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SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti

Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Z i eb a n i #2 (35), 2008

ART SCIENCE STUDIES #2 (35), 2008

gamomcemloba `kentavri~ Tbilisi _ 2008

UDC(u ak) 7( 051. 2) s-364 SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #2 (35), 2008

Sinaarsi

T e a t r m c o d n e o b a manana turiaSvili

marjaniSvili TariRebSi (werili meore)...............................................................................................8

Tamar quTaTelaZe

meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi ................................................................................................24

eka cxadaZe

saredaqcio sabWo eliso erisTavi manana iToniSvili maia kiknaZe literaturuli redaqtori mariam iaSvili garekanis dizaini levan dadiani dakabadoneba ekaterine oqropiriZe koreqtura manana goSaZe gamomcemlobis xelmZRvaneli maka vasaZe

krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala uzrunvelyofili unda iyos Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan unda axldes monacemebi avtoris samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

warmarTuli RvTaeba saddasai da mzis sagalobeli grigol robaqiZis `londaSi~ ................................................................................36

k i n o m c o d n e o b a oloko JRenti

fesvebis ZiebaSi, anu, miTo-arqeti puli kinosaxeebi suliko JRentis dramaturgiaSi ..........................................................................41

m e d i o l o g i a TinaTin Wabukiani montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba Tavi II montaJi, rogorc mxatvruli asaxvis saSualeba ..................................57 k u l t u r o l o g i a eTer beriZe nigalisxevelTa eTnokulturuli yofa zogierTi folkloruli nimuSis mixedviT .............................................................................................71 badri cxadaZe cekvis da cekva qoreoterminis warmoSobisaTvis ................................77

krebulis stamburi gamocema egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso kvleviT centrebs.

naSromebi mogvawodeT da cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT: 0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, II korpusi. tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408 mob: +995 (95) 305 060 +995 (55) 218 292 E-Mail: [email protected] Web: www.tafu.edu.ge

universitetis samagistro programa msoflio kinematografi: industria da xelovneba

olRa eliaSvili

Carlz spenser Caplini ............................................................................90

Tamar kobiZe

ivane mrisxaneSi proecirebuli eizenSteini: motivTa brZola da sakuTar Tavze gamarjveba .......................98.

nino sulaZe

CONTENTS THEATRE STUDIES MANANA TURIASHVILI Marjanishvili In Dates (Part Two) ..........................................................................................................180 TAMAR KUTATELADZE Meier hold's "New drama's friendship" tour in Georgia (Modern's question in Georgian theatre) ........................................................181 EKA TSKHADADZE Heather Divine Beingsaddasai And Sunpsalm In "Londa" of Grigol Robakidze ...........................................................................182 FILM STUDIES

OLGA ZHGENTI

realobad qceuli zRapari (uolt ilaias disni) ..............................................................................109

sofio wulaia

qveynierebis apokalifsis sami SesaZlo versia stenli kubrikis SemoqmedebaSi ..........................................................120

maia qamuSaZe

germanuli kinoeqspresionizmi .............................................................128

eleqtronuli mediis gamoyenebiti saSualebebi telereJisura tato barjaZe satelevizio mauwyeblobis modelebi da maTi funqcionireba ........................................................................................138 eka bucxrukiZe realuri Sous dabadeba msoflio telesivrceSi ..............................142 salome eqvTimiSvili `sapnis opera~ _ gantvirTvis saSualeba TuA azrovnebis daqveiTeba? .................................................................................146 salome kokaia qarTuli televiziis daarseba-ganviTarebis sakiTxisaTvis ..................................................................................................150 giga liklikaZe kino_tele _ kino_drama ............................................................................155 ana mesxiSvili saqarTvelos televiziis sxvadasxva arxis gadacemebis mimoxilva da maTi adamianze zemoqmedebis saSualebebi .........................................................158 naili Ciqobava televizia, rogorc auditoriis marTvis saukeTeso iaraRi ...........................................................................................163 salome cxadaZe reklamis roli qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi da misi zegavlena qarTvel auditoriaze ..................................................................................168 saavtoro monacemebi ......................................................................................173

In Searches of "Roots" or Mitho-Archetipe Model In Film ­ Dramas of Suliko Zhgenti (Parallels With Grigol Robakidze's Novel " Snake's Skin") ......................183 MEDIA STUDIES TINATIN CHABUKIANI Editing Of Structural Consistency ....................................................................184 CULTURAL STUDIES ETER BERIDZE Speech Texts And Examples of Folklore of Our People (Georgians From South Georgia) From Nigali Canyon ..................................185 BADRI TSKHADADZE To The Origin of Dance And Choreo-Term Tsekva (Dance) ........................186

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UNIVERSITY'S MA PROGRAM W O R L D C I N E M AT O G R A P H Y: I N D U S T R Y A N D A R T OLGA ELIASHVILI Charles Spencer Chaplin ...................................................................................187 TAMAR KOBIDZE Eisenstein as Projected In Ivan The Terrible The Fight of The Motives And The Victory Over The Self ........................188 NINO SULADZE Tale Became Reality ..........................................................................................189 SOFIO TSULAIA Three Possible Version of World Apocalypse In Stenly Kubrick is Works .................................................................................................190 MAIA KAMUSHADZE German Expressionism T H E C O N T E M P O R A R Y O P O RT U N I T E S O F A P L A I D E LE CT RO NI C M ED IA I N T H E T V DI RE CT IN G TATO BARJAZDE Models of Television Broadcasting and Their Functioning......................192 EKA BUTSKHRIDZE Beginning Of The Reality Shows In The World ...........................................193 SALOME EKVTIMISHVILI "Soap Opera" In Georgian TV ........................................................................194 SALOME KOKAIA Establishment and Development of Georgian Television ...............................195 GIGA LIKLIKADZE Film-TV ­ TV-Drama .........................................................................................196 ANNA MES CHISHVILI Different Channels Programs Review in Georgian TV and Means of Influence on People .......................................................................................197 NAILI CHIKOBAVA Television - as Best Weapon for Audience Managing ...............................198 SALOME TSKHADADZE Place of Commercial in TV Space and Its Influence on Georgian Audience ...................................................................199

Teatrmcodneoba

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manana turiaSvili (dasawyisi ixileT amave Jurnalis #1) marjaniSvili TariRebSi (werili meore)

riga-xarkovi-kievi

kote marjaniSvili rigaSi k. n. nezlobinis antreprizaSi reJisorul samuSaoSi TveSi 250 maneTs iRebda. erTi sezonis Semdeg nezlobinma xelfasi gauormaga _ 500 maneTi. xarkovSi a. lintvarevis antrepriza k. marjanovs TveSi 800 maneTs uxdida, kievSi e. i. duvan-torcovi 1200 maneTs. odesis `marjanovze auqcionis~ periodSi TeatrSi datovebis mizniT k. marjanovs duvan-torcovma 1500 maneTamde gauzarda xelfasi, m. f. bagrovma 1800. sabolood bagrovma gaimarjva _ 1809 wels odesis Teatris antreprizaSi marjaniSvilis reJisoroba TveSi 2400 maneTad Sefasda. 1904-1905 ww. _ 1905-1906 ww. rigis ori Teatraluri sezoni _ nezlobinis antrepriza `1902 wels rigis rusul Teatrs saTaveSi Caudga konstantine nezlobini: antrepreniori, niWieri artisti, brwyinvale organizatori~. .1 nezlobini _ konstantine nikolozis Ze aliazovis Teatraluri fsevdonimia _ msxvili peterburgeli yasbis Svili da milioneri vaWris, sava morozovis, siZe. k. marjanovi zafxulSi gaemgzavra staraia rusaSi, sadac nezlobinma erT-erTi oroTaxiani agaraki dauTmo. nezlobini aq atarebda zafxulis sezons. kviraSi sam-oTx warmodgenas dgamda. im xanad `staraia rusaSi~ cxovrobda aleqsi maqsimes Ze gorki, nezlobinis axlobeli. aqve Sexvda marjaniSvili gorkis cols, msaxiob m. f. andreevas da misi wyalobiT gaicno da dauaxlovda mwerals.

yvela mwerali axali nawarmoebis gasacnobad m. gorkisTan modioda. am Sexvedrebis dros k. marjaniSvili dauaxlovda leonid andreevs, evgeni Cirikovs, aleqsandre bloks, aleqsandre kosorotovs, semion iuSkeviCs. am dramaturgebTan kavSiri marjaniSvils merec ar gauwyvetia. axal gazrda msaxiob ebTan erTad dasSi iy vnen saxelmoxveWili artistebic: a. p. xarlamovi, n. n. mixailovski da mxatis ori yofili msaxiobi _ m. l. roqsanova da m. f. andreeva. 1904-1905 ww. repertuarSi samocdaaTi piesaa. bevria rusuli klasika da ucxouri piesebic: ostrovski, fonvizini, gogoli, dostoevski, tolstoi, Cexovi, ibseni, hauptmani, rostani, molieri, Seqspiri da Tanamedrove rusuli dramaturgia. sezoni gaixsna a. n. ostrovskis `voevodaTi~, anu `sizmari volgaze~. gansakuTrebiT kargi iyo scena monasterTan axlos da Semodgomis peizaJi didi `naturaluri~ CanCqeriT, romelic Tavisi xmauriT xandaxan msaxiobebis sityvebs axSobda. `midrekileba naturalizmTan damaxasiaTebelia im wlebis marjanovis reJisoruli manerisTvis.~2 rigeli kritikosebi aRniSnavdnen mouxerxebel uzarmazar `norvegiul~ skamebs `noraSi~, erT-erT Tanamedrove piesaSi `detalebis mZvinvarebasTan erTad~ `saeklesio zarebis guguni mondomebul mnaTesac daamSvenebda. cocxali ixvebi da qaTmebi TavianT xmas gamoscemdnen, samovari borotad SiSinebda...~ amasTan aRniSnavdnen ansamblurobas, emociurobas da masobrivi scenebis brwyinvale damuSavebas. s. a. naidenovis `avdotias cxovrebam~ didi warmatebiT Caiara. `vaWris saxlis~ pirquSi cxovrebidan gaqceuli avdotia dasasruls Sin brundeba, amas Tan erTvis poet karatinkinis TviTmkvleloba. marjaniSvilma finals simboluri mniSvneloba mianiWa: Tavis mokvlisas poeti ecemoda saxlis qvis nagebobaze da yvelaferi agurebis grovad gadaiqceoda _ am CanafiqriT reJisori TiTqos Zvel wyobas angrevda. `im xanebSi Sepyrobili viyavi ukiduresi relizmiT, rac TiTqmis naturalizmamde midioda~, - werda marjaniSvili. `avdotias cxovrebaSi~ scenaze saxli aago da Zalian nanobda, rom

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marjaniSvili

TariRebSi

meoTxe kedlis aSeneba ver SeeZlo. amitom farda saerTod moxsna da Semosuli mayurebeli maSinve xedavda avdotias saxls. `moqmedebis dawyebis win vxsnidi wina kedels da saxlis wina mowyobilobas vuCvenebdi.~3 moqmedeba datvirTuli iyo qalaqis xmauriT: fabrikis sayvirebis xmiT, matarebelTa guguniT, etlebis borblebis xrialiT. ukravda garmoni, wkrialebda balalaika da sxva. msaxiobisgan moiTxovda cxovrebiseul simarTles, yofiT, bunebriv tonebs: `usaTuod raimes vakeTebinebdi _ an muSaobdnen, an papiross eweodnen, an izmorebodnen da amTqnarebdnen, axvelebdnen da sxva amdagvars. Cven vaRmerTebdiT pauzas, romelSic Rrmad igrZnoboda ganwyobileba. da, RmerTo, ramden gamomgoneblobas, fantazias da Sromas veweodi imisTvis, rom yvelaferi sinamdvilisTvis damemsgavsebina.~4 im wels rigaSi Cavida saimperatoro Teatraluri dawesebulebis moxele nelidovi, romelic k. marjanovs a. lenskis davalebiT saimperatoro scenaze iwvevda. im xanebSi a. lenski axalgazrdebisTvis Teatrs aarsebda (mcire Teatris filiali, yofili Salaputinis Teatri), magram a. m. gorkim marjaniSvilis aRfrTovaneba Seanela. 1905 wlis 9 ianvris ambebma k. marjaniSvili revolucionerTa rigebSi Caaba. darboda mitingidan mitingze, ambobda mgznebare sityvebs TviTmpyrobelobis Camogdebis Sesaxeb. TeatrSi daaarses mebrZoli da wiTeli jvris razmebi, Tumc `Cven kazakebisa da policiis winaaRmdeg arc erT brZolaSi monawileoba ar migviRia, magram mudam iq vCndebodiT, sadac muSebisa da policiis brZola imarTeboda~, _ werda Tavis `mogonebebSi~ k. marjaniSvili. erTxel, roca gorkisTan stumrad mivida, Jandarmeria saxls Cxrekda, daakaves k. marjaniSvilic. ganTavisuflbis Semdeg, rigis politeqnikumis qarTvelTa saTvistomoSi mivida da studentebs m. gorkis dapatimrebaze uambo. gaiqcnen rkinigzaze, saidanac maTi varaudiT gorki piterSi unda gaegzavnaT da Jandarmeriisagan mis gaTavisuflebas apirebdnen. rkinigzasTan gadaeyarnen kazakTa razms da gamaTraxebulni qalaqisaken gaiqcnen.

k. marjaniSvilis warmatebuli speqtaklebi iyo, m. Cexovis `ivanovi~, l. tolstois `katiuSa maslovas~ inscenireba, m. gorkis `mdabioni~, `fskerze~ da `moagarakeni~. am speqtaklebis dadgmaSi m. gorki uSualod monawileobda. `1904 wels rigis rusul dasSi miiwvies axalgazrda reJisori konstantine marjaniSvili (k. marjanovi), romlis dadgmebmac didi gavlena moaxdina latviur Teatrze. didi gamoxmaureba hqonda marjaniSvilis dadgmas m. gorkis `moagarakeni~, romelic k. marjaniSvilma avtorTan mWidro kontaqtSi dadga.~5 `moagarakens~ marjaniSvilma Cvidmeti repeticia dauTmo, maSindeli niSniT Zalian bevri. piesa usufliorod midioda da aTjer iTamaSes _ es im dros gaugonari warmateba iyo da speqtaklma mogebac mSvenieri moitana. `moagarakens~ daeswro ara mxolod rusi, aramed latvieli da germaneli mayurebeli. `moagarakenSi~ TamaSobdnen: m. f. andreeva, m. l. roksanova, n. n. mixailovski, a. p. xarlamovi, k. n. nezlobini. imdenad didi warmateba hqonda am realistur speqtakls, rom nezlobinma moskovSi waiRo da 1904 wlis 30 noembers internacionalur TeatrSi (axla maiakovskis sax. Teatri) uCvena. pirvelive dRes winaswar gamocxadebul aT speqtaklze yvela bileTi gaiyida. speqtakls daeswro mTeli Teatraluri moskovi: cnobili kritikosebi, dedaqalaqis reJisorebi, msaxiobebi, mwerlebi, mxatvrebi, kompozitorebi, musikosebi. `antraqtia _ araferi maxsovs... gamoZaxebebi, ovaciebi, xelis magrad CamorTmeva, kocnebi. gons movedi mxolod Cems kabinetSi, sadac Cems gasacnobad Semovidnen stanislavski, nemiroviCi, iuJini, msaxiobebi, kritikosebi... qeba-dideba da gancvifreba imis gamo, rom provinciulma Teatrma SesZlo moskovisaTvis aseTi speqtakli eCvenebina. f. a.KkorSma iqve mimiwvia Tavis TeatrSi, magram me uari vuTxari, rac imiT ganvmarte, rom nezlobins ver mivatovebdi. speqtaklis Semdeg moulodnelad banketi moewyo `praRaSi~. swored erTi wlis win me yvelasaTvis ucnobi viyavi, naxevrad mSieri da damwyebi reJisori, axla ki moskovSi vismen

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TariRebSi

profesorebis, kritikosebis, msaxiobebisa da Teatris moyvarulTa sadRegrZeloebs. adamianis cxovrebaSi aris didi, naTeli dReebi _ am dRem momca is bedniereba, rom moskovma mcno.~6 moskovis gastrolebis Semdeg nezlobinma marjaniSvils xelfasi gauorkaca, TveSi ukve 500 maneTs uxdida. rigis sezonis bolos nezlobinma daiwyo komediebis dadgma. `kotes ergo operetebi: `Cven don Juanebi~, romelic mayurebels Zalian moewona da maqs kuperis SesaniSnavad gadakeTebuli espozitos opera `kamora~ _ or aqtiani opereta. amasac didi warmateba hqonda. es ori speqtakli kotes pirveli musikaluri dadgmebia.~7 k. n. nezlobinma, romelic Tavadac dgamda piesebs, uari ganacxada reJisorobaze da TeatrSi aiyvana kidev erTi reJisori tunkovi. nezlobins marjaniSvilis warmateba ar siamovnebda, radgan xalxi laparakobda marjaniSvilze da ara nezlobinis Teatrze. msaxiobebic ar malavdnen k. marjaniSvilTan muSaobis interess. dasidan wavida m. f. andreeva, romelic m. gorkisTan erTad revoluciur muSaobaSi Caeba. nezlobini karg piesebs tunkovs aZlevda, mag., `orleaneli qali~, marjaniSvilss ki `Cven don Juanebi~ _ opereta misca. maSin marjanovi operetas dabal Janrad Tvlida da Seuracxyofili darCa. k. marjaniSvilma kargad icoda, rogor uyvarda nezlobins scenaze gamosvla da operetaSi erT-erTi mTavari roli miando da samagiero imiT gadauxada, rom aiZula muxlmorTxmuls iatakze exoxa, TiTqmis akotriala kidec. marjaniSvili werda `rasakvirvelia, is mixvda, rom umizezod ar moxda es, Zalian brazobda Cemze.~ marjaniSvilsa da nezlobins Sejaxeba ar hqoniaT, magram erTmaneTs TiTqmis ar elaparakebodnen. k. marjaniSvilma dekemberSi antreprenior a. lintvarevis winadadeba miiRo. is xarkovSi iwvevda samuSaod. antrpreniorma TveSi 800 maneTi xelfasi dauniSna. sezonis bolos nezlobinma igive Tanxa SesTavaza, saupirosac gadavixdio, magram marjaniSvilma uTxra, pirobas ver gavtexo, da wavida xarkovSi.

1906-1907 ww. xarkovi, a. lintvarevis antrepriza, Semdeg `amxanagobad~ wodebuli. xarkovSi Casvlisas marjaniSvilma antrepreniors piroba wauyena dasis erTad Sedgenis Taobaze Seikribnen Zlieri msaxiobebi: `r. a. karelina-raiCi, eveliana-dneprova, voronina, golodkova, v. borozdini, n. n. vasilevi, tarasovi, lanskoi, lirski-muratovi. mxatvrebi _ pitermani da pervuxini.~ msaxiobTa am sias mxolod marjaniSvilis mogonebebSi vecnobiT, zogierTis inicialebi mas dasaxelebuli ara aqvs, Teatralur enciklopediaSi ki araTu inicialebi, gvarebic ar aris moxsenebuli. muSaoba mimdinareobda saorganizacio da materialuri sirTuleebis pirobebSi. marjaniSvilis dasi warmodgenebs qalaqis TeatrSi marTavda. amave dros xarkovis saopero TeatrSic iyo niWieri msaxiobebis dramatuli dasi. aman Zlieri konkurencia gamoiwvia. antrepreniori lintvarevic uniaTod awarmoebda saqmes. male lintvarevma xarjebis gacema Sewyvita, man 18 000 maneTi SeWama da xarkovidan gaiqca. TeatrSi k. marjaniSvilma `amxanagoba~ daaarsa. `amxanagoba~ revoluciamdeli provinciuli Teatrebis msaxiobebs emsaxureboda da ibrZoda msaxiobTa umowyalo Sromis eqspluatator antrepreniorTa winaaRmdeg. k. marjaniSvils mxarSi daudgnen sxva Teatrebic, maT koleqtiuri weriliT amxiles lintvarevi da sakuTari uflebebisTvisac gailaSqres. am sezonSi marjaniSvilma dadga mxatvrulad miuRebeli `Serlok holmsi~. Semdeg ostrovskis `Tovlis qali~. pirveli aqti _ tye zamTarSi, yinva. mTeli scena gamoxatavda TovliT dafarul vels. bamba dakerebuli tilo gamoxatavda yinulis figuras. igi saZvrenidan maRla, TiTqmis Weramde iyo aRmarTuli. `Tovlis qali~ am veeberTela zonzroxa figurasTan, marTlac, pawawinad moCanda. gazafxulze frinvelebi mofrinavdnen. `Tovlis qalis~ gadnobas da mis wylad gadaqcevas SesaniSnavad aRwevda sarkeebis saSualebiT.

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k. marjaniSvili am sezonis erT-erT saukeTeso dadgmad Tvlida hauptmanis `haneles~. speqtakli iwyeboda uvertiuriT, romelic qariSxals gamoxatavda. farda ixdeboda da mayureblis win idga TovliT dafaruli qsovilis saxli. uvertiuris Semdeg am saxlis nawili maRla miiwevda da rCeboda erTi oTaxi. qristes gamoCenis dros oTaxis ukana kedeli gadaiwevda da Cndeboda kibeebi, romlebzec angelozebi idgnen. am kibiT hanele cisken midioda. mayurebeli da metadre bavSvebi tirodnen. im periodSi `carski reJimi~ yvelgan Tavis mtrebs eZebda da eWvis TvaliT uyurebda, pirvel rigSi, literaturasa da Teatrs. repertuaridan gaqra m. gorkis nawarmoebebi da Semovida mistikur-simbolistur nawarmoebTas talRa. dgamdnen l. andreevs da meorexarisxovan dramaturgebs mag: e. Cirikovs, s. iuSkeviCs, o. dimovs... iqmneboda Savi razmebi, moxalise jaSuSebi yvelgan daZvrebodnen, cdilobdnen gaegoT, vin ras fiqrobda. warmoiSva adamianT moZule `rusi xalxis kavSiri~, romelmac l. andreevis `adamianis cxovreba~ RvTis magineblobad gamoacxada, wers Tavis mogonebebSi k. marjaniSvili. `realuri saxeebi iTqvifebodnen. yvelgan raRac simbolo igrZnoboda, cxovrebis raRac sxva gajereba. aqedan Sors dekoraciebi, Sors uxeSad nagrZnobi cxovreba. scenaze naCvenebi unda iyvnen ara adamianebi, aramed ganyenebuli saxeebi. ai, ra xdeboda Cems sulSi da ris gadmocema mindoda me TeatrSi.~8 marjaniSvilis azriT, igive procesi mimdinareobda mxatSi: meierholdTan, komisarJevskaisTan. `me ki patiosnad vaRiareb, rom swored revoluciis Semdgomma dabneulobam mimiyvana axal msoflSegrZnebamde _ misticizmamde da simbolizmamde~. xarkovSi marjaniSvilis yvelaze didi miRweva iyo `adamianis cxovrebis~ dadgma. leonid andreevma es piesa TiTqmis sezonis dasasruls gamougzavna da is jer arsad ar iyo dadgmuli. am piesas amzadebda mxati da paralelurad peterburgSi _ v. f. komisarJevskaia. marjaniSvilis speqtaklisTvis musika karatiginma dawera. marjaniSvilma dadgma moaswro, magram drois simciris gamo maudebSi

ganaxorciela. `piesa mimdinareobda maudebSi, garemos aucilebeli detalebiTa da saTamaSo sagnebiT. es ukve siaxle iyo... mTeli yuradReba piesis ideur-filosofiur gaxsnaze iyo gadatanili~,9 _ werda g. kriJicki. speqtaklSi iyo protesti, mxilebis paTosi, ramac warmateba ganapiroba. es piesa marjaniSvilma gaimeora kievSi, odesaSi, xolo 1906 wlis zafxulSi waiRo belorusiis qalaqebSi da litvaSi. `adamianis cxovrebasTan~ erTad sagastrolod waiRes o. dimovis `ismine, israelo!~, romelsac didi sazogadoebriv-politikuri rezonansi hqonda. gastrolebs odesaSi, kovnoSi, vitebskSi, vilnoSi mTavrobis mxridan eqscesebis gareSe ar Cauvlia. xarkovis sezonSi ianvarSi k. marjanovTan mivida antrepreniori e. i. duvan-torcovi da Semdegi sezonisTvis kievSi miiwvia _ TveSi 1200 maneT xelfasze. marjaniSvilma mas Semdegi pirobebi wauyena: dasis erTad Sedgena, repertuaris damoukidebeli marTva da yovel dadgmaze k. marjaniSvils fiqsirebuli Tanxa unda aeRo. duvan-torcovma k. marjaniSvilis yvela winadadeba miiRo. 1907-1908 ww. kievi _ solovcovis Teatri, i. e. duvan-torcovis antrepriza 1907 wlis zafxuli k. marjaniSvilma gaatara kievis axlos motovilovkaSi. TiTqmis yoveldRe dadioda kievSi, sadac solovcovis Teatris gadakeTebas xelmZRvanelobda. maT gaakeTes mbrunavi scena. antrepreniorma i. e. duvan-torcovma Seadgina Zlieri dasi: r. karelina-raiCi, a. pasxalova, m. streSneva, a. tokareva, e. Carusskaia, s. gorelovi, m. bagrovi, b. orlov-CuJbinini, d. smirnovi da axalgazrda msaxiobebic: step. kuznecovi, n. kolleni, i. bersenevi, s. gorelovi. TeatrTan iyo studia. hyavdaT sakuTari simebiani orkestri da mdidari garderobic hqondaT. mxatvari _ pavle andriaSevi. Zlieri sezonis Sesaqmnelad maT yvelaferi hqondaT. Teatri finansdeboda uzarmazari biujetiT _ 30.000 maneTamde TveSi, magram im

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sezonSi duvan-torcovma 70.000 maneTamde moigo. repeticiebis dawyebamde k. marjaniSvilma msaxiobebs gaacno Tavisi reJisoruli kredo: mTavari reJisoris usityvo damorCileba, rolebis codna, samuSaosadmi keTilsindisieri damokidebuleba. man omi gamoucxada msaxiobebis axirebebsa da `premierobas~. is angariSs ar uwevda `saxelebs~. ase daisaja r. a. karelina-raiCi, roca d.'anuncios `jokondaSi~ reJisoris ganawilebuli roli ukan daabruna da Teatrma daukava xelfasis meoTxedi _ 275 maneTi. Seiqmna ` ~, romelSic Sediodnen: k. s. stanislavski, n. n. sinelnikovi, da e. karpovi. maT jarima samarTlianad CaTvales. Semdeg k. marjaniSvilis momTxovnelobam da Tanac misma ficxma xasiaTma konfliqti Teatris muSakebTanac gamoiwvia, erT-erTi dava sasamarTloSic ki irCeoda. sezonis dawyebamde k. marjaniSvilma interviuSi Camoayaliba Sexedulebebi Teatris mizanze da mis daniSnulebaze, romelic daibeWda gazeTSi ` ~ 1907 wlis 27 ivliss. `Teatrs ufleba ara aqvs drois sulis moTxovnebsa da interesebs pasuxi ar gasces, sxvanairad is mkvdaria. xelovneba ki unda iyos cocxali da cxovelmyofeli.~ kiTxva _ Tqveni TvalsazrisiT Teatri, rogorc socialuri dawesebulebaa... ra aris is: taZari, saxelosno, tribuna? _ taZari... upirveles yovlisa. mSvenierebis samsaxuri da sikeTis qadageba _ misi saqmea... kiTxva _ magram taZaric SeiZleba tribunad gadaiqces? _ xelovneba TavisTavad gixmobs mSvenierisken. misi taZari garkveul xarisxSi tribunaa... guldasawyvetia, roca Teatri samrewvelo komerciul dawesebulebad gadaiqceva _ maSin saqme iRupeba...~10 `_ Cven angariSi unda gavuwioT mayurebels. Teatri brbos gemovnebamde ar unda damdabldes, magram rTulia procesi - aamaRlo mayurebeli da mSvenieris aRqmamde miiyvano. ... CemTvis mTavar rols TamaSobs avtori da misi suli. isaa scenis meufe. sadac saWiroa pirobiToba, iq SevqmniT mas

da sadac saWiroa simarTle _ iq realistebi viqnebiT. Tu me SevZleb Cavwvde avtoris suls, gavigo misi paTosi, gavuxsna msaxiobebs da koleqtiuri SemoqmedebiT es `suli~ wamovwio - mayureblamde miitano, maSin CavTvlidi, rom amocana Sesrulebulia... poeti, reJisori, avtori _ ai, risken unda miviswrafvodeT. _ me ar vapireb msaxiobSi individualobis Cakvlas. Cemi saqmea gavxsna idea, gavumartivo wvdoma, avanTo, STavagono artisti, saerTo simfoniur akordSi gavaerTiano individualuri ganwyobebi... magram ise, rom masSi ar Cakvdes STagoneba... arasodes.... is unda davazRvio Secdomebisgan, magram wminda cecxls ar unda Sevexo. mxolod am cecxlidan amoizrdeba idea mTeli Tavisi mSvenierebiT!.. 11 am periodSi marjaniSvilis Semoqmedeba iZens Camoyalibebuli ostatis Tvisebebs. `me sul ufro da ufro vSordebodi realizms, sul ufro mZlavrad mi pyrobda impresionizmi. amasTanave erTad ukve Cemi saqmis sayvareli mxare xdeboda ara speqtaklis mTlianoba, misi garegnuli mxariT (dekoratiuloba da mizanscenireba), aramed mxolod Sinagani mxare. ufro da ufro Zlier Semiyvarda msaxiobTan muSaoba. piesis fsiqologiuri garCeva CemTvis gadaiqca did mniSvnelovan saqmed, ufro mniSvnelovnad, vidre speqtaklis garegani brwyinvaleba. msaxiobTan gakeTebuli erTi roli orjer metad makmayofilebda, vidre yvelaze zarzeimuri dadgma.~12 sezoni gaixsna a. Cexovis `sami diT~. warmodgenam Teatraluri qariSxali gamoiwvia. speqtakli fardis gareSe midioda, pirvelad kievSi gamoiyena mbrunavi scena, romelmac saSualeba misca dadgma `sinematografiuli princi piT~ ganexorcielebina. moZravma scenam gaxsna ara mxolod prozorovebis saxlis cxovreba, aramed mis miRma atmosferoc. pirveli aqti _ gazafxulis peizaJi, baRi... fanjrebSi Zveli provinciuli mebatonis saxlis mcxovrebTa da stumarTa figurebi krTebian. pirveli replikebi mayureblisTvis jer kidev daxuruli saxlis interieridan ismis. mere nel-nela saxli brundeba da gamoCndeba sastumro oTaxis myudro

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kuTxeebi da patara oTaxebi sadac mimdinareobs prozorovebis yoveldRiuri cxovreba. moqmedebis dasasruls saxli kvlav brundeba Tavisi gare fasadiT _ da mayureblis Tvalwin isev gazafxulis baRia da iq, fanjrebs miRma, mimdinareobs mayureblisTvis uxilavi scena. Zlivs ismis sityvebi _ andrei nataSas siyvaruls uxsnis. mesame aqtSi mTel scenas ikavebda uzarmazari moZravi panorama `prozorovebis saxlis xedi~, romelic moqmedebisTvis viwro sivrces tovebda. `...prozorovTa mTeli saxli avage mbrunav scenaze, da msaxiobebi moqmedebis dros erTi oTaxidan meore oTaxSi gamodiodnen, Tanac mayurebelTa Tvalwin trialebda dekoraciebi. yvelaferi es arTobda mayurebels, magram ise gamitaca aman, rom Zalian Rrmad Sevtope: mesame aqtSi, rodesac debi ocneboben am yru soflis mitovebas da oxraven: `moskovisken!.. moskovisken!..~ Cemi scena miemgzavreboda dekoraciis gamosacvlelad da es iseT sicils iwvevda, rom me iZulebuli gavxdi momexsna es `moskovs~ gamgzavreba, es moxda speqtaklis Semdeg~, _ werda kote marjaniSvili. moZravi scenis RrWiali bevri kritikosis Tavdasxmis obieqtad iqca. Tumc yvela kritikosi warmodgenis gadawyvetis originalurobas aRniSnavda, zogi scenur simarTlesa da poeziasTan Serwymas gamoyofda, magram reJisoris talants yvela aRiarebda. lev tolstois nawarmoebSi `meufeba wyvdiadisa~ (romelic Teatrma l. tolstois literaturuli moRvaweobis ormocdaaTi wlisTavis aRsaniSnavad dadga), k. marjaniSvilma moZravi scena gamoiyena. speqtaklis dasawyisSi scenaze ganTavsebuli iyo yvela suraTi, rac gamoricxavda did antraqtebs, daxuruli fardis miRma fusfuss da CaquCebis raxaruxs, mZime sagnebis gadatan-gadmotanas. kievSi moRvaweobis gar kveul periodSi marjaniSvili naturalizmma gaitaca. farduli savse iyo TiviT da misi aromati mayureblamde aRwevda `da Cven Tavs vgrZnobdiT sofelSi, es ganwyobileba antraqtebSic

mogvyveboda~.13 `meufeba wyvdiadisaSi~ gamodioda cxeni, romelic Tivas ReWavda, `Zalian sasacilo goWi da sayvareli ixvebi~; `mefe Tevodore ioanes ZeSi~ erT-erT scenaSi mxedari cocxal cxenze gaaqrolebda; hofmanstalis `zobeidas qorwilSi~ kulisebSi ZaRlebi yefdnen, xolo Solom aSas `codvaSi~ namdvili cxvari bRaoda. es is periodia, roca kritikosebi moskovis samxatvro Teatris naturalizms Tavs esxmodnen. Tavis mogonebebSi kote marjaniSvili am periodSi naturalizmiT amgvari gatacebebze ar saubrobs. duvan-torcovi daJinebiT iTxovda iaffasiani piesebis dadgmas, ZiriTadad komediebs, sadac `premieri qali~ Tavisi damabrmavebeli `tualetebiT brwyinavda~, xandaxan naxevradSiSvelic gamodioda. k. marjaniSvils amgvari speqtaklebi ar daudgams, am samuSaos meore reJisori _ v. n. dagmarovi asrulebda. naxevar weliwadSi kote marjaniSvilma dadga u. Seqspiris `hamleti~, f. Sileris `don karlosi~, h. ibsenis `brZola taxtisTvis~ da `eqimi Stokmani~, alfred de miuses `lorenzaCo~, k. guckovis `uriel akosta~, hugo fon hofmanstalis `eleqtra~, d'anuncios `jokonda~... vedekindis da Snicleris ramdenime piesa... aseTi raodenobis samuSao gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom warmatebuli speqtaklebs mxolod ramdenjerme uCvenebdnen, warumatebels ki afiSidan pirveli speqtaklis Semdeg umal xsnidnen. warmodgenebis xarisxi araTanabari iyo. k. marjaniSvilma bevri piesa dadga axalgazrdebis monawileobiT: step. kuznecovi, i. bersenevi, a. kramovi da p. leontievi, l. lesnaia. `gansakuTrebiT miyvarda muSaoba s. i. gorelovis rolebze. zogierTi misi saxeebi `lorenzaCodan~, `moCvenebidan~, `mkvdarTa qalaqidan~ da sxvebi CemTvis samudamod dauviwyari darCeba, rasakvirvelia, mqonda Sejaxebebis mware wuTebi moxuc msaxiobebTan, romelTac ukve obi ekidebodaT~, _ werda kote marjaniSvili. l. lesnaia igonebs: axlac maxsovs misi ori mcneba: ` , ~ ` , , , . - ~.14

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axalgazrdebisTvis dgams galbes piesa `siymawviles~. arqiteqtonikulad da fsiqologiuri moqmedebebiT primitiul piesaze muSaoba k. marjaniSvilma gadaaqcia saintereso diskusiebad pauzisa da ritmis Sesaxeb. xanSi Sesul msaxiobebs ezarebodaT amaze fiqri, xolo axalgazrdebis `jgufi~ atarebda uricxv etiudebs, dgamdnen epizodebs, k. marjaniSvilis amocanebis xorcSesxmas cdilobdnen. ritmis Sesaxeb msjelobisas marjaniSvilma magaliTisTvis moiyvana orkestri. "... rom orkestrSi gansxvavebuli instrumentebia, romelTa ritmic ganisazRvreba maTi naturiT, SesaZleblobebiTa da maTi arsebiT. SeuZlebelia, violonCelo an Tundac kontrabasi misdevdes violinos ritms. TefSebs orkestrSi iSviaTad aJRereben, arfas Tavis ritmi aqvs da a. S., is ambobda, `rom musikis TeoriaSi es sakiTxi amgvarad ar aris gaSuqebuli, magram axsnisTvis es forma gamosadegia~.15 k. marjaniSvili alfred de miuses `lorenzaCos~ repeticiebze amtkicebda, rom mTeli piesa da moqmed gmirTa galerea _ fonia, sadac lorenzaCo erTaderTia, vinc azrovnebs, martodmarto aSenebs, mkvlelobis aqts ganizraxavs da axorcielebs. mTeli piesa esaa misi sulis mbodvare mdgomareoba, akviatebuli idea. Tu yvela moqmedi piri realurad warmoisaxebodnen da JReradobiT masTan tolfasovani iqnebodnen, maSin lorenzaCos figura xalxisgan mowyvetili ar aRiqmeboda, ar moxdeba misi izolireba da kote marjaniSvilma Sem sruleblebs S esTavaza eTamaSaT gabundovnebulad, daSTul bgerebSi, aCqarebulad, monotonurad. da mxolod erTaderTi lorenzaCo iWreboda am butbutSi amaRlebuli JReradobiT, Zlieri aqcentirebiT, aRgznebulad. am gawyvetam didi kamaTi gamoiwvia, radgan yvelas undoda `TamaSi~, magram marjanovma Tavisi ideis simarTleSi yvela msaxiobi daarwmuna da repeticiebze brwyinvale Sedegebs iRebda, _ werda l. lesnaia. `moqmedeba! ai ra uyvarda mas. moZraoba! ai, risi sjeroda. Jesti, siarulis manera, ritmuli naxatebi ufro Zlierad gansazRvraven adamians, vidre metyveleba. ase fiqrobda is da amas gvaswavlida~.16

alfred de miuses `lorenzaCos~ da h. ibsenis `moCvenebans~ udidesi warmateba xvda wilad, xolo hauptmanis `CaZiruli zari~ da hofmanstalis `eleqtra~ Caflavda. d'anuncios `jokondas~ `simfoniuri poema-tragedia uwodes.~ naturalizmis ukiduresad sawinaaRmdego gamoxatulebaa k. m a r j a ni S v i l i s g a t a c e b a z R a p r u l - f e e r i u l i speqtakliT _ e. Cirikovis `jadoqari~, romelic k. marjaniSvilma Tavisi benefisisTvis airCia, 1908 wlis ianvarSi dadga. Semdeg es speqtakli jer odesaSi da mere moskovSi nezlobinTan gaimeora, orivejer _ warumateblad. piesis siuJeti Zalze martivi iyo: moxuc mewisqviles rZali uyvars. qmris avadmyofobiT datanjul amfeas coliani aleqsei Seuyvardeba. mewisqvile, beberi jadoqris saSualebiT (meore aqtSi jadoqari cariel abazanaSi balaxebisa da bayayebisagan mosajadoebel bangs xarSavs) Svils Tavidan iSorebs. Semdeg aqtebSi vania xangrZlivi tanjviT kvdeba. mewisqvile ZaladobiT daufleba rZals da bolo aqtSi, ivane kupalas Rames, tyeSi `grZneul adgilas~, Tavis metoqe aleqseis culiT klavs. `jadoqarma~ reJisors Teatraluri saocrebebis gamomgoneblobisTvis didi sivrce misca. aq tyis kacebia da saxlis sulebi, bayayebis yiyini da tyis nair-nairi faCuni da Cqamebi, wylis buRas Rmuili, tyis idumali xarxari, Rumelis milebidan gamosuli xmebi, ayvavilebuli gvimra, mocimcime cicinaTelebi da RamiT fiWvis totze CamoxrCobilis silueti... da, rasakvirvelia, wylis wisqvili borblebis xmauriTa da yureSi mdinaris TqafuniT. am fantastikuri atmosferos SeqmnaSi reJisorTan erTad andriaSevis udidesi Rvawli iyo. k. marja niSv ilma axalg azrdobisa Tvis Semo iRo TanmimdevrobiT agebuli leqcia-speqtaklebi , romelic unda yofiliyo Teatris ilustrirebuli istoria. pirvel `~-s erqva `Teatri da cxovreba.~ axalgazrda talantebis aRmomCeni. solovcovis TeatrSi aRmoaCina axalgazrda i. n. bersenevi. mxatSi muSaobdisas marjaniSvilma, nemiroviC-danCenkos bersenevze

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mouyva. 1911 wels bersenevi samxatvro TeatrSi gadaiyvanes da k. marjaniSvilis yvela dadgmebSi monawileobda. k. marjanovma solovcovis TeatrSi giganturi Sroma Cado da am periods kievis dramatulma Teatrma `brwyinvale xana~ uwoda. riga-xarkovi-kievis Teatralur gzaze k. marjaniSvils dideba ar aklda, arc fuli, arc TviTdajerebuloba, arc kritikis Tavdasxma, arc konfliqtebi, magram mainc gamovyofT imdroindeli kritikis aRniSnul k. marjaniSvilis or sust mxares. zomierebis grZnobis uqonloba da `saqmis bolomde armiyvana _ es b-ni marjanovis qronikuli daavadebaa~ werda gaz.: `kievlianini~ (, 1908 ., 13). gatacebuli piesis pirveli an centraluri aqtiT, marjanovi xSirad Semdegi moqmedebebis mimarT civdeboda, bolo aqti ki, rogorc wesi, daumTavrebeli iyo. marjanovs, mxolod Tavis yvelaze warmatebul speqtaklebSi mihyavda saqme bolomde. k. marjaniSvilma, ianvarSi, qalaq odesis saTaTbirodan miiRo depeSa, romelic iuwyeboda, rom momaval sezonSi Teatris ijariT aReba surs sam antrepreniors _ nikulins, sibiriakovs da bagrovs da radgan samive samxatvro xelmZRvanelad iTxovda k. marjaniSvils, mas unda gadaewyvita visTan isurvebda muSaobas. im wels m. f. bagrovi m. marjaniSvilTan msaxiobad muSaobda. man sTxova gaegzavna depeSa odesaSi da masze mieca Tanxmoba. k. marjaniSvilma gaagzavna depeSa `Tu vimuSaveb, mxolod bagrovTan~ da m. f. bagrovma Teatri miiRo. duvan-torcovs marjaniSvilis gaSveba ar undoda... am ambis Semdeg man xelfasi 1200 maneTidan 1500 maneTamde gauzarda. es rom bagrovma gaigo, marjaniSvils 1800 maneTi SeaZlia. `daiwyo vaWroba da me TiTqmis auqcionidan movxvdi bagrovTan 2400 maneTad TveSi. es iyo argagonili sarekordo cifri, romelsac odesme Tu iRebda ruseTSi reJisori.~17 1908 wels k. marjaniSvilma evropis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mogzaurobis Semdeg Sveicarias miadga. iq, Jenevis tbaze, klaransSi ojaxTan erTad cxovrobda. klaransSi didi gatacebiT daiwyo dramatuli poemis, `mkvdarTa kunZulis~,

wera, mis gatacebas aRrmavebda isic, rom amas werda" ...imave skamze, Wadris qveS, tbis napirze, sadac STagonebas iRebda momxibvleli Jan Jak-ruso~, _ werda k. marjaniSvili. im periodSi k. marjaniSvili ruseTis yvelaze `Zvirad Rirebuli~ reJisoria gagrZeleba Semdeg nomerSi

1. . , , . . . , , 1966, . 442. 2. . , . . , , , 1958, . 26. 3. k. marjaniSvili, `mogonebani~, krebuli _ kote marjaniSvili, 1961, gv. 20. 4. ix. iqve 5. . , , . . . , , 1966, . 442. 6. k. marjaniSvili, dasax. kreb. gv. 25. 7. . -, , . . . , , 1966, . 265. 8. k. marjaniSvili, dasax. kreb. gv. 37. 9. . , . . , , , 1958, . 36. 10. ix. iqve: . 38. 11. . . , , , , 1958, . 71-73. 12. k. marjaniSvili, dasax. kreb. gv. 39 13. . , , . . . , , 1966, . 321. 14. ix. iqve: . 310. 15. ix. iqve: . 318. 16. ix. iqve: . 320. 17. k. marjaniSvili, dasax. kreb. gv. 47.

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Tamar quTaTelaZe meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi (modernis sawyisebi qarTul TeatrSi) 1904-1906 wlebis saqarTveloSi (Tbilisi, baTumi, quTaisi), orjer marTavs gastrolebs vsevolod meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagoba~, xolo 1927 wlis maisSi reJisori mesamed stumrobs saqarTvelos da Tbilisel da baTumel mayurebels uCvenebs rusuli dramaturgiis klasikosis n. gogolis `revizoris~ modernul dadgmas. saqarTveloSi v. meierxoldis samive viziti mniSvnelovani iyo rogorc qarTuli sazogadoebis, ise Tavad reJisorisTvis. rusuli Teatraluri modernis am gamorCeuli warmomadgenlis pirveli g as tro leb is a s tfi li s i ecnob a r efo r ma to r ul i suliskveTebis axalgazrda Semoqmedis reJisorul Teatrs. rogorc aRniSnavs k. rudnicki wignSi `vsevolod meierxoldi,~1 pirvelad swored v. meierxoldma dadga samxatvro Teatris mizanscenebis mixedviT ganxorcielebuli speqtaklebi. Sesabamisad, qarTveli mayurebeli ecnoba meierxoldis mier aRqmul samxatvroelTa dadgmebs, anu meierxoldiseuli modernuli Teatraluri reJisuris pirvel nimuSebs. `axali dramis amxanagobamde~ tfilisi mravali wlis manZilze aqtiurad maspinZlobda im droisaTvis saxelovan msaxiobebsa da Teatralur koleqtivebs. dedaqalaqis mayurebeli sistematurad ecnoboda axal dramaturgiasa da klasikur repertuarSi Seqmnil gamorCeul samsaxiobo saxeebs. XIX saukunis ukanasknel aTwleulSi Teatraluri tradiciebiT mdidar saqarTvelos dedaqalaqs stumroben moskovis mcire Teatris dasi, ernesto rosi, ludvigovis intrepriza, korSis dasi, marius peti pa, mamont dalski, maria savina, aleqsandras Teatris premierebi, Zmebi adelgeimebi da mravali sxva. msaxiob-varskvlavTaTvis speqtakli mxolod metnaklebad organizebuli fonia, romlis yvela monawilec

valdebulia, replikas awvdides centralur figuras. msaxiobvarskvlavTa xelovneba damokidebuli ar iyo partniorze. isini damoukideblad qmnidnen sakuTar Semoqmedebas, romelsac dausruleblad srulyofdnen, am mxriv gamorCeulad mniSvnelovani iyo, 1903-1904 wlebSi, cecxlovani temperamentis vera komisarJevskaias viziti TbilisSi. is iyo pirveli warmomadgeneli im didi gardaqmnebis, romelic mzaddeboda sasceno xelovnebaSi. meamboxe msaxiob-varskvlavi mTeli arsebiT emijneboda moZvelebul scenur formebs da ibrZoda mistikur-religiuri xelovnebis formirebisaTvis. XX saukunis dasawyisis saqarTveloSi, rogorc evropasa d a r u s e T S i , a q ti u r f a z a S i a b r Z o l a Te a t r i s reformirebisaTvis. imJamindel qarTul realobaSi umaRlesi saswavleblis ararsebobis gamo qarTvel inteligencias ganaTleba ruseTSi an sazRvargareT hqonda miRebuli (moskovi, peterburgi, parizi, kievi, Jeneva, varSava, berlini, briuseli, miunxeni da sxva). Sesabamisad, maTTvis cnobili iyo Tanamedrove dasavlur kulturaSi mimdinare procesebi da eswrafodnen qarTuli Teatraluri xelovnebis modernizebas. maTi mizani iyo qarTuli Teatric gamxdariyo Tanamedrove da erovnuli faseulobebis ganmaviTarebeli. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom Teatris reformirebis Taobaze radikalurad gansxvavebuli poziciebi arsebobda. Tu qarTuli Teatris mmarTveli dramatuli sazogadoebis gamgeoba eswrafoda Teatris magistraluri orientaciis gamyarebas da erovnulganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis ganmaviTarebel tribunad mis reformirebas, axali Taoba iRvwoda Teatris evropul yaidaze modernizebisTvis. 1903 wlis 4 noembers `cnobis furcelSi~ `Tavisufali monis~ fsevdonimiT werils aqveynebs axalgazrda mixeil javaxiSvili. masSi aisaxa axali Taobis qarTveli inteligenciis orientiri e. w. realistur faseulobebze. amave dros gancxadda aRmosavluri da tradiciuli kulturisgan distancirebis mZafri tendencia. igi aRSfoTebulia qarTuli Teatris sarepertuaro politikiT, akritikebs istoriuli piesebis siWarbes, moZvelebul

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meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi

gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs, wamRerebul deklamacias da a. S. `me ufro meti moviTxove, magram amaod. Teatrma saqarTvelosadmi siyvarulis meti TiTqmis araferi momca. ramdenime Tbiliseli somexi vaWari, avlabreli kinto, maWankali da kidev qarTveli dedis msgavsi ram maCvena da meti araferi..... me Cems belads, Teatrs, gavuswari da Cven axla erTmaneTisa aRara gvesmis ra. CemTvis qarTuli Teatri Turme anbanis maswavlebeli yofila da meti araferi~.2 axalgazrda m. javaxiSvili moiTxovs qarTuli Teatris evropul yaidaze modernizebas, scenaze sasaubro metyvelebis damkvidrebas, yuradRebis koncentrirebas ubralo xalxis yoveldRiur problemebze. `qarTul piesebSi yvelam araCveulebrivi amaRlebuli eniT unda ilaparakos, wamdauwum xmal-xanjalze gaisvas xeli, `saqarTvelos gaumarjos~ iZaxos da piesis gmirad ueWvelad mefe an mxedarTmTavari unda iyos. ucxoelTa piesebSi ki iseTive eniT laparakoben, rogorc cxovrebaSia, scenaze mefe ki ara, ubralo moxeleni, memamuleebi, muSebi da roski pebic ki arian....qarTul piesebSi moqmedi pirni...yovelTvis da yvelafriT kmayofilni arian, ibrZvian mxolod politikuri TavisuflebisaTvis, ucxoelTa piesebSi ki ibrZvian pirovnebis TavisuflebisaTvis. scenaze gadaaqvT namdvili, realuri cxovreba, xalxis namdvili tanjva-wameba~3. m. javaxiSvilis orientiri ZiriTadad naturalisturi Teatris esTetikis kena a m im ar Tu li . qa r Tu li Tea tr al ur i sazogadoebriobis yuradReba jer kidev moskovis samxatvro Teatris SemoqmedebiT miRwevebzea koncentrirebuli. Tumca aRsaniSnavia isic, rom m. javaxiSvilis am cnobili werilis gamoqveynebamde erTi wliT adre, v. meierxoldi tovebs jer kidev xmauriani warmatebebis zenitSi myof samxatvro Teatrs. `Cemi simbolizmi warmoiSva moskovis samxatvro Teatris liderTa gadatvirTuli detalizaciisagan~, _ werda igi.4 germanuli Teatris momavali reformatori maqs reinhardtic swored 1902 wels daupirispirda da gaemijna oto bramis gapoetubul naturalistur Teatrs. Sesabamisad Teatris istoriaSic ukve dawyebulia sruliad axali, Teatraluri modernis formirebis periodi. am droisaTvis ukve Seqmnilia

artur Sopenhaueris `samyaro, rogorc neba da warmodgena~ (1818 w.) da f. nicSes `tragediis dabadeba~ (1871 w.), xolo es ori Sroma saprogramo mniSvnelobas iZens modernuli xelovnebis funqciisa da miznebis gaazrebisTvis. nicSes TqmiT: berZnuli xelovnebis namsxvrevebiT mofenili xelovnebis mravalsaukunovani istoria XIX saukunis miwurulidan kvlav ubrundeba Tavisi ganviTarebis bunebriv wiaRs. prioritetuli xdeba mecnierebamdeli xelovnebiseuli formebi. Sesabamisad, naturalistTa yofiT faseulobebs daupirispirda da Caenacvla poeturi azrovneba da maradiul RirebulebaTa reanimaciis garduvalobis rwmena. yuradRebis centrSi eqceva xmis ferweruli JReradoba da elisabedis droindeli pirobiTi Teatris gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebi. XIX saukunis 90-iani wlebis miwuruls, ZvelberZnuli SemecnebiT-koncefciuri Teatris aRorZinebisaTvis SemoqmedebiT Ziebebs warmarTaven g. kregi da a. apia. orive maTgani mniSvnelovnad gansazRvraven XX saukunis Teatraluri xelovnebis ZiriTad tendenciebs. maT naazrevSi msaxiobis plastika sacekvao ritms daeqvemdebara, radgan `scenaze mayurebeli unda usmendes da uyurebdes musikis ritmiTa da sityviT gajerebul msaxiobis sxeuls~.5 garda amisa, prioritetuli xdeba amaRlebuli romantikuli gmiri, romelsac mayurebeli qoros nawilad unda gadaeqcia. amieridan ritmi speqtaklis ZiriTadi warmmarTvelia. musikaluri ritmis, samsaxiobo ritmis, moZraobis ritmis, sinaTlis moZraobis ritmis da a. S. yvela am mravalferovan ritmTa harmoniuli erTianobis safuZvelze unda miRweuliyo xelovnebis nawarmoebis hi pnozuri zemoqmedebis Zala. inglisur TeatrSi warmoqmnil modernul tendenciaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, romelsac safuZvlad daedo aRmosavluri civilizaciis miRwevaTa gaazrebis mizniT 1847 wels `siZveleTa muzeumis~ dafuZneba, XIX saukunis miwurulidan. Teatris TeoretikosTa da praqtikosTa SemoqmedebaSi (g. kregi, a. apia, arto, meierxoldi, Tairovi, l. mesxiSvili, k. marjaniSvili) ikveTeba ZvelaRmosavluri mistikuri xelovnebis faseulobaTa primati. XIX saukunis miwurulsa da XX saukunis dasawyisis

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meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi

qarTul TeatrSi ganxorcielebuli naturalistursimbolisturi dramebis poetika, romelTa urTierTisgan gamijvnac Znelia, mZafrad daupirispirda tradiciul Rirebulebebs, magram ver SeZlo ganedevna qarTuli TeatrisaTvis organuli romantikuli saSemsruleblo xerxebi. es ukanaskneli Tavisi ZirebiT aRmosavluri kulturis wiaRidan iyo amozrdili da Tavadac mis nawils warmoadgenda. Teatraluri tradiciebiT saxelganTqmul saqarTveloSi arCilis, rostomisa da vaxtang V-is sasaxliskaris darbazebSi hindoel muSaiTTa warmodgenebi, iranis Teatris, espanel da italiel musikosTa vizitebi arc SemTxveviTi iyo da arc uSedego. daxvewili gemovnebiTa da inteleqtiT saxelganTqmul qarTvel mefeTa sasaxleebSi miwveul ucxoel msaxiobTa koleqtivebis warmodgenebi exmianeboda qarTveli eris mentalobas, mis genetikur faseulobebs da mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravda qarTuli sanaxaobrivi kulturis ganviTarebis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs. amitomac XX saukunis dasawyisidan xangrZlivi kritikis obieqti gaxda qarTuli mxatvruli sityvisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli musikalur-plastikuri intonacia. deklamireba, romelic religiuri poeziis mistikur siRrmeebs swvdeboda yavlgasuli saSemsruleblo xelovnebis gadmonaSTad, Tanamedrove Teatraluri procesebisgan distancirebulad gacxadda. naturalisturi esTetikis droebiTma popularobam da aRmosavlur-dasavlur faseulobaTa SeuTavseblobam, maRali xelovnebis ganviTarebis procesisaTvis stagnaciuri periodi warmoSva; Tumca uZveles, myar da maradiul RirebulebaTa xelovnur damxobas misi sikvdili ar mohyolia. XIX saukunis miwuruls germanul filosofiur azrovnebaSi Camoyalibebuli koncefciebi modernuli xelovneb is Taobaze warm oadgenda mZafr reaqcias industralizaciisa da masobrivi demokratizaciis pirobebSi warmoqmnili esTetikuri faseulobebis dacemis gamo. n. berdiaevi werda: `ers, romelsac mravali Taobis manZilze gaaCnda sakuTari kultura, mas Camoyalibebuli aqvs individualuri kulturuli stili da am kulturis simagre, gansxvavebiT im erisagan, vinc mogvianebiT Seecada sakuTari

kulturis Seqmnas~.6 am debulebis racionalizmi naTlad gomoikveTa qarTuli Teatraluri modernis miRwevebSi (k. marjaniSvili, s. axmeteli). xolo adreuli modernis fazaSi (l. mesxiSvili), ZiriTadad intuiciurad, magram mkafiod gacxadda romantikuli xelovnebisaken midrekili qarTuli Teatris erovnuli sanaxaobrivi formebi. krizisSi myofi qarTuli tradiciuli Teatris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli pirveli mkveTri amboxi ukavSirdeba qarTuli sasceno romantizmis fuZemdebel _ l. mesxiSvils. man imJamindel Teatralur moRvaweTa Soris misTvisve gaucnobiereblad yvelaze organulad da srulad gamoxata q a r T u l i e r o v nu l i s a S e m s r u l e b l o x el o v n e b i s TviTmyofadobaca da misi modernulobisaTvis mzaobac. 18961897 wlebis sezonSi dramatuli sazogadoebis gamgeobasTan konfliqtis gamo, romelic ewinaaRmdegeboda Teatris demokratizaciisa da evropul yaidaze gardaqmnis process, meamboxe msaxiob-varskvlavi tovebs saqarTvelos upirveles Teatrs da kritikul mdgomareobaSi myof quTaisis TeatrSi warmarTavs dagegmil reformebs. qarTuli Teatrisa da dramaturgiis istoriaSi axal etaps iwyebs d. kldiaSvilis `irines bedniereba~. misi dadgma v. abaSiZis reJisuriT 1901 wlis 23 seqtembers warumatebeli aRmoCnda Tbilisis qarTul TeatrSi, xolo 1901 wlis 4 noembers l. mesxiSviliseul speqtakls quTaisis TeatrSi triumfaluri warmateba xvda. naTeli gaxda, rom `axali dramis~ TamaSi ar xelewifebodaT tradiciuli Teatris Rvawlmosil msaxiobebs moZvelebuli gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebiTa da sadadgmo kulturiT. XX saukunis dasawyisidan quTaisis Teatris lideri energiulad exmianeba mzard revoluciur moZraobas, Sesabamisad 1896-1905 wlebis sezonebi dakavSirebulia Teatris `oqros xanasTan~ da lado mesxiSvilis, rogorc samsaxiobo reJisuris erT-erTi mkafio da warmatebuli figuris SemoqmedebiT triumfTan. am dros igi legendarul msaxiob-kolosad, msaxiob-tribunad, qarTuli Teatris korifed, elinuri silamazis msaxiobad wodebuli, misi uCveulod mzardi samsaxiobo didebis mwvervalze imyofeba da Tavis sagvirgvino

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meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi

rolebs qmnis. v. garikis TqmiT: `l. mesxiSvili ibrZoda moZvelebuli Teatraluri formebis winaaRmdeg. igi eswrafoda komediur-vodeviluri repertuari seriozuli komediebiTa da maRali tragediebiT Seecvala da es SeZlo kidec. sinagogas scenaSi misi urieli namdvil musikalur simfonias qmnida... misi hamleti sasaflaos scenaSi ki ar laparakobda, TiTqos, mReroda, Tavis jadosnur xmas ise aJRerebda, gajadoebdaT Tavisi mravalmetyveli da mravalferovani intonaciebiT. igi qarTuli sityvis didostati iyo da epoqa Seqmna qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi~. amrigad, qarTul TeatrSi l. mesxiSvili amkvidrebs evropuli dramaturgiis Sedevrebs da gardaqmnis wadiliT anTebuli, TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli meamboxe gmiris romantikul saxes, romelic hi pnozur zegavlenas axdenda mayurebelze. l. mesxiSviliseul xelovnebaSi gacxadda erovnul cnobierebaSi Semonaxuli da genetikuri memkvidreobiT miRebuli mecnierebamdeli epoqis ZvelberZnuli da aRmosavluri saSemsruleblo xerxebi: wamRerebuli deklamacia, zeaweuli paTetika, silamazis kultivacia, pozebisa da Jestebis simrgvale da poeturoba. am yovelives igi organulad uTavsebda axal demokratiul faseulobebsa da gamomsaxbelobiT xerxebs. man SeZlo qarTuli Teatraluri cxovrebis epicentrad gadaeqcia sul cota xnis win iavarqmnili quTaisis Teatri: qarTuli kaligrafiulmTargvnelobiTi skolis fuZemdebelTa da XVIII saukunis salonuri warmodgenebis organizatorTa STamomavali, qarTuli sasceno romantizmis, naturalizmis, simbolizmis, revoluciuri Teatris, anu qarTuli modernis, fuZemdeblad iqca. ia Tuxarelis sadisertacio SromaSi `axali dramis amxanagoba TbilisSi 1904-1906 wlebSi~7 aRniSnulia, rom antrepreniorTa ganusazRvreli uflebebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli samsaxiobo amxanagoba pirvelad 1876 wels Camoyalibda voroneJSi. misi mizani iyo Tavad msaxiobebs emarTaT Teatraluri saqmianoba. XIX saukunis bolosa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi aseTi gaerTianebebis xelmZRvanelebi xdebodnen yvelaze avtoritetuli msaxiobebi an reJisorebi. swored maSin gamoikveTa, rom dasis warmatebuli marTva

SeeZlo iseT liders, romelic flobda mizanmimarTul SemoqmedebiT programas. swored antreprenioris gareSe moRvaweobdnen v. meierxoldica da v. mesxiSvilic. orive maTgani ibrZoda moZvelebuli faseulobebis winaaRmdeg da qmnida axali revoluciuri suliskveTebis modernul Teatrs. `axa li drami s amxana goba~ v. meierxoldis xelmZRvanelobiT Tbilisur gastrolebamde ori sezoni moRvaweobda xersonis saqalaqo TeatrSi. k. rudnickis TqmiT, meierxoldi dgamda ZiriTadad moskovis samxatvro Teatris mizanscenebis mixedviT Seqmnil Teatris yvelaze mniSvnelovan speqtaklebs.8 Tumca paralelurad mayurebels sTavazobda Sua saukuneebis samoedno Teatralur xerxebze agebul dadgmebsac mravalricxovani gadalaparakebebiT, aparteebiT, uxeSi farsuli koliziebiTa da melodramatuli efeqtebiT. reJisori sul ufro Tamamad arRvevda meoTxe kedels da rwmundeboda, rom moskovis samxatvro Teatris esTetikisaTvis SeuTavsebeli xerxebic aqtiurad zemoqmedebda mayurebelze. samxatvro Teatris SemuSavebuli princi pebi ar iyo universaluri, xolo realobis sruli iluziis Seqmna scenaze yovelTvis arc aucilebeli iyo da arc SesaZlebeli. 1903 wels meierxoldma Tavis dass `axali dramis amxanagoba~ uwoda, rac niSnavda demonstraciul orientirs axal m im a rTu leb az e. r eJi s or i s a Rni Snu li g ana cx a di s paraleluradve gaaqtiurda Tavdasxmebi samxatvroelTa esTetikis winaaRmdeg. simbolisti poet valeri briusovis cnobili werili da poetesa zinaida gi piusis publikacia samxatvro Teatrs usargeblo simarTlisadmi msaxurebaSi sdebda brals da mas Teatraluri xelovnebis sasaflaos uwodebda. amrigad, rusuli Teatraluri xelovnebis istoriaSic poziciebs imyarebda modernuli azrovneba. igi upirispirdeboda scenaze cxovrebiseuli suraTebis gaormagebis tendencias da eswrafoda amaRlebuli xelovnebisaken. TbilisSi Camosuli axali Teatraluri formebis maZiebeli reJisoris mizanic upirvelesad swored samxatvroelTa mignebebisagan distancireba da mayureblisaTvis sakuTari, jer kidev gaubedavi mignebebis wardgena iyo. `axali dramis

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meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi

amxanagobis'' pirveli tfilisuri sezoni gaixsna 1904 wlis 26 seqtembers da dasrulda 1905 wlis 20 Tebervals. sagastrolo repertuarSi warmodgenil iqna 46 speqtakli. sagazeTo informaciebi mayurebels auwyebda, rom warmodgenis dawyebis Semdeg darbazSi Sesvla da speqtaklis msvlelobisas aplodismentebi ikrZaleboda. qarTulma sazogadoebam ixila meierxoldiseuli reJisoruli Teatris mkacri germanuli disci plina. am mxriv l. mesxiSviliseuli quTaisuri dadgmebisas sruliad waSlili iyo zRvari scenasa da darbazs Soris. Tu mesxiSvilis samsaxiobo xelovnebis efeqti ZvelberZnuli Teatris korifes masStabs utoldeboda, mayurebeli qoros funqcias inawilebda. darbazi da scena l. mesxiSviliseul quTaisur TeatrSi erTian tempo-ritmSi iyo CarTuli. Sesabamisad, msaxiob-korifesTan erTad mayurebelic speqtaklis sruluflebian Tanaavtorad da mis aqtiur monawiled gvevlineboda. aRsaniSnavia, rom l. mesxiSviliseuli dadgmebisagan gansxvavebiT meierxoldiseuli warmodgenebi gamoricxavda mayureblis aqtivobas da rCeboda warmodgenis pasiur mWvretelad. Tbilisuri gastrolebisas gamorCeuli warmateba xvda meierxoldiseul dadgmebs: a. Cexovis `sami da~, `Zia vano~, `Tolia~, `ivanovi~, m. gorkis `fskerze~, a. tolstois `ivane mrisxanes sikvdili~, h. ibsenis `eqimi Stokmani~, sadac meierxoldi mTvar rolebs Tavadve qmnida. warmodgenebSi mayurebelma ixila cxovrebiseuli detalebis uCveulo sizuste. msaxiobebi scenaze iseve saubrobdnen, rogorc cxovrebaSi. TiToeuli maTgani qmnida xasiaTis garkveul Strixebs, moqmedi pirebis temperaments, Sesatyvis grims, kostiums da a. S. butaforia warmodgenebSi Seudarebeli iyo. saSemsruleblo xelovneba gajerebuli iyo Cexoviseuli ganwyobiT. speqtaklis msvlelobisas mayurebels aviwydeboda, rom TeatrSi iyo. mas eCveneboda, rom imyofeboda moqmed gmirTa Soris. amitomac warmoiSva opoziciuri mosazrebac gadaWarbebuli scenuri naturalizmis gamo, rac adasturebda qarTuli Teatraluri kulturisaTvis naturalisturi esTetikis SeuTavseblobas. Tbiliseli mayurebeli gamorCeuli interesiT Sexvda im dadgmebs,

romlebic mZafrad reagirebda Tanadroul problemebze, energiulad gamoxatavda protests usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg da amkvidrebda Tavisuflebis moyvare suliskveTebas. swored amgvari, gardaqmnisaken midrekili cecxlovani temperamentis romantikuli gmirebi asaxavdnen qarTveli xalxis mizanswrafvebs. aseTi iyo qarTuli demokratiuli sazogadoebis e. w. `dakveTa~, rac aisaxa qarTul samsaxiobo modernSic (l. mesxiSvili, a. xorava, u. CxeiZe). aRsaniSnavia isic, rom meierxoldi dgamda ara marto im speqtaklebs, romlebmac samxatvro Teatrs dideba moupova, aramed im dadgmebsac, romlebic Cavarda. am mxrivac imJamad axalgazrda reJisori ara mxolod demonstrirebda rusuli Teatraluri reJisuris miRwevebs, aramed polemikasac warmarTavda masTan. magaliTad, ostrovskis ,,Tovlis dedofali'' samxatvroelTa TeatrSi warumatebeli iyo, meierxoldiseul dadgmas ki tfilisSi warmateba xvda. garda amisa, kompozicia Seqspiris `zafxulis sizmarze~, v. mendelsonis sakoncerto uvertiuriT, efuZneboda a. n. lenskis warmatebul dadgmas moskovis `axal TeatrSi~ (1898 w.). am speqtaklSi Seiqmna tyis mistiuri yofisa da misi sasicocxlo ritmis STambeWdavi sanaxaoba, xolo rusuli Teatris istoriaSi rusuli modernis winamorbedad iqca. TbilisSi warmodgenilma meierxoldiseulma dadgmam aRtacebaSi moiyvana qarTveli mayurebeli. gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia egzotikurma dekoraciebma da mdidrulma kostumebma. meierxoldiseuli speqtaklis dasrulebis Semdeg tfiliseli mayurebeli scenaze ixmobda ukve ara msaxiobs, aramed reJisors. msaxiobi aq reJisoruli speqtaklis aucilebel komponents warmoadgenda da ara sanaxaobis triumfators. am mxrivac gansxvavebuli iyo qarTuli moderni, sadac warmatebas reJisorTan erTad msaxiobic Tanabrad inawilebda. amrigad, meierxoldis pirveli gastrolebisas Tbiliseli mayurebeli gaecno erTdroulad samxatvro Teatris SemoqmedebiT miRwevebs, meierxoldiseuli modernuli reJisuris pirvel mignebebs da lenskis saxelganTqmul speqtakls, anu rusuli Teatraluri reJisuris novaciebs. unda aRiniSnos,

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Tamar quTaTelaZe

meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ gastrolebi saqarTveloSi

rom qarTvelma mayurebelma ixila simbolisturi dramis nimuSebic, magram amjerad Tbiliseli Teatralebi gulgrili datova meierxoldiseulma eqsperimentebma simbolisturi dramebisaTvis Sesatyvisi formebis moZiebis sferoSi. am mxriv qarTuli sazogadoeba mZafri interesiT ganewyo meierxoldis `axali dramis amxanagobis~ meore vizitisas (1906 wlis 20 Tebervals daiwyo da 23 marts dasrulda) warmodgenil m. meterlingis `tentaJilis sikvdilis~ mimarT. qarTvelma mayurebelma ixila `pirobiTi Teatris~ mkacri esTetika, msaxiobis Senelebuli, statikuri da sazeimo plastika, scenuri metyvelebis civi, wminda da uemocio intonacia. oci wlis ganSorebis Semdeg 1927 wels meierxoldi mesamed da amjerad ukanasknelad warudga Tbiliselebs. am droisaTvis reJisori mimarTavda klasikuri dramaturgiis modernulobas. n. gogolis `revizorSi~ Seiqmna tragedia ruseTis imperiis dedaqalaqze, sadac SesamCnevi iyo fsiqologiuri Teatris esTetikiT gatacebis procesic. meierxol di qmnida koncefciur speqtakl s, sadac literaturuli safuZveli eqvemdebareboda reJisorul ideas, xolo speqtaklis avtori iyo reJisori. meierxoldiseuli speqtaklebis formis mkveTri agebulebiT gacxadda xelovanis damokidebuleba sinamdvilisadmi. garda amisa, msaxiobi ar unda gardaqmniliyo personaJad. igi unda darCeniliyo msaxiobad, romelic ar malavs Tavis ostatobas, demonstraciulad aTvalierebs Tavisi gmiris sxeuls, metyvelebis gamomsaxvelobas, moqnilobas, musikalurobas, ritmulobas, axasiaTebda uSualo kontaqtis damyarebis unari mayurebelTan da misi CarTva scenur qmedebaSi. am droisaTvis qarTul TeatrSic gamokveTilia individualur saxelovnebo formaTa prioriteti. sakuTar modernul Teatrebs qmnidnen k. marjaniSvili da s. axmeteli. rusTavelis Teatris scenaze gmiruli Teatris erovnuli modelis formirebisaTvis warmatebiT iRvwoda s. axmeteli, am TeatrSi unda warmoqmniliyo qarTuli aristokratiuli sulierebis emanacia. am mxriv k. marjaniSvilis Teatralur esTetikaSi SesamCnevi iyo evropuli ti pis sinTezuri Teatris formirebis procesi.

amrigad, qarTuli Teatraluri sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovani iyo meierxoldiseuli Teatris samive viziti. saqarTveloSi misi pirveli gastrolebisas reformebis procesSi myofi qarTuli Teatris mayurebeli ecnoba rusuli Teatraluri reJisuris miRwevebs. sazogadoebam erTdroulad ixila samxatvro Teatris reJisoruli Sedevrebi, rusuli modernis winamorbedi lenskiseuli dadgma da Tavad meierxoldiseuli reJisoruli mignebebi profesiuli reJisoruli Teatris formirebisas. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom `axali dramis amxanagobas~ baTumSi gaecno al. wuwunava da 1905 wels povarskis studiis msmeneli gaxda. Sesabamisad, bunebrivia is faqtic, rom pirvel qarTvel samxatvroelad cnobili al. wuwunavaseuli Teatraluri esTetika, misi ltolva d anuncios dramaturgiisa da mkafio Teatraluri formebisaken rusuli modernis am saxelovani metris gavleniTacaa aRbeWdili. meierxoldis meore vizitisas qarTuli sazogadoeba gaecno simbolisturi dramebisaTvis Sesatyvisi formebis moZiebis meierxoldiseul eqsperimentebs, xolo 1927 wlis meierxoldis mesame stumrobisas rusuli klasikis modernul dadgmas. qarTuli Teatris istoriaSi meierxoldis saqarTvelosTan Sexvedrebis monakveTi 1904 wlidan 1927 wlamde moicavs qarTuli modernis formirebis periods _ l.. mesxiSviliseuli samsaxiobo modernidan s. axmetelisa da k. marjaniSvilis modernul reJisuramde.

...... 1. ix. . `~, 1981. 2. m. javaxiSvili, `werilebi~, Tbilisi, 2000 w. gv. 5. 3. iqve. 4. ix. . `~, , 1981. 5. Jurnali `xelovneba~, Tbilisi, #1-3. 1994. 6. v. gariki, `Teatri'', Tbilisi, gv. 207. 1957. 7. ia Tuxareli, `axali dramis amxanagoba TbilisSi 19041906 wlebSi~, Teatraluri instituti, 1978. 8. ix. . `~, , 1981.

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eka cxadaZe warmarTuli RvTaeba saddasai da mzis sagalobeli grigol robaqiZis `londaSi~ grigol robaqiZis `londas~-euli warmarTuli samyaro erTRmerTiania. es aris mzis RmerTi saddasai, romelic stiqiuri ubedurebis _ gvalvis saxiT movlenia warmarTul kolxeTs. misi qvis salocavi `mcireaziuli stilis yofila, mwerlis azriT..., e. i., aziuri mziuri RvTaeba warmarTi qarTvelebis salocavia. Cveni winaprebis uZvelesi Zirebi aziaSi eguleba did mweralsa da moazrovnes: `uZvelesi samSoblo qarTvelebis iyo qaldea. amitom bevrs eCveneba qarTuli ena Zveli asureTis cocxali narCeni. saqarTvelos ena dRes dgas martodmarto da aris warmoudgenlad lakoniuri da substanciuri. msoflio sibrZnec irekleba am enis agebulebaSi... platoni da hegeli gancvifrdebodnen, rom scodnodaT, `yofnas~ da `aryofnas~ erTi da igive fesvebi aqvT.Hefesoeli herakleitosi gaxarebuli iqneboda, rom mas gaego _ qarTulad `cxovreba~ da `cecxli~ erTia. saqarTvelo aris gasaRebi winaaziis ugzoukvlod dakarguli xalxebis gamosacnobad~...1 `londas~ warmarTuli RvTaeba sicocxlis momniWebelicaa da ulmobelic. ganrisxebis Jams kolxebs sjis; tyeebs cecxls ukidebs, cxenTa jogebs axelebs, Ramurebsac cas daabnelebinebs. Zalze sainteresoa warmarTuli RvTaebis saxeli saddasai. am saxelis gaSifrva pirvelma kote marjaniSvilma scada: `me miZneldeba laparaki, me jer kidev sustad vici ena da igi ar aris Cemi sfero, magram erTi aseTi sityva, rogoricaa `saddasai~, CemTvis momxiblavia. unda iyo didi xelovani, rom ase gansazRvro RmerTis yvelgan sufeva: `sad da sad~. es axsna erTgvarad sityvis semantikur JReradobas emyareba da gonivrulicaa. sad da sad ar aris igi _ saddasai, amiT RvTis yvelgan sufeva gadmoicema. magram... gr. robaqiZe martivad da sxvaTaSoris arafers wers, e. i. siRrmiseulad swvdeba yovelives. mwerlis codna da erudicia usazRvroa;

is Zlieria rogorc warmarTuli, aseve ebraul-qristianuli kulturis gagebaSi. misi saddasai igive `saddai, sada (ebr. saddaj) iSviaTad saxmari sinonimia RmerTisa; esaa stiqiur ZalTa RmerTis gasaidumloebuli saxeli. Cveulebriv mas axlavs el (`RmerTi~) da TargmanSi gamodis, rogorc `RmerTi saddai~ (ezek. 1. 241, 10,5 ), an RmerTi simravlisa (ezek. 1,24 G), anda martivad, rogorc RmerTi (dab. 17, 10 M); da mesmoda ÃmaÁ frTeTa maTTaÁB slvasa Sina maTsa, viTarca ÃmaÁ RmrTisa saddaÁsaÁ~B (ezek. 1,20 M).2 rogorc vxedavT, bibliuri, Zveli aRTqmiseuli, iSviaTad naxmari saxeli RvTisa gr. robaqiZem brwyinvaled gamoiyena `londaSi~ da mas araCveulebrivi warmarTuli `JReradoba~ mianiWa. `gr. robaqiZis `londac~, upirveles yovlisa, aris mzis misteria _ saddasai mzis ZaRlia, romelic lokavs poets misive sonetiT~.3 `londaSi~ dramis dasasruls svanur `liles~ umRerian warmarT RvTaebas. `himni: iskvami didebi bingia Sine da lileo. didebi Targlea zrsi da lileo~4 `lamaras~ finalSic `mRerian yvelani ZvelisZvel himns _ `liles~ msgavss. `yvela: dillao dillara dillao ho ho ho... dillana dillano lamaraa lamaraa dillai dillara dela dilana hooo... lamara lamara lamara dillao hoo.. dela dilleo daaaa~.5 `londas~ dadgmis Semdgom swored `lile~ gaxda rusTavelis Teatris axalgazrduli jgufis `durujis~ himni. `lile~ uZvelesi, warmarTuli sadidebelia mzisa, mas axlac Zveleburad xSirad asruleben saqarTveloSi. `svanuri xalxuri leqsebis~ daviT weredianiseul TargmanSi es himni asea gadmocemuli:

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eka cxadaZe

warmarTuli RvTaeba saddasai da mzis sagalobeli grigol robaqiZis `londaSi~

`dideba Senda, dido RmerTo! dideba Senda, zeciero! oqrosi gidgas sra-sasaxle. zRude gavlia oqrovani. irmebi wvanan saZirkvelze. qongurze sxedan Sevardnebi. Seni xarebi buRraoben. rqani asxiaT oqrosani. bneli TaRebi irRvevian. qvesknelis bWeni iryevian. i pneva oqros samkauli. brialebs oqros darbazebi. dideba Senda! dideba Senda, zeciero!~6 gr. robaqiZe gansakuTrebuli aRtacebiT laparakobda am uZveles himnze. man sagangebo moTxrobac dawera `liles~ saxelwodebiT. am moTxrobis minawerSi aRuniSnavs: `kompozitor meliton balanCivaZisagan gagonili. melitoni gacnoboda peterburgSi, saca didxans cxovrobda, filosofoss vladimer soloviovs. erTxel emRera misTvis `lile~. filosofosi ise aRtacebuliyo, rom `liles~ mosmenis Semdeg aRar survebia sxva romelime himni moesmina. warmodgenili maqvs, ra iqneboda `lile~ gundis mier mRerili rom mosmenoda~.7 amrigad, grigol robaqiZem Tavisi Rrma codna miTosuri samyarosi da, saerTod, miTologiisa erovnul qarTul miTosTan SejerebiT warmogvidgina, ris Sedegadac warmoCnda sruliad originaluri, gamorCeuli mxatvruli samyaro warmarTuli saqarTvelosi: Tavisi zne-CveulebebiT, ritualebiT, sazogadoebrivi ierarqiiT da sulieri faseulobebiT.

4. gr. robaqiZe, dramebi (londa, malStrem, lamara), tfilisi, 1926, gv. 45. 5. iqve, gv. 214-215. 6. svanuri xalxuri leqsebi, d. weredianis Targmani, Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 11. 7. gr. robaqiZe, lile. dabeWd.: gr. robaqiZe, krebuli. karlo inasariZis gamocema, miunxeni, 1984, gv. 67.

1. gr. robaqiZe, kavkasiuri novelebis winaTqma. dabeWd.: gr. robaqiZe, krebuli, karlo inasariZis gamocema, miunxeni, 1984, gv. 80. 2. k. danelia, ebrauli leqsika bibliur wignTa qarTul versiebSi. macne, #2, 1993, gv. 232. 3. t. tabiZe, londa, rubikoni, Tbilisi, 1923, gv. 35

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kinomcodneoba

oliko JRenti fesvebis ZiebaSi, anu, miTo-arqeti puli kinosaxeebi suliko JRentis dramaturgiaSi (paralelebi grigol robaqiZis romanTan `gvelis perangi~) sa bWoTa ki nokl asikis c neb a di dad gans azRv ra literaturulma scenarma, romelic gasuli saukunis 30iani wlebidan damkvidrda da amerikuli, anu `rkinis~, scenarisgan g a ns x v a veb u l s tr uq tu r ul el em enteb s Sei c a vda . literaturul elementebTan erTad scenari Seicavda Zlier emociur muxts. amgvari stilistikis scenaris prerogativad m i C neu l i a ep i Teti , a l eg o r i a , m eta f o r a , f er i . . . amitomacLliteraturuli scenaris safuZvelze TviT sabWouri koniunqturis mkacr pirobebSic SesaZlebeli iyo maRal mxatvruli filmebis Seqmna. literaturuli scenari iwereba kinosaxeebis zusti gaTvliT da vizualuri aRweriT _ igi TavisTavad moiTxovs gamosaxulebiT, kinosaxeebiT azrovnebas. scenarSi akumulirebulia is grZnobebi da gancdebi, rasac ase moklebuli iyo amerikuli stilis e. w. rkinis scenarebi.Aamis mizezi iyo, rom literaturis Sedevrebisgan holivudi xSirad iRebda uRimRamo, primitiul filmebs, xolo amerikeli klasikos mweralTa urTierToba holivudTan, umetes SemTxvevaSi, daZabuli da konfliqturi iyo. analogiuri problemas xSirad awydebian scenaristebi, radgan filmi koleqtiuri Rvawlis Sedegia, scenarSi aRwerili plastikuri saxeebisa da detalebis kinematografiuli gaazreba da filmebSi ametyveleba xSir SemTxvevaSi ver xerxdeba. susti scenariT SeuZlebelia gadaiRo mxatvrulad Zlieri filmi, xolo brwyinvale scenari SesaZlebelia, gadaRebisTanave advilad Cavardes. suliko JRenti iyo dramaturgTa im Taobis warmomadgeneli, romelmac literaturuli scenaris tradicia daamkvidra

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fesvebis oliko JRenti

ZiebaSi, anu, miTo-arqetipuli kinosaxeebi suliko JRentis dramaturgiaSi

qarTul kinoSi. mis scenarebSi aqcenti keTdeboda detalze, Jestze, mimikaze. scenaris kiTxvis procesSi plastikurad da vizualurad ikveTeboda momavali kinosaxeebi, emociuri tonaloba, xmis tembri. scenaristis mier kinosivrcis dramaturgiul organizebaSi gamoikveTa is miTo-arqeti puli modeli, romelic gansazRv ravda dramaturgis msoflmxedvelobriv princi pebs (suliko JRenti kinoSi literaturidan movida. iyo ramdenime moTxrobis da romanis avtori).Aase moxda ,,fesvebis", rogorc metafora-simbolos plastikur-sivrcobrivi gaazreba mis literaturul scenarebSi (`jariskacis mama~, `nergebi~, `fesvebi~). sabWoTa ideologiuri paradigmis miRma da Tematuri gegmebis epoqaSi literaturul scenarebSi gamoikveTa is maradiuli Temebi da motivebi, romlebic arRvevdnen dadgenil sqemebsa da ideologiur CarCoebs. TviT samamulo omis TematikiT `SezRudul~ scenarSi `jariskacis mama~ amoqmedda is miTo-arqeti puli modeli, romelic xalxuri wiaRidan `ikvebeboda~. amitomac filmi mniSvnelovnad gacda viwro sabWour da erovnul problematikas da sakacobrio mniSvneloba SeiZina. s. JRentis scenarebSi moxda avtobiografiuli momentebis da mxatvruli idea-Canafiqris sinTezi _ ase gaCnda `lirikuli dokumenti~, rogorc literaturuli Janri. zogierTi kinematografisti ar aRiarebs scenaris literaturasTan kavSirs. magaliTad, cnobili kinoreJisoriAandrei tarkovski saavtoro kinoze saubrisas amtkicebda, rom kinoscenari ar ganekuTvneba literaturul Janrs, SeuZlebelia, scenariT gairkves, Tu rogori iqneba momavali filmi. tarkovski miiCnevda, rom scenaristis profesia `misaRebia~ da `saWiro~ mxolod saxelmwifo kinosTan da prodiuserTan mimarTebaSi. scenari ar warmoadgens araviTar faseulobas, Tuki misi realizeba ar moxda, is ufunqciod darCeba anu filmis gareSe scenari mxolod konspeqtis, Canaweris doneze ganixileba da kargavs Tavis daniSnulebas. tarkovski SeniSnavda, rom SeuZlebelia kinosaxis aRwera sityvebis saSualebiT, aseve rogorc SeuZlebelia koncefciis gamoxatva literaturul enaze.

tarkovskis mosazrebebi sainteresoa saavtoro kinosTan mimarTebaSi (reJisori Tavad iyo Tavisi filmebis scenarebis avtori) magram gansxavebiT `konspeqturi~ scenarisa, arsebobs scenari, romelsac gaaCnia, rogorc kinematografiuli, aseve literaturuli Rirebulebac. aseTi scenari Seicavs Zlier kinematografiul potencials, romlis gamovlena da mxatvruli realizeba Tavad reJisorzea damokidebuli, miT umetes, rom scenaris Semdgom etapzeFfilmi ukve reJisoris `kuTvnileba~ da koleqtiuri Semoqmedebis produqti xdeba. literaturuli scenaris SesaZleblobebi Tavis droze maqsimalurad gamoiyena kinoneorelizmma, romelic meore msoflio omis Semdeg gaCnda italiur kinoSi. saerTaSoriso aRiareba da popularoba moi pova alberto moravias, Cezare Zavatinis kinomoTxrobebma, romlebsac tiraJirebuli wignebis saxiT ecnoboda mkiTxveli. gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebidan s. JRentis scenarebSi gamoikveTa is Temebi da motivebi, rac ase mkafiod gamoarCevs gamoCenili qarTveli mwerlisa da moazrovnis grigol robaqiZis Semoqmedebas. Cven mier s. JRentis literaturul scenarebSi gaanalizebuli kinosaxeebi da motivebi plastikurad warmoaCens robaqiZis teqstebis miTo-arqeti pul models, romelic ase organulad daukavSirda 20-30-iani wlebis evropuli kultur is sivrces, wi naaRmdeg proletkulturuli ideologiisa _ 20-ian wlebSi mkacrad iyo gakritikebuli robaqiZis romanis `gvelis perangis~ wamyvani Tema ­ `adamianis fiziologiuri da fsiqikuri kavSiri Tavis `miwasTan~ da `Zirebisken~ swrafva miwis sjuli, dabruneba miwasTan.1 gr. robaqiZis romanis `gvelis perangis~ struqturulkompoziciuri analizis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia paralelebis moZieba s. JRentis literaturul scenarebTan. amiT 60-iani wlebis qarTulma kinom `daibruna~ is Temebi da vizualurplastikuri saxeebi, rac ase eqspresiulad da dramatulad aisaxa 10-20-iani wlebis qarTul filmebSi (aleqsandre wuwunavas `qristine~, `vin aris damnaSave?~, nikoloz Sengelaias

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oliko

JRenti

fesvebis

ZiebaSi, anu, miTo-arqetipuli kinosaxeebi suliko JRentis dramaturgiaSi

`eliso~), 20-iani wlebis qarTuli kinos Sedevrebi mowmoben qarTuli modernistul literaturasTan, Teatralur dramaturgiasTan mWidro kavSirze, rac, upirvelesad, grigol robaqiZis, rogorc qarTveli mwerlisa da moazrovnis, fenomeniT aixsneba. miT umetes, rom 20-ian wlebSi grigol robaqiZe aqtiur rols TamaSobda kinos cxovrebaSi (saxalxo komisariatSi iyo saxelovnebo komitetis Tavmjdomaris moadgile, evaleboda kinoscenarebis ganxilva, Tematuri gegmebis Sedgena, kinematografistebTan erTad monawileobda SemoqmedebiT disputebSi). aqedan gamomdinare, robaqiZis filosofiur-esTetikuri postulatebi mniSvnelovnad zemoqmedebda 20-iani wlebis kinoprocesze.2 gasuli saukunis 30-iani wlebSi mwerlis politikuri mosazrebebisa da antibolSevikuri poziciis gamo grigol robaqiZis mravalmxrivi moRvaweoba xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi (rogorc literaturaSi, aseve, TeatrSi, kinoSi, eseistikaSi) mkacrad ignorirebuli da tabuirebuli iyo. mwerlis nawilobrivi reabilitireba gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebidan moxda. am periodSi daiwyo s. JRentis, rogorc kinoscenaristis moRvaweoba. gr. robaqiZis roman `gvelis perangis~ (1926) gamWoli motivi fesvebis Ziebaa: usamSobloo gmiri ­ arCibald mekeSi (arCil mayaSi), qarTveli emigranti cdilobs dabrundes Tavis dakargul samSoblos _ qarTul miwas. `miwasTan dabruneba~ sakmaod rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia gmirisTvis (qvecnobieri, vidre fizikuri). romanis kompoziciaSi ikveTeba ori paraleli xazi: arCibald mekeSis (Svilis) da Tamazis (mamis) mogzaurobis calkeuli rkali romanis finalSi erTmaneTs kveTs da sabolood wre ikvreba. romanSi `gvelis perangSi~ ikveTeba meore plastikuri rkali _ arCibaldis mama Tamaz mayaSvili ucxoeTSi daeZebs Tavis erTaderT, didi xnis dakargul Svils. Tamazi jer kidev axalgazrda iyo, roca bedis trialma saqarTvelodan evropaSi gadaxvewa.Mmisi winaprebis xazi kaxeTs ukavSirdeba. mekeSi mamiseuli Zveli rveulebidan ecnoba Tavis winaparTa

istorias da bolos, mamis biografiaze Cerdeba. saqarTvelodan evropaSi gadaxvewil Tamazs iseve awuxebs `ufesvoba~, rogorc mis vaJs: `sevda aqac mklavda: raRac auxsneli.Mmomenatra saqarTvelo.Mmovisurve dabruneba. veRar gavbede... me ki mival baskeTis mxareSi. Tu movrCi _ Svils vnaxav.Mmklavs sevda saqarTvelosi...~3 TamunCosTvis (TamazisTvis) baskeTi meore samSoblod iqca. baskebis melanqoliiT savse TvalebSi is Wvrets baskebis kavSirs TavianT Zvel samSoblosTan (saqarTvelosTan). TamunCo (Tamazis baskuri saxeli) omSic (I msoflio omi) daeZebs Svils: `ver naxulobs. ireva. Seityobs: mesopotamiaSi wasula.Gaedevneba.Ggzaze acnobeben _ sparseTSi gadasula vaJi. Semdeg _ tfilisSi.~4 ase gauyveba Tamazi TurqeTisken mimaval gzas, Cadis baTumSi da rodesac matarebeli rions miuaxlovdeba, TamunCo atirdeba. Tamazis `Sin dabrunebas~ aRwers misi Tanasofleli nania, romelic baTumidan mimaval Tamazs daemgzavra matarebliT: `rionis sadgurs ro mivuaxlovdiT, sawyali fanjaras gadaeyuda da tirili morTo~.5 Tamaz mayaSis msgavsad, `jariskacis mamis~ personaJi _ giorgi maxaraSvili _ omSi daeZebs erTaderT Svils, misi gza mraval gancdasTan da gansacdelTan aris dakavSirebuli. amgvarad, mamis Ziebis paralelurad, `gvelis perangSi~ arsebiTi da wamyvania Svilis Ziebis xazi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ver Seikvreba wre. Tamazis mogonebebSi kinokadrebad datrialdeba warsulis suraTebi: `parizi. TamunCo studentebs Soris daeZebs vaJs, qarTuli sityvebis gagonebaze guli uCuydeba _ TamunCos guli ki sxvas uxmobs: sada xar, Svilo?!~6 amgvari intonacia gasdevs Svilis Ziebis grZel, tanjul gzas, rac aseve damaxasiaTebeli xdeba scenar `jariskacis mamis~ mTavari personaJisTvis _ giorgi Svilis gzas mihyveba II msoflio omSi, is gamudmebiT daeZebs Svilis nakvalevs, gzadagza Sexvdeba mis mier ganvlil adgilebs, am dros, sixaruliT aRtkinebuli giorgi Svils eZaxis, uxmobs. filmis finalSi ­ Svilis datirebis epizodSi Zlieri eqspresiiT gaJRerdeba fraza: `goderZi, Svilo!~

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romanisBbolo TavSi _ `Tamazis dabruneba~ _ aRwerilia, rom mravali wlis ganSorebis Semdeg Tamazi (mama) ubrundeba mSobliur sofels _ Zvel namosaxlarze is xelebs Semohxvevs beber xes.Aes aris misterialuri aqti, romelic simbolurad ganasaxierebs gmiris mierPmamiseul wiaRSi, anu, fesvebTan dabrunebas: `TamunCo Sedis namosaxlarSi ... TiTqo winapari aRsdga ZvelisZveli da exla Tavis namosaxlars dahyurebs aTasi wlebidan... TamunCo marTlac muxaa am wams fesvebgamdgari kiduridan kiduramde~.7GAaq ikveTeba romanis misterialuri xazi _ mama-Svilis dabruneba mamis wiaRSi niSnavs dabrunebas RmerTTan. am dros TamunCos `fexebi miwas ekvrian ­ mSobel miwas~, magram misi ukanaskneli fiqri `Svilia mainc~. TamunCos mogzaurobis arsi sabolood maSin ixsneba, roca ori misterialuri rkali erTdeba da wre plastikurad Seikvreba: mama i povnis dakargul vaJs _ Svili `mamis wiaRSia~. roman `gvelis perangis" meore rkali: ucxo miwaze ­ iranis platoze _ arCibalds `ubrundeba gzneba mimarTebis~ _ is iwyebs fesvebis Ziebas, mas tanjavs Zirebis gareSe arseboba. mekeSs eufleba uCveulo ganwyoba, romelsac robaqiZe uwodebs sevdas _ `ufro naRvels~ ucxoeTidan saqarTveloSi mimavali arCibald mekeSis mizania i povos dakarguli mama, mas xSirad ezmaneba mamis saxe: `kaci vaJs uRimis.Uunda, raRac uTxras. wamoiwevs xels mosaxvevad......`mama~... ikivlebs arCibald. xelebs moxvevs, xelebSi rCeba mxolod landi. `mama~ ikivlebs kidev: arCibald!~8 ucxoeTSi gadaxvewil arCibalds `Zirebi~ ar aqvs. igi `uZiroa~. is `hkargavs mimarTebas~, mas `ubrundeba gzneba mimarTebis~.9 is naklebad moqmedebs gonebiT ­ drodadro iZireba warsulis mogonebebSi, mas tanjavs erTaderTi kiTxva: `sadaa misi fesvebi?~ gmiris mogzauroba moicavs farTo geografiul areals (safrangeTi, irani da saqarTvelo). usasrulod ixsneba drois da sivrcis sazRvrebi (iseve, rogorc s. JRentis scenarebSi `jariskacis mama~ da `fesvebi~ ­ geografiuli areali gaxsnilia) niSandoblivia, rom arCibald mekeSis ganwyobas da naRvels amZafrebs I msoflio

omis movlenebi, romlis uneburi damkvirvebelic is TviTon xdeba. mekeSis winaSe kinokadrebad, montaJurad monacvleobs omis Semzaravi da eqspresiuli suraTebi: `gamoTxoveba meomris sangrebTan....Soreuli kvnesa sadgurze, saca baraTebs elian. erTisgan baraTi ar aris Tu aRar aris. aRarc meorisgan.Aarc mesamisgan, da kivili: dedis-dis-mamis. moklulTa sia. daWrilTa sia. siebis kiTxva gazeTebSi...~10Oomi fsiqikurad zemoqmedebs robaqiZis gmirze, omi iaRvivebs masSi miswrafebas fesvebisken, da amasTanave, TviTSmecnebisken: `mekeSi eZebs Tavis Tavs. ver naxulobs fesvebs" anu sakuTari Tavis Secnoba ukve TavisTavad niSnavs fesvebis moZiebas _ fesvebis gareSe gmiri kargavs Tavis `mes~, is Sinaganad gaorebulia. I msoflio omis sazareli suraTebi gmirSi kidev ufro amZafrebs fesvebis gancdas. omis qaosis da globaluri kataklizmebis fonze umZafrdeba fesvebis gancda qarTvel glexs, amis mizezia misi `saubari~ miwasTan (`jariskacis mama~).EmiwasTan `dialogis~ epizodi kidev erTxel warmoaCens movlenaTa dramatizms: omis uxeSma realobam iZulebiT moswyvita Svili mamas, omSi daeZebs mama Svils.Aam mogzaurobaSi glexi moswyda mSobliur fesvebs, miwis gzneba kulminacias aRwevs miwasTan `saubris~ epizodSi _ miwa eZaxis, uxmobs glexs (`miwis yivili~ ­ ase hqvia mixeil javaxiSvilis cnobil novelas).Mmiwas ise grZnobs glexi, rogorc cocxal organizms. gr. robaqiZis azriT, miwa atarebs xsovnas. mwerlis koncefciiT umiwo qalaqi ubedo kulturis matarebelia, `miwa sulia samyarosi, instinqti, rassiuli xsovna, cocxali anamnezi.Ffatumi ­ yofis aucilebloba~.11 miwis sjulis (robaqiZiseuli termini) mixedviT mamuli wiaRia Svilis _ erovnuli arsebobis ganmsazRvreli piroba12Eerovnebis filosofiur gaazrebazea damokidebuli, Tu rogor unda gadawydes erovnuli sakiTxi. erovnebis cxovreba ki mis sulier SemoqmedebaSi ixateba: religia, filosofia, xelovneba, kultura. sulieri Semoqmedeba erovnebisa aris gamosaxuleba universaluri gonebisa, logosisa, pirvandeli sityvisa: `amrigad, erovneba aris universaluri organizmi _ kacobriobis idealuri elementi.13

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sparseTis usasrulo gzebze manqaniT mimavali mekeSi dainaxavs verxvis xes, romlis fesvebi mdinaris Zlier dinebas gauSiSvlebia: `verxvis grZnoba fesvebSia gadasuli erTianad: titvel fesvebSi~.14Aam ucnauri, fesvebgantotvili xis xilva amZafrebs gmirSi fesvebis gancdas. xe `cocxali sxeulia~, romelic iranis platos da cxeli udabnos peizaJebis fonze eqspresiul gamomsaxvelobiTobas iZens.Mes fantasmagoriuli xilva mekeSis cnobierebaze samudamo kvals tovebs. mekeSis aRqmaSi `fesvebi sisxliania da menadebiviT ZaluZT kivili~. romanisEes fantasmagoriuli pasaJi Tavisi plastikuri da eqspresiuli gaazrebiT kinogamosaxulebad ufro aRiqmeba. analogiuri plastikuri datvirTva eniWeba xis simbolikasGs. JRentis kinoscenarSi `fesvebi~: safrangeTSi gadaxvewili giorgic `miagnebs~ erT adgils, romelic Tavis samSoblos agonebs. parizis urbanul xmaurs ganridebuli, sakuTari manqaniT xSirad `miemarTeba~ `Tavis samSoblosken~, aq is sulier Svebas da uCveulo netarebas ganicdis: `Cqara savse mTvare amovida.Ggza axla tyiani gorakebis Ziras miiklakneboda. sadRac gverdiT mdinarem gaibrwyina. iqidan bayayebis yiyini moismoda, giorgim mdinares gadaxeda, mere tyiani gorakebic SeniSna da guli ucnaurad SeuCqrolda.Mmanqana gaaCera da gzaze gadmovida. iyureboda garSemo da Tavi sizmarSi egona.... garindebiT idgnen mTebi. xeobebSi mTvaris movercxlisfro blondi Cafeniliyo.Mmdinarec zustad ise uxvevda mindorSi, rogorc iq, Soreuli siWabukis qveyanaSi... ai, kbodeze gadmomdgari martoxela xec, mogonebaSi SemorCenil muxasaviT rom gauSlia rtoebi.Uufro zemoT mTebis CrdilSi giorgim kortoxic dalanda da cxadad warmoidgina masze gadmomdgari isliani jargvali, rom uneburad wamoiyvira: _ e-heee!... _ e...e... e...! _ eqoTi daubrunes Zaxili mTebma. _ ne...naaa! _ isev gasZaxa giorgim. _ a...a...a...! ­ moisma pasuxad. axla mdinares gaxeda da smenaSi maSinve gaxmianda Soreuli mogoneba... sadRac, WalaSi WixviniT da floqvebis TqaruniT

Caiqroles cxenebma... mere dainaxa Sxefebis buqSi gaxveuli titlikana biWebi, kisristexiT rom garbodnen morevisken. morevSi ki uzarmazari wiTeli mze Camsxvreuliyo. monusxuliviT idga giorgi da uyurebda. yelSi gorgali moebjina da Tvalebi auwylianda...~.15 ... `gvelis perangSi~ mekeSi martosulad da `ufesvod~ grZnobs Tavs ucxo miwaze _ mas aravin ar hyavs, is aris `moxete Tavisi sevdiTa da naRveliT~.16 is xSirad `mogonebiT midis sadRac Sors~. `fesvebis~ gmiric ­ giorgi zaqareiSvili, xSirad iZireba mogonebebSi, misi azri da fiqri qarTul miwas da Tavis `Zirebs~ utrialebs, misi mogonebebis `sakralur geografiul arealSi~ xSirad Cndeba guruli sofeli, uzrunveli bavSvoba da deda: `JorJ, ici, ra aris parizi?~ _ ekiTxeba anri giorgis, magram giorgis misi ar esmoda.Mmas cxadad warmoudga Tvalwin Tavisi sofeli da erTbaSad garindebam moicva. ... Sxrrr...Sxrr... ­ Cxrialebs qoTanSi rZe.Ddeda jargvalis gverdiT jorkoze zis da Zroxas wvelis, Taliko Zlivs amagrebs boColas, romelic TavgametebiT iqaCeba curisken... sofelSi mamlebi yivian, Soridan moismis glaxuna jaSis gabmuli `krimanWuli~... wablis totebSi axlamosuli mze gablandula... giorgi namiani balaxiT savse godors idgams Zroxis win... gadalurjebuli aremare TandaTan ivseba siTboTi sinaTliT... _ JorJ! es daZaxili naTeli dRis simSvideSi imdenad Seusabamo iyo, rom giorgi SekrTa da ucbad gamoerkva. _ sad iyavi? ­ hkiTxa anrim. `iq, Cems... saxlSi~... _ Tqva giorgim. _ xom mSvidoba iyo? giorgim naRvlianad gaiRima da mxrebi aiCeCa.~ 17 gr. robaqiZis gmiris ­ arCibald mekeSis `mimarTeba~ fesvebTan kidev ufro saxierad da eqspresiulad warmoaCens mamis mier Svilis Ziebis xazs _ Svili mamas uxmobs CurCuliT: `mama gvaria: Soreuli Zaxili... TiTqo ukana da Svils mosdevs. Svili gadaxvevaa: ganze garbis, TiTo Tavi unda daaRwios

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raRac... mama: samyaros gezia, aq yoveli elementi mTels ubrundeba... Svilis gza: amcdenia _ sacdeni _ gadamCexavi... netar ars Svili romelic mamis wiaRs ubrundeba... aq aris didi sixaruli.. mamac xom `Svilia~ vinmes mimarT! mwerali eyrdnoba aRmosavluri filosofiis koncefcias, romlis mixedviT mama yovel SvilSia: `aRmosavleTSi, anu `CvenSi~, Svili imTaviTve mamis wiaRSia, amitom `aRmosavleTSi, hamleti SeuZlebelia~,18 _ wers gr. robaqiZe. `fesvebis~ gmirisTvis fesvebTan dabruneba niSnavs `mamis wiaRSi~ ­ mamulSi dabrunebas. iranSi mogzaurobisas mekeSiDgaicnobs qarTvel vamexs, romelic mas uambobs Tavis mSobliur sofelze (imereTi, sairme), uxsnis mis geografiul adgil-mdebareobas _ am wuTebSi umZafrdeba mekeSs sevda da fesvebis gancda _ mis winaSe ferwerul suraTebad gadaiSleba imereTis peizaJebi, sofeli sairme da fersaTis mTis kalTebi.. gr. robaqiZis gmirebisTvis mamis wiaRSi (mamulSi) dabruneba aris umaRlesi netareba, eqstazi. rac ufro gadis dro, miT ufro umZafrdeba giorgi zaqareiSvils fesvebis gancda da tkivili, imdenad Zlier, rom igi fizikur tkivilSi gadadis da dardiT damZimebuli, sasikvdilod sneuldeba _ xanSi Sesul giorgis aviwydeba franguli ena, mas mxolod qarTuli ena `axsovs~, anu qvecnobierad is daubrundeba mowyvetil fesvebs. (aluzia iv. javaxiSvilis novelasTan `miwis yivili~). scenaris es pasaJi aRebulia scenaristis biografiidan _ ojaxis istoriidan. s. JRentis deida, warmoSobiT, guriis erT-erTi soflidan iyo. is Teqvsmeti wlis asakSi daqorwinda baqoel komersantze, romelic revoluciis Semdeg bolSevikur represiebs Seewira. misi qarTveli meuRle ki sicocxlis bolomde baqoSi cxovrobda.Mmoxuci qali 90 wels gadacilebuli iyo, roca sikvdilis win, daaviwyda azerbaijanuli da rusuli enebi _ is mxolod `bavSvobis enaze~ _ qarTulad laparakobda daMmisi saubari mxolod mis qaliSvils esmoda.

grigol robaqiZis mosazrebiT erovneba erT-erTi saxea msoflios procesisa, am dros `erTi~ ideali `mraval~ saxed sxeuldeba.Eena warmoadgens gonebis `fsiqikur organos~, romelic erovnebis individualuri saxe xdeba: `erovneba zogadi arsia, magram amasTanave individualuri da ganumeorebeli.Eerovnebis saxe uwinares, yovlisa enaSi cxaddeba.19 robaqiZis teqstebSi qarTuli miTosis erT-erTi `Stoa~ Tqmuleba muxaze.20 `xeebis gardacvaleba~ ­ ase hqvia suliko JRentis literaturuli scenaris, `nergebis~, pirvel Tavs: uzarmazari, beberi xeebis qveS garindebulni dganan ojaxis wevrebi, TiTqos xeebiviT gaSeSebulan (statikuri kadri). adamianebi xeebis sikvdils glovoben, babua luka dastiris gardacvlil, fesvgamxmar xeebs. SviliSvili kaxaberi ase aRwers am SemaZrwunebel suraTs: `...babuaCemi xidan xesTan midioda, xis xorklian tans xelisguls usvamda, Tavs usasood aqnevda da tirilis kiloze sul erTsa da imaves imeorebda: `eh, Tqve sacodavebo!.. Tqve sacodavebo!"21 SviliSvilis cnobierebaSi samudamod aRibeWda es momenti _ Turme xeebsac hyolia Wirisufali. xeWeWuris xeebma ori saukune icocxles da ase daasrules xangrZlivi sicocxlis cikli: `daTafluli nayofi icoda am Zirdalocvilma~ ­ mwuxarebas uziareben mezoblebi babua lukas. xis gardacvaleba babua lukasTvis winaprebis sikvdilis tolfasia: `axla mokvda babuaCemi giorgi, aqamde cocxlad mimaCnda~, _ ambobs damwuxrebuli babua luka.22 magram sicocxle unda ganaxldes _ xe fesvebidan ikvebeba da eziareba sicocxles (`gaxsovdes, babu, xis simaRle miwis zevidan ki ara, fesvebidan iwyeba... Seni fesvebi iqaa, _ anderZad utovebs cxovrebiseul sibrZnes giorgi Tavis SviliSvils). adamiani ar unda mowydes Tavis Zirebs, unda aRdges winaprebTan dakarguli kavSiri, qarTveli adamianis fsiqika ver egueba fesvebis sikvdils: `fesvSi rom wveni gamoSreba, wasulia saqme~23 _ amboben `nergebis~ personaJebi, da ase iwyeba babua lukas odisea xeWeWuris nergebis mosapoveblad, im nergebis,

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ZiebaSi, anu, miTo-arqetipuli kinosaxeebi suliko JRentis dramaturgiaSi

romlebic 12 wlis Semdeg iZleva nayofs (bibliur aluzias aZlierebs is, rom babua lukas qristes mociqulis ­ saxarebis erT-erTi avtoris saxels atarebs). `gvelis perangSi~ Tamaz mayaSis ucxoeTSi `moxete~ winaprebi `boxCiT~ daatareben miwas: `sargis iRebs patara boxCas.Gaxsnis. Sig: miwis natexi.Gakvirveba. _ saqarTvelodan gadaxvewilebs Tan mihqondaT misi miwa".24 `fesvebis~ gmirebi tomsikiT `Zvirfasi ganZiviT~ daatareben qarTul miwas: politikuri imigranti samson jabadari ase mimarTavs giorgis: `Cven, Cemo umcroso megobaro, fesvebidan moglejili xeebi varT, _ Tqva man da Wiqa aswia, _ davbrunebodeT Cvens fesvebs. RmerTma inebos Cveni gamrTeleba. _ amin! erTxans iyuCes.Ooriveni erTsa da imave safiqralze fiqrobda. _ rogorc ki davbrundebi, aval beTaniis tyeSi, davwvebi balaxebSi da mzis Casvlamde cas vuyureb, _ ocnebiT Tqva samsonma, _ arsad araa iseTi ca, rogorc CvenSia."25 sikvdilis win giorgi zaqareiSvili qarTul miwaze grZnobs Tavs _ misi sawolis oTxive fexi TiTo muWa miwaze dgas. `fesvebi s~ li teraturuli scenaris naratiul struqturaSi CarTulia erTi sevdiani zRapari, romelic giorgim bebia edukisgan moismina (samwuxarod, zRapris es epizodi ar Sevida film `fesvebSi~) am zRapars uambobs giorgi Tavis SviliSvils _ patara giorgis. zRapris gmiri `erTi sawyali ebraelia~, romelic bednierebis saZebnelad gaeSura. ebraelma sami mTis gadaRma erTi qalaqi i pova, Tavis qalaqs Seadara, gauxarda: ucxo mxareSi yofna gamiadvildebao. am zRapris gmiris msgavsad giorgi zaqareiSvilic madlieria, rom aqvs saxli, hyavs col-Svili, magram is aris usamSoblo da amiT aris ubeduri: `didxans icocxla sawyalma kacma im ojaxSi, arc sarCo aklda, arc siTbo da siyvaruli, mara rad ginda _ mTeli sicocxle samSoblo enatreboda~,26 _ ase daasrulebs giorgi winaparTagan gadmocemul sevdian zRapars, anu misi tragikuli cxovrebis, analogias.

rac ufro uaxlovdeba arCibald mekeSi saqarTvelos, miT ufro `hkivian~ misi fesvebi. saxlTan misuli, dainaxavs nigvzis xes, `xes didi fesvi amogdebuli aqvs, Tumca, miwis fesvis bolo miwaSia wasuli Sors, arCibald fesvs daecema... exveva fesvebs~27 romanis es epizodi saxierad gadmoscems fesvebTan da mamulSi dabrunebis umaRles eqstazs. arCibaldi miwas kocnis. miwa da fesvi gankurnavs gmirs sneulebisgan, mZime naRvelisgan, rac mas ase tanjavda ucxoeTSi _ arCibaldi sulier Zalebs ikrebs da ganikurneba mZime naRvelisgan. dakarguli Zirebis moZiebaSi da erovnuli TviTmyofadobis gaazrebaSi mekeSs exmareba vazis misteria (wminda ninos Semosvla saqarTveloSi, vazis da jvaris simbolika). mekeSis winaprebis (mayaSvilebis) gvari istoriulad dakavSirebulia vazisa da jvris simbolikasTan (arCibaldi uZvelesi sagvareulo pergamentis teqstebidan ecnoba Tavisi gvaris da winaparTa istorias). rodesac arCibaldi vazs uyurebs, grZnobs, rom igi `mewamuli madlia mzis~, `uSreti saSo miwis~. gvarovnuli fsiqika da winaparTa genetikuri kodi amoqmedda epizodSi, roca giorgi maxaraSvili ucxo miwaze naxavs vazs ­ qristianul simbolos. gaxarebuli glexi iwyebs vazTan `saubars~, xarobs misi nayofiT (gr. robaqiZe ganmartavda frazebis Semdeg mniSvnelobas: vazi xarobs da Tvali Casula mtevanSi). venaxis epizodSi (`jariskacis mama") glexi RiRiniT wamoiwyebs RvTismSoblis sadidebel galobas. vazi ukavSirdeba kinogmiris mamapapiseul wiaRs ­ kaxeTs, romelsac, is iZulebulia, omis gamo moswydes (eqspoziciaSi aRwerilia, rogori sasoebiT eTxoveba giorgi vazs). robaqiZis romanis mixedviT mekeSis winaparTa gvaric `bolo saukuneebSi~ kaxeTs dasaxlebula _ vazis kulturis wiaRSi. x i s s i m b o l i ka x S i r a d C ndeb a r o m a n ` g v el i s perangSi~:N`nasaxlari. Nnigvzis Ziri.Mmiwis natexi. `arCibald ivseba mogonebiT _ miwis sunTqviT _ mamiT _ winaprebiT _ gvariT _ mamuliT":28 `me Seni var, mamav~, _ luRluRebs. `Sen CemSi xar, mamav~. `jariskacis mamaSi~ kompoziciurad dramatuli wre maSin ikvreba, roca mama i povnis Svils _

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ZiebaSi, anu, miTo-arqetipuli kinosaxeebi suliko JRentis dramaturgiaSi

mamis gza es aris Svilis moZiebis gza, romelic aseve gansazRvravs romanis `gvelis perangis~ miToarqeti pul models. metaforulad es aris gza WeSmaritebisa da RvTaebrivi sibrZnis Secnobis: `vexvevi yvelas, vkocni da vnatrob, neta, kidev didxans, Zalian didxans ar gaTavdes es gacnoba. neta, mTeli es xalxi Cemi sisxlxorci aRmoCndes, neta, dausruleblad iyos gantotvili am dalocvil miwaSi Cemi jiSisa da jilagis Zir-fesvi..."29 _ am sityvebiT ubrundeba dakargul fesvebs SviliSvili giorgi, romelsac babuis neSti samudamod unda miabaros mSobliur miwas.

1. besarion JRenti, Cveni anti poduri ganwyobileba `gvelis perangis~ mimarT, Jurn. `qarTuli werloba~, #2, 1927. 2. grigol robaqiZis qarTul kinosTan mimarTebis problema avtoris mier ganxilulia sadisertacio naSromSi: `erovnuli da socialuri sakiTxi qarTul kinoSi (10-20-iani wlebis kinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi), Tbilisi, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, 2005 weli. 3. grigol robaqiZe, gvelis perangi, falestra, Tbilisi, 1967, gv. 95. 4. iqve, gv. 284. 5. iqve, gv. 281. 6. iqve, gv. 283. 7. iqve, gv. 283. 8. iqve, gv. 28. 9. iqve, gv. 18. 10. iqve, gv. 25. 11. gr. robaqiZe, `malStrem~ ganmartebisTvis, gaz.: `qarTuli sityva~ #22, 1924. 12. gr. robaqiZe, `dabruneba miwasTan~, rubikoni, #4, 1923. 13. gr. robaqiZe, gaz. `isari~, 1907, #257. 14. gr. robaqiZe, `gvelis perangi~, iqve, gv. 42. 15.`fesvebi~, literaturuli scenari, s. JRenti `marginaliebi Zveli da axali rveulebidan~, baTumi, 2001, gv. 107.

16. iqve, gr. robaqiZe, `gvelis perangi~, gv. 25. 17. s. JRenti. lit. scenari `fesvebi~. 18. iqve, gr. robaqiZe, `gvelis perangi~, gv. 47. 19. gr. robaqiZe, idea naciisa, filosofiuri eskizi, gaz. droeba, 1909, #9200. 20. gr. robaqiZe, `malStrem~ ganmartebisTvis, `qarTuli sityva~ #22, 1924. 21. s. JRentis literaturuli scenari `nergebi~, 1970, kinostudia `qarTuli filmis~ sascenaro ganyofileba 22. iqve, 23. iqve, 24. gr. robaqiZe, `gvelis perangi~, gv. 95. 25. lit. scenari `fesvebi~, s. JRenti, `marginaliebi Zveli da axali rveulebidan", baTumi, 2001, gv. 102-103. 26. iqve, gv. 133-134. 27. gr. robaqiZe, `gvelis perangi~, gv. 155. 28. iqve, gv. 294. 29. s. JRenti, lit. scenari `fesvebi~, iqve, gv. 146.

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TinaTin Wabukiani montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba Tavi II montaJi, rogorc mxatvruli asaxvis saSualeba XXI saukuneSi televizia da misi teqnologiebi progresulad viTardeba. gaCnda virtualuri studiebi, sadac SesaZlebelia, realizebuli iyos xelovanis nebismieri fantazia. multimediis mkvlevari n. dvorko Tavis statiaSi _ `satelevizio virtualuri studiebi~, wers: `Tanamedrove televizia efeqturad iyenebs uaxles audio-vizualur teqnologiebs (kompiuteruli grafika, animacia, gamosaxulebis transformacia, specefeqtebi), iZleva saSualebas, kadrSi Seiqmnas yvelaze moulodneli Tanamedrove saxeebi... aseTi mravlis momcveli mxatvruli gamoxatvis saSualebebis arseboba xmovan-gamosaxulebiTi saxeebis Seqmnisas reJisors uyenebs umaRles moTxovnebs; Tanamedrove reJisorSi Serwymuli unda iyos ori i posTazi _ mxatvari da inJineri~. 1 amgvari mosazreba jer kidev XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi gaCnda. gamoCenili rusi reJisori da Teoretikosi l. kuleSovi Tvlida, rom kinowarmoeba rTuli meqanizmia da moiTxovs gansakuTrebul organizacias, xolo kinoreJisori, misi azriT, TiTqmis im tipis samuSaos asrulebs, rasac nebismieri qarxnis inJiner-konstruqtori. rasakvirvelia, telereJisori unda icnobdes Tanamedrove audio-video teqnikur saSualebebs, virtualuri studiisa da kompiuteruli grafikis SesaZleblobebs, es yvelaferi saWiroa imisaTvis, rom man Seqmnas saintereso mxatvruli saxeebi da formis konstruqcia, magram am amocanebis teqnikurad Sesruleba reJisorisTvis savaldebulo ar aris, piriqiT, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, es faqtori xelovanisTvis xelisSemSlelia, aris iseTi SemTxvevebic, rodesac kargi video-inJinrebi reJisorobas iwyeben, gansakuTrebiT xSirad isini kli pebsa da sareklamo rgolebs amzadeben, magram Sedegi TiTqmis yovelTvis savalaloa,

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radgan maT mier Seqmnili teleproduqcia ar aris originaluri da arc maRal mxatvrul moTxovnebs akmayofilebs. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebelia, reJisori gaecnos yvela im Teoriul Tu praqtikul gamocdilebas, rac dRemde moitana saekrano enam. teqnologiebi elvis siswrafiT viTardeba, Tanamedrove adamianis cxovreba ki kompiuteris gareSe warmoudgenelia, miT ufro, televiziisa Tu multimediis reJisorisTvis kompiuteri xom eleqtronuli `TanaSemwea~, erTguli asistenti. gaCnda axali profesiac _ multimediis reJisori. Tanamedrove teqnikuri saSualebebiT iqmneba multimediis proeqtebi, romlis saTaveebic, cxadia, kino da videowarmoebidan modis. maTi momzadebisTvis saWiroa e. w. 2D da 3D programuli saSualebebi. swored maTi meSveobiT iqmneba da muSavdeba sibrtyeebi, veqtoruli gamosaxulebebi, animaciis Sesaqmneli programebi, virtualuri sivrceebi da a. S. cxadia, momavali axali teqnologiebisaa, magram axla isev Cvens ZiriTad Temas davubrundeT. ekranis specifika xom calkeuli moZravi an uZravi kadrebis ritmuli cvlaa, e. i. montaJi. l. kuleSovi werda: `montaJi kinematografiaSi igivea, rac ferweraSi ferTa Serwyma, andac musikaSi bgerebis harmoniuli Tanmimdevroba... mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor icvleba erTi kadri meoreTi, rogor aris awyobili mTeli konstruqcia... kadri unda moqmedebdes, rogorc beWdviTi sityva, raTa mayurebelma maSinve waikiTxos, naTlad aRiqvas saTqmeli... kinos arsi mdgomareobs kadrebis cvlaTa kompoziciaSi~... 2 kadr ebis monacvleobi sas uamr avi ram aris gasaTvaliswinebeli, maT Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani kadris kompoziciaa, amaze ukve visaubreT, Tumca am SemTxvevaSi yuradRebas kompoziciis geometriul centrze gavamaxvileb. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom Tuki gamosaxulebis sibrtyes sam Tanabar nawilad davyofT horizontalur da vertikalur xazebad, maSin swored maTi gadakveTis wertilebi iqneba yuradRebis centris optimaluri adgilebi. es principi emyareba e. w. `oqros kveTis~ Teorias, romelic sruliad vrceldeba ferwerasa da fotografiaze.

rac Seexeba saekrano kadrs, aq sakiTxi cota sxvagvaradaa. kadris gaigiveba umoZrao gamosaxulebasTan ar SeiZleba, radgan TiToeuli kadri CarTulia uwyveti kadrebis TanmimdevrobaSi, mTliani Tanmimdevroba ki gansazRvravs calkeulis (kadris) tempo-ritms, mimarTulebas, rac, Tavis mxriv, damokidebulia personaJebis, sagnebisa da kameris moZraobaze. yovelive zemoaRniSnuli moqmedebs kadris kompoziciis cvlilebaze da TavisTavad, _ yuradRebis centris gadaadgilebaze. amas emateba xmovani struqturac, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mxedvelobiT aqcentebs gadaanacvlebs erTi sagnidan meoreze. aseT SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia, rom detali gadaizardos simboloSi an metaforaSi da kadrs mieces sxva datvirTva, SeiZinos `meore~ azri. rasakvirvelia, isev da isev saqme gvaqvs montaJur azrovnebasTan, radgan kadrebis montaJurad SeerTebas SeuZlia, mkveTrad Secvalos yuradRebis centri. SesaZlebelia, ori yuradRebis centris dapirispirebiT (gverdigverd kadrSi) gaixsnas mimdinare moqmedebis arsi, Tanac, mxatvrulad. uamravi mxatvari eZebda sxvadasxva gzas, raTa statikaSi eCvenebinaT moZraoba, anu, SeeqmnaT `moZraobis~ efeqti. amis magaliTad gamodgeba n. utilovis mier ganxiluli v. surikovis ferweruli tilo `CamoxrCobis dila~. rogorc istoria iuwyeba, mxatvarma Turme sivrce dayo nawilebad, fargliTa da samkuTxa saxazaviT angariSobda TiToeul santimetrs, xazavda eskizebs, alagebda figurebsa da personaJebs, uzarmazar brboSi sazRvravda TiToeuli adamianis mzeris mimarTulebas. mxatvris zeamocana iyo, rogorme gadmoeca dasjis, CamoxrCobis wina periodi _ molodini. mxatvruli tilo mravalfiguriania da CamoxrCobas yvela sxvadasxvanairad elodeba. zogisTvis es molodini mtanjvelia da dro misTvis miizlazneba, zogierTisTvis ki es molodini misi sicocxlis ukanaskneli wamebia. am konkretul situaciaSi tragedia viTardeba ara sivrceSi, aramed droSi. msjavrdebulTaTvis wamierebis Semdeg sicocxle mTavrdeba... maTi mzera eqspresiulia, isini brboSi eZeben adamianebs, viRaca mefes uyurebs, viRac _ dedas, cols Tu Svils; amaTTvis ki

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dro mifrinavs, isini samudamod eTxovebian Svils, qmars, mamas... garemo dramatulia, paradoqsi ki isaa, rom yvela molodinSia, wamiereba TiTqos gayinulia da, imavdroulad, dro eqspresiulia, moZraobaSia... ferwerul tiloze saerTo xedia. wiTeli moedani. aq ori Zala upirispirdeba erTmaneTs _ erT mxares arian msjavrdebulni, maTi mwuxarebiT damunjebuli ojaxebi, megobrebi, romlebic gasaWirSi Cavardnilebs uTanagrZnoben; meore mxares ki, mefe petre didi da misi aRgznebuli momxreebi; garda amisa, iqve irevian ubralod seiris moyvarulebi da usaqmurebi, romlebic CamoxrCobis sayureblad arian mosulebi... moqmedeba TiTqos gaiyina, radganac realuri dro gadaizarda fsiqologiurSi... da swored am molodinis dros, TiToeuli monawilis fsiqologiuri ganwyobileba ikveTeba. mayurebeli, Tavisdauneburad, aRar uyurebs naxats mTlianobaSi, rogorc saerTo xeds, aramed misi mzera ufro konkretdeba jer saSualo xedze, Semdeg ki, _ detalebze. es ki imis Sedegia, rom mxatvars personaJebma maTematikuri sizustiT hyavs ganlagebuli, gansazRvruli logikis Sesabamisad. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom figurebi ufro metia, vidre sinamdvileSi, es imis gamo xdeba, rom suraTis marcxena nawili gadatvirTulia figurebiT, maSin, roca marjvena nawili TiTqmis carielia (Tumca, aRqmis kanonebis mixedviT, marjvena mxare ufro mniSvnelovani da datvirTuli unda iyos). sivrcis aseTi xerxiT gadawyveta cvlis naxatis ritms. marcxniv uamravi figuraa, marjvniv ki TiTqos brbo ukan ixevs, cxadia, mayureblis mzera brbos mihyveba, naxatis sivrcis siRrmisken, gadainacvlebs kremlis kedlebs miRma, aRiqvams vasili netaris taZars, gadairbens petre didis jariskacebis rigebs, uaxlovdeba saxrCobelasac, romelic TiTqosda cisfer Rrublebs uerTdeba... da ase Cndeba alegoria, gadasvla axal sivrceSi, sxva droSi; aqcenti keTdeba sicocxlisa da sikvdilis zRvris mniSvnelobaze, aseve, aqcenti keTdeba morCilebasa da amboxze, rac gamoxatulia sami centraluri personaJiT, romlebic qmnian Tavisebur samkuTxeds (petre didi da ori mamakaci _ mwiTuri da Savwveriani). mwiTuri

ganasaxierebs Seurigebel adamians, is xel-fex Sekrulia, cxadia, misi moZraobebi SezRudulia, Tumca, is mainc mTeli sxeuliT Setrialebulia petresken da mTeli Tavisi arsebiT protests gamoxatavs... rac Seexeba meore, Savwverian kacs, is Zlieria, mSvidia, misi saxe ucnauri sxiviT aris ganaTebuli, is qeds ixris xalxis winaSe, mefes ki arad agdebs... iqve Cans TavCaRunuli mSvildosani, romelic CamosaxrCobad gahyavT... moqmedebis xazi Tanmimdevruli da logikuria, es naTlad Cans brbos saxeTa oromtrialSi, figurebis moZraobaSi, romelic gadmocemulia xazebis ritmiT, formebis gameorebiTa da dinamikurobiT, magram rasakvirvelia, es SegrZnebebi ar gaCndeboda, mxatvars rom brbodan ar gamoeyo mTavari gmirebi, axlo fsiqologiuri xedebiT. es ferweraSi, xolo rac Seexeba saekrano enas, rasakvirvelia, aq kadris kompoziciaSi detalebis gamoyofa, aqcentebi SesaZlebelia ganaxorcielo ukve montaJis saSualebiT (Tanamedrove samontaJo pulti saamisod mravalferovan saSualebebs flobs); Tumca, isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom ferwerul xelovnebas mravalsaukunovani istoria da gamocdileba aqvs, amitomac, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, ferweris kompoziciis kanonebi angariSgasawevia da SesaZlebelia, rom saekrano xelovnebaSic gamoviyenoT. magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT e. w. `piramidis~ princi pi. swored am formiT aris agebuli nebismieri samkuTxedi kompoziciaSi. saekrano enaze rom gadavitanoT `piramidis princi pi~, maSin, rasakvirvelia, piramidis TavSi moeqceva mTavari personaJi an detali, xolo piramidis sayrdenad ki kadris qveda zRvari moiazreba. Tumca, isic unda aRvniSnoT, rom es `piramida~ aramc da aramc ar unda aigos maTematikuri sizustiT, rogorc geometriuli piramida, radgan aq saubaria am xerxis gaazrebaze, am princi pis saekrano xelovnebis enaze Targmnasa da gadatanaze. aqedan gamomdinare, cxadia, kadrSi elementebi `piramidis~ msgavsad unda dalagdes, anu, piramidis proeqciis centrSi unda moeqces mTavari personaJi an azrobrivi detali. magaliTisTvis _ kadrSi zis adamiani, romelic idayvebiT eyrdnoba magidas, aseT SemTxvevaSi

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mayureblis mzera aucileblad gadainacvlebs xelebidan adamianis saxeze, radganac adamianis xelebi, idayvebi qmnian piramidis sayrdens, xolo adamianis saxe xdeba yuradRebis centri, e.i. piramidis Tavi, amitomac mayureblis yuradReba logikurad gadainacvlebs mTavarze. `piramidis~ princi piT agebul kadrebs mayurebeli yovelTvis gawonasworebulad aRiqvams. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac kadrSi didi saerTo xedia (mravalplaniani bataluri scena, sadac SesaZlebelia ramdenime `piramidis~ kombinaciac iyos), montaJis saSualebiT mimdinareobs calkeuli `piramiduli~ kulminaciebis detaluri damuSaveba. amis TvalsaCino magaliTad gamodgeba zemoT aRniSnuli surikovis naxati `CamoxrCobis dila~, sadac erT saerTo xedSi kidev ramdenime patar-patara piramiduli kombinaciaa: erT piramidul kombinaciaSi wiTurwveriani mSvildosania mTavari, meoreSi _ Savwveriani, mesame kombinaciaSi _ petre didi da a. S. studentebi Tavad rwmundebian, rom gadaRebis dros aseT saerTo xeds unda mohyves TiToeuli kombinaciis damuSaveba montaJurad: saSualo, axlo Tu detalur xedebSi, im TanmimdevrobiT, romelic saWiroa mTavari arsis zustad gadmosacemad. geometriuli centrisa da piramidis princi pze saubris Semdeg studentebs vTxov moiZion fermwerebis msoflio Sedevrebidan Sesabamisi namuSevrebi, jer gaarCion, Semdeg ki, ase vTqvaT, gadaitanon saekrano enaze, daalagon kadrebis mixedviT; ukeTes SemTxvevaSi _ naxati Seitanon kompiuterSi, daSalon sxvadasxva masStabebad, Semdeg ki siuJeti kli pis formiT aawyon. rasakvirvelia, ase Sesrulebuli davalebiT, ufro TvalsaCino iqneba esa Tu is Secdoma da saSualeba meqneba, ufro zustad ganvumarto da praqtikuladac Sevusworo samontaJo pultze. aseTi davaleba-savarjiSoebis Semdeg studentebisTvis bevri ram ufro gasagebi da naTeli gaxdeba. Semdeg ki Sevexebi kompoziciis erT-erT komponents, kerZod, kadris masas. kadris masa _ es aris yvelanairi gadaRebis obieqti, dekoracia, rekviziti, msaxiobi, televiziis virtualur studiebSi Seqmnili fonebi da, Tundac, ubralod, wamyvanis ukan feradi

foni, ruka Tu reproduqcia. cxadia, rac ufro metia kadrSi masis elementebi, miT ufro rTulia maTi organizacia. magaliTad, rodesac kadrSi msaxiobebi da sagnebi simetriulad arian ganlagebulni da, TavisTavad, ar aris saintereso, maSin mayureblis yuradRebis centri sxvagan gadainacvlebs, amitom, msgavs SemTxvevebSi, kompozicia unda Seicvalos an kameris gadaRebis wertilebi gadaadgildes, simetria sagnebsa da adamianebs Soris unda dairRves. aqve aRvniSnav, rom televiziaSi, samontaJo pultze, ukve gadaRebul videomasalaSic ki SesaZlebelia Seicvalos an sulac Seiqmnas axali obieqtebi mxolod erTi pirobiT, yvelaferi w inasw ar u nda gvqo ndes gaTv lili da gaangariSebuli. TvalsaCinoebisaTvis studentebs vuCveneb Cem mier gadaRebul telezRapars `weliwadis Tormeti Tve~ da vaanalizeb epizods `Sexvedra 12 TvesTan~. epizodi gadaviRe studiis pavilionSi, sadac sainkrustacio lurji fonis win ganlagebuli iyo dekoraciis nawili, ori butaforiuli xe, maT SuaSi enTo koconi, irgvliv 12 `Tve~-Tojina ijda, am dros Semodioda dedinacvlisgan gamogdebuli oboli gogona da weliwadis Tormet Tves marwyvs sTxovda... es epizodi Tumca ase gadaviRe, magram im gaTvliT, rom Semdgom kadrSi sivrces Sevcvlidi. samontaJo pultze ZiriTad gamosaxulebas jer ormagi eqspoziciiT wavafine Tovliani mTebi da Semdeg amovWeri. inkrustaciis meSveobiT miRebul gamosaxulebas ki winaswar lurj fonze amoWrili, kompiuteruli grafikiT Sesrulebuli mofarfate Tovlis fifqebi davamate. sabolood, am epizodis kompozicia agebuli iyo Tovlian-yinulovan garemoSi, sadac Tovlis fifqebi cvioda... aseT SemTxvevaSi minimaluri xarjebiT SesaZlebelia Seiqmnas saintereso, mravalferovani obieqtebi, Tumca, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT SezRuduli xar; mxedvelobaSi maqvs kameris dinamikuri moZraoba, radgan moZrav kadrze moZravi fonis dadeba ar aris mizanSewonili, amitom ZiriTadad viRebdi statikur kadrebs, aseve ar SeiZleba dekoraciebSi, kostiumebsa Tu rekvizitSi gamoiyeno cisferi, lurji an iasamnisferi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sainkrustacio foni kargad ar

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amoiWreba. zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, msaxiobi garkveulwilad SezRudulia, is Tavisuflad ver moqmedebs, radgan ZiriTadad viRebT saSualo an axlo xedebs, saerTo xedebisTvis Zlieri ganaTebis xelsawyoebia saWiro. sadReisod ukve arsebobs virtualuri studiebi, gaumjobesda teqnikuri saSualebebi, Tumca reJisorisTvis virtualur studiaSi muSaobisas ufro meti pasuxismgeblobaa saWiro; man yvelaferi winaswar, maqsimaluri sizustiT unda gaiTvalos, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi samontaJo magidasTan Canafiqris realizacia ar Sedgeba. kadris masis ganxilvis Semdeg ki visaubreb kompoziciis kidev erT elementze _ xazebze. xazebi SesaZlebelia, realurad arsebobdes an Seiqmnas msaxiobebis moZraobiT, moqmedebiT, plastikiT. xazebi, aseve, SeiZleba Seiqmnas sagnebis, dekoraciis, rekvizitis ganlagebiT. xazebis meSveobiT kadrSi iqmneba moZraobis mimarTuleba da, rac mTavaria, xazebi SesaZlebelia gadaizardos ekranuli sivrcis saxier gadawyvetad. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom Tu vertikalur an horizontalur xazebs gamoviyenebT kadrSi, SevqmniT usaxurobis, usulgulobis atmosferos; magaliTad, Tuki loms zooparkis galiaSi gadaviRebT ise, rom kadrSi pirvel xedze iqneba erTmaneTSi gadaxlarTuli horizontaluri da vertikaluri gisosebi, maSin ekranze Seiqmneba mZime, monotonuri ganwyobileba da, Sesabamisad, mayurebels galiaSi damwyvdeuli cxovelTa mefis mimarT aucileblad gauCndeba TanagrZnoba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki SevcvliT kompozicias gadaRebis wertilebis gadaadgilebiT da rkinis galiis gisosebs diagonalurad gadaviRebT, ganwyobileba radikalurad Seicvleba _ kadrSi gaCndeba Soreuli, usasrulobaSi mimavali rkinis gisosebiani derefani. magram Tu kameris fokuss gadaviyvanT, atmosfero isev Seicvleba, radgan am SemTxvevaSi mayurebeli Tavad aRmoCndeba rkinis galiis gisosebs miRma Caketili da datyvevebuli. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom xazebis saSualebiT SesaZlebelia kadris kompoziciaSi sivrcis organizacia (e. i. kadris ageba frontalurad an

diagonalurad). amasTanave, xazebis saSualebiT SeiZleba kadrSi Seiqmnas siRrmiseuli perspeqtiva an sulac gamoiricxos perspeqtiva da, rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania, xazebis meSveobiT iqmneba ara mxolod mravalferovneba, aramed mxatvruli saxeebic. studentebis yuradRebas gavamaxvileb Tanamedrove samontaJo kompiuterebze, sadac ukve gadaRebul masalaSic ki SesaZlebelia daamuSao masala specefeqtebiT, kompiuteruli grafikiTa da sxvadasxva programebiT, anu, Secvalo kadris kompozicia nebismieri formisa da zomis xazebiT. Temis dasasruls studentebs eZlevaT davaleba, gadaiRon Canaxatebi, sadac xazebis saSualebiT erTsa da imave epizodebSi sxvadasxva atmosfero unda Seqmnan, imavdroulad, unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom sivrcis organizaciisas daicvan moZraobis mimarTulebebi, raTa Semdgom montaJis dros ar SeeqmnaT problemebi. kadri kompoziciis universalur klasifikacias gvTavazobs (daxuruli kompozicia, Ria kompozicia, myari kompozicia, meryevi kompozicia). daxuruli kompoziciis dros moqmedeba iwyeba da mTavrdeba imave kompoziciis sazRvrebSi. aucilebelia, rom obieqtebis urTierTmoqmedebis xazebi miemarTebodes siuJetur-kompoziciuri centrisken da Tanac mizezSedegobrivi kavSirebi aseT konstruqciaSi Caketili unda iyos erTi kadris SigniT. cxadia, rodesac saWiroa mayureblis yuradReba warimarTos konkretuli faqtisken da es aucileblad unda iyos erT kadrSi (anu, ar unda gavides erTi kadris sazRvrebidan, CarCodan), maSin operatori irCevs daxuruli kompoziciis struqturas. Ria kompoziciis dros, mizez-Sedegobrivi damokidebulebebi ixsneba ara kadris SigniT, suraTis sibrtyeze, aramed kadris sazRvrebs gareT, radganac damokidebulebebi aseT SemTxvevaSi moiTxovs gagrZelebas, dagvirgvinebas sxva montaJur kavSirebSi. Ria kompoziciis dros Sidakadrul moqmedebas ara aqvs damoukidebloba da arc gadamwyveti mniSvneloba, xolo obieqtebis urTierTmoqmedebis xazebi, romlebic akavSirebs mTavar obieqts sxvebTan (da romlebsac xSirad

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`Zalismier~ xazebs uwodeben), miemarTebian centridan, arRveven kadris CarCos da mianiSneben, rom obieqti unda Sevides azrobriv kavSirSi kadris CarCos miRma. swored amitom mayurebeli Ria kompozicias aRiqvams, rogorc mTlianobis nawils da elodeba montaJuri frazis Semdgom ganviTarebas. myari kompozicia ki iseTi kompoziciaa, rodesac ZiriTadi kompoziciuri xazebi suraTis centrSi gadaikveTeba. aseT SemTxvevaSi kadris mTavari gamomsaxveli komponentebi kadris sivrceSi Tanabrad ganlagdeba, yvelaferi garkveulia, dazustebuli. cxadia, aseTi kompozicia mayureblis mier advilad aRiqmeba da qmnis simSvidisa da stabilurobis SegrZnebas. aramyari kompoziciaa maSin, rodesac obieqtebis urTierTmoqmedebis xazebi gadaikveTeba maxvili kuTxis qvemoT da qmnis SeSfoTebisa da dinamikis SegrZnebas. xSirad aseTi kompoziciis safuZveli aris diagonali. kompoziciis klasifikaciis Sejamebisas s. melinski wers: `ferweraSi diagonaluri wyoba gamoiyeneba, rogorc xerxi, raTa organzomilebian tiloze miaRwion moZraobis efeqts da amitomac xSirad mas `dinamiur kompoziciebs~ uwodeben~.3 rasakvirvelia, kompoziciis kanonebi xelovnebis yvela dargisTvis saerToa da, aqedan gamomdinare, maT saerTo sawyisebi aqvT: ritmi, proporciebi, ferTa harmonia, SuqCrdilebis gadawyveta, sworxazovani kompoziciebi, magram saekrano ena am TvalsazrisiT gansxvavebulia, vinaidan mis safuZvelSi devs dinamika da misi mTavari maxasiaTebelia ambavis gadmocema drosa da sivrceSi. yvelaferi, rasac vaCvenebT ekranze, Cveulebrivi adamianebis yoveldRiur cxovrebasa Tu SeTxzuli personaJebis ambebs, ganfenilia drosa da sivrceSi; da ra formatzec ar unda vimuSaoT: dokumentur Tu mxatvrul filmze, Tu nebismier satelevizio programaze (sainformacio siuJeti, studiuri gadacema, mravalseriani dadgmiTi filmi, reklama, kli pi, arastudiuri reportaJi) aucileblad unda gaviTvaliswinoT konkretuli sivrcisa da drois kavSirebi, unda SevZloT maTi organizacia. montaJis pirveli cdebi jer kidev munji kinos safuZvlebSi

unda veZioT. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom rusi kinoreJisorebis: s. eizenSteinis, Z. vertovis, v. pudovkinis Teoriul naSromebs udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs msoflio kinematografiis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. Tanamedrove dokumenturi kinos reJisori da Teoretikis h. beleri gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs l. kuleSovis naSromebs, igi wers: `montaJis sferoSi kinematografiuli eqsperimentebi sistematuri saxiT pirvelad l. kuleSovma ganaxorciela... misi azriT, filmis arsi ara gadaRebul fragmentTa sazRvrebSi unda veZioT, aramed, am fragmentebis gadabmaSi~.4 l. kuleSovis eqsperimentebze ufro dawvrilebiT mogvianebiT visaubreb, amjerad ki erT-erT maTganze SevaCereb yuradRebas _ eqsperimenti saxelwodebiT `geografiuli Semoqmedeba~. am eqsperimentSi monawileobdnen msaxiobebi xoxlova da obolonski... kadrSia xoxlova, romelic petrovkaze moseirnobs, paraleluri montaJiT naCvenebia obolonski moskovis sagubarTan; Semdeg kadrSi isini erTmaneTs SeniSnaven da Sesaxvedrad daiZvrebian. maTi Sexvedra kuleSovma prexetenskis bulvarze gadaiRo. momdevno kadrSi msaxiobebi xels CamoarTmeven erTmaneTs da erTdroulad gaixedaven quCis sapirispiro mxares (es momenti l. kuleSovma gogolis ZeglTan gadaiRo), Semdeg kadrSi ki TeTri saxli Cans (es kadri reJisorma amerikuli filmidan amoWra). eqsperimentis Sejamebisas l. kuleSovi werda: `araviTari ileTi, araviTari ormagi eqspozicia, mxolod da mxolod nedli masalis SeerTebiT da kinematografiuli meTodebiT mivaRwieT Sedegs am eqsperimentSi _ TviTneburad SevqmeniT sakuTari geografia, romelic uwyveti moqmedebis scenad iqca~.5 am eqsperimentiT l. kuleSovma ekranuli sivrce Seqmna da Tumca mas Semdeg kinematografiaSi uamravi gamocdileba dagrovda, eqsperimenti `geografiuli Semoqmedeba~ kinomontaJis TeoriaSi erT-erT klasikur magaliTad rCeba. cxadia, konkretuli epizodi Tu movlena reJisors winaswar unda hqondes gansazRvruli da ise gadaiRos, rom ar dairRves sivrcobrivi kavSirebi, magram, miuxedavad amisa, sivrcis saboloo organizacia samontaJo pultTan xdeba maSin, rodesac calkeuli kadrebi, samontaJo frazebi TanmimdevrobiT ikinZeba

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da erT mTlianobad gadaiqceva. Tumca arsebobs gamonaklisebic, es satelevizio pirdapiri translacia, an CarTvebia. magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT pirdapiri translacia sakoncerto darbazidan. sakoncerto darbazis sivrce moicavs scenasa da mayurebelTa darbazs, Semsrulebelsa da msmenels, es yvelaferi erTiani qsovilia da qmnis saTanado atmosferos. reJisori, romelic mss-is (moZravi satelevizio sadguri) pultze muSaobs, valdebulia, rom zemoaRniSnuli struqturebi gaamTlianos, man unda aRadginos kadrSi mayurebelsa da Semsrulebels Soris arsebuli sivrcobrivi kavSirebi da gadmosces is ganwyobileba, romelic darbazSi sufevs. mss-is monitorze reJisors 3-4 da zogjer meti kadric erTdroulad miewodeba. misi amocanaa, swrafad airCios sasurveli gamosaxuleba da mayurebels eTerSi TanmimdevrobiT, montaJurad miawodos. aseTi formis montaJs xSirad `amwuTier~ montaJsac uwodeben. rasakvirvelia, pirdapir translaciebze momuSave reJisorebi, profesiuli ganaTlebis garda, unda gamoirCeodnen mobilurobiTa da swrafi montaJuri azrovnebiT. rac Seexeba klasikuri musikis Canawers, es ukve imdenad specifikuria, rom calke ganxilvis sagania. simfoniuri musikis Camwer reJisors sasurvelia, saSualo musikaluri ganaTleba hqondes, raTa pirdapiri translaciis dros zustad misdios partituras, Tavis droze aCvenos diriJori, instrumentze Semsrulebeli _ Temis Sesrulebisas. reJisori unda Seecados daicvas Tanafardoba, monacvleobiT aCvenos Semsrulebeli, mayureblis aRfrTovanebuli saxe, musikaluri pasaJi, diriJori da, rac mTavaria, mihyves musikalur ritms. xSirad, reJisors pultTan uzis musikaluri redaqtori da pultis asistenti, magram es princi pi bolomde ver amarTlebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi redaqtori karnaxobs reJisors im Tanmimdevrobas, romelic unda iyos kadrSi, reJisori miwodebul informacias gadascems operatorebs, es imas niSnavs, rom reJisori minimum 3-4 kacs aZlevs konkretul davalebas... Tanac imavdroulad, asistents aZlevs gankargulebas, Tu romeli kadri gadasces eTerSi... iqmneba azris gadacemis

Semdeg jaWvi: redaqtori, reJisori, operatori da asistenti... cxadia, azris gadacemis aseTi rigi metismetad anelebs moqmedebis operatiulobas. am SemTxvevaSi wamebs sul sxva datvirTva aqvs, musika xom droSi viTardeba! situacia eqstremaluria, aqedan gamomdinare, sasurvelia, rom yvela es funqcia erTma adamianma, reJisorma, SeiTavsos! cxadia, aseTi adamiani yvela zemoaRniSnul moTxovnas unda akmayofilebdes, mxolod maSin SeZlebs is, Tavisuflad `udiriJoros~ gadaRebis mTlian process. garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, pirdapiri translaciis reJisors konstruqciuli funqcia akisria _ uzrunvelyos gadacemis logikuri da emociuri mTlianoba, srulad aCvenos moqmedebis mimdinareoba, man mocemuli sivrcobrivi struqturebi unda gaamTlianos, anu, moaxdinos sivrcis organizacia. (gagrZeleba iqneba)

1. . , " ", -, 2004, . 24-26. 2. . , " ", , 1966, . , . 65. 3. . , " ", , 1992, . 33-36. 4. h. beleri., kinomontaJis aspeqti, Tbilisi, 2006, gv. 47. 5. iqve, gv. 48.

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eTer beriZe nigalisxevelTa eTnokulturuli yofa zogierTi folkloruli nimuSis mixedviT saqarTvelos TurqeTSi, anu, rogorc CvenTan XIX saukuneSi uwodebdnen, osmalos saqarTveloSi, mnaxvels amJamadac bevri ram aocebs, sul erTia, qarTveli iqneba igi Tu ucxoeli. ZirZveli qarTuli sanaxebis `moyuriades~ _ mimomxilvels umalve nostalgia Sei pyrobs _ wamosvla daezareba, guli iq rCeba... saqarTvelos mkvidrs,... didi xnis ganmavlobaSi, sabWour xanaSi, CveneburTa saufloSi, ZirZvel qarTul miwaze, ar SeeZlo fexis dadgma _ grigol xancTelisdroindeli `qarTlad friadi queyanai aRiracxebis~ _ xilva. postsabWour epoqaSi ki, roca `gza xsnilia~, bevr qarTvel specialists jer kidev ver uxilavs samxreT saqarTvelo misi materialuri Tu eTnokulturuli, eTnomusikaluri Tu eTnoqoreografiuli warsuliT. qarTuli enis dialeqtTagan imerxeuli (klarjuli) kilo erT-erTi Taviseburi da `Wreli~ erTeulia. Tavis droze imerxeuli kilos enobrivi Tu folkloruli nimuSebi Cawera akad. n. marma (1911 wels), aq imogzaura eqvTime TayaiSvilmac... enobrivi TvalsazrisiT, imerxeuli axlos dgas qarTuli enis samxreT da dasavlur dialeqtebTan: uwinares _ aWarulTan, Semdeg _ samcxur-javaxurTan, gurulTan; Tavs iCens qarTluri fenac. 1 tao-klarjeTi kvlav elis araerT qarTvel enaTmecnierdialeqtologs, arqeologs, istorikoss, eTnografsa da eTnologs, folkloristsa Tu xelovnebaTmcodnes. sakvlevi araerTi da araerTmxrivia... am kuTxiT, rogorc samxreT saqarTvelos Svili, kerZod, aWaris mkvidri, Cvenc davinteresdiT, avisruleT didi xnis ocneba _ lingvisturdialeqtologiurad Tu folkloruli TvalTaxedviT dagvezvera nigalis xeobis mcxovrebTa eTnokulturuli da sametyvelo sivrce. am mizniTa da surviliT 2007 wlis

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eTnokulturuli yofa zogierTi folkloruli nimuSis mixedviT

zafxulSi, Cvenive iniciativiT, nigalis xeobaSi movawyveT eqspedicia. CaviwereT toponimebi, anTroponimebi, davamzadeT did sofelTa rukebi toponimebis mixedviT (toponomikurdialeqturi atlasi), avsaxeT videofirze am xeobaSi SemorCenili materialuri kulturis Zeglebi, agreTve CaviwereT CveneburTa sametyvelo teqstebi da folkloruli nimuSebi. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriis kuTxeTagan amjerad Cveni yuradReba miiqcia nigalis (livanas) xeobam. nigalisxevi fizikur-geografiulad arc ise mniSvnelovani xevia, magram Tavisi moxerxebuli mdebareobiTa da bunebrivi resursebis wyalobiT TiTqmis mTeli Woroxis qvemo dinebis saxelad iqca. nigali baris sofelia _ xevis marjvena sanapiroze da didad arc Woroxs araa daSorebuli. rogorc aRniSnaven, nigali am xevs mas Semdeg unda Serqmeoda, roca xevis centrma barSi gadmoinacvla. 2 istoriuli livanis xeoba moicavs borCxis, murRulis, arTvinis, xebis, devesqelis, qlasquris, beRlevanis, zeda maradidis, kirnaTis, kobaleTis, SuSaneTis, gvaras, qveda maradidis (es xuTi ukanaskneli saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSia) nawilebs, igi moqceulia dasavleTidan pontos qeds, aRmosavleTidan arsianis mTebs, CrdiloeTidan SavSeTis mTebsa da samxreTiT karCxalis mTebs Soris. moicavs Woroxis qvemowels arTvinis sofel aribulakidan (Zveli qarTuli saxeli melo) xelvaCauris raionis sofel ergemde . borCxis teritoriaze Woroxis marjvena Senakadebis soflebi : devesqelis xeobis - araveTi, Suaxevi, devesqeli, bagini; qlasquris xeobis _ qveda qlasquri, zeda qlasquri; Woroxis marjvena sanapiros soflebi: ibriqli, adaguli, xeba; Woroxis marcxena sanapiros soflebi: jivani, arxva, trapeni, damfali, Txilazro, avana, katafxia, arCveTi, maradidi da TviT borCxa da arTvinis sofeli qarTla orenovania: ZiriTadad qarTuladac laparakoben da Turquladac. eqspediciis sami dRe davyaviT devesqelis xeobis

i ai l eb S i, TeTri wy l is ia i la S i a ri s s a stu mr o turistebisaTvis. am iailaSi iRebs saTaves md. TeTri wyali . memTeurebTan erTad movawyveT laSqroba varskvlavis tbaze. Cven vnaxeT karCxalis kldovan-kbilovani mTebis ZirSi 3000 metr simaRleze mdebare cisfrad da TeTrad moelvare, gamWvirvale, naxevrad gayinuli da yinuliviT civi, ulamazesi tba. irgvliv Tovlis lanqerebi da 200-mde metris daSorebiT mZivebiviT mimobneuli mravalferovani yvavilebi..., cxeli da mwveli mze da durbindis saSualebiT xelisgulze gadaSlili baTumi, maWaxlis gorgiTis iaila da aq ganlagebuli iuneskos pavilionebi, erTad zemo da qvemo maWaxeli (TurqeTisa da saqarTvelosi), bunebis ulamazesi xedebi. am mSvenierebis xilvam da varskvlavis tbaze mowyobili laSqrobis monawileTa, devesqelis xeobis mkvidrTa mxiarulma SeZaxilebma, gasamxnevebelma da gasaxalisebelma gasrolebma, romelTac mTebi eqos aZlevda, molaSqreebi Sairis xasiaTze daayena da Cvenc movimarjveT mikrofoni. yvelaferma aman sixaruls dagvaufla, daRliloba saerTod dagvaviwya, wamosvla aRar gvindoda. gagviCnda azri _ xom SeiZleba, xofa`masklavagolis" sahaero turistuli marSrutis daweseba varskvlavis tbisa da saerTod TurqeTis saqarTvelos am umSvenieresi peizaJebis xilvisaTvis, rogorc es TbilisisvaneTis sahaero turistuli marSrutia!. warmogidgenT ramdenime folklorul nimuSs da sayofacxovrebo movlenebis amsaxvel mokle teqstebs zogs nigalSi da zogs TeTriwylis iailaze, varskvlavis tbaze gamarTuli Sairobisas Cawerils. upirveles yovlisa, Cven mier Sekrebil folklorul nimuSTagan yuradRebas i pyrobs iseTi teqstebi, sadac adamianis xasiaTis Tavisebureba da individualoba kargad ixateba. maTSi ikveTeba calkeuli piris miswrafeba, misi survili, Sexedulebani da yofisTvis damaxasiaTebeli laRi iumori. mTqmelma selaaTTin alfaidinma Cagvawerina aseTi leqsi: `roic rom mqonda fulebio, vWamdi xaWopurebio,

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roicxa romen demelia, Camovyare yurebio~. marTalia, es teqsti ar miekuTvneba Rrmaazrovan da didad da Camafiqrebel movlenas, magram masSi qarTveli adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iumori, uyairaToba da nebismieri mdgomareobis atana mainc gvafiqrebinebs, rom veranairi sazRvrebi da religiuri gansxvavebulobani ver cvlian adamianebSi Tandayolil xasiaTs. isa aTar melegodlim (melegaSvilma) satrfialo poeziis nimuSebi mogvawoda, sadac axalgazrda adamianis optimizmi da wrfeli gancdebia gamotanili: `Telas tyavi gavaZer, xidan xeze gavabi, me aqavri gogvebi Tavkapebze davabi. fexze foTini maqva oden wamodebuli, imdoni aSiRi myavs duniaSi modebuli~. an kidev: `wminda Zivi demepna, amsxmeli var amsxmeli, dediko, nu miyurav, wamsleli var wamsleli. WiSkari gavakeTe, yazuRi eqneba, me Sen gogos vukbine, kibili meqneba. gogov, gogov, kiskisa, wyali minda litrisa, gogov, erTi makocnie, kocna minda loyisa.~ am striqonebidan aSkaraa cxovrebis xalisiani da

axalgazrduli mxareebiT tkbobis tendencia, roca adamiani momavals imedianad Sescqeris da sasiyvarulo obieqts Soridan arCevs. qarTuli folklori mdidaria amgvari ganwyobis satrfialo nimuSebiT da nigalis xeobac am erTianobis aSkara maCvenebelia. am xeobis qarTveloba msgavsebas da identurobas inarCunebs Tavis ZirZvel fesvebTan. erT teqstSi qalisadmi erTgvari miTiTeba-rCevaa gamoxatuli, rom man Tavisi Tvalebis elvareba da silamazis Suqi unda damalos, aravis unda daanaxos: `wvane-wvane Tvalebi Sen TvalebSi giyure, vinme ar diginaxos Tavi bolo deibure~. (mTqmeli: nazime yara) aSkaraa, rom mokrZalebasa da TavmdablobasTan erTad aq religiuri kuTvnilebis adaT-wesebic aris moazrebuli. detalebSic da fragmentebSic SeiZleba msgavseba-gansxvavebis kargad SemCneva da maTi TvalsaCinod gamomzeureba. es erTi patara leqsi mTlianad itevs ara marto calke aRebuli xeobis, aramed mTeli bolo saukuneebis istoriisaTvis damaxasiaTbel peri petiebs da yofiT realobas. ironia da Soridan mayureblis SemfaseblobiTi damokidebuleba Cans 65 wlis mTqmelis mier mowodebul strofebSi (ilmaz SenTurq, maradididan): `babav, gimiSvi aWaristanSi, koleqtivs devexmarebi purisWamaSi~. maSin, roca CvenSi sabWouri patriotizmi, nebsiT Tu uneblieT, yvaoda da savaldebulo saxotbo poetur nimuSebs amzeurebda, nigalis xeobis iqiTuri nawilis qarTveloba pragmatulobis da msubuqi ironiis nazavs qmnida da iTavisebda. e. w. `qarTul sabWour patriotizms~ Tanamedrove qarTuli folkloristika aseT Sefasebas aZlevs: `klasikuri zepirsityvierebis nimuSebi uxvad hkvebavda sabWour sivrceSi xelovnurad moqceul Cvens xalxur Semoqmedebas da TavisTavadobasa da erovnul cnobierebas unarCunebda~. 3 SeiZleba davaskvnaT: TurqeTSi mcxovreb nigalisxeobelTa

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aq warmodgenili sametyvelo da folkloruli nimuSebi Rirssacnobia ara marto Tanamedrove kilouri TaviseburebiT, aramed istoriuli dialeqtologiisa da eTnokulturuli saerTo qarTulis CvenebiT, figuraluri gamoTqmebiTa da kilouri maxasiaTeblebiT. Cven mier Catarebuli savele samuSao, vfiqrobT, biZgis mimcemi iqneba SemdgomSi sxva eTnokulturuli mecnierulad saintereso siaxleebis moZiebisa.

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cekvis da cekva qoreoterminis warmoSobisaTvis Zvel qarTulSi, Zvel qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi cekva, rogorc termini, ucnobia. mis sanacvlod, ZiriTad saxeldebad rokva gvxvdeba. sulxan-saba orbelianis `sityvis konaSi~ cekvebis aRmniSvnel zogad saxelad aseve rokvaa miCneuli1. specialistebiT fiqriT, Tu dRes cekva, rogorc termini, cekvebis zogad terminad gvevlineba, adre igi erT-erTi cekvis saxelwodeba unda yofiliyo. Tu es mosazreba-varaudi marTebulia, rogor unda momxdariyo es? rodis gaCnda da iqca eTnoqoreografiul terminad `cekva~ sityvaforma? ra mniSvneloba hqonda am sityvas Tavdapirvelad? sakuTriv qarTuli warmomavlobisaa igi Tu ucxouri? ai, kiTxvebi, romlebic yvela Tavmoyvare qarTvels (specialists Tu araspecialists) Tanabrad awuxebs. Rirssacnobia, rom dReisaTvis aWaraSi (da ara marto aWaraSi) arsebobs gamoTqma `cekva daukari~, romelic Wunirze dakvriT sruldeba. zogis azriT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom cekva `qarTulis~ gamomxatveli adrindeli saxeldeba cekva iyo, radgan cekva `qarTulma~ farTo gavrceleba pova mTel saqarTveloSi, igi cekvis saxelwodebad iqca, e. i. termini `rokva~ `cekviT~ Seicvala, cekva `qarTuli~ ki dasaxelebis gareSe darCa2 (amitomac XIX saukuneSi, rusTa batonobis droidan, Semogvepara `gruzinskaia lezginkas~ uxeiro Targmani da gamonaTqvami _ `qarTuli lekuri~ (Sdr. aseve `oseTinskaia lezginka~), amis Semdgom `lekuri~ damkvidrda jer aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, mere saerTod.. qarTul enaSi. cnobili mkvlevris, qoreografisa da qoreologis avTandil TaTaraZis es dakvirveba (romelsac met-naklebi variaciiT sxvebic imeoreben da avrcoben) angariSgasawevia da saintereso. Tu sworia zemore varaudi, rogor unda momxdariyo es? (amis Sesaxeb sxva werilSi!). kiTxva kvlav araerTi SegveZlo, dagvesva. amjerad mxolod sakuTriv eTnoqoreo terminad

1. i. gigineiSvili, v. Tofuria, i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, I. (dialeqtTa ganxilva, teqstebi. leqsikoni), Tbilisi., 1961, gv, 375-378; b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, I, Tbilisi, 1989, gv. 576. 2. i. sixaruliZe, nigali (saistorio geografiis masalebi), baTumi, 1985, gv. 3. 3. T. SioSvili, qarTuli folkloris zneobrivi samyaro, wigni meore, baTumi, 2004, gv. 100.

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qceul cekva sityvis warmoSoba-warmomavlobas da mis semantikur-formobriv saxecvlilebas SevexoT. rogor gaCnda cekva? ai, kidev erTi kiTxva, romlis erTerTi araamomwuravi pasuxi aseTia: cekvis Seqmna-Casaxvis, gamowvevis mizezi unda yofiliyo garemo, adamianis kmayofileba _ bedniereba, SiSi, sixaruli... erT-erT asurul zRaparSi (`uvargisi qmris xelSi colic uvargisiao~) cekvis Seqmnagamowvevis mizezad sixarulic kia miCneuli3. cekva qarTvelTaTvis RvTiuria, RvTisnieria, RvTismieria, RvTaebrivia.. cekviT gajerebulia salxino sufra Tu saqorwino rituali. qarTul andazebSic sapatio adgili aqvs miCenili: qarTuli andazebia: `avalianis sufraze asaTiani cekvavdao~... an kidev: `cekvas daTvsac aswavliano~4, msgavsia megrulic: `Rorons sxapuas qedaguaruanania~ (= `RmerTs cekvas aswavliano~)5 . gamocanebSic cekva sityvis monawileobac araiSviaTia: `tyidan gamomiyvanes, mocekvaved damayenes~; `tyeSi deibada, tyeSi geizarda, Sin Semovida, cekva iswavla~6, an sxva variantiT: `tyeSi davibade, tyeSi gavizarde, Sin movedi, cekva viswavle~; 7 qarTul toponimiaSic, kerZod, zemo aWaraSi cekva erT-erTi soflisTvisac ki daurqmeviaT...8 cekva leqsema safuZvlad dasdebia zogierT qarTul gvarsaxelsac: cekvava, cekvaSvili... cekva odiTganve did rols asrulebda adamianis socialur cxovrebaSi. igi upirvelesad kultTan iyo dakavSirebuli. sazogadoebis ganviTarebis adreul safexurzeve bunebis amoucnob ZalebTan WidilSi sacekvao xelovnebas magiuri daniSnulebac hqonda. adamianebi imTaviTve fiqrobdnen, rom cekvas SeeZlo misi bedis gamgebel Zalebzec emoqmeda. uaxloes warsulSi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi yvavila batonebiT Sepyrobil bavSvs SelocvasTan erTad arTobdnen _ leqs-simReris TanxlebiT cekvavdnen kidec... specialistTa did nawils adamianis pirvel cekvad nadirobis cekviT gadmocema miaCniaT, anu, sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `acekvebuli nadiroba~ _ monadireTa cekva. nadirobis yvela stadia moZraobiTa da mimikiT gadmoicemoda. imavdroulad pirvelyofili adamiani namdvil sacekvao pantomimas qmnida, da, rac mTavaria, cekva yovelTvis

emorCileboda ritms.. cekva iseve damaxasiaTebeli movlena iyo brZolis win, rogorc simRera, usimRerod, safiqrebelia, cekva verc Sesruldeboda. Rirssacnobia is faqtic, rom Zvel qarTulSi mRera // simRera erTdroulad cekva-TamaSsac gamoxatavda da simRerasac. ra SeiZleba iTqvas Tavad cekva sityvis warmoSobisa da etimologiis Sesaxeb? Tumca es sityva Zvel qarTulSi ucnobia da mis nacvlad rokva ixmareba, magram aRorZinebis xanis da momdevno periodis mwerlobaSi cekva mainc asaxula, rac imis maniSnebelia, rom igi enaSi (an kiloebSi) adrec unda gvqonoda. Zveli qarTveli leqsikografebis sulxansaba orbelianis9, niko10 da daviT11 CubinaSvilebis leqsikonebSi cekva asea ganmartebuli: `rokva ferxis TiTebiT~, anu, es igivea, rac fexis TiTebze (TiTebiT) cekva. Rirssacnobia, rom iv. javaxiSvils12 (ise, rogorc mkvlevar j. CxeiZesac13 xorumis, yarabaRis, qurTbaris, yolsamas, Samilis, baRdaduris gverdiT cekva lekuris sinonimad cekur termini aqvs dasaxelebuli, romelic igive cekvuria (=ceruli, fexis TiTebiT rokva): cekuri <_ cekvuri (bolokiduri ­ur sityvasawarmoebeli bolosarTia). daviT CubinaSvili cekva sityvaformis gverdiT ceko'sac imowmebs 14, rac sxva araferia, Tu ara cekva terminis fonetikuri gardasaxva: cekva _> ceko; va_>o). fonetikuri procesis amsaxveli msgavsi nimuSebi qarTul-qarTvelur enebSi araerTia, mag.: Tvali // Toli, cxvari // cxori, xaWva // xaWo, iyva // iyo, dadva // dado; es procesi Tanabradaa gavrcelebuli rogorc saxelebSi, ise zmnebSi. s.-s. orbelianis, niko da daviT CubinaSvilebis leqsikonebSi Setanilia sityva cekvanac, romelic cicinaTelas sinonimia: cekvana =cicinaTela, elvana, `svertliak~ . cekvana _ (mwer. elvana wyalzed morbenalni Savni Wiani. cekuana _ (mZrom. elvana wyalzed rom mravalni Wua rbian. am ganmartebebidan saintereso isaa, rom 1. cicinaTela ara marto im mwers hqvia, romelic Rame anaTebs, aramed cicinaTela, anu, cekvana zogadi, farTo mniSvnelobis terminia frTiani mwerebis aRsaniSnavad, romlebic

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xmeleTis garda wyalzec xtian. am SemTxvevaSi naTlad Cans cekvis amosavali, istoriuli mniSvneloba: cekva niSnavda xtomas, axtomas. xtoma-axtoma ki yovlad warmoudgenelia fexebisa da fexis TiTebis gareSe. rac Seexeba zemoT damowmebul Zvel qarTvel leqsikografTa cekvanas sinonimur sityvas _ elvanas _ misi motivacia sxvagvaria: igi gaelvebas, elvas, gankrTomas, wamier ganaTebas ukavSirdeba. TviT cicinaTelac xom, erTi qarTvelologis axsniT, civ-civ naTebas niSnavs.15 amrigad, cekva-na Tavisi mniSvnelobiTa da warmoSobiT momdinareobs cekva nazmnari saxelisagan, romelic Zvel droSi xtoma-xtunvis (ZiriTadad fexebiT) aRmniSvneli unda yofiliyo. aqve SevniSnavT, rom `balavarianis~ (`sibrZnÀ balahvarisi~) teqstdarTul leqsikonSi Zveli qarTulis kuTvnileba `urokvides~ zmnis piriani forma asea ganmartebuli: cekavden (misTvis).16 meore qarTvelologma rokva da cekva terminebis Sedarebisas SeniSna: ro kv a da cekv a mniSvnelobiT erTmaneTisagan TiTqmis ar gansxvavdeba, Tumca rokva ufro zogadia, cekva ­ konkretuli. Tanac Zvel saliteraturo qarTulSi rokvac da rokavs Cveulebrivia, cekvavs ki Zalian iSviaTi Canso.17 mkvlevars sakmao odenobiT mohyavs rokvas piriani da upiro formebi Zveli qarTuli enis werilobiTi Zeglebidan. cekva terminis sailustraciod ki imowmebs mxolod e. w. aRorZinebis xanis nawarmoebebidan amokrebil magaliTebs: `cekva // ceko~ (`minda davrokde da.. ceko vqnao~, _ sabas `sibrZne-sicruisadan~), cekva da misT. ufro xSirad gvxvdeba me-17 _ me-18 saukuneebidan mefepoet arCilis, d. guramiSvilis, sabasa da sxvaTa TxzulebebSi, `kalmasobaSi~ da am drois TargmanebSi. pativcemul mecniers rokav da cekvav fuZeTa Sinaarsoblivi siaxlove da aRnagoba imis safuZvels aZlevs, rom isini erTi da imave Ziris tolmniSvnelovan, magram sxvadasxva dialeqturi fenisaTvis niSandobliv, morfologiur warmoebad miiCnios. misive azriT, cekva warmomdgaria sekva arqeti pisagan, Zireuli kv elementi igivea, rac rokvas k Tanxmovanio. amrigad, igi rokvaSic ro's TavsarTad gamoyofs. mkvlevari iqve daaskvnis: rokav // cekvav

erTaderTi unda yofiliyo im saxeobis gamosaxatavad, romelic fexis TiTebiT Tu terfiT sruldebodao. am vrceli msjelobidan erTi ram cnaurdeba: radganac cekva Zvel qarTul werilobiT ZeglebSi ar dasturdeba, misi warmoSoba, rogorc Cans, gviandelia, radgan igi mxolod aRorZinebis xanis mweralTa nawerebSia TavCenili.18 Tumca am SemTxvevaSi Cven ver gaviziarebT mkvlevris axsnas cekva terminis rokvadan warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. cekva aSkarad sxva fuZisagan momdinare unda iyos. ra gvaZlevs amis Tqmis safuZvels? solomon dodaSvils cekvis aRsaniSnavad naxmari aqvs cokva forma,19 rac, Cveni azriT, Zveli, arqauli unda iyos: cekva <_ cokva: `qalman icis rusuli, ReoRrafia, cokva [tancaoba]~wers erTgan igi. prof. iv. qavTaraZis SeniSvniT, am formis siZvele da gavrceleba ver dgindebao, Cven piriqiT gvgonia da ai, ratom: qarTuli enis imeruli kilos monacemebiT cogavs _ cogva, cokv Zirs ukavSirdeba; imerulSi cogavs (dacogavs) niSnavs `dadis koxtad~, mokle nabijiT, fexakrefiT, TiTqos misrialebs, `mitancaobs~. samwuxarod, es SesaniSnavi saleqsikono erTeuli imeruli kilos leqsikonebSi (saleqsikono masalebSi) asaxuli araa. amrigad, cogva igive cokva, anu, cekvaa. aRsaniSnavia, rom qiziyursa20 da fSaurSi cokva 21 axlac ixmareba: `cokva _ cmukva, dgomela an mjdomela tokva, mousvenroba~. fSaurSi ki cokva mokle-mokle nabijiT siaruls cuxcuxs, aRniSnavs22. am formas xmarobs vaJa-fSavelac: `zogan vakea, SaiZleba Cqara gavla da zogan gverdali, kldiani, Tu ara cokviT, ar gaivlebao~ (crupent. aRmzrd. naw. II. T. II). fSaur kiloSive `cokdi-cokdi~ `nela-nela iares~ niSnavs.: `roca giTxra: `axtidaxti, bero biZao, maSin Cqara gamomye, gamoiqeci, da roca giTxra: `cokdi-cokdi, bero biZav~, _ nel-nela gamoabijeo~. ( cr u pent. aR m zr d. na w . I I. T. II ) . c o k d i - c o k d i fuZegaorkecebuli zmnuri fuZea. masSi cok zmnuri Ziria, d _ doniani vnebiTis niSani. amrigad, cek[v] <_cok <_ cog. cok // cog zmnur ZirTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa imeruli cokiali, romlis mniSvneloba aseTia: `mCated curva wyalSi dauyuravad~. cokial'Si ­ial e. w. pirveladi masdaris

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(nazmnari saxelis) mawarmoebelia, cok ki igive odenobaa, rac cekva // cok // cog. Rirssacnobia, rom cokialis cok moZraobis gamomxatvelia, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, curvisa (Sdr. tokva = xtoma-xtunviT moZraoba; bgeriTi simbolikis gziT: cokva _> tokva). cnobili mecnieri vukol beriZe c oki al is paralelurad asaxelebs c or i al s imave mniSvnelobiT.23 es ukanaskneli igivea, rac cur-av-s zmnis cur Ziri (es zmnuri Ziri Cven saxeladac gvevlineba qarTulSi: curi _ Zroxis ZuZu. sulxan-sabas ganmartebiT _ curi `ZuZus Ziri~. amrigad, curva wyalSi glinviT gavlaa, udgomlad~, rac imis maniSnebelia, rom curva _ wyalSi gavlaa udgomlad fexebis an xelebis (mTeli sxeulis!) moZraobiT. yuradsaRebia is faqtic, rom imerulsa24 da leCxumur25 kiloebSi cekvas cekvavic hqvia. cxadia, cekvav'is ­av Temis niSania, awmyo: cekv-av-s.. cekvis mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT, saintereso Cvenebas iZleva qarTuli enis mTiuluri dialeqtic: Tu solomon dodaSvilis nawerebSi ceko cekvis mniSvnelobiT aris naxmari, mTiulurSi cekos bzrialas Sinaarsisaa.5 bzrialas ki, rogorc raime sagnis datrialebas wriulad, cekvis SinaarsTan saerTo marTlac aqvs. amrigad, ceko ­ bzrialas mniSvnelobiT cekv'isgan momdinarea da warmoSobiT meoreulia. cekva // ceko'sTan dakavSirebiT sayuradReboa moxeuri kilos kuTvnileba ceguaÁ26, romelsac aseve, mTiuluris msgavsad, bzrialas mniSvneloba aqvs. cegua-Á CvenTvis ormxrivaa saintereso: 1. igi cekva saxeldebis mJReri arqauli variantia: cekvavs <_ ceguavs, 2. ceg fuZe aseve amosavalia ciga arsebiTi saxelisaTvis, romelic sulxan-saba orbelianis ganmartebiT, mcire marxils niSnavs. amrigad, ceg _> cig. e _> i fonetikurad gardasaxvis procesi sakuTriv qarTul, da zogadad, qarTvelur enebSi (megrul-Wanuri, svanuri) Cveulebriv damaxasiaTebelia: Teatri _> Tiatri, medea _> media, megr. wiar <_ wear qarT. `mwevari~. amrigad, moxeurSi ceguaÁ xis an Zvlis bzrialas (Cveulebriv SinnakeTebs) aRniSnavs 27. aqedanaa nawarmoebi ceguaoba (ceguaobs, iceguava), rac ceguaTi _ bzrialaTi TamaSs niSnavs.

cekua <_ cegua _> ciga, cegua // cigua, cekva // cokva's varianti unda iyos cik // cig Ziri cikinkala // cigingala'Si, rac moxeurSi askinkilas mniSvnelobis mqonea. cikinkala // ciginkala'Si cik // cig saerTo Ziria, kala (<_ik-ala) _ kninobiTi bolosarTi, xolo n gaCenili (ganviTarebuli) bgeraa (Sdr. qarT. Saqari _ megr. Sanqari, qarT. imedi _'!megr. Imendi da sxv.). cek // cik Ziri Semonaxulia Cikor // cikor sityvaSic: cik-or _> Cik-or, romelSic ­or sityvasawarmoebeli bolosarTia (Sdr. mZori <_ mZovri <_ mZovari). amgvarad, cikor ( // Cikor), ciginkala // cikinkala, cegua sityvebis cik // cigu cekvis aRmniSvnel termin cekvasTan rogorc fuZis, ise mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT, urTierTkavSirSia. yovelive zemoTqmuli urTirTmimarTeba sqematurad ase SeiZleba warmovadginoT: tokva (=`biZgeba, xtunviT moZraoba~)

cokiali (imer. `mCated curva~) Sdr.'!coriali (imer.) // curavs curi

fS. cokdi-cokdi (=`nela-nela iare~)

cokva cogva; cekuri (= lekuri), // cekuana / /cekvana (=`cicinaTela~)

cek // cekva cekvavi (imer.-leCx.=`cekvavi~) ceko (ceri, cer(eb)iT; cegua cego,

cik cikori Cikori (=`bzriala~) (=mox. `bzriali~) (=mox.`bzriala~)

ciga (`mcire, patara marxili~)

ciginkala // cikinkala (mox. `askinkila, maRla xtunva~, Sdr. ZigZigi)

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ris daskvnis uflebas gvaZlevs zemoT warmodgenili arqauli da dialeqturi warmomavlobis cekvis da cekvasTan dakavSirebuli qarTuli sityvebi? 1. irkveva: rom ara qarTuli enis dialeqturi monacemebi, ver davadgendiT cekva sityvis Tavdapirvel semantikas; 2. cekva warmoSobiT ZirZveli qarTuli sityva yofila; 3. cekvis cekv //ceko Ziris Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobaa ceris aRniSvna, cerebze, fexis TiTebze dgoma, xtoma, xtunva, maRla Sextoma, `askinkiluri moZraoba~, fexis curva-gasrialeba; cekva = rokva cerebiT, cerebze rokva; 4. maSasadame, cekva ceku (=fexis TiTis ceri)-cerisgan warmomdgara, Tavdapirvelad Tu igi cerebiT rokvas guli sxmobda , amJa mad mis i, rogorc qar Tuli eTnoqoreografiuli saxeldebis, Sinaarsi gafarToebulganzogadebulia. ase damkvidrda qarTulSi terminad qceuli sityva cekva, xolo am sityvis konkretuli, rigiTi cekvis (fexis cerebiT rokva) XIX saukunidan rusTa batonobis xanaSi lezgiurma, anu, lekurma Secvala. amitomaa, rom mTeli XIX saukunis manZilze qarTul mwerlobasa Tu axal qarTul enaSi qarTuli cekvis aRmniSvnelad, sityva-terminad lekuri (//lekura [am ukanasknel formas xmarobs niko xizaniSvilisa da elisabed CerqeziSvilis megobari vano emelianovi maT mimarT miweril baraTSi]) gagvibatonda. XX saukunis 20-30-iani wlebidan es uxerxuloba _ qarTuli cekvebis moxsenieba lekurad da lekur cekvasTan gaigiveba specialistebma SeigrZnes da ukve wina, XX s.-is 40-iani wlebidan `lekurs~ cekva `qarTuli~ ewoda (amis Sesaxeb ufro dawvrilebiT specialurad sxva werilSi gveqneba saubari..); 5. cekva `qarTuli~ `cerebze cekvaa~. Cans, istoriuladac qarTvelebs cerebze cekva gvcodnia, romlis arqauli saxe S em og vi na xa sv anur ma f erx ul eb ma ( c er u l i a sev e damaxasiaTebelia osuri cekvebisTvisac, safiqrebelia, qarTuli cekvebis gavleniT.., rac qarTvelTa da osTa oriaTaswleuliani mezoblobiT unda aixsnas).

6. `ceruli~, rogorc termini, sruliad axalia, igi specialistebma cerileTebis simravlis gamo erT-erT svanur cekvas Searqves XX saukunis II naxevarSi, Tumca igi aranakleb damaxasiaTebelia mTiuluri cekvebisaTvis28, cxadia, cekva, ceguri an cekuri da ceruli warmoSobiT, am TvalsazrisiT, sinonimuri erTeulebia, oRond sxvadasxva epoqaSi Seqmnili. ceruli (rogorc ileTi) rom zogadad qarTuli cekvis ganuyofeli nawili iyo, migvaniSnebs erT-erTi qarTuli xalxuri sacekvao leqs-simReris amonaridi: `es biWi kargad TamaSobs, fexis wverebze dgebao...~ fexis wverebi sxva aq araferia, Tu ara fexis TiTebi, upirvelesad, _ cerebi. aseTia, mokled, terminad qceuli cekva qarTuli sityvis semantikur-formobrivi gardasaxva-ganfena eTnolingvistur Tu eTnoqoreografiul, istoriul-dialeqtologiur Tu qarTul kulturologiur sivrceSi. cekva dRes aqtiuri, cocxali, moqnili, mravlismetyveli sityvaformaa. mas am mxriv verc rokva, verc SuSproba... ver gaejibreba. D

1. s.-s. orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, avtografuli nusxebis mixedviT gamosacemad moamzada i. abulaZem. Txzulebani, t. IV, Tbilisi, 1966. 2. a. TaTaraZe, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 150. 3. asuruli zRaprebi. krebuli Seadgina, asurulidan Targmna, winasityvaoba da SeniSvnebi daurTo k. wereTelma. Tbilisi, 1975. 4. qarTuli andazebi, Sekriba a. kandelakma, Tbilisi, 1959. 5. xalxuri sibrZne. I. megruli da lazuri andazebi. Seadgines r. Seroziam da o. memiSiSma, Tbilisi, 1994. 6. d. kobaxiZe, qarTuli xalxuri sityvierebis masalebi (aWara, xulos raioni, sof. danisparauli), Tsu Sromebi, t. 118, Tbilisi, 1967, gv. 60.

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7. vinc amas ver gamoicnobs... (qarTuli xalxuri gamocanebi), Seadgina T. SioSvilma, baTumi, 1996, gv. 147. 8. m. qamadaZe, zemo aWaris toponimiis masalebi `droebasa~ da `iveriaSi~. kreb.: aWaruli dialeqtis dargobrivi leqsika, IV. Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 38. 9. ix.: s.-s. orbeliani, dasax. naSr. 10. n. CubinaSvili, qarTuli leqsikoni rusuli TargmaniTurT. al. Rlontis redaqciiTa da gamokvleviT, Tbilisi, 1961. 11. d. CubinaSvili, qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni. meore gamocema, aRdgenili ofsetis wesiT, sastambod moamzada da winasityvaoba daurTo a. SaniZem, Tbilisi, 1984. 12. iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli musikis istoriis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1938 13. j. CxeiZe, Sromis poezia qarTul folklorSi aWaruli masalebis mixedviT. baTumi, 1973. 14. d. CubinaSvili, dasax naSr. 15. p. gaCeCilaZe, etimologiuri SeniSvnebi (civi, civciv, cicinaTela...). kreb.: qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi. IV. Tbilisi, 1974. 16. sibrZnÀ balahvarisi, redaqcia, variantebi da leqsikoni ilia abulaZisa, tfilisi, 1937, gv. 67. 17. i. qavTaraZe, zogi sityvis aRnagobisa da istoriisaTvis qarTulSi. iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecniereba. t. XVIII, Tbilisi., 1973. 18. s. dodaSvili, werilebi, Tbilisi, 1961. 19. iqve 20 s. menTeSaSvili. qiziyuri leqsikoni, v. Tofurias redaqciiT. Tbilisi, 1943. 21. vaJa-fSavelas mcire leqsikoni, Seadgina al. WinWaraulma, Tbilisi, 1969. 22. g. xornauli, fSauri leqsikoni, al. Rlontis redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 2000. 23. v. beriZe, sityvis kona imerul da raWul TqmaTa, sanktpeterburgi, 1912. 24. iqve; ix.: aseve: b. cxadaZe, masdaris warmoebis zogi

Tavisebureba qarTuli enis dialeqtebSi. ike, XXVI, Tbilisi, 1987. 25. m. alaviZe, leCxumuri leqsikoni, qarTvelur enaTa leqsika, I. v. beriZis redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 1938. 26.. o. qajaia, masalebi moxeuri kilos leqsikonisaTvis: samxreT oseTis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis Sromebi. XI. cxinvali, 1967 27. i. qavTaraZe, qarTuli enis moxeuri dialeqti (gamokvleva, teqstebi, leqsikoni), Tbilisi, 1985. 28. a. TaTaraZe, qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1999, gv. 197-198; d. javriSvili, mTiuluri cekvebi (nakveTi meore), Tbilisi, 1953.

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msoflio kinematografi: industria da xelovneba

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT programis xelmZRvaneli - zviad doliZe

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`am naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi aTasobiT ,,varskvlavi~ amobrwyinda da ukvalod Caiferfla holivudis caze. maT Soris iyvnen kinos yvelaze popularuli Janris _ komediis ,,varskvlavebic~, Caplinis ,,varskvlavi~ ki Cauqrobeli lampariviT anTia. SeerTebuli Statebis reaqciulma mmarTvelobam Tavisi umecrebiTa da sibriyviT Caplini iZulebuli gaxda holivudidan wasuliyo, msoflio ki kvlavac interess iCens misdami~.1 n. kovarski

aTwleulebis manZilze Caplinis filmebs didi interesiT uyurebda sxvadasxva asakisa da gemovnebis mayurebeli. 20iani wlebis sxva romelime reJisoris filmebi amJamad mxolod specialistTa interess iwvevs, maSin, roca Caplinis filmebi dResac iseve aRelvebs auditorias, rogorc 5-6 aTeuli wlis win. Caplini, albaT, erTaderTia kinoSi, romelic ar daberda. rogorc Cans, Carli sainteresoa ara marto sxvadasxva gemovnebis, aramed sxvadasxva drois mayureblisTvis. aqedan SegviZlia gavakeToT daskvna: Caplinma i pova is, rac aerTianebs yvela droisa da gemovnebis xalxs. Caplinis Semoqmedeba mis bavSvobaSi iRebs saTaves. bergmani ambobda: `Tu bedma gagiRimaT da Tqveni bavSvoba ganWvriteT, Tu bavSobas daubrundiT mexsierebis, gamocdilebis mTeli maragiT, SemoqmedebiTi sulisaTvis, SemoqmedebiTi SromisaTvis, xelsayrel garemoSi moxvedrilxarT~.2 ar SeiZleba mogonilma grZnobam amden xans gaZlos ekranze. Caplinma TviTon gamoscada sakuTar Tavze uamravi damcireba da abuCad agdeba, igi iseTive didsulovania, rogorc misi mawanwala Carli, sxvagvarad arc SeiZleba iyos. `Carlis

ojaxSi arasodes yofila vinme iseTi xepre, rom meetlisaTvis ukmexi sityva eTqva, an senis sanapiroze mjdari maTxovrisTvis daecina~..3 Caplinis filmebis TiToeuli kadri gaJRenTilia saocari uSualobiTa da bavSvuri gulwrfelobiT, albaT, ar iqneboda Caplinis xelovneba, rom ar yofiliyo misi bavSoba. Carlz spenser Caplini daibada 1889 wels q. londonSi, Raribi msaxiobis ojaxSi. ukve 6 wlis asakSi mas sxvadasxva speqtaklsa da warmodgenaSi uxdeboda monawileobis miReba. 19 wlis Carli cnobili Teatraluri antreprenioris, fred karnos, dasSi miiwvies. igi mTvral kacs TamaSobda warmodgenaSi _ `Rame inglisur klubSi~. am piesiT man mTeli evropa moiara. 1913 wels amerikaSi Casvlisas mak senetma Caplini `kisTounSi~ miiwvia msaxiobad. isic dasTanxmda da amerikaSi darCa sacxovreblad. 1915 wels igi kinokompania `esenei~-Si gadavida sadac sareJisoro moRvaweoba daiwyo. amave wels man Seqmna personaJi `mawanwala Carli~ da mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi iRebda am personaJze filmebs. mTavar rols igi Tavad asrulebda. es filmebi komediebi an tragikomediebi iyo. `SemiZlia zustad vTqva, _ igonebs Caplini holivudSi muSaobis pirvel wlebs. _ rodis damebada pirvelad azri, Cemi komediuri filmebisTvis kidev erTi ganzomileba Semematebina. filmSi `axali kariskaci~ iyo aseTi epizodi: ufrosma samuSaodan gamaZeva, vemudarebi Semibralos da JestebiT vaniSneb, rom bevri Svili myavs, erTmaneTze ufro patarebi, me es scena sasacilo sasowarkveTilebiT gaviTamaSe. iqve gverdiT Cveni uxucesi msaxiobi qali alisa devenporti idga da gviyurebda. SemTxveviT misken gavixede da sruliad moulodnelad davinaxe _ Tvalebi cremlebiT hqonda savse. _ mSvenivrad vici, yvelaferma aman sicili unda mohgvaros adamians, magram, ai giyureb da vtiri. man damidastura is, rasac ukve didi xania vgrZnobdi: me SemeZlo xalxis gacineba, magram maTi atirebis unaric mqonda Turme~.4 20-30-iani wlebi Carlis SemoqmedebiTi aRmavlobis wlebia,

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am periodSi gadaiRo man Tavisi cnobili filmebi: `biWuna~, `parizeli qali~, `oqros cieb-cxeleba~, `cirki~, `didi qalaqis CiraRdnebi~, `axali droeba~. `parizeli qali~, rogorc rene klerma Tqva, namdvili revolucia iyo xelovnebaSi. filmis novatoroba ukve Sesaval titrebSi igrZnoboda. `kacobrioba marto gmirebisagan ki ar Sedgeba, aramed ubralo qalebisa da kacebisagan~.5 filmis fabula amgvaria: provinciuli qalaqis axalgazrdebs maris da Jans erTmaneTi uyvarT. mSoblebis winaaRmdegobis gamo isini SeuRlebis mizniT saxlidan gaparvas gadawyveten, magram Jans uecrad mama ukvdeba da daTqmul adgilas ver miva. guldawyvetili mari parizSi marto gaemgzavreba, ubeduri SemTxveva Seyvarebulebs sabediswerod daaSorebs . . . parizSi mari Tavis cxovrebas daukavSirebs mdidar kacs, ramdenime xnis Semdeg igi SemTxveviT waawydeba Jans, romelsac mxatvroba dauwyia da Tavis saxelosnoSi dedasTan erTad cxovrobs. igi maris portrets qmnis. maTi siyvaruli kvlav aRorZindeba. `parizel qalSi~ Caplinma pirwminda sikeTisa da absoluturi borotebis primitiuli, melodramatuli dapirispireba uaryo da kinematografiuli saxe dramaturgiuli da fsiqologiuri niuansebiT aago. Caplinis azriT kinonawarmoebis moqmedi gmiris xasiaTis erT mimarTulebaSi gadmocema dramaturgiul azrovnebas gaaRaribebda. mas miaCnda, rom adamianis xasiaTSi borot-sikeTis orive sawyisi arsebobs, magram am TvisebaTa metnaklebobis mixedviT yalibdeba da warmoisaxeba saintereso mxatvruli saxe, e. i. `Caplinis, rogorc kinodramaturgis, novatoroba imaSi gamoixateboda, rom misi kinonawarmoebis dadebiT gmirs gaaCnda dadebiTi da agreTve uaryofiTi Tvisebebic. ganwyobilebis saxecvla, meryeoba sikeTesa da borotebas Soris da sxva~.6 `parizeli qaliT~ Caplini mayureblis winaSe wardga, rogorc samsaxiobo reJisori da agreTve kinos specifikuri mxatvruli xerxebis gamomgonebeli, mis novatorul miRwevaTa Soris, upirveles yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia mxatvruli detali,

romelic saxis fsiqologiuri gaxsnisTvis iyo warmoCenili, mag.: marisTan stumrobisas karadidan gadmovardnili mamakacis sayelo Jans qalis sxva mamakacTan Tanaarsebobze mianiSnebs. am filmSi Caplini mivida realizmamde, romelic mis Semoqmedeba Si adr e uTuod arsebobda mxolod gaucnobiereblad, axla ki misi Semoqmedebis mTavar princi pad iqca. realizmis mZafrma gancdam miiyvana Caplini `axal droebamde~. es aris satira teqnikur progresze, romelic gviCvenebs, Tu rogor ikargeba pirovnebis individualoba teqnikuri progresis pirobebSi, rogor gadaiqcevian adamianebi uformo masad, brbod, rogor xdebian isini maTive gamogonili manqanebis mona da TviTonac emsgavsebian maT. aRsaniSnavia, rom Caplinma gacilebiT adre igrZno es saSiSroeba. filmSi nivTebi adamians imorCileben da devnian, konveieris giJuri ritmi wuTiTac ar aZlevs Carlis amosunTqvis saSualebas, cdilobs gmiri idiotad da usulo meqanikuri Zalis msxverplad aqcios. manqana, romlis daniSnuleba muSebis gamokvebaa, iRebs kovziT wvnians, miaqvs adamianis pirTan da moulodnelad mwyobridan gamodis. kovzi pirdapir kbilebSi xvdeba Carlis, manqana aiZulebs mas, SemTxveviT moSvebuli qanCi gadaylapos. Caplinis yoveli filmi marcxisa da ubedurebis Taviseburi saxis katalogia, misi gmiri ubedur varskvlavzea dabadebuli. `ucnauria misi damokidebuleba bedTan. igi yvelafers akeTebs, rom ajobos Tavis beds, gaacuros, moatyuos, xSirad eSmakobs kidec, qurdbacacobac exerxeba. yvelafers akeTebs, rom bedma ar daCagros, magram amaod marcxi misi arsebobis kanonad iqceva. Carli am qveyanaze simSvidisa da bednierebis saZebnelad dadis, magram ara da ara, bedi mainc ar wyalobs. filmSi `axali droeba~ igi axerxebs cixidan gaqcevas da mis meurveobaSi myofi qaliSvilis povnas. isini sadRac, qalaqgareT erT qoxs afareben Tavs, magram qoxi ingreva, ficrebi, TiTqos piri Sekreso, Tavze acviva Carlis maZebrebi qaliSvils pouloben~.8 am bedkrul adamians aqvs Tavisi `mowodeba~, `daniSnuleba~. filmSi `biWuna~ igi i povnis migdebul bavSvs, uvlis, zrdis,

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mTeli arsebiT Seiyvarebs, xolo, roca bavSvi wamoizrdeba, Carli ubrunebs mas dedas, romelic im droisTvis ukve cnobili msaxiobia da Tavis vaJiSvils eZebs. filmSi `axali droeba~ igi erTi muSis qaliSvilis aRmzrdelad gvevlineba, romlis mamac gaficulTa da policielTa Setakebis msxverpli xdeba. `piligrimSi~ igi Tavxed qurds wynari da patiosani ojaxis gaZarcvis saSualebas ar aZlevs. `didi qalaqis CiraRdnebSi~ Carli mTvral milioners TviTmkvlelobisgan gadaarCens. amave filmSi misi gmiri ras ar akeTebs, rom sayvarel usinaTlo qaliSvils operaciisTvis saWiro fuli uSovos. yvelaze saintereso da damaxasiaTebeli Caplinis yvela filmisTvis is aris, rom ucxo adamianisadmi zrunva mudam iqceva xolme misi ubedurebis wyarod. Caplinis ironia, sicili, gonebamaxviloba, sarkazmi, upirveles yovlisa, TviT gmirisadmia mimarTuli. igi aqilikebs, dascinis patara kacs, abuCad igdebs mis mwuxarebasa da sixaruls. wuTiTac ar aZlevs Tavis gmirs daviwyebis, ocnebis, dafiqrebis, sizmris naxvis uflebas. sainteresoa, ratom xdeba ase? Carlis xom sizmarSic ar asvenebs is koSmaruli ambebi, romlebic es-es aris gadaitana cxadad. `ai, is zorzoxi, mxeciviT kaci dasdevnebia da mosvenebas ar aZlevs, sacaa daetakeba da cemas dauwyebs. Carli iZulebulia bevri sasacilo xerxi gamoiyenos, mdevars rom xelidan dauZvres~.9 Caplinis Semoqmedebis humanur xasiaTs Tu CavwvdebiT, kargad SevicnobT misi gmiris idealsa da azrs, rogorc moxetiale maZiebeli miusafari, komizmisTvis ganwirul adamianurobis ideas, aucileblad mivxvdebiT, rogor mivida Caplini antifaSistur filmamde `didi diqtatori~.10 Caplini am filmSi or rols asrulebs _ patara ebraeli dalaqisa da faSisti diqtatoris, adenoid hinkelis. mayurebeli am rolSi wamsve Seicnobs hitlers. garkveul dromde maTi gzebi erTmaneTs ar xvdeba, dalaqi `getoSi~ cxovrobs, hinkeli ki _ sasaxleSi, romelsac aTasobiT erTguli banditi icavs. dalaqi sakoncentracio banakSi mihyavT, igi garbis iqidan da maSin ibadeba filmis mTavari, moulodneli siuJeti _ irkveva,

rom dalaqi garegnobiT tyupiscaliviT hgavs hinkels. moieriSeebs igi diqtatori hgoniaT, Carlis sazeimod Casvamen mdidrul manqanaSi da germaniasTan avstriis SeerTebis aRsaniSnavad mowyobil mravalaTasian krebaze mihyavT, magram SekrebilTa gasaocrad, dalaqi ambobs sityvas faSizmis winaaRmdeg. mrisxaned, gznebiT, paTetikurad warmosTqvams sityvas, brals sdebs faSizms, CamoTvlis faSizmis mier Cadenil sazarel danaSaulebebs da xalxs mis winaaRmdeg SeiaraRebuli brZolisken mouwodebs. Caplinma filmSi `didi diqtatori~ mawanwala Carlis Cveulebrivi, miseuli saxe Seqmna, magram saxe komikuri siuJetisagan ganacalkeva. man Carlis bedic ganasaxiera, mxolod mas saxeli da zusti misamarTic gauCnda. yvelaferi, rac aqamde Cagravda da amaxinjebda Caplinis gmirs aisaxa faSizmSi da faSisti diqtatoris saxeSi, rogorc ki Caplinma maT winaaRmdeg gailaSqra, man brZola gamoucxada Tavis komikur beds. gaTavisuflda Tu ara am bedisagan, igi ukve munji aRar aris, Caplini laparaks iwyebs. Caplinis azriT, omis absurduli idea, upirveles yovlisa, Tavisi xalxisa da Tavisi Tavis ganadgurebisken mimarTuli moqmedebaa. `did diqtatorSi~ ekranzea zarbazani, romelsac jariskaci ver imorCilebs da uneburi motrialebis Sedegad Tavisianebs bombavs.11 filmi datvirTulia simboloebiT. sainteresoa erT-erTi epizodi, rodesac TviTgandidebis maniiT Sepyrobili hinkeli `msoflios~ xelSi aTamaSebs: xan xelze daisvams, aburTavebs da Jonglioruli nebivrobiT mklavze gadaigorebs globuss. sainteresoa aseve epizodi, rodesac diqtatori gamosvlis dros xelSi iyvans Cvil bavSvs da Semdeg saguldagulod iwmends xelebs. `did diqtatorSi~ Caplinma ukanaskneli Carli aCvena da amgvarad kinoxelovnebis erTi periodi Seajama. socialuri satira, romelic misi xangrZlivi moRvaweobis gamWol motivs warmoadgenda, politikuri satiriT Secvala.12 1952 wels Carli Caplinma gadaiRo `rampis CiraRdnebi~.

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es iyo e. w. `filmi-gamoTxoveba~. filmis azrobrivi datvirTva kalveros xandazmulobis tragediaa. axalgazrduli aRmafrena da aqedan gamomdinare SemoqmedebiTi impulsi mxolod mis mogonebaSi darCa. Tu manamde Caplinis gmirs SemoqmedebiT STagonebas qalisadmi siyvaruli karnaxobda, `rampis CiraRdnebSi~ es siyvaruli mama-Svilurma urTierTobam Secvala. kalvero patronobs mocekvave qals, STaunergavs mas sicocxlis xalissa da Semoqmedebis Zalas, Seasrulebs mamobriv misias da nebayoflobiT gzidan ecleba mas. komikosis xelovnebis gagrZelebas da ukvdavebas kalvero sruliad sxva dargis warmomadgenlis, mocekvave teras SemoqmedebaSi xedavs. igi moscilda scenas, magram amave scenaze niWieri mocekvave datova. sicocxlis gagrZelebis sazrisi `rampis CiraRdnebis~ pesimizms imedis naperwkaliviT axlavs. filmSi Caplini gviCvenebs Cveni saukunis pirveli aTwleulis klounebisa da komikosebis ostatobas. scenebi, romlebSic Caplini araCveulebrivi gamomxatvelobiTa da TvalsaCinoebiTY axdens am xelovnebis demonstrirebas. am filmSi Caplinis mier Seqmnili saxe _ Carlis saxe araa, is ukve TviT Semoqmedis saxea, romelic cotaTi uswrebs dros. esaa filmi kalverosa da, SeiZleba iTqvas, TviT Semoqmedis xandazmulobis tragediaze. ai, ra Tqva Caplinma evropaSi sacxovreblad gadasvlamde: `me miyvars tragedia. me miyvars tragedia, imitom rom igi Zalze lamazia, CemTvis ki silamaze _ yvelaze mniSvnelovania, radgan me varsebob xelovnebaSi da cxovrebaSi. komediaze Rirs iwvalo, Tu iq i povni ai am silamazes, magram es Zalze Znelia".13 Caplinma Tavis SemoqmedebaSi mxatvrulad gaiazra mTeli epoqa, winaswar ganWvrita Zireuli problemebi: adamianis bedi da misi gaucxoeba Tanamedrove garemosa da sazogadoebaSi, teqnikuri progresis meore damangreveli mxare, omis absurduloba. Cven WeSmaritad vicnobT da gviyvars Caplini, rogorc cxovrebis namdvili mxatvari. yovelTvis vicodiT, rom am

komikosi msaxiobis ostatobaSi aris siRrme da sibrZne. mudam vafasebdiT da gviyvarda misi maRali xelovneba, CvenTvis ar yofila moulodneli is garemoeba, rom igi erT-erTi pirveli aRmoCnda faSizmis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. vicodiT, rom is sxvagvarad ver moiqceoda. araferia moulodneli imaSic, rom Caplins _ msoflios erT-erT udides xelovans, amgvarad sapatio adgili uWiravs mSvidobisa da kacobriobis naTeli momavlisaTvis mebrZolTa rigebSi.

1. n. kovarski, Carli Caplini. krebulSi `msoflio ekranis komikosebi". Tbilisi, `xelovneba", 1971, gv. 19. 2. cit.: n. amirejibi, `sinematografidan kinoxelovnebamde". Tb., 1990, gv. 52. 3. n. kovarski, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 19. 4. iqve, gv. 20. 5. r. kleri, fiqrebi kinoxelovnebaze, moskovi, `iskustvo", 1958, gv. 56 (rusul enaze). 6. n. amirejibi. dasax. naSr., gv. 61. 7. iqve, gv. 62. 8. n. kovarski, dasax. naSr., gv. 23. 9. iqve, gv. 27. 10. iqve, gv. 32. 11. n. amirejibi, dasax. naSr., gv. 71. 12. iqve, gv. 78. 13. n. kovarski, dasax. naSr., gv. 41.

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Tamar kobiZe ivane mrisxaneSi proecirebuli eizenSteini: motivTa brZola da sakuTar Tavze gamarjveba sergei eizenSteinis Semoqmedebis mkvlevari dominik fernandesi reJisoris Sesaxeb gamocemul Tavis monografiaSi aRwers film `ivane mrisxanes~ Seqmnis istorias: `filmi CaeSva warmoebaSi 1941 wels, sul mokle xanSi hitleruli germaniis Tavdasxmis Semdeg. misi pirveli nawili naCvenebi iyo 1944 wels da man stalinuri premia daimsaxura. meore nawilis montaJi dasrulda 1946 wlis TebervalSi. cenzuram veto daado films. 1946 wlis TebervalSi eizenSteins daemarTa pirveli infarqti, xolo samuSaoTa damTavrebidan ramdenime dRis Semdeg, 1948 wlis 11 Tebervals, gardaicvala meore infarqtisagan. `ivane mrisxanes~ meore nawili mxolod reJisoris gardacvalebis meaTe wlis Tavze, 1958 wels, iqna naCvenebi~.1 aseTiaFfaqtebi. magram ra dgas am mSrali qronologiis miRma? germanel imperialistTa pirispir aRmoCenili ruseTis mosaxleobisaTvis, romelsac maTgan dapyrobis safrTxe emuqreboda, unda CaenergaT patriotizmi da sakuTari Tavis rwmena. amitomac TviT stalinis mier iyo miRebuli `ivane mrisxanes~ ekranizaciis gadawyvetileba, sadac ivanes saxiT warmoadgendnen erovnul gmirs, romlis saxelic rusTa gulebs samSoblosaTvis sabrZolvelad ganawyobda. es metad sapasuxismgeblo misia `aleqsandre nevelis~ avtors _ eizenSteins _ daekisra. ra cnobebs flobda xsenebul Temaze am droisaTvis ukve saxelganTqmuli reJisori? rusul istoriografiaSi mefeze sapirispiro mosazrebebi arsebobda, araTu mxolod sxvadasxva mkvlevrebSi, aramed erTsa da imave avtorTan, ivanes cxovrebis etapebTan mimarTebaSi. ase, magaliTad, `karamzini Tvlida, rom es pirovneba biografiis pirvel naxevarSi angeloziviT wminda iyo, xolo

meore naxevarSi _ monRolTa urdoze metad damRupveli ruseTisaTvis; polevoi ufro dadebiTi Sefasebisken ixreboda; belinskisaTvis ivane mrisxane iyo dacemuli angelozi, romelic TviT Tavis dacemis Jamsac avlenda rkinisebur nebisyofas da maRal gonebriv SesaZleblobebs~.2 kluCevski miiCnevda, rom `am amoucnob kacSi erTmaneTs enacvleboda didsulovneba da sinanuli, guliTadoba da uxeSi xumrobebi, sisastike da adamianebisadmi siZulvili~.3 amdenad, imisaTvis, rom beladis poziciis gaziareba gaemarTlebina, eizenSteins jer sakuTari Tavi unda daerwmunebina stalinis ivanesadmi damokidebulebis marTebulobaSi da cnobili istoriuli pirebis daskvnaTa Tamam kritikul Sefasebas iZleoda: `belinski xedavda `uwyinari~, lmobieri ivanes `mrisxaned~ gardasaxvas, magram ver acnobierebda am gardasaxvis istoriul mniSvnelobas, romelic imiT iyo ganpirobebuli, rom gaeerTianebina ruseTi, rasac ewinaaRmdegebodnen viwro mesakuTre feodali boiarebi~.4 am gadasaxedidan eizenSteini ivane mrisxanes "saxelmwifo ideis poet Semoqmedsac" ki uwodebda da Semdeg ukve SeeZlo is realuri mizezic gaemxila, romelic sinamdvileSi gaxldaT misi SemoqmedebiTi impulsi: `istoriuli personaJis xasiaTSi, werda reJisori, me damatyveva misma tragikulma gaorebam da imavdroulad, am gaorebis saocarma Serwymam erT pirovnebaSi; muSaobis procesSi Cemgan gancdili sixaruli da sinanuli TiTqos mefis bunebis TaviseburebaTa anabeWdad mqonda damCneuli~.5 es tragikuli gaoreba reJisorisaTvis martooden SemoqmedebiTi dainteresebis sababi rodi iyo _ aq adgili hqonda ivanes pirovnebisa da misi sakuTari pirovnebis mistikur damTxvevebsa da paralelebs. kluCevskis biografiul aRwerilobas Tu mivubrundebiT, iq mefis bavSvobis Semdeg suraTs vixilavT: `oblobaSi gazrdili ivane bavSvobidan yvelafers gansakuTrebuli sifrTxiliT ekideboda, adamianebis mimarT undoblobiT da WirveulobiT gamoirCeoda. bavSvobaSi mas

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xan anebivrebdnen, xan aRizianebdnen; xan eferebodnen, rogorc xelmwifes, xan Seuracxyofdnen, rogorc bavSvs~.6 eizenSteinic, Tumca oboli ar iyo, magram, erTmaneTs gacilebul dedasa da mamas Soris: mamisadmi, erTdroulad, keTilic rCeboda da verc itanda, rogorc despotizmis wina saxes; dedasTan erTdroulad TavSesafarsac eZebda da gaurboda kidec, rogorc sakuTari arasrulfasovnebis kompleqsis mizezs.7 zrdasruli eizenSteini isev bavSvobis kompleqsebiT iyo Sepyrobili, mtrobiTa da, Tanadroulad, SiSiT mamis mimarT. SiSi modioda mtrobisagan - mamis samyaros miuReblobiT: rodesac Svils garegnulad aqvs mamis siyvarulis movaleoba, magram gulis siRrmeSi mis mimarT siZulvils grZnobs.8 aqedan gamomdinare, rac Seexeba `gaorebas~, sakuTari Tavis proecirebis garda, mamis pirovnebiskenac xdeboda apelireba. kinomcodne n. zorkaia aRniSnavs: `drodadro ivane mrisxaneSi eizenSteini Tavis Tavs, anu patara bavSvs ki ar xedavda, romelic ver hguobda bavSvobidan mis garemomcvel samyaros, aramed _ tiranuli Zalis gamoxatulebas _ sakuTar mamas~.9 gavixsenoT reJisoris daufaravi aRiareba: `tirani mamebi ti piurni iyvnen me-19 saukunisaTvis, Cemma ki - meoces moatana. bavSvobidan: manJetebi da gaxamebuli sayelo iq, saca gaxeuli da melniT dasvrili Sarvali unda mcmoda. niadagi Cemi socialuri protestisaTvis ikvebeboda ara socialuri usamarTlobis wiaRidan, an materialuri daukmayofileblobis grZnobidan, aramed socialuri zewolis, saxeldobr, mamis ojaxuri tiraniisagan, rogorc tomis meTauris tiraniisagan pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi~.10 am frazebSi araorazrovnad aris gamovlenili froidiseuli filosofiuri intoqsikaciiT nasazrdoebi ideuri koncefcia da, aqedan gamomdinare, sruliad logikuria Tanamedrove mkvlevaris, kozlovis Sefasebac: `Tavis werilSi `rogor gavxdi reJisori~ (sadac gamomwvevi gulaxdiloba SenivTebulia natif ironiasTan), eizenSteini sakuTar Semoqmedebas uqvemdebarebs fsiqoanalizs, Tavis Tavs warmoadgens `araadamianur~ Semoqmedad, xolo filmebis siuJetebs _ sadizmis sublimaciis formad. Zneli

ar aris warmovidginoT, ra fasad ujdeboda mas ambivalenturi siyvarul-siZulvili~.11 mivmarToT TviT reJisoris aRiarebebs: `Cems filmebSi xvreten adamianTa brboebs, floqvebiT amsxvreven miwaSi yelamde Cafluli ymebis Tavis qalebs, Wyleten bavSvebs odesis kibeebze, agdeben saxuravebidan (`gaficva~), mosaklavad aZleven TavianT mSoblebs (`Calis mdelo~), ekranze namdvili sisxlisagan iclebian xarebi (`gaficva~) an sisxlis surogatisagan _ msaxiobebi (`potiomkini~); erT filmSi wamlaven xarebs (`Zveli da axali~), sxvaSi _ dedoflebs (`ivane mrisxane~), mokluli cxeni gadaekideba gadaxsnil xidze (`oqtomberi~), isrebi erWoba meserze gakrul adamianebs alyaSi moqceul yazanSi (`ivane mrisxane~) da gana SemTxveviTia, rom wlebis manZilze Cemi sayvareli gmiri iyos ara sxva vinme, aramed ivane vasilis Ze mrisxane!~12 1943 wlis dekemberSi, gadaRebebis 32 uZilo Ramis Semdeg eizenSteini Tavis dRiurSi wers: `grZnobaa siZulvilisa... siZulvilisa ivane mrisxanesadmi, Semdeg pativmoyvareoba!~13 xolo es pativmoyvareoba, rarig gasakviric ar unda iyos, adis TviT umaRlesi xelisuflis donemde: `ivane keTilia - ramdenadac piradulia, upirveles yovlisa - is aris nazavi Cemi da Cveni drois wamyvani figurisa!~14 ase da amrigad, aRWurvili sakuTari, beladisa da mefiseuli Tvisobrivi maxasiaTeblebiT, eizenSteini Seudga Tavis golgoTas da muSaobis procesSi sakuTari saqmianobis mTeli winaaRmdegobrivi arsi srulad gadmosca Tavis mogonebebSi: `ivane mrisxanes xasiaTis Taviseburebebma, werda igi, araTu mxolod CamiTries, aramed mis Sinagan konfliqtebSi CaRrmavebis survilma savsebiT daCrdila obieqturi saxelmwifoebrivi qmedebebis srulyofilad gadmocemis gegma Cems filmSi, sadac upiratesad aisaxa Sinagan winaaRmdegobaTa gadalaxvis procesebi TviT ivanes pirovnebaSi. aman gamoiwvia yuradRebis centris gadatana umTavresidan, erTiani saxelmwifos mSeneblobidan, meorexarisxovanze _ mSeneblis Sinagani tragediis gaxsnaze. nawilobriv aqedanac ibadeba mTeli Semdgomi usiamovnebebis saTave...~15 swored am `meorexarisxovans~ gulisxmobda fernandesi,

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rodesac werda, rom `sinamdvileSi arc mkacri mefe da arc mefe reformatori ar ainteresebda eizenSteins, igi ivane mrisxanes sxva mniSvnelobas aniWebda!~16 es `sxva~ ki mefisa da sakuTari tragediis SeTanadebiT ivane mrisxanes mefobis daskvniT nawilSi unda gamoCeniliyo. Tu isev fernandess davesesxebiT: `Tuki pirvel nawilSi reJisori uCvenebs mefes Zalauflebis gafurCqvnis periodSi, romelic ibrZvis ruseTis sagareo sazRvrebis gamagrebisa da Sinagani mtrebis _ boiarebis Zalauflebis alagmvisaTvis, meore nawilSi naCvenebia adamiani, visi mefuri sidiadec qve aris damxobili udidesi fsiqologiuri ubedurebis SegrZnebiT~.17 am movlenis asaxvisas, ukve sadReisod, mkvlevarebi erTmaneTis msgavs Sefasebebs iZlevian. Cven mier ukve citirebuli kozlovi wers: `eizenSteinis mier dasaxuli erTmmarTvelobis apologia Tavidan gardaisaxeboda erTmmarTvelobis tragediad, xolo yvela meTodisa da saSualebis gamamarTlebeli diadi miznis idea _ icvleboda kiTxviT im saSineli fasis Sesaxeb, romelic unda gaRebuliyo am miznis misaRwevad~.18 igive mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli eizenSteinis biografis, naum kleimanis, mier: `eizenSteins surda ivane mrisxanesaTvis xotba aRevlina, magram sakuTari genialobis gamo es ver SeZlo da gamarTlebis nacvlad gamouvida braldeba... eizenSteini hgavda mikrobiologs, romelic sakuTar Tavze atarebs cdebs~.19 sxvaTa Soris, imave avtors mohyavs metafizikuri wanamZRvrebi _ avtoris adreul filmTan dakavSirebuli, ramac, misi azriT, gavlena moaxdina reJisoris mTel Semoqmedebaze.Aai, es mosazrebac: `eizenSteinma daiwyo muSaoba `Calis mdeloze~. gadaReba daiwyo 35-Si da Sewyvita 36-Si, rodesac moxvda saavadmyofoSi `Savi yvavilis~ umZimesi formiT. es iyo TiTqmis mistikuri istoria _ im droisaTvis `Savi yvavilis~ erTaderTi SemTxveva mTel moskovSi! filmis gadamRebi jgufidan mxolod igi daavadda realur eklesiaSi samarovanis gaxsnisas. rogorc Cans, XVIII saukuneSi romeliRac sasuliero piri `yvaviliT~ gardaicvala da es mZime sasjeli swored eizenSteins ergo, romelic im dros

iRebda eklesiis ganadgurebis epizods. aman didi gavlena moaxdina mis pirovnebaze da eizenSteinma bevri ram gadaaxalisa Tavis SemoqmedebaSi~.20 sagangebod unda aRvniSnoT, rom sakuTar pirovnul TvisebebTan erTad am mistikur biografiul epizods, cxadia, SeeZlo gadamwyveti roli eTamaSa ivane mrisxanes rolis xorcSesxmisaTvis da erTsaxovnad aRtacebulobis SaravandedSi ar moeqcia is mefe, romlis monologi gulis SemZvreli sityvebiT aqvs gadmocemuli istorikos kluCevskis: `sxeuli gamomefita, suli avadobs, sulieri da fizikuri Wrilobebi gamimravldnen, ar arsebobs eqimi, romelic damxsnida am snebas; velodi, vinme mosuliyo TanagrZnobisaTvis da _ aravin movida, sikeTeze borotebiT mpasuxoben, siyvarulze _ siZulviliT~.21 da ai, eizenSteini ivanes biografiis pirveli naxevris Semdeg iRebs meore serias. es filmi sruli saxiT stalins sWirdeba imdenad, ramdenadac mas surs, ivane mrisxane aRdgenili da masobriv SemecnebaSi reabilitirebuli da gandidebuli ixilos, rogorc TviT misi _ belad stalinis _ winamorbedi! rodesac stalins ekiTxebian, SeiZleba Tu ara misi petre pirvelTan Sedareba, is jiutad pasuxobs `aras~, xolo ivane m r i s x a n e s T a n S e d a r e b a s - T a n x m d e b a ! 22 r o g o r c mravalmniSvnelovnad SeniSnavs boris pasternaki: `Cvens keTilismyofels eCveneba, rom aqamde Zalian sentimentalurni viyaviT da droa, gons movegoT. petre pirveli ukve araSesaferis pirovnebad iTvleba. Riad aris gacxadebuli axali gataceba - ivane mrisxane, `opriCnina~, sisastike... am Temebze iwereba axali operebi, dramebi da scenarebi. xumroba rodia!~23 ivane mrisxane warmoCenili unda iyos, rogorc progresuli saxelmwifo moRvawe da opriCnina - rogorc xelisuflebis warmmarTveli yvelaze mizanSewonili instrumenti! 24 stalinisTvis diaxac saprogramoa ivanes TviTmpyrobeluri postulati: `ori romi daeca, mesame moskovi dgas, meoTxe romi ki aRar iqneba. mesame roms, moskovur `derJavas~ erTaderTi mepatrone hyavs - es me var!~25 eizenSteini ki rasa iqms? iRebs mamxilebel films

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gaorebul pirovnebaze misTvis Cveul garemoebaTa da pirovnebebis hi pertrofirebuli asaxviT.26 ivane jer xom boiarTa ajanyebis aRmkveTi da rusuli miwebis gamaerTianebeli iyo pirvel seriaSi da meore seriaSi xatavs suraTs sakuTari xalxis damrbevze, istoriuli rusuli qalaqis _ novgorodis gamanadgurebelze, moskovuri CamoxrCobebis organizatorze, Svilis mkvlel mamaze da Tanac ise, rom filmSi srul asaxvas povebs pirovnebisa da qveynis tragedia. amave dros mTeli filmi agebulia igavsityvierebaze. andrei tarkovskis marTebuli SeniSvniT: `es filmi araTu mxolod mTlianobaSia ieroglifi, igi nawil-nawiladac ieroglifebisagan Sedgeba - msxvili, wvrili da uwvrilesi ieroglifebisagan - masSi erTi detalic ki ar aris, rom faruli sazrisiT ar iyos datvirTuli!~27 eizenSteinma samTavrobo davaleba miiRo garegnuli morCilebiT, damkveTebi, albaT, gamoricxavdnen reJisoris mier miRebul TviTmkvlelobis tolfas gadawyvetilebas _ idealuri xelisuflis nacvlad gamoesaxa sisxlismsmeli tirani, visTan msgavsebac saqebari ki ara, saZraxisi da mamxilebeli iqneboda. maT ver gaTvales, rom saqme aqvT xelovanTan, romelsac, misive daxasiaTebiT, TviT sakuTari Tavis sasworze Segdebis fasad arafrad uRirs `don-kixoturi gamoxtomebi~! reJisors ukve pirvel seriaSive hqonda miniSnebuli da meoreSi ganamtkica Tvalsazrisi, rom erTi adamianis SeuzRudavi xelisufleba - sxvebze ganvrcobili, am adamians amsgavsebs ara RmerTs, aramed - eSmaks. amadac aTqmevinebs eizenSteini mitropolit fili pes ivanesaTvis: `Seni zraxvebi RmerTisgan ki ara, eSmakisagan aris!~28 eizenSteins mtkiced swams, rom: `SeiZleba Zaladobis axsna, dakanoneba, dasabuTeba, magram ar SeiZleba misi gamarTleba, Tu Sen adamiani xar!~29 stalinuri reJimi moiTxovda, ivane mrisxane gamoeyvanaT qveynis interesebis damcvelad, istoriuli faqtebi ki jiutad RaRadebdnen mis paranoialobasa da devnis maniiT Sepyrobilobas!30 ekranze saocari ram aRibeWda: TiTqos mizidulobis ori centri gaCnda _ erTma politikuri Tema miizida, meorem _ fsiqologiuri; anu _ erTi ivane mrisxanes

moRvaweobis oficialur koncefcias asaxavda, meore ki _ epoqis tragikul suls! da es centrebi ganlagebuli iyo: pirveli _ pirvel seriaSi, meore _ meore seriaSi.31 reJisori mixeil romi igonebs daskvniTi nawilis gadaRebasTan dakavSirebul imdroindel STabeWdilebebs: `eizenSteins pirdapir veravin gaumxila, rom ivane mrisxaneSi mZafrad igrZnoboda miniSneba stalinze, maliuta skuratovSi _ beriaze, opriCnikebSi _ mis damqaSebze. kidev sxva rameebic davinaxeT, magram ver gavbedeT Tqma. magram eizenSteinis kadnier qcevaSi, misi Tvalebis elvarebaSi, mis gamomwvev, skeptikur RimilSi vgrZnobdiT, rom is moqmedebda Segnebulad, rom man gadawyvita jiqur svla!~32 amasve adasturebs n. bleimani: `vekiTxebi, es Sinagani brZolebi, eWvebi, Cadenili saqcielis fiqriani gansja - es TiTqos puSkinis Temaa, magram Zalian rom waagavs Tanamedrove cxovrebis Tematikas? is ki mpasuxobs: _ da mec Tu esa msurs?~.33 igive azri aqvs gamoTqmuli msaxiob mixeil kuznecovs: `veubnebi _ sergei mixailoviC, ra xdeba? ai, 1200 boiari moklulia. mefe _ mrisxanea... raRas inaniebs? uecrad eizenSteini mpasuxobs: ai, stalinma ufro meti adamiani gaanadgura da ar inaniebs. naxos, iqneb moinanios kidec!~34 moinania Tu ara stalinma, es calke Temaa, magram `ivane mrisxanes~ meore seriis Semdeg ki danamdvilebiT ase Tqva: `filmi ki ara, raRac koSmaria!~ da beriamac daudastura: `ho, cudi deteqtivia~. dadgenilebis miRebac ar dauyovnebiaT: `reJisorma s. eizenSteinma gamoavlina uvicoba istoriuli faqtebis asaxvisas. ivane mrisxanes `opriCnikebis~ progresuli laSqari amerikuli `ku-klus-klanis~ magvari degeneratebis jgrod warmoadgina, xolo ivane mrisxane, Zlieri xasiaTisa da Tvisebebis adamiani, hamletismagvar susti xasiaTis da u nebi s y o f o a da m i a nad~ . 3 5 s x v a Ta S o r i s , sta l i ni gansakuTrebulad ukmexad ekideboda ivanes sarwmunoebisadmi mimarTebas filmsa Tu mefis pirad cxovrebaSi, radgan miaCnda, rom locvebSi dakarguli dro ivanes unda moexmarebina boiarebis jilagis amowyvetaSi. swored religia iyo, misi

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azriT, damnaSave, rom es ver moaswro.36 eizenSteins sicocxlis fasad uRirda filmis gadarCena da piradi audiencia iTxova beladTan, `xarvezebis gamosasworeblad~. stalinmac ar daamadla rCeva-darigebebi. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom ivaneSi igi Tavis `alter egos~ xedavda, savsebiT gasagebia misi damrigebluri paTosic: `Tqveni mefe uxerxemloa, usayvedura man reJisors, is hamletsa hgavs. ivane ki didi da brZeni kaci iyo... isic marTalia, rom is metismetad mkacri iyo. Tqven SegiZliaT uCvenoT misi sisastike, magram unda aRniSnoT, riT iyo es gamowveuli~.37 stalinTan piradi Sexvedris Semdeg da xarvezebis gamosworebis pirobis micemis kvalobaze, eizenSteinma miiRo filmze muSaobis gagrZelebis ufleba. es iyo Tavgametebuli kacis bolo gabrZoleba. `ar minda davixio ukan, Tavis gulis fiqrs andobda dRiurebs, im ivane mrisxanesagan, rogoradac is davxate scenarSi da pirvel seriaSi. ara maqvs istoriuli simarTlis gamrudebis da SemoqmedebiTi kredosgan gadaxvevis ufleba~ 38 magram ukve damdgariyo `yvelaze saSineli Semodg oma~. 39 reJis oris cxovrebaSi ver m oeswro wuTisoflisTvis gansazRvrul sakuTar samoqmedo programis asrulebas: `cxovrebaSi yovelTvis SeiZleba miaRwio simarTles _ Tu geyofa sicocxle~.40 mas ar eyo sicocxle. kidev erTi mistikuri istoria: sergei eizenSteinis axloblebi yvebodnen mis crurwmenebsa da bediswerisadmi brma morCilebaze. gansakuTrebiT es aisaxeboda ivane mrisxanesadmi damokidebulebaSi. eizenSteinma icoda, rom ivane xocavda yvelas, vinc ki mis pirovnebas exeboda _ ase, magaliTad, karamzini mokvda swored ivane mrisxanes biografiis kvlevis dros, `ruseTis saxelmwifos istoriaze~ muSaobis procesSi; aleqsei konstantines Ze tolstoi _ galeqsili trilogiis, `ivane mrisxanes~ werisas; aleqsei nikolozis Ze tolstoi _ ivane mrisxaneze dramatuli dilogiis Seqmnis Jams... avismomaswavebeli molodiniT Sepyrobilma reJisorma ZlivZlivobiT gamostyua Tavisi aRsasrulis Jamis uwyeba im dros masaviT alma-ataSi evakuirebul cnobil winaswarmetyvel volf mesings, romelmac sicocxlis xangrZlivoba 50 wliT

daudgina. marTlac ase moxda _ eizenSteini gardaicvala Tavis ormocdameaTe wlisTavze, saiubileo TariRidan meaTe dRes. sergei eizenSteini infarqtisagan gardaicvala. gardaicvala sakuTar samuSao magidasTan, gulis Setevisagan. samoqalaqo panaSvidi gaimarTa kinos saxlis did darbazSi. xalxi cota iyo - morekes studentebi. kinos cnobili muSakebic ki ar mosulan. sapatio yaraulSi mxolod is dabali kursis studentebi idgnen. etyoba, TanamSromelmareJisorebma ver gabedes kubosTan miaxloeba! esec kidev erT, daskvniT tragikul furclad Caiwera Semoqmedis biografiaSi. oTxi wlis Semdeg stalinma wamyvan reJisorebs daavala filmebis gadaReba gamoCenil istoriul pirovnebebze. ivane mrisxanes saxis ekranze xelaxali gacocxleba miendo ivane pirievs. magram am SekveTis Sesrulebas win stalinis sikvdili gadaeRoba, xolo beladis gardacvalebidan xuTi wlis Semdeg moixsna cenzura `ivane mrisxanis~ meore seriaze. es seria aRdga daviwyebis burusidan, rogorc misi avtoris gamarjveba sakuTar Tavze da SemoqmedebiTi Tavisuflebis damTrgunvel diqtatorul reJimze!

1. ., , -, "", 1995, . 156-157. 2. ., . 2 , . 2, , "-", 2006, . 125-126. 3. . . ., "", 1990, . 97-98. 4. ., , . 126. 5. iqve, gv. 125. 6. ., . ., . 95-96.

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7. ., . ., . 143-144. 8. http://www.sem40.ru/ourpeople/famous/16830/ 9. http://www.hronos.km.ru/biograf/eizen.html 10. http://www.bibliotekar.ru/eyzenshteyn/1.htm 11. " ". 1992, 15, . 29. 12. http:/www.bibliotekar.ru/eyzenshteyn/1.htm 13. " ". 1992, 15, . 33 14. http://www.bibliotekar.ru/eyzenshteyn/1.htm 15. . . ., . 420. 16. ., . ., . 163. 17. iqve, gv. 157-158. 18. " ", 1992, 15, . 22. 19. " ", 1999, 41, 25. 20. iqve, gv. 24. 21. ., . ., . 97. 22. http://www.lebed.com/1999/art1085.htm 23. " ", 1988, 6, . 218. 24. http://www.militera.lib.ru/research/suhodeev_vv/10.htm 25. http://www.russkoekino.ru/books/ruskino/ruskino-0046.shtml 26. http://www.sloveri,yandex.ru/dict/krugosvet/article/3/35/1007221/htm 27. " ", 1967, 4, . 32. 28. http://www.russkoekino.ru/books/ruskino/ruskino-0046.shtml 29. http://www.baiterek.kz/index.php?journal=29&page=451 30. http://www.newtimes.ru/magazine/2007/issue038/art_006.xml 31. http://www.hronos.km.ru/biograf/eizen.html 32. " ", 1992, 15, 37-38. 33. ., - . ., "", 1973, . 424-425. 34. " ", 1992, 15, . 35. 35. iqve, gv. 38-39. 36. http://www.lebed.com/1999/art1085.htm 37. http://www.inosmi.ru/translation/210190.html 38. http://www.militera.lib.ru/research/suhodeev_vv/10.html 39. http://www.bibliotekar.ru/eyzenshteyn/1.htm 40. iqve.

Nnino sulaZe realobad qceuli zRapari (uolt ilaias disni) `uolt disni, aris legenda, XX saukunis saxalxo gmiri. misi msoflio popularoba efuZneba idealebs, rasac misi gvari warmoadgens: optimizmi, SemoqmedebiToba, warmosaxva da TviTSeqmnili warmateba... man TxrobiT migvaaxlova momavlis warsulze. iseTi didi adamiani, rogorc uolt disnia, albaT, aRar daibadeba~1 _ es bolo winadadeba SeiZleba, marTlac, sadao iyos, am sityvebis avtoris mozRvavebul siyvaruls mivaweroT uolt disnis Semoqmedebis mimarT, magram imas ki namdvilad daveTanxmebi, rom uoltma msoflio animaciuri samyaro SeZra, misma feradma da xmovanma filmebma kari dauxSes teqnikurad sustsa da uRimRamo naxat films. multi plikacia mravali cdisa da dakvirvebis Sedegad Camoyalibda. disni multi plikaciuri filmis mamamTavari ar aris, magram man multi plikacia usaCinoes qmnilebad, WeSmarit brwyinvale didostatobis nimuSad aqcia.2 man yvela dajabna Tavisi ostatobiT, gamomsaxvelobiT, simkveTriTa da kinematografiulobiT. multi plikacia uolt disnis gareSe yvelasaTvis warmoudgenelia. disnis SemoqmedebiTi gza sakmaod mZime da Sromatevadi iyo, magram mas ocnebiTa da miznebiT miapobda. miznisaken mimaval gzaze man bevri damarcxeba iwvnia, sabolood ki miaRwia SemoqmedebiT mwvervalebs, TiTqmis yvela erovnul multi plikaciaSi pova mimdevrebi. misi SemoqmedebiTi areali mokrZalebuli multi plikaciuri studiidan daiwyo da globalur korporaciad iqca. uolter ilaias disni 1901 wels, 6 dekembers, a. S. S.-Si, CikagoSi _ ilinoisSi daibada. irlandiidan gadmoxvewili ojaxi puris fuls Zlivs Soulobda. uolti da misi oTxi da-Zma tkbileuliTa da saTamaSoebiT ganebivrebulni arasdros yofilan. es iyo erT-erTi mizezi imisa, rom SemdgomSi man sakuTari Semoqmedeba bavSvebs miuZRvna. disni pataraobidanve

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iyo gatacebuli xatviT. misi megobrebi Sinauri cxovelebi iyvnen, sxvaTa Soris, maTi `gaadamianureba~ uoltma mas Semdeg gadawyvita, roca bavSobaSi patara bu mokla. man es Zalian ganicada da daifica, rom cocxal arsebebs cudad arasodes moepyroboda. Tumca xSirad es `wesi~ adamianebze ar vrceldeboda. uolti bavSobidan muSaobda. kardakar arigebda gazeTebs, Jeles damamzadebel sawarmoSi damxmare muSaAiyo, aWedebda yuTebs, urevda xilfafas, recxavda qilebs da a. S. uolts bavSobaSi aRmoaCnda msaxiobis niWi. Carli Caplinis imitaciiT, megobrebs ma swavleblis miwveviT uyv eboda ambebs ilustraciebiT dafaze.3 mamis nebarTvis gareSe uolti RamRamobiT saxlidan i pareboda da adgilobriv TeatrSi komikur rolebSi iRebda monawileobas. kanzas-siTis samxatvro institutSi elementaruli ganaTleba miiRo, TabaSiridan gadmoxatvaSi gaiwafa xeli. man gaiara sagazeTo karikaturistTa kursebi, swored aq gamoCnda misi mxatvruli niWi. basri, mZafri, lakoniuri, Zalze metyveli, sasacilo naxati _ ai, ras unda msaxurobdes, misi azriT, mxatvris kalami.4 disnis erTi welic ar uswavlia, frontze gaiwvies da sanitaruli manqanis saWesTan dasves. mas erT brZolaSic ar miuRia monawileoba. omidan dabrunebulma gazeT `starSi~ daiwyo muSaoba, man aq iub aiverqsi gaicno. 1920 wels disni kanzas-sitis kinoreklamis kompaniaSi gadavida samuSaod. uolti nel-nela adioda simaRleebisaken, gaxda profesionali mxatvari, iRebda sxvadasxva SekveTas... disni cdilobda sainteresod da Sinaarsianad warmoedgina naxatebi, cdilobda rogorme gaemdidrebina moZravi naxatis gadaRebis xerxebi. male gamosavali i pova, gadawyvita suraTebi celuloidis qaRaldze daexata da mere erTmaneTze daewebebina. kompaniaSi man uzarmazar aparats miagno da Sin waiRo. es dRe RirsSesaniSnavia disnis cxovrebaSi. Zveli zanduki pirveli aguri iyo, mis SemoqmedebiT da damoukidebel TviTwarmoebaSi.5 didi Sromis Sedegad man damoukideblad gadaiRo filmi `sicilograma~. `sicilogramaze~ bevri SekveTa miiRo, rasac

saqmiani winadadebebic mohyva. u. disnim Camoayaliba firma `sicilogramis korporacia~, misi kapitali 15 aTas dolars Seadgenda. axla igi Tavad iwvevda samuSaod mxatvrebs, magram male `korporacia~ gakotrebulad gamoacxades, radgan firmis Semosavali Zalze mcire iyo. 1923 wels u. disni holivudSi gaemgzavra, sadac waiRo `alisa naxatebis qveyanaSi~. filmi aravis moewona. is, xan erT studias miadgeboda, xan meores, gadawyvetili hqonda, multi plikaciidan xeli aeRo, magram bedma gauRima da erTma biznesmenma mas 12 filmi (`alisa naxatebis qveyanaSi~) SeukveTa. imJamad a. S. S. ­ is multi plikaciaSi didi popularobiT sargeblobda mxatvar pat salivenis _ kata feliqsi. uoltmac gadawyvita Seeqmna msgavsi personaJi da Seqmna komikuri kurdReli _ man kurdRels grZeli yurebi da fexebi gamoaba, girCasaviT gluvi kudiT daamSvena6 ­ saxelad osvaldi daarqva, magram mas damuSavebuli da Semowmebuli personaJi Tvalsa da xels Sua aarTves (komersantma, romelic uolts afinansebda). amis Semdeg daibada Taguna, mis SeqmnaSi uolts didi daxmareba iub aiverqsma gauwia. Tavidan Tagunas mortimeri erqva, saxelma ar gaamarTla, amis Semdeg miki mausi daarqva. miki mausis dabadebis dRed 1928 wlis 18 noemberi iTvleba, rodesac ekranze multfilmi `uilis gemi~ gamovida. es aris pi rveli m ultfil mi, sadac xma sinqro nizebul ia gamosaxulebasTan. disnis Svilebi STaagonebdnen Seeqmna axal-axali gmirebi: mikis mohyva donaldi, ZaRli gufi, pliuto, ucnauri pingvinebi mini mausi da a. S. gmirTa dabadebis sxvadasxva xerxebia cnobili. disni, roca ixvs xatavda,ATan fiqrobda: `raki ixvia, wyali eyvareba, vinaa yvelaze ufro daaxloebuli wyalTan? ra Tqma unda, mezRvauri, maSin movrToT isic mezRvauriviT~.7 Tavidan axali gmirs saxeli ar hqonda, mayurebelma igi miamsgavsa franklin elano ruzveltis mTavrobis erT-erT moRvawes _ Sinagan saqmeTa ministrs harold aiqss, metsaxelad `beber qofaks~, imasac ki xumrobdnen: `ver gagvigia, donaldi baZavs aiqss, Tu, piriqiT, aiqsi _ donaldoso~.8

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disnis surda, srulmetraJiani multi plikaciuri filmi gadaeRo. bevri fiqrobda, rom misi survili realobas moklebuli iyo, radgan multfilmi mayureblis yuradRebas 3-wuTiani drois monakveTze met xans ver SeinarCunebda. amis miuxedavad disnim gariska. riskma gaumarTla. 1937 wels ekranze gamovida Sarl peros mixedviT gadaRebuli srulmetraJiani multiplikaciuri filmi `fifqia da Svidi juja~. filmis premiera 21 dekembers los-anJelesSi Sedga. fifqiasTvis milionamde naxati gakeTda, filmSi mxolod 250 aTasi Sevida. sarekordo SemosavliT `fifqia da Svidi juja~ iqca yvela drois udides filmad, sanam mas ar ajoba filmma `qarwaRebulni~.9 `fifqia da Svidi jujis Semdeg~ disnim gadaiRo: `pinoqio~ (1940) k. kolodis fsevdonimiT cnobili italieli mwerlis karlo lorenzis zRapris mixedviT (Semdeg es zRapari a. tolstoim `buratinos TavgadasavalSi~ gadmogvca), `dambo~ (1941), fantazia (1942). am filmiT disnim multi plikaciaSi axali sityva Tqva. `fantazia~ Sedgeba somfoniuri musikaluri grZeli frangmetebisagan, rasac naxatTa moZraoba axlavs Tan. `fantaziaSi~ gaerTianebulia Caikovskis, ponvielis, diukis, musorgskis, stravinskis, Subertis, beThovenis nawarmoebebi. kritikosebma, mxatvrebma, musikosebma, kinematografistebma `fantazia~ gaacamtveres. amas mohyva `konkia~ (1950), `piter peni~ (1955) jems baris saTavgadasavlo romanis mixedviT, `bembi~ (1942) avstrieli mwerlis feliqs zaltenis moTxrobis ekranizacia, `urCxuli da mzeTunaxavi~ (1959), `as erTi dalmatineli~ (1961), `meri popinsi~ (1964); am ukanasknelSi kombinirebuli iyo cocxali moqmedeba, animacia da animatriniqsi da sxva filmebi. u. disnis katalogi daaxloebiT 107-mde multi plikaciur da dokumentur da mxatvrul films iTvlis. saukeTeso teqnikuri aparatura, SesaniSanvi studia, disnis xels uwyobda suli STaebera Tavisive CanafiqrisaTvis, amitom misi produqcia Zalian mdidaria, asaxulia rogorc warsuli, ise Tanamedroveoba, Tavgadasavali da yoveldRiuroba, cxovrebisa da bunebis suraTebi. disnim Tavis multfilmebSi zRvari

gaavlo or samyaros Soris, bednieri samyaros ubralo adamianebiT da sayvareli cxovelebiT daupirispira jadoqari dedofali da misi cixe-simagre, boroti qveSverdomebiT savse da a. S. misma namuSevrebma 19 `oskari~ da 14 sxva prizi aiRo veneciis, berlinis da kanis kinofestivalebze. `Cemi filmebi ekuTvnis im adamianebs, romelTac sicilisa da tirilis unari jerac ar daukargavT!~ _ ambobda disni.10 man Seqmna uaRresad pirobiTi personaJebi, xandaxan Zneli amosacnobia cxovelebi arian, isini Tu adamianebi, amas disnim `daujereblis damajerebloba uwoda.11 adamianebiviT Cacmulni adamianTa wes-Cveulebebs emorCilebian, magram buneba mainc cxoveluri aqvT. yoveldRiuri yofidan aRebuli qcevebi, saRi TvaliTaa danaxuli, am yovelives ki fonad satiruli sarCuli gasdevs. miki mausi, mini mausi,Ppluto, gufi, donaldi da a. S. _ yvela Tavisi individualuri xasiaTiT gamoirCeva, faTerakebiT savse samyaroSi cxovroben da xandaxan imis garCevac ki gviWirs _ keTilebi arian Tu borotebi? maTi komikuri triukebi mayurebels mxiarul ganwyobaze ayenebs, satiruli sarCuliT gasdevs TiTqmis yvela serias, `Cemi ­ azriT, iumorma stilTan erTad cremlebic unda moggvaros!~12 _ SeniSnavda disni. u. disni naturas zedmiwevniT aRwers, gamosaxuleba iSviaTi sizustiTaa Sesrulebuli, moqmedebis adgilebi uwvrilmanesi detalebi, personaJTa garegnoba, mimika, Jesti, moZraobis yvela impulsi saocari sizustiT da faqizadaa damuSavebuli. am detalebisaTvis yuradReba disnimde aravis miuqcevia. u. disnis stilma Rrmad gaidga fesvebi: sagazeTo, saJuranlo da sabavSvo wignebis grafikaSi. (ara marto aSS-is aramed mis farglebsac gascda). XX saukunis 40-iani wlebis meore naxevridan disnim daRmavloba daiwyo. disnis winaaRmdegobas amerikeli da evropeli multi plikatorebi uwevdnen. es `Tanamedrove novatorebi~ disnis uwunebdnen, rom misi filmebi gamomdinareobda sagazeTo karikaturebidan, popularuli ilustraciidan da ara Tanamedrove normebidan da formebidan, romlebic `epoqis moTxovnebs upasuxebdnen~. maTi azriT,

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amgv ar moTxovnebs mxolod modernistul i da abstraqcionistuli xelovneba gaarTmevda Tavs. disni Tavisi ironiul-fantastikuri da eqscentrikuli xelovnebiT, realizmis gaafTrebul mterTa banakSi moeqca. 1 2 am mowinaaRmdegeebs aRmofxvra undodaTA im realisturi princi pebis, romelsac disni icavda. 1943 wels Camoyalibda sawarmoo organizacia `iunaitet prodaqSen of amerika~ (i pa). `i pas~ farTo qseli hqonda gabmuli ganaxlebis msurvelebTan. `i pas~ erTgulma monawile jon halsma cnobil inglisel Teoretikoss r. manvelTan erTad dawera wigni multiplikaciis teqnikaze. wignSi avtori xotbas asxams multi plikaciis xelovnebaSi xazebisa da saRebavebis ganaxlebul stils da amis damadastureblad mohyavs ori gvari: halsi da betCeloni. (pirveli Tavad aris, betCeloni ki misi meuRlea.) wignSi kritikis qarcecxlSi atarebs `disnis mier Seryvnil TavSesaqcevsa da sabavSvo multi plikacias. misi azriT, igi unda Seicvalos mozrdilTaTvis praqtikuli daniSnulebis multi plikaciiT, romelic epoqis moTxovnebs gamoexmaureboda, magaliTad: sasoflo-sameurneo filmi `mesaqonleobis ferma~, es filmi akmayofilebda maRal moTxovnebs.13 sergei eizenSteinma multi plikacias `kinos yvelaze TavzexelaRebuli saxesxvaoba uwoda~.14 igi didad afasebda disnis warmatebebs, gansakuTrebiT xotbas asxamda moZraobisa da musikis urTierTSerwymas. mas uolt disni Tavis megobrad miaCnda, magram mainc kritikis qarcecxlSi atarebda peizaJisa da ferebis aramusikalurobis gamo. eizenSteinis azriT, disni `fifqiaSi~ zedmetad msuye ferebs xmarobda, xolo `bembiSi~ ferwera sinamdviles ar esatyviseboda. Tavad `bembi~ natifadaa Sesrulebuli, magram melodia im sakravze ar JRers, razedac unda JRerdes. melodia sworia, magram sxva tembria aRebuli. filmis foni uSno, naturalur naTxaps waagavs, gegonebaT gadmoxatuliao. misi azriT, mkveTri konturebiT moxatuli naxati rbili, nazi ferebiT unda Secvliliyo. amis naTelsayofad mas mohyavs CineTis peizaJis kultura.15 s. eizenSteini disnis or moTxovnas uyenebda: pirveli _

Cinuri grafikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nazi stiliT exata, xolo meore moTxovna exeboda axali amocanis gadaWras. ferTa monacvleoba mxolod da mxolod melodiis Sesatyvisi unda yofiliyo. msgavs amocanebs isaxavdnen abstraqcionistebi. eizenSteinis azriT, yvela maSindeli gadaRebuli filmi `ferTa katastrofas~ warmoadgenda `abstraqtuli~ naxati filmebi macdurni arian, _ amtkicebda disni, _ maT qmnian adamianebi, romlebsac arc fanqari emarjvebaT da arc yalami. isini haiharad Txi pnian da cdiloben, TvalismomWreli nimuSebiT miCqamalon ubadruki naxati...~17 amasTanave is miuTiTebda: burusiviT gafxorili adamianis msgavsi personaJis daxatvas ra unda? da albaT, imitom, rom es ioli saqmea. isini, visac metis unari ar SeswevT, amgvar xerxs dRevandel mimarTulebad acxadeben.18. marTlac, disnis ar SeeZlo, Tavisi filmebi uSinaarso naxatebad eqcia, amiT mas mayurebeli aRar eyoleboda da disnic `disni~ aRar iqneboda; anu, mas sul unda mietovebina is, rasac aqamde multi plikaciaSi miaRwia da Tavidan daewyo xatva sruliad axlebur, misTvis ucxo stilSi. mis fantazias frTebi aRar gaeSleboda da uSinaarso qmnilebebi mayurebels veRar miizidavdnen, mayurebeli ki Zalian bevri iyo da aris. igi multfilmebs qmnida ara erTeulebisaTvis, aramed mTeli msoflios patarebisaTvis da ara marto patarebisaTvis. cnobili amerikeli multi plikatori Cak jonsi ambobs: `multi plikaciis potenciuri SesaZleblobebi da sfero imdenad fantastikuria, rom maT SeiZleba, pirdapir usazRvro vuwodoT!~19 marTlac, ukideganoa multi plikaciis sazRvrebi. amas disnis Semoqmedebac mowmobs, magram isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom marto disni ar qmnida am filmebs, mis gverdiT Sromobdnen mxatvrebi, kompozitorebi, scenaris avtorebi, operatorebi da a. S. maTgan uolti maqsimalur muSaobas moiTxovda. 1941 wlamde titrebSi maT gvarebs disni ar werda, amis gamo mxatvrebma gaficvac moawyves da nawili uolts CamoSorda. uolti arc xelfasiT anebivrebda TanamSromlebs. mTeli Tavisi cxovreba ufulobas ganicdida

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da ambobda: `me iseT films ar davdgam, romelic mogebas ar momitanso~.20 swored materialurma Semosavalma misca uolts saSualeba, Seeqmna `jadosnuri qveyana~, sadac misi Seqmnili gmirebi `gacocxldebodnen~ da SeZlebdnen cxovrebas. 1955 wels man gegmis ganxorcieleba daiwyo. mis azrs zRapruli samyaros Seqmnaze seriozulad aravin aRiqvamda. disnim SeZlo da survili aisrula, Seqmna zRapruli qveyana, romelic msoflioSi TiTqmis yvela bavSvis da ara marto bavSvis, aramed mozardi adamianis, saocnebo adgilad iqca. `disnis qveyana~ _ `disnilendi~ holivudidan daaxloebiT 50 kilometris manZilze q. anaheimSi mdebareobs. gasarTobi centri male atraqcionebis parkidan disnis SemoqmedebiT eqsperimentul laboratoriad gadaiqca. maSin, rodesac amerika SiSma moicva: televiziis gamoCeniT kino iRupebao _ disni piriqiT, teqnikur siaxles ar SeuSinda da televiziasTan TanamSromloba daiwyo. pirdapir eTerSi `disnilendidan~ mihyavdaT gadacemebi. studiaSi satelevizio eqsturia moawyves da a. S. disni televiziis saSualebiT, sakuTar produqcias reklamas ukeTebda, fuls Tavad ki ar ixdida, aramed televizia uxdida. dainteresebul mayurebels SeeZlo sakuTari TvaliT enaxa gadaRebis procesebi. 1966 wlis 5 dekembers disnis dabadebidan 65 wlisTavi Seusrulda, es dRe sazeimod aRniSnes, xolo 10 dRis Semdeg uolt ilaias disni gardaicvala. misi gardacvalebis faqti ojaxis wevrebma dasaflavebis Semdeg ganacxades. misi studia kvlav agrZelebs muSaobas. misi reitingi ara Tu daeca, aramed ufro gafarTovda da gaizarda. msoflio xelmeored `dai pyro~. disnis studia dRemde ganagrZobs parkebisa da kurortebis gaSenebas, sadac cxovroben disnis jadosnuri `sayvareli gmirebi~, disnis sikvdilis Semdeg gaixsna parki `uolt disnis `qveyana~ disnilendis stilis Tematuri parkiT, otelebiT, `kempingebiT~, golfis moednebiT, maRaziebiT da erTxaziani rkinigziT, romelic akavSirebs amas yvelafers. 1983 wels, disnilendi~ gaixsna tokioSi, iaponelebs disnis Semoqmedeba Zalian uyvarT. tokios `disnilendma~ erT dRes

imaze meti miki mausi gayida, vidre xalxi iyo parkSi..21 1922 wels 12 aprils `disnilendi~ parizSic gaixsna. 1998 wels `disnis cxovelTa samyaro~ daarsda a. S. S.-Si da a. S. disnis studias aqvs sakuTari mediaqseli, romelic moicavs did sakuTrebas televiziaSi, radioSi da internetSi. disnis samomxmareblo produqcia aris erT-erTi yvelaze didi dampatentebeli msoflioSi. misi samomxmareblo produqcia moicavs saTamaSoebis saxlis dekorebs, wignebs, sakvebs, eleqtro nivTebs da sxva. yvelaferi ki 1929 wels daiwyo, rodesac disnis daukavSirda biznesmeni, romelsac surda, miki mausis sabavSvo bloknotebis ydaze moeTavsebina. disnis gamomcemloba aris msoflioSi pirveli sabavSvo gamomcemloba, is moicavs `Huperion Books~ bavSvebisaTvis, `Disney Press~ da `Disney Editons~. aseve uSvebs sabavSvo Jurnals a. S. S.-Si _ "Disney Adrenteres~ (`disnis Tavgadasavlebi~). uolt ilaias disnim udidesi wvlili Seitana multi plikaciis ganviTarebaSi. man istoriuli etapi Seqmna msoflio animaciaSi. uoltis mizani iyo, mosabezrebeli sainformacio komerciuli Stampi cocxali iumoriT Seevso. man pirvelma gamoiyena xma, rogorc gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxi, romelsac gamosaxulebasTan mWidro kavSiri aqvs. Tavad disnis stilis mowinaaRmdegenic ki aRiarebdnen mis `xelovnebas~, magaliTad, sergei eizenSteini wers: `roca mis qmnilebebs vuyureb, meCveneba, rom es kaci novatoria. misi Semoqmedebis aseTi srulyofileba SiSsac ki gvgvris. gvgonia, rom man ara marto icis yvela teqnikuri saSualebis magia, aramed igi adamianis dafarul fiqrebs da grZnobebs icnobs.~23 robert benaiuni modernistuli da abstraqcionistuli xelovnebis aSkara momxre, romelsac sZulda disni, qeds ixris misi xelovnebis winaSe: `disnim aziara farTo sazogadoeba multi plikacias, misi naxatebis ekranze gamoCena sicocxlis zeimia, amitom igi Rirsia didebisa.~24 disnis personaJebi, cota Secvlili formiT, msoflios sxvadasxva ekranze agrZeleben `sicocxles~. ruseTSi aseTi lozungic ki hqondaT, `SeqmeniT sabWoTa miki mausi~, marTlac,

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iqmnebodnen gmirebi, romlebic disniseul personaJebs hgavdnen xasiaTiTa da formiT. popularuli seria `aba damacade!~ pirdapir kavSirSia disnis multi plikaciasTan.25 multi plikaciuri xelovnebis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli i. ivanov-vano ambobda: `disnis mimbaZvelobas fuWad ar Cauvlia, mxolod misi meoxebiT davxveweT moZraobis teqnika, axali suli STavbereT Cvens gmirebs, meti damajerebloba SevZineT personaJTa aqtiorul TamaSs, xeli gaviwafeT sinqronulobasa da sasacilo ambebis dasuraTebaSio, magram, misi azriT, yovelive amis nacvlad SeiZleboda sxvagvarad mogveba Tavi! kerZod, Segveswavla da gagveanalizebina disnis teqnika.26 uolt disnim mxatvrebs xeli aaRebina sakuTar individualobaze da erovnuli TviTmyofadobis daTmoba aiZula. dro gadis, cxovreba grZeldeba, uolt ilaias disneis filmebi ki aqtualobas ar kargaven, mxolod niWier genioss SeuZlia Seqmnas Sedevrebi, romelnic dros gauZleben da didi Tu patara siamovnebiT uyurebs. Carlz spenser Caplinis Semdeg uolt disnis Semoqmedeba erT-erTi pirvelia, romelsac dro, albaT, verafers daaklebs. uolt ilaias disnim zRapari realobad aqcia, misi saxeli ki damkvidrda, rogorc `SemoqmedebiTobis, inovaciebis da warmatebis simbolo~.27

12. iqve, gv. 147. 13. iqve, gv. 181. 14. iqve, gv. 175-176. 15. ., , 6 , III. , «», 1964, . 513. 16. e. arnoldi, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 108-109. 17. iqve, gv. 111. 18. cit.: iqve, gv. 182. 19. cit.: iqve, gv. 182. 20. Jones C. Animation is a Nakcd Art-Topcel 4, 1967, p. 2. 21. e. arnoldi, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 167. 22. http://corporate.disney. go. com/ corporate / complete -hestory htm/ 23. ., . ., . 440. 24. e. arnoldi, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 169. 25. , 1997, # 11 (35). 26. e. arnoldi, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 171. 27. http://corporate.disney. go. com/ corporate / complete -hestory htm/

1. http: // www. justdisney. com/ WaltDisney 100/biography O/. htm/ 2. e. arnoldi, uolt disnis cxovreba da zRapari, Tbilisi, `xelovneba~, 1979, gv. 33. 3. http: //www. justdisney. com/ WaltDisney 100/biography O/. htm/ 4. e. arnoldi, dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 7. 5. iqve gv. 16. 6. iqve gv. 30. 7. cit: iqve gv. 54. 8. iqve, gv. 55. 9. http://corporate.disney. go. com/ corporate / complete -history htm/ 10. cit: e. arnoldi, das. naSr. gv, 182-183. 11. iqve, gv. 32.

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sofio wulaia qveynierebis apokalifsis sami SesaZlo versia stenli kubrikis SemoqmedebaSi kinoTi odnav mainc xar Tu dainteresebuli da garkveuli warmodgena gaqvs mis mier ganvlil, xelovnebis sxva dargebTan SedarebiT xanmokle, magram sakmaod mravalplastur gzaze, romelic yvelanairad cdilobs fexdafex mihyves adamianis cnobierebis mudmivi transformirebis urTules process da aTwleulebis intervaliT warmoudgeneli siswrafiT icvleba, Zveldeba da gamudmebiT iswrafvis ganaxlebisken, Znelia, Seni yuradReba ar mii pyros iseTma kinoreJisorma, romelic gamoirCeva Janruli mravalferovnebiT, Rrma da mravalmxrivi inteleqtiT, originaluri xedviT da rac yvelaze TvalSisacemia, mis Semoqmedebaze dakvirvebisas, momavlis ganWvretis araCveulebrivi niWiT, unariT, absoluturi identurobiT moaxdinos im prioritetebis reprezentireba, romelic aTwleulebis Semdeg ganmsazRvreli iqneba adamianis yofierebisa da cnobierebis CamoyalibebaSi. `is geniosia, naxSiriviT Savi iumoriT~, ­ wers Tavis sagazeTo interviuSi malkolm makdaueli,1 msaxiobi, romelic am genioss unda umadlodes msoflio kinos istoriaSi erT-erTi dauviwyari kinosaxis Seqmnas. stenli kubriki arasodes yofila `salaros reJisori~, `bestseleris~ ekranizaciac mxolod erTxel scada da isic uSedegod (igulisxmeba vl. nabokovis gaxmaurebuli romanis ,,lolitas" ekranizacia). ucnauria mis literaturasTan mWidrod gadaxlarTuli Semoqmedeba (kubrikis yvela srulmetraJiani filmi ekranizaciaa), romelsac literaturul pirvelwyarosTan TiTqmis araferi aqvs saerTo, garegnoba, romelic, erTdroulad, profesorsac mogvagonebs da 60-iani wlebis pirmSos, hi psac; ucnauria kinoSi moRvaweobis TiTqmis 50 wlis ganmavlobaSi gadaRebuli mxolod 13 filmi; ucnauria misi cxovrebis gza, miuxedavad amisa, masze

gulgrilad ver saubrobs verc profesionali da verc kinomoyvaruli. artur klarki, fantastikuri Janris literaturis erT-erTi saukeTeso mwerali da film ,,kosmosuri odisea ­ 2001 weli~ scenaris Tanaavtori Tavis sagazeTo interviuSi wers: ,,Tu Tqven gaigebT am films, es imas niSnavs, rom Cven Cavardna ganvicadeT, radgan mizani kiTxvebis dasma iyo da ara am kiTxvebze pasuxebis gacema~.2 ase i pyrobs msoflio ekranebs kino, ,,romelic svams kiTxvebs~, da yvelas erTnairad itacebs, imas, visac misi met-naklebad esmis da imasac, visac filmis damTavrebis Semdeg uamravi pasuxgaucemeli kiTxva rCeba. kubrikis Semoqmedeba realobis da fantaziis, yofierebis da cnobierebis, klasikuris da Tanamedroveobis organuli sinTezia, aq yvelaferi erTad Tanaarsebobs: Jurnali ,,fleiboi~ da birTvuli raketa, klasikuri musika da roki, mecniereba da yviTeli presa, ,,koka-kolas~ aparati ki srul mzadyofnaSia ori saxelmwifos: sabWoTa kavSirisa da aSS-is mier wamowyebul birTvul avantiuraSi, romelic moulodnelad saxifaTo TamaSad gadaiqceva, mniSvnelovani gardatexa Seitanos da ,,kacobriobis mxsnelis~ roli SeiTavsos, garda imisa, rom msoflios abruebs jadosnuri yavisferi siTxiT da masobrivi moxmarebis umTavres produqtad iqceva. kubrikis filmebSi msoflio politika irekleba, 60-iani wlebi: karibis zRvis krizisi, atomuri bombi da masTan dakavSirebuli skandali, axalgazrduli moZraobebi, vietnamis omi, kontrkultura... da es yvelaferi gajerebulia warsuli gamocdilebiT ­ fsiq oanaliziT da misgan gamomdinare uamravi inteleqtualuri TeoriiT, romlis gaanalizebisas im kosmonavtis mdgomareobaSi aRmovCndebiT, romelmac kosmosSi uza rmaz ari i nfor macia mii Ro, m agra m azr ovnebis logocentrulobidan gamomdinare misi sityvebiT modelireba ver moaxerxa, radgan adamianis ena jer am mimarTulebiT ar ganviTarebula, ufro zustad, aracnobieri gacilebiT metia, vidre ubralod sityvebi. stenli kubriki 1928 wels daibada niu-iorkSi, aRmosavleT evropeli ebraelebis ojaxSi. mravalmxrivi interesebis gamo

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Tanatolebisgan adreuli asakidanve gamoirCeoda _ kargad TamaSobda Wadraks, ukravda dasartyam instrumentze da jazjgufis wevrobaze ocnebobda, bevrs kiTxulobda, kidev ufro mets iRebda (pirveli fotokamera mamam 13 wlis asakSi aCuqa). 40-ia ni wlebida n Jurnal `luqis~ wamyvani fotoreportioria. misi konodebiuti 1951 wels Sedga, magram farTo masebis yuradReba 1956 wels mii pyro filmiT ,,mkvleloba~, rasac mohyva ,,didebis bilikebi~ (1958 w.); Tumca, misi biografebi miiCneven, rom kubrikis Seswavla ,,spartakidan" (1960 w.) unda daiwyos. dgeba qariSxliani 60-iani wlebi, romelic Tavisi romantizmiT, idumalebis burusiT, miTebiT da legendebiT da Tavisuflebis gamZafrebuli surneliT, momaval Taobebs iseve axvevs Tavbrus, rogorc am epoqis araoficialur simbolod qceuli narkotiki L.C.D.. iqmneba e. w. `kontrkultura~, romelic ,,revoluciiT axali adamianis Seqmnas~3 isaxavs miznad. masobriv saprotesto aqciebs, romelic totalitaruli reJimis winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli, zed erTvis hi puri moZraobebi, romelTa komunebma mTeli amerika moicva. axalgazrdebi, romlebic quCaSi grZeli maisurebiT, kidev ufro grZeli TmebiT, gauparsavi wverebiT da daWrili jinsebiT gamovidnen, vietnamis oms aprotestebdnen. Tumca, es ar iyo mxolod gansxvavebuli cxovrebis wesi, es gansxvavebuli azrovneba, cxovrebis gansxvavebuli filosofia iyo, romelic Tavisi utopiurobis miuxedavad udidesi popularobiT sargeblobda. idea _ ,,ar SeiZleba burJuaziul ojaxSi fsiqikurad Camoyalibebuli adamiani daibados~ 4 da mizani ,,moespoT klasikuri burJuaziuli adamianis ti pi"5, araCveulebrivad ganxorcielda. ,,rTulia, i povo Tundac erTi aTwledi kulturis istoriaSi, sadac amdeni velurobaa, amdeni Tavdasxma adaT-Cvevebze, amxela degradacia literaturaSi, musikaSi da xelovnebis sxva dargebSi~.6 aseve, rTulia i povo Tundac erTi aTwledi kulturis istoriaSi, sadac amdeni cvlileba, RirebulebaTa gadafaseba moxda kinematografSi, literaturaSi, musikaSi... 60-ianelebma aCuqes msoflios endi uorholi da

klasikad qceuli pop-arti, bob dilani, `biTlzebi~, jimi hendriqsi, `makdonaldsi~ da `koka-kola~. vietnamSi omi mZvinvarebs, sadac ori saxelmwifo mesame qveynis teritoriaze erTmaneTs yovelgvari wesebis gareSe ebrZvis da musrs avlebs 10 000-obiT jariskacs. TermobirTvuli omis konfliqti piks aRwevs, romelic safrTxes uqmnis ara marto konkretul saxelmwifoebs, aramed, mTel kacobriobas, apokalifsi gardauvalia, xalxi samalavebs Txris, irgvliv yvela bombze saubrobs. . . kubriki ki iRebs films ucnauri saxelwodebiT ,,doqtori strainjlavi, anu, rogor Seviyvare da aRar meSinia atomuri bombis~. Sefasebac ar ayovnebs: `filmis gamosvlis Semdeg gaCnda imedi, rom kinematografs daRupva ar uweria~,7 `es aris yvelaze mZlavri politikuri satira, rac ki odesme Seqmnila amerikuli kinos istoriaSi, filmi ­ moulodneloba~.8 da marTlac, Znelad Tu moiZebneba iseTi nawarmoebi, romelic kacobriobis momavals ironiulad udgeba, miiCnevs ra, rom apokalifsi mainc gardauvalia. garSemo yvela SeSlila: prezidentebi, premierministrebi, oficrebi Tu generlebi... TiTqos, realurad ver afaseben Seqmnil situacias. miuxedavad mZlavri politikuri satirisa, es aris saocrad humanisturi da pacifisturi kinosuraTi, amitomac sargeblobda igi sazogadoebaSi aseTi didi popularobiT. es ar aris konkretuli dro da sivrce, es aris sigiJis zRvarze myofi msoflio, romelic xelovnurad axdens omis provocirebas da milionobiT udanaSaulo adamianis sicocxles swiravs ramdenime SeSlilis pirad ambicias. swored am mdgomareobaSi myofi msoflio Sedis biologiuri manqanis epoqaSi ­ kidev erTi sigiJe ­ xelovnuri inteleqti, romelic adamianis cnobierebis ganmsazRvreli xdeba. erT-erTi gazeTisTvis micemul interviuSi kubriki wers: ,,Cven dResdReobiT biologiuri manqanis sazogadoebaSi vimyofebiT, adamiani qeds ixris am silamazis winaSe diax, es axali silamazea, manqana Cveni sazogadoebis axali realobaa, araferia imaze didi uazroba, vidre misi uaryofa~.9 Tumca, filmSi `kosmosuri odisea ­ 2001 weli~ avtoris keTilganwyoba axali realobisadmi arsad igrZnoba. igi

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gvafrTxilebs, rom yofierebaSi misi uxeSi SemoWra adamianis degradaciis, misi ganadgurebis winapirobaa, 2001 wlisTvis es ,,teqnikuri saswauli~ safrTxes Seuqmnis kacobriobis arsebobas. dRes eleqtronuli tvini Tanamedrove sazogadoebis erTaderTi realobaa, irgvliv aravin azrovnebs kompiuterebis garda. `udavoa, kulturis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze ar arsebobs xelovnuri inteleqti, dRevandel gonier manqanas ar SeuZlia adamians metoqeoba gauwios, igi misi msaxuri da monaa, magram Tanamedrove manqanis istoria sul raRac 50 weliwads iTvlis, adamianis, rogorc goniTi arsebis formireba ki daaxloebiT 50 000 wlis win moxda. ra Tqma unda, adamiani da manqana araTanabar pirobebSia~.10 erTi ki aSkaraa, manqana gvikargavs drois da sivrcis SegrZnebis unars, is gvenatreba, masze gacilebiT mets vfiqrobT, vidre RmerTze, axlobel adamianze an sakuTar Tavze, misi Tvisebebi gadamdebia: operatiuloba, gulgriloba, swrafva martoobisken, pedanturi wesrigi, grZnobebis da emociebis ignorireba... manqana robotia, robots emsgavseba masze mijaWvuli adamianic. aizek azimovi Tavis wignSi `me roboti var~ wers: `robots ar SeuZlia adamians ziani miayenos. kanonis mciredi darRvevis SemTxvevaSic ki mas emuqreba sastiki ganaCeni demontaJis saxiT~,11 magram advili ar aris moaxdino imis demontaJi, romelzec mTlianad xar damokidebuli, rodesac mTeli samyaro mis garSemo brunavs. filmSi `manqanis gardacvaleba~ xom gacilebiT didi tragediaa, vidre kosmonavtis. iqneb, man moaxdinos Seni demontaJi, rogorc ki misi nebis winaaRmdeg waxval? adamiani cnobierebis dakargvis safrTxis winaSe dgas, kargavs imas, rac cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis dagrovebis Sedegad gauCnda, es ki cxovelis stadiaSi dabrunebis tolfasia. manqana saukeTeso magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor gamoiyena kacobriobam sakuTari racionalizmi Tavissave winaaRmdeg. da iseve, rogorc frankenStainma SeiZula Tavisi Semqmneli da misi ganadgureba cxovrebis idea-fiqsad eqca, manqanac anadgurebs tvins, romelmac igi Seqmna, misgan yvelafers Slis da sanagve yuTSi agdebs. esec apokalifsis meore

SesaZlo versia! `adamianoba gaqra, axalgazrdobas araferi ainteresebs seqsisa da narkotikebis garda, ar arsebobs gamosavali, meqanikuri adamiani aRaraa~.12 Tumca, dResdReobiT es Sefasebac romantiulia, realoba gacilebiT rTulia: Tu 70-ian wlebSi seqsi da narkotikebi ainteresebdaT, dRes araferi ainteresebT virtualuri realobis garda. 1971 wels kubriki iRebs yvelaze gaxmaurebul films Tavis SemoqmedebaSi ,,meqanikuri forToxali". es aris cnobili ingliseli mwerlis, entoni berjesis, amave saxelwodebis romanis ekranizacia. filmis mTavari gmiri aleqsi momavlis londonSi cxovrobs, mas sami megobari hyavs, romlebTanac saRamoebs atarebs. rodesac bezrdebaT narkotikiT gaJRenTili rZe, axalgazrdebi manqanaSi sxdebian da qalaqSi seirnobiT da sxvadasxva Tavgadasavlis ZiebiT cdiloben Caklan dauokebeli vnebebi. maTi qmedebebi zogjer destruqciulobis piks aRwevs. mTavari gasarTobi Zaladoba da agresiis gamovlinebaa, ara da, erTi SexedviT, sulac ar arian anomaliurni; aleqss arc mZime bavSvoba hqonia, socialuradac sakmaod uzrunvelyofilia, aqvs sruli komforti: keTilmowyobili bina, sakuTari oTaxi televizoriT, uamravi diskiT da plakatiT, swavlobs prestiJul kolejSi... Tumca Tavis arCevanSi Tavisufali arasodes yofila, mozardis fsiqikaze gamudmebiT xorcieldeba zewola televiziis, kinematografiis, presis saSualebiT. marTalia, arsebobs mosazreba, rom ekranze Zaladobis proeqcia mayurebels destruqciuli energiisgan aTavisuflebs, radgan igi sakuTari Tavis identificirebas axdens moZaladesTan da amgvarad realobaSi misi gadmotanis survili ar uCndeba, magram sinamdvileSi mozardis daucveli, Camouyalibebeli fsiqika ver uZlebs zewolas da aleqsis msgavsad borotmoqmedad yalibdeba, romelSic beThovenis me-9 simfoniac ki araadamianur vnebebs aRZravs. tiranuli saxelmwifo, romelic zrunavs sakuTar `produqtze~, msoflio mniSvnelobis eqsperiments atarebs, cdilobs ra `borotebis~ `sikeTed~ gardaqmnas, Tumca imave meTodiT, ra meTodiTac masSi borotebis marcvlis gaRviveba

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moxda ­ misjili aqvs uyuros filmebs Zaladobaze, sxeulSi SehyavT sxvadasxva saxis preparati... `iqneb, vinc Segnebulad irCevs borotebis daklaknil biliks, raRaciT mainc ufro axlos dgas RmerTTan, vidre is, vinc swor gzas iZulebiT gauyenes~13, ­ wers entoni berjesi Tavis romanSi, kubriki ki, Tavis mxriv, dasZens: ,,adamians unda hqondes arCevanis ufleba, maSinac ki, Tu igi borotebis gzas irCevs. aukrZalo adamians is, rac mas surs, niSnavs mis ignorirebas, adamianisgan `meqanikuri forToxlis~ gakeTebas~.14 Tumca, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, aleqss arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar hqonia arCevanis saSualeba, misi borotebac iseTive provocirebulia, rogorc sikeTe. igi eqsperimentamde da, miT umetes, eqsperimentis Semdeg xelisuflebis tiranuli reJimis msxverplia. f. felini erT-erT interviuSi wers: `es filmi aris obieqturi dokumenti imaze, Tu ra SeiZleba daemarTos msoflios".15 ai, apokalifsis kidev erTi, mesame SesaZlo versia. amdenad, stenli kubrikma sami filmiT apokalifsis sami SesaZlo varianti SemogvTavaza. Seikra erTgvari trilogia, romelmac kacobriobas, `farTod daxuWuli TvalebiT~ rom sZinavs, _ gamofxizlebisken mouwoda.

7. « », 1970, 5, . 168. 8. ., 60- . , «», 1966, . 105. 9. « », 1976, 4, , . 88. 10. v. erqomaiSvili, filosofia. Tbilisi, `kvari~, 2004, gv. 134. 11. « ». , «», 1972, . 172-173. 12. « ». 1974, 9, , . 149. 13. e. berjesi, meqanikuri forToxali, Tbilisi., `logos presi~, 2003, gv. 150. 14. "Sight and Sound", Spring, 1972, p. 2. 15. "Time". April 2, 1974, p. 37.

1. /http: //kinocenter.rsuh. ru / kubrick. htm/ 2. /http: //www. interkino. ru / revieus/ 3. ., « ­ ». , «», 1982, . 31. 4. ., : 60- . , «», 1975, . 48. 5. iqve. 6. . 4- , . 4. , «», 1987, . 156-157.

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maia qamuSaZe Ggermanuli kinoeqspresionizmi eqspresionizmi XX saukunis mxatvruli kulturis erTerTi yvelaze rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi movlena iyo. saukunis dasawyisis germaniaSi ,,faseulobaTa gadafasebis" mZvinvare da pirquSi epoqis fonze am mimdinareobam is sulieri daZabuloba da xvalindeli dRis SiSi gamoxata, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo Semoqmedi inteligenciisaTvis, romelic grZnobda moaxloebul katastrofas, magram ar SeeZlo ganaxlebisa da gamosavlis moZebna.Mman axsna ukiduresi subieqtivizmi, sasowarkveTileba, rwmenis dakargva, pesimizmi, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo evropuli, kerZod ki, germanuli sazogadoebisaTvis, romelsac jer kidev mouwevda imperialisturi omis, Zveli samyaros ngrevisa da faSizmis gadatana. pirvelma msoflio omma, mis mier datovebulma mZime memkvidreobam, kidev ufro gaaRrmava pesimisturi ganwyobilebebi. eqspresionizmi i pyrobs berlinis quCebs, afiSebs, Teatralur dadgmebs, kafeebs, maRaziebs, vitrinebs. am periodSi mkvidrdeba eqspresionizmi kinematografSi.1 eqspresionistebi uaryofdnen arsebul sinamdviles, mis obieqturad asaxvas da TavianTi iluzoruli, irealuri samyaros Seqmnas cdilobdnen. katastofis winaTgrZnoba, g au c nob i er ebel i S i Si `b neli Za l a uf l eb i sa dm i~ , fantasmagoriuli istoria da grZnobebis nevrasTeniuli gamZafreba, Tanamedrove samyarosTan harmoniulobis dakargva _ ai, yveli eqspresionistuli winaaRmdegobebis qveteqsti. mecnierul-istoriul gamokvlevebSi eqspresionizmi cxare kamaTis sagania. igi urTierTsapirispiro, erTmaneTis gamomricxav mosazrebebs iwvevs. Tu erT SemTxvevaSi eqspresionizms sruliad uaryofen, meore SemTxvevaSi mas aseve usazRvrod aqeben. winaaRmdegobrivia agreTve mosazrebebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli mwerlebi da mxatvrebi miekuTvnebian eqspresionizms. kinos istoriis mkvlevarTa Soris arsebobs azrTa

sxvadasxvaoba eqspresionizmis qronologiur CarCoebze, gansakuTrebiT, mis sawyisebze; zogs miaCnia, rom am mimdinareobis `welTaRricxva~ iwyeba 1920 wlidan,2 zogierTi asaxelebs 1915 wels,3 zogic ki amtkicebs, rom mas gacilebiT adre hqonda erTgvari ,,debiuti" maqs rainhartis `sumurunSi~. Tumca eqspresionizmis `pirvel mercxlebad~ SeiZleba CaiTvalos omamdeli da omisdroindeli epoqis oTxi kinosuraTi, romlebic imsaxureben gansakuTrebul yuradRebas. es filmebi imiTaa aRsaniSnavi, rom maTSi damuSavebulia mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri Temebi, rac pasuxobda im periodis mowinave kinematografiul Teoriebs. zogierT reJisors surda, rom axali xelovnebis _ kinos, specifikuri SesaZleblobebi gamoexataT ararealurad arsebuli sagnebis gamosaxviT, gamogonili arsebebiT, maT gonebaSi dabadebuli fantaziis nayofiT. calkeuli kritikosi mouwodebda kinematografistebs gadaeqciaT TavianTi filmebi realobisa da fantastikis aRmosafxvrelad.4 1913 wels ekranebze gamovida reJisor maqs makis filmi `sxva~_ p. landaus amave saxelwodebis arc Tu ise popularuli piesis ekranizacia. igi mogviTxrobs pirovnebis gaorebaze, mis emociur samyaroze. erTi ganaTlebuli iuristi ojaxur wveulebaze skeptikuri siciliT iRebs monaTxrobs viRacis gaorebaze da Tavdajerebulad ambobs, rom mas msgavsi ram arasodes daemarTeba, magram erTxelac igi cxenidan Camovardeba da travmis Sedegad mTvareuli xdeba. is RamRamobiT gadis saxlidan, xdeba mawanwala da mkvlelobasac Caidens. mogvianebiT, roca is, samsaxureobrivi movaleobis gamo am mkvlelobas gaecnoba, aRmoaCens, rom Tavad aris mkvleli. is SokSi vardeba. Tumca es istoria `hefi-endiT~ mTavrdeba _ iuristi ikurneba davaadebisagan. mTavari roli Seasrula Teatridan kinoSi miwveulma dramaturgma msaxiobma albert basermanma, romelmac gviCvena pirovneba, romelsac SeuZlia nebismier fsiqologiur travmasTan gamklaveba. maSindelma kritikam umaRlesi Sefaseba misca am msaxiobis TamaSs da aRniSna, rom man ganumeorebel samsaxiobo ostatobas miaRwiao.5 es filmi warmoadgenda eqspresionizmis pirvel

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gaelvebas. masSi yvelaferi ganxiluli iyo banaluri wvrilburJuaziuli optimizmis poziciidan. 1913 wels reJisorma stelan riiem gadaiRo filmi `praReli studenti~, sadac Tavisi pirveli kinoroli Seasrula momavalSi ganTqmulma msaxiobma paul vegenerma. kinosuraTi garegnulad hgavda maqs makis `sxvas~, magram masSi kidev ufro gamZafrda siuJeti. filmis mTavari gmiri Raribi studenti bolduinia, romelic kontraqts dadebs jadoqarTan. satana adamianis gamosaxulebiT Sehpirdeba students, rom kargad, sarfianad daaqorwinebs da gaamdidrebs im pirobiT, Tu studenti Tavisive oreuls mihyidis. es oreuli aris bolduinis erT-erTi suli, romelsac aseve adamianis saxe aqvs. igi cxovrobs misgan damoukideblad da cdilobs gaanadguros meore, keTilSobili suli. finalSi sasowarkveTili studenti sarkeSi esvris Tavisive oreuls, magram tyvia klavs TviTon bolduins, mere Cndeba satana da xevs kontraqts wvril nakuwebad, rac efineba studentis gvams. `praRelma studentma~ ganamtkica ekranze Tema, romelic gadaiqca germanuli kinos cdunebad _ TviTSegnebis SiSTan Sezavebuli Rrma Tema.6 imis magivrad, rom ar SeemCnia sakuTari sulis gaoreba, SiSiT Sepyrobili bolduini xvdeba, rom boroti mowinaaRmdegis Zalauflebis qveSaa.Ees motivi, ra Tqma unda, moZvelebuli iyo maSin, magram scenaris avtorma hans eversma, romelsac Zalian uyvarda uCveulo fantastika, scenaric zRapris stilSi dawera, xorci Seasxa imas, rasac sinamdvileSi grZnobda germanuli wvrili burJuazia aristokratiasTan mimarTebaSi, im aristokratiasTan, romelic marTavda germanias. marTlac, dro da dro, wvrili burJuazia imdenad ukmayofilo iyo kaizeruli reJimisa, rom mas ver itanda ufro metad, vidre muSebs. am situcias Seesabameboda gamonaTqvami `ori germania~.7 es swored im gansxvavebas varaudobda, romelic arsebobda didgvarovan aristokratiasa da wvril burJuazias Soris. bolduinis Sinagani samyaro gamoxatavda sasowarkveTili burJuaziis mcdelobas, _ ar daekavSirebina erTmaneTisaTvis

Tavisi fsiqologiuri problemebi orazrovan sazogadoebriv mdgomareobasTan. yoveli adamiani, msgavsi bolduinisa, SeiZleba gamxdariyo dayofili da daSlili cnobierebis msxverpli. `praReli studentis~ operatorma gvido zeberma gamoiyena imdroindel kinoteqnikaSi arsebuli yvela miRweva da SesaniSnavi ostatobiT dahyo kadrebi iseT epizodebSi, sadac Cndebodnen mTavari gmiri da misi oreuli. araCveulebrivad gaarTva Tavi ganaTebas Sav-TeTr SuqCrdilebis TamaSs. paul vegenerma, miuxedavad imisa, rom pirvelad dadga kinokameris winaSe, gasaocari niWi gamoiCina da kargad moergo ekranuli gamomsaxvelobis specifikur Tvisebebs.8 zogierTi wyaroebis mixedviT, am filmis reJisori stelan riie Turme gauwonasworebeli fsiqikis kaci yofila, xSirad emarTeboda halucinaciebi, ganicdida dekadentur gavlenas da sul iswrafvoda simbolikisa da misticizmisaken.9 1915 wels kinoekranebze filmi `golemi~ gamodis. reJisori da mTavari rolis Semsrulebeli iyo ukve Tavad paul vegeneri. scenari dawera henrix galeenma, romelmac erTerTi rolic iTamaSa. films safuZvlad daedo legenda golemze, romelic Tixisagan gaakeTa erTma praRelma rabinma, mkerdze daaxata jadosnuri niSani, riTac misTvis sicocxlis miniWeba iyo SesaZlebeli. es qandakeba aRmoCndeba antikvariatis gamyidvelis saxlSi. is wignSi poulobs Tqmulebas misi gacocxlebis Sesaxeb da Seasrulebs am aqts. gacocxlebuli golemi muSaobas iwyebs antikvariatis maRaziaSi, Seuyvardeba mepatronis qaliSvili, SeSinebuli gogo ki cdilobs Tavi daaRwios am arsebas, ris Sedegadac golemSi iRviZebs mZvinvare boroteba da ukve ganrisxebuli urCxuli uTvalTvalebs gogonas, brmad anadgurebs yvelafers, rac gzad Sexvdeba. filmis bolos is kvdeba _ vardeba koSkidan da Tixis namsxvrevebis grovad iqceva. paul vegenerma kidev erTxel daamtkica misi SesaniSnavi samsaxiobo ostatoba, romelic TvalebiT agrZnobinebda mayurebels misi ucnauri gmiris simaxinjisa da saSinelebisagan gamowveul Sinagan sevdas.

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`praReli studenti~ da `golemi~ gamodgnen iseTi namuSevrebi, romlebSic ,,pirquSi fantastika" iyo `gaqceva SigniT, adamianuri qvecnobieris siRrmeSi~.10 es iyo aSkara antiburJuaziuli kritika. musikisa da simbolikis elementebiT gajerebulma orive filmma presaSi araerTgvari reaqcia gamoiwvia. kritikosTa erTi nawili aRfrTovanda filmis Semqmnelebis kinematografiuli xerxis siaxliT, meore nawili ki pirdapir dascinoda maT cdas. kritikosi german gafke Tavis gamosvlebSi amtkicebda, rom kinematografis arsi mdgomareobs `ararealuris realurSi~ CvenebaSi da es Tviseba yvelaze axlos swored germanel xalxTan da sulTa dgaso.11 eqspresionizmi, rogorc modernizmis erT-erTi ganStoeba, germaniaSi pirveli msoflio omis win gaCnda da imTaviTve gamoxata kidev erTi, im droisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli garemoebebi _ dabneuloba da imedgacrueba, rac Seeyara germaneli inteligenciis wina saukunis humanitarul imedebs kraxTan dakavSirebiT. am stadiis eqspresionizmidan asparezze gamovidnen iseTi TvalsaCino moRvaweebi, rogorebic iyvnen mwerali l. franki, reJisori e. piskatori, dramaturgi b. brexti da sxva progresulad moazrovne realistebi, romlebmac SemdgomSi mZlavri sityva Tqves germanul kulturasa da literaturaSi. aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom 20-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis germanul kinos metad rTul pirobebSi ganviTareba mouwia. es iyo Rrmad erovnuli krizisis atmosfero, ramac cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sfero moicva. da swored eqspresionistebis filmebma sxva dargebze ukeTesad aRweres es mdgomareoba, sagangaSo situacia, pesimizmi, momavlisadmi undobloba.12 swored eqspresionizmi eZebda gamosavals im cxovrebiseuli Cixidan, raSic sazogadoeba iyo Sesuli da ususurad aRiarebda, rom aranairi gamosavali ar arsebobs. amgvar tragikul situaciaSi aisaxa saerTo-saxalxo ganwyobileba, 20-iani wlebis damdegidan qveynisaTvis Tavsmoxveuli ekonomikuri krizisi, inflacia da is iqca wminda wylis burJuaziuli xelovnebis e. w. `antiadamianur skolad~, romelic nergavda nihilizms.

kinoeqspresionizmis pirvel Sedevrad iTvleba 1920 wels reJisor robert vines mier gadaRebuli filmi `eqim kaligaris kabineti~. mis scenaris Seqmnas sakmaod saintereso istoria udevs safuZvlad. scenaris erT-erTi avtori hans ianovici erT saRamos bazrobisaken gaemarTa im imediT, rom xalxSi im gogonas i povnida, romelic mas Zalian moswonda. Cabnelebuli parkidan ianovics TiTqos swored im gogonas xma Semoesma, is gaemarTa parkisaken da uceb Tvali mohkra adamians, romelic swored im mxares miemarTeboda, saidanac gogonas sicili ismoda. meore diliT gazeTebi ityobinebodnen sazarel ambavs seqsualuri Zaladobis faqtis Sesaxeb, ris Sedegadac daiRupa axalgazrda qali. es swored is adamiani aRmoCnda, vinc ianovics moswonda. dakrZalvis dros xalxSi ianovicma icno is pirovneba, romelic parkSi dainaxa. hans ianovicis Tanaavtori karl maieri iyo. orive avtors gamovlili hqonda pirveli msoflio omis jojoxeTi da orive siZulviliT iyo gamsWvaluli misdami. amitom maTi erToblivi scenaric militarizmis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, romelic filmis mTavar gmirs, doqtor kaligaris msgavsad marionetebad aqcevs da uazro mkvlelobis gzaze ayenebs adamians.13 Ffilmis siuJeti viTardeba erT-erT gamaognebel germanul qalaqSi, sadac ewyoba bazroba atraqcionebiTa da warmodgenebiT. erT-erT aseT warmodgenaze eqimi kaligari mouwodebs publikas, Sexedos mTvareul Cezares, romelsac SeuZlia momavlis winaswarmetyveleba. am warmodgenas eswrebian studentebi frensisi da alani, romlebic Seyvarebulebi arian afTiaqris qaliSvil jeinze. maT Tvalwin Cezare gamodis vertikalurad mdgomi yuTidan, romelic kubos waagavs. alani ekiTxeba Cezares ramden xans icocxlebs igi, Cezaresagan iRebs pasuxs: `ganTiadamde~. diliT frensisi aRmoaCens, rom alani xanjliT aris mokluli sakuTar sawolSi. igi eWvs Cezareze iRebs da xelisuflebis wevrebTan erTad Cxrekas awyobs kaligaris oTaxSi, magram verafers aRmoaCens. Tumca frensisi kvlav ganagrZobs kaligaris kabinetze TvalTvals, mas hgonia, rom Cezares Tavis yuTSi sZinavs,

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sinamdvileSi ki is am dros jeinis oTaxSia Separuli da xanjliT mokvlas upirebs, magram qaliSvilis silamaziT mojadoebuli Cezare xelidan agdebs iaraRs, itacebs qaliSvils da garbis. mdevrebi jeins xelidan agdebineben Cezares. frensisi policiasTan erTad ubrundeba kaligaris kabinets da Cxrekis dros Cezares nacvlad yuTidan mis oreul Tojinas gadmoaTrevs. kaligari gaqceviT Svelis Tavs da imaleba fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi. frensisi moiTxovs saavadmyofos direqtorTan Sexvedras, raTa is daexmaros damnaSavis daWeraSi, magram aRmoaCens, rom kaligari da saavadmyofos direqtori erTi da igive adamianebi arian. Semdeg Rames is saavadmyofos sxva TanamSromlebTan erTad Cxreks kabinets da poulobs misi danaSaulis damamtkicebel sabuTebs. kaligari Cezares hi pnozis saSualebiT aiZulebda mkvlelobebs. imisaTvis, rom gamotexos eqimi danaSaulebebSi, frensisi aCvenebs Cezares gvams, rogorc ki es saSineli adamiani naxavs, rom Cezare mkvdaria, giJdeba. scenaris avtor hans ianovicis TqmiT, am revoluciuri suliT gaJRenTil, saSinel istoriaSi dagmobili iyo mTavrobis TviTneboba, rom gaaCaRes omi kaligaris prototi piT. kaligari flobs uzarmazar Zalas, romelsac TviTneburad iyenebs, raTa ibatonos sxvebze. Cezare iseTive udanaSaulo msxverplia kaligaris xelSi, rogorc germaneli xalxi xelisuflebis winaSe.14 roca `,eqim kaligaris kabineti~ ekranebze gamovida, man didi aJiotaJi gamoiwvia. Tavad germaniasa da zogierT qveyanaSi igi karga xans gadioda ekranebze, xolo zogan ori sami dRis Semdeg ixsneboda. aSS-Si, kerZod ki, los anJelesSi kinomoyvarulebi imdenad aRaSfoTa, rom saprotesto msvleloba moawyves da mouwodes distributorebs ara marto es, aramed sxva germanuli filmebic aRar SeetanaT maT qveyanaSi. `kaligaris~ Semdeg eqspresionistuli mimdinareobis msxvil nawarmoebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos frinc langis `daRlili sikvdili~ (1921), robinsonis `Ramis halucinacia~ (1922), paul lenis ,,cvilis figurebis kabineti" (1924), fridrix murnaos ,,nosferatu _ saSinelebaTa simfonia" (1922) da sxv.

eqspresionizmis e. w. `savizito baraTad~ iqca kinematografiuli saSualebebis wundadebuli sizuste, virtuozulad agebuli moqmedebis plastikuroba, siuJetis gansxvavebuli sizustiT ageba, sadac igrZnoboda Suqis, dekoraciebis harmoniuloba.15 yoveli qveynis erovnuli kinematografi Tavisi xalxis fsiqologias ufro mkveTrad asaxavs, vidre xelovnebis sxva dargebi. germanulma eqspresionistulma filmebmac amgvari misia ikisres da Taviseburad Seecadnen, eCvenebinaT Tanamemamuleebis damokidebuleba arsebul problemebTan. ,,eqspresionizmi ara marto damoukidebeli esTetikuri fenomeni iyo, aramed sxva, manamde arsebuli mxatvruli mimdinareobebisagan gansxvavebiT social-politikur niadagze aRmocenebuli mimdinareoba. igi winaswarmetyvelebda kaizeruli politikis mizeziT gaCaRebul oms, xolo Semdgom, pirveli msoflio omis aqtiuri mowinaaRmdege gaxda.16 Aamdenad, germanulma eqspresionistulma kinom seriozuli gavlena moaxdina msoflio kinematografze, miuxedavad imisa, rom sazogadoeba da cenzura am mimdinareobas arc Tu ise swyalobda.

1 m. lekboraSvili, sazRvargareTis kinos istoria, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 91. 2. Robetson D. Million and one night: The history of moving photos. London, ,,Frenk cas and kompani", 1926, p. 156. 3. . . , ,,", 1987, . 510. 4. Krinzschi H., Das Kino gestern und heute. Berlin, 1963, s. 27. 5. ., . , ,,", 1965, . 214. 6. ., , ,

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,,", 1977, . 214. 7. Balfur M., Kaizer and his time. New York, ,, Bro book", 1985, p. 189. 8. www.scifilm. com 9. www.scililm.com 10. ., . , ,,", 1975, . 57. 11. ix. ,. das. naSr. gv. 57. 12. ., . , ,,", 1975, . 18. 13. www.scifilm.com 14. ., das. naSr. gv. 101. 15. ix. ., das. naSr. gv. 88. 16. n. amirejibi, sinematografidan kinoxelovnebamde, Tbilisi, ,,ganaTleba~, 1990, gv. 48.

telereJisura

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT programis xelmZRvaneli - sandro vaxtangovi

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tato barjaZe satelevizio mauwyeblobis modelebi da maTi funqcionireba yvelaferi fizikiT daiwyo. msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mecnierebi cdilobdnen optikuri signali eleqtrosignalad gardaeqmnaT. isini qmnidnen televizias, Tumca am sityvis maSindeli gageba sruliad gansxvavdeba XXI saukunis televiziisgan. saukunovani ganviTarebis periodSi, televizias auditoriasTan urTierTobis sakuTari, gasxvavebuli ena da forma Camouyalibda. televizia iqca informaciis ZiriTad wyarod msoflios mosaxleobis udidesi nawilisTvis, risi meSveobiTac mosaxleoba ecnoba msoflioSi ganviTarebul movlenebs, amasTan eqmneba realuri warmodena Tanamedrove msoflioze. telemauwyebloba mravalmxriv aris dakavSirebuli qveynis politikasTan da socialur garemosTan.Aamave dros zemoqmedebs rogorc politikaze, aseve _ sociumze. televizia Tanamedrove msoflioSi masaze zemoqmedebis yvelaze Zlier instrumentadaa miCneuli. swored amitom ar aris igi damoukidebeli politikisgan. yvela qveyanaSi, iqac ki, sadac umaRles donezea daculi sityvisa da Jurnalistikis Tavisufleba, xelisufleba zegavlenas axdens televiziaze. TumcaRa aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom qveyanaSi rac ufro ganviTarebulia televizia da rac ufro maRalia profesionalizmi, miT ufro naklebad SesamCnevia xelisuflebis gavlenac: maRali profesionalizmi iZleva imis saSualebas, rom rac SeiZleba SeumCnevlad gatardes maTTvis (xelisuflebisTvis) saWiro politika. es rac Seexeba saxelmwifo televizias. moiazreba aseve komerciuli televizia, romelic SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos sxva Zalaze da es, xSir SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxva politikuri Zala. am garemoebebidan gamomdinare savsebiT naTelia, rom dResdReisobiT, televizia mTels msoflioSi erTgvar sabrZolo iaraRadaa qceuli.

arsebobs televiziis kidev erTi forma: sazogadoebrivi m a u w y eb el i _ r o m el i c da m o u ki deb el i a r o g o r c xelisuflebisgan aseve sxva Zalebis interesebisgan. is valdebulia imuSaos sazogadoebisTvis, daakmayofilos misi interesebi da Seasrulos misi moTxovnebi. is unda muSaobdes sazogadoebis yvela fenisTvis: bavSvebisTvis, mozardebisTvis, studentebisTvis da a. S. sagulisxmoa, rom TiTqmis yvela ganviTarebul, demokratiul qveyanaSi arsebobs sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli. sxvadasxva socialuri fenisadmi miZRvnili gadacemebis arseboba amcirebs sazogadoebrivi arxis reitings, magram zrdis mis rols sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganviTarebaSi. sazogadoebrivi televiziis klasikur magaliTad miCneulia BBC _ britanuli telemauwyebeli, romelic 1922 wels daarsda da dRemde am formiT agrZelebs mauwyeblobas. misi mTavari mizani aris, sazogadoebisTvis informaciis miwodba, garToba da Semecneba. A Camoyalibda sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis raobis ori ZiriTadi kriteriumi, romlic zustad unda iyos daculi. kerZod: 1. sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli avrcelebs zust informacias, yovelgvari gamZafrebis gareSe. amzadebs gadacemebs, rogorc zogadad yvelasTvis, aseve sazogadoebis konkretuli nawilisTvis konkretul Temebze. 2. sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis mTavari piroba aris finansuri damoukidebloba, rac imas niSnavs, rom igi ar SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos reklamaze da sponsorebze. (is funqcionirebs xalxis mier gadaxdili fuliT da igi kontroldeba aseve sazogadoebis mier. wesisamebr irCeva sabWo, romelic kompleqtdeba sazogadoebaSi avtoritetuli da sando xalxiT). CNN msoflioSi erTaderTi Tu ara, erT-erTi pirveli arxia reitingiT, romelic mTlianad aris orientirebuli axal ambebze. is mauwyeblobs 24 saaTi da gadmoscems msoflioSi mimdinare yvela qveynis mniSvnelovan da uaxles

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satelevizio mauwyeblobis modelebi da maTi funqcionireba

informaciebs. aqvs saagentoebi bevr qveyanaSi da axorcielebs pirdapir CarTvebs movlenebis ganviTarebis epicentridan. CNN yovelTvis cdilobs da gamosdis kidec, pirvelma miawodos mayurebels msoflio masStabiT mimdinare axali ambavi. is agreTve akeTebs gadacemebs biznesze, Tanamedrove teqnikis miRwevebze, sportze, modaze da musikaze. es gadacemebic keTdeba daaxloebiT axali ambebis stilSi. anu, arxis mTliani koncefcia yvela gadacemaSia daculi. XX saukunis oTxmocian wlebSi gaCndnen specializirebuli arxebi, rogoricaa Discovery, romelic 1985 wels gavida eTerSi. is SemecnebiTi arxia da orientirebulia mecnierebaze, istoriaze, msoflios mecnierul Semecnebaze. Discovery Seiqmna amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi da ramdenime wlis mere msoflios uamrav qveyanaSi gavrcelda. arxis ZiriTadi samuSao sferoa dokumentalistika: misi eTeris umetesi nawili datvirTulia dokumenturi filmebiT, romlebsac TviTon awarmoeben. Discovery­s moyva msoflioSi erT-erTi umsxvilesi sportuli arxi Eurosport-i, romelic mTlianad orientirebulia sportul gadacemebze. is pirdapiri translaciiT gadmoscems sportis nebismieri saxeobis did Cempionatebs. amaT mohyva kidev bevri am ti pis arxi, specializirebuli ufro konkretul Temebze. Seiqmna arxebi romlebic mxolod mxatvrul filmebs gadmoscems, arxebi, romlebic mxolod fexburTzea orientirebuli, kalaTburTze, cxovelebze da a. S. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom yvela zemoxsenebuli arxi komerciulia da swored es aris maTi ZiriTadi Semosavlis wyaro. televiziaze saubrisas Znelia gverdi auaro iseT sakiTxs, rogoricaa, Jurnalisti da misi urTierToba respondentTan. saWiro informaciis miReba xom TiTqmis mTlianadaa damokidebuli Jurnalistis profesionalizmze: man unda SeZlos moi povos respondentis ndoba da dausvas iseTi kiTxvebi, rom miiRos misgan maqsimaluri informacia. es ki miT ufro SesaZlebelia, rac ufro momzadebulia Jurnalisti interviusTvis, anu, kargad aris gaTviTcnobierebuli im

sakiTxebSi, razedac respondents unda esaubros da Tavad respondentzec aqvs sakmarisi informacia mopovebuli. Jurnalisti aseve valdebulia iyos obieqturi da neitraluri nebismier sakiTxSi _ ar miemxros arc erT da arc meore mxares. JurnalistisTvis aucilebelia komunikaciis fsiqologiis codna, ris gareSec SeuZlebelia gamosaxulebis da xmovani signalis swori Tanxvedra. aseve mniSvnelovania samuSao jgufTan swori urTierToba, amis gareSe SeuZlebelia sasurveli Sedegis miRweva. filosofos ortega i. gasetis azriT, `SemoqmedebiTi cxovreba SesaZlebelia, or SemTxvevaSi ­ an unda iyo is vinc marTavs, an iyo im samyaroSi, romelsac marTavs is vis uflebebsac vaRiarebT~. JurnalistisTvis aseve saWiroa araverbaluri signalebis wakiTxvis codna, rac fsiqologiaSi cnobilia rogorc euro-linguistic programmin). es saSualebas miscems Jurnalists intervius dros respondenti moaqcios Tavis gavlenis qveS, rac met saSualebas miscems mas miiRos misgan misTvis saWiro informacia. televizia ganviTarda da amasTan erTad gafarTovda gadacemebis arealic. Camoyalibda gadacemebis axali Janrebi. maT Soris yvelaze popularuli aris politikuri Toq-Sou, realuri Sou, komediuri Janris Souebi. magram axali ambebi mainc rCeba televiziis mTavar prioritetad.

1. .., `sazogadoebrivi televizia informaciuli sazogadoebisaTvis (britanuli modeli)~ 2. ., `globaluri sainformacio qseli CNN~ 3. . ., `komunikaciuri fsiqologiis filosofiuri fesvebi~

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Eeka bucxrikiZe realuri Sous dabadeba msoflio telesivrceSi televizia Tvalis `saReWi rezinaao~, amtkiceben zogni. italieli kinomsaxiobi ana maniani ambobda: `televizia mxolod sibriyvis sademostraciod Tu gamodgebao!~. gamoCenili iaponeli sazogado moRvawe sonto ooama Cioda: `televiziis ganviTareba iaponias 100 milionian lenCad aqcevso!~, miuxedavad yvelafrisa, televizia sazogadoebrivi gavlenis sferos ganmtkicebis, sazogadoebrivi azris warmarTvis udidesi saSualeba, publicistikis uaxlesi da uZlieresi formaa. televiziis ZiriTadi princi pi `axla, am wuTSi ra xdeba~, moiTxovs `axla, am wuTSi azrovnebas~...1 magiuri zemoqmedebiTi Zalis gamo televizia sul ufro did gavlenas axdens sazogadoebis ganviTarebis xasiaTze, TiToeul Cvenganze... savsebiT marTalia, vinc Tvlis, rom televiziaSi mxolod is gadmodindebis, rac `kokasa Sigan dgas~, radgan tele-kamera ukeT xedavs, vidre adamianis Tvali da marTal sityvasac gasaocari gulisxmierebiT ekideba.Aaq ar gWirdeba xma miawvdino bolo rigSi mjdoms. wynarad, srul intimSi, pirispir xar masTan da rogorc ki siyalbes SegamCnevs, zurgs Segaqcevs!Mmas ar sWirdeba sxvisi Sewuxeba, darbazidan gasvla, arc uxerxuloba Seawuxebs, ubralod gamorTavs televizors. erTma-erTma mkvlevarma SeniSna: Cven jer ver CavwvdiT televizias, mxolod miveCvieT! marTlac, `saukunis movlenaTa~ Soris igi iseTivea, rogorc cecxli, borbali, atomi... Cvens saukuneSi televiziis gamoCena jujebis kunZulze guliveris gamoCenas hgavda.2 `realiTi~ Souebis dabadeba msoflio telesivrceSi realuri ambis moyola, Semdeg ki misi ekranizaciis idea pirvelad amerikel Jurnalists alen fants gauCnda. `faruli mikrofoni~ _ ase ewodeboda mis gadacemas, romelic 1947

wlidan radioSi gadaicemoda da quCaSi moulodnelad Semxvedri adamianebis istorias asaxavda. erTi wlis Semdeg ki alan fanti mxolod realuri ambis moyoliT aRar kmayofildeba da 1948 wels amerikis telearxs CBS-ze (`si-bi-es~) akeTebs analogiur gadacemas, saxelwodebiT `faruli kamera~, romelic dRemde didi warmatebiT sargeblobs (dRes misi wamyvani alanis vaJi piter fantia). `faruli kameris~ Semdeg, zustad 25 weliwadSi, 1973 wels, ukve `si-bi-es~-is eTeriT axli realuri Sous `amerikuli ojaxis~ premiera Sedga. gadacemis avtori kreig gilberti aTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi iRebda Cveulebrivi amerikuli ojaxis bil da pit loudebis yoveldRiur cxovrebas. 1992 wels amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, amjerad ukve MTV-ze ("em-ti-vi") Cndeba Sou `realuri samyaro~, sadac erT binaSi moTavsebuli Sous monawileebis: modelis, mocekvavis, mwerlis, mxatvris, reperisa da kidev ori momRerlis yoveldRiur cxovrebas mayurebeli saxlSi damontaJebuli kamerebis daxmarebiT adevnebda Tvalyurs. marTalia, am Sous ar hyavda gamarjvebuli, rac TamaSs azarts ukargavda, magram, miuxedavad amisa, mas aqtualoba mayurebelSi dRemde (ukve meaTe sezonia, rac `realuri samyaro~ `em-ti-vi~-ze gadis) ar daukargavs. 1997 wels realuri Sou SveicariaSic gamoCnda. SouSi `gadarCenili" Tavmoyrilni iyvnen 16 erTmaneTisaTvis ucnobi monawileebi, romlebic oTxi Tvis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobdnen kunZulze, sadac mxolod is nivTebi gaaCndaT, romlis waRebac gemidan ori wuTis ganmavlobaSi moaxerxes.Oeqstremalur situaciaSi moxvedrili, or jgufad gayofili monawileni mxolod sakuTari ZalebiT cdilobdnen Tavis gatanas da elementaruli sacxovrebeli pirobebis Seqmnas..1 1999 wels ki, realuri Sous B(`didi Zmis~) premiera, romlis avtoric telemagnati jon de moli gaxldaT, niderlandebis telearix `veronikas~ eTeriT Sedga. `didi Zma~ erTaderTi gadacema iyo, romelic erTdroulad gadaicemoda amerikisa da evropis teleeTeriT. misi Seqmnis

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realuri Sous dabadeba msoflio telesivrceSi

istoria ki aseTi iyo... `_ erTxel, Cven SevikribeT, rom mogvefiqrebina programa, romelic yvela tipis mayurebels daainteresebda. oTxi saaTis uSedego azrTa gacvla-gamocvlis Semdeg TanamSromlebs davSordi, ris Semdegac Sevxvdi erT-erT Cems kolegas, romelic aRfrTovanebuli mesaubreboda amerikuli eqsperimentis `biosfero 2~-is Sesaxeb, romelic oriode wuTis win erTerT gazeTSi amoekiTxa. rva adamiani ori wlis ganmavlobaSi imyofeboda Caketil sivrceSi fsiqologebis meTvalyureobis qveS.Eeqsperimentis mizani iyo, gaegoT Tu rogori sicocxlisunariania adamiani mwir sayofacxovrebo pirobebSi drois am periodSi _ miyveboda statiis Sesaxeb igi da swored maSin, am eqsperimentis formatma mikarnaxa idea, _ momeTavsebina adamianebi daxurul sivrceSi da mayureblisaTvis meCvenebina maTi yoveldRiuri cxovreba, realuri istoriebi, urTierTobebi, emociebi. ase daibada realuri Sou "didi Zma~ _ ixsenebs gadacemis avtori jon de moli. Tumca igi ar aRniSnavs, rom mis Sous mxolod amerikuli eqsperimentiT miRebuli gamocdileba ar dasdebia safuZvlad. dResaviT cxadia, rom inteleqtualma demolma `didi Zmis~ mTavari koncefcia amerikeli mwerlis jorj oruelis antiutopiur nawarmoebSi `1984~-Si amoikiTxa.3 `didma Zmam~ umokles droSi moi pova warmateba da mas mayurebelTa 50% adevnebda Tvals. Zalian male dainteresdnen am SouTi msoflios wamyvani arxebic. amas is faqtic adasturebs, rom espaneTSi naxevarfinalur ligaSi wamyvani gundebis `realisa~ da `barselonas~ TamaSs ufro naklebi mayurebeli adevnebda Tvals. yvela realur Sous erTi mTavari mizani aqvs: asaxos realoba ise, rogorc is sinamdvileSia. `realur Souebs ori saerTo ZiriTadi Tviseba gaaCnia. pirveli is, rom gadacemis gmiri xdebian Cveulebrivi realuri adamianebi da meore, TamaSis scenari arasodes ar aris dagegmili, ris gamoc mayureblisaTvis yovelTvis gamoucnobia moTamaSeTa emociebi da qcevebi~.4 realuri Souebis warmatebis saidumloebac swored amaSia damaluli.

am ti pis Sous monawileni advilad da swrafad fulis Sovnis moyvaruli adamianebi arian. aseTi adamianebi ki, mogexsenebaT, ar gamoirCevian maRali inteleqtiT da maTi umravlesoba fantaziebiT cxovrobs. sxvaTa Soris, rogorc irkveva, `didi Zmis~ monawileebi ZiriTadad avantiuristi adamianebi arian, romelTa cxovrebis stilia tyuilebi, intrigebi da isterikebi. ar yofila SemTxveva, rom am SouSi cxovrebiT kmayofili adamiani moxvedriliyos, radgan yovlad warmoudgenelia miatovo yvelaferi, riTac cxovrob da aseTi droiT `televizorSi~ sacxovreblad waxvide. .5 SouSi mTlianad xdeba am adamianebis nevrozuli bunebis gamovlena, rac xels aZlevs progarmis reJisors, rom igi saintereso sayurebeli gaxados.6 amitom, Cveulebriv movlenad iqca, TamaSis Semdeg am ti pis Souebis monawileebis fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoebSi moxvedra. aRsaniSnavia, rom `gadarCenilis~ erTma monawilem, Sous dasrulebis Semdeg, sicocxle TviTmkvlelobiTac ki daasrula. G

1. r. dvaliSvili . televiziis xelovneba, xelovneba, Tbilisi, 1976. 2. http://referats.protoplex.ru/ (e. gusiatinskis literatuturuli Canaweri) 3. http://search.yahoo.com/search?p=reality+shows+in+the+world 4..http://referats.protoplex.ru/ (e. gusiatinskis literatuturuli Canaweri) 5. http://rambler.ru/search?reality+shows+TV+about+reality ("tnt"-es generaluri prodiuseri dimitri trocki) 6. http://rambler.ru/search?reality+shows+old+news//about+pleyers (gazeTi "samxreT saxalini")

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salome eqvTimiSvili `sapnis opera~ _ gantvirTvis saSualeba TuAazrovnebis daqveiTeba? mas Semdeg, rac sabWoTa kavSiris erT-erTma patara respublika saqarTvelom Seqmna televizia, mravalma welma ganvlo da man ganviTarebis sakmaod xangrZlivi gza gaiara, Tumca adre yvelaferi cenzuris qveS xdeboda da aqedan gamomdinare sityva `ganviTareba~ kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom televizia ubralod mravalwlovani gamocdileba daagrova. Tavidan, ra Tqma unda, ar iyo 24 saaTiani mauwyebloba da arxi eTerSi mxolod garkveuli droiT gadioda. keTdeboda sxvadasxva ti pis gadacemebi da miuxedavad mxolod erTi arxis arsebobisa, qarTul televizias mainc hyavda mayurebeli. ase vTqvaT, igi ualternativo da erTaderTi mauwyebeli iyo. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg ki qarTul televizias ukve gauCnda ambicia, realurad ganviTarebuliyo da Camdgariyo msoflios televiziebis rigebSi, gaTavisuflebuliyo saxelmwifos gavlenisagan da ubralod yofiliyo damoukidebeli. man Semoitana sazRvargareT ukve moZvelebuli, Tumca ki imdroindeli qarTuli sinamdvilisTvis uamravi siaxle. erT-erTi aseTi iyo `sapnis operebi~, romlebic pirvelad 80-ian wlebSi gamoCnda qarTul ekranebze. qarTul arxebze gamoCenili serialebi sensaciuri iyo ara mxolod imitom, rom isini pirvelad gadioda qarTul arxze, aramed imitomac, rom maSin mayurebels pirvelad SesTavazes qarTul enaze dublirebuli produqcia. radganac ena qarTuli iyo, imdroindel `sapnis operebs~ uamravi mayurebeli gamouCnda. igi gasagebi iyo yvelasTvis da amitom mayurebelTa rigebSi aqtiurad Caebnen patarebi, didebi, qalebi, kacebi Tu moxucebi. im periodSi misi yureba prestiJuladac ki iTvleboda. 90-iani wlebis cxovrebis mZime socialuri pirobebis fonze serialebi erTgvarad uaryofiTi emociebisagan ganmuxtvis saSualebebad iqcnen. diliT uamravi problemisgan

damZimebuli mayurebeli saRamoTi teleekranis win ganmartoebuli Svebas poulobda im martivi siuJetebis yurebisas, romelic daaxlovebiT waagavda mis cxovrebas da bevrad ufro imedis momcemi da optimisturi xasiaTis iyo, Sesabamisad mayurebels uqmnida ukeTesi momavlis molodinis ganwyobas. marTalia, es iyo misTvis ocneba, Tumca daZabuli politikuri viTarebis fonze, _ sakmaod lamazi da sasiamovno. rodesac saubaria serialebis imedis momcemian Tvisebebze, magaliTisTvis SegviZlia gavecnoT samauwyeblo kompania `rusTavi 2~-is mier SemoTavazebul serial `Sokoladis saidumlo receptis~ sinofsiss, romelic mis veb-gverdzea ganTavsebuli. mokle mimoxilvaSi weria: `melodramatuli siuJeti mogviTxrobs axalgazrda gogonas cxovrebis Sesaxeb. rogor iqceva Seuxedavi da mdabio ojaxSi gazrdili rosita amado Sokoladis imperiis dedoflad"1. es sinofsisi savsebiT sakmarisia imis dasamtkiceblad, Tu ra yuradRebiT uyurebs mas meocnebe axalgazrda gogona, romelic fiqrobs, rom odesme masac gaumarTlebs rositas msgavsad. serialebi garkveul wilad mayurebelTa sxvadasxva kategoriazea gaTvlili. arsebobs SedarebiT maRalmaxtvruli serialebi, romelic ufro axlos dgas cxovrebasTan. aseT serialebs tele arxebi ufro ukeTes saeTero dros uTmoben. isev `rusTavi 2~-is magaliTi rom aviRoT, seriali `cxovreba grZeldeba~ gadis saRamos saukeTeso dros, saRamos 8 saaTze, da Tavisi siuJetidan gamomdinare Zalian axlos dgas realur cxovrebasTan. `filmi mogviTxrobs sxvadasxva socialuri fenis warmomadgenel, erTmaneTs dapirispirebul adamianebze, maT emociebsa da grZnobebze~2. aq am SemTxvevaSi saerTod ar vxvdebiT paTetikas da saocnebo zRaprebs, Sesabamisad misi mayurebelic SedarebiT ufro metad maRalinteleqtualuria. saerTod, sapnis operis mizania gantvirTos mayurebeli da swored amitomac mas saRamos saukeTeso saeTero dro eTmoba _ samsaxuridan mosulma adamianma, Tu ubralod diasaxlisma, romelic saRamosTvis ukve morCenilia saojaxo saqmianobas, relaqsacia unda povos mis yurebaSi. aqedan

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`sapnis opera~ _ gantvirTvis saSualeba Tu azrovnebis daqveiTeba?

gamomdinare, sakmaod sapasuxismgebloa arxis mxridan serialis arCeva da SeTavazeba xalxisTvis, radganac am saeTero dros gaSvebuli mdare xarisxis satelevizio produqcia mosaxleobis erTgvar zombirebas iwvevs. isedac gadaRlil adamianis tvins, erTi SexedviT, gantvirTavs da zedmet safiqrals aSorebs, realurad ki mas ubralod aqveiTebs. saerTod, mecnierulad damtkicebulia, rom rodesac fizikur Sromas enacvleba gonebrivi datvirTva an, piriqiT, am dros adamianis tvini ufro aqtiurad isvenebs. daRlili adamianisTvis naklebad safiqrali da banaluri istoriebis Cveneba, miT umetes didi sareklamo rgolebis fonze, iwvevs mis daZabvas da amgvari qmedebis regularuli xasiaTis miRebis SemTxvevaSi ki _ nevrozs. adamiani ver acnobierebs, ise eqceva gavlenis qveS. igi qvecnobierad itvirTeba uazro emociebiT, Tumca imdenad ver warmoudgenia, rom misi nevrozis mizezi SeiZleba iyos `sapnis opera~, rom igi saxlSi misuli mainc mas uyurebs. serials gaaCnia rogorc negatiuri, aseve pozitiuri mxareebic. pozitiuri, visTvis rogor, da igi saukeTeso saSualebaa xalxis masebis samarTavad. ramdenadac met saeTero dros dauTmob `sapnis operebs~, imdenad naklebad aaRelveb mosaxleobas qveyanaSi arsebuli politikuri mdgomareobiT. SegviZlia _ gavixsenoT araerTi magaliTi: sanam saqarTveloSi saarCevno cieb-cxeleba daiwyeba xolme, ramodenime TviT adre satelevizio arxebze aqtiurdeba serialebi. iyo SemTxveva `rusTavi 2~-ze, rom serials erTvoda seriali da mTeli saRamo eTeri mxolod maT ekavaT reklamebTan erTad, ra Tqma unda. 2007 wlis noembris movlenebis da faqtebis miuxedavad `rusTavi 2~ mxolod serialebs uCvenebda da 9 saaTze - `kuriers~. amgvarad gadahqondaT xalxis yuradReba sul sxva Temebze da moCvenebiTad amSvidebdnen maT. sainteresoa, Tu vis moafiqrda an ratom moafiqrda, rom serialisTvis daerqmia `sapnis opera~. es termini wamovida dramatuli serialidan, romelic marTla arsebobda. is finansdeboda `proqter end gembelis~ da `qolgeiTpalmolivis~ msgavsi ti pis sapnis mwarmoeblisagan, romelsac am serialebSi ukeTdeboda reklama.3

`sapnis opera~ erTi didi reklamaa, sadac banaluri, Tumca zogjer saintereso istoriebic viTardeba. ratom vaxsene sityva reklama? imitom rom seriali aris saukeTeso saSualeba, riTac mayurebels `SeaCeCeb~, pirdapiri gagebiT, ZaliT ayurebineb mas. Amgvarad, igi komerciulad sakmaod momgebiania da Sesabamisad dainteresebis meti wili swored reklamis damkveTebze modis. magaliTad amerikaSi wamyvan arxebze serialebze kviraSi 15 saaTi modis da mas warmoadgens sxvadasxva sponsori da, Sesabamisad, reklamis saSualebiT maTi mogebis wili izrdeba.4 seriali ekranis win `abams~ mayurebels da reklamis damkveTi ki Tavis produqcias sTavazobs mas. es erTgvari SeTanxmebuli moqmedebaa mayureblis winaaRmdeg, Tumca es sistema dRemde saukeTesod muSaobs.

1. http://www.rustavi2.com/news/programs_rug.php?l=34 2. http://www.rustavi2.com/news/programs_rug.php?l=34 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap_operas 4.http://www.museum.tv/ar chives/etv/S/htmlS/soapoper a/ soapopera.htm

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salome kokaia qarTuli televiziis daarseba-ganviTarebis sakiTxisaTvis 1873 wels viloubi smitis mier Catarebuli `samyaros fotogamtarianoba~ da aseve, 1884 wels, paul nifkovis mier `maskanirebeli diskis~ Seqmna daedo safuZvlad televiziis teqnikur uzrunvelyofas. ase Seiqmna meqanikuri televizia, romelic populrobiT sargeblobda 1930 wlamde. aTwliani muSaobis Sedegad 1928 wlis 26 ivniss pirvelad taSkentSi gadaica moZravi gamosaxuleba. marTalia, signali Zalian susti da uxarisxo iyo, magram swored es erTaderTi faqti Tamamad SeiZleba CaiTvalos Tanamedrove televiziis, anu eleqtronuli televiziis dabadebad. pirveli televizori, romliTac moxerxda am cdis ganxorcieleba taSkentSi (`~), 1925 wlis 9 noembers moxda, xolo eleqtronuli televiziis Semdgomi ganviTareba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis xelSi gadavida. nel-nela viTardeboda da ixveweboda televizia, yalibdeboda sxvadasxva modeli, ixveWda aranormalur popularobas sazogadoebaSi, Tanac elviseburi siswrafiT. samyaros es axali `saocreba~ TandaTan moedo mTlianad msoflios da saqarTveloSic SemoaRwia. marTalia, cota mogvianebiT, 50-ian wlebSi, magram iseTi patara saxelmwifosTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa, ar iyo dagvianebuli, radgan 1956 wlis 28 dekembers gazeT `komunistSi~ dabeWdili gancxadeba telexedvis studiis gaxsnis Taobaze sensaciuri da gamaognebeli aRmoCnda sazogadoebis TiTqmis yvela fenisaTvis. am sensacias ki momzadebuli unda Sexvedrodnen, swored aqedan gamomdinare im droisTvis mxolod Tbilissa da rusTavSi 3500-ze meti televizori gaiyida, romelic maSin 200 maneTi Rirda da 6 TviT adre gaxda sazogadoebisTvis xelmisawvdomi, vidre Tavad televizia. maSindel TbilisSi mxolod `rekordisa~ da `avangardis~ firmis televizorebi iSoveboda da visac is hqonda, kviraSi

samjer, saRamos 8 saaTze, ezoebSi gamohqondaT da mTeli samezoblo erTad uyurebda teqnikis am saocar qmnilebas. xolo am qmnilebis uzrunvelyofas dasWirda sabWoTa kavSirSi yvelaze maRali 192 m. simaRlis anZa da anZis qveS patara erT sarTuliani Senoba. axlad Seqmnil telexedvisaTvis aucilebeli iyo mondomebuli TanamSromlebi. swored amitom gamocxadda diqtorebis konkursi. `ucnaur yuTSi~ gamosaCenad 300 gogonadan mxolod ori, aleqsandra maWavariani da lia miqaZe, SearCies. arada yvelas surda am `yuTSi~ emuSava, rac erTi SexvediT arc ise Zneli Canda. Tumca es mxolod erTi SexedviT, radgan televiziaSi muSaoba auracxel energias moiTxovda TiToeuli TanamSromlisagan: 24 saaTiani muSaoba iyo saWiro, raTa saRamos rva saaTze egreT wodebuli `televizatori~ yvelas ojaxSi anTebuliyo da Cvens qalaqSi momxdari axali ambebi euwyebina. imdroindeli qarTuli telestudia mxolod skolis atestatiani gamoucdeli muSakebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli. araprofesionalebi maleve gaxdnen yvelaze kompetenturebi. samTviani Tavdauzogavi Sromis Sedegad mwiri teqnikiTa da udidesi enTuziazmiT moxerxda 1956 wlis 30 dekembers pirveli signalis gadmocema. anZidan gadmocemuli sxivebi mTel saqarTvelos moedo. ainTo televizatorebis cisferi ekranebi da televiziac daibada saqarTveloSi. aJRerda simRera filmidan `bednieri Sexvedra~, ekranze gamoCnda mefoladeTa brigadiri, amiran fanculaia, aCvenes koniakis qarxana da axlad aSenebuli tyibulis elqtro sadguri, axalgazrda diqtorma aleqsandra maWavarianma axali 1957 wlis dadgoma miuloca sruliad saqarTvelos. dasasruls uCvenes kinofilmi `abezara~. pirvel translirebas telexedvis studiidan mxolod Svidi adamiani uzrunvelyofda. `adamianebi televizatorebidan~, rogorc mas imdroindeli sazogadoeba uwodebda, yvela wreSi ganxilvis Temad gaxdnen. maT meSaxteebis msgavsad 45 dRiani Svebuleba hqondaT. televiziis gamoCenisTanave xSirad ismoda aseTi Sefaseba: `Tu aqamde radio iyo msoflios smena, axla televizia Tvalebia,

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daarseba-ganviTarebis

sakiTxisaTvis

romlisaTvisac ar arsebobs manZili". saqarTvelos telemauwyebloba ar CamorCa sakavSiro televiziebis asparezs da maleve aalaparaka msoflio. rogorc am dargis pionerebi ixsenebdnen, maSin qarTuli televizia yvelaze metad TviTmyofadobiT gamoirCeoda. istorias axsovs iseTi SemTxvevac, rodesac erT-erTi qarTveli diqtoriT, Tavad kubis politikuri lideri fidel kastroc moixibla. Tumca xelovnebis axali dargi, saidanac mayurebeli igebda sxvadasxva informacias, iseTi Tavisufali ver iyo, rogorc dRes. komunisturi cenzora cisfer ekranzec muSaobda. masobrivi komunikaciebis saSualebiT yvelaze moxerxebul dargs centraluri komiteti xSir SemTxvevaSi imperiuli ideologiis gamtareblad iyenebdnen. rogorc cnobili diqtori daviT sokolovi ixsenebs, 90 wlamde televizia mxolod garTobis saSualeba ar iyo, aramed _ saxelmwifo politikis gamtarebeli. miuxedavad amisa, garkveuli xrikebis gamoyenebiT saqarTvelos televizia axerxebda minimaluri damoukideblobis SenarCunebas. rasac Tamamad mowmobs programebis da rubrikebis mravalferovneba, rogoricaa: sabavSvo, musikaluri, aRsaniSnavia mxiaruli viqtorina `babua Tevdores zRaprebi~, aseve xSirad uCvenebdnen kinofilmebsa da sxvadasxva speqtakls. SedarebiT naklebi intensivobiT gadioda sainformacio gamoSveba. axal ambebs mosaxleoba teqnikuri gaumarTaobis gamo kviraSi samjer igebda, magram moxerxebuli muSakebis wyalobiT, maleve Camoyalibda operatiuli sainformacio samsaxuri. gaCnda moZravi satelevizio sadguri. mayurebeli advilad CaerTo saqarTvelosa da mis farglebs gareT ganviTarebul movlenebSi. ase Seiqmna yvela qarTuli ojaxis satelevizio cnobari, romelsac ilia WavWavaZis gamocemis pativsacemad `moambe~ uwodes. sadac yvela gasaSuqebeli Tema kolegiaze unda damtkicebuliyo. `moambem~ swrafi tempiT iwyo ganviTareba. Tu is Tavdapirvelad siuJetebis ubralo CamoTvlas sTavazobda mayurebels, maleve gaxda yvelaze operatiuli da mizanmimarTuli gadacema. `moambeze~ momuSave jgufma Seqmna sxvadasxva axali rubrika, rogoric iyo: `sadReiso interviu~, `dRes msoflioSi~, `sasamarTlo darbazidan~, `gaxseneba~, `Cveni

gadacemebis kvaldakval~ da rac ar unda gasakviri iyos, `moambeSi~ iyo aseTi rubrika `biurokratiis galerea~. ekranze iyo gamokruli dafa da biurokratiis CarCoebSi xvdebodnen cnobili saxeebi, maT Soris _ cekas mdivnebi. xolo es faqti didad metyvelebda warsuli televiziis garkveul siTamamesa da araoficialur damoukideblobaze. mere da mere sainformacio samsaxurma kidev ufro meti transformacia ganicada. gadidda qronometraJi, gaxda Tematurad mravalferovani, anu, gezi aiRo srulyofisken, raSic televiziis popularobis procentis zrdac uwyobda xels. swored im periodSi warmoiSva da Camoyalibda reportaJis Janri. 1968 wels qarTul telestudias kidev erTi axali telefilmebis studia Seemata, ramac kidev ufro saintereso da mravalferovani gaxada saqarTvelos televizia. mravlad iRebdnen dokumentur da mxatvrul filmebs. bevri maTgani dResac didi popularobiT sargeblobs. SNN-is (`si-en-en~) damaarsebeli ted terneri televiziaze ambobda: `ukidegano inteleqtualuri udabno, is arc kargia da arc cudi, ubralod aucilebelia.~ swored es aucilebloba dRes aris yvelaze fesvgadgmuli sazogadoebaSi.. swored aqedan gamomdinare, 1956 wlis 30 dekembers gadmocemuli pirveli signali dRes isev anaTebs cisfer ekranebs saqarTveloSi da 192 m. simaRlis anZa Tbiliss dResac gadmohyurebs. 50 welze meti gavida. nel-nela saxe icvala qarTulma telestudiam, romelmac mxolod TerTmeti weli iarseba da safuZveli Cauyara saqarTvelos televiziis Tanamedrove modelis Seqmnas. `rekordisa~ da `avangardis~ televizorebi axali markis televizorebiT Seicvala. asjer da aTasjer gaumjobesda xarisxi. Tu aqamde sxvadasxva rubrika arsebobda, axla imave Tematikis televiziebi arsebobs (musikaluri, sportuli, a. S.). umaRles saswavleblebSi daiwyes televiziis, rogorc profesiis, Seswavla, ramac TanamSromlebis profesionalizmis zrda gamoiwvia. dRes didi popularobiT sargeblobs Jurnalistika. uamrav axalgazrdas aqvs survili, yofil `ucnaur yuTSi~ axla ukve sazogadoebisTvis aucilebel

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televiziaSi imuSaos. Seicvala programuli politikac da gaxda ufro metad mravalferovani. warmoudgenelia dRes nebismieri ojaxi televizoris gareSe. Tu aqamde mTeli samezoblo televizors erTad da gaocebiT uyurebda, dRes msgavsi aRaraferi xdeba. Tanamgzavris Seqmnam kidev ufro metad gazarda manZili da saSualeba. axla SesaZlebelia msoflios yvela qveynis satelevizio gadacemis yureba. aseve internetis arsebobac mSvenivrad moirgo da nebismier dros nebismieri ukve gasuli gadacemis naxvac SesaZlebeli gaxda. saqa rTveloSi aris da axloebi T 15-ze meti telemauwyebloba. maT Soris wamyvani televiziebi udidesi popularobiT sargebloben sazogadoebaSi. televiziaze damokidebuli mayureblebis moTxovnilebebis zrdis mixedviT iqmneba axali gadacemebi, rogoricaa: e. w. `ToqSouebi~, `realiTiSouebi~ da sxva. aseve Zalian popularulia teleserialebi, rac arc iseTi misasalmebeli faqti unda iyos. sxvadasxva Tematuri arxis arseboba uadvilebs mayurebels survilis dakmayofilebas, anu dRevandeli televizia gacilebiT komfortulia. adre arsebuli komunisturi cenzori nel-nela warsuls Cabarda. Tumca dResac SeiniSneba saxelmwifo struqturebis garkveuli gavlena, anu, 51 weli ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi saqarTvelos televiziisTvis sruli damoukideblobis mosapoveblad. Tumca dro jer kidev uamravia, radgan rac dro gadis, miT ufro damokidebuli xdeba sazogadoeba televiziaze.

Kgiga liklikaZe Kkino-tele _ kino-drama didi dro gvaSorebs im xanas, roca seriozulad amtkicebdnen, rom televiziis ganviTareba kinematografiis, literaturis, Teatris, radios kriziss gamoiwvevda?M televizias abralebdnen zedapirulobas, momabezreblobas.... dRes ki ras vxedavT, adamianebi yovel saRamos imediT da cnobismoyvareobiT miusxdebian xolme ekrans, meore dRes ki ibadeba aucilebeli kiTxva: guSin uyure?KkiTxvac da problemac swored es aris: ras vuyurebT?Uupirveles yovlisa, ra Tqma unda, esaa sainformacio publicisturi gadacemebi da Cveni sazogadobrivi cxovrebis amsaxveli reportaJebi, interesis axal talRas rom iwvevs teleekranis mimarT. ra SeiZleba iTqvas satelevizio kinosa da teleTeatris Sesaxeb? ra adgili uWiravs maT dRevandeli movlenebis, axali ambebis, problemebis, politikuri informaciisa da reklamis zRva nakadSi? Dda bolos, rogor igrZnoben Tavs mokrZalebuli telefilmebi Tu telespektaklebi, roca dRes mayurebels saSualeba aqvs sakuTar saxlSi ixilos iseTi reJis orebis fi lmebi rog orebic a rian: federiko felini,Amiqelanjelo antonioni, pier paolo pazolini, oTar ioseliani... SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom kino, dRes isev favoritia, magram, mis mimarT arsebuli didi siyvaruli da yuradReba ar SeiZleba telexelovnebis ayvavebad CaiTvalos. teledramaze daweril zogierT publikaciaSi vxvdebiT sityva `kriziss~.1 vfiqrob, Tanamedrove pirobebSi ar Rirs am sakiTxze msjeloba, radgan, satelevizio drama garkveuli drois manZilze dabneulobas ganicdida, momwyvdeuli iyo CixSi, rac damaxasiaTebelia xelovnebis ara marto am specifiuri saxeobisaTvis, aramed Teatris, kinematografis da literaturisTvisac ki. drois msvlelobam, mTeli Cveni cxovrebis politizaciam, raRac droiT, mniSvnelovnad gauswro TviT xelovnebis

1. http://www.mediascope.ru; http://www.vikipedia.org.ru 2. ix.: n. leoniZe, `televiziis moambe~, 1967. * winamdebare naSromi eyrdnoba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo televiziis arqivSi mopovebul vido masalebs.

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winsvlas. yoveldRiuri sinamdvile gasaocari siswrafiT icvleba. is rac gvancvifrebda guSin, dRes ukve ganvlili etapia.Ggarda amisa arsebobs presa, Jurnalebi, interneti, igive televizia.Mmasobrivi informaciis saSualebas warmoadgens agreTve dokumenturi kino da publicistika. `aqoSinebulma~ ukan misdio maT, gana es sakadrisia xelovnebisaTvis.?! miT ufro iseTi mokrZalebuli JanrisTvis, rogoricaa _ teledrama?! faqtia, rom verc erTi `mxatvrulad dadgmuli~, profesiulad gaTamaSebuli Tanamedrove istoria ver Seedreba, vTqvaT pirdapir quCidan eTerSi gadacemul intervius an dokumentur films, sadac yvelaferi realuria. da Tu asea, gana Rirs ki Sejibri? es kiTxva ara marto dRes gaismis da ara marto Cvens qveyanaSi. telexelovneba xom, TiTqmis yvelgan _ mkacri `konkurenciis~ pirobebSi viTardeba. konkurenti ki bevri hyavs: `cocxali~ Teatri, kino Tu video. telekinom Tavis specifika unda eZeboso, amboben kritikosebi...@ra aris teledrama: kino, Teatri? raSi mdgomareobs misi specifika? ra aris TviT telexedva? ra rols TamaSobs televizia teqnikaSi? televizia da mayurebeli, televizia da erovnuli kultura da bolos, televizia da... niWi, da... fuli! vidre specialistebi cdiloben miiRon pasuxi zemoT dasmul kiTvebze, cocxali satelevizio kino ukve ara erTi aTeuli welia viTardeba, eZiebs, iZens, kargavs...Yyovel saRamos msoflios yvela qveyanaSi teleekrani uxmobs mayurebels. interesi misdami usazRvroa, mayurebelTa auditoria _ uzarmazari... asobiT, aTasobiT filmi da speqtakli bavSvebis, mozardebis da didebisTvis. yoveldRiurobaSi gaTqvefili nacnobi ojaxuri istoriebi xSirad telesiujetebis ZiriTadi dramatuli safuZveli xdeba. da aseT SemTxvevaSi teledrama sworedac rom universaluria. TavisTavad ibadeba azri, rom adamiani, misi bedi, yoveldRiuri cxovreba, misi grZnobebi swored is aris, rac (rogori saxiTac unda iyos igi warmoCenili) xelovanTaTvis yovelTvis sainteresoa.

telekinos specifika iqneb isic aris, rom auCqareblad, dawvrilebiT, yuradRebiT moekidos adamianis cxovrebas, emociurad asaxos adamianis sulis ufaqizesi moZraoba, misi mudmivi brZola viTarebas Tan, Ta vis Tav Tan, cxovrebasTan.Ppolitika, omebi, socialuri kataklizmebi, sazogadoebrivi moZraoba _ es yvelaferi teledramis asaxvis sagania. da mainc, minda SevniSno, rom rac ufro daZabulia Cveni cxovreba, miT ufro met yuradRebas uTmobs xelovneba adamianis gancdebs da grZnobebs, ojaxs, saxls, yofacxovrebas.

G 1. ix.: marina murzina, `kinotele kinodrama~, Jurnali `kino~, Tbilisi, 1990.

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ana mesxiSvili saqarTvelos televiziis sxvadasxva arxis gadacemebis mimoxilva da maTi adamianze zemoqmedebis saSualebebi televiziis Seqmna dakavSirebulia eleqtroteqnikis ganviTarebasTan.Eeleqtronuli signalebis saSualebiT Setyobinebis did manZilze gadacemis aRmoCenam gaaCina azri, rom amave principiT SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda gamosaxulebis nebismier manZilze gadacemac. `televiziis daarsebamde, adamians xom faqtobrivad, aswliani Ziebisa da aRmoCenebis gzis gavla dasWirda. `Sorsmxedveloba" kacobriobis didi xnis ocneba iyo. rTulia, adamianebi aRarc ki vusvamT am SekiTxvas sakuTar Tavs, radgan SeveCvieT da ar vuRrmavdebiT mis fenomens.~1...im patara yuTs, romelsac `televizori~ hqvia, SeuZlia ara mxolod yvela asakisa da kategoriis adamianis daintereseba, aramed maTi marTvac.AalbaT, aravin icis, kargia es Tu ara, Tumca mis am funqcias orive mxare aqvs. televizia cnobierebaze zegavlenas axdens mxedvelobisa da smenis saSualebiT.Mmas ZaluZs moicvas mosaxleobis yvela fena. `saqarTvelos televizia 1956 wlis 30 dekembers gavida eTerSi, gadacemebi gadaicemoda kviraSi samjer orsaaTiani programiT. komerciuli televiziis istoria 1990 wlidan iwyeba. pirveli damoukidebeli sakabelo telekompania iyo me-7 arxi. am yvelafris Semdeg saqarTvelos televiziam sakmaod didi gza ganvlo~.2 dRes saqarTvelos telesivrceSi ramdenime arxi arsebobs, maT Soris gansxvaveba arcTu ise didia. Tumca, am erTi da imave tendenciebis mqone televiziebs Soris, mainc arsebobs konkurencia.Yyvelaze popularul telearxad SeiZleba CaiTvalos `rusTavi-2~, xolo rac Seexeba cnebas: `sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli~ _ arc erTi televizia ar akmayofilebs, miuxedavad imisa, rom erT-erT telekompanias am saxelwodebiT moixsenieben. `telemauwyeblobis koncefcia, rogorc sazogadoebrivi samsaxuri~ _ aseTi mauwyeblobis

Tavisebureba aris zusti, gaumZafrebeli, informacia. umTavresi piroba sazogadoebrivi televiziisaTvis aris sruli damoukidebloba, rogorc saxelmwifoebrivi, aseve kerZo biznesisagan.3 qedan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia vifiqroT, rom saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs damoukidebeli televizia, is damokidebulia an saxelmwifoze, an kerZo biznesze. didi britaneTi SeiZleba CaiTvalos sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis sawyisad, radgan 1929 wels Seqmnili sazogadoebrivi BBC dRemde akmayofilebs yvela pirobas. misTvis Tavidanve mTavari iyo sazogadoebis momsaxureba da am mizans dResac ar Ralatobs. rupxotis azriT, `sazogadoebriv mauwyebels sWirdeba fuli imisTvis, rom gaakeTos programebi, xolo komerciul mauwyebels sWirdeba gadacemebi, raTa gaakeTos fuli~4 _ swored am ukanaskneli azriT xelmZRvanelobs saqarTveloSi kidev erTi televizia `stereo", romelic ZiriTadad axalgazrda Taobazea gaTvlili, Tumca eTerSi xSirad gaismis xandazmul adamianTa qebac am telearxis gadacemebis mimarT. `stereos~ uyurebs yvela asakis, Tumca erTi da imave Sexedulebisa da azrovnebis mqone adamiani.Ees arxi yvelaze naklebad Seicavs iseT informacias, romelic adamians sWirdeba. am arxis mizania: axalgazrda Taoba daainteresos da gaxados damokidebuli iseT gadacemebze, rogoricaa `alo~, mesijebis kiTxva pirdapir eTerSi... amis Sedegi axalgazrda TaobaSi azrovnebis daStampva da telekompania `stereos~ finansuri aRmavlobaa. aseTi gasarTobi arxebi orientirebulni arian moizidon rac SeiZleba cnobadi saxeebi telewamyvanebad, rac iwvevs gadacemaTa zrdas da xarisxis vardnas. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos telearxebis sainformacio formis gadacemebs, isini erTi da igive movlenas erTsa da imave dros sxvadasxva rakursiT awvdian mayurebels. jansaRi azris Seqmna am movlenebze damokidebulia adamianTa bedze, Tu romel arxs uyureben isini. sainformacio gamoSvebebs Soris saqarTvelos telesivrceSi yvelaze reitingulad SeiZleba CaiTvalos samauwyeblo

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saqarTvelos televiziis sxvadasxva arxis gadacemebis mimoxilva da maTi adamianze zemoqmedebis saSualebebi

kompania `rusTavi-2~-is gamoSveba `kurieri~. arcTu ise didi xnis win iyo mosazreba, rom `kurieri~ xelisuflebis mier sazogadoebis marTvis erT-erTi saSualeba iyo. cnobilia, rom satelevizio nebismieri informacia telemayureblis cnobierebis marTvis procesSi monawileobs. `kurieris~ sainformacio gamoSveba aiZulebs mayurebels ifiqros ise, rogorc mas awvdis informacias. amas ki sxvadasxva saSualebebiT axerxebs. mag: informaciis mowodebisas TiTqosda obieqturobis mizniT naCvenebia ama Tu im movlenis orive mxare, Tumca reportaJebi awyobilia Semdegi tendenciiT: aq ufro didi dro eTmoba movlenis im mxares, romlis gamarTlebac surs televizias. telemayurebelic Zalauneburad iziarebs sxvis azrs. reportaJis bolos daskvnis saxiT aris maTTvis sasurveli azris amsaxveli kadrebi. saboloo epizodi, romliTac mTavrdeba siuJeti, zemoqmedebs mayurebelze da aiZulebs ise ifiqros ama Tu im movlenaze, rogorc mas miawodes. `televizia xom, iseve rogorc filmi moqmedebs mayurebelze kadrebis gamosaxulebis erTobliobis mudmivi cvalebadobiT. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs kadrebis ganlagebas droSi, mimdevrul cvlilebebs-montaJs~.5 `zedmiwevniT aris Seswavlili mayurebelTa qceva televizoris win, telegadacemebs xalxi nawil-nawil uyurebs, maT SeuZliaT paralelurad sxva ram akeTon~,6 amitom siuJetebi isea awyobili, rom sasurveli daskvna mayurebelma am mdgomareobaSic gamoitanos. televiziis gavleniT xalxi ufro met monawileobas iRebs iseT movlenebSi, romelTac isini verc ki SeamCnevdnen, televizias rom ar daeyenebina yuradRebis centrSi. `kurieri" ar aris obieqturi sainformacio gamoSveba da amas TiToeuli detali amtkicebs. mag: iyo SemTxveva, rodesac erT-erTi siuJeti daiwyo teqstiT: `fasebi saqarTveloSi gaizarda yvelanair produqtze~- mayurebeli interesdeba am problemiT da mouTmenlad elis mis gadawyvetas, magram am gancxadebas mohyva gasasamarTlebeli sabuTi, ekranze gaCnda msoflio bazarze gaZvirebuli saqonlis procentuli maCvenebeli. amiT xalxs miawodes mesiji, rom es msoflio bazris bralia.

gamovyofdi mayurebelze zemoqmedebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan telemauwyeblobis saSualebas, romelsac xSirad iyenebs sainformacio gamoSveba `kurieri~. magaliTad, CarTvebis dros ekranis qvemoT Cndeba respodentis saubridan gamotanili mokle daskvna, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi ar emTxveva komentaris Sinaarss. mayurebeli, romelic am dros ekranis qvemoT gaCenil warweras kiTxulobs, aRar aqcevs yuradRebas studiaSi mowveuli stumris saubars da kmayofildeba `viRacis~ mier gamotanili daskvniT. mosaubris dros mniSvneloba eniWeba mimikas, saxis gamometyvelebas, xmis tons (swored amiT aris televizia gazeTze sando da damajerebeli) da mayurebelma SesaZloa sruliad sxva daskvna gamoitanos warweris gareSe. mag: erT-erT gadacemaSi iyo CarTva adamianis, romelic Tavs icavda, cdilobda daemtkicebina, rom is ar iyo damnaSave, am dros ekranis qvemoT gaCnda warwera: `is ruseTSi gaiqca, ramdenime maRali Tanamdeboba gamoicvala, mas finansur maqinaciebSi adanaSauleben~ _ mayurebeli amis wakiTxvis Semdeg ganwyobilia mis mimarT uaryofiTad. `adre Jurnalists, wamyvansa da reportiorsac ufleba hqondaT da valdebulnic iyvnen gamoexataT TavianTi pozicia. xalxs TandaTan uqreboda rwmena `WeSmaritebisa~, romelsac saxelmwifos saxeliT wamyvani warmoTqvamda. maSin pirdapir eTerSi gamosvlis ufleba hqondaT mxolod politikur mimomxilvelebs, romlebic xelisuflebisagan iRebdnen miTiTebebs, Tu rogori azri unda miewodebinaT im dRes sazogadoebisaTvis...~7 magram mas Semdeg bevri ram Seicvala, adamianebi ufro Tavisufalni gaxdnen sakuTari azris gamoxatvaSi, Tumca imdroindeli tendenciebi dResac arsebobs ufro Sefaruli, damajerebeli formebiTa da saSualebebiT. aucilebelia, rom mayurebels hqondes sakuTari, Tundac mcdari, individualuri azri, amisaTvis saWiroa obieqturi televizia. televizia ZiriTadad axalgazrdebsa da bavSvebze zemoqmedebs, radgan `gadacemasTan kritikuli damokidebuleba codnisa da gamocdilebis Sedegad xdeba~,8 Tumca es yovelive imdenad gaTavisebuli aqvs XXI saukunis adamians, rom Tu is

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moazrovnea aucileblad SeZlebs sakuTari azris SenarCunebas ama Tu im movlenaze. saboloo daskvna is aris, rom XXI saukunis adamianze moZvelebuli xerxebiT zemoqmedeba TiTqmis SeuZlebeli gaxda. saqarTvelos telemauwyeblobas aRar aqvs sazogadoebis umravlesobis ndoba da interesi. is mxolod imisaTvis gaxda saWiro, rom mosaxleobam miiRos mcire informacia aqtualur movlenaze. mxolod informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom esa Tu is faqti moxda, xolo rogor moxda, vin aris amaSi damnaSave, amis garkveva TiTqmis SeuZlebeli gaxda.Mmoazrovne adamiani Tavisuflad amCnevs qarTul telesivrceSi im did sicrues, rasac realobasTan aranairi kavSiri ar aqvs da rac miRweulia sxvadasxva satelevizio saSualebiT: sxvadasxva rakursisa da xedis cvalebadobiT drois gansazRvrul monakveTSi, ekranis qvemoT miwerili `viRacis~ mier gamotanili daskvniT, ama Tu im movlenis sasurveli detalisaTvis gamoyofili droiT da sxva mravali saSualebiT, rasac yoveldRiurad iyenebs saqarTvelos samauwyeblo sivrce. zemoT CamoTvlil detalebs riTac, samwuxarod jer kidev SeuZlia sazogadoebis garkveul nawilze zemoqmedebis moxdena da aravin icis, es kargia Tu ara.

Mnaili Ciqobava televizia, rogorc auditoriis marTvis saukeTeso iaraRi dasabamidan dRemde adamianma sakmaod didi fizikuri Tu gonebrivi evolucia ganicada. saukuneebis manZilze is nabijnabij win miiwevda da viTardeboda. misi fantaziis, gonebrivi SesaZleblobebisa da SemoqmedebiTi niWis wyalobiT xorcs isxamda uamravi gamogoneba. siaxlisaken mudmivi swrafva adamians mosvenebas ar aZlevda, Tumca winsvlasTan erTad Zlierdeboda Zalauflebis mopovebis Jini. odiTganve is iyenebda mTel Tavis fizikur da gonebriv SesaZleblobebs, raTa daemorCilebina da emarTa masebi. cnobilia, rom rac ufro metia ganviTareba da daxvewiloba, miT ufro uvnebeli, humanuri da ase vTqvaT, TvalisTvis SeumCnevelia dasamorCilebeli iaraRi. dRevandel dRes marTvis da adamianebis fsiqologiaze zemoqmedebis aseT universalur iaraRs warmoadgens televizia, romelic, erTi SexedviT, Tavis programul politikas qmnis sxvadasxva asakisa da kategoriis mayureblis gemovnebis mixedviT, zrunavs imaze, rom auditorias miewodos misTvis saintereso da aucilebeli informacia, aseve gaarTos da misces mas gantvirTvis saSualeba, Tumca, meore mxriv, swored am programuli politikiT xdeba udidesi zemoqmedeba adamianis fsiqologiaze da is politikuri Tu biznes interesebis msxverpli xdeba. mavanTa Zalauflebis mopoveba da maTi kapitalis mniSvnelovnad gazrda mayureblis `zombirebis~ xarjze xdeba da isini yovel Zal-Rones xmaroben am gavlenis da materialuri mdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad, vinaidan `SeuZlebelia uari iTqvas umciresobis mier masebze batonobis princi pebze, ramdenadac masa zarmaci da inertulia da mas ar uyvars sakuTar gatacebebze uaris Tqma... amasTan erTad am umciresobas masebze gavlenis dakargvaze metad eSiniaT, Tavad ar daemorCilon masebs.~1 televiziis saSualebiT auditoriis damorCilebis xerxi globalur xasiaTs atarebs. gamonaklisi arc saqarTveloa.

1. ix.: d. makariZe, `satelevizio dizaini~, fondi interniusis gamocema, Tbilisi, 2003w. 2. ix.: a. vaxtangovi, `videoartis ganviTarebis tendenciebi da Tanamedrove televizia" (disertacia), Tbilisi, 2006. 3. www.mediacope.ru 4. iqve; 5. a. vaxtangovi, dasaxelebuli naSromi. 6. ix. `televizia da adamianis qceva~ _ jorj qamstoki, stiven Cafi, naTan kacmani, maqsuel makkombsi da ronald robertsi, Tbilisi, 1989. 7. iqve; 8. d. makariZe, `satelevizio dizaini~, Tbilisi, 2003w.

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pirveli televizia Cvens qveyanaSi 1956 wels Seiqmna. vinaidan is sabWoTa kavSiris Semadgeneli nawili iyo, mosaxleoba aq iseve, rogorc am udides imperiaSi arsebul danarCen respublikebSi, sakmaod SezRuduli da Tvalaxveuli aRmoCnda. aq sruli informaciuli vakuumi sufevda. saxelmwifo mmarTveloba televiziis saSualebiT mani pulirebda da sakuTar ideologias atarebda masebze. garda amisa, zewolas ganicdidnen Tavad televiziis muSakebic. yoveli axali Tematuri rubrika, teleekranisTvis mTavari Janrebi SemoisazRvreboda mkacri cenzuriT.2 warsulze saubars aRar gavagrZeleb, ramdenadac dRevandel dRes, miuxedavad demokratiis, `Tavisufali sityvis~ arsebobisa, Jurnalisturi siTamamisa Tu yvelanairi informaciis eTerSi SemoWrisa, mdgomareoba ar Secvlila. piriqiT, yovelive zemoT CamoTvlilis wyalobiT sazogadoeba ufro agresiuli da mniSvnelovnad daZabuli gaxda, vinaidan Tundac sxvadasxva televiziis eTerSi gasuli sainformacio gamoSvebebiT Tu ToqSouebiT xdeba sxvadasxva politikuri piris, xelisuflebis Tu biznesis warmomadgenlis interesebis Sejaxeba. televiziebs Soris mZvinvarebs sityvieri omi. sazogadoebaSi xdeba uaryofiTi muxtis Canacvleba. miuxedavad imisa, mayurebeli dadebiTad iRebs mowodebul informacias Tu uaryofiTad, is mainc misi gavlenis qveS eqceva. es informacia gansjis sagani xdeba, rac xels uwyobs sazogadoebis gaxleCas da dapirispirebas. zemoT avRniSneT, rom televizia garTobis saSualebaa. CarTavT televizors, gadarTavT sasurvel arxze da uyurebT Tqvens sayvarel gadacemas, serials Tu films, moismenT TqvenTvis saintereso informacias an gadaurTavT bavSvs, erTi SexedviT, yvelaze uvnebel sabavSvo arxze, mag., jetiqsze (Jetix), gaarTobT mas, da amiT, cota xniT mainc gaaCerebT. mcirewlovani mayurebeli interesiT uyurebs agresiiT gaJRenTil animaciur filmebs. droTa ganmavlobaSi bavSvi sakuTari surviliT jdeba televizorTan da TiTqmis mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi mijaWvulia ekrans. mSvenieri saSualebaa dasvenebisTvis an sxva saqmiT dakavebisTvis, magram

dafiqrebulxarT, ra Sedegi SeiZleba gamoiRos momavalSi Tqveni Svilis faqiz fsiqikaSi aseTi uaryofiTi muxtis daleqvam? adamianis Semdgomi qceva xom jer kidev mcire asakSi yalibdeba?! xSir SemTxvevaSi didi raodenobiT Zaladobisa da agresiis yurebis Semdeg bavSvi cdilobs, TanatolebTan TamaSisas gaimeoros nanaxi da amiT fizikuri zianic ki miayenos sakuTar Tavsac da sxvasac. auditoriis, umeteswilad ki mozardebis, qcevis kulturaze Zlierad moqmedebs ucxoeTidan dublirebuli e. w. `realiTi Souebi~. evropasa da amerikaSi absoluturad gansxvavebuli mentalitetia. saqarTvelo sabWoeTis periodSi, rogorc aRvniSneT, informaciul vakuumSi iyo. arsebuli wyobis dangrevis Semdeg ucxoeTidan Cvens qveyanaSi erTbaSad SemoWrili, aqamde akrZaluli yvelanairi informaciisa da masTan erTad jer kidev SemorCenili tradiciebis Sejaxebam sazogadoeba cota ar iyos daabnia. misi erTi nawili siaxles dadebiTad an, saerTod, uemociod Sexvda, nawilma ki protesti gamoTqva. magram es ZiriTadad marTlmadidebel morwmuneebs da asakovan adamianebs exeba. axalgazrda Taobam qcevis axali wesebi ucbad aiTvisa, Tumca es aTviseba mxolod zedapirulad moxda, vinaidan maT qvecnobierSi jer kidev Rrmadaa Camjdari qarTuli tradiciebiT aRzrdis kvali. am yvelaferma ki gamoiwvia axalgazrdebSi udidesi kompleqsis, mibaZvis Camoyalibeba. Sous monawileebi cdiloben, rac SeiZleba Tavisufali da ukompleqso Candnen, mayurebeli ki maT kumirebad xdis, didi yuradRebiT adevnebs Tvals monawileTa sajarod gamotanil cxovrebas da umetes SemTxvevaSi baZavs maT. adamianis fsiqologiaze aseve Zlierad moqmedebs reklama, romlis saSualebiTac auditorias ganuwyvetliv umeoreben erTsa da imaves, Tu ramdenad kargia esa Tu is produqti an misi mwarmoebeli kompania. reklamis mudmivi triali ekranze iwvevs adamianis fsiqikis farul damorCilebas da `aiZulebs~ am informaciiT `daprogramebul~ momxmarebels, xarisxis miuxedavad, SeiZinos swored reklamirebuli produqcia. dRevandeli qarTuli telesivrce gajerebulia sapnis operebiT. is, erTi SexedviT, diasaxlisebs, da aramarto maT,

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auditoriis marTvis

saukeTeso iaraRi

gantvirTvis saSualebas aZlevs. mayurebeli sulmouTqmelad elodeba, rodis daiwyeba morigi seria da verc ki xvdeba, rom seriali imdenad iWreba mis fsiqikaSi, rom misda uneburad personaJis cxovrebiT cxovrobs da sakuTar, realur cxovrebaSi gadmoaqvs esa Tu is fraza an moqmedeba. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom ganviTarebul qveynebSi seriali ekranze gadis dRis garkveul monakveTSi, rodesac diasaxlisi agvarebs saojaxo saqmeebs da mas dro rCeba, bavSvis skolidan mosvlamde daisvenos naxevari Tu erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi. rasac ver vityviT qarTul telearxebze gasul serialebze. Cvens qveyanaSi sapnis operebs dRis ganmavlobaSi eTmoba TiTqmis naxevarze meti saeTero dro. tele, dokumenturi, mxatvruli filmebi, musika xelovnebaa. misgan adamiani esTetur siamovnebas iRebs. Tumca xelovnebis nimuSebis garda arsebobs mdare xarisxis produqciac, romelsac, ramdenadac gasakviri ar unda iyos, ufro meti mayurebeli da msmeneli hyavs. samwuxarod, qarTuli televiziebi umeteswilad swored aseTi dabali xarisxis filmebs Tu musikas sTavazoben auditorias, rac uaryofiTad moqmedebs mayureblis gemovnebaze. garda amisa, unda iTqvas isic, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi ekranze gasuli mxatvruli filmebi scildeba yovelgvari eTikis farglebs. marTalia, maTze miniSnebulia asakobrivi cenzis maniSnebeli, Tumca, albaT, dameTanxmebiT, Tormeti wlis mozardisTvis da masze gacilebiT patarebisTvis cota naadrevia uyuros amden Zaladobas, seqsualur aqts da usminos sakmaod Tamamad naTargmn frazebs. yvelaferi es mniSvnelovan kvals tovebs bavSvis qvecnobierze da iwvevs garkveuli kompleqsebis Camoyalibebas. Tu dafiqrdebiT, albaT, mixvdebiT, rom Cvens qveyanaSi momravlebuli arasrulwlovanebis mier Cadenili danaSaulebebi umeteswilad teleekranebze nanaxis da mosmenilis zegavleniT xdeba. ar ifiqroT, rom me televiziis winaaRmdegi var. piriqiT, me Tavadac mayurebeli var, garda amisa, Cemi profesiac televiziasTan aris dakavSirebuli. minda aRvniSno, rom Tanamedrove adamiani mudmivad unda flobdes informacias msoflioSi mimdinare politikur-socialuri Tu kulturuli

procesebis Sesaxeb, unda ecnobodes siaxleebs, televiziis saSualebiT, marTlac, unda iRebdes siamovnebas da gantvirTvas. amisTvis, Tavad auditoriamac zomiereba unda gamoiCinos da dafiqrdes, ra aris misTvis bolosdabolos televizia ­ garTobis saSualeba Tu morCileba?!

1. , . , . 1930, gv. 10. 2. www.mediascope.ru (, - ).

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salome cxadaZe reklamis roli qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi da misi zegavlena qarTvel auditoriaze `tele-vizio~ laTinurad _ Sorsxedvaa. televizia mecnierebis, teqnikisa da kulturis dargia, romelic radioeleqtronuli saSualebebiT uzrunvelyofs gamosaxulebis garkveul manZilze gadacemas.1 gamosaxulebis gadacema nebismier manZilze, `Sorsmxedveloba~ kacobriobis didi xnis ocneba iyo. igi aswliani Ziebisa da aRmoCenebis gzaa.2 televizia aris informaciis gavrcelebis yvelaze masobrivi saxeoba da sazogadoebasTan komunikaciis ZiriTadi saSualeba. igi sinTezia xelovnebis yvela dargisa. informaciis miwodebis sxva wyaroebTan SedarebiT, televizia sargeblobs upiratesobaTa mTeli rigiT: magaliTad, beWdviTi media moicavs mxolod teqstobriv masalas, SeiZleba absoluturad zustsa da operatiuls, magram ara audio-vizualurs, Tumca esec aucilebelia, rasakvirvelia; aseve radio mauwyebloba, esec mxolod audio informaciaa, romlis mosmenis drosac mayurebeli, pirvel rigSi, vizualuri informaciis deficits ganicdis. zemoT CamoTvlil orive magaliTs ki aerTianebs televizia, romelic TavisTavad gulisxmobs, rogorc beWdviTs, aseve audio-vizualur sinTezs, rac ki imas niSnavs, rom informacia mayureblamde yvelanairi saSualebiT aris miwodebuli da Sesabamisad misi damaxsovrebis da aRqmis Sansic matulobs. `reklama~ (laTinurad: wamoyvireba) ­ sxvadasxva RonisZieba, romlis mizania auwyos sagnebis, momsaxurebis da organizaciebis Sesaxeb. ar SegviZlia, zustad vTqvaT, rodis da romeli reklama iyo pirveli, Tumca misi istoria wlebs ki ara aTaseul wlebs moicavs da damwerlobis gavrcelebas ukavSirdeba. im momentidan rodesac warmoiSva iseTi ekonomiuri kategoria, rogoric aris `saqoneli~ da sasaqonlo warmoeba daiwyo reklamis ganviTareba, rogorc xelovneba. sxvadasxva

arqeologis mier napovnia Zveli reklamebis damadasturebeli faqtebi: papirusis qaRaldsa, qvaze amotvifruli informaciebi, savaWro rigebSi kedlebze komerciuli xasiaTis nawerebi..3 droTa ganmavlobaSi, ra Tqma unda, daixvewa reklamis miwodebis wyaroca da formac da axla adamiani yvelanairad reklamis garemocvaSi imyofeba, Tumca, miuxedavad imisa, rom reklama aris yvelgan da yovelTvis, magaliTad, quCebSi _ e. w. bilbordebze, manqanaSi _ audio reklama radiosadgurebis saSualebiT, e. w. `light box"-ebi da a. S., zemoT naxseneb yvela punqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rogorc damkveTTa, aseve mayurebelTa prioriteti mainc satelevizio reklamas ergo wilad. satelevizio reklama aris yvelaze saintereso, efeqturi, magram imvdroulad _ yvelaze rTuli da Zviri siamovneba. satelevizio reklamaSi efeqtis misaRwevad aucilebelia, Semdegi iyos gaTvaliswinebuli: 1. mTavaria ­ saintereso vizualizacia, radgan mayureblis mexsierebaSi, pirvel rigSi, vizuali, anu gamosaxuleba, xvdeba da ara xma. 2. gamosaxuleba unda iyos mkveTri da gasagebi. 3. auditoriis yuradRebis miqceva pirvelive 5 wamSi Tu ver moxerxda, interesi daikargeba. 4. satelevizo reklama ise unda iyos gakeTebuli, rom bevri fiqris gareSe mixvdes adamiani razea saubari. 5. reklamis siuJeti unda aewyos ara im nivTze razec aris reklama aramed im adamianze vinc moixmars am nivTs, anu, vizec aris gaTvlili. 6. ar aris saWiro bevri fraza, yoveli sityva unda muSaobdes auditoriaze.4 reklamebi, romlebic gadaRebulia zemoT naxsenebi punqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT Cvenis nebiT Tu Cvenda uneburad advilad ileqeba mexsierebaSi, Tavis datvirTvasac amarTlebs da farTo auditoriis zegavlenasac axerxebs. gavlenis qveS moqceuli adamiani ki swored im produqcias iyenebs, rac mas lamazad SefuTuli miarTves. am SemTxvevaSi saqonlis xarisxze yuradReba dundeba, Tundac cota xniT mainc, reklama ki Tavis misias asrulebs. saboloo jamSi xom yvelaferi imisTvis keTdeba, rom moxdes auditoriis maxeSi gabma. mTavaria idea da ara Sesrulebis xarisxi. SesaZlebelia, dabalbiujetianma reklamamac saintereso ideis gamo advilad

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reklamis roli qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi da misi zegavlena qarTvel auditoriaze

miiqcios mayurebelTa yuradReba, mowoneba daimsaxuros da survili gauCinos, reklamirebadi produqcia SeiZinos. arsebobs Znelad dasamaxsovrebeli produqcia Tavisi mravalsaxeobrivi dasaxelebebis gamo, romlis mayureblamde misatanadac aucilebeli xdeba sxvadasxva xerxis gamoyeneba: magaliTad, personaJis SerCeva, romelic TavisTavad yuradRebas miiqcevs si lam azi T, nax evr ad SiSv eli sx eul iT Tu rai me eqstravaganturi qceviT Tavs dagamaxsovrebs da masTan erTad avtomaturad mexsierebaSi ibudebs is produqcia, romelsac ukeTdeba reklama. garda personaJisa, aseTive efeqti miiRweva sworad SerCeuli musikis saSualebiT. xSirad dadis adamiani da sxvadasxva samuSaos Sesrulebis periodSi qvecnobierad RiRinebs sareklamo rgolSi mosmenil melodiebs da, ra Tqma unda, aqve tivtivdeba is produqcia, romlisTvisac gamoyenebuli iyo es melodia. aseve yvelaze gamarTlebuli, magram imavdroulad yvelaze safrTxilo xerxia xumroba reklamaSi. sicili xom erT-erTi yvelaze pozitiuri emociaa adamianSi, romelsac SeuZlia TviT yvelaze mrisxane momxmarebelic ki moalbos. adamiani, romelsac daamaxsovrdeba is kargi ganwyoba, ra Tqma unda, mas `miabams~ im `markas~ da produqts, romelmac es ganwyoba Seuqmna. fantazia reklamaSi udides rols TamaSobs. misi nakleboba mayurebels aiZulebs TviTon moiSvelios fantaziis unari, rac, bunebrivia, yuradRebas ufro ufantavs da reklamaze koncentraciac ikargeba. reklamaSi fantaziis nakleboba ZiriTadad kadrSi msaxiobis saubriT aris gadmocemuli, rac aradinamikurs xdis sareklamo rgols da TavisTavad, _ uinteresos. satelevizio reklamis SesaZlebloba ikargeba aseTi ti pis reklamebis SemTxvevaSi, maSin riTi gansxvavdeba aseTi rgoli audio reklamisagan. Tavidanve aRvniSneT, rom satelevizio sivrce gulisxmobs audio-vizualur sinTezs. magram es sulac ar gulisxmobs imas, rom vizuali ase martivad iyos gadmocemuli, ra Tqma unda, amaSi mcdari araferia, ubralod, zemoT naxseneb punqtebs Soris daikarga mTavari: auditoriis yuradRebis miqceva reklamam pirvelsave 5 wamSi unda SeZlos, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ikargeba interesi.

reklamis momzadebis dros aseve mniSvnelovani da aucilebelia imis gaTvaliswineba, Tu vizea sareklamo rgoli gaTvlili: romel socialur fenaze, ra asakis mayurebelze. amis gaTvaliswineba erTgvarad zRudavs profesionalizms reklamis momzadebis dros, magram imavdroulad, zustad gaTvlili reklamirebadi produqcia 100%-iT moqmedebs mayurebelze da isev da isev zegavlenis qveS aqcevs maT. am process Tan sdevs sareklamo rgolis ganTavseba satelevizio sivrceSi, rac aseve didi sizustiT unda iyos gaTvlili. am SemTxvevaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia samuSao da uqme dReebi, Tu sabavSvo reklamaa, swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg iyos gamiznuli, Tu diasaxlisebzea gaTvlili, nebismier dros da a. S. amasTan satelevizio badis sxvadasxva monakveTsa da gadacemaSi sxvadasxva moTxovna da fasi arsebobs. magaliTad, rac ufro reitingulia gadacema, miT meti Tanxaa saWiro sareklamo rgolis gansaTavseblad. reklamis ganTavsebas aqvs Tavis moTxovnebi: aris reklamebi, romelTa gaSuqebac saerTod akrZalulia, radganac ar aris s aq a rTvel os ka no nmdebl ob i s m ier daS v eb ul i da licenzirebuli. ikrZaleba sabrZolo iaraRis reklamireba, aseve sxva saxis iaraRisac, maT Soris _ sportulis da sanadirosic. aris reklamebi, romelTa produqciasac aucilebelia Tan axldes antireklamac. magaliTad, Tambaqosi. aseve arsebobs iseTi programebi, romelTa gawyvetac sareklamod dauSvebelia, aseTia sabavSvo da religiuri gadacemebi, aseve prezidentis gamosvla an plenaruli sxdoma, oficialuri saxelmwifo RonisZiebebi da bolos, gadacema, romlis xangrZlivobac ar aRemateba 15 wuTs. aseve reklama ar unda iyos uaryofiTad dammuxtveli, ar unda iwvevdes xalxSi agresias. reklamaSi ixarjeba miliardobiT dolari da saintereso is aris, rom am uzarmazar xarjebs winaswar ver gaTvli, ra Sedegi SeiZleba mohyves, amitomaa saWiro gaTvaliswinebuli iqnes yvela is piroba, romelic xels Seuwyobs mayureblamde sworad, efeqturad da rac mTavaria mizandasaxulad iqnes mitanili Canafiqri, rom 100%-iT Tu ara, 90%-iT mainc iyo

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darwmunebuli Seni saqmis warmatebiT dasrulebaSi. es ki namdvilad yvelasaTvis xelsayrelia, rogorc damkveTisaTvis, ise reklamis damamzadeblisTvis da, ra Tqma unda, televiziisaTvisac. amdenad, srulyofili rgolis Sesaqmnelad yvelanairi saSualeba arsebobs, es aris kompiuteruli grafika, animacia Tu sxvadasxva meTodi, yovelTvis iarsebeben adamianebi, romlebic qmnian produqcias, aSeneben saxlebs, yidian an cvlian sxvadasxva nivTs da a. S., anu, yovelTvis arsebobs baza reklamis Sesaqmnelad, yovelTvis arsebobs masala, mTavaria iyos idea da fantazia.

saavtoro monacemebi

manana turiaSvili -xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asistentprofesori. daamTavra amave universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. sxvadasxva dros muSaobda kote marjaniSvilis saxelmwifo dramatul Teatris muzeumSi; aseeve kote marjaniSvilis saxl-muzeumis eqspoziciis istoriuli da Teoriuli nawilis teqstis damuSaveba-Seswavlaze.Aaris avtoris wignebisa: `mixeil TumaniSvilis Ziebebi kinomsaxiobTa TeatrSi~; `mixeil TumaniSvilis Ziebebi fantaziisa da warmosaxvis sferoSi.~ gamoqveynebuli aqvs 50-mde recenzia, portreti, interviu .Tbilisis sxvadasxva Jurnal-gazeTebSi: `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, `Teatraluri moambe~, `sabWoTa xelovneba~, `xelovneba~, `arili~, `axali Taoba~, `saqarTvelos respublika~, `omega~. tel: +995 (32) 98 43 03 Tamar quTaTelaZe -SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatrmcodneobis fakulteti. moRvaweobs amave universitetis qarTuli Teatris istoriis enciklopediis jgufSi. amJamad muSaobs Temaze ,,moderni Teatralur xelovnebaSi~. tel: +995 (32) 61 39 57; +995 (77) 55 16 66. eka cxadaZe _ filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. daamTavra iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis kavkasiur enaTa ganyofileba aris filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, literatori, folkloristi, kritikosi, literaturuli premia `saba~ 2004 wlis nominanti, 130ze meti samecniero statiisa da sagazeTo publikaciis avtori. mis mier gamoqveynebuli statiebi exeba qarTul folklorsa da miTologias, meoce saukunis qarTuli inteleqtualuri mwerlobis miTosur paradigmebs amJamad muSaobs uaxlesi postsabWouri qarTuli literaturuli procesebis (proza, poezia) Seswavlaze tel: +995 (32) 53 90 76

1. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, me-9 tomi, 1967, gv. 684. 2. www.mediacope.ru 3. www.Nrtm.ru 4. www.mogilev.biz

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olRa eliaSvili _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis bakalavriati (specialoba _ kinomcodneoba). swavlobs amave universitetis magistraturaSi, samagistro programa _ msoflio kinematografi _ industria da xelovneba, programis xelmZRvaneli sruli profesori zviad doliZe. muSaobs samagistro naSromze ­ ,,martin skorsezes Semoqmedeba". tel. +995 (93) 42 64 24 Tamar kobiZe _ daamTavra saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universiteti kinoJurnalistikis fakulteti, olRa TabukaSvilis jgufi. amJamad saqarTvelos rusTavelis saxelobis kinosa da Teatris universitetSi gadis kinomcodneobis kurs xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetze, profesor zviad doliZis xelmZRvanelobiT. swavlis periodSi iyo universitetis yovelTviuri gazeTis "antraqtis" redaqtori. miRebuli aqvs "Unicef-United nations children's fund"-is serTifikati. 2006 wels warmatebiT gaiara erTTviani swavlebis kursi marketingSi (marTvis umaRlesi skola _ ESM), samagistro programis swavlis periodSi muSaobs Temaze: `eizenSteinis, pazolinis da Caikovskis dominik fernandesiseuli fsiqoanalitikuri portretebi~ Sesrulebuli aqvs naSromebi: 1) `dominik fernandesis monografia eizenSteinze~ 2) `ivane mrisxaneSi proecirebuli eizenSteini - motivTa brZola, sakuTar Tavze gamarjveba~. tel.: +995 (99) 64 22 64; +995 (32) 22 14 44 el-fosta: [email protected] oliko JRenti _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis samecniero kvleviTi centris wamyvani mecnier-TanamSromeli. baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis miwveuli profesori. paralelurad muSaobs dokumentur kinoSi. aris avtori da reJisori dokumenturi filmi-eses `knut hamsunis kavkasiuri misteriebi~ (2005). kvlevis sfero: erovnul-socialuri sakiTxi 10-20-ani wlebis qarTul kinoprocesTan mimarTebaSi, qarTuli kinoavangardi. miTi da narativi amerikul kinoSi, modernizmis sakiTxisaTvis qarTul kinosa da literaturaSi. tel: +995 (99) 27 18 15 el-fosta: [email protected]

nino sulaZe _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, kinomcodneobis ganxriT. swavlobs amave universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis magistraturis I kursze. (samagistro programa _ kinematografi _ industria da xelovneba. programis xelmZRvaneli zviad doliZe.). amJamad muSaobs samagistro Temaze `axalgazrda germanuli kinos ZiriTadi Taviseburebani~. tel: +995 (93) 75 70 20 el-fosta: ninia. S@ posta. ge. sofio wulaia _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis bakalavriati, komomcodneobis specialoba. Swavlobs amave universitetis magistraturis I kursze (samagistro programa ­ msoflio kinematotgrafi _ industria da xelovneba. xelmZRvneli prof. zviad doliZe) muSaobs samagistro naSromze _ `stenli kubrikis Semoqmedebis ZiriTadio Tviseburebani~. tel: +995 (93) 55 02 88 el. fosta: [email protected] maia qamuSaZe _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis bakalavriati (specialoba _ kinomcodneoba). 2007 wlidan swavlobs amave universitetis magistraturaSi, samagistro programa _ msoflio kinematografi _ industria da xelovneba, programis xelmZRvaneli sruli profesori zviad doliZe. tel: +995 (55) 43 93 98 el-fosta: [email protected] tato barjaZe _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, tele-kino reJisuris fakulteti. amJamad swavlobs SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetSi magistraturaze, tele-kino sareJisoro fakultetze. muSaobda saqarvelos saxelmwifo televiziaSi, reJisoris asistentis Tanamdebobaze.amJamad muSaobs qarTul telemauwyebloba `iveria~-Si reJisoris Tanamdebobaze. tel: +995 (32) 69 49 94; +993 (99) 21 84 20 el-fosta: [email protected]

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salome eqvTimiSvili _ daamTavra a. virsalaZis saxelobis gimnaziasTan arsebul Jurnalistikis koleji. asve SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis kino-tele fakulteti telesareJisoros ganxriT. aris amave universitetis amave fakultetis magistraturis sudenti. gadaRebuli aqvs mokle metraJiani filmebi: "dRiuri", "2 saaTi" da "ganwyoba" amJamad muSaobs dokumentur filmze da Teoriul naSromze "sapnis operebis realuri mizani da roli qarTul telesivrceSi". tel. +995 (32) 36 23 25; +995 (93) 90 95 02 el-fosta: [email protected] salome kokaia _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis, kinosareJisoro fakulteti. 2007 wlidan swavlobs amave universitetis magistraturis I kursze,, telesareJisoro specialobiT. (mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli sandro vaxtangovi) tel: +995 (98) 21 15 18 el-fosta: [email protected] giga liklikaZe - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universiteti, kino-tele fakulteti sareJisoro specialobiT.A aris amave universitetis amave fakultetis magistraturis I kursis studenti, sandro vaxtangovis xelmZRvanelobiT. monawileoba aqvs miRebuli sxva da sxva `vorqSofebze~. gadaRebuli aqvs sakurso namuSevrebi: `musika da musikosebi~ (2005); `natura~ (2006); "miTi"; `niko uznaZis 19~ (2008) 2007 wlidan dRemde muSaobs TBS TV studiaSi. tel.: +995 (99) 13 07 90 el-fosta: [email protected] ana mesxiSvili _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis tele-sareJisoro fakulteti. swavlobs amave universitetis, magistraturis tele-sareJisoro fakultetze, sandro vaxtangovis xelmZRvanelobiT. iyo sxvadasxva proeqtebis organizatori, 2006 wels muSaobda kinokompania `qerolSi~ reJisoris asistentad, amJamad muSaobs sazogadoebriv telekompania pirvel arxSi kli pebis reJisorad.

gadaRebuli aqvs: `scenis uCinari msaxiobebi~ (dokumenturi filmi) `meri~(portreti), ,`bredovi varianti~ (mxatvruli filmi), `yazbegi~(reklama), `Tbilisi~ (dokumenturi Canaxati), `plumi~(mxatvruli filmi), amJamad muSaobs dokumentur filmze: ,,fostalioni".Aaseve Teoriul naSromze, romelic exeba saqarTvelos televiziis mier gamoyenebul sxvadasxva saSualebebs. tel: +995 (98) 19 99 80; +995 (22) 32 38 23 el-fosta: [email protected]

naili Ciqobava _ daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, kino fakulteti, reklamebisa da musikaluri kli pebis reJisuris specialoba, beso giorgobianis jgufi. amJamad swavlobs amave universitetis kino-tele fakultetze, telereJisuris specialobis samagistro jgufis I kursze. sandro vaxtangovis xelmZRvanelobiT. 2003 wels muSaobda iuri beriZis filmze `kgb-damnaSave angelozebi~ reJisoris asistentad. gadaRebuli aqvs kli pi da sadi plomo dokumenturi filmi. aseve, magistraturaze swavlis procesSi gadaiRodo filmi (portreti) `rubikoni~. tel: +995 (32) 53 92 57; +995 (93) 52 69 22 el-fosta: [email protected] salome cxadaZe _ daamTavra mediisa da telexelovnebis koleji, saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti ­ tele-kino fakulteti manana anasaSvilis saxelosno. amJamad gadis saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis tele-sarejisori fakultetis samagistro programas asocirebuli profesoris aleqsandre vaxtangovis xelmZRvanelobiT. mediisa da telexelovnebis kolejSi muSaobda memontaJed _ 2 weli tudentebis mier gadaRbul saeTero gadacemebze gadacema zoom­ isTvis. aseve muSaobda telekompania `beriaSi~ ainformacio ganyofilebaSi titrebisa da satelefono CarTvebis redaqtorad; tudia `maestroSi~ gadacema `informatoris~ memontaJed da aseve realuri Sou `amtanis~ xmis reJisorad. amJamad muSaobs telekompania `rusTavi 2~-Si proeqt `binis~ ­ memontaJed. kolejSi muSaobis periodSi gakeTebuli aqvs ori sakurso da erTi sadiplomo namuSevari. kino-tele fakultetze swavlisas gadaRebuli aqvs ori sakurso, aqedan erTi Canaxati, erTi musikaluri rgoli da

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sadi plomo ­ Canaxati leqsis mixedviT. samagistro programaSi swavlis dros gadaiRo sakurso, Canaxati `Tavisufali dro~, amJamad muSaobs Temaze `reklamis ganviTareba qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi~. tel.: +995 (95) 47 47 45 el-fosta.: [email protected]

TinaTin Wabukiani _ reJisori. maZiebeli. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asocirebuli profesori. damTavrebuli aqvs Tbilisis SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis dramis sareJisoro fakulteti. 1980 wlidan 1989 wlamde muSaobda saqarTvelos televiziaSi (I arxi) _ jer satelevizio TeatrSi, Semdeg musikalur redaqciaSi, damdgmel reJisorad; 1989 wlidan 2004 wlamde muSaobda sabavSvo programebis mTavar reJisorad. misi sadisertacio Temaa: `sabavSvo telemauwyeblobis sazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba da esTetikuri Taviseburebani~ (qarTuli teleproeqtebis mixedviT). amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `montaJis struqturuli Semadgenloba~. tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00 eTer beriZe - filologiis doqtori, baTumis SoTa rusTavelis ufrosi maswavlebeli. lingvisti-dialeqtologi, qarTuli enis dialeqtologiis meTodebis mkvlevari, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos dialeqtTa specifikis mkvlevari: guriis, aWara, mesxeT-javaxeTi, agreTve TurqeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa dialeqtTa mkvlevari, rogorc enobrivi, aseve folklorisa da eTnografiis vizualuri mxariT. muSaobs wignis `eTnografiuli sawyisebi nijalis xeobaSi~ tel: +995 (55) 96 18 10 (12). badri cxadaZe _ filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, kavkasiis xalxTa mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvili wevri (akademikosi); saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis asocirebuli profesori, aseve Tsu i. vekuas saxelobis gamoyenebiTi maTematikis institutis konsultanti. aseve amave institutTan arsebuli `logikisa da enis gaerTianebuli qarTuli jgufis~ mTavari mecnier TanamSromeli (sazogadoebriv sawyisebze) da Jurnal

`qarTuli ena da logika~-s, saqarTvelos arqeologiis institutis samecniero krebulis `guria~-s redkolegiis wevri da saqarTvelos politeknikur universitetTan arsebuli enisa da literaturis sadisertacio kolegiis wevri. daamTavra iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti filologiis fakulteti qarTvelur enaTa (resp. samxreTkavkasiuri enebi) specialobiT. aris 170-ze meti samecniero naSromisa da sagazeTo publikacis avtori. maT Soris ori monografiisa da erTi wignis (`SuSanikis wamebis~ testebi). tel: +995 (32) 53 90 76

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THEATRE STUDIES

Manana Turiashvili MARJANISHVILI IN DATES (PART TWO) Summary

In the theatres of Russia K. Marjanov inculcates the profession of producer, this general process is going on in Europe and Russia as well. He shoulder to shoulder follows the searching of a theatre which by that time is taking place in the world from a dramatic standpoint as well as expressive methods. Thanks to the huge practice he tries to master this profession independently. In this be insists on the common idea of decoration of the performance, though he cannot still personify this idea. Gradually he pays great attention to the role of music in the performance. He tries to penetrate into psychology the character and tries to connect it with the common form and content of the performance. The main point of K. Marjanov is the author, opening the idea of the work and realizing it together with the actor. At that time he begins searching into the sphere of pause and rhythm. To seek the outward forms of the performance is not the end in itself. In Riga, Kharkov, Kiev his creative work is mentioned in several directions: realism, naturalism, mysticism, impressionism, symbolism and fairytale. ABOUT AUTHOR Art History PH.D Assistant Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. She has graduated from faculty of theatre studies of she same university. In various time periods she has worked in the museum of Kote Marjanishvili Theatre as well as on study of the text of historic and theoretic section of exposition in Kote Marjanishvili museum. She is the author of the books: "Mikheil Tumanishvili's search in film actors' theatre"; "Mikheil Tumanishvili's search in the field of fantasy and imagination". She has published about 50 works, profiles, interviews in various newspapers and magazines of Tbilisi: "Literaturuli Sakartvelo", "Teatraluri Moambe", "Sabchota Khelovneba", "Khelovneba", "Arili", "Akhali Taoba", "Sakartwelos Respublika", "Omega", "Art Science studies" Tel.: +995 (32) 98 43 03

Tamar Kutateladze MMEYERHOLD'S "NEW DRAMA'S FRIEND SHIP" ON TOUR IN GEORGIA (Origins Of Modernism In Georgian Theatre) Summery There is represent founder's of Modern producer V.Meyerhold's three visits in Georgia and present presents in Georgian Theatre. In Georgia first visit of the master in process of reforms being Georgian theatre onlooker looked Russian theatrical producer's progress. Society simultaneously produces masterpiece. Previous Russian modern play of Lenkis and Meyerhold foundation producer's professional producer theatre formed. It must be said, that Al. Tsutsunava met "new drama's friendship" in Batumi and became student of Povarski's studio. According, its natural that fact, that first Georgian artistic known Al Tsutsunava's theatrical aesthetics, his aspiration to D. Anuntsion's drama and clearly theatrical forms is shown Russian modern's well-know influence Georgian society has been knew experiments of simplistically drama of the Meyerhold's second visit, but on the third visit of Meyerhold classical play of moder play in 1972 years. In Georgiantheatre history Meyerhold's met to Georgia from 1904 to 1927 is being Georgian theatre formed process ­ of L. Meskishvili from artistic modern to S. Akhmeteli and K. Marjanishvili modern producers.

ABOUT AUTHOR An associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University She has graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's theatre scientist.. She is working in the institute of scientist. Her dissertation thesis is: "Modern Theatrical art" Tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00

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Eka Tskhadadze HEATHER DIVINE BEINGS ADDASAI AND SUNPSALM IN "LONDA" OF GRIGOL ROBAKIDZE Summary Grigol Robakidze represented his deeply knowledge of mythological world by its comparison with national Georgian myths, and as a result absolutely original, outstanding artistic world of heathen Georgia arises : with its manners and customs, rituals, public hierarchy and spiritual values. Divine being Saddasai is absolutely unprecedented, which is represented as Lord of the sun and sole sovereign of the world. He reminds us Bible Lord of Jews and also contain nuances specific for Christendom. Sun psalm « Lile » is a pure Georgian phenomenon, which fills the artistic image of divine being and creates original symbiosis of Bible and Georgian religious notions.

FILM STUDIES

Olga Zhgenti IN SEARCHES OF "ROOTS" OF MYTHO-ARCHETIPE MODEL IN FILM ­ DRAMAS OF SULIKO ZHGENTI

(Parallels with Grigol Robakidze's novel " Snake's Skin")

Summery There are those literature parallel discussed in the present article that shows close relation between film dramatist Suliko Zhghenti's drama components and Grigol Robakidze "Snake's Skin"'s mytho-archetipe characters. In the literature scripts of S.Zhghenti continued and developed that drama line which connected closely to the work of Georgian famous writer Grigol Robakidze. There exists the common drama motives in Grigol Robakidze's "Snake Skin" and in Zhgenti's scripts: the road, adventure of hero and seeking for roots by son relates to a search of native grounds and vice versa that line is read transparently in S.Zhghenti's works (" Soldier's father», "Roots, "Saplings"). Robakidze's philosophical-literatural conception "Back to Land" reflects and realizes in S.Zhghenti's works. Metaphors and symbols of Robakidze's "Snake's Skin" are widely reflected in S. Zhghenti's film-drama: tree, roots, land, vine, and road. The main character of Robakhidze novel ­ Archil Mekesh's spiritual loneliness and melancholy relates to feeling of rootless, homeless, and son's rejection from his "Patronymic Land" that reflects with intimation and reminiscence in S. Zhghenti literature script "Roots". Geographic area of seeking root is infinitely open in time and space. ABOUT AUTHOR Art History PH.D Leading Science worker of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's Scientific Research Center, Art historian. In 2005 she wrote her dissertation on the topic "National and social issue in Georgian film in relation to a film process of the twenties". From 200 she is a guest teacher of Batumi University. She works on the issues of Georgian and American film history. Research field: Georgian Film Modernism of the twenties and mythological-narrative structure of American film. She is she author and director of documentaries "Knut Hamsun's Caucasian mysteries" (2005) and "John Steinbeck's Georgian Journal" Tel.: +995 (99) 27 18 15 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.D. in philology Graduated from I. Javakhishvili State University's faculty of Caucasian Language Studies. Ph. D. in philology, literary scholar, folk scholar, critic, the nominee of the 2004 literary award "Saba", author of more than 130 scientific and newspaper articles. Her publications refer to Georgian folk studies and mythology, paradigms of 20th century Georgian intellectual literature. Currently works on the research of post-soviet literary process (prose, poetry) in Georgia. Tel.: +995 (32) 53 90 76

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MEDIA STUDIES

Tinatin Chabukiani

CULTURAL STUDIES

Eter Beridze

EDITING OF STRUCTURAL CONSISTENCY Summery As we said in first chapter, montage is very special difficult system in the screen art. There are creates newest technologies, special computer programs, virtual studios, made multi-media's projects, but, essence of montage is invariable, it means to "stick" other parts made in different places, to connect by beforehand made scenario. Montage is visible universe organization. In this article we talk all of these components, which connect straight to the space organization. Between them one of the important is shot's composition and its elements: geometrical centre, golden cross, principle pyramid, shot's mass, and lines, classification of composition (closed, open, hard and hard lees). There I speak on the openly broadcast, its specific, where director must conclusion being structures or immediately became organization of the space. At that time, I tried to formed in consecutive order, how study to the students the screen space organization. Method is based to the experience of the cinema directors and theoretician. SPEECH TEXTS AND EXAMPLES OF FOLKLORE OF OUR PEOPLE (GEORGIANS FROM SOUTH GEORGIA) FROM NIGALI CANYON Summary Examples of speech and folklore of Nigali canyon people living in Turkey presented in this article deserve attention not only because of modern dialect peculiarities, but also because of showing of general Georgian historical dialectology and ethnic culture, figurative statements and dialect characteristics. We suppose, that field works carried out by us will serve as a powerful spur to investigate other scientifically important ethnic culture novelties in the future.

ABOUT AUTHOR Director, Researcher. An associate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University She has graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's Drama Directing Faculty. From 1980 to 1989 worked on Georgian Broadcasting Company (Channel 1) ­ first in television theatre, then in music editorial board as an artistic director; from 1989 to 2004 worked as an artistic director of child programs. Her dissertation thesis is: "Civil designation of child broadcast and its aesthetical characteristics" (according to Georgian TV projects) Currently she works on a topic: "Structural Consistency of Editing" Tel: +995 (99) 94 47 00

ABOUT AUTHOR Ph.d in Philology Batumi's Shota Rustaveli University head teacher. She is a linguist ­ dialectologist, researcher of the Georgian language's dialectical method (the moods), specifically, on Georgian language's West and South dialectically: Gurian, Acharian, Meskhian-Djavakhian, also speech of Georgian who living on Turkey territory, such as language-dialectical, as folklore and ethnographical view. On the end of this year she is going to publish book "Ethnographical being of the Nijaliskheoba's Georgian" (researches, texts, with dictionary) Tel: +995 (55) 96 18 10 (12)

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Badri Tskhadadze TO THE ORIGIN OF DANCE AND CHOREO-TERM TSEKVA (DANCE) Summary Tsekva (dance) as choreographic term and verbal form is unknown for old Georgian language. It is found in monuments of Georgian writing only starting from Renaissance era and means dancing on toe. Its synonyms are tsekuri, lekuri, tseko. Dialectical data of Georgian language evidently show that initial semantics of tsekva (dance) is kept in the words formed from tcekv base: bzriali (rotate), triali (turn), sriali (slide), cerebiT rokva (dance on tips of toes). Today term tsekva is representing synonym of old Georgian rokva (dance), which is so live-giving and active used that neither rokva nor shushproba (kind of dance), its synonym choreographic terms, cannot compete with tsekva for superiority. ABOUT AUTHOR Ph. Doctor of philology Associate Professor at Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema of Georgia [Faculty of Art History and Sociology Ph. Doctor of philology, (Cartvelologist- Caucasiologist) Graduate of Faculty of Philology J. Javakhishvili State University of Tbilisi. Active Member (Academician) Academy of Sciences of the Caucasian Peoples Author of more then 140 scientific and newspaper articles. Her publications refer to Georgian Phaleografical ­ Book­learning, Georgian (Cartvelian =Megrelian-Svanian-Chanian) grammar, stylistics Tel.: +995 (32) 53 90 76

UNIVERSITY'S MA PROGRAM WORLD CINEMATOGRAPHY: INDUSTRY AND ART

Program Leader - Zviad Dolidze

Olga Eliashvili CHARS SPENSER CHAPLIN Summery Comedian "stars" ­ films popularize genre between Charles Spenser Chaplin hold one of the first place. On the decade Charles Spenser Chaplin's film in big interest looked different ages and taste spectator. This is an artist, which from childhood had interest of films and theatre, he from six years played on the theatre stage. He began to work by producer in cinema company "Essen", in that period made his hero "Tramp Charley" and on years he made films on that. Charles Spenser Chaplin in his creation artistically considered a whole epoch, preliminarily guessed mainly problems: human's fortune and his unknowably in modern surrounding and society, technical progress second destroy side, absurdity of war and he was on of who unprotected took the field against fascism and dictator. He is an artist, which "star" is unquenchable turning on the Hollywood sky.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema of art and social faculty, in the field of cinema scientist. She is studying in the same University faculty of master's I course. Master's Program ­ cinematography ­ industry and art. Leader of the program: Zviad Dolidze. Shi is working on theme "Martin Scorsese's creative work"

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Tamar Kobidze PROTECTION EISENSTEIN IN IVANE TERRIBLE: FIGHT OF MOTIVE AND VICTORY OF SELF PERSON Summery In this article there is represent creator's fortune in the tyrannical state. After attack of Hilarity Germany, from native lands arise fighting efficiency, Russian people needs ideal of national hero, from historical chronicle "were called out. King Ivan, whose rehabilitation and glory, unifying of the country and by throw over regenerative mantle, Stalin needs to be at law with his polities and in crowd's mind for associated self person to successful king. Film producer gave consent for him made ordered king's lacquered portrait, because to show under his handsome tragically divaricating and insuperable process of the inside resistance. By result from Russian and foreigner investigators analytical study were study of this producer's and Ivan terrible biographies and same characteristics mystical parallels, that gave Eisenstein means to show finally King's inside character in film's second part. Exactly for this deep psychological courses and truth artist's professional honest, to which clearly show auto craft tyranny, inhumanity and malice character, powerful of this country made severe punishment of his work. Severe sentence made a donation his life. By selfless Eisenstein with absolute consciousness own truth.

Nino Suladze TALE BECAME REALITY Summery This article "Tale became reality" (Walt Elias Disney) is considered in the World best animator Walt Disney's creative way, if how became his little studio for global corporation. W. Disney's catalogue exactly counts about 107 animation, documentary and feature film. Best technical apparatus, remarkable studio line Disney hands to alive for his thinking, for that his production is very rich. His work took 19 "Oscar" and 14 prizes on the Venetian, Berlin and Cannes film festival. He made more conditional personages dressed such as human, they subordinate human's ceremony, but their nature is wild, behave taken from every day life, has seen with fresh eyes, but all of them has background of satirical lining. Walt Elias Disney did greatest animation's bit in its development, he made historical stage in the world animation. Walt's idea was to change boring informational stereotype by live humor. For the first time he used voice, such as expression way, that has densely communication at image. Walt Elias Disney had made tale by reality, but his name was inculcated, such as symbol of "creative, innovation and successful".

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema of art and social faculty, in the field of cinema journalism Leader of the course Olga Tabukashvili. She has graduated "Unicef-United nation's children's fund" certificate She is studying in the same University faculty of master's I course (Master program ­ cinematography ­ industry and art. Leader of the program: Zviad Dolidze). E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema of art and social faculty, in the field of cinema studies. She is studying in the same University faculty of master's I course (Master program ­ cinematography ­ industry and art. Leader of the program: Zviad Dolidze). Tel.: +995 (93) 75 70 20 E-mail: ninia.S@ posta.ge.

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Sofio Tsulaia THREE POSSIBLE VERSION OF WORLD APOCALYPSE IN STENLY KUBRICK IS WORKS Summery Kubrick's creative work is organically synthesis of relatives and fantasy, being and consciousness, classical and modern, here everything co-exist all together: magazine "Play boy" and nuclear sky-rocket, classical music and rock-music, scientist and yellow media, but "Coca-cola's" apparatus is perfectly ready by two countries: Soviet Union and USA in starting nuclear adventure, which suddenly becomes at dangerous play, to bring mainly improvement and combine role of "Messiah of humaneness", beside that, that's stupefied the world with magician brown liquid and it became mainly product in society. In Kubrick's film reflection world politics, the sixties: crisis of Caribbean Sea, atom-bomb and with that connected scandal, youth motion, Viet Nam war, cont culture..... And all this mixed wit past experience _ with psychoanalyses and from this come all intellectual theory. And when we study we discovered many information in Cosmo, but he couldn't explain this, because human's language does not development in that way to guess and explain this words.

Maia Kamushadze

GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Summery In this article is considered German expressionism, its beginning and its development. Expressionism was one of the difficult and resistant facts of the XXth century's art culture. They refused being reality and its objective imagine, they tried to made their own illusive universe. In the beginning of the twenties years German film did to be in difficult conditions and development. It was national crisis atmosphere, which conquered exactly all sphere of the life. Film expressionists were against Kaiser's regime and war, but expressionism films were very far from reality, there were shown not individual portraits, but there were revived human's instinct and passion, that passed by allegorical way.

ABOUT AUTHOR Sopio Tsulaia Graduated from Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema of art and social faculty, in the field of cinema scientist. She is studying in the same University faculty of master's I course (Master program ­ cinematography ­ industry and art. Leader of the program: Zviad Dolidze). She works of master works _ "Stanly Kubrick creative work mainly original" Tel.: +995 (93) 55 02 88 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema faculty of art and social, in the field of cinema studies. From 2007 year she is studying in the same University faculty of master's I course (Master program ­ cinematography ­ industry and art. Leader of the program: Zviad Dolidze). Tel.: +995 (55) 43 93 98 E-mail: [email protected]

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THE CONTEMPORARY OPORTUNITES OF APLAID ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN THE TV DIRECTING

Program Leader - Sandro Vakhtangov Tato Barjazde MODELS OF TELEVISION BROADCASTING AND THEIR FUNCTIONING Summery The article is about television, about forming it and about the ways of its relation with auditory. Also about role of television in social and politic sphere of the country .But the main part of the article is about television's three models: commercial, public and republic. There's also discussed the relationship between television and republic. The influence of the state on television and the ways of expression of this influence. There is also mentioned BBC which is an attributive television of the world and CNN which is the most successful television of the world. There is also discussed other specialized televisions such as Discovery, Eurosport, specification of journalists' work and their relationship with respondents.

Eka Butskhrikidze BEGINNING OF THE REALITY SHOWS IN THE WORLD Summary

The article describes the history of launching first Reality Shows in the world. In 1947 American Journalist Allen Fant begins radio-show "Secret Microphone", thet later, after the year had been made in TV, with the name " Secret Camera" In 1973, Craig Gilbert presents a new Reality show, where the live of one American family was broadcasted during 10 years. In 1992, MTV begins new Reality Show "Real World". In the show people could see everyday life of a model, dancer, writer, painter, rapper and two singers living together at home: And in 1999 in the television of Netherlands TV-magnate John De moll presented a new reality "Big Brother". It was the only show, broadcasted in USA and Europe at the same time.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Faculty of Tele-Cinema directory. At the moment is at the magistrates of the same faculty. Worked as an assistant of director in the public television of Georgia. At the moment works as a director in the television "Iveria" Tel: +995 (32) 69 49 94, +995 (99) 21 84 20 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR The student of Shota Rustaveli State University of Theatre and Cinema, faculty of Directing, master's Group, I course. She graduated from Shota rustaveli State university of Teatre and Cinema, faculty of TV-directing. She works at TV-company Rustavi 2. She is video-editor of the news prosgram "Kurieri". She has Short 5 films, during studying at the University. Present time She works at documentary film and theoretical work- "Reality shows in the world" Tel.: +995 (93) 71 07 48; +995 (32) 75 02 28 E-mail: [email protected]

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Salome Ekvtimishvili "SOAP OPERA" ON GEORGIAN TV Summery

Salome Kokaia ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF GEORGIAN TELEVISION Summery

It is long time Georgian television exists, but at first it had to work under the censure of Soviet Union. After disintegrate of Soviet Union, Georgian TV offered many new things to its spectators such as "Soap Opera", which really wasn't news in western countries. At first it appeared on Georgian TV screens in 80-ths and it was sensation of Georgian spectators, because it was the first case when foreign product was translated in Georgian language and then was offered to them. Actually "soap operas" are known as the best means of relaxation, but its influence to the spectators is negative by its specific and properties. It's proved by science that active rest of humans brain goes when physical work interchange intellect work or on the contrary. So therefore "soap opera" doesn't make person relaxed, it has reverse properties and makes him or her tired and its law quality often amounts neuroses in humans character, but spectators can't analyze the reason of their neuroses and at the second evening they watch the "soap operas" again.

ABOUT AUTHOR She finished the Anastasia Virsaladze journalistic college in 2003. At the same year she entered the Shota Rustaveli Theater and Movie University. She graduated in 2007 and continue master degree at the same University (in Sandro Vakhtangov's group) She has shot 3 short films: "Diary", "2 Hours" and "Mood". At present she researches the problem of modern Georgian television by "soap opera" side. Her themes name is "The meaning and influence of "soap operas" in modern Georgian television". Tel.: +995 (32) 36 23 25; +995 (93) 90 95 02 E-mail: [email protected]

"Photo transmissivity of the World" conducted by Wiloub Smith in 1873 as well as creation of the "Scanning Disc" by Paul Nipkov gave way to the technical equipment of the Television. After development of technical, beginning of XIX century first TV centre making, successfully made 26 June 1928 year. TV after that expensed huge work to improvement, such as XIX century's appearance. TV Slowly polished and development too and for it inevitable television. This innovations soon extended to all world and in Georgia after for three months work first extended in our capital first blue rays coming from mast in 30 December 1956 year. Established Georgian TV studio, at first little one story building was enough to show two hours program third in week. Soon began to make programs, made different heading and fast speed began to developed Georgian TV studio, soon made operational informational job, which called "Moambe" (Teller). Time passed quickly, changed demand of society and development TV. For that there are more than 15 television broadcast in Georgian. With improvement technical base, modern programs politics and professionals, this leased 51 years ago. Such as founder of CNN Ten Ternary said: "It is a end less intellectual wilderness, it is not good and not bad, it's inevitable: And this inevitable very easy adjusted Georgian society and became dependent on TV, such as waiter of the faster operation information. It is unimaginable XXI century without TV. For that more and more popular profession contact TV. TV got label surely fast from society and got attention contact at TV. TV fast got a label from society and got attention from people. ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema, Faculty of Cinema Production. She is studying in the same University faculty of master's I course (Master program ­ cinema producer.Leader of the program Sandro Vahktangov). She works of master works _ "Stanly Kubrick creative work mainly original" Tel.: +995 (98) 21 15 18 E-mail: [email protected]

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Giga Liklikadze FILM-TV ­ TV-DRAMA Summery What can one say about TV film and TV theatre? What is its role in the vast current of today's events, news, problems, political information and commercials? Time and our political oriented life have gradually surpassed the development of the arts itself. Everyday reality changes at an unbelievable pace. That which used to amaze us yesterday, is something already well known today. What is TV drama ­ film, theatre? What is it which makes it so special? What is TV itself? What is the role of Television in technology, television and the spectator, Television and the national culture and finally television and talent, and...money! Everyday well known family affairs often become a main dramatic subject matter for TV reports. In this case television drama is universal indeed. That which makes the television film so special might be the way in which it slowly, carefully demonstrates the subtle movements of human spirit, its constant fight with the circumstances, with itself, life. Politics, war, social cataclysms, civil movements ­ all this is the subject to reflect for television drama. But still, I want to state the fact, that as our life gets more and more tense with time, the arts become more and more occupied with human emotions, feelings, family, home and existence.

Anna Meschishvili DIFFERENT CHANNELS PROGRAMS REVIEW IN GEORGIAN TV AND MEANS OF INFLUENCE ON PEOPLE

Summery Georgia`s telecast has lost noticeably the society interest. That was caused by the delivery of untruthful information. There are no such programs in Georgia`s telecast to satisfy every onlooker. There are many TV-forms: news, entertainment, talk-shows, musical, cognitive-amusement, educational, documentary.....Connected to this, these forms are found in Georgia`s telecast, but neither of these satisfy the laws of programs fully. Also, every program`s detail is concrete for specific aim. In some case, each of them influence on spectator. Exactly this article is aimed on this theme. Here is shown Georgia`s TVprograms and reasons that is used to influence on people. Though, the conclusion is, that XXI c. man can get rid of other`s opinion and have own reflection on this or that fact.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, Faculty of Film and Television with major in directing. He is the first year Master's Program student of the same faculty and at the same university under the guidance of Sandro Vakhtangov. He has participated in various workshops. He has shot the following works for class: "Music and the Musicians" (2005), "Nature" (2006), "The Myth"; "Niko Uznadze 19" (2008) From 2007 he works in the TBS TV studio. Tel: +995 (99) 13 07 90 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR She graduated from Shota Rustaveli State university of Theater and Cinema, faculty of TV-directing. At this time she is studying in this university, on faculty of Directing, master's Group, I course. She was an organizer of various projects and was working in cinema-company "KEROL" as an assistant of director. She is working in a public TV-company as a director of clips. The list of her works: "Stage invisible actors" (documentary film), "Marry" (portrait), "Variant, Bredov" (film), "Kazbegi" (advertisement)," Tbilisi" (documentary sketch), "Plumi" (film), "Post-boy" (documentary film). Now she is working on a movie "Drought". Therefore on a theoretical work, that is in touch with Georgia`s TV, that uses many means. Tel: + 995 (98) 19 99 80; + 995 (32) 32 38 23 E-mail: [email protected]

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Naili Chikobava

Salome Tskhadadze

TELEVISION - AS BEST WEAPON FOR AUDIENCE MANAGING Summery Television has established a great and important place in Social life. It is on the Sources of information and the main means of entertainment for wide audience. The programming policy of this huge mechanism is formed according the tastes of the viewers, thought at the same time television is a strong force which influences on people's psychology in the hands of Certain authority, who spread their own ideology by means of television. In the article - "Television - The best means of audience management" - shortly is described what a great influence is television and television genres on mass psychics and sub consciousness, how negatively it may influence on future generation. It can oppose and split up society, why do we speak in real life on soap operas languages? - It is a question, each of us will think about it, what is television - is it an entertainment or obedience?

PLACE OF COMMERCIAL IN TV SPACE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GEORGIAN AUDIENCE

Summery The article describes the establishment and the ways of the advertisement development. According to the title of the article as the accent is made on TV commercial, it became necessary to inclose the history of television very briefly, its importance and its differences from other communication means. It's interesting to know the origin of the first commercial, which nowadays has become so popular especially on TV. What should commercial be like to attract viewers and make them buy the advertised production. It takes a lot of work to prepare such kind of advertisement and the most important is the idea which is more valuable than its implementation. It's quite possible that low-budget commercial only because of original idea could be more valuable than an expensive and labour-consuming advertisement which has neither good idea nor any fantasy. That's why it's necessary to know some kind of criterions and items and then use this knowledge in practice. ABOUT AUTHOR Has finished the college of Media and TV art, Shota Rustaveli Georgian state university of theatre and film faculty of TV-film, the workshop of Manana Anasashvili and now she is attending the master program of TV directing in Shota Rustaveli Georgian State University of theatre and film under the leadership of associate professor Alexander Vakhtangov. She worked as an editor in the college of Media and TV art for 2 years on TV programs shot by the students for program "ZOOM". She also worked at TV Broadcasting Company "IBERIA" in information department as an editor of subtitles. She worked in Studio "MAESTRO" as an editor of program "INPORMATORI" and as sound director of reality show "AMTANI". Now she is working at TV Broadcasting Company "RUSTAVI 2" as an editor of project "BINA". During her employment in college she has written two course works and one diploma thesis. During studying on faculty of TV-film she has shot two course works one of them is sketch, one musical and diploma sketch according to the poem. Whilst studying master program she has shot the course work, sketch "Free Time", now she is working on the subject "The development of commercial on TV communication field". Tel.: +995 (95) 47 47 45 E-mail: [email protected]

ABOUT AUTHOR After finishing school she entered Theatre and Movie University named after Shota Rustaveli, the faculty of Movie, promotion and Musical clip making in the group of Beso Giorgobiani. In 2003 she was working on the film of Yuri Beridze "KGB - The Guilty Angels" - as a producer assistant. At the moment she is studying at Theatre and Movie University - Movie Television Faculty, department of Tele-producing in the magistrate group first grade. She has made a clip and a diploma documentary film. Also, during magistrate studying she has made the film ( portrait ) " Rubicon". Tel: +995 (32) 53 92 57; +995 (93) 52 69 22 E-mail: [email protected]

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