zalian intimuri _ speqtakli emsgavseba meditaciisa da magnetizmis seanss. Teatri emsgavseba mistikuri samyaros vizualur proeqcias. Teatri iwyebs yoveldRiuri ritualebis Seqmnas _ Teatri loculobs samyarosTvis, adamianis gonebis gaSiSvlebis saSualebiT. sinaTle, musika, feri, xmauri xdeba adamianis sxeulis siSiSvlis Semosvis saSualeba. adamiani dRes laparakobs sakuTari SiSveli sxeuliT da ara sityvebiT.A dRes ise rogorc arasdros Teatrs erTiani ena Wirdeba da es ena xdeba adamiani _ msaxiobi, rogorc sazomi samyaroSi azris gadacemis erTeulisa, Rirebuleba, romlis maRlac araferi aRar dgas. Tanamedrove maRali ganviTarebis civilizaciis Rirebuleba, civilizaciis xelovnebis nimuSad Tavad adamiani iqca da yvelaferi, rasTanac adamians aqvs Sexeba, SeiZleba, aseve iqces xelovnebis nimuSad.

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adamiani, rogorc Tavisuflebis sazomi, adamiani, rogorc mSvenierebis nimuSi, adamiani, rogorc bunebisa da samyaros TviTgamoxatvis saSualeba. msoflio kulturaSi _ RmerTi absolutia, romelSic erTiandeba religiebi saxelebis miuxedavad, eTnosebi eTnikurobis miuxedavad _ dRes RmerTi absolutia ­ RmerTia xelovneba da xelovnebis qmnadoba, procesi da Sedegi. dRes realobebi erTmaneTTan mimarTebiT fardobiTia. dro aTvlis sistemidan erT did usasrulo sibrtyeSi inacvlebs, sadac aRar aris dasawyisi da dasasruli, wamebi da wuTebi aris mxolod usasruloba, cifruli usasruloba. _ absoluti nuli da erTiT meti, umartivesi WeSmariteba; _ piTagoradan dRemde erTi naxtomi aRmoCnda; _ samyaro cifrebSia moqceuli; _ samyaros safuZveli absoluturi harmonia nulia da yvelaferi icvleba da iqmneba martivi erTianis damatebiT; _ samyaro mxolod nuli da erTiania. nuli, rogorc usasrulo samyaro da erTi, rogorc yoveli individi masSi. 2008-2009

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oliko JRenti rusuli kinovesternis `namdvili kavkasielebi~ (lermontovis ekranizaciis ideur-esTetikuri aspeqtebi qarTul kinoSi)

XX saukunis 10-ian wlebSi gazeT `kavkazSi~ daibeWda mixeil lermontovis dabadebidan 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili filosofiuri eskizi `lermontovis niRabi~.Aam statiis avtori iyo gamoCenili qarTveli mwerali da moazrovne grigol robaqiZe. gr. robaqiZis ganmartebiT, lermontovis niRbis arsi, Tavad pirovnebis gaorebaSi da demonizmSi mdgomareobs, rom lermontovis gaoreba gamaognebelia yvelasTvis: `daundoblobis da mzakvrobis demons, Tan erTvis maTgan yvelaze saSineli ampartavnebis demoni... sammagi demoniT Sepyrobili lermontovi iRupeba... gadaWriT vamtkiceb, rom lermontovis `saidumlo~ mis `niRabSi~ imaleba~, _ SeniSnavda statiis avtori da I msoflio omis globaluri, qaoturi movlenebis fonze nicSeanuri Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare gvTavazobs `niRbis~ koncefcias: `niRbiani adamiani malavs ra sakuTar Tavs, amasTanave eswrafvis sxvad qcevas, gardasaxvas sxva `med~, _ werda robaqiZe da dasZenda, rom kacobriobis istoria `cru gaorebis~ mauwyebelia: `lermontovi gadaeSva samyaroSi da aRmoCnda samyaros istoriis miRma... fatalizmi xdeba lermontovis stiqiis ganuyreli elementi da aqedanaa misi uSiSaroba~.1 robaqiZiseuli SefasebiT, lermontovma, rogorc istoriulma pirma, xorci ver Seisxa (ver gansxeulda), amitomac igi istoriis miRma darCa, ver iqca maradisobis ganmWvretelad (vizionerad).Dmisma dasabamiseulma sulma ver moiZia istoriuli `sxeuli~, ver pova gansxeuleba (ganxorcieleba). sulieri winaaRmdegobebiT `damZimebulma~ mweralma Seqmna demonuri da romantikuli gmiri _ peCorini, romelsac yvelgan ganxeTqileba Seaqvs da ngrevaSi ikmayofilebs am daundoblobis Jins. turgenevi lermontovis Sesaxeb werda: `lermontovis

garegnobaSi iyo raRac tragikuli da SemaZrwunebeli, pirquSi da avis momaswavebeli Zala~. 20-ian wlebSi gabolSevikebuli ruseTidan devnili reJisorebi qarTul kinematografSi agrZeleben moRvaweobas. isini xSirad mimarTavdnen qarTuli klasikuri literaturis ekranizaciebs. MmaT Soris gamoirCeoda ivane perestianis `sami sicicxle~ (g. wereTlis `pirveli nabijis~ mixedviT), `tariel mklavaZis mkvlelobis saqme~ (e. ninoSvilis `Cveni qveynis raindis~ mixedviT) da sxv. kinoreJisorma vladimer barskim yazbegis roman `moZRvris~ (1922) gadaRebis Semdeg, lermontovis cnobili romanis `Cveni drois raindis~ ekranizacia ganaxorciela _ 1926-1927 wlebSi seriuli TanmimdevrobiT reJisorma gadaiRo `Tavadis asuli meri~, `bela~, `maqsim maqsimiCi~ (lermontovis romani moicavs sxvadasxva novelebs, romlebic erT ciklad erTiandeba). vladimer barskim daamTavra moskovis saimperatoro teqnikuri saswavlebeli. 1892 wlidan moRvaweobda ruseTis TeatrebSi, rogorc reJisori da msaxiobi. bolSevikuri revoluciis Semdeg saqarTvelos bevrma rusma xelovanma _ literatorebma, poetebma, mxatvrebma da reJisorebma Seafares Tavi, maT Soris iyo vladimer barskic. igi 1917-1921 wlebSi jer Tbilisis saxalxo saxlSi, Semdeg, 1921-1928 wlebSi, `saxkinmrewvSi~ muSaobda reJisorad. 1928 wlidan moRvaweobda `TurqmenfilmSi~, `uzbekkinoSi~, `sovkinoSi~.Mmas gansakuTrebuli Rvawli miuZRvoda Turqmenuli da uzbekuri kinematografis CamoyalibebaSi. 1925 wels barskim iTamaSa erT-erTi mTavari roli (golikovi) sergei eizenSteinis cnobil film `javSnosan potiomkinSi~. barskis ekranizaciebSi, lermontovis gmirebi kavkasiis egzotikur garemoSi moqmedeben, mTavari gmiris _ peCorinis _ tragizmi da fatalizmi kavkasiis pirvelqmnil wiaRs ukavSirdeba. robaqiZis ganmartebiT, lermontovisTvis yvelaze `sabediswero~ da yvelaze `mZime,~ _ es aris misi usazRvro gaoreba: sikeTesa da borotebas, sinaTlesa da sibneles Soris. es ki gamoxatavs im `orWoful~ angelozTa sulier mdgomareobas, romlebic pirvandel samyaroSi RmerTisa da

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demonis WidilSi arc erT Zalas ar miemxrnen.Eempiriul sinamdvileSiFfatalizmiT Sepyrobili lermontovi mxolod warsulis maradisobas Wvretda, igi uZalo iyo ganeWvrita momavali maradisoba ( ).Aamitomac, misTvis rTuli da SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda daeZlia gaorebis sicrue ( ): `Cven mudmivad vcdilobT gadavlaxoT sakuTari Tavi, viqceT sxvad, Cven veswrafviT srulqmnilebas da sikeTes, Cven gvinda viqceT `sxvad~ _ werda robaqiZe. lermontovis gaorebis tragedia mTeli siZlieriT `RmerTebisa da kacobriobis samSobloSi~, misterialuri kulturis (fon eSenbaxi) wiaRSi _ kavkasiaSi gancxadda. romanis `Cveni drois raindis~ winasityvaobaSi, lermontovi mkiTxvels ganumartavs, Tu ramdenad realuria peCorinis personaJi, saerTod, vin aris peCorini?Dda iqve ganmartavs, rom peCorini misi Taobis krebiTi gmiria, `romlis xasiaTSi aris simarTle da araferi ar aris gamogonili~. reJisori barski zustad misdevs lermontoviseul SefasebaTa sqemas da kinematografiuli xerxebiT mogviTxrobs, Tu ratom mieltvis aseTi raindul-romantikuli aRtkinebiT lermontovis gmiri Soreul da warmtac kavkasias? peCorinis literaturuli gmiri aristokratiuli klasis pirmSoa, romelsac daufaravi ironia da cinizmi amoZravebs amave maRali socialuri klasis mimarT.Bbarskis kinogmiri peCorinic (msax. n. prozorovski) Taviseburi autsaideria, romelic ver egueba maRali sazogadoebis moralur dogmebs da farisevlur eTikas, amitomac `moirgebs~ cinizmisa da egoizmis niRabs. sazogadoebisgan gandgomili, `mudmivi gaorebis~ msxverpli peCorini, mudam damarcxebuli da xelmocaruli gamodis _ sociumTan konfliqti misi marcxisa da daRupvis mizezi xdeba. lermontoviseuli `niRbis~ filosofiuri arsi kavkasiis pirvelqmnil bunebaSi ixsneba _ RmerTebisa da miTebis samyaroSi.Kkavkasia odiTganve moiazreboda RmerTebisa da kacobriobis samSoblod. didma germanelma mecnieranTropologma fridrix bliumenbaxma (1752-1840), pirvelma uwoda TeTr rasas `kavkasiuri~. sakmarisia gavixsenoT hegelis

cnobili filosofiuri postulati (kavkasia kacobriobis akvani): `fizionomia umTavresad ganasxvavebs kavkasiur, eTiopur da monRolur rasebs. ... suli Tavis TavTan absolitur mTlianobas mxolod kavkasiur rasaSi aRwevs, mxolod aq upirispirdeba suli bunebrivi mdgomareobis pirobebs, mxolod aq aRwevs suli srul damoukideblobas, TviTgansazRvras da TviTganviTarebas da amiT, msoflio istorias anxorcielebs...~ Tuki hegelis am Sefasebebs gaviziarebT, kidev ufro gasagebi xdeba lermontovis pirovnuli tragizmi. robaqiZis sityvebs Tu davesesxebiT, samyaros stiqiaSi CaZirulma lermontovis sulma ver hpova mTlianoba, ver miaRwia damoukideblobas, TviTgansazRvras... XIX saukuneSi kavkasia ramdenime gamoCenili evropeli mecnierisa da filosofosis saazrovno sivrceSi moeqca,Mmagram gansxvavebuli iyo rusi mwerlebisa da poetebis sulieri ganWvreta, isini naklebad eyrdnobodnen kavkasiis Sesaxeb arsebul miTologiur-mecnierul teqstebs _ isini mxolod kolonialur-orientalisturi poziciidan, da eTnografiul, egzotikur planSi Wvretdnen veluri samyaros mSvenierebas. imperiuli propagandis manaqana aviTarebda azrs, romlis mixedviT, civilizacia da progresi am velur samyaroSi ruseTis imperiam Semoitana ­ amas kidev erTxel mowmobs barskis mier gadaRebul lermontovis ekranizaciebSi daxvewilad afiSirebuli rusuli klasicisturi stilis arqiteqtura, XIX saukunis rusuli sazogadoebis evropizirebuli yofa, Sesabamisad, ikveTeba ruseTis socialur-politikuri prioriteti adgilobriv-velur mTielebTan mimarTebaSi. kavkasiuri eTno-kulturis ki nem a to g r af i u l g a a zr eb a Si b ar s ki l er mo ntov i s literaturuli narkvevebiTa da teqstebiT xelmZRvanelobda.MmagaliTad,Lliteraturul narkvevSi `kavkasieli~, lermontovi mkiTxvels sTavazobs `namdvili~ da `aranamdvili~ kavkasielis fsiqoti ps. kavkasiis motrfiale mwerali detalurad aRwers, Tu rogor ganicdis rusi samxedro moxele transformirebas kavkasiaSi da am transformirebis Sedegad yalibdeba `namdvil kavkasielis~ ti pi, romelic socialurad adaptirebuli xdeba ucxo da velur garemosTan:

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`kavkasieli aris naxevrad rusi, naxevrad azieli arseba~, igi samxedro swavlebas gadis kadetTa korpusSi da Cinebuli oficeri xdeba; igi kiTxulobs literaturul Txzulebebs kavkasiaze da kavkasiis mimarT interesi mas TandaTan uRvivdeba. igiDdRedaRam atarebs xanjals da ar ixsnis manam, sanam iaraRi ar mobezrdeba. is qorwindeba kazak qalze da amiT bednieria; Semdeg midis samxedro eqspediciaSi, ocnebobs mTielTa Sepyrobaze, mas ezmaneba saSineli brZolebi, sisxlis mdinareebi da generlis epoletebi.Mmas ezmaneba rainduli gmirobebi, Semdeg ki TandaTan eufleba mowyeniloba, Cin-medlebis miuxedavad, pirquSi da sityvaZunwi xdeba, mas axali vneba i pyrobs, swored am dros iqceva is `namdvil kavkasielad~ _ umegobrdeba mSvidobian Cerqezebs da xSirad stumrobs aulebs mTebSi.Umas itacebs ubralo da veluri cxovreba, izidavs mTielTa poeturi gadmocemebi da Tqmulebebi, TandaTan eufleba nostalgia mSobliur saxlze da daubrundeba kidec saxls, rogorc pensioneri; aranamdvili kavkasieli ki _ es qarTveli kavkasielia, romelsac uyvars kaxuri Rvino da farTe abreSumis Sarvlebi, ruseTSi brundeba `CiniT da wiTeli cxviriT.~ 2 Laqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom lermontoviseuli gmirebi atareben `namdvili kavkasielis~ niRabs ­ peCorinis moqmedeba zustad imeorebs lermontovis mier zemoT aRwerili personaJis qmedebas, magram robaqiZiseuli `niRbis~ filosofia am qmedebis tragikul dasasrulze mianiSnebs.Kkavkasia poeturi STagonebis wyaroa romanis avtorisTvis, magram imave kavkasiasTan mimarTebaSi mJRavndeba lermontovis mkafiod formulirebuli kolonialuri da orientalisturi Sexedulebebi _ mwerali mainc didi ruseTis imperiis Svilia, romlisTvisac kavkasia darCa ucxo da Seucnobel samyarod, Sesabamisad verDESedga komunikacia `velur~, `agresiul~ da `aracivilizirebul~ samyarosTan, is mainc ver iqca namdvil kavkasielad, misma pirovnebam xorci ver Seisxa, aqedan momdinareobs gmiris melanqolia da Sinagani tanjva _ romantikuli sivrceebis dapyrobis Jini. amitomac, yvelgan, sadac ki lermontovis gmiri peCorini Cndeba ­ mas ngreva da da ganxeTqileba Seaqvs, sabolood ki euli, martosuli rCeba, da mudmivad daeZebs sikvdils. sruliad gansxvavebuli

sulieri mimarTeba aqvT XIX-XX saukunis evropel mwerlebs kavkasiasTan _ maT ar tanjavT da ar amZimebT lermontoviseuli Rrma melanqolia, radgan kavkasiaSi isini pouloben dakargul `poetur samSoblos~, harmoniul TanafardobaSi arian bunebasTan, euflebaT saocari survili, rom aq gaidgan `fesvebi~, `RmerTebisa da goliaTebis samyaroSi~ (knut hamsuni), evropeli mwerlebi acnobiereben pirvandeli samyaros RvTaebriv Zalmosilebas, isini kavakiuri fenomenis, kulturuli wiaRis Tanaziarni arian, aRiareben kavkasieli xalxis mterTan (ruseTis imperiasTan) da umo rCi leblo bis fa qts , afa seb en mSv idobi sa da Tavisuflebismoyvare kavkasielTa xasiaTs, Tvisebebs. romanis `Cveni drois gmiris~ SesavalSiLlermontovs surs daarwmunos mkiTxveli, rom peCorinic `tragikul da romantikul borotmoqmedTa~ kategorias ganekuTvneba.Mmas hyavs reluri prototi pebi rusul sinamdvileSi.Kaq miT ufro sacnauri xdeba robaqiZiseuli niRbis koncefcia.Aamgvarad, kavkasielis eTno-socialuri ti pis kinematografiul gaazrebaSi rus kinematografistebs isev lermontoviseuli orientalisturkolonialuri Sexedulebebi da siuJeturi sqemebi daexmaraT. filmSi `Tavadis asuli meri~ rusi oficris cxovrebas peCorinis piradiDdRiurebis mixedviT vecnobiT, amdenad, epizodebi, dokumenturi faqtis, qronikis mniSvnelobas iZens. aq pedanturi sizustiTaa aRwerili rusi samxedro elitisa Tu aristokratiis samoqmedo garemo ­ revoluciamdeli rusuli Ria baraTebis esTetikis gavleniT filmSi gadaRebuli kavkasiis warmtaci peizaJebi, feSenebeluri mineraluri wylebis kurortebi da rafinirebuli gemovnebis salonebi. mxatvrulad gacocxlda ruseTis kolonialuri cxovrebis amsaxveli calkeuli epizodebi, romlebic fsevdo romatizmis suliskveTebiTaa gaJRenTili. lermontoviseul ekranizaciebSi mkafiod ikveTeboda ideologiuri waxnagebi _ kinematografi afiqsirebda imperiuli ruseTis Zlevamosilebis amsaxvel istoriul-kulturul realiebs, Sesabamisad, xazgasmulad warmoCndeboda ruseTis imperiis prioritetuli roli da samxedro-politikuri upiratesoba velur da daumorCilebel kavkasiaze. amgvari iyo ekranze ruseTis kolonialuri warsulis `restavrirebis~ faruli mizani. 20-iani wlebis barskis mier

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lermontovis ekranizaciebSi orientalizmi aRmosavlur fatalizms ukavSirdeba.Aam fatalizmis msxverpli xdeba peCorinis gmiric. niSandoblivia, rom lermontovis ekranizaciebi imave ideologiur funqcias asrulebda, rasac _ vesternis miTi amerikis istoriaSi. sabWoTa ruseTic ki Zaladobaze da terorze damyarebuli politikuri reJimis pirobebSi `carizmis~ epoqis ideologiuri da esTetikuri konstruqciebiT xelmZRvanelobda, amitomac, lermontovis ekranizaciebSi srulebiT ver naxavdiT dadebiTi, Rirseuli TvisebebiT Semkuli kavkasielis fsiqoti ps. spontanurad, isic Sor planze, gamoCenili Cerqezebi veluri, primitiuli tomis xalxs ufro warmoadgenen, romlebic veluri indielebis msgavsad Tavs esxmian rusi aristokratiis korteJebs, mZime CemodnebiT datvirTul samgzavro etlebs. maT danaxvaze rus banovanebs SiSisgan guli uwuxdebaT, magram mamaci rusi oficrebi ­ `Cveni drois gmirebi~ _ uSiSrad anadgureben mTiel teroristebs. lermontovis moTxroba `Tavadis asuli meris~ epilogSi, kavkasiidan ruseTSi mimavali peCorini gzaze gaxrwnili cxenis leSs waawydeba, romlisTvisac `velur~ mTielebs unagiri aurTmeviaT. cxenis leSze ori yvavia Semoskupuli, rac simbolurad raindis sikvdils ganasaxierebda. moTxrobisgan gansxvavebiT, filmis eqspoziciaSi _ arwivi da yvavia naCvenebi.Aamgvarad, raindis (cxeni) da sikvdilis (yvavi) simboloebs filmSi daemata rusuli imperiuli Zlevamosilebis simbolo ­ arwivi, romelic umxedrod darCenil leSs kortnis (sikvdilis metafora). Bbarskis filmSi mravlad aris masStaburi scenebi, roca ruseTis aristokratiis diliJansebi erT mwkrivad, Seupovrad miikvlevs riskiT da xifaTebiT aRsavse gzas kavkasiis alpur zonaSi. diliJansi amerikuli vesternis erT-erTi mTavari kinoatributia, romelic saTavgadasavlo-avantiuruli Janris filmebSi xSirad gamoCndeba da gmirebTan erTad `monawileobs~ mZafr, sisxlian batalur scenebSi. gavixsenoT, rogor esxmian Tavs veluri indielebi `mSvidobisa da Tavisuflebismoyvare~, `civilizebul~ amerikelebs veluri dasavleTis wiaRSi, isini Tavad provocireben samxedro moqmedebebs;GgoliaT mTebs Soris

`momwyvdeuli~, rusi aristokratiis safosto da samgzavro diliJansebsac, aucileblad Tavs pirveli daesxmis sisxlismsmeli mTielTa tomi, magram ukanonobas isev ruseTis samxedro garnizonebi aRkvevs.KgaunaTlebel, uvic kavkasielebSi kanoni da wesrigi isev rusuli imperiuli sistemis pirobebSi iaraRiTa da ZaladobiT unda damyardes. vesternis Janruli elementebiT gajerebul lermontoviseul `kinoserialSi,~ mTielTa adgilobrivi ti paJebi, ZiriTadad `veluri~ da socialurad dabeCavebuli adamianebi _ yaCaRTa gundia an SedarebiT mSvidobiani, `morCili~ aborigenebi: movaWreebi, meduqneebi anu uwyinari xalxi. namdvili kavkasielis fsiqotipi ­ keTilSobili, mamaci, rainduli Tvisebebi sruliad ignorirebulia ekranidan da mxolod fragmentulad Cndeba, isic Sor planze da aSkarad gamoxatuli agresiuli qmedebebiT. barskis filmebSi kavkasiis aborigen mosaxleobas ZiriTadad moxucebi da bavSvebi warmoadgenen, romlebic maTxovrebs ufro hgvanan dakonkil samoselSi, samagierod, tradiciuli kavkasielis ti ps rusul literaturasa da kinoSi Caenacvla `namdvil kavkasielad~ (fsevdokavkasieli) wodebuli rusi samxedro moxele. kavkasiis mimarT rusi kinematografistebis damokidebuleba SarJul da groteskul formas iZenda rusul sabWoTa kinematografSi. `namdvili kavkasielis~ SarJi tradiciad, stereoti pul sqemad dakanonda da imdenad myari aRmoCnda, rom rusuli kinematografi 20-ian wlebSi Casaxuli kino ideologiuri sqemebisgan dRemde ver gaTavisuflda. amis safuZvlebi ki swored rusul klasikur literaturaSia saZiebeli, Mmag., Tuki ekranze kavkasielis ti pi gamoCnda, is aucileblad unda cekvavdes lekurs, Jongliorobdes yanwebiT, svamdes kaxur Rvinos da rus banovanTa gulis dapyrobas lamobdes. lermontovis moTxrobis mixedviT gadaRebuli filmi `maqsim maqsimiCi,~ melodramatuli Janris klasikur nimuSs warmoadgens, magram masSi plastikurad ikveTeba e. w. `namdvili kavkasielis~ fenomeni. filmis Sinaarsis mixedviT, Cerqezis qals (msax. bela beleckaia) TavdaviwyebiT Seuyvardeba tyve rusi oficeri

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(msax. v. obolenski). igi civi da gulgrilia im qalis mimarT, romelic veluri tomis Svilia da sruliad ar flobs rusul sazogadoebaSi aRzrdili qalbatonebis daxvewil etikets. mTieli qali siyvarulisgan itanjeba, rusi oficris fiqri da ocneba ki mSobliur saxlsa da rus aristokrat satrfos dastrialebs; datyvevebuli oficeri usazRvro nostalgiiT itanjeba veluri mTielebis aulSi. sayvareli adamianis tanjvas Cerqezi qali veRar gauZlebs da humanur saqciels sCadis _ is tyveobidan daixsnis oficers, Tavad ki TviTmkvlelobiT daasrulebs sicocxles. sainteresoa, melodramatuli sqema, romelic lermontovis kinoekranizaciebSi ucvlelad meordeba: rusi oficrisTvis kavkasieli qali-macduri, fataluri arsebaa _ qali vampi, romlis tyveobaSi mxolod droebiT aRmoCndeba da amasTanave, misTvis xdeba garTobis, TavSeqcevis `sagani~. maSin, roca rus oficrebs Rrma melanqolia euflebaT da sikvdils daeZeben, am dros Kfatalur da sensualur kavkasiel qalebs usazRvro Tavganwirva SeuZliaT. rusi da mTieli qal-vaJis urTierTobaSi msxverpli aucileblad mTieli qali u nda ga xdes .A am g va ra d, r us eTis sa mx edro eli ti s warmomadgenlebi verasodes poveben pirad bednierebas kavkasiis empiriul sinmadvileSi, aRmosavluri fatalizmis samyaroSi isini uSiSrad da gamomwvevad daeZeben sikvdils (`bela~, `maqsim maqsimiCi~). robaqiZiseuli niRbis filosofia kidev erTxel Segvaxsenebs lermontovis gmirebis tragizmsa da fatalizms: daundoblobis da sibnelis demons, romelsac Tan erTvoda ampartavnebis demoni, ganwirulia dasaRupavad, sammagi demoniT Sepyrobili poeti da samxedro moxele lermontovic daiRupa, magram ara brZolis velze aramed `morig~ duelSi...

mediologia

1. ., « », «», 1914, 217,«». ., . 2. , , « », ., .764.

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Tea mJavanaZe saqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumenti (1957-1990) nebismieri sazogadoebrivi movlenis axsna da gaazreba SeuZlebelia im istoriuli winamZRvrebis gareSe, ramac misi dRevandeli saxe ganapiroba. saqarTvelos radio Camoyalibda da mravali aTeuli wlis manZilze aramarto saxelmwifo ideologias emsaxureboda, aramed amave dros mxarSi edga qarTuli kulturisa da xelovnebis ganviTarebas, Tumca saqarTvelos radio, rogorc saxelmwifos marTvis instrumenti, Tavidanve gamoikveTa. 1953 wels radiomauwyeblobis kulturis saministros daqvemdebarebaSi moqcevam didi kamaTi gamoiwvia da amis Sesaxeb sakavSiro presaSic ki gaimarTa msjeloba. es CaiTvala radios, rogorc saxelmwifo institutis, statusis daqveiTebad, misi rogorc sazogadoebis ideologiuri marTvis erT-erTi mZlavri saSualebis Seufaseblobad, rac savsebiT daadastura ramdenime wlis praqtikamac. totalitarul saxelmwifos, cxadia, ver daakmayofilebda propagandis instrumentis informaciis ubralo mimwodeblad da `kulturtregerad~ gadaqceva. amitom, ssrk ministrTa sabWos 1957 wlis 16 maisis dadgenilebiT, radio da televizia (romelic am dros ukve swrafad iwyebda aRmasvlas da veRar darCeboda radios struqturaSi) gamovida kulturis saministros daqvemdebarebidan da saxelmwifoSi Tavisi sakuTari statusi aRidgina _ Seiqmna ssrk ministrTa sabWosTan arsebuli radiomauwyeblobisa da televiziis saxelmwifo komiteti. es komiteti aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas ganekuTvneboda, misi Tavmjdomare mTavrobis wevrad iTvleboda da Sedioda ministrTa kabinetis SemadgenlobaSi. radio-televiziis saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis kidev erTi aRiareba iyo ssrk umaRlesi sabWos prezidiumis 1970 wlis 12 ivlisis dadgenileba, romlis Tanaxmadac ministrTa sabWosTan arsebuli radio-televiziis komiteti gardaiqmna ministrTa sabWos televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobis

saxelmwifo komitetad. am erTi sityvis _ `arsebulis~ _ saxelwodebidan amogdeba niSnavda, rom eleqtronuli media oficialurad erTveboda saxelmwifo marTvis sistemaSi: igi xelisuflebasTan `arsebuli~ raRac struqtura ki aRar iyo, aramed _ am xelisuflebis nawili, Sesabamisi uflebebiTa da movaleobebiT. Jurnalistebi ubralod `partiis damxmareebi~ ( ) ki aRar iyvnen, rogorc alersiT uwoda maT nikita xruSCovma 1959 wels axladSeqmnili ssrk JurnalistTa kavSiris pirvel yrilobaze, aramed am partiis nebis aRmasrulebeli struqturis warmomadgenlebi. rac Seexeba komitetis saxelwodebaSi `televiziis~ win gadmotanas, es ubralod warmoadgenda televiziis upiratesobis dadasturebas radiosTan SedarebiT, rac am periodisTvis ukve aravis eWvs aRar iwvevda. rogorc Cans, esec ar miiCnies sakmarisad da 1977 wlis bolosTvis sabWoTa teleradiomauwyebloba ministrTa sabWosac Camoscilda da gaformda damoukidebel uwyebad _ ewoda ssrk televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobis saxelmwifo komiteti (ssrk-is saxteleradio). yvela es reforma, ra Tqma unda, gatarda saqarTveloSic. aseTi cvlilebebi, albaT, savsebiT logikuri iyo, radgan vis gamgeblobaSic ar unda yofiliyo formalurad sabWoTa teleradiomauwyebloba, mas iseve, rogorc mTel sabWoTa i nf o r ma c i u l - p r o p ag a ndi s tu l s i s tem a s , uS u a l o d xelmZRvanelobda da akontrolebda komunisturi partia (centraluri da adgilobrivi partiuli organoebi) da iyenebda mas sazogadoebis marTvis erT-erT instrumentad. masobrivi informaciis saSual ebebi ( maT Sor is, cxa dia, radiomauwyeblobac) komunisturi ideologiis, komunisturi aRzrdis sistemis Semadgeneli nawili iyo, risi meSveobiTac partia da xelisufleba mizanmimarTulad moqmedebda s a zo g a doeb i s c x o v reb i s y v el a s f ero z e. a m dena d, radiomauwyeblobis miznebi da amocanebi ganisazRvreboda komunisturi ideologiis miznebiTa da amocanebiT _ sxvadasxva formiT x eli Seewyo komu nisturi sazoga doebrivi urTierTobebis CamoyalibebisaTvis, axali adamianis formirebisaTvis, ideologiurad uzrunvelyo skkp programis

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cxovrebaSi gatareba, komunizmis materialur-teqnikuri bazis Seqmna, aqtiurad ebrZola burJuaziuli ideologiis, adamianis cnobierebaSi `warsulis gadmonaSTebis~ winaaRmdeg. saqarTvelos radiomauwyebloba 50-iani wlebis bolos teqnikur-organizaciuli da profesiuli TvalsazrisiT ukve sabolood aris Camoyalibebuli _ gaaCnia mZlavri materialurteqnikuri baza da mTel respublikaze eweva mauwyeblobas. didi xania garkveulia misi sazogadoebrivi funqciebi, aTvisebulia radios gamosaxviTi specifika da publicisturi Janrebis saeTero modifikaciebi, dadgenilia organizaciuli struqtura. amasTan, igi sakavSiro-respublikuri daqvemdebarebis uwyebaa da erTdroulad ganicdis rogorc mauwyeblobis erTiani centralizebuli sistemis, ise adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebis zegavlenas, saxelmwifo informaciuli struqturis yovelgvar cvlilebas. zemoT aRniSnuli reformebis Semdeg, 1978 wels, igi sabolood Camoyalibda rogorc saqarTvelos ssr televiziisa da radiomauwyeblobis saxelmwifo komiteti _ saqarTvelos saxteleradio (es saxelwodeba SemorCa mas sabWoTa xelisuflebis dasrulebamde). 50-iani da 60-iani wlebis mijnaze cvlileba moxda teleradiokomitetis xelmZRvanelobaSic _ 1961 wlis seqtembridan komitetis Tavmjdomaris postze anton kelenjeriZe Secvala karlo gardafxaZem, ufro adre ki, 1958 wlis ianvridan, Tavmjdomaris moadgile radios dargSi gaxda petre SamaTava (man Secvala a. farulava, romelic gaTavisuflda sxva samuSaoze gadasvlis gamo). pirveli 1976 wlis martamde xelmZRvanelobda komitets, meore ki _ 1984 wlis ivlisamde, meoTxed saukuneze metxans kurirebda saqarTvelos radios. amave periodSi Tavmjdomaris moadgileebad (finansur da materialur-teqnikur nawilSi) muSaobdnen jer rafiel li parteliani da Semdgom oTar kakabaZe. 1957-1984 wlebi metad saintereso periodia saqarTvelos radios istoriaSi. jer erTi, es aris saqarTveloSi (da, saerTod, sabWoTa kavSirSi) radiomauwyeblobis ganviTarebis axali etapi, romelic ukavSirdeba televiziis damkvidrebas, radios saeTero monopoliis gauqmebasa da konkurenciis pirobebSi mauwyeblobis axali formebis Ziebas. marTalia, telemauwyeblobis sayovelTaod

gavrcelebas iseTi radikaluri gavlena ar mouxdenia saqarTvelos radioze, rogorc sazRvargareT, sadac cnobili mravalprofiliani universaluri radiosadgurebic ki specializaciis gzas daadgnen da formatul programirebaze gadavidnen, magram man uTuod iqonia zemoqmedeba ciklebisa da rubrikebis mowesrigebaze, mauwyeblobis ZiriTad mimarTulebaTa dazustebaze, funqciebis gamokveTasa da pirdapiri eTeris upiratesobaTa aqtiur gamoyenebaze. meore, es periodi gamoirCeva mniSvnelovani istoriuli xasiaTis socialur-politikuri movlenebiT: 50-iani wlebis bolosa da 60-iani wlebis pirveli naxevris voluntarizms sabWoTa kavSirSi didi xniT cvlis e. w. uZraobis epoqa, xolo Cvens respublikaSi 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi sul sxva procesebi iwyebs ganviTarebas. oTxi wlis manZilze, 1972-1976 wlebSi, skkp centralurma komitetma sami dadgenileba miiRo saqarTvelos Sesaxeb: `partiis Tbilisis saqalaqo komitetis organizatoruli da politikuri muSaobis Sesaxeb~ (1972), `saqarTvelos ssr saxalxo meurneobis Semdgomi ganviTarebis RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb~ (1974) da `saqarTvelos partiuli organizaciis Sesaxeb~ (1976). 1972 wels saqarTvelos komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis pirveli mdivani (qveynis pirveli piri) vasil mJavanaZe Secvala eduard SevardnaZem, rasac mohyva mTeli xelmZRvaneli partiuli da sabWoTa kadrebis Secvla ara mxolod respublikis, aramed raionebis donezec. cota mogvianebiT sakadro cvlilebebi moxda teleradiokomitetSic: 1976 wlis martSi karlo gardafxaZe gadayvanili iqna socialuri uzrunvelyofis ministrad da komitetis Tavmjdomared dainiSna guram enuqiZe, xolo 1979 wels saqarTvelos kp centraluri komitetis mdivnad (ideologiis dargSi) misi gadayvanis Semdeg igi Secvala nugzar fofxaZem, romelmac 1986 wlis ivnisamde imuSava. xelisuflebis totalur cvlas saqarTveloSi Tan mohyva axali kursi _ TiTqosda, daundobeli brZola qveyanaSi arsebuli negatiuri procesebisa: korufciis, proteqcionizmis, ukanonobis, narkomaniis da a. S. winaaRmdeg. centralur xelisuflebas es `naklovanebani~ adgilobriv problemebad miaCnda da maTze saubari sakavSiro eTerSi miRebuli ar iyo.

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ra Tqma unda, erT patara respublikaSi SeuZlebeli iyo im uaryofiTi Tvisebebis aRmofxvra, rac mTel sabWoTa sistemas axasiaTebda (saqarTvelos partiul elitas, marTlac, rom hqonoda aseTi mizani) da am brZolas arc SeiZleboda raime arsebiTi Sedegi mohyoloda. miuxedavad amisa, 70-iani wlebis meore naxevarsa da 80-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi, jer kidev e. w. gardaqmnis dawyebamde, saqarTvelos radiosa da televiziaSi damuSavda sajaroobis bevri iseTi forma da daisva bevri iseTi mwvave problema, romlebic centralur eTerSi mxolod 1987 wlidan gamoCnda. pirvel rigSi, m xedv el o ba Si gv aq vs au di to r ia sTan ka vS i ri sa da sazogadoebrivi azris organizebis sxvadasxva forma, agreTve aSkara saubari `akrZalul~ Temebze _ danaSaulobaTa zrdaze, narkomaniaze, prostituciaze da a. S. (sakmarisia iTqvas, rom mTavlitis adgilobrivma warmomadgenelma sakavSiro struqturaSi uCivla komitetis xelmZRvanelobas am Temebze eTerSi gadacemebis gaSvebis gamo). saqarTvelos radio (igi Tavis struqturaSi moicavda afxazeTis, aWarisa da samxreT oseTis radiokomitetebsac, agreTve quTaisis saqalaqo radios), romelic erTdroulad mimarTavda uzarmazar auditorias, sayovelTao agitatorisa da propagandis rols asrulebda _ saxelmwifo marTvis organoebidan msmenelebs gadascemda informacias, ganumartavda mocemul etapze partiis politikas, propagandas uwevda sabWoTa xelisuflebis wlebSi momxdar ekonomikur da kulturul gardaqmnebs, xels uwyobda masebis socialur da politikur aqtivizacias. amasTan, radiomauwyeblobis roli mxolod sazogadoebis informirebiTa da propagandiT rodi amoiwureboda. auditoriasTan kavSiris sxvadasxva formaze dayrdnobiT igi kontrols uwevda partiuli da saxelmwifo direqtivebis cxovrebaSi gatarebas, sawarmoo-ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis gadawyvetas. marTvis sxvadasxva sistemaze aqtiuri zemoqmedebiT radio Tavad Camoyalibda saxelmwifoebrivi marTvis aucilebel organod. saxelmwifoebrivi funqciebiT iyo ganpirobebuli xelisuflebis mudmivi zrunva radiomauwyeblobis materialurteqnikuri ganviTarebisaTvis. 1959 wels mwyobrSi Cadga axali

radiosadgurebi soxumsa da baTumSi; imave xanebSi amoqmedda samxreT oseTis olqis radiokvanZic. 1966 wels saqarTvelos teleradiokomitetma miiRo specialurad misTvis agebuli da axali aparaturiT aRWurvili Senoba (teleradiocentri) yofili leninis, amJamad kostavas quCaze, saidanac dRemde eweva mauwyeblobas. amasTan isic unda aRiniSnos, rom yvelaferi es perspeqtivaze ar iyo gaTvlili da ukve 70-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi sagrZnobi gaxda radiomauwyeblobis (aseve televiziis) teqnikuri CamorCeniloba. xmis Camweri studiebis moZvelebul teqnikaze, saTanado mikrofonebis mudmiv ukmarisobaze, ungruli warmoebis mZime da mouxerxebel portatul magnitofonebze, firis meqanikur montaJze da a. S. rom araferi vTqvaT, gadamcemi radiosadgurebis simZlavriT Cveni respublika bolo adgilze iyo sabWoTa kavSirSi da saqarTvelos radios xma qveynis bevr regionSi arc ismoda (TandaTan nadgurdeboda odesRac mTel respublikaSi organizebuli sadenebiani mauwyeblobac _ igi nawilobriv mxolod did qalaqebSi SemorCa). 1978 wels dadga sakiTxi axali radiosadguris aSenebis Sesaxeb, magram, samwuxarod, ver ganxorcielda (finansebi ver gamoiZebna). 60-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos radioSi funqcionirebda 4 mTavari redaqcia: 1. informaciis mTavari redaqcia, romelic calke gamoiyo 1959 wels. 1968 wels am redaqcias ewoda `informaciisa da erovnul enebze gadacemaTa mTavari redaqcia~, radgan mis struqturaSi `ukanaskneli cnobebisa~ da sportul gadacemaTa redaqciebis garda Sedioda agreTve somxur gadacemaTa da azerbaijanul gadacemaTa redaqciebi, agreTve reklamebisa da gancxadebebis redaqcia da adgilobrivi gadacemebis redaqcia; 2. sazogadoebrivpolitikuri gadacemebis mTavari redaqcia, romelsac 1957 wels jer kidev Zveli saxelwodeba _ politikuri radiomauwyeblobis mTavari redaqcia _ erqva; 3. sabavSvo da axalgazrduli gadacemebis mTavari redaqcia, romelsac Tavidan axalgazrdobis, sabavSvo da sportul gadacemaTa mTavari redaqcia erqva, radgan sportul programebsac amzadebda (garda amisa, 60-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi amzadebda agreTve

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rusulenovan yovelkvireul gadacemas `sabWoTa armiis meomrebisaTvis~); 4. mxatvrul gadacemaTa mTavari redaqcia. 1965 wlis TebervalSi Seiqmna radios programebisa da gamoSvebis mTavari redaqcia, romelsac 1971 wlis ivlisidan programebis direqcia ewoda. programebis mTavari redaqcia (direqcia) moicavda sam qvedanayofs: programebis redaqcias, gamomSveb redaqcias da diqtorTa jgufs. 60-iani wlebis bolos calke Camoyalibda rusul gadacemaTa mTavari redaqcia. igi moicavda rusuli respublikuri cnobebis redaqcias, sabWoTa armiis meomrebisaTvis gadacemebis redaqcias da gacvliTi gadacemebis redaqcias, romelic rusul enaze amzadebda gadacemebs mokavSire sabWoTa respublikebisaTvis da aseve gacvlis wesiT Rebulobda maT gadacemebs saqarTvelos radioeTerisTvis. 1973 wels sazogadoebriv-politikuri gadacemebis mTavari redaqcia daiyo propagandisa da saxalxo meurneobis mTavar redaqciebad. propagandis mTavar redaqciaSi darCa marqsistulleninuri Teoriis propagandisa da partiuli cxovrebis redaqcia da sabWoTa mSeneblobis, samarTlisa da moralis redaqcia. mis daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida agreTve somxuri da azerbaijanuli gadacemebis redaqciebi (pirveli maTgani yoveldRiurad iuwyeboda erTi saaTis, meore ki _ naxevari saaTis moculobiT). 80-ian wlebSi maT daemata qurTuli gadacemebis redaqcia, 90-ian wlebSi ki _ berZnuli gadacemebisa. orive kviraSi erTxel mauwyeblobda 15 wuTis moculobiT. saxalxo meurneobis mTavar redaqciaSi Sevidnen: mrewvelobis, mSeneblobisa da transportis redaqcia, soflis meurneobis redaqcia da mecnierebis da teqnikis (mogvianebiT _ mecnierebisa da teqnikuri progresis) redaqcia. aseve cal-calke Camoyalibda sabavSvo da axalgazrduli gadacemebis mTavari redaqciebi. samocian wlebs ukavSirdeba saqarTvelos sagareo radiomauwyeblobis aRmocenebac. jer kidev 50-iani wlebis bolos radiokomitetSi Camoyalibda e. w. respublikaTSorisi gadacemebis redaqcia, romelic gadacemebs ucvlida mokavSire respublikebis radiokomitetebs da 60-iani wlebidan asec ewoda _ `gacvliTi gadacemebis redaqcia~. amave redaqciaSi mzaddeboda yovelkvireuli erTsaaTiani programa `ucxoeTSi

mcxovrebi TanamemamuleebisaTvis~ (ZiriTadad, TurqeTSi da iranSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebisaTvis), romelic moskovis radiosadguridan gadaicemoda. 1963 wels gacvliT redaqcias gamoeyo `specialuri gadacemebis redaqcia~ (anu, ucxoeTze mauwyeblobis redaqcia). samociani wlebis bolos Seiqmna sazRvargareTis qveynebze mauwyeblobis mTavari redaqcia, romelic mogvianebiT telemauwyeblobasac moicavda. igi aerTianebda qarTul enaze gadacemaTa redaqcias da e. w. specialur gadacemaTa redaqcias. pirveli ganagrZobda programis momzadebas ucxoeTSi mcxovrebi TanamemamuleebisaTvis _ acnobda maT saqarTvelos ekonomikis, mecnierebis, kulturisa da xelovnebis mdgomareobas, mis warmatebebs msoflio arenaze, radioeTerSi axvedrebda gamoCenil qarTvel mwerlebs, msaxiobebs, kompozitorebs da a. S., farTo propagandas uwevda qarTul literaturas, Teatrsa da musikas. programis perioduloba TandaTan izrdeboda _ 1968 wlidan igi kviraSi orjer gadaicemoda, 1975 wlidan ki _ jer samjer, xolo Semdeg oTxjer (Tanac imave dRes samjer meordeboda). yoveli gadacema iwyeboda sainformacio gamoSvebiT `axali ambebi samSoblodan _ saqarTvelodan~. garda amisa, Tematur siuJetebTan erTad ewyoboda qarTul-Turquli da qarTul-sparsuli enebis gakveTilebi, romlebsac atarebdnen iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis profesorebi: nodar janaSia da jemSid giunaSvili. es gakveTilebi ucxoeTSi mcxovreb Cvens Tanamemamuleebs exmareboda qarTuli enis codnis gaRrmavebaSi. rac Seexeba specialur gadacemaTa redaqcias (rogorc zemoT iTqva, es saxeli erqva Tavidan ucxoeTze mauwyeblobis redaqcias), igi Seiqmna 1968 wels saqarTvelos kp centraluri komitetisa da ministrTa sabWos dadgenilebiT da daevala aSS-is radiosadgur `amerikis xmis~ qarTulenovani gadacemebis audiofirze Cawera, gaSifvra da manqanaze dabeWdva. dabeWdili teqstis egzemplarebi gasacnobad egzavneboda saq. kp centraluri komitetis biuros wevrebs, umaRlesi sabWos prezidiumisa da ministrTa sabWos xelmZRvanelebs, saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitets, aseve `saqinforms~, `sakdesis~ saqarTvelos ganyofilebas, centraluri respublikuri gazeTebis redaqtorebs,

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adgilze urigdebodaT teleradiomauwyeblobis Tavmjdomaresa da mis moadgileebs. aqve unda iTqvas, rom msgavsi redaqciebi sxva mokavSire respublikebis teleradiokomitetebSic iyo Seqmnili. es ganpirobebuli iyo mwvave ideologiuri dapirispirebiT socialistur da kapitalistur sistemebs Soris, romelmac `civi omis~ saxelwodeba miiRo da gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad mimdinareobda radioeTerSi (aSS-is prezidentma ronald reiganma Tavis droze mas `radioomic~ ki uwoda). xelisuflebas sWirdeboda zusti informacia, Tu ras gadmoscemdnen, ras eubnebodnen saqarTvelos mosaxleobas antisabWouri radiosadgurebi, pirvel rigSi ­ `amerikis xma~, rom Semdeg amis gaTvaliswinebiT ganxorcielebuliyo saTanadod gamiznuli kontrpropaganda (gaugebaria mxolod, ratom ar Seisw avleboda a sev e r adio sadgur `Tavi sufl ebi s~ qarTulenovani mauwyebloba, romelic Tavisi antisabWoTa xasiaTiT Tu ar aRemateboda, arafriT Camouvardeboda `amerikis xmas~). `amerikis xmis~ qarTulenovan gadacemas, ase vTqvaT, `iWerdnen~ da redaqcias specialuri xaziT awvdidnen sarTiWalis radiosadguridan, saidanac amave dros xdeboda misi CaxSobac, roca saubari iyo gansakuTrebiT arasasurvel politikur sakiTxebze, qarTveli xalxis mimarT Cadenil mraval borotebaze, masobrivi msmenelisaTvis ucnob faqtebsa da detalebze. ase rom, yvela informacia wesierad im xalxsac ki ar miewodebda, visac misi mosmena da gaSifvra evaleboda. es mdgomareoba e. w. gardaqmnis epoqamde, 1987 wlamde, grZeldeboda (ucxouri radiosadgurebis CaxSoba ssrk ministrTa sabWos dadgenilebiT daiwyo 1949 wlidan da am `saqmiT~ dakavebuli iyo 1660 radiosadguri, romelTa saerTo simZlavre aRemateboda erTad aRebuli sabWoTa saSinao da sagareo radiosadgurebis simZlavres). ase gamoiyureboda saqarTvelos radios organizaciuli struqtura 1960-70-ian wlebSi. 60-iani wlebidan garkveuli cvlileba ganicada mauwyeblobis struqturam. jer kidev 1956 wels Seiqmna saqarTvelos radios meore programa, romelic moicavda mxatvrul-musikalur gadacemebs da eTerSi yoveldRiurad

gadioda 2 saaTis xangrZlivobiT _ 21 saaTidan 23 saaTamde. m i s i w a r m o S o b a g a n p i r o b eb u l i i y o s a q a r Tv el o s radiomauwyeblobis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo funqciis gaZlierebiT da gansakuTrebiT ki _ radios unikaluri SesaZleblobebiT musikaluri xelovnebis gavrcelebasa da propagandaSi. 1965 wlis Tebervlidan II programas `Tbilisi _ 288~ ewoda (igi 288 m. sigrZis talRebiT gadaicemoda) da jer naxevari, Semdeg ki erTi saaTiT gaizarda. Sesabamisad, mas daemata `ukanaskneli cnobebis~ ori xuTwuTiani gamoSveba da saganmanaTleblo xasiaTis ciklebi: `didebi da patarebi~, `meridianebi da paralelebi~, `msoflios garSemo~ da sxv. radioeTerSi musikis mzardi popularobiT unda aixsnas yoveldRiuri specialuri musikaluri programis momzadeba ultramokle talRebze. saqarTvelos radiomauwyeblobaSi 1958 wlidan ori radiosadguri muSaobda ultramokle talRebze, magram isini, grZeli, saSualo da mokletalRovani radiosadgurebis msgavsad, pirvel programas gadascemdnen da amis gamo msmenelic naklebi hyavdaT (miT umetes, rom am periodSi saqarTveloSi stabilurad muSaobda sadenebiani radiomauwyebloba, e. w. xazis radio). saqarTveloSi musikaluri radiomauwyeblobis ganviTarebis Semdgomi safexuri iyo stereofonuri mauwyeblobis dawyeba. 70-iani wlebidan calkeuli musikaluri gadacemebi, radiodadgmebi da sxv. ukve stereofonurad iwereboda da garkveuli fondic grovdeboda. 1975 wlis noembridan ki eTerSi gavida damoukidebeli stereofonuri programa, romelic diliT da saRamoTi gadaicemoda ultramokle talRebze (saerTo jamSi 4-6 saaTis moculobiT). 1976-1990 wlebSi es programa ultramokletalRovan `mxatvrul-musikalur programasa~ da radiosadgur `Tbilisi _ 288~-sTan erTad (romelsac 1983 wlidan radiosadguri `mTawminda~ ewoda) Seadgenda saqarTvelos radios saerTo meore programas. programa ZiriTadad unificirebulia rogorc Tematikis, ise auditoriis mixedviT. miuxedavad amisa, 60-iani wlebis dasawyisSi jer kidev gvxvdeba iseTi zogadi rubrikebi, rogoricaa: `gadacema sazogadoebriv-politikur Temaze~, `gadacema mrewvelobis Temaze~ da a. S. xSiria calkeuli,

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erTjeradi gadacemebi, rac miuTiTebs, rom yvela redaqcias rodi aqvs gaazrebuli da dasistemebuli Tavisi mauwyebloba. amas garkveulwilad ganapirobebs mimdinare socialurpolitikur movlenebze `operatiuli reagirebis~ aucileblobac _ TiTqmis yoveli dadgenileba Tu gadawyvetileba, romelic ama Tu im partiul-saxelmwifoebriv RonisZiebas exeba, moiTxovs axali radio da teleciklebis SemoRebas, aRniSnuli RonisZiebis farTod gaSuqebas. arcTu iSviaTad, movlenas rom operatiulad `gamoexmauron~, redaqciebi ukve arsebul cikls an rubrikas axal rubrikaSi aTavseben da axali saxelwodebiT gadascemen (magaliTad, `skkp XXVI yrilobis gadawyetilebani _ cxovrebaSi~, ciklidan _ `sasursaTo programa moqmedebaSi~, saubari _ `qarTuli puris aRorZinebisaTvis~ _ 1983.13.04). aseTi `misadageba~ aucilebelia Tundac imitom, rom, rogorc wesi, saq. kp centralur komitetSi sistematurad igzavneba gasacnobad radioredaqciebis wliuri, kvartaluri da Tviuri gegmebi da aravis ar unda Seeparos eWvi, rom saqarTvelos radio ar iTvaliswinebs partiisa da xelisuflebis moTxovnebs. programis swor dabalansebas, mauwyeblobis optimaluri struqturis Camoyalibebas aZnelebs agreTve sakavSiro radios gadacemebis savaldebulo CarTva respublikur programaSi. garda imisa, rom saqarTvelos radioSi sistematurad mzaddeboda publicisturi, mxatvruli da sabavSvo gadacemebi rusul enaze (gansakuTrebiT 1960-1970 wlebSi), moskovidan translirebuli gadacemebis moculobam 1990 wlis bolosTvis 7 saaTs miaRwia: respublikur radioprogramaSi erTveboda sakavSiro `ukanaskneli cnobebis~ 5-6 gamoSveba, `milionTa leninuri universiteti~, `pionerskaia zorka~, `Celovek i zakon~, `zemlia i liudi~, `vremia, sobitia, liudi~, `radiostancia `iunost~ da mravali sxva. aRarafers vityviT leninis, oqtombris revoluciis Tu didi samamulo omis saiubileo TariRebze, sayrilobo gadacemebze da a. S. saerTod, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos radios pirveli programa (meore programa, rogorc vnaxeT, gansxvavebuli, specializebuli xasiaTisaa) warmoadgenda publicisturi, mxatvruli da saganmanaTleblo informaciis Semcvel mwyobr, mizanmimarTul sistemas, romelsac zustad gansazRvruli

sazogadoebrivi funqciebis Sesruleba evaleboda. sabWoTa saqarTvelos radio mTeli Tavisi arsebobis manZilze saerTosakavSiro teleradiomauwyeblobis ganuyofel nawils Seadgenda da, cxadia, damoukidebeli samauwyeblo politika ar gaaCnda. misi politika emyareboda marqsistul-leninur Sexedulebebs Jurnalistikis rolsa da adgilze saxelmwifos politikur struqturaSi, ganisazRvreboda partiuli gadawyvetilebebiTa da dadgenilebebiT, romlebic saerTo iyo yvela sabWoTa sainformacio saSualebisaTvis, uSualod eqvemdebareboda partiuli organoebis kontrolsa da miTiTebebs. ra Tqma unda, aTeuli wlebis manZilze mauwyeblobis struqtura ar SeiZleboda ucvleli darCeniliyo _ socialurpolitikuri procesebis Sesabamisad icvleboda Tematika, ixveweboda Janrebi da formebi, ufro srulad gamoiyeneboda radios specifikuri SesaZleblobani. magram ucvleli rCeboda Zalismieri programirebis principi. radioprograma gamoxatavda komunikatoris _ saqarTvelos radios, rogorc saxelmwifo informaciuli organos _ Tvalsazrissa da interesebs. radioSi naTqvami sityva aRiqmeboda oficiozis azris gamomxatvelad, xelisuflebis naTqvam sityvad. nebismieri gadacemis xarisxi ga ni saz Rvr eb oda ar a audito ri is inter esebis a da moTxovnilebebis, masze zemoqmedebis efeqtianobis mixedviT, aramed upirvelesad teqstis `ideurobiT~ _ arsebul ideologiur dogmebTan SesabamisobiT. amgvar publicistikas msmeneli TiTqos arc sWirdeboda, igi ZiriTadad zemdgomi organoebis moTxovnaTa dakmayofilebaze iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. Zneli warmosadgenia, rom masobrivi msmeneli hyoloda `pravdis~ mowinave statias, `milionTa leninur universitets~, `mecnieruli komunizmis safuZvlebs~, `socialisturi Sejibrebis dRiurs~, `partiul cxovrebas~ da mraval sxva msgavs gadacemas, romlebic aTeuli wlebis manZilze mudmivad iyo saqarTvelos radios programaSi. sabWoTa radiopropaganda Tavisi sworxazovnebis gamo ar SeiZleboda efeqtiani yofiliyo. igi mxolod garduvalobis STabeWdilebas qmnida (iseve, rogorc sayovelTao savaldebulo politikuri swavleba) da totalurobisa da monopoliurobis xarjze Tu

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axerxebda raime zemoqmedebas sazogadoebrivi azris formirebaze. radiopropagandis es ZiriTadi niSan-Tviseba gamoixata sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli stereoti piT _ `ra radiosaviT laparakob~, aisaxa xelovnebis nawarmoebebSi (sakmarisia gavixsenoT kinofilmebi: `giorgobisTve~, `laqa~, `aRdgoma~, s adac daZabul, dramatul situaciebSi radioreproduqtori meqanikurad dudunebs miRweul warmatebebsa da partiis mier dasaxul axal amocanebze). amave dros, erTgvar paradoqsad warmogvidgeba is mdgomareoba, rom yvela partiuli dadgenileba masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa Sesaxeb moiTxovs auditoriis Seswavlas da s az o ga doebi s s x va das x va j g uf i s i ntereseb is a da moTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswinebas. 60-ian wlebSi metad popularulia radiomsmenelTa daswrebuli Tu dauswrebeli konferenciebi (80-ian wlebSi igi Seicvala radio-televiziis dReebiT _ sxvadasxva regionSi redaqciebis gasvliT). didi mniSvneloba eniWeba radiomsmenelebis fostas, romelic xSirad gadacemis xarisxianobis ZiriTad kriteriumad aris miCneuli (Tumca werilebis umravlesoba musikalur dakveTebs Seexeba, anda iSviaTad saCivars warmoadgens). aqedan gamomdinare, werilebi upiratesad gamoiyeneba musikalur ciklebSi (`koncerti radiomsmenelTa TxovniT~, `saRamo mSvidobisa~, `studenturi diskoTeka~ da a. S.) da kritikul gadacemebSi (`redaqciaSi werili movida~, `roca redaqciaSi werili modis~ da sxv.). SedarebiT gvian daiwyo teleradiokomitetSi sazogadoebrivi azris SeswavlisTvis sociologiuri meTodebis gamoyeneba. mxolod 1978 wlis bolos Camoyalibda Sesabamisi organizaciuli struqtura _ sociologiuri kvlevisa da mecnieruli programirebis mTavari redaqcia (samecniero centri). marTalia, ramdenime wliT adre komitetSi orkaciani samecniero-meToduri ganyofilebac arsebobda, magram mas seriozul gamokvlevebze xeli ar miuwvdeboda. samecniero centrs ki, sadac sakmao Zalebma moiyara Tavi, evaleboda `tele da radioauditoriis sistematuri da gegmazomieri Seswavla, misi interesebis, moTxovnilebebis, erovnuli da fsiqologiuri Taviseburebebis gamokvleva da programirebis

mecnieruli rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba~, centri ZiriTadad televiziis problemebiT iyo dakavebuli da radioauditorias lokalurad swavlobda regionebSi radioteleviziis dReebis mowyobisas. yovelive zemoTqmuli saqarTvelos radios funqcionirebis princi pebisa da meTodebis Sesaxeb upiratesad publicistur mauwyeblobas Seexeba. kulturul-saganmanaTleblo mauwyebloba _ literaturis, xelovnebis, mecnierebis propaganda _ ra Tqma unda, aseve eqvemdebareboda xelisuflebis kontrols. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom TviTon kultura erovnuli fenomenia (Tumca iTvleboda, rom sabWoTa erebis kultura mxolod formiT iyo erovnuli SinaarsiT ki _ socialisturi), misi gavrceleba xels uwyobda erovnuli cnobierebis Camoyalibebas, radiomsmenelebis patriotul aRzrdas. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mTeli Tavisi arsebobis manZilze saqarTvelos radiom udidesi roli Seasrula erovnuli kulturis dacvasa da ga nviTarebaSi, q arTveli radiomsmenelebisaTvis sxvadasxva eris kulturis (ZiriTadad, musikaluri da literaturuli nawarmoebebis) gacnobaSi, zogadsakacobrio humanisturi Rirebulebebis gavrcelebasa da damkvidrebaSi. radios ganviTarebis axal etapze naTlad gamoCnda, rom misi specifika ucvleli ar aris. eTerSi zepiri saubris pirdapirma gadacemam da dokumenturi magnituri Canaweris farTod gamoyenebam sabolood Camoacila radiopublicistika sagazeTo Jurnalistikis gavlenas. televiziis damkvidrebam ki aiZula radio isev specifikis gaRrmavebaze ezruna, rac gamoixata rogorc axali formebis ZiebiT, ise, ufro metad, auditoriis sxvadasxva jgufis Sesabamisad gadacemebis diferenciaciiTa da funqciebis dakonkretebiT. televiziasTan konkurenciam mauwyeblobis maqsimalur diferenciaciasTan erTad gamoiwvia kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Sedegi _ funqciebis gadanawileba maT Soris, rac aseve mkveTrad gamoCnda sazRvargareTis mauwyeblobaSi: radio daspecialda axali ambebisa da musikis gadacemaSi. `axali ambebi plus musika~ ucxoeTis radiosadgurebis umravlesobis erT-erT ZiriTad princi pad iqca.

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2004 wlis dekembridan saqarTvelos saxelmwifo radiotelevizias oficialurad mieniWa sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis statusi. amiT damTavrda saqarTvelos radios, rogorc saxelmwifo radiomauwyeblobis, TiTqmis oTxmocwliani istoriac. saqarTvelos radiom gamoiara axali, komunisturi ideologiis damkvidrebisa da politikuri represiebis periodebi, msoflio omi, mravalnairi sazogadoebrivi reformebi, saxelmwifo gadatrialebebi, gamoicvala sami xelisufleba. yvelaferi es, ra Tqma unda, Tavis gamoxatulebas poulobda eTerSi, aisaxeboda radios yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi. arqivebSi daculi radiogadacemaTa teqstebi Tu sxva dokumentebi, audiofondSi Senaxuli Canawerebi udides masalas iZleva rogorc sakuTriv radios, ise mTlianad epoqis istoriazec, warmoaCens ara marto qarTuli radioJurnalistikis ganviTarebis etapebs, aramed qveyanaSi mimdinare movlenebsa da procesebsac. swored Jurnalistikis amgvari ganuyofeli kavSiri qveynis cxovrebasTan gansazRvravs saqarTvelos radios istoriis Seswavlis mniSvnelobasac da gvexmareba im warsulis gaazrebaSi, romlis pirdapiri memkvidre Cveni dRevandelobaa. aTeuli wlebis manZilze Seqmnili stereoti pebiT partia iyo yvela gamarjvebis organizatori, mTeli sazogadoebis interesebis gamomxatveli, misi keTildReobisaTvis mebrZoli (ti puri rubrika _ `partiis gegmebi xalxis gegmebia~). mikrofoni sistematurad eTmoboda yvela rangis partiul xelmZRvanelebs _ pirveladi organizaciis partbiuros mdivnidan dawyebuli _ respublikuri masStabis funqcioneramde. partiuli xelisuflebisagan gansxvavebiT sabWoTa organoebis saqmianoba iSviaTad aisaxeboda eTerSi. rogorc aRvniSneT, mxolod arCevnebiswina periodSi gamoCndeboda xolme cikli `deputatobis kandidatebi~, TviTon struqturebis muSaoba ki yuradRebis gareSe rCeboda. yovel calkeul periodSi konkretuli socialurpolitikuri situaciis Sesabamisad icvleboda saqarTvelos radios amocanebi, magram ar icvleboda misi arsi. radios sazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba ganisazRvreboda im socialuri funqciebiT, im roliTa da adgiliT, romelic mas ganekuTvneboda

arsebuli sazogadoebis politikur struqturaSi. sabWoTa piriodSi igi rogorc masobrivi informaciisa da propagandis saSualeba, Tavis mxriv, ufro didi sistemis _ komunisturi ideologiis, komunisturi aRzrdis sistemis erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawili iyo, emyareboda mkacrad gansazRvrul princi pebsa da meTodebs da xelisuflebis qmediT instruments warmoadgenda sazogadoebis marTvis sferoSi. saqarTvelos radioSi mimdinare istoriuli procesebi erTmniSvnelovnad ver Sefasdeba. ori mimarTuleba _ politikuri da kulturuli _ gansazRvravda mis saqmianobas mTeli misi arsebobis manZilze da Tumca orive erTmaneTTan mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli, TiToeulma Tavisi kvali datova qveynis sulier cxovrebaSi. ra Tqma unda, dRevandeli gadasaxedidan bevri ram sul sxvanairad Cans. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom globaluri televiziis, internetisa da multimediis ganviTarebis epoqaSi radio veRarasodes daikavebs im adgils, romelic mas Tundac oriode aTwleulis win ekava. magram sazogadoebis masobriv-informaciuli urTierTobis ganviTarebis istoriaSi man Tavisi roli Seasrula da es roli yovelgvari miCqmalvisa da gazviadebis gareSe unda iqnes gaazrebuli.

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TinaTin Wabukiani montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba Tavi meore montaJi, rogorc mxatvruli asaxvis saSualeba (drois organizacia) (gagrZeleba, dasawyisi ix.: `saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani~, #4 (33), 2007; # 1 (34), 2008; #2 (35), 2008). montaJi saekrano xelovnebaSi gansakuTrebulad rTuli sistemaa. erTi mxriv, esaa mxatvruli azrovnebis forma, meore mxriv ki, montaJi asrulebs wminda funqciur daniSnulebas, igi teqnikuri saSualebaa. wina publikaciebSi Cven ukve visaubreT, konkretulad ra datvirTva aqvs montaJur azrovnebas, kadris agebisas da kadrSi sivrcis organizaciis dros. naSromis am nawilSi ki visaubrebT iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxze, rogoricaa, saekrano drois organizacia, romelic, rasakvirvelia, ZiriTadad montaJis saSualebiT iqmneba. amasTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa vl. dalis mosazreba; igi ganmartebiT leqsikonSi wers: `dro _ es aris yofierebis xangrZlivoba, arsebobis Tanmimdevroba, wlisa da dRis esa Tu is xani, Jami. dro aris saukuneebi, epoqis periodebi, dRe-Ramis monacvleoba da, rac mTavaria, dro aris movlenis gansazRvruli momenti, rodesac raRac an iwyeba, an sulac mTavrdeba.~1 vfiqrob, drois aseTi daxasiaTeba yuradsaRebia da Tu kargad CavukvirdebiT, SegviZlia davesesxoT vl. dalis da kargad gamoviyenoT saekrano drois organizaciisas. studentebs Sevaxseneb, rom saekrano dro moiTxovs `uwyveti drois~ Seqmnas, rasakvirvelia, arsebobs xerxebi, romliTac SeiZleba vixelmZRvaneloT: drois SekumSva, droze gadaxtoma, drois gaxangrZliveba, drois qronologiurad Tu logikurad dalageba, drois SeCereba stop-kadriT da a. S. Tumca es yvelaferi pirobiTia da ar aris dogma, radganac Semoqmedi Tavis arCevanSi Tavisufalia. is Tavad irCevs xerxebs an sulac qmnis axal, individualur saekrano drois mdinarebas.

genialuri rusi reJisoris, a. tarkovskis, mosazrebiT, kinos gamogonebiT adamianma miiRo `realuri drois~ matrica. igi werda: `kinoxelovnebis upirvelesi funqciaa drois aRbeWdva, magram Cndeba kiTxva, Tu rogor xdeba ekranze drois aRbeWdva? me vfiqrob, Tuki kino, dros warmoadgens faqtebis meSveobiT, faqtebi ki, cxadia, mocemulia pirdapir, uSualod dakvirvebis gziT... aqedan gamomdinare, kinematografis sawyisi, rasakvirvelia, dakvirvebaa da idealur kinematografad me mimaCnia qronika...~2 cxovrebaSi dro yovelTvis moZraobs, SeuZlebelia drois mdinareba Seicvalos, Tumca xelovnebaSi, iseve rogorc adamianis cxovrebaSi, SesaZlebelia drois yvelanairi gadanacvleba. adamians azriT SeuZlia gadainacvlos warsulSi, ufro metic, mas SeuZlia warmoidginos da fiqrebiT momavalSi imogzauros. amis magaliTad gamodgeba uamravi Tanamedrove filmi. dResdReobiT gansakuTrebiT popularulia amerikuli teleseriali `dakargulebi~, sadac moqmedi gmirebisaTvis axlandeli, warsuli da momavali dro erTmaneTSia gadaxlarTuli, Tanac maT Soris iseTi mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSirebia, rom mayurebels sruli SegrZneba aqvs, rom samive dro paralelurad, erTdroulad arsebobs da TiTqos es asec unda iyos da amaSi araferia ucnauri... am serialSi mcdelobaa, ekranze aRibeWdos adamianis azris moZraoba. kamerebi iseTi siswrafiT, dinamikurad moZraobs, rom TiTqos eqvemdebareba TiToeuli personaJis azris moZraobas, romlebic realuri cxovrebidan warsulsa Tu momavalSi mogzauroben. siuJetebis aseTi konstruqciiT ageba swored montaJis saSualebiT mimdinareobs... saekrano xelovnebaSi dro yovelTvis transformirebulia, gamonaklisi mxolod satelevizio formatebia, konkretulad ki, translaciebi da pirdapiri CarTvebi, magram amaze cota mogvianebiT visaubrebT. axla ki isev saekrano dros davubrundeT. rasakvirvelia, rasac kameriT vafiqsirebT epizodSi, masSi mimdinare moqmedeba Tu xedebi realur sivrcesa da droSi viTardeba, magram montaJis dros bunebrivi drois dineba irRveva, radganac xdeba sxvadasxva sivrcobrivi monakveTebis SeerTeba im TanmimdevrobiT, rac saWiroa siuJetis

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struqturuli

Semadgenloba

agebisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, TiToeuli xedi, romelic aRbeWdilia firze, realobis nawilia, magram rakursuli gadaRebiT, sxvadasxva obieqtis gamoyenebiT, zogjer sulac montaJisas, samontaJo pultze xdeba gamosaxulebis moculobisa da kadrebis masStabebis Secvla, gamosaxulebis gamravleba, feris Secvla da a. S. ase iqmneba axali ekranuli sivrce, romelSic viTardeba ambavi (eqspozicia, kvanZis Sekvra, kulminacia, kvanZis gaxsna, finali), xdeba personaJebis Widili, brZola, xasiaTebis Zerwva. sabolood ki iqmneba iluzia, rom ekranul droSi mimdinare ambavi uwyvetad viTardeba. imisaTvis, rom es iluzia Sedges, saWiroa drois organizacia, misi warmarTva Sesabamisi ideisa da Canafiqris realizaciisTvis. amisaTvis ki, pirvel rigSi, unda moiZebnos Sesabamisi gadawyveta, Seiqmnas ekranuli qsovilis struqtura. cnobili reJisori da pedagogi m. rabigeri wers: `upirvelesad, Tqven unda gadawyvitoT, rogori TanmimdevrobiT unda aCvenoT mizezebi da Sedegebi, gansazRvroT, ra aris umjobesi _ aCvenoT namdvilad mimdinare moqmedebebis svla, Tu bunebrivi drois dineba SecvaloT~.3 amis magaliTad gamodgeba isev teleseriali `dakargulebi~, sadac es xerxi efeqturad aris gamoyenebuli; rodesac filmis gmirebi eqstremalur situaciebSi xvdebian, maSin maT cnobierebaSi elvis siswrafiT amotivtivdeba is gamousworebeli Secdomebi, romelic maT Caidines... anu, ekranis enaze rom vTqvaT, kamera dinamikurad mihyveba personaJis azris moZraobas da gadainacvlebs warsulSi, drois im monakveTSi, sadac mJRavndeba danaSauli da is xazgasmiT fiqsirdeba. Semdeg ki isev vbrundebiT gmiris cxovrebaSi, sadac is samarTlianad isjeba warsulSi Cadenili codvis gamo. teleseriali isea agebuli, rom awmyo da mogonebebis CarTva (warsuli) da is, rac unda moxdes (momavali), gamTlianebulia. aseT SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom filmSi dro aqronologiurad aris agebuli. im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac filmSi dro qronologiurad mimdinareobs, sinamdvileSi dro Secvlilia, anu, movlenebi Tanmimdevrulad ki aris dalagebuli, magram ise, rom movlenebidan aRebulia arsebiTi, mniSvnelovani momentebi,

sxva danarCeni ki gamotovebulia. magaliTad, r. CxeiZis filmSi `jariskacis mama~ qronologiurad aris naCvenebi meore msoflio omi, romlis fonzec viTardeba maxaraSvilebis istoria, magram msoflio omi xuTi weliwadi mimdinareobda, xolo am filmis xangrZlivoba mxolod saaTnaxevaria. rogorc cnobilia, ekranuli drois organizacia mayureblis yuradRebis warmarTviT mimdinareobs, romlis safuZvelic aris siuJetis logikurad ageba; ZiriTadad swored es faqtori qmnis ekranze cxovrebis uwyvetobis iluzias... filmSi movlena gacilebiT mokle droSi xdeba, vidre sinamdvileSi. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom filmi, romelic agebulia qronologiurad, sadac daculia movlenebis Tanmimdevroba, sinamdvileSi zedmiwevniT qronologiuri sulac ar aris, e. i., SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is pirobiTad qronologiuria; magram aris iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac realurad mimdinare dro da saekrano dro erTmaneTs emTxveva. es televiziis ZiriTadi, specifikuri Tvisebaa. pirdapiri translaciebi: fexburTis matCebi, koncertebi, aRlumebi, olimpiadebi, mitingebi, Toq-Souebi... amgvari gadacemebis dros mayurebels uCndeba TviTdaswrebis SegrZneba. mas hgonia, rom is Tavadac aqtiurad monawileobs movlenebSi. sinamdvileSi ki mayureblis cnobiereba satelevizio eTeris meSveobiT Tavisdauneburad, zewolis qveS eqceva. magaliTisTvis momyavs TbilisSi 2007 wlis 7 noembers gamarTuli saprotesto aqciis daSlis translacia. mogexsenebaT, Teatraluri universiteti rusTavelis prospeqtze mdebareobs, amdenad, studentebis umravlesoba am Setakebis monawile an TviTmxilveli aRmoCnda; am movlenas ori telekompania pirdapir eTerSi gadascemda, Tumca, sxvadasxvanairad. telekompania `imedis~ versia: saerTo xediT kamera afiqsirebda mTavrobis sasaxles mTlianad, danarCeni kamerebiT ki gviCvenebdnen yvelaze sakvanZo momentebs: wylis Wavli, siciveSi gawuwuli xalxi... waqceuli moxuci, romelsac Tavze gadauares, axalgazrda, romelsac `dubinkiT~ urtyamdnen, gaqceuli biWebi, romlebsac xelketebiT SeiaraRebulebi misdevdnen... Semdeg kadrSi mTavrobis spec-razmia, SavebSi Cacmuli, xelketebiT SeiaraRebuli niRbianebi xalxisken miiweven. ismis saSineli xma (xelketebis ritmuli dartymebi)...

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am televersiaSi aSkarad gamoCnda ori dapirispirebuli Zala: SeiaraRebuli specrazmelebi da umweo adamianebi. aqcentebi keTdeboda Zalmomreobaze, naCvenebi iyo adamianebze fizikuri da moraluri zewola, unda vaRiaroT, rom am kadrebma Zlieri fsiqologiuri dartyma miayena mayurebels. sazogadoebaSi aSkarad imata mTavrobis mimarT undoblobam da agresiam. aqve ganvixilav sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis mier gadacemul `mitingis daSlis~ televersias, sadac naCvenebi iyo Semdegi kadrebi: saerTo xedi; Setakeba xalxsa da specrazmelebs Soris; interviu mosaxleobasTan _ umetesoba Tanamemamuleebs simSvidisken mouwodebs... Semdeg kadrSi xalxi, ukve saxeSecvlili, brbod gadaqceuli sastikad uswordeba `wesrigis damcvels~. dRemde maxsovs sazareli kadrebi: xalxma qvebi dauSina specrazmels, romelic daeca... mas fexebiT Sesdgnen... axlo xediT fiqsirdeba TavgaCexili, dasisxlianebuli axalgazrda... momdevno kadrSi opoziciis lideri pirdapir acxadebs, rom vinc maTTan ar dgas, is samSoblos moRalated unda Seiracxos! kadrSi isev xalxia _ wylis Wavlisgan gawuwuli da gazisgan gabruebuli, kadrs gareT ki Jurnalistis komentari ismis: vin aiRebs momxdarze pasuxismgeblobas? situacia umarTavia... yvelaferi xom ar meordeba? qveyana safrTxis winaSea... rasakvirvelia, mayureblis cnobierebidan TandaTan amotivtivdeba samoqalaqo omis kadrebi, yvelaferi xom zustad aq, am adgilas, datrialda 1992 wels. umravlesoba Tavad monawileobda samoqalaqo omSi, misi Sedegebi yvelam iwvnia... qalaqis ngreva, uSuqoba, ugzooba, SimSili, inflacia... mayurebels TviTgadarCenis instinqti hkarnaxobs: rac ginda iyos, oRond omi ar ganmeordes! stabiluroba unda SevinarCunoT! stabiluroba! am SemTxvevaSi telekompaniam agresia `windauxedavi~ opozicionerebisaken mimarTa. zemoaRniSnuli ori magaliTis analizze dayrdnobiT studentebma Tavad gaavles paralelebi da mividnen im daskvnamde, rom realurad mimdinare `mitingis darbeva~, rogorc ki dafiqsirda teleekranis CarCoSi, mouxedavad pirdapiri

reportaJisa, subieqturi gaxda. swored amitom aris satelevizio produqcia sazogadoebriv cnobierebaze zemoqmedebis mZlavri iaraRi, romelic SesaZlebelia gamoiyeno rogorc dadebiTad, aseve uaryofiTad. genialuri reJisori a. tarkovski Tavis erT-erT interviuSi werda: `Cemi amocanaa Sevqmna individualuri drois nakadi, gadmovce kadrSi Cemi SegrZnebebi, moZraoba da cxovrebis rbola... da kidev, rogorc ki drois monakveTs kameris meSveobiT gamovyofT saerTo drois mdinarebidan, dro individualuri xdeba...~4 rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, drois transformacia SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva xerxis saSualebiT. cnobilia, rom movlena, romelic realobaSi ramdenime Tve grZeldeba, ekranze gadatanisas Seicvalos da ramdenime wamSi an wuTSi mimdinareobdes. magaliTad, atmis xe sanam nayofs gamoiRebs, yvavilobidan _ damwifebamde, sakmaod xangrZliv, eqvsTvian process gaivlis. Tumca ekranze igive procesi (kvirtis gaSla, ayvaveba, nayofis gamoReba, damwifeba, foTlebis gayviTleba, Wknoba da foTolcvena), SesaZlebelia sul ramdenime wuTi gagrZeldes. drois aseT Secvlas saekrano xelovnebaSi `droze gadaxtoma~ ewodeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi drois tranformacia montaJuri gadasvlebiT mimdinareobs. magaliTad, kadrSi axlo xedze iSleba atmis kvirti, Semdeg kadrSi ki naCvenebia saerTo xedi _ soflis peizaJi, kadrs gareT ismis axaldabadebuli Cvilis xma, momdevno kadrSi saerTo xedze ayvavebuli atmis xea, mas Caenacvleba axlo xedze Cvilis gaRimebuli saxe da a. S. umravles SemTxvevaSi `droze gadaxtomisas~ sivrcis koordinatebi icvleba. arsebobs drois transformaciis meore xerxi, romelsac `drois SekumSva~ ewodeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi, realobaSi mimdinare movlena, romelic cxovrebaSi saaTebi, kvirebi, Tveebi grZeldeba, ekranze wamebsa Tu wuTebSi mimdinareobs. magaliTad, morbenali, realur cxovrebaSi Sejibrze 100 m. distancias 10 wamSi gairbens, Cven ki es faqti ekranze SegviZlia 5 wamSi vaCvenoT, e. w. caitraferis saSualebiT, Tanac ise, rom misi moZraobis arc erTi faza ar gamovtovoT.

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Semadgenloba

telexelovnebis mkvlevari k. inasariZe Tavis wignSi `telemetyveleba~ wers: `caitraferis meSveobiT iqmneba arabunebrivi, Cqari moZraoba. aseTi moZraobis SeqmnisTvis saWiroa erT wamSi gadaRebul iqnas `normalurze~, e. i. 24 kadrze, naklebi, vTqvaT, 10-iT naklebi kadri... caitraferi iqmneba maSin, roca kadrTa raodenoba ekranze gaSuqebisas ufro metia, vidre gadaRebisas~.5 `drois SekumSva~ (caitraferiT an samontaJo pultis meSveobiT) saSualebas iZleva SeinarCuno realuri drois uwyvetoba aCqarebis xarjze da aCveno moZraobis yvela faza. magaliTad, mTvaris amosvla Rrublebidan an misi gauCinareba caze... metroSi matareblebisa da mgzavrebis swrafi moZraoba, quCaSi manqanebis dineba pikis saaTis dros da a. S. es xerxi gansakuTrebiT xSirad gamoiyeneba samecniero, sportul, zRaprul da fantastikur filmebSi. arsebobs drois Secvlis kidev erTi xerxi, romelsac SeiZleba vuwodoT `drois gaxangrZliveba~. am dros realuri dro ufro gawelilia, amis miRweva SeiZleba rogorc samontaJo pultze, aseve aCqarebuli gadaRebiT (caitlupes xerxiT), rodesac kadrebis sixSire icvleba wamSi 24-25 kadriT (rapidiT). aseT SemTxvevaSi mayurebels SeuZlia, moqmed gmirTa saxeze dainaxos tyviis moZraobis traeqtoria da Sinagani mRelvarebis gamomxatveli iseTi niuansebi, romelsac Cveulebrivad TvaliT ver dainaxav (mzeris gaelveba, Tvalze momdgari cremli, mrisxaneba da a. S.). aqve SevaCereb yuradRebas saekrano drois organizaciis erT-erT xerxze, e. w. `stop-kadrze~. Tanamedrove satelevizio samontaJo pultze SesaZlebelia, rom ukve gadaRebul masalaSi gamovyoT da wamiereba stop-kadriT davafiqsiroT. magaliTad, Cven gadaRebuli gvaqvs saerTo xedze mitingi. samontaJo pultze Cven SegviZlia mivuaxlovdeT da aqcenti gavakeToT erT-erT moqalaqeze, romelsac spec-razmeli xelkets urtyams... am xerxiT SesaZlebelia warvmarToT mayureblis yuradReba, movaxdinoT misi mzeris koncentracia da gavaZlieroT `Zaladobis~ faqtiT gamowveuli emocia... stop-kadri televiziaSi xSir SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba, rogorc sasveni niSani, `wertili~ samontaJo frazis, epizodis an gadacemis dasrulebisas.

aqve minda aRvniSno kidev erTi xerxi _ e. w. drois simboluri gadalaxva. misi meSveobiT xdeba ori xedis iseTi montaJuri SeerTeba, rodesac pirvel kadrSi drois erTi monakveTia, momdevnoSi ki _ meore. magaliTad, pirvel kadrSi adamianis xelia naCvenebi, romelic batis frTiT werils wers, meore kadrSi ki viRacis xeli kompiuterSi wers werils. am SemTxvevaSi aseTi formiT gadailaxeba saukuneebi. aseTive warmatebiT SesaZlebelia gadailaxos weliwadis cvalebadoba. magaliTad, jer naCvenebi iqneba ayvavebuli buneba, Semdeg ki _ Tovliani landSafti. am xerxis gamoyenebisas mTavaria moiZebnos zusti simbolo, romelic mocemul konstruqciaSi organulad iqneba Serwymuli. xelovnebaTmcodne z. krakaueri Tavis wignSi: `fizikuri realobis reabilitacia~ wers: `kinoenis Tvisebebi namdvilad emTxveva fotografias, kinos iseve, rogorc fotografias SeuZlia aRbeWdos da gaxsnas fizikuri realoba, Tumca kinoena, garkveulwilad, fotografiis Semdgomi etapia da masSi ori tendencia iCens Tavs _ realizmi da formebis Seqmna~.6 albaT, aseTi amocanis winaSe idga a. tarkovski, rodesac Tavis film `andrei rubliovze~ muSaobisas werda: `moqmedeba mimdinareobs meTxuTmete saukuneSi, mtanjvelad Zneli aRmoCnda warmoidgino, rogori garemo, atmosfero an yofa iyo im saukuneSi... momixda da vy r dno b o di y v el a na ir w ya r o ebs : ar q i teq tu ra s , zepirsityvierebas, Zeglebs, xatweras, magram yvelaze mniSvnelovani amocana meTxuTmete saukunis realurad aRdgena iyo... anu, Cven is samyaro iseTad unda warmogvedgina, rom mayurebels `samuzeumo eqsponatebis SegrZneba~ ar hqonoda~.7 cnobilia, rom reJisorma `andrei rubliovSi~ es problema brwyinvaled gadaWra. filmi istoriulia, Tumca samuzeumo eqsponats ar warmoadgens da rogorc WeSmariti xelovnebis nimuSi, yvela drois mayureblisTvisaa gankuTvnili. naSromis am nawilSi Cven SevexeT TiTqmis yvela xerxs, romelic SesaZlebelia, rom gamoiyeno saekrano drois tranformaciisTvis; esenia: droze gadaxtoma, drois SekumSva, drois gaxangrZliveba, drois simboluri gadalaxva, wamierebis SeCereba _ stop-kadri da a. S. TiToeuli maTgani, umravles

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SemTxvevaSi, montaJis an samontaJo pultis mani pulaciebiT miiRweva. Tanamedrove samontaJo kompiuteruli pulti uamrav saSualebas flobs. reJisorma aucileblad unda Seiswavlos axali teqnologiebi, romlebic dRiTidRe ixveweba da viTardeba; Tumca maTi Seswavlis Semdeg Semoqmeds SeuZlia, uari Tqvas yvela maTganze da eZebos Tavisi individualuri SemoqmedebiTi gza. (gagrZeleba iqneba)

kulturis menejmenti

1. . ., "- ", II., , 2000, . 19. 2. : " ", 1967, 4, , . 70. 3. ., ". ", , 1998, . 21. 4. ., " ", , 1991, . 229. 5. k. inasariZe, `telemetyveleba~, miunheni, 2000, gv. 76. 6. ., " ", , 1991, . 71. 7. ., "7, ", , 1991, . 71 .

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rogor unda daisaxos mizani samuSaos SesrulebisaTvis miznis dasaxva Zalian mniSvnelovania, radgan is azrians xdis TanamSromlis da menejeris cxovrebas, saSualebas aZlevs maT, gaiazron mimdinare operaciebi, saqme, funqciebi, gansazRvron saqmianobis efeqturoba da SesaZleblobas iZleva, safuZveli i povon Semdgomi srulyofisaTvis. blanSars da jonsons wignSi `erTwuTiani menejeri~ mohyavT problemuri TanamSromlis magaliTi, romelic samuSaos Semdeg TamaSobda boulings iseTi maqsimaluri daZabulobiT (fizikuri da fsiqologiuri), romelsac is verafriT aRwevda samuSao adgilze. ufro metic, misi cxovreba am wuTebSi azriani da mSvenieri xdeboda. ratom ar SeuZlia am TanamSromels ase daixarjos samsaxurSi? albaT, imitom rom is ver xedavs kegls (mizans), romelic unda gaitanos. SesaZlebelia, kegli aravin ar dadga (misma xelmZRvanelma) an SeiZleba, kegli fardis miRma devs (misi xelmZRvanelis gulCaTxrobiloba)? yvela ki ar isvris burTs, roca ver xedavs kegls (mizans), mxolod Zalian cota TamaSobs brmad im imediT, rom xelmZRvanlis mowonebas daimsaxurebs. am statiaSi Cven ganvixilavT miznis dasaxvis teqnikas ­ SMART-s, anu, miznis `gonivrulad~ Camoyalibebas. es teqnika aris sayovelTaod miRebuli saerTaSoriso menejmentis klasika da nebismieri menejeris aucilebeli Cveva. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom miznis dasaxvis teqnika ­ SMART-i auci lebeli profes ionalur i moTxovnaa yvela xelmZRvanlisTvis da aseve im TanamSromlebisTvis, romlebsac undaT gaxdnen xelmZRvanelebi. SMART-i (akronimi, Targmani inglisuridan ­ Wkviani, Wkua, goneba) es _ miznebisa da amocanebis dasaxvis standartia, romelic Seicavs miznis xuT mniSvnelovan maxasiaTebels.

S M A R T

Specific/ konkretuloba, specifikuroba Measurable/ ganzomilebadoba Achievable/ miRwevadoba Relevant/ relevanturoba Time bound/ drois vadebi

1.

S

-

konkretuloba

konkretuloba ­ miznis pirveli moTxovnaa, romelic miznis konkretulobas gulisxmobs (mis specifikurobas). specifikur mizans ufro meti saSualeba aqvs, Sesrulebul iqnas, vidre zogadad (bundovnad) dasaxul mizans. specifikuri miznis dasaxvisas aucilebelia, ramdenime kiTxvas gaeces pasuxi: 1. vin: vin aris Cabmuli? 2. ra: ris gakeTeba minda? 3. sad: adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra. 4. rodis: drois vadebis dadgena. 5. pirobebi: moTxovnebis da SezRudvebis gansazRvra. 6. ratom: miznis miRwevis Semdeg kuTvnili gansakuTrebuli mizezebi, benefitebi. mocemuli parametri moiTxovs, rom mizani iyos konkretuli, naTeli da orazrovani formulirebis gareSe. mizani unda moicavdes naTel informacias, raTa TanamSromelma garkveviT gaigos, rac mas moeTxoveba. specifikur miznebSi `wyali~ ar unda iyos. aseTi miznebis interpretacias erTnairad axdens rogorc xelmZRvaneli, aseve TanamSromeli. swored amitom aris rekomendirebuli pasuxi gaeces kiTxvebs: ra? sad? rodis? ratom? da a. S. specifikuri mizani unda ganisazRvros aranakleb 5-10 da araumetes 250 sityviT (teqstis 1 gverdi maqsimumia).

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magaliTad, araspecifikuri mizani ase JRers: `viswavli manqanis tarebas~, xolo specifikuri _ `viswavli manqanis tarebas uaxloes or TveSi~. aq mizani mokled aris Camoyalibebuli. SesaZlebelia misi ufro detalurad Camoyalibebac, sadac aisaxeba ara marto Sedegi, aramed miznis ganxorcielebis gzebi. ase rom, Cven vsaubrobT detalurad dakonkretebul mizanze, imitom rom vgegmavT marTvas ara mxolod konkretuli rezultatis mixedviT, aramed mis misaRwevad, TanamSromlebTan vaTanxmebT gzebs da saSualebebs. xandaxan SegviZlia davisaxoT ara marto saboloo mizani, aramed Sualeduri Sedegebic movxazoT. 2. M ganzomilebadoba

anu, imisTvis, rom davisaxoT mocemuli amocanis gegmiuri m a C v en e b el i d a d a r w m u ne b u l e b i v i y o T p r o c e s i s ganzomilebadobaSi da Sedegis miRwevaSi, Cven, rogorc wesi, unda viqonioT mocemuli kriteriumis Sesabamisad wina periodis statistikuri monacemebi. aseve Cven yovelTvis unda gvqondes amocanis Sesrulebis donis gakontrolebis SesaZlebloba. sxva SemTxvevaSi amocana azrs kargavs. 3. A miRwevadoba

ganzomilebadoba ­ miznis miRwevis donis gansazRvris SesaZlebloba ­ erT-erTi sakvanZo moTxovnaa amocanis dasaxvis dros, rodesac gadavdivarT miznebis marTvis standartze (MBO ­ Management by Objectives). progresis gansazRvrisTvis saWiroa dadgindes konkretuli kriteriumebi. Tqven ar SegiZliaT marToT is, risi gazomvac SeuZlebelia. yvelaferi, rac ganzomilebadia SeiZleba miRweul iqnas. progresis Sefaseba Tqven ar gaZlevT saSualebas, gzidan gadauxvioT, Tqven aRwevT drois dadgenil vadebs, axdenT resursebis optimizacias, koordinirebas uwevT prioritetebs da iTvaliswinebT garemocvis dinamikas. praqtika gviCvenebs, rom ganzomilebadobis kriteriumi gacilebiT rTulia SMART-is teqnikaSi. roca vsaubrobT misaRwevi miznis (amocanis) donis ganzomilebadobaze, es niSnavs, rom Cven unda warmovidginoT ara mxolod is mdgomareoba, romelsac unda mivaRwioT, aramed sawyisi mdgomareobac.

menejeri amocanis dasaxvis dros darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom is miRwevadia da saocrebis, iRblis imedi ar unda hqondes. Tu menejerma gadawyvita amocanis dasaxva TanamSromlisaTvis, ese igi, mas aqvs gonivruli, logikuri da obieqturi safuZveli, romelic adasturebs, menejeris azriT, amocanis miRwevadobas. organizacia miznobriv marTvaze gadasvlisas adre Tu gvian xvdeba, rom aucilebelia obieqturi procedurebis da dagegmarebis meTodebis danergva, rac xelmZRvanelobis mier dasaxuli miznebis miRwevadobis dasabuTebis saSualebas iZleva. meore aspeqti miznis miRwevadobisa imaSi mdgomareobs, rom miznis dasaxvis dros menejerma unda Camoayalibos iseTi miznebi, romlebic avtomaturad miuRwevelia. anu, Tu TanamSromeli ar gamoiCens damatebiT Zalisxmevas, gamoiyenebs tradiciul instrumentebs, meTodebs, teqnologiebs da SeZlebs miaRwios mizans damatebiTi Zalisxmevis gareSe, es niSnavs, rom mizani iyo arasworad dasaxuli (Semcirebuli). mizani unda iyos rTuli, magram miRwevadi da iwvevdes TanamSromels `brZolaSi~. aseTi miznebi TanamSromlebs profesiuli, finansuri, TviTrealizaciis da a. S. zrdis SesaZleblobas aZleven. misi

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rogor unda daisaxos mizani

samuSao ar iqneba rutinuli da gaxdeba ufro daZabuli, magram saintereso. mesame aspeqti miznis miRwevadobisa imaSi mdgomareobs, rom es mizani unda iqnas mitanili TanamSromlamde. samwuxarod, mTel msoflioSi TanamSromlebis didma nawilma ar icis Tavisi samuSaos zusti mizani, Tumca SeiZleba bevrisTvis is werilobiTi formiTac arsebobdes. da bolos, meoTxe aspeqti mdgomareobs imaSi, rom TanamSromelTan misaRwevi miznis ara marto fizikuri SeTanxmeba unda arsebobdes, aramed TanamSromlisTvis fsiqologiurad misaRebi unda iyos miznis miRwevadoba. amitom, `brZolaSi~ gamomwvevi miznis obieqturi dasabuTebis garda, unda dainergos TanamSromlebis mier miznis ganxilvis da miRebis procedura. sanam TanamSromeli fsiqologiurad ar aris Tanaxma, es miznebi misTvis ucxoa. is ekuTvnis mxolod menejers, romelmac isini Camoayaliba. adamianebs ar uyvarT sxvisi miznebis da ideebis ganxorcieleba. 4. R relevanturoba

anu, mocemul amocanaSi (mizanSi) arsebobs TanamSromlis mier uamravi sustad kontrolirebadi faqtori, romlebic zemoqmedebas axdenen miznis miRwevaze. sinamdvileSi, rom gaiTvaliswino miznis dasaxvisas ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego tendencia, es sakmaod rTuli problemaa: erTi mxriv, organizaciis survili gaanawilos rezultatebze pasuxismgebloba ganyofilebebsa da TanamSromlebs Soris da, meore mxriv, gamoyos swored is faqtorebi da amocanebi, romlis miRwevac damokidebulia, pirvel rigSi, TamamSromlebis muSaobaze. xandaxan TanamSromels sWirdeba damatebiTi axsna dasaxuli miznis relevanturobaze. magaliTad, TanamSromlis amocanaa wignebis gasaRebis gazrda momxmareblis mudmivi raodenobis SemTxvevaSi. dasaSvebia, rom zogierTi TanamSromeli ver mixvdeba, rom saWiroa gayidvebis sixSiris an/da moculobis gazrda arsebuli momxmareblisTvis. am SemTxvevaSi umjobesia amocanis dazusteba: gaizardos gayidvebis moculoba 100000 laridan 200000 laramde savaWro garigebis saSualo Rirebulebis xarjis gazrdiT 1000 laridan 2000 laramde. aseTi formulirebiT amocana ufro konkretuli da gasagebi gaxdeba SemsruleblisaTvis, radgan is miuTiTebs im saSualebaze, romlis gamoyenebiTac TanamSromels SeuZlia gazardos gayidvebis moculoba. Tu zogadad amocana aris gayidvebis moculobis gaormageba, maSin gasagebia, rom es gaormageba SeiZleba miRweul iqnas momxmareblis, TamnamSromlebis, sareklamo xarjebis, asistentebis da a. S. raodenobis zrdis xarjze.

relevanturoba ­ meoTxe moTxovna sworad dasaxuli miznisa aris misi relevanturoba. ZiriTadad saubaria imaze, rom ar arsebobs TanamSromlis mier arkontrolirebadi faqtorebi, romlebic zegavlenas axdenen dasaxul mizanze (an maTi zegavlena umniSvneloa, an advilad gadasalaxavi). magaliTad, wignebis gavrceleba damokidebulia ara marto savaWro obieqtis muSaobaze, aramed aseve sawyobSi saqonlis arsebobaze, sareklamo biujetis arsebobaze da konkurentebis qmedebaze.

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mRebriSvili

rogor unda daisaxos mizani

ufro konkretulad amocana ase iqneba; gaormagdes savaWro garigebis saSualo Rirebuleba. amis gasaxorcieleblad TanamSromels damoukideblad SeuZlia SearCios xerxebi an saSualebebi: Caataros arsebuli momxmareblis daxarisxeba, gadavides kompleqsur kontraqtebze, Seiswavlos didi savaWro garigebis teqnologiebi da sxva. mniSvnelovania, rom TamnamSromelma miiRos dasaxuli miznis relevanturoba da gaacnobieros, rom misi ganxorcieleba, upirveles yovlisa, damokidebulia mis Zalisxmevaze. 5. T drois vadebi

Tanamedrove pirobebSi menejmenti iZulebulia iyos ufro metad dinamikuri: iqmneba axali teqnologiebi da produqtebi, izrdeba saerTaSoriso da adgilobrivi konkurencia. organizacias naklebad aqvs saSualeba, ganaxorcielos xangrZlivi dagegmareba. moklevadian dagegmarebaze gadasvla SesaZleblobas iZleva, ukeTesad gaakontrolos samuSaos Sesrulebis Sedegebi da efeqturoba, ufro moqnili iyos xelmZRvanelobaSi. miznis dasaxvis teqnikis SMART-is gamoyeneba SesaZlebels xdis, mkafiod Camoyalibdes miznebi da moiZebnos efeqturi gzebi maT misaRwevad.

drois vadebi ­ es aris bolo moTxovna miznis dasaxvisas. samuSaos TiToeul etapze saboloo da Sualeduri vadebi aucileblad unda mieniSnos moxsenebebSi, protokolebSi, krebebze, TaTbirebze, sadac miTiTebuli iqneba miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi da masze pasuxismgebeli pirebi. miznis dasaxvisas yvelaze tradiciuli gadawyvetileba exeba amocanis drois Semadgenels ­ Sesrulebis saboloo vadis miTiTeba. xandaxan saWiroa damatebiTi drois gaTvaliswineba, rodesac arsebobs sxvadasxva TanamSromlis mier Sesrulebuli amocanebis kveTa. magaliTad, TanamSromlebma Tavisi mosazreba biujetze unda warudginon ganyofilebis xelmZRvanels 20 ricxvamde, romelmac unda waradginos biujeti 25 ricxvamde, radgan organizaciis xelmZRvanelma unda daamtkicos biujeti 30-Si. xarisxis totaluri amaRlebisaTvis da qmedebebis SeTanxmebisaTvis aucilebelia gamoiyos sakvanZo amocanebis Sualeduri etapebi da gakontroldes mocemuli davalebis Sesrulebis msvleloba. L

· , , , « », 2007. · ., ., « », 2001.

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universitetis samagistro programa

`Z v e l i q a r T u l i s a T e a t r o x e l o v n e b i s a n T r o p o l o g i a~

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT. statiebis stili daculia programis xelmZRvaneli _ lamara RonRaZe

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nino darsalia micvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiT xelovnebaSi saqarTveloSi qristianobis gavrcelebas win uZRvoda grZeli periodi, romelic warmarTobis saxeliT aris cnobili. warmarTuli dro poliTeisturi azrovnebiT xasiaTdeboda, TiToeuli RmerTis sadideblad iqmneboda mravali sakulto rituali da wes-Cveulebebi. uZvelesi ritualebi imdroindeli xalxis yofa-cxovrebas ukavSirdeboda, ZiriTadad es iyo nadirobasTan, ganayofierebasTan, bunebis movlenebTan da micvalebulTan dakavSirebuli sakulto ritualebi. swored am ritualebsa da wes-CveulebebSi Caeyara safuZveli Teatralur sanaxaobebs, romelTa Soris Tavisi TeatralobiTa da gamomsaxvelobiTi elementebis simravliT gamoirCeva micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebuli wes-Cveulebebi. micvalebulis kults saTanado adgili uWiravs, rogorc sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis dabal safexurze mdgom, aseve msoflios civilizebul xalxTa yofaSi. `igi rTuli religiuri kompleqsTagania, romelSic cnobierebis uZvelesi formebis kvalia SemorCenili. micvalebulis kulti moicavs yvela im saweso moqmedebas, romlebic sruldebian gardacvlilis datirebis, dakrZalvis da glovis dros~.1 saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela kuTxeSi gavrcelebuli iyo micvalebulis kulti da masTan dakavSirebuli wes-Cveulebebi. maT Soris gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia fSav-xevsurTa warmarTuli rwmena-warmodgenebi da ritualebi, romelTa tradiciebi bolo dromde mtkiced hqondaT SemorCenili xevsurebs. micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebul xevsurul ritualebSi da wes-CveulebebSi uxvad gvxvdeba Teatraluri sanaxaobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebi. am mxriv gansakuTrebul figuras warmoadgens mesulTane. xevsurebs Rrmad swamdaT, rom saiqiosa da gardacvlil sulebs didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda cocxalTaTvis. maTi rwmeniT `suleTSi~ wydeboda `samzeos~ bed-iRbali da amitomac gardacvlilma sulebma winaswar icodnen yvelaferi. saiqioSi

myofi sulebis Sesaxeb xalxi igebda specialuri pirisagan, romelsac mesulTane erqva. mesulTanes movaleobas Seadgenda sulsa da cocxal adamianebs Soris Suamavloba, mesulTane gardacvlilis sulSi Sedioda da mas elaparakeboda, gardacvlili mesulTanes saSualebiT atyobinebda ambebs Wirisufals da saWiro rCeva-darigebasac iZleoda. mesulTane aucileblad qali unda yofiliyo. Zvel droSi mesulTaneoba, rogorc Cans, profesiadac ki iTvleboda. amas migvaniSnebs is, rom mesulTaned 18-20 wlis asakSi xdebodnen xolme. mesulTane gansakuTrebuli TvisebebiT gamoirCeoda, igi iyo gabeduli, Wkviani, mWvrmetyveli, sityvamoswrebuli. `sulaToba~ Wirisuflis TandaswrebiT xdeboda. mesulTane daiwyebda mTqnarebas, caxcaxs, xelebs da Tavs iqnevda, Semdeg xelebs muxlisTavebze Semoixvevda da micvalebulis xmiT daiwyebda laparaks. mesulTanes s aqmi ano ba s asc eno xel ovnebi saTv is damaxasiaTebel mraval elements moicavs. magaliTad, igi SesaZlebelia moviazroT Tanamedrove msaxiobis winaprad. mesulTane msaxiobis msgavsad gardaisaxeboda sxva adamianad da im adamianis grZnobebsa da gancdebs gadmoscemda. mesulTanes gardacvlili adamianis survilebi da azrebi unda gaeTavisebina da moergo iseve, rogorc msaxiobs _ Tavisi personaJisa. msaxiobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebidan mesulTanesaTvis a g r e Tv e a R s a ni S na v i a m i b a Zv i s u na r i . m es u l T a nes gardacvlilisaTvis unda miebaZa da misi xmiT elaparaka. es yovelive rom bunebrivad Seesrulebina, mesulTane iseve, rogorc msaxiobi, aucileblad unda yofiliyo dakvirvebuli, moqnili, plastikuri, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Wirisufali mis SesaZleblobebSi eWvs Seitanda da aRaravin daujerebda. rogorc vxedavT, mesulTanes saqmianoba Zlier axlos dgas msaxiobis profesiasTan. axla vnaxoT, micvalebulis damtirebeli ramdenad iyo dakavSirebuli sanaxaobiT xelovnebasTan. rodesac adamiani gardaicvleboda, mis dasatireblad iwvevdnen specialur pirebs ­ xmiT motiralebs. es wesi Zveli droidan yofila gavrcelebuli saqarveloSi. amaze

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micvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiT xelovnebaSi

vaxuSti batoniSvilis cnoba migviTiTebs: `imRerdian mwuxarisa xmiTa tyebisa Jamsa ara Wirisufalni, aramed sxvani mun myofni~.2 xmiT motiralni mxolod qalebi iyvnen, isini xalxSi didi pativiscemiT sargeblobdnen. gamoirCeodnen emociurobiT, fantaziis unariT, enawylianobiT. damtirebeli qalebi micvalebuls mgrZnobiare sityvebiT, gulisamaCuyeblad tirodnen, tirilis dros micvalebuls saqebari sityvebiT amkobdnen da misi cxovrebidan gansakuTrebul epizodebs yvebodnen. xmiT motiralis mier gardacvlilis datirebis teqsts `xmiT natirali~ erqva. saukeTeso `xmiT natiralebi~ xalxSi vrceldeboda da Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda. Teatraluri TvalsazrisisaTvis datirebis wesi metad mniSvnelovania. dimitri janeliZe damtireblebs `glovis mgosnebad~ moixseniebs, xolo `kalmasobis avtori ioane batoniSvili `saglovelTa xmas~ dramatul poezias akuTvnebs da tragediis mniSvnelobiT xmarobs~.2 damtirebelTa saqmianoba, marTlac, bevrad ukavSirdeba sasceno xelovnebas. moqmedebis adgili damtireblisaTvis sasceno moedans warmoadgenda, xolo damswre xalxi da Wirisufalni ­ mayureblebs. damtirebels garkveuli warmodgena unda moewyo, romlis siuJetic gardacvlili adamianis cxovrebis istoria iyo. damtirebels msaxiobis msgavsad xalxSi zemoqmedeba unda moexdina da Tanagancda gamoewvia, iseve, rogorc msaxiobisaTvis, misTvisac didi mniSvneloba eqneboda sasiamovno xmas da xmis maRal tembrs. mesulTane Tu mxolod Wirisuflis TandaswrebiT sulTanobda, damtirebels mTeli soflis gasagonad unda etira. motiralisaTvis msaxiobis msgavsad damaxasiaTebeli iyo gardasaxvis unari, romlis meSveobiTac igi advilad axerxebda, mgloviare adamianad gadaqceuliyo da didi mwuxareba gamoexata iseT dros, rodesac, SeiZleba, sulac araferi hqonda sawuxari. aRsaniSnavia agreTve improvizaciis mniSvneloba damtirebelTa saqmianobaSi. gardacvlili adamianis daxasiaTebis dros maT xSirad uwevdaT improvizaciis xerxis gamoyeneba, damtireblebs eqnebodaT garkveuli monaxazi gardacvlilis cxovrebis Sesaxeb, romelic Tavisi fantaziiT da improvizaciis saSualebiT unda gaemdidrebinaT. am TvisebiT isini berikaobis

Semsrulebel msaxiobebs mogvagoneben. motiralisTvis, iseve rogorc msaxiobisaTvis, specialuri kostiumebi arsebobda. maT Savi feris samgloviaro samosi ecvaT da Tmebi gaSlili hqondaT. motiralisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda sxeulis plastikurobas da moqnilobas, radganac igi swored Tavisi fsiqo-fizikuri aparatiT gamoxatavda mgloviare adamians, `motirali orsave xels gaSlil Tmaze Camoisvams da warmoadgens mgloviare qals, romelic saSineli mwuxarebisagan Tavze Tmas iglejs~.3 rogorc vxedavT, damtirebels metad rTuli misia ekisreboda. mas sanaxaobis vizualur mxarezec unda ezruna da monawileobac Tavadve unda mieRo. aqedan gamomdinare, damtirebeli reJisoris movaleobis funqciebsac asrulebda. damtireblis mier mowyobil sanaxaobaSi, radganac mxolod erTi adamiani monawileobda, igi SesaZlebelia miviCnioT erTi msaxiobis Teatris uZveles formad, xolo TviTon damtirebeli, SesaZloa, movisazroT tragikosi msaxiobis winaprad. datirebis wesi gansakuTrebiT bolo dromde iyo SemorCenili samegreloSi.4 rodesac vinme gardaicvleboda misi naTesavebi Soreuli soflebidan didi msvlelobiT miemarTebodnen tirilSi. qalebs Savi samosi ecvaT da xelSi didi kelaptari eWiraT, romelic Savi naWrebiT iyo morTuli. isini gzadagza msvlelobis dros tirils da kivils iwyebdnen, ukan mohyvebodaT sakuTari gundi `mozareTa~, romlebic qalebis kivils `zaris~ galobiT bans aZlevdnen, `zari~ samgloviaro marSs, sagalobels hqvia da ubedurebas niSnavs. es samgloviaro msvleloba SesaZloa davukavSiroT uZveles misteriebs, romlebic egvi ptesa da saberZneTSi imarTeboda. uZvelesi misteriebic swored quCa-quCa msvlelobiT ewyoboda CiraRdnebis Suqze. rogorc samgloviaro procesiis monawileni, ise misteriis Semsrulebelnic gansakuTrebul kostiumebSi iyvnen gamowyobilni da mRerodnen specialur sagaloblebs. magaliTad, saberZneTSi dionises pativsacemad specialur sadideblebs _ `diTirambebs~ _ aRavlendnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom tragediis Janric Zvel saberZneTSi swored `diTirambebis~ simReris dros Caisaxa.

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micvalebulis kulti qarTul sanaxaobiT xelovnebaSi

rogorc vxedavT, marTlac, bevri saerToa damtirebelTa msvlelobasa da uZveles misteriebs Soris. gamosaxvis formebi TiTqmis igivea, mxolod SinaarsSia cvlileba. micvalebulis kultSi Teatraluri elementebis ZiebisaTvis `narevebis~ arsebobas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. fSav-xevsureTSi micvalebuli uwmindurad iTvleboda da yvelaferi, rac mas miekareboda aseve uwminduri iyo. swored amitomac arsebobdnen specialuri pirebi, romelTac micvalebulis movla da Ramis Teva evalebodaT, maT narevebi erqvaT. narevebi mamakacebi iyvnen, ZiriTadad _ 15 kacis SemadgenlobiT. Teatraluri gamomsaxvelobis TvalsazrisiT narevebTan dakavSirebiT erTi metad saintereso informacia gvxvdeba. xevsureTsa da imereTSi micvalebulTan Ramis Tevis dros narevebi `wola-dgomas~ warmoadgendnen, rac colqmruli urTierTobis simultacia iyo. es Cveuleba micvalebulisadmi pativiscemis gamoxatulebad iyo miCneuli. am ritualSi aRsaniSnavia, Tu rogor swydeba samgloviaro rituali Tavis tradiciul fesvebs da rogor Semodis masSi gasarTob-sanaxaobrivi elementebi. sqesobrivi aqtis ganmasaxierebeli scenebis Cveneba narevebis mier TavisTavad ukve sanaxaobaa, romelsac, albaT, mayurebelic eyoleboda iq myofi danarCeni narevebis saxiT. radganac narevebi mamakacebi iyvnen, erT-erTs aucileblad qalis rolis Sesruleba mouwevda, Teatris istoriaSic xom mravlad gvxvdeba iseTi periodebi, rodesac qalebis rols mamakacebi asrulebdnen. rac Seexeba sqesobrivi aqtis ganmasaxierebeli scenebis Cvenebas, Teatris istoria am mxrivac metad mdidaria. uZveles qarTul misteriebSi swored sqesobriv aqts da col-qmrul urTierTobebs warmoadgendnen. amgvari scenebis arseboba berikaoba-yeenobaSic aRiniSneba. berZnuli Teatric xom ganayofierebis RvTaeba dionises dResaswaulebze Caisaxa, romlis monawilenic sqesobriv aqts da uwmawur scenebs warmoadgendnen. micvalebulis kultSi amgvari scenebis arseboba, albaT, imdroindeli xalxis rwmena-warmodgenebiT iyo ganpirobebuli, xevsurebs Rrmad swamdaT, rom gardacvlili saiqioSic iseve ganagrZobs cxovrebas, rogorc dedamiwaze. sqesobrivi aqtis

ganmasaxierebeli scenebis CvenebiT xalxi, albaT, ganayofierebis saqmeSi gzas ulocavda da warmatebebs usurvebda micvalebuls. micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebul ritualebs Soris aRsaniSnavia erTi metad saintereso wes-Cveuleba, romelic qarTuli xalxuri sanaxaobiTi warmodgenebis sferodan bevr mniSvnelovan masalas Seicavs. xevsureTSi micvalebulis wlisTavze Wirisufali did doRs marTavda, romelSiac soflis mTeli mosaxleoba iRebda monawileobas. doRi micvalebulisadmi pativiscemad iTvleboda da misi mizani iyo micvalebulis sulisaTvis siamovnebis miniWeba da gamxiaruleba. doRi aucileblad gazafxulze unda gamarTuliyo, radganac cxenebs zamTarSi fexi usrialebdaT da meti marcxi iyo mosalodneli. doRisaTvis cxenebs gansakuTrebiT amzadebdnen, Zua fafars uwnavdnen da ferad-feradi ZafebiT rTavdnen, rac ufro meti cxeni iRebda monawileobas, miT ufro sasaxelo iyo doRi. Sejibrebis dros Wirisufals romel sofelSic naTesavebi hyavda, mxedrebi yvelas unda swveodnen. misul mxedrebs yvela ojaxSi maspinZeli gaSlil sufras axvedrebda da micvalebulis Sesandobars daalevinebda. Tu mxedrebi Sors iyvnen wasasvleli, meore dRes brundebodnen ukan, Tu ara da im saRamosve modiodnen. vinc pirveli dabrundeboda, gamarjvebuladac is CaiTvleboda. msvlelobis dros mxedrebi erTmaneTis gasamxiaruleblad da gasarTobad mokle leqsebs da kiafebs ambobdnen. gamarjvebuls saukeTeso saCuqari ergeboda, Tumca usaCuqrod arc danarCenebi rCebodnen. Wirisufali jildod awesebda Zroxas, fuls, dekeuls, Zvirfas xaliCebs da fardagebs. doRis bolos Wirisufali monawileebs sufraze miiwvevda da micvalebulisaTvis dalocvil sasmel-saWmeliT gaumaspinZldeboda. micvalebulis doRi garkveul siaxloves amJRavnebs Zvel qarTul xalxur sanaxaobasTan, berikaoba-yeenobasTan. pirvel rigSi, davasaxelebT im faqts, rom orive sanaxaoba saerTosasoflo iyo da oriveSi soflis mosaxleoba iRebda monawileobas. agreTve orive sanaxaoba gazafxulobiT imarTeboda da orivesaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo sofel-sofel davla, ojaxebSi Sesvla da gamaspinZleba. rogorc berikaobis Semsrulebelni, aseve doRSi monawile cxenebi, specialurad

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nino darsalia

morTul-mokazmulni iyvnen, orive sanaxaoba ramdenime dRe grZeldeboda. doRis mxedrebi, berikaobis msaxiobebis msgavsad, msvlelobis dros erTobodnen da mxiarulobdnen. rogorc erTi, aseve meore sanaxaoba saerTo sufriT da saCuqrebis darigebiT sruldeboda. gamonaklisad SeiZleba is CaiTvalos, rom berikaobaSi adamianebi monawileobdnen, doRSi ki cxenebs hqondaT mTavari roli. Tumca Tuki gavixsenebT, rom berikaobaSic adgili hqonda cxenis niRbis gansaxierebas, gasakviric aRaraferi iqneba. ioane batoniSvili `cxenkacobis~ TamaSs ase agviwers: `xeebs gaikraven tanze. CiTebs gadaifareben, cxeniviT Tavsa da kisers xisgan gaikeTeben da Semoaxvevdnen rasme da hkideben wvril zanzalaks da esreT iTamaSebdnen mravalni da ucxod xmarobdnen fexTa da msgavsad cxenTa mjdomTaebr ixilveboden~.5 berikaobaSi cxenis niRbis gansaxierebas, rogorc Cans, dasabami am sanaxaobidan unda miscemoda. advili warmosadgenia, ramdenad saxaliso da gasarTobi iqneboda es wes-Cveuleba, romelsac, albaT, ar moakldeboda sicili, mxiaruleba da mayurebelTa ovaciebi. amrigad, micvalebulis kultTan dakavSirebul ritualebSi da wes-CveulebebSi uxvad gvxvdeba Teatraluri sanaxaobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebi, romlebic safuZvlianad moiTxovs Seswavlas da gamokvlevas.

sofiko xaCiZe saferxulo cekvebis arsi da daniSnuleba qoreografiuli xelovnebis sawyisi uZveles warsulSia. jer kidev pirvelyofil adamianTa yofa-cxovrebaSi cekvis xelovnebas, rogorc adamianTa aucilebel cxovrebiseul komponents, gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. fiqroben, rom cekvis xelovneba warmoiSva nadirobasTan, rogorc Sromis pirvelad formasTan kavSirSi, velurobis saSualo safexurze. jer kidev pirvelyofil adamianTa xelovnebis Seswavlam gviCvena, rom `sazogadoebrivi adamiani nivTebsa da movlenebs uyurebs utilitaruli mniSvnelobiT, xolo Semdeg gadadis maTdami damokidebulebaSi esTetikur Tvalsazrisze.~ nadirobasTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili cekvebi Tavdapirvelad gamoricxavda esTetikuri siamovnebis faqtors da, rogorc nadirobis xelSemwyobi saSualeba, mxolod sargeblobis TvalsazrisiT arsebobda. nadiroba ZiriTadad Sromis koleqtiur process warmoadgenda; monadirul cekvaSi mravalricxovani Semsrulebeli monawileobda. igi ferxulis saxiT sruldeboda da, savaraudod, Tavidanve wriuli forma hqonda.Mmis wriul formas ki ganapirobebda nadirobis dros jer wreSi moqceva da Semdeg maTze Tavdasxma. pirvelyofili sazogadoebis ganviTarebis sxvadasxva safexurze Sroma ganawilebuli iyo mamakacsa da qals Soris. Sromis aRniSnulma ganawilebam ki safuZveli Cauyara mamakacTa da qalTa cekvebis cal-calke Seqmnas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ferxuli cekvis erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli formaa saqarTveloSi da Tavisi warmoSobiT cekvis yvelaze adrindel saxes warmoadgens. saferxulo wyobis, e. i. momReral-mocekvave gundis, uZvelesi saxelwodeba saqarTveloSi `mrgvali~ yofila. savaraudoa, rom es saxelwodeba warmoiSva imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom ferxuli aucileblad agebuli iyo wriuli princi piT.Mmonawileni winaswar ganlagdebodnen wreze da ase moZraobdnen simRerasTan erTad xan erTi, xan meore mimarTulebiT.

1. dali giorgaZe, dakrZalvisa da glovis wesebi saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 6. 2. dali giorgaZe, dakrZalvisa da glovis wesebi saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 1987, gv. 37. 3. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris istoria, Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 153. 4. Tedo saxokia, micvalebulis kulti samegreloSi, mse. t III., Tbilisi, 1940, gv. 170. 5. dimitri janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris istoria, Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 26.

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mwkrivebSi rkalgvarad gadawyvetili ferxulebi ki `ferxisebrad~ iwodebodnen. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom svanuri ferxulebis yvelaze adrindel fexis moZraobaTa naerTs, e. i. saferxulo fexs, `murgval WixSi~, anu mrgvali fexi, ewodeboda. unda vifiqroT, rom `mrgvali fexi~ axasiaTebda im ferxulebs, romlebic wris saxiT sruldeboda, wriuli forma hqondaT da jer kidev `murgvalis~ saxelwodebiT arsebobdnen. ferxulis gavrcelebaze Zvel saqarTveloSi metyvelebs mravali istoriuli masala. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia a. kuftinis xelmZRvanelobiT saqarTvelos teritoriaze (TrialeTSi) Catarebuli arqeologiuri eqspediciis Sedegad napovni vercxlis Tasi (igi i povna eqspediciis wevrma (ivaSCenkom). Tasze gamosaxulia 23 arsebis msvleloba samsxverplos garSemo, romelic Tavisi wyobiT moZrav ferxuls warmoadgens. aRniSnul Tass (uSakovi, amiranaSvili) miakuTvneben Zv. welTaRricxvis meore aTaswleulis Sua xanas. prof. SoTa amiranaSvilma yuradReba miaqcia rionSi, kavkavSi, xevsureTsa da daRestanSi nanax iTifalur qandakebebs da daaskvna, rom es figurebi, xelebisa da fexebis moZraobis mxriv ferxulSi monawileTa gamosaxuleba unda iyos. Zveli welTaRricxvis meore saukuneSi saqarTveloSi sruliad originaluri saferxulo wyobis sacekvao sanaxaoba rom arsebobda, adasturebs berZeni istorikosis, qsenofontes, Canaweri. igi ase aRwers uZveles qarTul salaSqro sanaxaobas: `meomari mosinikebi aseulebad daewyvnen da dadgnen erTimeoris pirdapir, rogorc qoroebi. Semdeg erTi maTgani iwyebda, xolo danarCeni mReriT ritmulad miabijebda~.1 ferxuli Tavisi formisa da Sinaaris mixedviT sxvadasxvagvaria. formis mixedviT asrebobs wriuli, wre wreSi Casmuli, or da sam sarTuliani, ferxuli wris SigniT moTamaSiT, ferxulebi mwkrivebis saxiT, romlebic, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, ferxisad iwodebodnen da sxv. Sinaaris mixedviT lili gvaramaZe Tavis wignSi `qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia~ ferxulebs yofs sam jgufad: patriotuli, samxedro, anu sabrZolo, da sayofacxovrebo Sinaarsis ferxulebi.

saferxulo repertuariT dReisaTvis yvelaze ufro mdidaria saqarTvelos mTiani kuTxe svaneTi. svaneTma dRemde Semoinaxa iseTi uZvelesi ferxulebi, romlebic qristes dabadebamdea Seqmnili da warmarTul xanas miekuTvnebian, aseTebia: `lile~, `didebaTa~, `laJvaSi~, `adrekelia~, `dala koJas xelRvaJale~, `sanadiro~, `lemCili~, `bail beTqili~ da sxv. svanuri ferxulebis Seswavlam moiTxova, nawilobriv Segvecvala l. gvaramaZis mier ferxulis Sinaarsis mixedviT dadgenili klasifikacia da patriotuli, sabrZolo da sayofacxovbrebo ferxulebidan calke gamogveyo monadiruli, religiur-ritualuri da laSqruli ferxulebi. aqedan gamomdinare, svanuri ferxulebi Sinaarsis mixedviT SeiZleba ase davajgufoT: monadiruli, religiur-ritualuri, sabrZolo da meomrul-laSqruli, patriotuli da sayofacxovrebo ferxulebi. saqarTveloSi iseve, rogorc sxva xalxebis cxovrebaSi, Zvelad nadirobas sapatio adgili eWira. 1938 wels arqeolog v. kuftinis xelmZRvanelobiT TrialeTis gaTxrebis Sedegad napovn vercxlis sarwyulze warmodgenilia nadirobis rTuli scena. misi azriT, aRniSnuli Zegli miekuTvneba meore aTaswleulis Sua wlebs Cvens welTaRricxvamde. totemuri cekvebi warmoadgenen monadiruli cekvebis Tavisebur ganviTarebas, mis gagrZelebas. totemiT da totemuri cekvebiT ganisazRvreboda ara mxolod adamianis cxovelTan naTesauri kavSiri, aramed adamianTa Soris naTesauri kavSiris garkvevac totemuri cekvis saSualebiT xdeboda. mix. Ciqovani TrialeTis vercxlis Tasze gamoxatul procesias, totemuri cxovelis atributebiT da wris SigniTa personaJiT, nadirobis qalRmerT dalis pativsacemad Seqmnil saferxulo wyobis ritualad miiCnevs. igi aRniSnavs, rom `wris SigniTa personaJi dali unda iyoso~. ferxulSi `dala koJas xelRvaJale~, moTxrobilia, Tu rogor gaitaces mglebma dalis axalSobili Svili.2 xolo ferxulSi `bail beTqili~ gadmocemulia ambavi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor dasaja nadirobis qalRmerTma dalim RalatisaTvis svaneTSi saxelganTqmuli monadire beTqili.

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saqarTveloSi totemuri xasiaTis cekvebis arseboba mxolod dalisadmi miZRvnili ferxulebiT ar amoiwureba. CvenSi metad gavrcelebulia uZvelesi Teatraluri sanaxaoba `berikaoba~, romelsac, ZiriTadad, cekva-TamaSis saxe gaaCnia, unda warmoSobiliyo totemuri cekvebis safuZvelze da mis gagrZelebas unda warmoadgendes. berikaoba Tavisi xangrZlivi arsebobisa da ganviTarebis manZilze Camoyalibda niRbebis saimprovizacio Teatrad. uZvelesi qarTuli xalxuri eposis RirSesaniSnav da sa yur adR ebo Zegls wa rmo adgens Tqmu leb a x alx is keTildReobisa da boroti Zalebis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli gmiris ­ amiranis, Sesaxeb. mecnierTa azriT, amiranis Tqmulebis svanuri varianti unda CaiTvalos erT-erT ZiriTad variantad. iv. javaxiSvili aRniSnavs, rom: `svanur TqmulebaSi ukeT aris Semonaxuli moTxrobis uZvelesi xasiaTi~.3 amiranis Tqmulebas uZvelesi safuZveli gaaCnia. xalxuri gadmocemiT, amirani warmarTuli drois qalRvTaebis da ubralo monadiris Svilia. zogierT SemTxvevaSi mzis Sviladac gvevlineba.Ees ki saSualebas gvaZlevs gamovTqvaT azri imis Sesaxeb, rom amirani da mis pativsacemad Seqmnili ferxuli, Tavisi warmoSobiT, Zvel qristianobamdel periods miekuTvneba. Tqmulebidan aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom amiranis dabadebasTan erTad nadirobis qalRmerTi iRupeba. mix. Ciqovanis azriT, `amirani dedis memkvidreobas agrZelebs ideuradac da piradi TvisebebiTac.~4 Cveni azriT, swored memkvidreobaa safuZveli imisa, rom amiranis ferxuls svaneTSi `sanadiros~ uwodeben. nadirobis qalRmerTma dalim Tavis memkvidred amirani datova, romelsac, rogorc kacTRvTaebas, nadirobis funqciebi daevala. aRniSnuli ki unda daedos safuZvlad svaneTSi arsebul amiranis ferxulis saxelwodebas ­ `sanadiro~.Mmkvlevrebis azriT, amirani warmodgenilia, rogorc dalis Svili, erT SemTxvevaSi, da mzis Svili, meore SemTxvevaSi. rogorc aRvniSneT, amirani dalis Svilia da maT ferxulebs Soris msgavsebac ar unda iyos CvenTvis moulodneli. monadiruli da totemuri cekvebis ganviTarebis Semdgom etaps unda warmoadgendes religiur-ritualuri cekvebi.

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, pirvelyofili adamiani jogidan gamoyofda erT-erTs, SedarebiT Zliers da am jogs `patronad~ aRiarebda. qarTul tomTa warmarTuli sarwmunoeba mTvares mTavar RvTaebad Tvlida. mTvaris kulti imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom misi Tayvaniscemis dros, Tavdapirvelad, adamianis msxverplad Sewirva yofila miRebuli. Semdeg es wesi amoikveTa da adamianis nacvlad pirutyvs swiravdnen RvTaebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom qristianoba Taviseburad ebrZoda warmarTuli sarwmunoebis naSTs, bevr SemTxvevaSi igi warmarTuli sarwmunoebis wes-CveulebaTa gavlenis qveS xvdeboda. qarTveli tomebi mTvaris gverdiT didi pativiT ixsenieben mzes. xalxuri gadmocemiT, ferxuli, romelic wrewreSi Casmuli ori wris saxiT gvxvdeba, gamoxatavs mzisa da mTvaris moZraobas. mzis kulti SeiZleba ufro mogvianebiT warmoiSva, vidre mTvarisa. ferxuli `lile~ erT-erTi uZvelesi ferxulTagania, romelic Seqmnilia mzis pativsacemad. masSi aqeben mzes da adideben RmerTs. pirvelyofil adamianTa cxovrebaSi oms ekonomikuri arsebobisaTvis Taviseburi mniSvneloba eniWeboda. maTTvis omi igive nadiroba iyo. saqarTveloSi meomrul-sabrZolo Sinaarsis cekvebidan aRsaniSnavia: `xorumi~ da `ferxulebi~, romelic sarTulebis princi piTaa gadawyvetili. `xorumi~ uZvelesi saferxulo wyobis sabrZolo Sinaarsis cekvaa, romelSic mterTan SebrZolebis mTeli suraTi usityvod, sxeulis plastikuri moZraobiT, ritmiT, JestiT da mimikiTaa gadmocemuli. berZeni istorikosis, qsenofontes, cnobiT, romelic ekuTvnis Zveli welTaRricxvis me-4 saukunes, laSqrobis win qarTvelTa winapari `meomari pirdapir, rogorc qoroebi... Semdeg erTi maTgani iwyebda, xolo yvela danarCeni mReriT ritmulad miabijebda~.5 amave istorikosis cnobiT, mterze gamarjvebulma mosinikebma `moklulT Tavebi dasWres da Tavisi mtrebisa da berZnebis dasanaxavad aRmarTes, Tan cekvavdnen da mRerodnen, romeliRac Tavisebur hangze~. qsenofontes es cnoba metyvelebs imaze, rom qarTvelTa tomebs jer kidev qristianul eramde gaaCndaT sabrZolo Sinaarsis saferxulo wyobis sanaxaoba.

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patriotuli Sinaarsis ferxulebSi l. gvaramaZe ganixilavs im xasiaTis ferxulebs, romlebSic aisaxa xalxis farTo masebis miswrafebebi an feodalebis winaaRmdeg klasobrivi brZola, romelic ar cxreboda saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi da xSirad glexTa ajanyebebiT mTavrdeboda. patriotuli Sinaarsis ferxulebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT svanuri ferxulebi `Ceyaramsa~ da `rostom Wabuki~. ferxuli `Ceyaramsa~ Seqmnilia sofel uSgulSi, Tavisuflebismoyvare svanTa mier moZalade batonis, Tavad fuTa dadeSqelianis mokvlasTan dakavSirebiT. cnobili ferxuli `rostom Wabuki~, rogorc misi teqstidan da xalxuri Tqmulebidan Cans, gadmogvcems axalgazrda rostomis gmirul brZolas imdroindeli gabatonebuli klasis, mefis TviTmpyrobelobis winaaRmdeg, risTvisac mefis mTavroba mas sdevnida. daCagruli mSromeli xalxis interesebi rostom Wabukma, arsena oZelaSvilis msgavsad, socialuri usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg iaraRiT xelSi, brZoliT gamoxata.Uunda aRvniSnoT, rom aq rostom Wabuki Tavisi saqmianobiT SedarebiT Tanamedrove etapze gvxvdeba.Mmisi arseboba XIX saukunes ar gadaSordeba. `rostom Wabukis~ kulti svaneTSi ufro adrindelia da misi saTaveebic uZvelesi monadiruli ferxulebis jgufSi unda veZioT. sayofacxovrebo ferxulebi sruldeboda saero da saeklesio dResaswaulebze dReobebisa da lxinis dros. es ferxulebi atareben sxvadasxva Sinaarss. sayofacxovrebo ferxulebis jgufs miekuTvneba iseTi svanuri saferxulo wyobis cekvebi, rogoricaa: `biba~, `Sinavrogili~, `ramaida~ da sxv. Zveli qarTuli dramatuli sanaxaobani saferxulo wyobisaa.Hhangisa da teqstis mTqmeli umTavresad ferxuli iyo da amitomac mas Tavdapirvelad upiratesi mniSvneloba hqonda. ferxulis wriseburi forma uZvelesi unda iyos. igi warmoadgens samsxverplos garSemo sarwmuneobrivi cekvasimReris formis gadmonaSTs. TrialeTis yorRnebis gadaTxriT aRmoCenili vercxlis sasmisis gamoxatuleba, qsenofontes cnoba, mcxeTis

sveticxovlis taZris freska da vaxuSti batoniSvilis mier gamoTqmuli azri adasturebs, rom saferxulo wyobas qarTveli xalxi uZvelesi droidan icnobda da igi Tavdapirvelad dakavSirebuli iyo sakulto ceremonialTan.

1. d. janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi, Tbilisi, 1948, gv. 30-32. 2. mix. Ciqovani, mijaWvuli amirani, sax. universitetis gamomc., Tbilisi, 1947, gv. 62-63. 3. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, t. I, Tbilisi, gv. 158. 4. mix. Ciqovani, mijaWvuli amirani, Tbilisi, 1947, gv. 95. 5. ix.: l. gvaramaZe, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia, Tbilisi, 1957.

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elene babakiSvili sponsoroba, rogorc PR-is instrumenti organizaciis dawinaurebis erT-erTi saSualebaa PR (ing. public relations _ sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi). es aris mmarTvelobiTi funqcia, romelic afasebs sazogadoebriv azrs da misi interesebidan gamomdinare, ayalibebs calkeuli pirebis, organizaciebis politikas, gegmavs da axorcielebs ama Tu im samoqmedo programas sazogadoebis mxridan gagebis da aRiarebis mizniT. PR biznesSi _ es aris sazogadoebrivi azris Camoyalibeba produqtze, kompaniaze, am ukanasknelis reputaciis Seqmna da misi marTva. PR-ma unda uzrunvelyos efeqturi dialogi organizaciasa da mis mTlian auditorias Soris. dawinaurebas ori ZiriTadi funqcia aqvs: 1). Setyobinebis gadacema da 2). moaxdino cvlileba momxmarebelSi. aseTi saxiT kompanias SeuZlia, produqtis Sesaxeb informacia miawodos momxmarebels, aseve Secvalos am ukanasknelis pozicia uaryofiTidan dadebiTisaken. PR-is warmoeba moicavs mTeli rigi RonisZiebis erTobliobas, romelTagan erT-erTia sponsoroba. termini `sponsoroba~ niSnavs sponsorsa da movlenas Soris dakavSirebas. dResdReobiT sponsoroba ewodeba nebismieri movlenis, proeqtis, saqmianobis dafinansebas erTi piris an organizaciis mier. sponsori naRdi angariSiT an gadaxdis sxva formiT akeTebs Senatans, ris sanacvlodac iRebs aRniSnuli movlenis, saagentos an sakuTrebis komerciuli potencialis eqspluataciis saSualebas. aRniSnuli RonisZieba aris dawinaurebis strategiuli gegmis nawili. sponsoroba ar aris SemTxveviTi saqmianoba. igi efuZneba sagangebod Camoyalibebul, gaazrebul gegmasa da strategias. es aris strategiulad dagegmili Zalisxmeva marketingSi, emsaxureba kompaniis bazarze ukeTesad warmoCenasa da misi gayidvebis zrdas im qmedebiT, rac sargebels moutans arakomerciul organizaciebsac. orive dainteresebuli mxare aRniSnul gegmas erToblivad unda qmnides, vinaidan sponsoroba gulisxmobs TanamSromlobas. ra formis mxardaWerac ar unda

`T a n a m e d r o v e m e n e j m e n t i k u l t u r a s a d a x e l o v n e b a S i~

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT. statiebis stili daculia programis xelmZRvaneli _ iuri mRebriSvili

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sponsoroba,

rogorc

PR-is

instrumenti

iyos sponsoris mxridan (aramiznobrivi fuladi saSualeba, garkveuli programis finansuri mxardaWera, Sesatani naturiT (iribi mxardaWera) an publikis gaTviTcnobiereba), aman saSualeba unda misces mxatvrul saagentos, warmatebiT Seasrulos Tavisi misia. samagierod, kompania imaRlebs imijs da zrdis gayidvebs. warmatebuli korporaciuli sponsoroba damokidebulia sworad SerCeul partniorze, romelsac gaaCnia msgavsi interesi da mizani. kompaniisaTvis sasponsoro SeTanxmebis faseuloba damokidebulia monawileebisa da damswreebis raodenobaze, kompaniis logoti pis sareklamo ganlagebaze, masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebiT gaSuqebaze, imijsa da movlenis komerciul potencialze, vinaidan sponsorisaTvis movlena an organizacia upirvelesad niSnavs dawinaurebis iaraRs. dasponsorebuli organizaciisaTvis sponsori TiTqmis klientia, romelic Cadebuli fulis sanacvlod eZebs garkveul sargebels. sponsorobiT miRebuli sargeblis ori ti pi arsebobs: 1). avtomaturi sargebeli, romelic ar moiTxovs sponsorisgan damatebiT Zalisxmevas xelSekrulebis dadebis Semdeg. amas miekuTvneba sponsoris moxsenieba beWdviT masalebSi, presaSi an RonisZiebis Catarebis adgilze. 2). sargebeli, romelic sponsorobiT grZeldeba sponsori iyenebs mis mier dafinansebul proeqts, dawesebulebas, RonisZiebas sakuTari gasaRebis bazris gafarToebaSi. dResdReobiT avtomaturi sargebeli iSviaTad gamoiyeneba, is ar amarTlebs sponsorobaze daxarjul fuls da dros. warmatebuli sponsoroba mxatvrul movlenas an sakuTrebas iyenebs, rogorc Temas sareklamod da PR-is instruments. marketingis xelmZRvaneli ufro iolad daafinansebs reklamas, vidre sponsorobas. sponsorisTvis movlena an organizacia upirvelesad niSnavs winsvlis iaraRs da sazogadoebis keTilganwyobis mopovebas. 1990 wels v. fiSerma da r. broem moaxdines im sargeblis klasifikacia, romelsac eZeben sponsorebi mTeli msoflios masStabiT. esenia: 1. gaumjobesebuli adgilobrivi kavSiri; 2. korporaciuli imijis dawinaureba;

3. brendis cnobadobis gazrda da misi imijis gaZliereba; 4. masobriv sainformacio saSualebebSi gamoCena; 5. grZelvadiani gayidvebis uzrunvelyofa; 6. momsaxure personalis mdgomareoba; 7. umTavresi princi pi _ myidvelis siamovneba da PR-is gaumjobeseba, es aris mudmivi saqmianoba, Semdgari sxvadasxva Tanmimdevruli aqciebisgan, romelic gaerTianebulia grZelvadiani programebiT da emsaxureba erT mizans _ moi povos sazogadoebis aRiareba, mxardaWera. Tanamedrove samyaroSi masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis gadatvirTvam aiZula kompaniebi, moeZebnaT momxmareblamde misvlis alternatiuli gzebi, erT-erTi maTgania sponsoroba. igi, reklamasTan SedarebiT, yvelaze mzardi Suamavalia bazarze. xarjebi sponsorobisaTvis bolo 16 wlis manZilze (amerikis masStabiT) gaizarda 61.3%-iT maSin, roca reklamis xarji gaizarda mxolod 10.3%-iT. sponsorTa Tanxis yvelaze didi wili modis sportze, auditoriis simravlidan gamomdinare. organizaciebis survili daukavSirdnen TavianT auditorias, dadebiT gavlenas axdens sponsorobis yvela ti pze. PR-is xelovnebadaa miCneuli momxmarebels Seuqmnas warmodgena, rom firma uSvebs da yidis produqts mxolod myidvelis interesebidan gamomdinare da ara mogebis miRebis mizniT. socialur saqmianobaSi sponsorobiT dabandebuli mogebis mcire nawili am azris gamyarebas emsaxureba. sazogadoeba Zalian dadebiTad afasebs amgvar Jests da gavlenas axdens imaze, Tu sad yidulobs momxmarebeli nawarms. amerikeli mosaxleobis 83% acxadebs, rom aqvT dadebiTi warmodgena im kompaniaze, romelic exmareba maTTvis mniSvnelovan saqmes da asocirdeba keTil saqmeebTan. sponsorobis liderebi akeTeben aseT interpretacias _ sponsoroba sWirdeba im brendebs, romlebic miiswrafian, myari kavSirebi daamyaron momxmarebelTan da sazogadoebasTan, rac aris PR-is ZiriTadi amocana. sazogadoebrivad da politikurad aqtiuri momxmarebeli an momxmarebelTa jgufi gansakuTrebiT miiRebs im kompaniebs, romlebic mxars uWeren sazogadoebriv iniciativebs. kompaniebis saqmianobis stabiluroba, anu, grZelvadiani TanamSromloba

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dasponsorebul kompaniebTan, aseve ufro dadebiTad fasdeba, vidre sponsoris moklevadiani TanamSromloba. zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare, ar unda Segveqmnas STabeWdileba, TiTqos, sponsoroba aris gulkeTiloba. es aris saqmiani garigeba, rac avaldebulebs SemoqmedebiT organizaciebs maTi saxelis daweras SesasvlelSi, RonisZiebis Catarebis adgilas sponsoris baneris ganTavsebas da RonisZiebis msvlelobis dros am ukanasknelis araerTxel moxseniebas. kulturis menejerisaTvis mTavari misi organizaciis reputaciaa, man unda daadginos, xom ar iCrdileba an mTavarSi xom ar icvleba maTi misia da organizaciis buneba komerciul kompaniasTan kavSiris SemTxvevaSi. menejerebs marTebT sifrTxile, rom ar daukavSirdnen sponsors, romelic iqneba maTi Semowirulobis Semomtani piris konkurenti. aseve unda gamoiricxos kompaniis iseTi produqti, romelic konfliqtSi Seva SemoqmedebiTi organizaciis misiasTan. mag.: Tambaqos mwarmoebeli kompania ar unda asponsorebdes sportulgamajansaRebel centrs. nebismieri gaugebrobis Tavidan acilebis mizniT aucilebelia sponsorsa da SemoqmedebiT organizacias Soris moxdes werilobiTi SeTanxmeba. Tanamedrove msoflioSi mTavrobebi ufro da ufro amcireben kul tu r ul i o rg a ni za c iebi s f i na ns u r Ta nadg om as . korporatiuli sponsorebi ki SemoqmedebiTi organizaciis Semosavlis ZiriTad resursad rCeba.

marina balanCivaZe marketingi menejeris saqmianobaSi marketingi aris menejmentis erT-erTi funqcia, menejeris saqmianobaSi _ biznesis warmarTvis saSualeba, romelic, ZiriTadad, dainteresebulia im sakiTxebiT, rac xdeba organizaciis gareT. marketingis saqmianoba dakavSirebulia organizaciuli sistemis sazRvrebs gareT mimdinare movlenebTan, am saqmianobas awarmoeben yvela saxis menejerebi da ara mxolod marketingis specialistebi. ,,marketingi aris socialuri da menejeruli procesi, romlis Sedegadac individebi da jgufebi moi poveben, rac esaWiroebaT da rac surT produqciis faseulebebis SeqmniT, SeTavazebiT da gacvliT~ (f. kotleri, g. amstrongi. marketingis safuZvlebi, 2007) _ es ganmarteba aZlierebs marketingis arss, rogorc socialur da ekonomikur gacvlas. gansakuTrebiT bolo wlebSi marketingis ganviTarebaSi globaluri mimarTuleba gaxda momsaxurebis bazari.Mmarketingis menejeri kulturuli momsaxurebis sistemaSi iseve moqmedebs, rogorc momsaxurebis sistemis sxva dargebSi. ra Tqma unda, kulturis, rogorc sferos, specifikis gaTvaliswinebiT, turizmis infrastruqturis ganviTarebaSi uaRresad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba kulturuli momsaxurebis sistemis umaRles safexurze ayvanas. kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis umniSvnelovanes faqtors qveynis kulturuli memkvidreobis dacva da misi SenarCuneba warmoadens. marketingi aris turistuli firmebis, kompaniebis saqmianobis marTvisa da organizaciis sistema, romelic yovelmxriv iTvaliswinebs turizmis bazarze momxdar procesebs. turistuli marketingi aris dasvenebis motiviT (SemecnebiTi aspeqti, dasveneba, garToba, mkurnaloba, sportuli Sejibreba da a. S.) gamowveuli adamianebis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisken mimarTuli meTodebi da am moTxovnaTa racionalurad dakmayofilebis unaris mqone turistuli biuroebis, kooperativebis, asociaciebis organizacia. turistuli momsaxureba mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba materialuri

ix.: fransua kolberi, `marketingi kulturaSi~. 2003. www. pr_chance. kiev. ua www. wikipedia. com

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produqtis warmoebis dargebisagan. turizmis produqts momsaxureba warmoadgens, romlis moxmareba mxolod misi warmoebis adgilas da warmoebis momentSi SeiZleba. bazarze saqonlis nacvlad gadis turi, romelSic garantirebulia momsaxureba, rac TavisTavad mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba momsaxurebis sxva sferoebisgan. msoflios kulturuli memkvidreobis sistemaSi SeiZleba gamoiyos ori mimarTuleba, romelic dakavSirebulia turistul moRvaweobasTan, esaa: 1. muSaoba turizmis myari ganviTarebis programis CarCoebSi. 2. msoflio kulturuli memkvidreobis komitetisa da regionebis warmomadgenelTa mimdinare muSaoba. turistuli marketingis Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom bazari mudmiv dinamikur cvlilebebs ganicdis, amasTan, turistul momsaxurebaze moTxovna icvleba ara marto sezonurobis, bunebrivi pirobebis, moTxovna-miwodebis zemoqmedebiT, aramed axali fasebis SemoRebiT, qveyanaSi socialuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobis, arsebuli konkurenciis zemoqmedebis mixedviTac. aqedan gamomdimare, turizmis marketingi uwyvet process warmoadgens. msoflio turistuli organizaciis rekomendaciiT misi sami mTavari funqcia gamoiyeneba: turistuli momsaxurebis momxmareblebTan kontraqtebis formireba, anu, mogzaurobis adgilis SerCevaSi potenciuri momxmareblis darwmuneba; axali saxis momsaxurebis xelis Sewyobis mizniT, axalSemoRebuli wesebis mixedviT, kontraqtebis ganviTareba da srulyofa; momsaxurebis Sedegebis kontroli. turizmis marketingi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba warmoebis sxva dargebis marketingebisagan. es ganpirobebulia imiT, rom turizmi momsaxurebis sferos miekuTvneba, momsaxurebis sferos marketingi calke mimarTulebaa. am sakiTxebs mieZRvna mravali mecnieris naSromi, romelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia f. kotleris gamokvlevebi.

turistuli marketingi da misi Taviseburebani Tavis gavlenas axdens menejeris saqmianobaze. turizmis marketingis marTvis gegmis arseboba _ es aris bazuri informacia, romelze dayrdnobiTac manejeri gamudmebiT akontrolebs mimdinare cvlilebebs. marketingis menejmentisaTvis turizmis mniSvneloba TandaTan izrdeba, romelic Seicavs rogorc SesaZleblobebs, aseve safrTxes. misi mizania gamoiyenos turizmi, rogorc dadebiTi faqtori msoflios memkvidreobis obieqtebis SenarCunebaSi da Searbilos mosalodneli safrTxeebi. marketingis menejmenti qmnis turizmis moTxovnebis farTo speqtrs, riTac ganapirobebs mosaxleobis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas, Tu es momsaxureba dakavSirebulia dacul teritoriebTan, apirobebs miwis alternatiul gamoyenebas. turizmi qmnis obieqtis marTvis da Senaxvis pirobebs. mis moRvaweobaSi Sedis agreTve adgilobrivi mosaxleobis Sesvla turizmis moRvaweobaSi. magaliTad, gidebis momzadeba da mcire sawarmoebis Seqmna, aseve momsaxurebis sferos ganviTareba. kulturuli obieqtebis marketingi aucilebelia, radgan adgilobriv masaxleobas sTavazobs Semosavlebis alternatiul wyaros. turistuli marketingis menejeri awarmoebs sazogadoebaSi kulturuli memkvidreobis mniSvnelobis warmoCinebas da adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi eweva TviTSegnebisa da siamayis gancdis gamyarebas mosaxleobis ganaTlebiT. turizmi gamoiyeneba kulturuli memkvidreobis obieqtebis dacvisa da SenaxvisaTvis saWiro Semosavlebis misaRebad. ku ltur uli tu rizm is rol i um niS vnelova nes ia memkvidreobis dacva-SenaxvisaTvis, SesaZlebels xdis sxvadasxva Za li sxm ev is koo rdina ci as da ex ma reb a o bi eqteb is xelmZRvanelebs, gaumklavdnen warmoSobil problemebs marketingis menejmentis xelSewyobiT SesaZlebelia daxmarebis mozidva, adgilobrivi operatorebis politikis Secvla, damTvaliereblebis motivacia Sewirulobis Sesatanad. damTvaliereblebis mxardaWeris gasaZliereblad saWiroa, rom maT miewodoT sruli informacia Zeglis mdgomareobisa da mis dasacavad saWiro Semdgomi RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb, TvalsaCino gaxdes miRwevebis warmoCineba Zeglis dacvis mizniT.

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xarisxiani da konkurentunariani turistuli marketingis muSaoba dakavSirebulia kulturuli memkvidreobis da WeSmariti xelovnebis nimuSebis dacvasTan. kulturul memkvidreobaSi Sedis ara marto Zeglebi, aramed festivalebi, muzeumebi, xelovnebis SemoqmedebiTi dargebi, kulturuli movlenebi, kustaruli mrewvelobis nakeTobebi, erovnuli kulinaria. marketingi menejmentis saqmianobaSi, kulturili memkvidreobis dacvis garda, ayenebs sxva mniSvnelovan interesebsac: nacionaluri da adgilobrivi TviTSegnebis amaRlebas, kulturaTa Soris dialogi sxvadasxva kulturaTa gansxvavebulobis pirobebSi, `adamianebisaTvis, erTad cxovrebis xelovnebis swavleba.~ Segneba, rom kulturaTa Soris gansxvaveba simdidrea, romelic SeiZleba gaunawilo sxva xalxebs. turizmi ­ es aris sxvadasxva xalxs Soris dialogis pirobebis Seqmnis saSualeba. turizmis ganviTarebiT dainteresebuli mravali kompania sul ufro metad rwmundeba, Tu ra dadebiTi roli SeiZleba iTamaSos turizmma adamianebis urTierTobaSi. turistuli marketingis menejmentis rolia warmoaCinos yvela qv eynis kulturuli mravalferovneba da am mravalferovnebis mniSvneloba. yovelive zemoT Tqmuli gansazRvravs turistuli marketingis menejeris rolis did mniSvnelobas, warmarTavs ra sazogadoebis interesebs kulturuli mravalferovnebisa da kulturuli memkvidreobis dasacavad. turizmze moTxovna-miwodeba ganuxrelad izrdeba, amitom kulturuli turizmi unda ganviTardes rogorc warmoebis, moxmarebis, aseve socialur sferoSi. turists ainteresebs ara marto RirsSesaniSnaobebi, aramed yoveldRiuroba, qveynis social-politikuri mdgomareoba. turisti xvdeba adgilobriv mosaxleobas, surs Seicnos maTi cxovrebis wesi, adgilebi, sadac axalgazrdoba isvenebs, erToba da a. S. turistuli marketingis menejers aucilebelia axsovdes, rom dRevandeli turistebi kargad arian informirebulebi. amas isini Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT aRweven. maT surT ara marto garToba, aramed surT SeiZinon codna. kulturul turizms aRar unda hqondes ,,mosawyeni~ dasvenebis reputacia.

turizmis ganviTareba unda moxdes: dargTaSorisi da globaluri midgomiT, sazogadoebis da kerZo seqtorebTan TanamSromlobiT, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, mecnierebis, moqalaqeebisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis erTiani ZalisxmeviT. dialogis, kulturuli mravalferovnebis da mSvidobisaTvis saWiroa kulturuli turizmis warmatebuli ganviTareba. es met-naklebad damokidebulia turistuli marketingis menejmentis mcdelobaze, aseve turistebis pasiuri, momxmarebluri damokidebuleba unda Seicvalos ufro metad pasuxismgeblur qcevaze imis gaazrebiT, rom isini arian im teritoriebis memkvidreobis da cxovrebis wesis damcvelebi da rom es aris ara marto adgilobriv macxovrebelTa, aramed mTeli danarCeni kacobriobis sakuTreba axlac da momavalSic. saqarTvelos turistuli potenciali turizmis mdgradi ekonomikuri zrdis idealuri safuZvelia. Tanamedrove etapze saqarTveloSo turistebis arsebuli raodenoba mis potencialTan SedarebiT kvlavac mcirea da menejeris mTavari mizania daiwyos maTi zrdisaTvis, arsebuli pirobebis, saSualebebis, Sida da gare faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT mecnierulad dasabuTebuli, gaazrebuli da gaangariSebuli samoqmedo programis Sedgena.Aamrigad, kulturuli dawesebulebis muSaobis arss Seadgens ideebi, niWiereba da SemoqmedebiTi niWi, ekonomikuroba, warmadoba da rentabeluroba, amis gaTvaliswinebiT organizaciis menejmentSi bevrad ufro mniSvnelovania marketingi menejeris saqmianobaSi, sawarmoo procesis marTvaSi marketingi vlindeba gansakuTrebulad produqciis warmoebis SedegebiT, Seqmnili unda iqnes organizaciuli da ekonomikuri pirobebi, marketingi xom adamianTa saxea. saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTareba saxelmwifo marTvis erT-erT prioritetad aris gamokeveTili.

1. m. birJakovi, turizmis Teoria, Tbilisi, 2008. 2. f. kotleri, j. boueni, j. meikenzi, marketingi, stumarTmoyvareoba, turizmi, t. I, Tbilisi, 2007. 3. j. a. qouli, menejmenti, Teoria da praqtika, Tbilisi, 2002. 4. s. yamarauli, marketingi, Tbilisi, 2002.

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kinofestival `sesilis~ menejmentis zogierTi sakiTxi 2001 wlis 26 marts klub `sardafSi~ Catarda saqarTveloSi axalgazrduli pirveli filmebis festivali _ `Cven movdivarT~, romlis organizebas xelmZRvanelobda reJisori daTo janeliZe. 2004 wels aRniSnuli kinofestivali mixeil TumaniSvilis saxelobis kinomsaxiobTa TeatrSi Catarda. 2005 wlidan axalgazrduli filmebis festivali `sesili~ saerTaSoriso gaxda. `sesili sardafidan amovida~ da didi kinoTeatrebis ekranebi dai pyro. 2005-2008 wlebSi festivals maspinZlobda kinoTeatrebi: `amirani~, `rusTaveli~, `qolga~ da kinos saxli. festivalis oTxi mTavari prizi `sesili~ gadaicema Semdeg nominaciebSi: saukeTeso mxatvruli filmi; saukeTeso dokumenturi filmi; saukeTeso animaciuri filmi; saukeTeso eqsperimentuli filmi. festivalis specialuri di plomebi: saukeTeso xmis reJisura; saukeTeso montaJi; debiuti; originaluri musika; mamakacis saukeTeso rolis Sesruleba; qalis saukeTeso rolis Sesruleba; saukeTeso mxatvroba; saukeTeso scenari; saukeTeso operatoruli namuSevari. kinofestival `sesilis~ misiaa axali talantebis aRmoCena, maTi popularizacia, ucxouri kinosiaxleebis qarTveli

mayureblisaTvis gacnoba, axali kinotradiciebisa da urTierTobebis ganviTareba. kinofestivalis mizania gamoavlinos niWieri axalgazrdoba da misces maT winsvlis SesaZlebloba profesiuli daostatebis gzaze. kinofestivalis Catarebis drois sxvadasxva periodSi misi sponsorebi da partniorebi iyvnen: saqarTvelos kinematografiis erovnuli centri, `respublika poloneTis saelCo saqarTveloSi~, "Republique Francaise", `Zveli Tbilisi~, "liegen Zum Festpreis", `Caina Tauni~, `noa noa~, `jeoseli~, `Teliani veli~, `airlines~ da sxva. kinofestivalma SedarebiT maRali dafinanseba miiRo 2005 wels, Semdgom wlebSi dafinanseba mcire iyo da 2006 wels Seadgenda 6000 lars, 2007 wels _ 5000 lars, 2008 w. _ 5000 lars. organizatorebis enTuziazmi rom ara, aseTi mcire saxsrebiT kinofestivalis Catareba SeuZlebeli iqneboda. dafinansebis problema araswori menejmentis Sedegia. kinofestival `sesilis~ ZiriTadi problemebis da maTi gadaWris gzebis gamosavlenad Catarebul iqna marketinguli kvleva. kvleva moicavda bazris maxasiaTebelTa gansazRvras, bazris potencialis gazomvas, produqciis gavrcelebis analizs, konkurentTa produqciis gamokvlevas, bazarze arsebuli produqciis gamokvlevas. kinofestival `sesilis~ upiratesoba, saqarTveloSi arsebul sxva festivalebTan SedarebiT, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom is ar eZebs komerciul sargebels. kinoCvenebebsa da sxvadasxva Tanmxleb RonisZiebaze daswreba da maT Sesaxeb sainformacio katalogebi ufasoa da yvelasTvis xelmisawvdomi. mcire saxsrebis gamo ver xerxdeba kinofestival `sesilis~ organizeba maRal doneze, rac gamoixateba fuladi premiebis ararsebobiT, kvalificiuri Jiuris mowvevis SeuZleblobiT, vinaidan maTi mowveva dakavSirebulia transportirebis, ganTavsebisa, kvebis da sxva xarjebTan. zemoT aRniSnuli problemis gadaWrisaTvis aucilebelia meti finansuri saxsrebis moZieba, rac iseTi arakomerciuli RonisZiebisaTvis, rogoric kinofestivali `sesilia~, upiratesad

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sponsorTa mozidviT unda moxdes. amisaTvis kinofestivalis menejmentma unda SeimuSaos konkretuli strategia, raTa daanaxos potenciur sponsors proeqtis mniSvneloba, gansakuTrebuloba da sponsoris wvlili kinofestivalis ganxorcielebaSi. sponsoroba aris strategiulad dagegmili Zalisxmeva marketingSi, rac emsaxureba gayidvebis zrdas kompaniaSi an mis ukeTes warmoCenas bazarze iseTi qmedebiT, rac moutans sargebels aseve festivals. arcerTi aseTi Zalisxmeva ar unda xdebodes sagangebod agebuli da gaazrebuli gegmis gareSe. kulturis menejersa da kompaniis menejers Soris TanamSromlobisas kulturis menejers unda axsovdes, rom kompania axdens strategiul dafinansebas, raTa aamaRlos Tavisi imiji an gayidvebi. magaliTad: kinofestivals SeuZlia romelime GSM_operators SesTavazos, kinoCvenebebis msvlelobisas daawesos prizi `mayureblis simpaTiis~ saxelwodebiT, rac gamoixateba xmis micemiT smsebis saSualebiT. es meTodi msoflioSi da Cvens qveyanaSi aprobirebulia. sponsorTan ganacxadis Setanamde kulturaSi momuSave marketologebma unda gansazRvron festivalis biujeti, gaecnon im kompaniis wliur angariSs, romelsac unda mimarTon, daadginon vin iRebs gadawyvetilebas sponsorobaze, gaiTvaliswinon maTi moTxovnebi, daarwmunon masponsorebeli kompania, rom festivalTan TanamSromloba maT daexmareba ukeT da bevrad meti gayidon produqciac da momsaxurebac da Tan moutans sargebels qarTul kinematografias. warmatebul ganacxadSi unda dazustdes, ra sargebels miiRebs sponsori, unda moxdes Tanasponsorebis siis wardgena, rac minimumamde daiyvans sponsoris risks. orive mxare unda grZnobdes imas, rom maTi fuli tyuilad ar daixarjeba, amisaTvis kinofestivalis menejerma SeiZleba SesTavazos werilobiTi kontraqti, romelic moicavs: festivalisa da sponsoris miznebs; produqcias da momsaxurebas, romelsac warmoadgens orive mxare;

TanamSromlobis vadebs; SemoqmedebiT specifikas; angariSsworebis formas; informacias Semosavlebisa da maTi gadanawilebis, xarjebis Sesaxeb. imisaTvis, rom kompania wamovides sponsorobaze, unda SevTavazoT misTvis maqsimalurad momgebiani winadadeba. sponsors unda mivawodoT rac SeiZleba meti informacia, rom man SeZlos Sefaseba, ramdenad gamarTlebulia misi investicia. dafinansebis problemis gadaWris safuZvels warmoadgens sworad gatarebuli menejmenti, rac gamoixateba sponsorisadmi winaswar dagegmili gaazrebuli gegmis wardgenaSi, sponsoris darwmunebaSi, rom sanam festivali-sponsoris moRvaweoba eTikuri da kanonieria da sanam festivali ar daarRvevs xelSekrulebis pirobebs, maTi partnioroba orive mxarisaTvis iqneba sasargeblo. sponsoroba gulisxmobs TanamSromlobas. ra formac ar unda hqondes mxardaWeras, is unda iyos raRac, rac daexmareba festivals, warmatebiT Seasrulos Tavisi misia. TanamSromlobis xangrZlivi warmateba moiTxovs gulmodgine Sromas, raTa yvela monawilis moTxovnebi dakmayofildes.

fransua kolberi da sxva _ `marketinguli kvleva~; 2003 www.festivalsesily.ge festival `sesilis~ katalogebi.

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wigni codnisa da gavrcelebis yvelaze xelmisawvdomi da misi Senaxvis saukeTeso saSualebaa. marketingis TeoriaSi is inteleqtualur produqtad miiCneva da, Sesabamisad, Tavisebur midgomas saWiroebs. Sua saukuneebSi germanelma gamomgonebelma iohan guTenbergma (1440 w.) Tavis mierve mowyobil stambaSi calkeulad Camosxmuli advilad dnobadi liTonis literebisgan sabeWdi forma aawyo da specialur dazgaze `saxareba~ dabeWda. ase daibada pirveli beWduri sityva... guTenbergis kolega qarTveli `gamomcemlebi~ am primitiul sabeWd dazgas oTxi saukuniT gvian, vaxtang VI-is mefobis periodSi, eziarnen. pirveli fiqsirebuli (dastambuli) wigni saqarTveloSic `saxareba~ gaxldaT, mas mohyva `vefxistyaosani~, `aiaTi~ da a. S. aqedan moyolebuli qarTuli sagamomcemlo saqmianoba sakmaod sainteresod mimdinareobda. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi man qarTuli enis gadarCenaSi udidesi wvlili Seitana. Cemi TaobisTvis ucnob sabWoTa periodSi wignis beWdvis e. w. ayvavebis xana iyo. iTargmneboda, ibeWdeboda da istambeboda saintereso mxatvruli, teqnikuri Tu SemecnebiTi literatura. am dros gamocemul TiToeul wigns bolo furcelze sakmaod saintereso informacia aqvs darTuli: tiraJi, fasi, furclis, ydis zomebi, awyoba dakabadonebis TariRebi da sxva wvrilmani detalebi. Cems biblioTekaSi am saintereso bolo furclebis meSveobiT aRmovaCine, rom 1970-80 wlebSi mxatvruli, sakmaod sqeltaniani literatura 25000-50000iani (gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi 80000-iani) tiraJiT gamoicemoda, gamoicemoda aseTi RirebulebiT: 2 man., 65 kap.; 4 man., 70 kap.; 5 man. da a. S. momdevno aTwlian periodSi tiraJi daaxloebiT 10000 erTeuliT Semcirda, fasi ki 10-15 erTeuliT gaizarda.

2000 wlis Semdeg gamocemul wignebze gaqra is saintereso `bolo furceli~ (riTic Cemi statistika Sevadgine), samagierod, momxmarebels daamaxsovrda, ramdenad didi Tanxa gadaixada da tiraJis simciris gamo ramdeni eZeba esa Tu is wigni. gamomcemlobebs, garda wignis gamocemisa, bevri sxva produqtis gamoSveba uxdeba: plakatebi, Jurnal-gazeTebi, sareklamo furclebi da a. S. maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovani mainc wignia. mas nebismieri sazogadoebis kulturuli ganviTarebis ZiriTad ganmapirobebel saSualebad miiCneven. msoflios bevr qveyanaSi wignma prioritetuli adgili miiRo da, Sesabamisad, gacilebiT gaizarda beWdviTi saqmianobis xarisxi, mkiTxvelTa raodenoba. statistikis departamentis kvleviTi monacemebis mixedviT, saqarTveloSi 2005 wlisaTvis (samwuxarod, Semdegi wlebis monacemebi ar arsebobs) 300 000 egzemplari wigni da broSura gamovida; garda amisa 2005 wels gamoica 88 sxvadasxva dasaxelebis 17 900 000 erTeuli gazeTi, 1 100 000 cali Jurnali da perioduli gamocema, 400 000 tiraJiT ki erTjeradi sxva gamocemebi. elementarul ariTmetikas Tu moviSveliebT, mivxvdebiT, rom 2005 wels sul 19 400 000 cali Jurnal-gazeTi gamosula, wigni ki mxolod 300 000. am periodSi gamocemuli wignebis tiraJi daaxloebiT 1000-2000ia. anu, 2005 wels saqarTveloSi gamoica 150-300 sxvadasxva saxeobis wigni. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom am ukanasknel cifrSi absoluturad yvela ti pis: saskolo, samecniero, mxatvruli, samedicino, teqnikuri, Targmnili da saTargmni saxelmZRvanelo Sedis. dameTanxmebiT, rom es Zalian samwuxaro maCvenebelia. gamomcemlebi statiis sawinaaRmdegod, albaT, im faqts moiSvelieben, rom saqarTveloSi mkiTxvelis ricxvi sagrZnoblad daeca, albaT, im statistikasac moiSvelieben, romlis mixedviTac erT biblioTekaze ricxovnobiT saSualod 762 mkiTxveli modis. Tumca me sulac ar vTvli, rom es ricxvi Cveni ramdenime milioniani erisTvis mcirea. qveyanaSi 2056 biblioTekaa (esec 2005 wlis monacemebiT) da maT Soris yvelaze did, sajaro biblioTekaSi dRemde ar miuRiaT 2007 wels naTargmni

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sxvadasxva avtoris ramdenime saxelmZRvanelo. aqedan gamomdinare, am ti pis biblioTekebis magaliTze wignis momxmareblis raodenobis dadgena ararealuria. xolo Tu gamomcemlebi mainc CaTvlian, rom mkiTxveli aRar hyavs wigns, es isev TavianT araswor menejments, produqtis uxarisxobas da im sasacilo wliuri raodenobis gamocemas unda daabralon, rac oficialurad aris statistikaSi aRwerili. saerTaSoriso statistikis mixedviT, wignis gamocemagavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT, inglisi, CineTi da germania lideroben. Tavs ar SegawyenT lideri qveynebis statistikuri maCveneblebis gacnobiT, am statiaSi mxolod rusuli gamomcemlobis maCveneblebs ganvixilav mcire doziT. Cvens mezobel qveyanaSi yovelwliurad 70 000 dasaxelebis wigni gamoicema (2002 wlis monacemebiT) da es ricxvi TandaTanobiT ufro izrdeba. iq sagamomcemlo saqme sakmaod momgebian biznesadaa aRiarebuli da am dinamikur, cocxal procesSi bevri da didi investiciebi ideba. mxatvruli literaturis gamocema-gavrceleba ki metad perspeqtiulad miiCneva. ruseTSi

80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1992- 19931993 1994 1994- 1995- 19961995 1996 1997 1997- 1998- 19991998 1999 2000 2000- 20012001 2002

ara mxolod didi olqebi, yvela patara dasaxlebac ki aris adgilobriv sagamomcemlo saqmianobaSi CarTuli. ada mians dabadebisTa nave Tan ax lavs garkveuli fsiqologiuri Tu fiziologiuri moTxovnilebebi. es moTxovnilebebi misi ama Tu im saxis qmedebebis motivs warmoadgens. Tu menejmentis sagani am motivirebuli momxmareblis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebaa, marketingi qmnis, bazarze gaaqvs, fuTavs da yidis produqts. adamians

fsiqologiur-fiziologiur moTxovnilebebTan erTad, bunebrivia, kulturuli moTxovnilebac uCndeba. xSir SemTxevvaSi man ar icis, Tu riT daikmayofilos es moTxovnileba. amas yvelaze metad dainteresebulobis Teoria miesadageba. Sesabamisad, momxmareblis daintereseba erT-erTi upirvelesi sazrunavia produqtis SemqmnelisTvis an sulac realizatorisTvis. qarTuli sazogadoebis kulturuli, ufro konkretulad ki, wignis mimarT moTxovnileba, am produqtis ufro meti popularizaciiT, stimulirebiT, reklamiT dakmayofildeba, es yvelaze ukeT gamomcemlobebs xelewifebaT. marketinguli saqmianoba orientirebulia produqtze, am SemTxvevaSi ki sagagmomcemlo saxlebs sakmaod kargad aqvT saqme: isini uSveben iseT produqts, wigns, romelsac, bazris garkveuli segmenti ukve dakavebuli aqvs. maT (vgulisxmob gamomcemlobebs), faqtobrivad, ar uwevT axali produqciis warmoeba (Tu ar CavTvliT mastimulirebel, PR-kampaniisTvis saWiro specifikur nivTebs, iqneba es safirmo saniSne, kalmistari Tu raime sxva samaxsovro) da amiT marketinguli dagegmarebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi nabiji gadadgmulia, amiT misia gansazRvrulia, xelmZRvanelobam mxolod saSiSroebebis gaTvaliswinebaze, strategiebis SemuSavebze, momxmareblis raodenobisa da Tavad warmoebis gazrdisTvisRa unda izrunos. Tumca, yvelaferi ase advili ar aris. organizaciis marketinguli saqmianobis marTva marketingis ganxorcielebiT, ufro konkretulad ki samoqmedo programis gaweriT unda daiwyos (Tu, ra Tqma unda, misia ukve gansazRvrulia). marTvis procesi _ es arsi programebis analizi, dagegmva, realizacia da Sesrulebis kontroli, romlebic miwodebulia organizaciis miznebis misaRwevad _ miznobriv myidvelebTan xelsayreli urTierTobebis Seqmnis, SenarCunebisa da gafarToebisaTvis. marketingis marTva xorcieldeba firmis mmarTvelobiTi saqmianobis erTiani koncefciis sazRvrebSi. marTva warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelo debulebaTa erTobliobas, amasTan erTad xasiaTdeba miznebis, funqciebis erTiani sistemiT. sagamomcemlo saqmianobas erTi marketingulad saintereso Tavisebureba gaaCnia. marTalia, is ar axdens bazarze rame

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diversifikaciis msgavss, igi stabilurad uSvebs mxolod erT produqts _ wigns (am SemTxvevaSi orientiri aRebuli maqvs wignze, rogorc gamomcemlobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan produqtze), saintereso momenti ki isaa, rom amgvar organizacias, produqtis specifikidan gamomdinare, sistematiurad uwevs sxvadasxva saxeobis wignis gamocema, anu, gamomcemloba, magaliTad, wlis dasawyisSi Tu sabavSvo feradi ilustraciebiT g a f o r m e b u l w i g n s g a m o u S v eb s , S e m d eg i g a m o c em a Sinaarsobrivadac da momxmareblis TvalsazrisiT pirvelisgan gansxvavebuli unda iyos. es faqti organizacias, uxeSad rom vTqvaT, aiZulebs ataros mudmivi marketinguli kvlevebi (es im SemTxvevaSi, Tu organizacia mogebazea orientirebuli), mudmivi meTvalyureobis qveS hyavdes momxmarebeli, gaakeTos moTxovnis prognozireba, moaxdinos savaWro agentebis, eqspertebis, kritikosebis azris gaTvaliswineba da, rac mTavaria, Tvali adevnos msoflios masStabiT momxdar literaturul siaxl eebs. ucxour literaturas a da saxelmZRvaneloebzeDdRevandel saqarTeloSi yvelaze meti mo Txo vni leb aa . m Tar gmnelo biTi f unq ci is Sem ateba gamomcemlobas ufro did organizaciad aqcevs, Sesabamisad, mis biujetsac ufro metad gazrdis da mas finansebis mozidvis mizniT aRar dasWirdeba iseTi saqmianobebis Sesruleba, rogoric maisurebsa da sayofacxovrebo nivTebze warwerebis gakeTebaa (rac gamomcemlobisTvis, vfiqrob, rom damamcirebelia). wignis bazari, rogorc specifikuri produqtis momxmarebeli, Tvisobrivad gansxvavdeba sxva produqtebis klienturisgan. Tu Tavad produqts vaniWebT `inteleqtualur~ saxels, Sesabamisad, misi myidveli SegviZlia CavTvaloT inteleqtualur momxmareblad. wignis gavrceleba iTxovs saWiro da adekvatur midgomas. misi warmosaxva unda moxdes mTeli Tavisi masStaburobiTa da mniSvnelobiT, uamravi sakanonmdeblo, ekonomikuri da Tavad organizaciis Sida faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, yvela savaraudo saSiSroebisa da sarisko SemTxvevebis gamoricxviT. wigni ar aris Cveulebrivi produqti. is, faqtobrivad, arakomerciuli produqtia. Tumca, organizaciis (gamomcemlobis) sworma menejmentma misi gavrceleba momgebianobisa da warmatebulobisken unda warmarTos.

am yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, sagamomcemlo organizaciebi ver vityvi rom 2008 wlisTvis, magram sakmaod swrafi tempiT gazrdian im samarcxvino ricxobriv maCvenebels, statistikis departaments rom aqvs dafiqsirebuli da Cven, momxmareblebs, dagvikmayofilebs mokrZalebul kulturul moTxovnilebas.

· milena dragiCeviC-SeSiCi, branimir stoikoviCi, `kultura, menejmenti,

animacia, marketingi~, Tbilisi, 2007. · www.alleng.ru · www.polbbu.ru · www.referat.ru · www.statistics.ge

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natalia murjikneli P pirovnebisa da jgufis marTva koleqtivSi adamianuri resursi yvelaze kritikuli resursia, romelic mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs nebismieri organizaciis efeqturobas. martivi ar aris saerTo miznis misaRwevad mravali adamianis Zalisxmevis koordinacia da warmarTva. am miznis efeqturad ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia menejmentisa da personalis marTvis (adamianuri resursis menejmentis) ZiriTadi principebis safuZvliani codna. rogorc cnobilia, menejmentis ZiriTadi amocana momsaxurebis da produqtis warmoebis maqsimaluri efeqturobis uzrunvelyofaa. am amocanis Sesruleba ki SeuZlebelia adamianuri resursis dagegmva-ganviTarebis, optimaluri strategiis SemuSavebis gareSe. adamianuri resursis marTva moicavs mTel rig funqciasa da saqmianobas, romelic xels uwyobs da gansazRvravs organizaciis TanamSromelTa efeqturobas. adamianuri resursis dagegmvis sistemebi moicavs personalis ayvana-daqiravebis, Statebis Camoyalibebis, treningisa da ganviTarebis, kompensaciis urTierTdakavSirebul process. adamianuri resursis menejeris saqmianoba moicavs Semdeg aspeqtebs: dagegmva: adamianuri resusris strategiis SemuSaveba, kadrebis dakompleqtebis doneebis monitoringi, organizaciis dagegmva. kadrebis dakompleqteba: profesional/teqnikur muSakTa daqiraveba, xelmZRvanelTa daqiraveba, saStato gadaadgilebebi, transferi.

treningi da ganviTareba: treningis saWiroebis gansazRvra, treningis organizacia, karieruli dagegmareba da ganviTareba. muSaoba da kompensacia: samuSaos Sesrulebis Sefaseba, kompensacia, daxmareba, produqtulobis gaumjobeseba. kadrebis marTvis mizania organizaciaSi momuSave TanamSromelTa saqmianobis efeqturobis ganmsazRvreli pirobebis dadgena. kadrebis marTvis mimarTulebebis Sedegebs Soris mniSvnelovani rgolia pirovneba da SromiTi saqmianoba, romelsac is axorcielebs. individebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian unarebiTa da SesaZleblobebiT, romlebic ganapirobeben samuSaos efeqtur Sesrulebasa da samsaxurSi regularul daswrebas. garda amisa, maT gansxvavebuli motivaciebi aqvT am aqtiobebis (Sesruleba, daswreba) gansaxorcieleblad. personalis SesaZleblobebi da motivacia unda emTxveodes samuSaos moTxovnebsa da mis mier SeTavazebul jildoebs. pirovnebisa da samuSaos analizi _ aucilebelia individis, misi SesaZleblobebis da motivaciis efeqturi TanxvedrisaTvis samuSaos moTxovnebTan da jildoebTan. kerZod: a). unda ganisazRvros pirovnebis SesaZleblobebi da motivacia sxvadasxva amocanasTan dakavSirebiT. b). samuSao unda gaanalizdes TanamSromlisaTvis aucilebeli motivebis dadgenis mizniT. g). aucilebelia ganisazRvros samuSaosTan dakavSirebuli jildoebi da maTi gamoyenebis mimarTulebebi. cxadia, rom adamianuri resursis marTvaSi personalis SromiTi motivaciebis, SromiTi Rirebulebebisa da individualuri Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswineba optimaluri sakadro politikis SemuSavebis winapirobaa, rac warmoudgenelia fsiqologiis Zireuli princi pebis codnis gareSe.

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praqtikam ara erTxel daasabuTa personalis marTvaSi fsiqologiuri codnis gamoyenebis aucilebloba. miuxedavad imisa, rom adamianuri resursis menejmenti mecnierebis interdisci plinaruli dargia, fsiqologiur codnas masSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs. imisaTvis, rom naTeli gavxadoT fsiqologiuri faqtorebis roli personalis marTvaSi, ganvixiloT personalis marTvis ramdenime funqcia da maTi mimarTeba fsiqologiur problemebTan. profesiuli jgufis proeqtireba _ profesiuli jgufebi unda dakompleqtdes jgufis wevrTa fsiqologiuri Tavsebadobis gaTvaliswinebiT. xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac kvalificiur personals kargi samuSao pirobebi da maRali anazRaureba aqvs, Sromisnayofiereba ki dabalia. xSiria urTierTpretenziebi da konfliqturi situaciebi. personalis marTvis praqtika gviCvenebs, rom xelmZRvanelebi mxolod mZafri konfliqturi situaciebis an raime incidentis SemTxvevaSi aqceven yuradRebas profesiul jgufebSi personalis fsiqologiur Tavsebadobas. disci plina _ organizaciis tradiciuli formebi efeqturi ar aris imis gamo, rom isini ar iTvaliswineben personalis motivaciebsa da Rirebulebebs. ukanasknel wlebSi yuradReba eqceva e. w. pozitiuri disci plinis danergvas, romelSic maqsimaluradaa gaTvaliswinebuli adamianis faqtori. dRes dReobiT erT-erTi ZiriTadi prob lema xelmZRvanelisaTvis swored personalis motivaciis sakiTxebia. samwuxarod, xelmZRvanelTa umravlesobas ar ainteresebs personalis individualizmi da maTgan moiTxovs mxolod konkretuli amocanebis Sesrulebas. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, xSiria iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac, miuxedavad kargi samuSao pirobebisa da maRali anazRaurebisa, Sromis nayofiereba dabalia, radgan jgufSi xSiria urTierT pretenziebi da konfliqturi situaciebi. am problemis gadasaWrelad, pirvel rigSi, aucilebelia fsiqologiis Zireuli princi pebis codna.

adamianuri resursebis menejmenti, redaqtori ia kutalaZe, Tbilisi, 1999, gamoica S.p.s. `aradanis~ mier, gv. 8-40. menejmentis safuZvlebi, avtorebi: Tbilisis ekonomikur urTierTobaTa saxelmwifo universitetis profesori miron tuRuSi, docenti naira yirimliSvili, Tbilisi, 2003, gv. 221-234.

Tamar firosmanaSvili biblioTekebis fasiani momsaxurebis ganviTareba saqarTvelo ZvelTaganve ganaTlebas dawafebuli qveyana iyo, rac, cxadia, qveynis ganviTarebisa da Zlierebis safuZvelia. uZvelesi droidan wignisa da sabiblioTeko saqmis ganviTarebis done qveynis kulturis maCveneblad iTvleboda. laTinuri sityva `kultura~ (cultura), rac ganaTlebas, sazogadoebrivi da gonebrivi ganviTarebis dones niSnavs, mudam Tanmdevi iyo saqarTvelosi. Tanamedrove axalgazrdebis sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibeba, maTi ideuri aRzrda moiTxovs garkveul codnas, rasac wignma, beWdurma produqciam da virtualurma samyarom unda Seuwyos xeli biblioTekebis saSualebiT. dRes Cveni biblioTekebi unda iqces Tanamedrove kulturulsaganmanaTleblo centrebad, rac yvela ganviTarebuli qveynis saiformacio infrastruqturis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia. biblioTekebSi TandaTan viTardeba Tanamedrove teqnologiebi da amitom maT unda SeeqmnaT saTanado pirobebi. biblioTeka socialur-kulturuli daniSnulebis mqone dawesebulebaa, romlis erT-erTi umTavresi damaxasiaTebeli niSania informaciis sxvadasxva formis floba. biblioTekis mTavari daniSnulebaa, rom es informacia xelmisawvdomi iyos momxmareblisTvis. informaciis operatiuli miwodeba moiTxovs efeqtur menejments. saukuneobrivi swrafva imisken, rom codna yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxdes, ufaso sajaro biblioTekebis Seqmnis `moZraobas~ udevs safuZvlad. biblioTekebis umravlesoba rTuli problemis winaSe dgas. maT unda SeZlon, Tavi gaarTvan realobas SezRuduli dafinansebiT da amasTanave auxsnan sazogadoebas is, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba aqvs sajaro biblioTekebis arsebobas. menejmenti dReisaTvis Camoyalibda damoukidebeli profesiuli saqmianobis formad, romelic mimarTulia sabazro

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fasiani momsaxurebis

ganviTareba

ekonomikis pirobebSi momuSave organizaciisaTvis dasaxuli ekonomikuri amocanebis gadasawyvetad menejmentisTvis damaxasiaTebeli meTodebisa da princi pebis gamoyenebis saSualebiT. biblioTekis menejerma obieqturad angariSi unda gauwios sabazro ekonomikis moTxovnilebebs da pirobebs, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi ver miaRwevs sasurvel efeqts. dRes saqarTveloSi yvelaze misaRebi sabiblioTeko muSaobaSi aris arakomerciuli marketingi, romelic ar iswrafis aucilebeli finansuri mogebisaken.Mmarketinguli midgoma iTxovs, rom biblioTekebs mieceT meti materialur-finansuri daxmareba fondebis ganaxlebisa da sacnobo aparatis SevsebisaTvis. marketingi _ es, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs biblioTekis mmarTvelobas orientirebuls momxmarebelze. sabiblioTeko momsaxureba ise unda iyos organizebuli, rom maqsimalurad akmayofilebdes momxmareblis moTxovnebs. wina wlebis rTulma politikurma da ekonomikurma mdgomareobam Taviseburi zegavlena iqonia biblioTekebze da maT dafinansebaze. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom am bolo dros im wlebTan SedarebiT gaumjobesda biblioTekebis mdgomareoba, magram problemebi problemebad darCa. saqarTvelos parlamentis i. WavWavaZis saxelobis erovnuli biblioTeka finansdeba centraluri biujetidan da 2008 welSi Seadgens 5.309.000 lars. wina wlebTan SedarebiT es Tanxa sagrZnoblad aris momatebuli, vinaidan 2006 da 2007 wlebSi igi finansdeboda 3.908.300 lariT, xolo ufro adre 20022003 wlebSi _ 971.800 lariT. magram dRes es momatebuli Tanxa mainc ar aris sakmarisi, vinaidan am TanxaSi Sedis biblioTekis rogorc komunaluri gadasaxadebi, ise saofise xarjebi, saxelfaso fondi, muSa-momsaxureTa Sromis anazRaureba, Jurnal-gazeTebisa da, rac mTavaria, wignebis Sesyidva. aRsaniSnavia, rom 2007 wlidan am biblioTekam registracia ufaso gaxada da mas damatebiTi Semosavali ar gaaCnia.Mman wels daiwyo erT-erTi korpusis aRdgena-ganaxleba. sxva korpusebi, romlebic am biblioTekas gaaCnia, aris Zveli, gasaaxlebeli SenobebiT da inventariT.MmaT ar yofniT darbazebi

rogorc samkiTxvelosTvis, ise kompiuterebisaTvis imitom, rom mkiTxvelebi zogjer erT magidasTanac ki ver etevian da kompiuterebTanac cocxali rigia. rogorc Cans, mkiTxvelis momateba ganapiroba iman, rom registracia ufasoa. 2006 wels, rodesac registracia fasiani iyo, mkiTxveli 15.000 aRwevda, xolo 2007 wlidan 2008 wlis ivnisisTvis daregistrirebuli aris 24.852 mkiTxveli. biblioTekis mdgomareobas bevrad gaaadvilebda is faqti, rom arsebobdes kanoni savaldebulo calebze.Ees kanonproeqti Setanili ki aris parlamentSi, magram dasamtkicebelia, amitom zogierTi gamomcemloba Tavs valdebulad ar Tvlis, miawodos Tundac erTi egzemplari, rac biblioTekis fondze cud zegavlenas axdens, vinaidan SesaZloa, saWiro da saintereso gamocema biblioTekisTvis dakarguli aRmoCndes. dResdReobiT misi fondi mdidrdeba SemowirulobiT, grantebis moZiebiT, saCuqrebis saxiT avtorebisgan. SedarebiT sxva mdgomareobaa s.s.i.p. Tbilisis mTavar biblioTekaSi, mas afinansebs Tbilisis meria da 2008 wels aris 1.400.000 lari. am biblioTekis daqvemdebarebaSi imyofeba 48 filiali rogorc Tbilisis, ise misi Semogarenis biblioTekebi. Tavisi dafinansebiT am biblioTekam moaxerxa rogorc misi centraluri, ise ramdenime filialis: #7, 9, 10, 15, 16 da 42 biblioTekis rogorc Senobebis, ise inventariT ganaxleba da pirobebis gaumjobeseba. rac Seexeba kompiuterebs, isini mis arc erT biblioTekaSi ar emsaxureba mkiTxvels. aq aRsaniSnavia is, rom TviTon centraluri `mTavari biblioTeka~, romelSic aris saabonento, darbazis, ucxo enebis da sabavSvo ganyofilebebi, registracia fasiania: weliwadSi 2 lari. mkiTxvelTa registracia fasiania agreTve a. wereTlisa da n. gelovanis sax.Aaxalgazrdul biblioTekebSic. `mTavar biblioTekaSi~ moqmedi bufeti mkiTxvelebs civi wyaros wyliT, CaiT, yaviT da cxeli SokoladiT ufasod umaspinZldeba, xolo namcxvrebi da buterbrodebi xelmisawvdom fasebSia (preiskuranti winaswar SekveTiTaa). biblioTekis fondi kompleqtdeba pirdapir gamomcemlobebidan, agreTve wignebs isini iReben avtorebisgan saCuqris saxiT.Eam biblioTekis

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biblioTekebis

fasiani momsaxurebis

ganviTareba

sxva misamarTze gadasvlam cotaTi Seaferxa mkiTxvelTa raodenoba. erovnul samecniero biblioTekas SedarebiT mcire dafinanseba aqvs.Mmisi Tanxa Seadgens 357.000 lars da finansdeba ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom am biblioTekas SeuerTda samecniero teqnikuri, samedicino da `imelis~ biblioTekebi. samecniero erovnul biblioTekaSi inventari moZvelebulia da misi ganaxlebisTvis saWiroa garkveuli Tanxebi. wignsacavSi ar muSaobs saventilacio danadgarebi da Wirs wignisTvis saWiro temperaturisa da tenianobis dacva, ris gamoc SesaZloa daziandes wignebi. mkiTxvelTa donem iklo imitom, rom biblioTekasTan misasvleli gzebi mouxerxebelia. agreTve kompiuterebis raodenobac ara sakmarisia. mkiTxvelebs emsaxureba mxolod oTxi kompiuteri.Ees biblioTeka ZiriTadad kompleqtdeba samecniero kvleviTi institutebidan xelSekrulebebiT, agreTve grantebis saxiT da saelCoebis daxmarebiT. biblioTekebma unda izrunon Tanxebis mozidvaze (fandrezingi) ­ sajaro biblioTekebis momsaxurebis dafi nansebi s alter natiul i wyaro, risTv isac saWiroaMmolaparakebebis warmoeba biznesmenebTan da sxva organizaciebTan (mecenatTa instituti). ucxoeTSi zogierTi biblioTeka gvTavazobs sxvadasxva saxis momsaxurebas: sazogadoebisaTvis fasian kompiuterul da biznes momsaxurebas; R i a sa s w a v l o c entr eb s da i nter neti T ( f aq s i T) momsaxurebas.Kkargi iqneboda, rom es sistema danergiliyo Cvens biblioTekebSic. damatebiTi fasiani momsaxureba unda gavigoT, rogorc sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi biblioTekebis mizanmimarTuli saqmianoba. biblioTekebi SeZlebisdagvarad unda mimarTavdnen biznes elementebs, rom momxmarebelTa Tanamedrove da gazrdili moTxovnebi daakmayofilon. safaso politikis gadamuSavebis dros xdeba moTxovnebis analizi. am analizis safuZvelze SeiZleba davadginoT

TiToeuli biblioTekisaTvis misaRebi momsaxurebis fasebi, e. i. TviTRirebuleba. biblioTekebma sazogadoebas unda daumtkicon, rom isini ara mxolod sasargeblo, aramed aucilebeli socialuri institutebia, romlebic TavianTi saganmanaTleblo, saiformacio Tu aRmzrdelobiTi funqciebiT mniSvnelovan rols asruleben qveynis inteleqtualur da kulturul cxovrebaSi. maT unda imuSaon ise, rom upasuxon XXI saukunis mkiTxvelis socialur, kulturul, samecniero, sagamnanaTleblo Tu profesiul moTxovnilebebs. @

Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2001, #2(3), sabiblioTeko marketingi. Tea iosava. Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2004, #4. , sabiblioTeko menejmenti, misi arsi da amocanebi, mzia togoniZe. Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2003, #3., biblioTekis marTvis Tanamedrove koncefcia. Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2001, #1(2), biblioTekis marTva, rogor gavigoT misi arsi, gulnara sturua. Jurnali `saqarTvelos biblioTeka~, 2002, #2., Tanxebis mozidva ... trevo naiti, madlen aalto. saqarTvelos parlamentis i. WavWavaZis sax. erovnuli biblioTekis monacemebi. ssi p Tbilisis mTavari biblioTekis monacemebi. erovnuli samecniero biblioTekis monacemebi.

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caca jorjiaSvili turistuli firmis PR

nebismier qveyanaSi turistul kompaniebs unda esmodeT, ra siZneleebTan eqnebaT saqme, Tu maTi moRvaweoba, ragind pozitiuri ar unda iyos igi, ar iqneba gagebuli da droulad miRebuli sazogadoebisTvis. rac metia sazogadoebis mimReblobisaTvis daxarjuli `sakomunikacio xarjebi~, miT metia misi ndobis mopovebis molodini. es ki myari garantiaa nebismieri turistuli kompaniisaTvis imisa, rom misi saqmianoba da funqcionireba mizanmimarTulad da warmatebiT warimarTeba. turizmis sferoSi Cvens qveyanas mdidari tradiciebi aqvs. Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom turizmi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis erT-erTi perspeqtiuli mimarTulebaa. dResaviT naTelia, rom misi ganviTareba nel-nela qmnis konkurentul garemos, xolo am sferoSi turistuli firmebis warmateba SeuZlebeli iqneba PR-is aqtiurad gamoyenebis gareSe, rogorc momxmarebelTa mozidvis, dakmayofilebis da SenarCunebis saSualeba. PR-i (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba) _ komunikaciis instrumentia, romlis mizania: organizaciasa da sazogadoebas Soris warmatebuli urTierTobis damyareba. organizaciis, produqciis Tu momsaxurebis imijis Seqmna da masze zrunva. ramdenadac cnobilia, informaciis asimetria bazris Cavardnis (Market failure) erT-erTi mizezia, xolo PR-is funqciaa sazogadoebisaTvis WeSmariti informaciis miwodeba da masTan mudmivi kontaqtis SenarCuneba. dRes saqarTveloSi turistuli firmebisaTvis PR-is saqmianoba naklebad aqtualuria. ramdenime msxvili kompaniis gamokiTxvis Sedegad, magaliTad, rogoricaa: N­TOUR-i, LEVONTRAVEL-i, ARGOTOUR-i, CAUCASUS TRAVEl-i, ALIONI TOUR-i da sxva. aRmoCnda, rom maT saerTod ar

hyavT PR-is menejerebi, xolo maT saqmianobas sxvadasxva specialisti, mag.: marketingis menejerebi iTavseben. zemoT CamoTvlili kompaniebidan Cven mier dasmul kiTxvaze: ratom ar hyavT maT PR-is menejeri, raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos, pasuxma Semdegnairad gaiJRera: `kompaniisaTvis es ubralod did saWiroebas ar warmoadgens~. Tu mocemul sakiTxs amgvarad mivudgebiT, firmis ara Tu winsvla, aramed, saerTod, misi arseboba momavalSi eWvqveS dadgeba, radgan sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis menejeris movaleobas, mudmivad izrunos misi kompaniis prestiJul imijze da reputaciaze, sxva menejeri namdvilad ver Seasrulebs; Sedegad, droTa ganmavlobaSi firmis arsebuli imiji da wlebis manZilze mopovebuli reputacia sazogadoebis TvalSi nel-nela Seilaxeba, rac arsebuli da potenciuri@momxmareblis dakargvas gamoiwvevs, es ki kompaniis sabolood ganadgurebas niSnavs. axali turistuli saagentoebis masobrivi aRmoceneba, TavisTavad qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis maCvenebelia. Tumca, ZiriTadi prioriteti am saagentoebis mdgradi, grZelvadiani warmateba unda gaxdes, rac nebismieri kompaniisaTvis, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, kargi PR-is gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba. da mainc: ra rols asrulebs PR -i turistuli firmebis saqmianobaSi?! PR-i aris ama Tu im saagentos Sansi, gaxdes cnobili sazogadoebisTvis. misi meSveobiT izrdeba ndoba kompaniisadmi, rac xels uwyobs momsaxurebis gayidvas. efeqturi urTierToba sazogadoebasTan xom mxolod PRis prerogativaa. da, rac mTavaria, PR-i organizaciis imijia. imiji _ es aris xelovnurad Seqmnili Sexeduleba, romelic sazogadoebaSi kompaniis mimarT keTilganwyobilebas qmnis. imiji mdgradi da naklebad moZravia. TiToeulma turistulma kompaniam unda izrunos iseTi dadebiTi imijis Seqmnaze, romelic xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi moemsaxureba. turistulma

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jorjiaSvili

turistuli firmis

PR

saagentom, romlis mizanic grZelvadiani warmatebaa, PR-is umTavres amocanad momxmarebelTa ndobis mopoveba da gamarTleba unda daisaxos. momxmarebelTa ndobis mosapoveblad erT-erTi yvelaze martivi gza maTi mdgradi kmayofilebis miRwevaa. turistuli saagentos Sefasebis ZiriTadi parametri udavod momsaxurebis xarisxia; momsaxurebis xarisxi, iseve, rogorc misi mravalferovneba, momxmarebelTa moTxovnebs unda Seesabamebodes da fasis adekvaturi unda iyos. arseboben iseTi turistuli saagentoebi, romlebic, mxolod elitaruli imijidan gamomdinare, TavianT momsaxurebas maRal fass adeben raime upiratesobis gareSe. Sedegad ki, Tanxis gadaxdisas momxmarebeli ukmayofiloa, radgan Tavs motyuebulad grZnobs. miRweuli warmatebis SesanarCuneblad (mopovebul ndobas SenarCuneba sWirdeba) aucilebelia axali SesaZleblobebis mudmivi Zieba, arsebul da potenciur momxmareblebTan u r Ti e r To b a ; r a c m x o l o d ef eq tu r i PR- i T a r i s ganxorcielebadi. realisturi molodinis Seqmna dadebiTad moqmedebs momxmareblis kmayofilebaze. kmayofili momxmarebeli sxva adamianebsac uziarebs Tavis Sexedulebas, risi meSveobiTac firmis imiji da cnobadoba TavisTavad mtkicdeba sazogadoebaSi. imedi gvaqvs, rom saqarTveloSi arsebuli turistuli saagentoebi yuradRebas dauTmoben PR-is mimarTulebas da xedvas da agreTve momsaxurebis dones, romelic rogorc ucxoeli turistebisTvis iqneba misaRebi da xelmisawvdomi, aseve adgilobrivi mosaxleobisTvisac. sayuradReboa informaciuli teqnologiebis, kerZod internetis, ganviTarebis roli am industriaSi. saqarTveloSi internetis moxmarebis sixSire iseve, rogorc dafarvis zona, mniSvnelovnad izrdeba; turistuli firmebi ki am zrdas fexdafex ver mihyvebian. miuxedavad imisa, rom saagentoTa sakmaod did nawils dResdReobiT sakuTari veb gverdi aqvs, isini xSirad naklebad informaciuli, Zneli sapovneli an gaumarTavia. aRniSnuli problemac udaod mosagvarebelia. dro midis da konkurenciac mZafrdeba; aucilebeli xdeba gaumjobesebis gzebis Zieba.

dReisaTvis turistul bazarze bumia. is turistuli firmebi, romlebic momxmareblebs TavianTi kompaniis cnobadobiT (Public Awareness) da maRali xarisxiT ver uzrunvelyofen, konkurentul brZolaSi damarcxdebian. gamosavali ki TiToeuli saagentosTvis PR-is strategiis SemuSaveba da misi ganxorcielebaa.

PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba), Tbilisi, 2007, elisabed xaxutaSvili, lia kapanaZe. PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba), Tbilisi, 2007, vaJa SubiTiZe, mixeil boWoriZe. turizmi: marina metreveli. Tbilisi 2003. Harlow, R. F., Buildinga Rublic, Ralations, in Herbst, R. E. a. a. O. 1988. krizisuli situaciebi da PR (sazogadoebasTan urTierToba), Tbilisi, 2003, revaz surgulaZe. http://dictionary.reference.com http://www.vatc.org/pr/imagelibrary.asp

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nino yuraSvili organizaciis sareklamo saqmianoba, misi organizeba da srulyofa reklama warmodgeba laTinuri sityva reclamare-sagan, rac wamoyvirebas niSnavs, warmoadgens sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebs raime nivTis, sanaxaobis Tu momsaxurebis gasacnobad. reklamas didi istoria aqvs, misi fesvebi momdinareobs jer kidev antikuri periodidan, rodesac oficialurad arsebobda e. w. macneebis Tanamdeboba, romelTa mizanic iyo yoveldRiuri informaciis miwodeba xalxis farTo masebisaTvis. dRes msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebSi reklama miRebulia rogorc xelovnebisa da mecnierebis nazavi, xolo marketinguli xarjebi investiciad ganixileba. ociode wlis win saqarTveloSi cotam Tu icoda marketingis Sesaxeb. dReisTvis darwmunebiT SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom uaxloes momavalSi reklamis efeqtianoba iseTive standartuli cneba gaxdeba CvenTvis, rogorc es sxva qveynebSia miRebuli da misi gamoyenebis saWiroeba eWvs ar gamoiwvevs. amerikas saukuneze meti dasWirda marketingis amJamindel donemde misayvanad, saqarTveloSi ki menejerTa Soris reklamis Sesaxeb ori urTierTgamomricxavi Sexedulebaa damkvidrebuli. erTni satelevizio reklamis magaliTze miiCneven, rom reklama fuWad gadayrili fulia da arafris momtania kompaniisTvis. maTi azriT, satelevizio reklamas isedac mcirericxovani auditoria hyavs, xolo reklamis gavlenis qveS moqceuli mayureblis raodenoba kidev ufro mcirea. am azris mxardamWerebs argumentad meoce saukunis 30-ian wlebSi damkvidrebuli Sexeduleba mohyavT, romlis Tanaxmadac, kargi produqti gzas damoukidebladac warmatebiT gaikvalavs.Aam azrs adasturebs aseve universaluri maRaziebis pirveli qselis damfuZnebeli ­ amerikeli uil rojersi, romelic ambobs: kompaniebs reklamaze gaweuli xarjebi Tavad reklamirebuli produqtis gaumjobesebisTvis rom daexarjaT, reklama saWiro saerTod aRar iqneboda. meoreTa azriT, efeqtiani reklama warmatebis aucilebeli winapirobaa ­ xalxma unda icodes,

ras warmoadgens kompania da ras sTavazobs momxmarebels. amgvari midgomis mxardamWerTa TvalsazrisiT, produqtisa da momsaxurebis reklamireba aucilebelia da kompanias ar unda daenanos am saqmisTvis saWiro xarjis gaweva. sareklamo kampaniis efeqturobis gansasazRvrad tardeba xarisxiani da mravalricxovani gamokvlevebi. mkvlevrebis mier dadgenilia, rom yvelaze kargad muSaobs iseTi reklama, romelic auditoriis mowonebas imsaxurebs. amitom efeqturi sareklamo kampaniis gansasazRvrad ismeba Semdegi SekiTxvebi: ,,mogwonT Tu ara saqonlis reklama? ramdenad mogewonaT? sainteresoa Tu ara saqonlis reklama?~ aqedan gamomdinare, reklamis efeqtianobis Sefasebis Zireuli nawili momxmarebelTa qcevis srulyofilad aRqma da gacnobierebaa. Tu ar flobT sakmaris informacias momxmarebelTa qcevis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba didi riskis winaSe aRmoCndeT. reklamis Seqmnamde danamdvilebiT unda icodeT, vin aris Tqveni momxmarebeli; informaciis misaRebad mediis ra wyaroebs iyenebs yvelaze xSirad da ratom; rogoria misi cxovrebis stili, ra stimulebze reagirebs da riTi SeiZleba misi yuradRebis mi pyroba, ra motivebi amoZravebs produqtis yidvisas. karg reklamad iTvleba ara is, romelic gansakuTrebuli SemoqmedebiTi SinaarsiT, kadrebis silamaziTa da kreatiulobiT gamoirCeva, aramed is, romelic miznobriv auditorias ukeTesad daamaxsovrebs kompaniis produqts an momsaxurebas da gayidis mas. swored es aris mTavari midgoma, romliTac dRes xelmZRvaneloben rogorc wamyvani sareklamo saagentoebi, aseve reklamis damkveTebi. dReisaTvis reklama xorcieldeba Semdegi arxebiT: teleeTeriT _ bazris 60%; bilbordebiT quCaSi da sxvadasxva sanaxaobaze _ 8%; beWdviTi mediis saSualebiT _ 12%; internetis saSualebiT _ 18%; sxva saSualebiT _ 2%. dRes yvelaze reitinguli telereklamaa. satelevizio reklamas axasiaTebs prestiJuloba (sxva masobrivi informaciis saSualebebTan SedarebiT), is adamianTa yuradRebis mi pyrobis farTo saSualebaa. dRev andeli q arTuli sarekla mo indus tria gamococxlebulia da Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom dRes saqarTveloSi sareklamo biznesis bumia.Ees reklamebis

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organizaciis sareklamo saqmianoba, misi organizeba da srulyofa

raodenobiTa da maTze gaweuli xarjebis swrafi zrdiT aixsneba. reklamis bazris zrdasTan erTad, reklamis damzadebis xarisxic umjobesdeba. sareklamo kompaniebi ZviradRirebul aparaturas iZenen, raTa ufro mimzidveli da srulyofili reklama Seqmnan. samwuxarod, zogierTi qarTuli reklama, miuxedavad maRali mxatvruli donisa, ama Tu im mizezis gamo produqts mainc ver yidis, maSasadame, ver asrulebs ZiriTad misias _ daamkvidros produqtis an momsaxurebis adgili auditoriis gonebaSi. Tumca iseTi kompaniebic mimarTac, romlebmac zustad gamoicnes sakuTari bazris moTxovna, aimaRles keTilganwyoba warmatebuli sareklamo kompaniis warmoebis gziT da, Sesabamisad, konkurentuli upiratesobac moi poves, ibadeba kiTxva: SeeZloT Tu ara am kompaniebs imave warmatebisTvis naklebi ZalisxmeviTa da danaxarjebiT mieRwiaT?Aamis garkvevas esa Tu is kompania damoukideblad, albaT, verc SeZlebs ­ saWiroa damatebiTi informaciis mopoveba mizanmimarTuli, kvalifikaciuri kvlevis safuZvelze.Aamgvari kvlevebi reklamis efeqtianobis kvlevis saxeliT aris cnobili. reklamis efeqtianobis kvleviT Tavidanve, reklamis Seqmnamde, unda vizrunoT, raTa minimumamde davides araefeqtiani reklamis gaSvebis riski. reklamis gaSvebis Semdeg ki unda SevamowmoT, ramdenad gaamarTla reklamaSi Cadebulma investiciam. reklamis efeqtianobis kvleva SeiZleba Caataros kompaniis struqturaSi momuSave saTanado danayofma an garedan mowveulma kvleviTma kompaniam.Mmagram aucilebelia, rom kvlevebis Sedegebis analizis procesSi aqtiurad CaerTon reklamis damkveTi, damamzadebeli da sxva obieqturad dainteresebuli mxareebi. msoflios maCvenebliT kvlevis kompaniebisa da maT mier Catarebuli kvlevebis raodenoba dRiTi dRe izrdeba, Tumca kvlevebis Catarebisa da maTi gamoyenebis kultura CvenSi jer-jerobiT kvlav Canasaxovan donezea. Sedegad, kvlevebs iseT mniSvnelobas ar aniWeben, rogorsac imsaxurebs grZelvadiani warmatebis misaRwevad. piter drakeri aRniSnavda, rom stabiluri warmatebis amosavali faqtorebi mxolod sworad gamarTuli marketinguli saqmianoba da inovaciebis danergvaa, yvelaferi danarCeni ki damxmare danaxarjebis sferos ganekuTvneba. aseve ambobda: ar Rirs reklamaSi imaze meti gadaixadoT, vidre saSualod am

reklamiT ganpirobebuli mogebaa.Kkompania reklamis srulyofisaTvis sakmaod did Tanxebs, dros da energias xarjavs sasurveli scenaris SerCevasa da media-gegmis Sedgenaze, Tumca Tu aRmoCnda, rom es mcdeloba fuWi iyo da reklamam ar gaamarTla, saWiroa drouli reagireba da am reklamaze uaris Tqma, am dros kompania zaraldeba, Tumca SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rom kompanias SedarebiT gaumarTla, radgan droulad aRmoaCina Secdoma da misi aRmofxvrac SeZlo. arsebobs iseTi magaliTebic, rodesac kompania ver acnobierebs Tavisi reklamis warumateblobas da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ganagrZobs mis gaSvebaze xarjis gawevas. isec xdeba, rom sareklamo rgoli miznobrivi auditoriis gaRizianebas iwvevs, ris Sedegadac warmatebis misaRwevad gaweuli xarji, sinamdvileSi, kompaniam piriqiT gamoiyena, Tan, rac yvelaze damRupvelia, grZelvadiani droiT, anu, ver SeZlo drouli reagireba. xSirad erTi da igive reklama or an met mizans emsaxureba. magaliTad, gayidvis moculobis zrdaze mimarTuli reklama xSirad kompaniis cnobadobasac zrdis.Aaseve logikuria, rom, Tu produqti uvargisia, momxmarebeli mas xelmeored ar iyidis. maSasadame, yvela sareklamo Cavardna ar SeiZleba mxolod araefeqtian reklamas dabraldes. warumateblobis mizezi rig SemTxvevaSi Tavad produqtidan momdinareobs, Tavad produqtia warumatebeli. warmatebuli produqti aramarto funqciurad gamarTlebuli da xarisxiania, aramed mTavaria, produqti aqtualuri iyos. is adamianis raime problemas unda wyvetdes, masSi damatebiT fsiqologiuri an ekonomikuri sargebelic unda iyos Cadebuli. am pirobebis Sesruleba rTulia, radgan momxmareblis kargad Seswavlas moiTxovs. aqedan gamomdinare, isev da isev winaswar kvlevebis Catarebis aucileblobaSi vrwmundebiT. arc is daviviwyoT, rom Zvirad Rirebuli reklama yvela produqts ar sWirdeba. amgvari reklama kompanias da mis produqts elitur iers uqmnis. Tu produqti am imijs ar Seesabameba, misi yidvisas momxmarebels Seusabamobis gancda eqmneba ­ mas Camouyalibda molodini, romelic ar gamarTlda. reklama axdens Tavisufali mewarmeobis materialuri, socialuri da kulturuli SesaZleblobebis populizirebas,

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astimulirebs Sromis nayofierebis zrdas rogorc menejerebs, aseve rigiT muSakebs Sorisac, igi qmnis momxmareblisaTvis mimzidvel da sasurvel suraTs, xels uwyobs cxovrebis donis amaRlebas. Tanamedrove sabazro urTierTobaTa pirobebSi reklama aRar asrulebs moTxovnis ubralo formirebis funqcias, man warmatebiT SeiTavsa marTvis funqciac, rac kidev erTi Zlieri argumentia imis dasadastureblad, rom reklama warmoadgens marketingis sistemis Semadgenel nawils. marketinguli danaxarjebis investiciad aRqma male saqarTveloSic realobad iqceva. rac ufro mZafrdeba konkurentuli garemo, rac ufro Zneldeba ama Tu im dargSi liderobis mopoveba da SenarCuneba, miT ufro aucilebelia yoveli gaweuli xarji mizanmimarTulad da momgebianad iyos gamoyenebuli.

nino SarmiaSvili Sromis motivaciis marTvis gaumjobeseba turistul kompaniaSi saqarTveloSi bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi mravali turistuli kompania Seiqmna, romlebic sxvadasxva serviss sTavazoben momxmarebels. turistuli kompaniebi gvTavazoben rogorc turistebis Semoyvanas (in coming), aseve gayvanas (out going). turizmis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi da ganmsazRvreli determinanti aris turistuli produqciis xarisxi da mimzidveloba. turizmis dargis ganviTarebisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris turistuli potencialis arseboba. mTavari da gadamwyvetia, rom turistuli potenciali iqces turistul produqtad. nebismieri turistuli kompania, profilis miuxedavad, adgens ganviTarebis strategiul gegmas. turistuli kompaniis mizani unda iyos momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi, winaswar gansazRvruli da dagegmili RonisZiebebi, SedarebiT dabali fasebi da turebis farTo arCevani. turistuli kompaniis warmatebuli muSaobis erT-erTi mTavari ganmsazRvrelia kadrebis SerCeva da maTi Semdgomi gadamzadeba. turoperatori erT-erTi ZiriTadi figuraa turistuli kompaniis sqmianobaSi. mas moeTxoveba iyos profesionali. e. i., unda gaaCndes Sesabamisi momzadeba da profesionalizmi. turoperatoris daxelovnebaSi mniSvnelovania misi codna rogorc zogadi, ise viwro specialobebis mixedviT. profesia ­ turoperatori iTvaliswinebs im garkveuli praqtikuli unar-Cvevebis dauflebas, romlebic daexmarebian mas, SearCios, ganazogados, advilad miitanos momxmareblamde saWiro masala da specifikuri codna. turoperatoris profesiis prestiJi mdgomareobs sazogadoebis mier aRniSnuli profesiis pativiscemaSi. profesiis

1. www.advtime.ru 2. www.bestreferat.ru 3. www.arflasher.com 4. www.PR-GUIDE.ge 5. www.bs-magazine.com 6. Jurnali ,,biznesi", #1, marti, 2007, gv. 60-65. 7. . ., « », . ., . 12, ., 1959, . 57-58.

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Sromis motivaciis marTvis gaumjobeseba turistul kompaniaSi

prestiJuloba ganpirobebulia am profesiis originalurobiT, mimzidvelobiT, unikalurobiT da inteleqtualuri saqmianobis TaviseburebebiT. profesionalad Camoyalibebis saqmeSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba mizanmimarTul swavlebasa da wvrTnas. turoperatorebis Sesabamisi Teoriuli swavlebisa da praqtikis Sedegad uyalibdeba specialuri unar-Cvevebi. nebismieri tur-operatiuli kompania, profilis miuxedavad, adgens strategiul gegmas, romelSic aisaxeba kompaniis adgili turistul bazarze, misi miznebi da amocanebi, gomomdinare firmis simZlavridan. imisaTvis, rom turistulma kompaniam miaRwios moRvaweobis mTavar mizans _ xangrZlivi droiT garantirebuli mogebis miRebas, turistulma kompaniam unda gansazRvros sakuTari misia, miznebi da amocanebi. misi strategiuli gegmis komponentebi SeiZleba iyos: momxmareblis moTxovnebis dadgena da misi gaTvaliswinebiT sakuTari turistuli produqtis koreqtireba, turistuli kompaniis erT-erTi rTuli amocanaa turistTa moTxovnis dadgena, rac bazris marketinguli Seswavlis Sedegad xdeba. turistuli kompaniis menejmentis mniSvnelovani sakiTxia kadrebis momzadeba da gadamzadeba. mcire zomis turistul kompaniaSi kadrebs amzadeben ise, rom maT SeeZloT erTmaneTis Secvla, anu, erTi TanamSromlis funqciebis meore TanamSromlisaTvis SeTavseba. turistuli kompaniis saqmianobisaTvis mniSvnelovania momsaxurebis xarisxis kontroli, turistis kmayofileba ki miiRweva turizmis sworad organizebisa da Sesrulebis SemTxvevaSi, roca turistuli kompaniis TiToeuli TanamSromeli Tavis movaleobas zustad da keTilsindisierad asrulebs. turistuli kompania momxmarebels sTavazobs erT mTlian pakets, romelic moicavs Semdeg kategoriebs: ganTavseba (sastumro), kveba, transporti, saeqskursio momsaxureba, gasarTobi, sportuli, sakurorto da sayofacxovrebo momsaxureba. bunebrivia, nebismieri turistuli paketis momzadebisas, kompaniis menejerma da turoperatorma icis, Tu

ras sTavazoben momxmarebels. amas uzrunvelyofen infoturebi, sadac sxvadasxva kompaniebis turoperatorebi ecnobian winaswar Sedgenili programis mixedviT im sastumroebsa da turistul marSrutebs, romlebic momavalSi unda SesTavazon sakuTar klients. aqedan gamomdinare, infoturi SeiZleba CaiTvalos Sromis motivaciis erT-erT mxared turistuli kompaniis saqmianobaSi. xelmZRvanelisaTvis saWiroa biznes-gegma, raTa naTlad ganisazRvros turistuli kompaniis saqmianobis masStabebi, miznebi, amocanebi da Sedegebi. biznes-gegma sWirdebaT kompaniis TanamSromlebsac, raTa icodnen kompaniis perspeqtivebi da TavianTi konkretuli amocanebi. biznes-gegmas adgenen xelmZRvanelebi, romlebmac SeiZleba garedan moiwvion specialist-konsultantebi. turistuli kompaniis biznes-gegmaSi unda mkafiod Candes kompaniis mier arCeuli strategia, turproduqtis fasi da turis daniSnuleba, xarisxi da saimedooba, xelmisawvdomoba da servisi. xelmZRvanelis mier biznes-gegmaSi Cadebuli unda iyos sabazro strategiis formac: a). intensiuri, b). eqstensiuri. aseve turproduqtis wardgenis sistemac. marketingul komunikaciebs gansakuTrebuli adgili ukaviaT turistuli kompaniis saqmianobaSi. finansur-ekonomikuri saqmianobis erT-erTi maCvenebelia gayidvebis stimulireba da sazogadoebasTan urTierTobebi. kompaniis TanamSromels uSualo kontaqti unda hqondes turproduqtis myidvelTan. piradi gayidvebi farTodaa gavrcelebuli turizmSi. gamyidvlis rolSi gamodis kompaniis yvela TanaSromeli. klientebTan kontaqti myardeba sxvadasxva komunikaciiT. TanamSromlebma unda moi povon momxmareblis ndoba da kvalificiuri konsultacia gauwion momxmarebels. turistuli kompaniis produqtis realizaciis programa, anu gayidvebis gegma, muSavdeba saerTo miznebisa da kompaniis strategiis arCevis Semdeg. gayidvebis gegma safuZveli xdeba wliuri Semosavlebis, danaxarjebisa da safinanso gegmis Sesafaseblad.

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turistul kompaniaSi SromiTi anazRaurebis menejmenti unda iTvaliswinebdes TanamSromelTa mzard xelfass turistuli kompaniis warmatebuli saqmianobis Sesabamisad. es ki SesaZlebelia miRweuli iqnas maSin, roca TiToeuli realizebuli turistuli paketidan turoperators daericxos mimdinare xelfasTan erTad garkveuli procentuli anazRaureba. aseTi midgoma xels Seuwyobs turistul kompaniaSi SromiTi motivaciis gaumjobesebas. turistuli kompaniis TanamSromelTa SromiTi motivaciis gasaumjobeseblad xelmZRvanelma TanamSromeli weliwadSi erTxel unda daasaCuqros ufaso avia bileTiT an mTliani turpaketiT. kompaniis mier dasaxuli amocanebis gadawyveta imazec aris damokidebuli, rom xelmZRvanelobam ramdenad miaRwia urTierTgagebas personalTan, ramdenad Zlieria TanamSromelTa motivacia, rogori fsiqologiuri klimati sufevs koleqtivSi. xSirad aseT SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneba: Sromis materialuri stimulireba, privilegiebis sistema, samsaxurSi dawinaureba, profesiuli ostatobis konkursebi da a. S. amrigad, turistuli kompaniis warmatebuli saqmianobis mTavari nawilia TanamSromelTa kvalificiuri da srulfasovani muSaoba. maRali xarisxis turistuli produqtis Seqmna, rac SromiTi motivaciis gaumjobesebiT miiRweva turistul kompaniaSi.

mariam CxeiZe kulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSi kanonmdeblobis analizi, efeqturoba da naklovanebebi sazogadoebis kulturuli donis ZiriTad maCveneblad yovelTvis iTvleboda is, Tu saxelmwifo ramdenad did yuradRebas aqcevs kulturasa da xelovnebas. saxelmwifoSi demokratiis, ekonomikisa da kulturis mSenebloba pirdapir ukavSirdeba sazogadoebis inteleqtualur potencials. meore mxriv, qveyanaSi kulturisa da xelovnebis ganviTarebis dinamikuroba bevrad aris damokidebuli imaze, Tu ramdenad sworad uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo Sesabamisi pirobebiTa da saSualebebiT am sferos stimulirebas. es ki sakanonmdeblo organoebisagan, pirvel rigSi, kulturisa da xelovnebis dargebis ganviTarebisaTvis mizanmimarTuli samarTlebrivi bazis Seqmnas moiTxovs. kulturaSi, am sityvis farTo gagebiT, aisaxeba xalxis SemoqmedebiT miRwevaTa erToblioba. es aris dedamiwaze cxovrebis ganviTarebis mimdinare procesebSi, axali produqtebis SeqmnaSi adamianebis mier Setanili iseTi wvlili, rogorsac buneba TavisTavad arc Seqmnida da arc arasodes daamkvidrebda. kulturuli faseulobis Seqmna da damkvidreba SeuZlia mxolod adamians da es aris zogadsakacobrio miRwevaTa rigSi calkeuli eris TviTmyofadobis gamoxatuleba. Sinaarsobrivad kultura moicavs farTo sferos, masSi erTiandeba: cxovrebis wesi, tradicia, Cveuleba, ena, damwerloba, zepirsityviereba, Cacmuloba, saxl-kari, yofa, aRzrdis wesebi, ekonomika, samxedro saqme, saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri mowyoba, marTva, mecniereba, teqnika, xelovneba da yvela sxva sfero, raSic adamianis obieqturi buneba SeiZleba gamovlindes. rodesac saqme exeba kulturis qmediTunarianobasa da mis ganviTarebaze zrunvas, unda vigulisxmoT adamianisa da eris Sinagani samyaro, am samyaros asaxvisaTvis mowodebuli arastandartuli pirovnebis buneba da axlis gamoxatvisaTvis mimarTuli SemoqmedebiTi procesi. siaxlisaken aseTi daJinebuli

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ltolva kargad aisaxeba WeSmariti xelovnebis nimuSis Sefasebisa da moxmarebis procesSi. amdenad, kultura ar mTavrdeba iq, sadac fiqsirdeba, is mudmivad viTardeba da moqmedebs. xelovneba, iseve rogorc kultura, arabunebrivi, ueWvelad adamianuri fenomenia. amave dros, xelovnis mier Seqmnili nawarmi emijneba kulturis sferoSi Seqmnil iseT faseulobebs, rogoric aris: mecniereba, xelosnoba, teqnika da sxva. TumcaRa, am dargebis umaRles miRwevebSi yovelTvis aSkarad moCans xelovnebis uSreti Zala. ganasxvaveben xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargebs: arqiteqturas, plastikas, mxatvrobas, poezias, musikas, dramatuli xelovnebis dargebs, cekvas. rogorc goeTe brZanebda: xelovnebis umaRlesi nimuSi warmoadgens adamian-Semomqmedis mier warmoqmnil iseTi xarisxis produqts, rogorsac qmnis TviTon buneba, magram amis sanacvlod WeSmariti xelovneba srulad STanTqavs TviTon xelovans. iseve rogorc xelovneba, mTlianobaSi kulturac aRmzrdelobiTi funqciis matarebelia. eris TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebasa da ganviTarebis saqmeSi swored kulturas eniWeba udidesi mniSvneloba. kanonmdebels unda esmodes, rom xalxis kulturasTan Tanaziarebis xarisxi, eris kulturisadmi kuTvnilebis maCvenebelia. kulturis sferosTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdeblobis analizisas mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia, erTmaneTisagan gavmijnoT kultura da civilizacia, radgan kultura aris erisa da pirovnebis TviTformirebis da TviTdadginebis gamomxatveli Sedegi, xolo civilizaciaSi ar aisaxeba eris TviTmyofadoba, is mxolod cxovrebis keTilmowyobasTan dakavSirebul miRwevaTa erTobliobis gamomxatvelia. mimdinare globalizaciis procesSi icvleba kulturisa da xelovnebisadmi arsebuli sabaziso moTxovna. garda garemos esTetikurad mowyobisa, mniSvnelovani xdeba ucxo kulturebis gacnobis, maTTan dasaaxlovebeli gzebis Zieba; erovnuli kulturis elementebis identifikaciis, sxva kulturebTan Tanaziarobis aRiareba. xelovneba, tradiciuli gagebiT, politika da biznesi _ Znelad Tavsebadi cnebebia. isini adamianis moTxovnilebaTa da

s u l i er f a s e u l eb a Ta r a di ka l u r a d g a ns x v a v e b u l , urTierTsapirispiro polusebs warmoadgenen. dRes WeSmariti xelovnebis nimuSis Seqmna da Senaxva pirdapir ukavSirdeba politikas, ekonomikasa da bizness. Cvens sinamdvileSi Tavs iCens xelovnebis komercializaciisa da komerciuli xelovnebis cnebebi. kultura da xelovneba Zvirfas liTonebTan, navTobTan, gazTan, uZrav qonebasTan erTad sainvesticio bazris mniSvnelovani segmenti xdeba. kulturis komercializaciis Sedegad gaCnda xelovnebis calkeuli nimuSebisadmi suggestiuri (laT. Suggestion _ STa goneb a, mi niSneba) da mokidebuleba. kultur uli faseulobebisadmi aseTi midgoma, erTi mxriv, warmoaCens, faseuls xdis da inaxavs dRemde farTo masebisaTvis naklebad cnobil xelovnebis nimuSebs, xolo, meore mxriv, zrdis TaRliTobisa da kontrabandistuli saqmianobis gaaqtiurebis saSiSroebas. calke ganxilvis sagans da specialur saxelmwifoebriv sakanonmdeblo midgomas saWiroebs erovnuli aramaterialuri kultura. Tu kulturisa da xelovnebis calkeul dargSi politikisa da biznesis SemoWram garkveuli TvalsazrisiT dadebiTi elementebic Semoitana, sruliad sapirispiro unda iTqvas aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis Sesaxeb. msoflioSi mimdinare globalizaciisa da teqnikuri progresis swrafi tempi, migraciuli procesebi da masTan dakavSirebuli garemoebebi mniSvnelovan safrTxes uqmnian nebismieri xalxis tradiciul kulturul memkvidreobas. aseT pirobebSi kidev ufro rTul mdgomareobaSia aramaterialuri kulturis sfero. saukuneTa manZilze Camoyalibebul wesCveulebebs, ritualebs, folklors, xalxuri xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargs saxecvlileba an zogierT SemTxvevaSi sruli gaqroba emuqreba. analizis Sedegad irkveva, rom saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo sivrceSi kulturis sferoSi moqmedi kanonebisa da kanonqvemdebare aqtebis nawili, romlebic 90-iani wlebis meore naxevarSia miRebuli (,,kulturis Sesaxeb~, ,,sabiblioTeko saqmis Sesaxeb~, ,,saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis Sesaxeb~), moZvelebulia, morgebulia im periods, rodesac iwereboda da,

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kulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSi analizi, efeqturoba da naklovanebebi

Sesabamisad, CamorCeba sazogadoebrivi institutebis ganviTarebis dRevandel tempebs. SedarebiT srulyofilia da Tanadroulad viTardeba saqarTvelos kanonebi ,,Teatris Sesaxeb~, ,,kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis Sesaxeb~, `kulturuli faseulobaTa saqarTvelodan gatanisa da saqarTveloSi Semotanis Sesaxeb~, ,,muzeumis Sesaxeb~, magram es kanonebi mTlianobaSi mainc ver asaxavs kulturisa da xelovnebis winaSe sadReisod arsebuli problemebis did nawils, eris kulturasTan Tanaziarebis xarisxs, erovnuli kulturis qmediTunarianobas, Tanamedrove pirobebSi kulturul faseulobaTa Seqmnisa da damkvidrebis Taviseburebebs, zogadsakacobrio miRwevaTa rigSi calkeuli eris TviTmyofadobis gamoxatvis da am saqmeSi pirovnebisa da kulturis Tanaziarobis tendenciebs; kanonmdeblobaSi ar aisaxeba Tanamedroveobis is Tavisebureba, romlis drosac mniSvnelovani xdeba ucxo kulturebis gacnobis, maTTan dasaaxlovebeli gzebis Zieba; erovnuli kulturis elementebis identifikaciis da sxva kulturebTan Tanaziarobis aRiareba. moZvelebuli sakanonmdeblo aqtebi ver daaregulireben xelovnebis, biznesisa da politikis erT WrilSi ganxilvisa da TanamSromlobis procesSi wamoWril problemebs. saimedo perspeqtivaze miuTiTebs realobisa da msoflios ganviTarebis tendenciebis analizis safuZvelze iuneskos mier 2003 wlis 17 oqtombris 32-e sesiaze miRebuli saerTaSoriso konvencia ,,aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis Sesaxeb~, romelic iTvaliswinebs aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis Seswavlis, dacvisa da popularizaciis mizniT saerTaSoriso da erovnuli organoebis Seqmnas. amasTan, konvencia mis wevr qveynebs avaldebulebs aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis aRricxvis, identifikaciisa da sxva donis dacvis meqanizmebis SemuSavebasa da Camoyalibebas, Tanxebis saxelmwifo da saerTaSoriso (maT Soris iunesko) organizaciebidan moZiebasa da mozidvas. 2007 wlis miwuruls saqarTvelo miuerTda iuneskos aRniSnul konvencias. mierTebis formalur mxares safuZvlad daedo ,,kulturuli memkvidreobis~ kanonSi sul ramdenime

abzacis Cawera ­ maT Soris zogadi ganmarteba a. k. m.-is Sesaxeb da saqarTvelos kulturis, ZeglTa dacvisa da sportis saministros saxiT pasuxismgebeli saxelmwifo organos gansazRvra. aRniSnuli miznebis miRweva SesaZlebelia kvlevis Semdegi meTodologiis gamoyenebiT: kulturis sferoSi moqmedi zogierTi saerTaSoriso sakanonmdeblo aqtis (maT Soris: `safrangeTis kulturuli memkvidreobis kodeqsi~, ruseTis federaciis kanoni `saavtoro uflebebis Sesaxeb~, `aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis saerTaSoriso konvencia~, `aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis kanoni~ ­ somxeTi da sxv.) mimoxilva; winamdebare naSromis mizania: 1. gansazRvros qarTuli kanonmdeblobis qmediTunarianoba aRmasrulebel doneze, kulturuli moRvaweobis produqtis (xelovnebis nimuSis) gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT; 2. warmoaCinos qarTuli kulturuli memkvidreobis msoflio procesSi CarTulobis sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebi; 3. Camoayalibos sarekomendacio winadadebebi kulturis dargSi sakanonmdeblo procesebis srulyofisaTvis. kulturis sferoSi arsebuli qarTuli sakanonmdeblo aqtebis (`kulturuli memkvidreobis Sesaxeb~, `saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis Sesaxeb~, `Teatrebis Sesaxeb~, `muzeumis Sesaxeb~ da sxv.) Seswavla; saqarTveloSi kulturis sferoSi moqmedi ZiriTadi kanonebis realuri moqmedebis arealis mimoxilva-analizi. kvlevis obieqts warmoadgens sakanonmdeblo aqtebi, xelovnebis dawesebulebebis (muzeumi, biblioTeka, materialuri kulturis Zeglebi, aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis sfero) saqmianoba. kvlevis sagania kulturisa da xelovnebis saboloo produqtis saxelmwifo dacvis meqanizmebi (maT Soris aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis) konkretuli magaliTebze dayrdnobiT.

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mariam WumburiZe personalis miRebisa da SerCevis princi pebi organizaciaSi kacobriobis evoluciis udides miRwevas saxelmwifos Seqmna da masSi saxelmwofoebrivi institutebis Camoyanlibeba warmoadgens. romlebiTac igi axorcielebs sazogadoebis marTvas sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. Tavis mxriv, organizacia saxelmwifoSi gansazRvruli ti pis warmonaqmnia, romelSic gaerTianebuli adamianTa jgufi apirobebs misi amocanebis gadawyvetas, samuSaos mimdinareobas, warmatebul Sedegebs, e. i., nebismieri organizaciis warmatebas adamianebis unar-Cvevebi, codna da motivacia ganapirobebs. yovel organizacias konkretuli misia akisria, romelic mis strategias gansazRvravs. xelmZRvanelobis gasaadvileblad da strategiis warmatebiT ganxorcielebis mizniT organizacias Semadgeneli struqtura gaaCnia. yovel maTganSi dakavebuli adamianTa jgufi winaswar gansazRvrul sistematizebul funqcias asrulebs, amitom yovel ubanze adamianuri resursebis moZieba da SerCeva metad sapasuxismgeblo saqmea da dros moiTxovs. SerCeva SeiZleba ganixilos rogorc Sesatyvisi kandidatebis arCeva, ise Seusabamo kandidatebis uaryofa an am orive procesis kombinacia. amrigad, SerCeva aris yvela kandidatidan yvelaze saWiro pirovnebaTa amorCeva. am procesSi mTeli rigi proceduris Sedegad grovdeba kandidatebis Sesaxeb relevanturi informacia, romlebiTac fasdeba maTi Sesatyvisoba dasakavebel TanamdebobasTan. meore mxriv, SerCeva warmoadgens kandidatTa Sefasebis process mravali xerxiT da arCevnis gakeTebas, romelsac mosdevs samsaxuris SeTavazeba. upirveles yovlisa, orgnizacia acxadebs vakanisiebs, amasTanave naTlad ayalibebs moTxovnebs, romlebsac unda akmayofilebdes SesarCevi kadri ama Tu im konkretuli Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad (codna, unarebi, midgoma, romelic

esaWiroeba individs), raTa dasakavebeli TanamdebobisaTvis gansazRvruli movaleobebi efeqturad Sesruldes. rogorc aRvniSneT, kandidatis Semowmebis mravali xerxi arsebobs, maT Soris: testebi, SekiTxvebi: rogor moiqceva igi am TanamdebobisaTvis Sesabamis sxvadasxva situaciaSi? Semowmdes misi codna. Semowmebisas gamosacdel pirovnebas mieces faqtobrivi unarebis demonstrirebis saSualeba. gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos, Tu rogor moergeba SesarCevi pirovneba ukve arsebul samuSao gunds. ra siaxles, damokidebulebas, midgomas Semoitans gundSi. unda darwmundeT, rom SesarCevi kandidati srulad akmayofilebs organizaciis mier gamocxadebuli vakansiis moTxovnebs, radgan nawilobriv Sesaferisi kandidati mxolod damatebiT problemebs Seqmnis organizaciaSi samomavlod. adamianebis sworad SerCeva erTgvari gamowvevaa organizaciisaTvis da Tu organizacia moaxerxebs maRali donis TanamSromelTa SerCevas, es misi warmatebis sawindari iqneba. ar arsebobs SerCevis procesis standarti, romelic imoqmedebda yvela organizaciaSi, yvela vakansiisaTvis. SerCevis procesi rTuldeba dasakavebeli Tanamdebobis donisa da mniSvnelobis mixedviT. personalis SerCevas teqnikurad uswrebs personalis miReba, romelic moicavs adamianuri resursis ZiriTad wyaros, samuSao Zalis identificirebas da mis stimulirebas, raTa mimarTos organizaciebs samuSao adgilis misaRebad. personalis miRebisas organizaciis mizania rac SeiZleba didi raodenobiT kandidatebis mozidva, romelTagan SerCevis Sedegad SesaZloa, arc erTi adamiani ar SeirCes. sxva mxriv, SerCeva aris samsaxurSi miRebuli adamianebidan saukeTesoTa amorCevis procesi, romelsac gansazRvravs konkretuli faqtorebi da pirobebi. maTSi igulisxmeba SesarCevi personalis ti pi, drois faqtori, kandidatebis

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miRebisa

da SerCevis

principebi

organizaciaSi

raodenoba da a. S. organizaciis SerCevis politika gansazRvravs SerCevis procesis xerxebsa da saSualebebs. CamoTvlili sakiTxebis miuxedavad SerCevis universaluri princi pi ar arsebobs. mosalodnelia raime saxis problemis warmoqmna Secdomis daSveba da sxv. magaliTad, gasaubreba emsaxureba sam mizans, esenia: informaciis mopoveba SesarCevi kandidatis warsulze, ganaTlebasa da treningebze, muSaobis gamocdilebasa da mis interesebze; SesarCevi kandidatisaTvis informaciis miwodeba samuSaos specifikasa da adamianuri resursebis politikaze konkretul organizaciaSi; megobruli urTierTobis damyareba damsaqmebelsa da kandidats Soris, raTa kandidatis motivireba moxdes organizaciSi misi muSaobisTvis. Tumca es piroba irRveva da, praqtikulad, interviu emsaxureba mxolod pirvel mizans. problemebi SesaZlebelia iyos sxvadasxvagvari, magram SesaZlebelia maTi moqnili xerxebiT gadalaxva. cnobilia, rom personalis SerCevisas problemas warmoadgens saWiro mimarTulebiT kvalificiuri specialistebis nakleboba, saTanado gamocdilebis uqonloba da individuumis mier ufro maRali xelfasis moTxovna, vidre organizaciisTvis aris misaRebi. testirebis Sedegad SeiZleba, samsaxurSi miiRon kandidati, romelic am etapze ar pasuxobs organizaciis moTxovnebs, magram gaaCnia TanamdebobisaTvis saWiro zrdisa da ganviTarebis potenciali. amis SesaniSnavi saSualebaa SerCeuli personalis uzrunvelyofa treningebiT, romelic daexmareba mas dasakavebeli Tanamdebobis moTxovnilebebis ganxorcielebaSi. zemoT moyvanili personalis SerCevis kriteriumebi sayovelTaodaa danergili msoflios civilizebul qveynebSi. arc Tu ise didi xania, rac imave princi pebiT cdiloben saqarTveloSi personalis SerCevis Tanamedrove standartebTan miaxloebas, magram, rogorc yvela siaxle, zog SemTxvevaSi igi amarTlebs, zog SemTxvevaSi ki dazRveuli ar aris Secdomebisgan,

rogoricaa: calkeul SemTxvevebSi subieqturoba, calkeul SemTxvevebSi piradi interesebi da sxva. kadrebis SerCevis p roblem ebs r ogorc sxvag an, saqarTveloSic warmoadgerns kvalificiuri specialistebis nakleboba, gamocdilebis uqonloba, oRond Cven SemTxvevaSi pirovnebis mier maRali xelfasis moTxovnis nacvlad, ukve gansazRvruli dabali anazRaureba da asakobrivi zRvari, romelic zRudavs arsebul profesionalTa dasaqmebas. konkretulad axalgazrdebisaTvis problemas warmoadgens saitebze ganTavsebul vakansiaTa moTxovnebic, sadac mTavari pirobaa aranakleb sami wlis gamocdileba, maSin, rodesac xSir SemTxvevaSi Tavad es organizaciebi ar zrunaven kvalificiuri kadrebis aRzrdaze. rac Seexeba kulturis sferos igi, Tavisi specifikidan gamomdinare, mravalferovan SesaZleblobas iZleva kadrebis SerCevis organizebisas. vinaidan Teatri Sedgeba Teatris xelmZRvanelobis, dasisa da administraciul-teqnikuri personalisagan, Tanamdebobaze daniSvna an gaTavisufleba, xelSekrulebis dadeba xdeba Teatris mmarTvelis samxatvro xelmZRvanelTan SeTanxmebiT. saxelmwifos mier subsidirebul TeatrebSi samxatvro xelmZRvaneli iniSneba kulturis saministros mier, mmarTveli _ kulturis saministros mier an Teatris samxatvro xelmZRvanelis survilis gaTvaliswinebiT. ufro mravalferovania damdgmel reJisorTa SerCevis gzebi: piradi kontaqtebi, seleqcia (TeatrebSi siaruli, speqtaklebis Sefaseba da sxv.). sakadro konkursis SemTxvevaSi reJisorebma proeqtebi unda waradginon moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad da saukeTesoni moi poveben TeatrTan TanamSromlobis uflebas. rac Seexeba msaxiobebs, Tu Teatrebi konkurss acxadeben garkveuli asakis gmiris rolis Semsrulebel msaxiobze, satelevizio Sou-programebi mayurebelTa farTo auditoriis samsjavroze wyveten am problemas. gavixsenoT rusTavelis Teatris mier gamocxadebuli vakansiisTvis brZola amave Teatris mcire scenaze proeqtSi `dasi~ an amJamad mimdinare `varskvlavebis akademia~. Tumca zogjer TeatrebSi iseve, rogorc sxva organizaciebSi kadrebis Sevseba qasTingis

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gareSec xdeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi garkveulwilad irRveva misaRebi kandidatebis Tanabar pirobebSi Cayenebis princi pi. daskvnis saxiT ki vityvi, rom Tuki organizacia SeZlebs personalis obieqtur Sevsebas iseTi kandidatebiT, romlebic miiswrafian warmatebisken, aqvT riskze wasvlis unari, arian Sors mWvretelni da gunduri princi pebis damcvelni, aseTi TanamSromlebiT dakompleqtebuli ogranizacia SeZlebs didi amocanebis gadaWras da yvela dasaxuli miznis warmatebiT miRwevas. amitomac aris dRes aqtualuri personalis miRebisa da SerCevis princi pebis codna da dacva nebismieri orgnizaciisTvis.

nino xuciSvili internet-teqnologiebis gamoyeneba marketingul saqmianobaSi interneti ­ msoflio globaluri qseli, nebismieri saqmianobis ganuyofeli nawilia. internet-teqnologiebis aqtiuri ganviTareba uflebas gvaZlevs ganvixiloT interneti, rogorc nebismieri saqmis warmoebis ganviTarebisa da srulyofis mZlavri saSualeba. amas xels uwyobs momxmarebelTa Seuwyveteli swrafi zrda; internet auditoria TandaTan izrdeba da moiTvlis milionobiT momxmarebels, sxvadasxva asakobrivi jgufis da interesis warmomadgenlebs. internets bevri dadebiTi Tviseba aqvs informaciis miRebisa da gacemis TvalsazrisiT: moxerxebulia, swrafia, konfidencialuria, nakleb xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli, msoflios nebismieri wertilidan informaciis miRebis saSualebas iZleva da a. S. rac mTavaria, XXI saukuneSi Cven ar gvaqvs imis ufleba, rom ar gamoviyenoT interneti da misi mravali teqnologia praqtikul saqmianobaSi. dRes naklebad savaraudoa arsebobdes romelime organizacia an kompania, romelic ar iyenebs internet-teqnologiebs. aqedan gamomdinare, Seicvala mmarTvelobiTi midgoma marketingSic. axalma midgomam ki marketingul saqmianobaSi SeiZleba moutanos kompanias ufro meti mogeba. aseve didi upiratesobebi aqvT marketingis menejerebs; pirvel rigSi, reklama, romelic bevrad nakleb xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli, vidre masmediaSi ganTavsebuli, momxmarebelTan urTierTobaSi SeuZliaT gaanalizon momxmareblisgan miRebuli informacia, gaacnon maT axali produqti da a. S. kompaniebi, Tavis mxriv, yuradRebas ixveWen da afarToeben bazars da auditorias, internet-teqnologiebis meSveobiT ki cdiloben axali momsaxurebebis danergvas. kompiuterebis SeqmnasTan erTad Seiqmna mravali sainformacio kompiuteruli bazebi. interneti ZiriTadi gzaa, romelic gvaZlevs saSualebas martivad da swrafad informaciis mopovebisa da misi Semdgomi gamoyenebisa.

· R. Shilingi, Venance: A student pursuing MBA (Corporate Management),

Mzumbe University. Selection Process as Human Resource Function.

· Armstrong M. (2006), A Handbook of Human Resource Management.

Practice (10th Edition ed.), London: Kogan Page Limited.

·Dessler G. (2005), Human Resource Management (10th edition ed.), New

Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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radgan marketingis ZiriTadi mizani mainc produqtis win waweva da gayidvaa, amisaTvis gverds ver avuvliT erT-erT warmatebul gzas, reklamas, internetSi. aseve momxmareblis da maTi moTxovnis Seswavla-analizisaTvis saWiroa Catardes marketinguli kvlevebi internetis meSveobiT. zemoT CamoTvlili saSualebebi da gzebi namdvilad xels Seuwyobs marketinguli saqmianobis ganxorcilebaSi. marketingis miznebi kulturaSi orientirebulia, pirvel rigSi, bazris moZiebaze da Semdeg auditoriis Seswavlaze da gazrdaze, produqtis popularizaciaze. kulturis sferos momxmarebels aqvs saSualeba, swrafad, konfidencialurad, saxlidan gausvlelad miiRos informacia kompaniis da misi produqciis Sesaxeb. SeiZinos bileTebi, xelovnebis nimuSebi. internet-teqnologiebi ki ayalibebs axal, aqtualur da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, martiv gzebs marketinguli saqmianobisaTvis. mniSvnelovania kompaniis web-gverdi, romelic mis saxes warmoadgens da misi saSualebiT SegviZlia marketinguli saqmianobisaTvis aucilebeli informacia miviRoT. web-gverdis gamoyenebiT marketingis menejerebs SeuZliaT: auditoriasTan mizanmimarTuli saqmianoba; auditoriis daintereseba; detaluri infromaciis gadacema; aqtualuri da operatiuli infromaciiT uzrunvelyofa; interaqtiuli urTierToba da ukukavSiri; pirdapiri gayidvebi; statistikis warmoeba da analizi; kvlevebisa da gamokiTxvebis warmoeba. web-gverdi maqsimalurad efeqturi unda iyos, misi vizualuri gaformeba mniSvnelovania. dizaini amave dros martivi da gasagebi unda iyos, momxmarebelma Seucdomlad da advilad unda moi povos misTvis saWiro informacia. dRevandel dRes internetSi didi raodenobis informaciaa warmodgenili, maT Soris: romelime organizaciaze sxvadasxva analitikuri da finansuri informacia, politikis da ekonomikis siaxleni da uamravi sxva. organizaciaTa umravlesobas, miuxedavad mimarTulebebisa, aqvs Tavisi warmomadgenloba internetSi (web -gverdi), sadac kompaniis moRvaweobis,

SeTavazebebis, moTxovnilebebis Sesaxeb informaciaa warmodgenili. aqedan gamomdinare, internetiT warmoebuli kvleva saukeTeso gzas warmoadgens. sxva kvlevebisgan gansxvavebiT aseTi saxiT Catarebuli kvleva saSualebas iZleva, sasurveli informacia sakmaod operatiulad da didi moculobiT SeiTvisos organizaciam. es aseve aucilebelia kompaniis saqmis warmoebis strategiis ganviTarebisaTvis, bazris cvlilebebze swrafi reagirebisa da sareklamo saqmianobis warmoebisaTvis. interneti ­ marketingis mxolod erT-erTi iaraRia, anu, kidev erTi marketinguli arxi organizaciis saerTo marketingul kompleqsSi. internetis momxmarebelTa raodenoba ukve zogadad masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs (masmediis), auditorias utoldeba, amitom aucilebelia ganvsazRvroT marketinguli strategiis ganviTarebisas, aris Tu ara internetis momxmarebeli Cveni mTliani auditoriis garkveuli nawili da ramdenad advilia momxmarebelTa internetis meSveobiT mozidva. interneti Zalian did gavlenas axdens msoflioSi informaciis gavrcelebaze. rogorc socialuri movlena ­ interneti globaluri sakomunikacio saSualebaa, romelic uzrunvelyofs teqsturi, grafikuli, aduio Tu video informaciis gacvlas da xelmisawvdomobas. _ onlain servisebi teritoriuli Tu nacionaluri sazRvrebis gareSe, _ es aris kvlevis efeqturi instrumenti, romelic xels uwyobs vaWrobis da biznesis auditoriasTan urTierTobas. internetis ganviTarebasTan erTad swrafad icvleba mmarTvelobiTi midgoma biznessa da marketingSi, romelic misi erT-erTi nawilia.

m. dragiSeviC-SeSiCi, branimir stoikoviCi, `kultura, menejmenti, animacia, marketingi~, Tbilisi, 2007. s. razmaZe, `internetis Tanamedrove teqnologiebi~, Tbilisi, 2003. g. armstrongi, a. kotleri, `marketingis safuZvlebi~, 2005. www.wikibooks.org

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marine (maka) vasaZe _ Teatrmcodne, daamTavra Tbilisis Teatraluri institutis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. xelmZRvanelobs saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Taetrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis sauniversiteto gamomcemloba `kentavrs~. aris amave universitetis gazeT `durujis~ redaqtori, agreTve damaarsebeli da redaqtori gazeTisa `kultura~. moRvaweobs saerTaSoriso kulturis fond `kavkasiaSi~ menejerad, aris kulturis saerTaSoriso bazrobis (2003. 2005, 2007) erT-erTi koordinatori. aris ramdenime wignis redaqtori; sistematiurad aqveynebs statiebs, werilebs, recenziebs Tanamedrove Teatralur procesebsa da problemebze JurnalebSi: `sabWoTa xelovneba~, `Teatraluri moambe~, `Teatri da cxovreba", gazeTebSi: `kultura", `duruji". tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60 el. fosta: [email protected] maia goSaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodnebis doqtori, saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra amave universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. sxvadasxva dros gamoqveynebuli aqvs publikaciebi amerikuli, antikuri da renesansis dramaturgiis Sesaxeb. amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `variaciebi miTosur motivebze~. tel: +995 (32) 99 65 64 maia kiknaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatris da kinos saxelmwifo universitis asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra amave universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. 1992 wlidan muSaobs amave universitetSi da uZRveba seminars Teatris kritikaSi. kiTxulobs leqciebs qarTul Teatrze. sadisertacio Tema: `eqspresionizmi qarTul TeatrSi~. amJamad muSaobs marionetebis Teatris istoriaze. gamoqveynebuli aqvs ormocdaaTze meti naSromi Jurnal-gazeTebSi. tel: +995 (99) 72 95 21

marika mamacaSvili _ Teatrmcodne, daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos instituti Teatrmcodnis specialobiT. ibeWdeboda JurnalebSi: `xelovneba~ da `Teatraluri moambe~. amJamad muSaobs specialistad gamomcemloba `kentavrSi~. ikvlevs piter brukis Semoqmedebas. tel: +995 (77) 41 00 11; +995 (32) 22 21 11 el-fosta: [email protected]

lamara RonRaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, damTavrebuli aqvs saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifo Teatraluri institutis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. aris saqrTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori, mwerali. 6 wignisa da mravali saJurnalo da sagazeTo publikaciis avtori. miRebuli aqvs saqarTvelos erovnuli samecniero fondis orwliani granti. amJamad muSaobs Zveli qarTuli Teatris anTropologiis sakiTxebze. am mimarTulebiT gamoqveynebuli aqvs Targmani JurnalSi `Teatri da cxovreba~. tel: +995 (32) 98 94 81

laSa CxartiSvili _ Teatrmcodne, saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis doqtoranti, amave universitetis Teatris samecniero seqtoris mecnier-TanamSromeli, Teatrmcodne. daamTavra saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. muSaobs Teatris istoriasa da kritikaSi. aris 5 wignis: `baTumis operisa da baletis Teatris istoria:, `baTumis tikinebis Teatri", `kritikuli etiudebi", `baTumis Tojinebisa da moxard mayurebelta Teatris istoriis sakiTxebi~, `iusuf kobalaZe~, 10-mde samecniero naSromis da 200-mde recenziis avtori, aris 2004 wlis saukeTeso studenti-Teatrmcodne, 2005 wlis saukeTeso Teatraluri recenziis avtori, 2006 wels moi pova prezidentis granti da sti pendia, moRvaweobs SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis xelovnebis fakultetze Teatris istoriis maswavleblad. ikvlevs `mefe liris~ scenuri interpretaciis problemebs robert sturuas, piter brukisa da jorjo streleris SemoqmedebaSi. tel.: +995 (77) 90 40 41 el. fosta: [email protected]

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levan xeTageuri - misi specialobaa Teatrmcodneoba da kulturis menejmenti. levan xeTaguri aris kulturis fond kavkasiis prezidenti. igi aris SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis reqtoris moadgile da profesori. igi aris sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso akademiuri, mrCevelTa da samecniero sabWos wevri. 1995 wlidan aris qsel guliveris wevri. 2008 wlidan aris evropis kulturis parlamentis wevri da strategiuli jgufi "ASoE"-is wevri. 1990 wlidan igi aris aseulobiT adgilobrivi Tu saerTaSoriso proeqtis iniciatori, menejeri, prodiuseri da monawile. 1997 wlidan aris saqarTvelos erovnuli centris generaluri mdivani da saqarTveloSi evropuli Tatris kvelviTi institutis direqtori. aris FIRT-is wevri. 1981 welidan aris 80-ze meti naSromis/redaqtori da mTargmneli/ Jurnalebsa da gazeTebSi (qarTuli, inglisuri, azerbaijanuli, slovakuri da a.S.). avtoria ramdenime wignisa. 2000 wels igi dajildovda Svedi mwerlebis gildiis mier. 1991 wlidan aris sxvadasxva kulturis programebis: seminarebis, konferenciebisa da festivalebis organizatori. 1996 wlidan igi miwveviT kiTxulobs leqciebs. tel: +995 (32) 98 30 75 el-fosta: [email protected]

Tea mJavanaZe _ filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis saswavlo procesis marTvis samsaxuris ufrosi specialisti. gamoqveynebuli aqvs cxra samecniero naSromi JurnalistikaTmcodneobaSi. tel: +995 (32) 36 67 77; +995 (55) 43 81 07 el. Ffosta: tatia @ tsu. ge

TinaTin Wabukiani _ reJisori, saqrTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori. sxvadasxva dros muSaobda saqarTvelos televiziaSi (I arxi) _ jer satelevizio TeatrSi, Semdeg musikalur redaqciaSi, rogorc damdgmel aseve sabavSvo programebis mTavar reJisorad. misi sadisertacio Temaa: `sabavSvo telemauwyeblobis sazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba da esTetikuri Taviseburebani~ (qarTuli teleproeqtebis mixedviT). amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba~. tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00

oliko JRenti _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis samecniero kvleviTi centris wamyvani mecnierTanamSromeli. baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis miwveuli profesori. paralelurad muSaobs dokumentur kinoSi. aris avtori da reJisori dokumenturi film-esses `knut hamsunis kavkasiuri misteriebi~ (2005). kvlevis sfero: erovnul-socialuri sakiTxi 10-20-iani wlebis qarTul kinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi, qarTuli kinoavangardi. miTi da narativi amerikul kinoSi, modernizmis sakiTxisaTvis qarTul kinosa da literaturaSi. tel: +995 (99) 27 18 15 el.fosta: [email protected]

iuri mRebriSvili _ filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis profesori, doqtori. mihyavs samagistro kursi: `Tanamedrove menejmenti kulturasa da xelovnebaSi~. ganxorcielebuli aqvs mravali proeqti xelovnebis sferoSi. periodulad mowveviT atarebs treining programebs menejmentSi saqarTveloSi da sazRvargareT. tel.: +995 (32) 93 64 08 el. fosta.: [email protected]

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THEATRE STUDIES

Maia Goshadze "DWELLER OF EARTHLY SURFACE" Summery The article "Dweller of earthly surface" examines the problem of man's transformation, growth and expansion of his consciousness in context of putting an emphasis on the inner instead of the outer and striving towards the perception of the essential, hidden depths. In the works of different time periods ­ whether in Homer's "Odyssey", Goethe's "Faust" or V. Nabokov's prose the motive of hero overcoming everyday obstacles is depicted in the article as expression of empirical man's search (as a sunken treasure lying on the ocean's surface) towards his inner self. The article tries to analyze the way the different writers depict in their works the motive of capturing the invisible depths of the visible reality, coming "in touch" with it and getting to actually perceive it. The mystical moment of inner meeting with the divine unexpectedly sparkles in front of the mortal man and only the one who is awake will be able to feel and perceive it. Perception or misperception of one's inner voice­ admission or denial of one's own opinion, emotion or impression is the expression of the eternal dilemma of to be or not to be ­ expression of the existing or missing meeting with oneself.

Maka Vasadze FORMATION OF ROBERT STURUA'S THEATRICAL LANGUAGE (Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua) Summary In this part of the article I am continuing to discuss Robert Sturua's plays: `Betrayal' (1974) by Sumbatashvil-Iuzhin, `Step-mother of Samanishvili' (1969) by Kldiashvili (with Chkheidze) and `Kvarkvare Tutaberi' (1974) by Kakabadze. Robert Sturua's Georgian classical plays set in the Rustaveli theatre have had relative success. Nevertheless, they have become the subject of active discussions among the society. Probably reason for this was a completely new approach by the director. When setting `Betrayal' the director refuses to accept all other older traditions of staging this play, as he had done it in the cases of `Step-mother of Samanishvili' and `Kvarkvare Tutaberi'. On the contrary he tries to widen the events of a concrete epoch and make this national character more universal. If in `Step- mother of Samanishvili' Sturua investigates and shows the spiritual and social processes of human relationaship, in `Betrayal' and `Kvarkvare Tutaberi' he establieshes principles of political theatre. These priciples later develop in `Caucasian Chalk Circle', `Richard' and other plays.The concept of these plays is a struggle against injustice.With the aim to show better the meaning of the virtue, director is not avoiding to deepen and tense situations. In this way he is able to awake our minds and set us to defend justice. ABOUT AUTHOR Marine (Maka) Vasadze ­theater critic Has graduated from the faculty of theater art at the Tbilisi Theatrical Institute. Head of Shota Rustaveli Theater and Film University publishing house "Kentavri". Editor of another newspaper of the same institution "Duruji" and a founder and editor of a newspaper "Kultura". Holds a position of a manager at the International Culture Fund "Kavkasia", is one of the coordinators of the International Cultural Fare (2003, 2005, 2007). Is the editor of several books; systematically publishes articles and reviews on the processes and problems of contemporary theater: Magazines: "Soviet Art", "Theatrical News", "Theater and Life". Newspapers: "Kultura", "Duruji". Tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, faculty of art criticism. Since 1986 until now has been working as a lecturer of European and American dramatic art. She is the author of dissertation "The dramatic art of Tennessee Williams" (1990). From 1994 until 2002, worked in Georgian TVRadio Corporation as an editor in the department of the Arts. She is an author of a theatre program and scientific publications on American, Antique and Renaissance drama. From 1990 acquired master's degree in arts. Fluent in Georgian, Russian, English. Currently works at the problem of interpretation of mythological themes. Tel: + 995 (32) 99 65 64

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Maia Kiknadze THAILANDAND KHMERE NANG Summary In the Introduction part "Thailand and Khmere Nang" is narrated about Nang origin and spreading in Indonesia. The terms Khmere and Thailand Nang means, leather picture and in figurative meaning theatrical pictures cut from leather. In the work is given great consideration to specifications of arranging the performance, where the biggest screen (length 15 m., width 4-5) in the world is used at its cultic religious part. There is distinguished a particular participation of three main personages: Shiva, Gandegili and Vishnu in the performance. Also it is underlined the function and meaning of music, puppet maker ­ dancer and a "text reader" or a reciter. The special consideration is given to "Nang" repertoire, where the peoms made on Indian epos "Ramiyana" motives; Thai "Ramakian" and Khmer "Ramker" were represented. As a conclusion, it is discussed Khmer and Thai Nang similarity (repertoire, a rule of arranging of performance) and differences; techniques of leather processing and its role in puppet theater history.

Marika Mamatsashvili BROOK AS INNOVATOR Summary There are directors ­ researchers, they are constantly in search of determination and investigation of those links and relations, that exist between theatre and life, actors and the audience, spectators and theatre. These links and relations are in constant need of renewal, constant need for update. One of Brook's obsessions was to go to Africa and stage a performance with native people. Finding a different audience was an additional experiment for the director: Will he be able to present "The Cherry Orchard" to the "Marsians" so that the performance has an emotional impact on them? The director of "Mahabharata", "Marat Sade", "King Lear" makes an emphasis on the problems of ordinary people. Africa ­ vulcano of ideas, continent of story tellers with its indigenous nature and primeval instincts is the world, where from large scale down to the detailed you come to a very primitive, but real emotion. This is the reason for Brook going back to the basic theatre elements: actor, voice, movement, empty stage. "If life gave birth to the theatre, then it is life itself which is questioned", - Brook wrote. In search for this kind of life, "real" life did he discover Africa. Accumulator of his research, Africa became his field of interest from 1970. He was one of the first Europeans, who traveled there with his novelties and became obsessed with the African, traditional. It was in Africa, where he diverged from the ephemerical and isolated and with the help of the indigenous, primeval culture found the most important ­ human being, with little joy and pain, huge passions and good.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major in theatre studies in the year of 1989. From 1992 works at the same University and guides the seminar of theatre criticism. Lectures on Georgian theatre history. Dissertation thesis: "Expressionism in Georgian theatre". Is an Assistant Professor. Currently works on the puppet theatre history. Published 50 works in newspaper-magazines. Tel: +995 (99) 72 95 21

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major in theatre studies in the year of 1989. She has published in the magazines "Khelovneba" and "Teatraluri Moambe". Now she is working as a specialist in the publishing house "KENTAVRI". She is a resercher of Peter Brooks creative works. Tel: +995 (77) 41 00 11; +995 (32) 22 21 11; E-mail: [email protected]

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Lamara Gongadze SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OFACTOR'S DEVELOPMENT Summary When we speak about Georgian theatre, the problem of education of actor is the main subject we must discuss, because professional school of theatre education was established only in the beginning of 20th century. This Emptiness was filled with the ways of becoming skilful, applied by Georgian public and theatre figures. These attempts were different at the various stages of developing of Georgian theatre. In presented work these attempts are described starting from ancient Georgian theatre and ending with George Eristavi Theatre termination. ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.D. in Art Criticism. Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with honors. She is associated professor of Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema; Author of 6 books and many publications for journals and newspapers. She gained 2 year grant from Georgian National Scientific Fund. She Works at subjects of Anthropology of Ancient Georgian Theatre. Tel: +995 (32) 98 94 81

directing. But "restoration of tranditions" was taking place in a completely new political and social environment. The leader of the actors of this generation was Akaki Vasadze. Further generations of actors became ill with the so called "Vasadze complex", which was understood as actor's strive for directing. A. Vasadze was the best among actors who strove for directing. Lasha Chkhartishvili examines staging of "King Lear" by A. Vasadze, where Akaki Khorava depicted Lear. The author thinks, that the staging was a failure and gives his versions behind it. ABOUT AUTHOR Doctorate student of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Scholar of the same University's sector of theatre studies, theatre historian. Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Faculty of Theatre Studies. Works in theatre history and criticism. Is the author of 5 books: "History of Batumi Opera and Ballet Theatre", "Tikinebi Theatre of Batumi", "Critical Sketches", "Issues of Batumi Puppet and Children's Theatre", "Iusup Kobaladze". Is the author of about 10 scientific works and 200 reviews. Is the best student theatre historian of the year 2004. Is the best author of theatre review in the year of 2005. In the year 2006 he got President's grant and scholarship. Currently works as a teacher of theatre history in Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Faculty of the Arts. Works on the problems of "King Lear's" scenic interpretations in the work of Robert Sturua, Peter Brooke and Gorgio Streler. Tel.: + 995 (77) 90 40 41 E-mail: [email protected]

Lasha Chkhartishvili ON THE ISSUE OF THE BASIS OF ACTOR'S AND DIRECTOR'S SYNTHESIS IN TEH 40S OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (ON BASIS OF W. SHAKESPEAR'S "KING LEAR") Summary The work of Lasha Chkhartishvili examines the processes of the Georgian Theatre of the thirties and fourties of the twentieth century and particularly synthesis of actor and director on basis of W. Shakespear's "King Lear". The author minds, that from the fourties starts the era of universalism in Georgian theatre. The actor, who traditionally made efforts in direction takes the lead role in theatre once again. In contrast to the great actors of the nineteenth century (V. Abashidze, L. Meskhishvili, K. Kipiani, K. Meskhi and others) actors of new generation were much more keen in the essence of Levan Khetaguri THIRD REALITY Summary This article is more close to assay or to theatrical Manifest. Where, author tries to express his reflections about the FUTURE THEATRE. Through the centuries we try to response ­ where we ARE? Now we are XXI century ­ accounting time from the origin of religion of love - the century where we freeze with luck of love but are in Global Warming time. We are live and exist, but where in which measurement.

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Statement by Spanish Renaissance play writer Calderon was ­ Life is dream?! We keep for a long time the double measurements: Life ­ dream Born ­ death Paradise ­ hell Calderon was asking where is true reality, where we exist in real ­ there what we call life, or there what we call dream Where is our real existence? NEW MEASUREMENTS Interactivity... From postmodernism to neo intellectualism Its time of post post ... Art research is art philosophy ­ Contemporary art ­ study academics are cultural anthropologists. From Interactivity to multimedia expression Our perception is interactive, which causing our self-expression as interactive and only form of it is multimedia We exist simultaneously in several realities. More important among them is Cyber Reality. We start leaving in Cyber World. We masked in cyber world, create new names and biographies, individualities and faces. In cyber reality we exist without time and boarders, in practice, in overtime, over real measurements Theatre turns to performance, as synthetic art of humans thought and cyber dreams ­ self expression without frontiers - we aren't in the news world - we are in the world of freeze seconds - there are in the space of non stop movement, word, sound etc in the newer ending world, at the time of space of sending massages Traditional ways of thinking are died

Collapsed world of Babylon ­ starting restoring in Cyber Space. We became citizens of cyber world. Our expression now is only through technologies We are in last few decades of the printing book's time, soon all books will DIE in cyber world, but will born with new image ­ cyber images How will look theatre now? Theatre as ­ INTERACTIVE Theatre speaking simultaneously in all languages same time, without boarders, understandable for everybody ­ with sounds, noise, color, movement, music, light and shadow; with projection and translation, in different direction in one time in whole space. Acting space not only in the theatre, space leave theatre buildings, he became without frontiers With high technologies theatre became more mistrial and mystic, he became closest to naked the soul Its naked mental stream thought, associations, everything what happened in the brain Expression of dreams and showing of thoughts is real ­ theater now could show what we think, what we doing, and what we wish to do. Everything cold does now multimedia theatre. Theater became global and same time very intimate. Performance now looks as meditation and séance of magnetism. Theatre created daily rituals ­ theatre pray for the universe, through necking the human's brain. Today art is human too Human measure for freedom We are the time predicted by Pythagoras ­ everything in numbers, everything is digital The god is absolute

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Absolute is Zero and plus One, simple truth All world is digital The base of the Universe is Absolute Harmony ­ Zero and everything changed and created with simple action ­ to add One Universe is only Zero and One Zero as never ending Universe and One as any individual in it.

CINEMA STUDIES

Olga Zhgenti "AUTHENTIC CAUCASIANS" OF THE RUSSIAN WESTERN MOVIES Conceptual And Aesthetical Aspects Of Lermontov's Screening In Georgian Film Summary

ABOUT AUTHOR Dr. Levan Khetaguri His background is Theatre Study and cultural management. Levan Khetaguri is a president of Stichting Caucasus Foundation /The Netherlands/. He is vice-rector and professor of Shota Rustaveli Georgian State University of Theatre and Film. Member of different international institutions, advisers and scientific boards. Since 1995 member of Gulliver network. Since 2008 member of European Cultural Parliament and member of ASoE Strategic group. As practitioner since 1990 he run several hundreds of local and international projects as initiator, manager, producer or participant. Since 1997 Secretary General of ITI Georgian National Center and Director of the European Theatre Research Institute in Georgia. Member of FIRT. Since 1981 author of over 80 publications /editor and translator/ in the magazines and newspapers (Georgian, English, Azerbaijanian, Slovak etc). Author of several book. In 2000 was awarded by Swedish Writers Guild. Since 1991 organizer of various cultural programs: seminars, conferences, festivals. Since 1996 as invited professor he reads lectures and takes part in different international conferences and symposiums, special courses. Tel: +995 ( E-mail: In the article the author goes over the genre structure and mytho-social aspects of Lermontov's screenings in Georgian film. In the twenties the movies by Vladimir Barsky "Mary the Princess", "Bella", "Maksim Maksimich" were all gathered under one famous filmnovel called "A Hero of Our Time". The esthetics of the mentioned film cycle was greatly determined by the concept of "authentic Caucasians" by the famous Russian writer and poet Mikheil Lermontov. This concept is clearly represented in many of his works. According to this concept, film director Barsky who emigrated from Russia to Georgia in 20-yes created a screen hero which was a mixture of romantic, demonic Pechorin-antihero and a fatal, caucasian woman-vampire. Parallel to the movie's oriental motives Lermontov's colonial viewpoint started to emerge, which itself corresponded with the propagand that the Russian Empire led against Caucasus. As a result of colonial ideology there emerged a western interpretation of Caucasian topic in film, which caused a formation of mythologems and stereoptypes in Russian films about wild and terrorist Caucasians. Lermontov's personal drama was well analyzed by Georgian writer and philosopher Grigol Robakidze in his sociological sketch "The mask of Lermontov". Robakidze from Nietzshe's viewpoint explained the secret behind Lermontov's "mask", which he depicted fataly and tragically in the heart of Caucasus ­ home of the Gods and humankind.

ABOUT AUTHOR Leading science-worker of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's scientific research center, art historian, Doctor of Philosophy. In 2005 she wrote her dissertation on the topic "National and social issue in Georgian film in relation to a film process of the twenties".

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From 200 she is a guest teacher of Batumi University. She works on the issues of Georgian and American film history. Research field: Georgian Film Modernism of the twenties and mythological-narrative structure of American film. O. Zhgenti is the author of 25 research-reweus about the film history and art. Zhgenti's critical articles and reweus about her are published in a local and foreign press and journals / Norwegian, German, Spanish, Azerbaijan/ She is she author and director of documentaries "Knut Hamsun's Caucasian mysteries" (2005) and "John Steinbeck's Georgian Journal"(2009) Tel.: +995 (99) 27 18 15 E-mail: [email protected]

MEDIA STUDIES

Tea Mzhavanadze GEORGIAN RADIO AS THE INSTRUMENT OF STATE GOVERNING Summary Explanation and analyze of any public phenomena can't be interpreted without historical priors what has stimulated to-day's face. After formulating Georgian radio it served not only state ideology but also helped Georgian culture and art to develop during years. Although Georgian radio as the instrument of state control was marked at the beginning. In each separate period, corresponding concrete social and political situation were changed problems of Georgian radio, but essence was not changed. Destination of public radio was determined by that social function, role and place what it had in political structure of existent society. In the Soviet period, radio as means of mass information and propaganda was the part of bigger communist ideology based on stern principles and methods. It was active instrument for the government in the sphere of society governing. Current historical processes can't be simply estimated in Georgian radio. Two directions-political and cultural determined its activity during all period of existence, though each of them left it's own trace in spiritual life of the country. Today, certainly a lot of things are differently seen. It must be also mentioned, that in the epoch of development global TV, internet and multimedia radio won't be able to occupy the place what it had if even twenty years ago. But in the history of society mass-informational relations played its role and this role must be comprehended without exaggeration and conceal. ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.D. Doctor The head specialist of educational process control service at the faculty of Social and Political Sciences in Tbilisi State University named after Ivane Javakhishvili 9 published works in Journalism Tel: + 995 (32) 36 67 77; +995 (55) 43 81 07 E mail: tatia @ tsu. Ge

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Tinatin Chabukiani

CULTURE MANAGEMENT

Iuri Mgebrishvili GOAL SETTING Summery The article examines the issue of setting goals. It is impossible to move forward without having a goal. It helps analyze management of current operations, cases, functions. Usage of SMART technique is a professional requirement for any type of manager when it comes to setting goals. SMART technique uses five characteristics for setting goals: Certainty Measurability Attainability Relativity Time frames A certain specific goal has more chances to be fulfilled, than a generally (vaguely) set goal. Measurability of reaching a goal means measurability of a process. Here it is important to foresee not only a condition, which has to be reach but the starting point as well. When it comes to a joint management, objective procedures and methods of management should be implemented. Thus they will help to establish attainability of set goals. When a goal is set right, it is hard to achieve. For it to be achieved, a manager should work hard. This makes the work even more interesting and creative. Relativity ­ is absence of factors, which influence the set goal but are out of the worker's control. It is of great importance, that the worker accepts relativity of a set task and realizes that its attainability is directly connected with his effort. The final requirement for setting a task is making the time frame clear. This is of great importance particularly when it comes to different managers working over a set of subsequent tasks. ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.D. Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Ph.D. He leads a master's course in "Contemporary Management in Culture and Arts". He is an author of many art projects. Periodically as a guest lecturer he does management training programs in Georgia and abroad. Tel: +995 (32) 93 64 08 E-mail: [email protected]

STRUCTURAL BODY OF EDITING Chapter two EDITINGAS MEANS OF FICTIONAL DEPICTION (Organization of time) Summery Famous directors and theoreticians agree, that the main function of film lies in reflection of time, thus in the screen art the "organization of time" has a major role. For the illusion of continuity to be created on screen, "organization of time" by means of editing becomes one of the main conditions. Time is always transformed on screen with the exception of television formats: live reportage and direct broadcasting. First of all, a construction should be created, director should decide the succession of a story, chronologically or not and the means of time transformation to be used: shortening of time, prolonging of time, time skipping and etc. In this part of my work, I tried to formulate successively the way I should teach the students organization of "on screen time". Methodology is based on the experience of famous film directors and theoreticians.

ABOUT AUTHOR Director, researcher. An associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University She has graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's Drama Directing Faculty. From 1980 to 1989 worked on Georgian Broadcasting Company (Channel 1) ­ first in television theatre, then in music editorial board as an artistic director; from 1989 to 2004 worked as an artistic director of child programs. Her dissertation thesis is: "Civil designation of child broadcast and its aesthetical characteristics" (according to Georgian TV projects) Currently she works on a topic: "Structural Consistency of Editing" Tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00

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"ANTHROPOLOGY OF ANCIENT GEORGIAN THEATRE ART"

Program Leader - Lamara Gongadze.

Sopo Khachidze THE IDEA BEHIND STEP DANCE AND ITS DESIGNATION Summary The article deals with the origin of Georgian Folk dance, the art history of Georgian Folk dance takes place from the primitive period of world history when dance was just only the part of hunting process and it did not play any aesthetic role in the lives of the people of that period. Georgia's choreographic past is very rich of "Perkhuli" style dances which express the infinite strength of character of the Georgian people, history and spirit of ancient Georgians. There still remain the dances that are full of pagan spirit: "Lile", "Adrekelia", "Dala Khojas Khelgvajale"and etc. Georgian dances represent a live history book expressing the centuries of Georgian art, culture and tradition (hunting, wars, religion). The article also covers the foreign authors' works.

Nino Darsalia

THE CULT OFTHE DEAD IN GEORGIAN PERFORMANCEART Summary In this work is discussed the ancient traditions connected to dead cult, there are a lot of theatrical elements in it. Especially we can see it in soul taker's job, whose duty was being the middle element between the soul and the body of the livings. The soul taker got in to dead soul and talked to it. The soul taker, just as an actor could appear as another person and show his fillings. He had to perform the dead's thoughts just as the actors do. Soul taker could perform as an actor. He had to act as a dead man did, and talk with his voice. In the cult of the dead important is also the job of "crying person". These crying women retooled the dead's life with sincere words. The crying person had to look after their appearance too. So they were the directions and the actors at the same tome. There is also one important thing, a horse racing, that reveals close relations with old Georgian seen -- " Berikaoba" and "Kheenoba". For the first we can say that both performances were for everybody. It was common for both performances to walk from village to village and ask fore food. Both performances needed masks, both lasted for few days. So we can say that in cold for dead, there are a lot of theatrical performances.

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"CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT IN CULTURE AND ARTS"

Program Leader - Iuri Mgebrishvili. Elene Babakishvili SPONSORSHIP AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PR Summary In Georgia cultural organizations basically resort to private sector for financial support Attraction of sponsors is one of significant troubles for each cultural event. Essence of business relationship is to establish mutual relationships as a result of which benefit both noncommercial, cultural organization and sponsor. Generally sponsorship brings profit to noncommercial organization same time strengthening image of a corporate partner and facilitating progress in production and sales. Overloading of mass media forced companies to find an alternative way such as sponsorship. This is a very effective manner to advertise and make headway. In contrast to advertising it enables the sponsor company to improve the public relations, to create positive image and reputation of society. Positive image affects public relationship and inspires respect, worm emotions and arises desire in consumer to cooperate with a sponsor company. Nowadays influenced companies more aggressively apply sponsorship being the best advertisement of their activity and effective instrument of making PR. Marina Balanchivadze MARKETING IN MANAGERACTIVITIES Summary Tourism marketing in manager activities is business coordination tool. Organizing tourist offices, cooperatives and associations which reasonably meet requirements and methods directed to satisfaction of people requirements caused by the reason of having a rest (cognitive aspect, rest, entertainment, medical treatment, sport competitions, recreation and etc.). Marketing manager in the system of cultural service activates in a manner like other service systems. The tourism service significantly differs from fields

connected with production of material merchandize, instead of goods the tours appear in the market. The peculiarity of marketing lies in permanent dynamic changes of the market. Tourism importance is gradually increasing for marketing management. Its aim is to apply tourism as a positive factor for retention of units of the world heritage and for eradication of envisaged threats. Marketing management creates wide spectrum of tourism requirements whereupon it conditions opportunities of the population development. Its creative activities focus to involve the local population in tourism activities. For example, guides training and creation of small enterprises and development of service system as well. The role of tourism marketing management lies in exposure of cultural diversity feature of the country and this diversity heft. Tourism development should proceed with inter-field and global approach, cooperation with society and the private sector. Marketing and culture manager in the field of culture has been defined. Peculiarities of management in the field of culture have been cleared up.

Ia Gabunia Lika Kuparadze "SESILY" FILM FESTIVAL, SOME MANAGEMENT ISSUES Summary Youth film festival "Sesily" was founded on March 26, 2001 by Georgian film director Dato Janelidze. The mission of the film festival is to reveal new talents, popularize them, acquaint Georgian spectators with new films of foreign film industry and develop new traditions and relations in this field. One of the advantages of the film festival "Sesily" is that it is noncommercial, i.e. spectators can attend it and its other satellite (associate) events free of charge as well as to get catalogues. It is essential to raise funds in order to hold the film festival at a high level. This can be achieved by attracting sponsors. Festival managers should elaborate specific strategy to show potential sponsors the importance, features of the project and their input in the implementation of the festival.

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Sofio Komladze MARKETING RESEARCH OF ORGANIZATION AND ITS MANAGEMENT IN THE SPHERE OF PUBLISHING Summary Book market is specific and different from other products by customers. If we name the product `'intellectual'' we can name customers of this product as intellectual customers. Spreading of this product requests needful and adequate method of approach. Its presentation must be extensive due to economic, legislative and domestic factors, with exclusion all danger and risk occasion. The book is not ordinary product. it is noncommercial product. Publisher's good management must make product winning and successful. Statistic of Georgian publishing is disturbing. In our country very small quantity of books is published annually.

Tamari Pirosmanashvili DEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARY'S PAID SERVICE Summary Research of alternative recourse for library service financing is very important in modern terms. Today libraries need more and more material-financing help of funds renewal for purpose of fill up of inquiry apparatus and renewal of old inventory. Library service must be organized for maximally satisfy of consumer requests. Add paying service in market economic conditions is expedient activity of library. Libraries have satisfy consumer's modern and enlarged requests. Libraries have show to the society that they are not only useful institutes, they are necessary social institutes which have very important functions in educational, information and teaching sphere and have important role in country intellectual and cultural life. Tsatsa Jorjiashvili PR IN TOUR AGENCY Summary In any country tourism companies should realize that without PR (Public Relations) management it would be impossible to succeed in a long-run because it is the sphere which provides agency with clients and maintains them. Nowadays tourism companies in Georgia lack of PR activity, actually it is a big problem. As we know PR is the image of an organization; so each tourism company should create such positive image which will last for a long time. The high level of service affects positively on the clients. Satisfied customers share their feelings with other people by means of this the image and awareness of the firm is strengthened in society. So, we hope that tourism companies in Georgia will pay attention to these points and the level of their service too. As for the companies which cannot provide their clients with a good service and positive image they will lose in a competition. The only way out for every agency is to form the strategy of PR management and fulfil it.

Natalia Murjikneli MANAGING TEAMS AND INDIVIDUALS Summary Human resources are most critical resources to organization which determines effectiveness of any organization. Managing people to achieve organization goals it is difficult task. Goal of managing human resources is to determine all factors by which employee's effectiveness is measured. All individuals differ from each other by tasks and abilities, which determines the work and duties they are fulfilling as well as regular attendance at work. In addition they have different motivation to manage their activities. In all organization It's necessary that abilities of employees properly do their job should coincide with requirements of job and awards proposed. In real world the motivation is challenge that today's managers has. Unfortunately majority of manager are not interesting individual characteristics employees and they require just fulfill concrete task. Is very often when qualified employees have good work conditions and high salary but his job effectiveness is quite low. Is an also very often case with conflicts and misunderstand between managers and employees.

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Nino Kurashvili ORGANIZATION'S ADVERTISEMENTACTIVITY, ITS MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT Summary Nowadays in the world advertisement is known as the mix of the culture and the science and the marketing charges as investment. The good advertisement not is the one which is distinguished with its originality content, with beauty of the personnel, and creativity, but the one which will make particular spectators to memorize easily and better company's products and cervices and sell it. Before making the advertising, you must know on the present, who is your consumer. The advertising ought to solve any problem of a person and beside there must be psychological or economical incomes. This is the leading approach of advertising agencies and the advertisers.

Mariam Chkeidze ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION IN THE SPHERE OF CULTURE AND ARTS: EFFECTIVENESS AND SHORTCOMINGS Summary The main indicator of cultural level of a society has always been the degree of attention the state devotes to culture and arts. The following paper discusses primary characteristics of culture and arts and attempts to demonstrate problems in relation to contemporary trends of the development of a society. The paper lists those primary and secondary legislative acts in Georgia that are targeted towards solving these problems and also demonstrates the relation of these legislative acts to international legislation.

Mariam Chumburidze Nino Sharmiashvili MANAGEMENT OFLABOR MOTIVATION DEVELOPMENT Summary Summary There are many touristic companies in Georgia, main factors of their success is the right way of staff hiring and the right forms of relationships. And satisfying costumer interests are achieved when individual employee is performing his job clearly and honesty. It is necessary Business Plan for the CEO to adopt mission and the goals of the touristic company. There are Infotours, where touristic operators are contradicted to the routs of their future consumers. Success of various job places is depended on professional Human recourses and high level knowledge of staff. As well it's depended on transparent relationships between. Management and the employees. The article discusses interrelations between the state and organizations, the mission and the strategy of the organizations when selecting human resources. The definition of principle role of correct, individual selection of staff for creating unanimous team in the organization is given. Taking into consideration the factor of harmonic coexistence of the cooperators for high level of leading the process of their management. That will guarantee the successful functioning of the organization as the part of the structure of the State. There are problems raised which follow the process and the reasons are given which raised them offering alternative modes for eliminating these problems, despite the fact that there are not generally accepted standards of selection process there are general criterions given in the article and the results are described that will follow taking them into consideration as the success of the organization. As it is very important nowadays to know and defend principles of selection and recruitment for every organization. PRINCIPALS OF SELECTION AND RECRUITMENT OF STAFF IN THE ORGANIZATION

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Nino Khutsishvili APPLYING INTERNET-TECHNOLOGIES IN MARKETING Summary Internet, the world global net, is a useful tool to develop any kind of business. The advantages are: easily reachable, fast, confidential, and cheap. It is obligatory to use it in practical work in the 21st century. It gives us opportunity to find information easily and quickly. The aims of marketing in culture is oriented on, first of all, identifying a market, then studying it, and finally, growing the market and making a product popular. The most important duty of the marketing manager, first of all, is the advertisement in internet which is less expensive, plus, it helps to present a new product. Nowadays, in internet, there is much information on different organizations, analytical, financial, and economic, etc. The results of a marketing survey, conducted through internet, show that the organizations find desired information quite fast. Thus, the organization's website, and its visual design are crucial; the design should be simple and understandable and the most important ­ easily perceptible by the consumer. The internet is a global communication tool for providing the exchange of textual, graphical, audio/video information. It is an effective survey tool. The development of the internet altered management approach in business and marketing.

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