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SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti

Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University

saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Z i eb a n i #3 (36), 2008

ART SCIENCE STUDIES #3 (36), 2008

gamomcemloba `kentavri~ Tbilisi _ 2008

UDC(u ak) 7( 051. 2) s-364 SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #3 (36), 2008

Sinaarsi

T e a t r m c o d n e o b a maka vasaZe robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis ....................8 marika mamacaSvili mZuls sityva kultura ......................................................................................16 k i n o m c o d n e o b a nana doliZe araaqtualuri televizia ...................................................................................29 k u l t u r o l o g i a zviad kviciani musikaluri kulturis sakiTxisaTvis antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi (arqeologiuri artefaqtebi) ..........................................................................38

saredaqcio sabWo zurab managaZe nato gengiuri oliko JRenti literaturuli redaqtori mariam iaSvili garekanis dizaini levan dadiani dakabadoneba ekaterine oqropiriZe koreqtura manana goSaZe gamomcemlobis xelmZRvaneli maka vasaZe

krebulisaTvis mowodebuli masala uzrunvelyofili unda iyos Sesabamisi samecniero aparatiT. Tan unda axldes monacemebi avtoris samecniero kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb qarTul da inglisur enebze, agreTve naSromis inglisurenovani reziume.

universitetis samagistro programa

Tanamedrove kinoTeoriebi da kriticizmi Teona esitaSvili kinomonstrebi .........................................................................................................49 Tamar TargamaZe Trileri da SiSis teqnologia .......................................................................55 mariam manjgalaZe mozardis reprezentacia Tanamedrove amerikul kinematografSi (eri pozinis filmis `Camskraberi~ magaliTze) ..........................................59 rusudan papunaSvili almodovari da misi homopersonaJebi ..............................................................64 XX saukunis xelovneba nino gvazava oqromqandakeblobis tradiciebis axali sicocxle (koba gurulis Semoqmedebis magaliTze) ............................................................70 Tea marexaSvili qarTveli mxatvari ruseTSi dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis saerTaSoriso gamofenaze ............75

krebulis stamburi gamocema egzavneba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso kvleviT centrebs.

naSromebi mogvawodeT da cnobebisaTvis mogvmarTeT: 0102, Tbilisi, daviT aRmaSeneblis gamziri #40, SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, II korpusi. tel/faqsi: +995 (32) 936 408 mob: +995 (95) 305 060 +995 (55) 218 292 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.tafu.edu.ge

xaTuna melaZe xelovnebis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi .........................................................................................83 maia razmaZe somerset moemis Teoriuli Sexeduleba saTeatro xelovnebis Sesaxeb .............................................................................................91 eka qumsiaSvili `art nuvos~ stilis genezisis sakiTxi uiliam bleikis SemoqmedebaSi ....................................................................................98 qarTuli qoreografiis mkvlevari

CONTENTS T H E AT R E S T U D I E S MAKA VASADZE Formation of Robert Sturua's Theatrical Language (Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature A La Robert Sturua) .....131 MARIKA MAMATSASHVILI I Hate The Word `Culture' ................................................................................132 FILM STUDIES NANA DOLIDZE The None Actual Tv .........................................................................................133 C U LT U R A L S T U D I E S ZVIAD KVITSIANI To The Issueof Musical Culture in Georgia of The Ancient Period (Archeological Artifacts) .................................................................................135

aleko gelaSvili parizis cekvis samefo akademia _ misi warmatebuli da warumatebeli mxareebi ......................................................................................104 eka geliaSvili qaRaldze gadatanili cekva (cekvis Caweris sistemebi saqarTveloSi) .................................................111 nino daraxveliZe cekvis dadgmis mosamzadebeli periodis reJisoruli kuTxiT gaazrebis sakiTxisaTvis ................................................................117 Tamar munjiSvili msoflio qoreografiis ostatebi (artur sen-leoni) ............................................................................................122 saavtoro monacemebi .................................................................126

UNIVERSITY'S MA PROGRAM CO NTEM PO R ARY FIL M TH EO RI ES AND CRI TICI SM TEONA ESITASHVILI Film Monsters .....................................................................................................136 TAMAR TARGAMADZE Thriller and Technologies of Fear ....................................................................137 MARIAM MANJGALADZE Depiction of Teenager in Contemporary American Film (On Basis of "Chumscrubber" By Arie Posin) ...............................................138 RUSUDAN PAPUASHVILI Almadovar And His Homocharacters ...........................................................139 TWENTIETH CENTURY ART NINO GVAZAVA The Ancient Traditions of Goldsmiths in The Artcrafts of Koba Guruli ..140 TEA MAREKHASHVILI Georgian Artist in Russia On the International Exhibition of Decorative-Applied Arts .......................141

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KHATUNA MELADZE The Main Items of Contemporary Methods of Modern Art Teaching ..........................................................................................................142 MAIKO RAZMADZE Theoretical View of Somerset Maugham on Theatre Art .............................143 EKA KUMSIASHVILI The Point of Genesis of The Style "Art Nouveau" in William Blake's Work .......................................................................................144 R ES EA RC HE R OF G EO R GI AN C HO RE OG RA PH Y ALEKO GELASHVILI Paris Royal Academy of Dance ­ Its Successful and Unsuccessful Sides .............................................................................................145 EKA GELIASHVILI Dance Transfered on the Paper (Systems of Dance Recording in Georgia) ....................................................146 NINO DARAKHVELIDZE For Consideration of Dance Staging Preparatory Period with Point of View of Director ..................................................................................147 TAMAR MUNJISHVILI Masters of World Choreography (Arthur Saint-Leon -Artistic Profile) ................................................................ 148

Teatrmcodneoba

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maka vasaZe robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis (qarTuli klasikis sturuaseuli interpretacia) qarTul TeatrSi klasikuri dramaturgiis dadgmis didi tradicia arsebobs, Tanac, novatoruli dadgmis tradicia. qarTveli reJisorebi da msaxiobebi Tavisi epoqidan, Tavisi droidan, erovnul-sazogadoebrivi interesebidan gamomdinare axdendnen ama Tu im klasikuri nawarmoebis interpretacias da yovelTvis axal sityvas ambobdnen misi wakiTxvisas. pirveli qarTveli tragikosidan, l. mesxiSvilidan moyolebuli dRemde, qarTuli ATeatris istoriaSi araerTi, klasikur piesaTa personaJebis waruSleli saxe darCa. darCa agreTve ganumeorebeli, axleburi reJisoruli interpretaciebi klasikuri nawarmoebebisa. gavixsenoT Tundac l. mesxiSvilis mier Seqmnili iseTi saxeebi rogoricaa: hamleti, franc moori, eqimi stokmani, romlebic boboqari suliskveTebiT iyo aRsavse. gavixsenoT marjaniSvilis mier ganxorcielebuli lope de vegas `cxvris wyaro~, romlis gamarjvebiTac gadawyda qarTuli Teatris yofna - aryofnis sakiTxi. gavixsenoT mis mierve dadgmuli `hamleti~ uSangi CxeiZis SesrulebiT. axmetelis mier ganxorcielebuli Sileris `yaCaRebi~ akaki xoravas karl mooriTa da akaki vasaZis franc mooriT. akaki xoravas otelo, akaki vasaZis iago, sergo zaqariaZis kreoni (m. TumaniSvilis mier ganxorcielebul J. anuis `antigoneSi~), (dRes laparaki SeuZlebelia ramaz CxikvaZis azdakisa, riCard III-es gareSe) da kidev mravali sxva. zemoT CamoTvlil speqtaklebSi wamoWrili problemebi yovelTvis Tavisi droisa da epoqis Sesabamisi iyo. swored amaSi mdgomareobda maTi dadgmebis novatoroba. am, WeSmaritad karg tradicias, arc axla Ralatobs qarTuli Teatri. XX saukunis dasawyisidan evropuli saTeatro skolis

warmomadgenlebi ukve mimarTaven e. w. piesis montaJirebis princi ps, magram speqtaklis mTavari safuZveli, misi koncefciis amosavali wertili yovelTvis dramaturgiuli masala iyo. Cvens droSi dramaturgia (an romelime nawarmoebi, romelic idgmeba) erTgvar nedl masalas warmoadgens reJisoris xelSi. reJisorebi umetes SemTxvevaSi Tavis koncefcias uqvemdebareben piesas. maTi amdagvari midgoma dramaturgiisadmi uTuod drom da epoqam gansazRvra. Teatri dResdReobiT, ise mZafrad aRar aris damokidebuli dramturgiaze. amgvari procesi 50-iani wlebis bolodan daiwyo _ ara mxolod qarTul TeatrSi, aramed zogadad msoflio Teatralur samyaroSi. mainc saidan iwyeba robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis procesi? Tavad ambobs, rom mas kinoreJisoroba surda, magram sxvadasxva mizezTa gamo igi xdeba Teatris reJisori. da, saidan iwyebs? `... m. TumaniSvilma maswavla Semecno Teatri, rogorc sixaruliT savse, magram Tavdauzogavi Sromis asparezi, roca vnebebs scenis rkinisebur logikas umorCileb da aboboqrebul warmosaxvas azris damarcxebis saSualebas ar aZlev. sxva maswavleblebic myavda. es iyo dodo aleqsiZe, romelsac Teatri esmoda rogorc zeimi. es iyo misi saocari, brwyinvale TeatralobiT aRbeWdili speqtaklebi... es iyo lili ioseliani, romelic speqtaklze Tavisi skrupulozuri muSaobiT gamoirCeoda... es iyo saSa miqelaZe, romelic reJisoris profesias ironiiT uyurebda da amtkicebda, ar SeiZleba, rom WeSmariti Semoqmedi Zalze seriozulad ekidebodes imas, rasac TviTon qmniso. me yvelafer amas viwovdi, magram Cems gzas veZebdi mainc...~1 amas Tavad reJisori ambobs. me ki davumatebdi, rom e. w. `genetikuri maxsovrobiT~, robert sturua (Tu mxolod qarTul Teatrs SevexebiT) kote marjaniSvilis `mowafec~ aris. vinaidan qarTul TeatrSi kino-montaJis princi pi, rodesac scenaze erTdroulad, erT epizodSi ramdenime qmedeba TamaSdeba, swored kote marjaniSvilma daamkvidra. dRes sturua saTeatro reJisuris yvela gasaRebsa Tu saidumlos flobs. robert sturuasTvis, piesa swored nedl masalas

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warmoadgens sakuTari koncefciis warmosaCenad. a. mileris `seilemis procesi~ pirveli seriozuli ganacxadi iyo mis SemoqmedebaSi. amas Tavadac ambobs dRes. magram Tavis droze dramaturgmac moiwona sturuaseuli dadgma. `darbaisluri warmodgenaa da ara sentimentaluri, rogorc es zogierT scenaze minaxavs. momewona, Zalze STambeWdavia... mizanswrafulia, Zlieria moqmedeba, mTliani da monoliTuri~... ambobs artur mileri.2 profesori levan xeTaguri ki Tvlis, rom aqedan iwyeba misi `politikuri Teatris~ modelis Camoyalibeba.3 robert sturuam mimarTa brextis Teatrs, SeiTvisa igi da amasTanave, daukavSira qarTuli erovnuli Teatraluri kulturis tradiciebs. Ziebani axalac mimdinareobs mis SemoqmedebaSi, magram erTi ram naTelia _ robert sturuas fenomeni, rogorc Teatris genialuri reJisorisa - arsebobs. robert sturua Tavis SemoqmedebaSi ikvlevs tiraniis, tiranul saxelmwifoSi adamianis Tavisuflebis, pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis urTierTdamokidebulebis problemebs. robert sturuas mier rusTavelis TeatrSi qarTuli klasikuri piesebis dadgmam met-naklebi warmateba moi pova. yovel SemTxvevaSi metad mwvave diskusia gamoiwvia qarTul sazogadoebaSi. amis mizezi, albaT is gaxlavT, rom klasikuri nawarmoebebi sruliad axleburad iqna wakiTxuli da dadgmuli reJisoris mier. speqtakli `xanuma~ Zalze Teatraluri (am sityvis kargi gagebiT), reJisoruli gamonagonebebis siuxviT aRsavse, musikaluri warmodgena iyo, sadac Tavi iCina warmosaxvis, warmoCenis Teatris stilistikam. speqtaklma gansakuTrebuli roli iTamaSa robert sturuas SemoqmedebaSi, misi Semdgomi reJisoruli stilistikis CamoyalibebaSi. mayurebeli araCveulebrivi aRtacebiT Sexvda speqtakls. aRtaceba mayureblis mxridan am uproblemo, mxolod da mxolod sanaxaobiTi speqtaklisadmi imdenad didi iyo, rom qarTul Teatralur samyaroSi egreT wodebuli `gangaSi~ gamoiwvia. `xanumas~ avkargianobis Sesaxeb diskusiebi imarTeboda, romlebSic literaturis kritikosebic iRebdnen monawileobas. kamaTobdnen imis Taobaze, Tu ramdenad mizanSewonilia

akademiur TeatrSi amgvari speqtaklebis dadgma. mokled rom vTqvaT, `xanumam~ sazogadoebis didi `vnebaTRelva~ gamoiwvia. robert sturuam aqvsenti cagarelis nawarmoebi mTlianad amoatriala, gaaTanamedrova, piesis e. w. `modernizeba~ gaakeTa. daemata prologi, Camatebuli iqna teqsti, msaxiobebi xSirad improvizacias mimarTavdnen. Seiqmna SesaniSnavi aqtioruli ansambli. scenaze cocxldeboda aqvsenti cagarelis komediuri situaciebi, mkveTri, sisxlsavse xasiaTebiT siTboTi da qarTuli artistizmiT aRsavse. ar iyo cxovrebis seriozuloba, problemebze fiqri, mxolod da mxolod garToba, sicili. `wyarosaviT moedineba artistuli mravalferovneba, gardasuli saukunis cxovreba modis Tavisi primitiuli gulaxdilobiT, modis sixalisiT, zeimurad. reJisori poulobs cocxal nervs xalxur Teatralur tradiciebTan mimarTebaSi, asxvaferebs mas da isev ubrunebs pirvelsawyisebs. aq yvelaferi TamaSobs, araseriozulis sazRvramde midis seriozuli da winaaRmegobaTa groteskul ganzogadoebaSi isaxeba garkveuli Teatraluri tendencia~.4 `xanuma~ didi kamaTis sagani xdeba. eSiniaT imisa, rom Teatri kargavs problemurobas, ideaTa Tu socialur simZafres, aqtualobas. 1882 wels dawera aqvsenti cagarelma `xanuma~. mas Semdeg es piesa mravaljer daidga qarTul scenaze. `xanuma~ Tavis droze aqtualuri, socialuri nawarmoebi iyo. swored Tavisi socialuri winaaRmdegobidan iqceva komediis safuZvlad gadamdgari, xandazmuli generlis, ATavad vano fantiaSvilis mier vaWar mikiC tyuilkotriancis sasurvel sasiZod miCneva. dRevandeli sazogadoebisaTvis isev aqtualuri gaxda `xanumas~ socialuri motivi (ra Tqma unda sxva saxiT). maSin, ki, robert sturuam `xanumas~ Camoacila socialuri safuZveli da mayurebels uCvena mecxramete saukunis ATbilisis suraTebi. sturuam Seqmna Tavisi `xanuma~, komediis komediasTan SeerTebiT. ` ­, «» «-». .5 reJisorma ZveliATbilisi, misTvis damaxasaiTebeli qalaquri f o lkl o ri T, m a y ur eb el s Tana m edr o ve s aes tra do

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musikisATanxlebiT warudgina. speqtaklSi aRreulia sxvadasxva Janrebi. swored `xanumaSi~ Caisaxa pirvelad bevri ram, rac Semdgom r. sturuas reJisoruli stilistikisaTvis gaxda damaxasiaTebeli. SeiZleba iTqvas, reJisorma monaxa is garegnuli formebi, gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi, romlebic mas daexmareboda Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi gzis Semdgomi orientaciis ganazRvraSi. da, romelsac dRes me, SeiZleba araswori termini, magram mainc, `sturuaseuli ekleqturi Teatri~ vuwode.6 `xanuma~, ase vTqvaT, `sasinji qva~, `gardamavali~ wertili iyo fsiqologiuri mimarTulebis Teatridan axali, brextiseuli Teatris princi pebisaken, romelic robert sturuam qarTul xasiaTTan daaxlova. amasTanave, `xanumaSi~ gamovlinda qarTuli artistizmi, qarTuli artistuli `suli~. salome yanCelis, erosi manjgalaZis da ramaz CxikvaZis trio kidev ufro met xalissa da sococxles matebda speqtakls. mayurebelTan kontaqtis gasaRrmaveblad axali formebis Ziebis moments ki, speqtakl `xanumas~ mowinaaRmdegeni uaryofiTad afasebdnen da miiCnevdnen, rom `xanumas~ msgavsi speqtaklebi Teatrs mxolod garTobis sagnad gadaaqcevda da Camoacilebda mas `sulis gansawmendi~ da `amaRlebuli taZris~ daniSnulebas. magram, rogorc drom gviCvena, robert sturuam (Tavis Semdgom speqtaklebSi) ki ar Camoacila, aramed, gaamZafra `Teatritribunis~ roli. ra Tqma unda, rodesac xelovnebis raRac procesebi Sens Tvalwin mimdinareobs, Znelia dainaxo da Seafaso isini. amas dro da distancia sWirdeba. axla, rodesac drom ganvlo, aRmoCnda, rom `xanumas dadgma, mxolod da mxolod, reJisoris `akviatebuli~ survilis nayofi ar yofila. misi rusTavelis Teatris scenaze ganxorcieleba, winaswar mofiqrebuli nabiji iyo, an, SeiZleba is, `winaswarmetyveluri~ unari, rac geniosebs xSirad axasiaTebT xolme. rusi kritikosi v. ivanovi zust Sefasebas aZlevs robert sturuas reJisorul azrovnebas: « . , . . .7

marTlac robert sturua yovelTvis miiswrafvis konkretulidan zogadisken. mis speqtaklebSi, konkretuli, zogad xasiaTs iZens. gmiris moqmedebas reJisori xSirad socialuri movlenebis Tvalsazrisidan aSuqebs, xsnis. cnobilia, rom dramatuli xelovnebis yoveli mniSvenlovani nawarmoebi, mravalgvari interpretaciis safuZvels iZleva. yvelaze Zneli isaa, axleburi interpretaciis dros SeinarCuno nawarmoebis ZiriTadi arsi, Sinagani struqtura, koncefcia da Janruli specifika. rusTavelis Teatris sturuaseuli speqtaklebi swored amis saukeTeso magaliTia. `Ralatsa~ da `yvaryvareSi~ teqsti zogan Camatebulia, darRveulia moqmedebis Tanmimdevroba. mokled, rom vTqvaT, robert sturua qarTuli klasikuri nawarmoebebis axal montaJs gvTavazobs. magaliTad, `yvaryvareSi~, Setanilia polikarpe kakabaZis sxva piesebidan amonakrebi citatebi, sadac yvaryvares variaciuli saxeebia mocemuli (`kaxaberis xmali~, `cxovrebis jara~). ufro metic, reJisorma Caamata scena bertold brextis piesidanA`arturo uis kariera.~ risTvis dasWirda am scenis Camateba, amis Sesaxeb ufro qveviT vilaparakeb. `RalatSi~ reJisori ar mimarTavs sxva piesebidan scenebis gadmotanas, magram aqac aqvs adgili teqstualur cvlilebebs, gadaadgilebebs, Camatebebsa da kupiurebs. magram, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, nawarmoebSi amgvari CareviT, ar icvleba piesis dedaazri, piriqiT, kidev ufro gamwvavebuli xdeba. `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~ robert sturuamATemur CxeiZesTan erTad 1969 wels dadga, da, albaT, ra sirTulis winaSe aRmoCndeboda damdgmeli koleqtivi, rodesac daviT kldiaSvilis SesaniSnavi moTxrobis inscenirebas Seudgeboda. sirTuleebi bevri iqneboda. pirvel rigSi forma, ra formiT unda miesadagebina am nawarmoebis socialuri problematika Cvens Tanamedrove yofasTan. speqtakli pirobiT aspeqtSi gadawyvites da es pirobiToba savsebiT gamarTlebuli aRmoCnda, imdenad bunebrivad moxda yvelaferi. speqtakli daviT kldiaSvilis saxl-muzeumSi damTvalierebelTa mosvliT iwyeboda, da mTeli moqmedeba am muzeumis erT oTaxsa da aivanze mimdinareobda. giorgi gegeWkori xelSi iRebda

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daviT kldiaSvilis gamocemis eqsponirebul egzemplars da iwyebda kiTxvas. TandaTanobiT Sedioda giorgi gegeWkori saxeSi da im adgilas, sadac warmoTqvamda `mRupav mama?!~ igi ukve platon samaniSvilad iqceoda. aseve ubralod, bunebrivad erTveboda moTxrobis gasceniurebaSi bekinac. sergo zaqariaZe mxrebze gadaigdebda TeTr yabalaxs, romelic agreTve muzeumis eqsponats warmoadgenda da TamaSs iwyebda. aseve Sediodnen TavianT saxeebSi damTvalierebelTa jgufis sxva warmomadgenlebi. amgvari scenuri atmosfero mayurebels warmosaxvis, fantaziis uflebas utovebda. `yvaryvares~, romelsac robert sturuam daarqva samnawiliani sanaxaoba polikarpe kakabaZis piesebis mixedviT, iwyebda moxetiale dasi. scenaze eklesiis interieri iyo warmodgenili, taZris kedelze `yinwvisis angelozis~ uzarmazari freska, mas marjvena xeli Sav CarCoSi hqonda Casmuli. Camoqceuliyo `wminda giorgis~ freska, xolo samizne tiris wreebi eklesiis kedelze mkveTrad iyo gamosaxuli. simbolika savsebiT naTelia, qveyana `uRvTodaa~ mitovebuli. taZris kedlebze moCanda agreTve XIX saukunis dasasrulisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis gamoCenil adamianTa saxeebi. aqve iyo daisruli sebastiane. mTeli am dekoraciis daniSnuleba SemdegSi mdgomareobda: eCvenebinaT scenaze mimdinare movlenaTa sayovelTaoba, globaluroba. swored aq, am taZarSi, gaemarTaTA wisqvili (mxatvrebi g. imerliSvili, i. mSveliZe); am daqceul eklesiaSi modioda moxetiale dasi da marTavda speqtakls. warmodgenis aseTi xerxiT gadawyveta reJisors saSualebas aZlevda gadaeadgilebina epizodebi, Seeqmna improvizaciis saSualeba da rac mTavaria, naTlad warmoeCina dadgmis koncefcia. speqtaklis wamyvanebi iyvnen: dasis xelmZRvaneli (jemal RaRaniZe) da patara momRerali biWuna (nanuli sarajiSvili), romlebic speqtaklis prologs simReriTa da reCitativiT warmoTqvamdnen. isini mayurebels amcnobdnen, rom moxetiale dass ganuzraxavs speqtaklis gamarTva, rom isini speqtaklis wamyvanebi arian da swored prologSi gangvimartavdnen `TavianTi Teatrisa Tu koleqtivis~ esTetikas _ `maS, Cemo daso, miwieri codo-madlis kanonebs nu gaduxvev

xelovnebaSi~... da, warmodgena iwyeboda. `yvaryvare TuTaberis~ dasawyisi sturuam sruliad Secvala. polikarpe kakabaZis piesas yvaryvare iwyebs, romelic sayveduris toniT mimarTavs mewisqviles: `kmara mudam xom ar unda iRiRino?!~, vinaidan mewisqvile xels uSlis nacris moqeqvasa da momavali gegmebis dawyobaSi. robert sturuam Secvala ara mxolod garemo, aramed piesis moqmedebaTa Tanmimdevrobac. reJisorma speqtakls SemTxveviT rodi daarqva `yvaryvare~ (piesisagan gansxvavebiT). es gaazrebulad moxda. robert sturuam mayurebels afiSidanve ganucxada, rom speqtakli raRaciT gansxvavebuli iqneboda piesisagan, rom speqtaklSi yvaryvares saxe ufro globaluri masStabiT iqneboda warmodgenili. gagrZeleba iqneba

1. ix.: gaz. `kultura~. #2,(40). 2008 2. ix.: iqve; 3. ix.: iqve; 4. Teatri da dro, v. kiknaZe. gamomc. `xelovneba~, Tbilisi. 1984 5. « » , . . «», 10. 1976 6. ix.: gaz. `kultura~ #2 (40), 2008. 7.« », . « . ». 6. 1977.

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piter bruki msoflio mniSvnelobis reJisorad 60-iani wlebidan aRiares. misi speqtaklebi Teatris istoriis yvela saxelmZRvaneloSia Sesuli. reJisoris warmodgenebSi didi jon gilgudi da pol skofildi TamaSobdnen. Teatris bunebaze gordon kregTan, eJi grotovskisTan, bertold brextTan kamaTobda, TanamSromlobda salvador dalisTan da toogi tukitorisTan. Tavisi xangrZlivi profesiuli moRvaweobis manZilze 50 speqtaklze meti dadga, gadaiRo 10-ze meti filmi. brukis ganuwyveteli fiqri Teatris kanonebisa da bunebis Sesaxeb, dauRalavi Zieba `cocxali Teatrisa~ mis wignebSi, gamocemebsa Tu presisTvis micemul interviuebSi aisaxa. piter bruki msoflio moqalaqea! misTvis ar arsebobs sazRvrebi, gansxvavebuli kulturebi... reJisoris mizania dadgas speqtaklebi, romlebic msoflios nebismier wertilSi erTnairad gasagebi da amaRelvebeli iqneba. 2008 wlis 1 seqtembers mxcovan reJisorsa da araerTi jildos mflobels kidev erTi aRiareba xvda wilad. ibsenis I saerTaSoriso (internacionaluri) premiis mflobeli swored is gaxda. ceremonia oslos nacionalur TeatrSi Sedga. h. ibsenis internacionaluri premiis dajildoebas norvegiis mTavrobam 2007 wels Cauyara safuZveli. jildovdebian is pirebi, organizaciebi, romlebic eqstraordinarulad dainaxaven, Caswvdebian henrik ibsenis sulier samyaros. da, Tu ara bruks, vis unda mieRo es premia. bruki, romelic aramarto ibsens, aramed nebismier movlenas, sagans Taviseburad xedavs, sakuTar interpretacias da kanonebs umorCilebs. gTavazobT intervius, romelic piter brukma gazeT `~-s1 korespondents _ artur solomonovs ­ misca, Cemi azriT, es saubari bevr saintereso mosazrebas Seicavs, rogorc profesionalebisTvis, aseve Teatris moyvarulTaTvis. a. s.: speqtakli `Cven~ (1966) eZRvneboda vietnamis oms, _ amerikeli jariskacebis mxecur saqciels, maT sxva qveynis

cxovrebasa da kulturaSi Carevas. speqtaklma didi saerTaSoriso skandali gamoiwvia. Semdeg Tqven am dadgmis mixedviT gadaiReT filmi `momatyueT me~. rogor fiqrobT, politikur cxovrebaSi momxdar romel movlenas unda gamoexmauros uciloblad Teatri? p. b.: jer kidev 60-ian wlebSi, roca davdgiT speqtakli `Cven~, politikuri Teatris arseboba SeuZlebeli iyo, politikuri Teatris erTaderTi mizani xom isaa, rom sargebloba moutanos sazogadoebas. magram rogor unda gaakeTo es, roca msoflioSi aseTi rTuli situaciaa? politikuri cxovrebis gamartiveba, msoflios dayofa mtrebad da megobrebad, cudebad da kargebad ­ ubralod sisulelea. SeiZleba piesis dadgma ruseTze. es Zlier saintereso iqneboda. am piesaSi marTebuli iqneboda Tqveni qveynis urTierTsawinaaRmdego mxareebis gaSiSvleba, magram arafriT ar SeiZleba aCveno cudi oligarqebi da kargi prezidentebi ­ es sibriyve iqneba. unda moicva rusuli cxovrebis bevrad farTo aspeqtebi, azris gamoTqmis saSualeba misce sruliad gansxvavebul adamianebs. sul axlaxan, parizSi, Cven dostoevskis `didi inkvizitori~ davdgiT. am dadgmis repeticiebs sxva speqtaklTan erTad gavdiodiT. es ukanaskneli vaCveneT berlinSi. `Tierno Bokar~ _ ase hqvia speqtakls, romelSic SeiZleba naxo kargi da cudi islami... evropeli mayurebeli `Tierno Bokar" ­ is yurebisas usaTuod fiqrobs: `madloba RmerTs, rom qristiani var!~ Semdeg ki publikas SeuZlia wavides `did inkvizitorze~ da gaigos, rom odesRac Cveni mSobliuri inkvizicia iseve saSineli iyo, rogorc Tanamedrove islamuri terorizmi. rac Seexeba sufTa politikur Teatrs, is misaRebi bertold brextis epoqaSi gaxldaT. im gulubryvilo dReebSi, roca Tavisuflad SeiZleboda gangecxadebina: kapitalizmi ­ cudia, komunizmi - ki, kargi an piriqiT. b. brexts SeiZleba pativi sce, rogorc SesaniSnav dramaturgsa da reJisors. magram misi piesebis morali imdenad martivia, rom ver esadageba dRevandel ukiduresad rTul viTarebas. aq vawydebiT paradoqss: Tu Sen eTanxmebi brextis

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mZuls sityva kultura

piesebis morals, Tu Sen iziareb samyaros miseul xedvas, maSin ver SeZleb brextis mixedviT kargi speqtaklis Seqmnas. politikuri Teatri Tavis arsiT _ stalinuria. arsebobs didi gmiri, uSvelebeli boroteba, maTi brZola da wertili! morCa, meti araferia saWiro! a. s. Tqveni speqtakli `Cven~ dResac, erayis omis dros, aqtualuri SeiZleboda yofiliyo. p. b.: yvelaze mniSvnelovani kiTxva: ra dgas dRes mimdinare religiuri omis ukan, visi interesebi ­ saxelmwifos, Tu TiToeuli adamianis? politikosebisTvis religia instrumentia, magram TiToeuls, vinc awarmoebs religiur oms, aqvs Zalian gasagebi, adamianuri mizezebi. rogoria isini? ras niSnavs, waxvide sikvdilze alahis saxeliT, ra dgas religiuri zizRis, mrisxanebis, masiuri mkvlelobebis miRma? am kiTxvaze ar SeiZleba pasuxi iyos Teoriuli. me axal piesas imisTvis vdgam, rom mayurebelSi eWvi aRvZra. imedi maqvs, rom scenaze figurebis moZraoba, xma, siCume, teqsti ­ yvelaferi es erTad aRebuli, ufro metad imoqmedebs mayurebelze, vidre carieli axali ambebis nusxa. xolo sakiTxebi, romlebic televiziasa da gazeTebSi wydeba, Cven ar unda gvainteresebdes. dae, amiT burJuaziuli Teatri dakavdes.

premiera ­ es speqtaklis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulia

a. s.: karieris dasawyisSi, 40-ian wlebSi, burJuaziuli Teatris mowinaaRmdege iyaviT. magram xelovnebis kanoni aseTia, dasawyisSi reJisori protests ucxadebs burJuaziul Teatrs, droTa ganmavlobaSi ki misi nawili xdeba. ras akeTebT, rom win aRudgeT am process? p. b.: im xerxebs, romlebsac Cven vxmarobdiT burJuaziuli Teatris winaaRmdeg, saxaliso ram daemarTaT _ axla isini am Teatris ganuyofel nawilad iqcnen. moviyvan umartives magaliTs. 50ian wlebSi inglisSi burJuaziuli Teatri ­ komfortuli, myudro, zneobrivi ­ yvelgan batonobda. me ki im Teatraluri

praqtikosebis dajgufebis wevri gaxldiT, romlebic miznad isaxavdnen publikis Sokirebas ­ tabus damsxvrevas. roca brodveize `marat sads~ vdgamdi, swored maSin gamoviyvane scenaze SiSveli adamiani. es gaxda movlena, aqcia. dRes ki, msoflios masStabiT, scenaze gundurad daborialeben SiSvlebi da gana vinmes akvirvebs es? SesaZloa, magram maTi ricxvi Zalze mcirea. me ki sxva ram makvirvebs: ratom iyeneben reJisorebi im xerxebs, romlebic ukve 50 wlisaa da romlebic aRaravis aocebs. es Stampi naxevar saukuneze metisaa! tabu ­ rogorc aseTi, aRar arsebobs. isini ki sul raRacas angreven da angreven. es araa Teatri. rac Seexeba Tqvens SekiTxvas ­ dResac mZuls da vewinaaRmdegebi tradiciuli Teatris muSaobis sistemis winaaRmdeg brZolasa da siZulvils! ruseTsa da evropaSi muSaobis es sistema ramdenime saukunea arsebobs: avtori wers teqsts, aZlevs reJisors, is kiTxulobs, midis msaxiobTan, uxsnis mas, rogor unda imuSaos. Semdeg repeticiebi, romlebzec reJisori aCvenebs msaxiobebs, ra unda iTamaSon. amis Semdeg ki msaxiobi aCvenebs publikas, ra iswavla repeticiebze. yvela es nabiji xelovnuria. namdvil TeatrSi yvelaferi es erTiani unda iyos. Cvens parizis Teatraluri kvlevis saerTaSoriso centrSi samuSao asea organizebuli. magram evropuli Teatris yvelaze saSineli idea ­ premieraa. yvelafers vakeTeb imisTvis, rom ar mqondes premiera Cveuli tradiciuli gagebiT, anu ar minda, rom Cems speqtaklze movidnen kritikosebi, viRac mniSvnelovani adamianebi. premiera ­ danaSaulia speqtaklis winaaRmdeg. minaxavs, ramdeni kargi dadgma ganadgurebula aseTi publikis (sapremiero publikis) gamo, kritikosebis naCqarevi naazrevis da `mniSvnelovani~ personebis qedmaRluri reaqciebis gamo. premiera erT-erTi etapis msgavsad da ara gamocdad, an samuSaos finalur stadiad unda miiRo speqtaklis cxovrebaSi. speqtakli mzadaa, roca mas 50-jer iTamaSeben _ ambobda meierholdi. da es simarTlea. Teatri, romelSic arsebobs speqtaklis iseTi damaxinjebuli movlena, rogoric premieraa, ganwirulia. a. s.: miuxedavad amisa, yvela festivalSi iRebT monawileobas,

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mZuls sityva kultura

xolo safestivalo publika Tavisi umravlesobiT swored is publikaa, romelsac Tqven ar scnobT: Semfaseblebi, specialistebi, reJisorebi, kritikosebi. b. p.: publika, mosuli I speqtaklze, araadamianuria. sxvanairad ver vityvi, Tumca speqtakls gansxavavebul auditoriasTan Wirdeba kontaqti. amitomac Camomaqvs Cemi dadgmebi sxvadasxva Teatralur forumebze. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi ­ gansxvavebuli amomavali wertilia, saidanac mayurebels da speqtakls Soris kontaqti iwyeba. Tu gsurs inglisel mayurebelTan daamyaro kontaqti, ise unda gaakeTo, rom darbazSi ixarxaron. es yvelaze elementaruli donea adamianebs Soris urTierTobisa, magram inglisSi publika sicilzea orientirebuli. germaniaSi ki aqtualuri politikuri problemebi unda daayeno. unda dadga speqtakli an Tanamedrove politikur situaciaze, an Tavi unda moaCveno, rom saubrob politikaze. sinamdvileSi ki unda ilaparako imaze, rac gainteresebs. Tumca, politikuri Teatris keTeba uadvilesia.: magaliTad, SeiZleba prezidentis preskonferenciaze kamera daayeno da am saxiT warmoaCino is iseTi rakursiT, rom es revoluciis tolfasi iqneba (icinis). a. s. roca Tqven ambobT sityvas `kultura~, TiTqos mas brWyalebSi svamT. ratom saubrobT amaze ironiiT? p. b. Cveni samyaros Seuracxadobis mniSvnelovani nawili Cadebulia sityvaSi `kultura~. gulwrfelad getyviT, mZuls es sityva. Tu Sen iwyeb kulturebis Sedarebas, maT Sefasebas ­ es rasizmis dasawyisia. TiToeuli, Segnebulad, Tu gaucnobiereblad, Tvlis, rom kultura, romelsac is miekuTvneba, saukeTesoa. mTeli samyaro kulturis ideis tyvea. magram TiToeuli kultura, calke aRebuli, arasrulia. yvela kultura ­ rusuli, germanuli, inglisuri, Cinuri ­ msoflio kulturis nawilia, im kulturisa, romelic arc erTi CvenganisTvis araa cnobili. a. s. albaT bevri unda gemogzauraT, rom gagecnobierebinaT kulturebis sawyisi Tanasworoba? p. b. roca skolis moswavle viyavi, maswavlebelma miTxra: `Seni

skola saukeTesoa qveyanaSi.~ ukve maSin mesmoda, rom es sisulelea. roca gavizarde, dadga Semdegi etapi! miTxres, rom Cemi qveyana saukeTesoa. rogor SemeZlo amaze reagireba?...

wadiT mTaSi, CrdiloeTSi!

a. s. 70-iani wlebis dasawyisSi msaxiobebis mcire jgufTan erTad afrikaSi gaemgzavreT. im publikasTan SexvedriT, romelmac ar icoda Teatri, SesaZlebloba mogcaT eWvqveS dageyenebinaT yvelaferi, risganac Sedgeba Cveulebrivi Teatri, _ scenis mowyobiloba, msaxiobisa da personaJis urTierToba, publikasTan kontaqti, fiqsirebuli teqsti. SesaZloa gasul saukuneSi yvelaze Rirebuli kontaqti gansxvavebuli kulturebisa swored iq Sedga. ras urCevdiT axalgazrda reJisors, romelsac surs gaigos Teatris sawyisebi, dakavdes Teatraluri eqsperimentiT? masac sWirdeba sadme gamgzavreba? p. b. zogjer mekiTxebian: ratom ar gaqvT sakuTari Teatraluri skola? vfiqrob, rom axalgazrda reJisorisTvis saukeTeso skolaa Seqmnas TanamoazreTa jgufi da gaemgzavros samogzaurod. sadac unda, Sors Teatrisgan, romelsac Cven miveCvieT, Teatraluri institutebisgan, festivalebisgan da jildoebisgan... gaemgzavros am speqtaklebis warmoebis manqanisgan rac SeiZleba Sors, CrdiloeTSi, mTebSi (icinis), ara aqvs mniSvneloba sad _ mTavaria i povos mayurebeli, romelic ar aris Sepyrobili TeatriT, romelmac zustad ar icis, ra da rogor unda iyos speqtaklSi, amitomac ar moaxdens damRupvel zemoqmedebas Tqvens namuSevarze. afrikaSi Cven wavawydiT gauTviTcnobierebul, magram ara primitiul mayurebels. sruliad axali publikis winaSe gamosvlisas axalgazrda reJisorma unda daiwyos kvleva. saqmes improvizaciiT unda Seudges. man unda i povnos Tema, romelic gaaerTianebs im xalxTan, romelTanac mas kontaqtis damyareba surs. warmoidgineT, rom gaemgzavrebiT marsze Tqven jgufTan erTad da iq marsianelebs unda aCvenoT `alublis baRi~. ar unda

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mZuls sityva kultura

gaikvirvoT, Tu gaugebrobas waawydebiT. unda i povoT saerTo mxatvruli teritoria marsianelebTan. es mSvenieri wvrTna iqneba reJisorisTvis. Tundac mxolod robotebiT dasaxlebuli rom aRmoCndes marsi, reJisorma maTTan kontaqti mainc unda daamyaros! amrigad, urTierToba Teatris armcodne auditoriasTan damyarda. aq dgeba ZiriTadi problema: es urTierTobebi ar ganviTardeba Rimilis, megobruli Jestebisa da simRerebis xarjze. saWiroa ufro radikaluri nabijis gadadgma, rom msaxiobebsa da auditorias Soris kontaqti gaRrmavdes. da sul male unda warmoiSvas yvelaze mniSvnelovani ram: moTxrobili ambavis azrisa da adamianis sxeulis sinTezi. reJisori unda grZnobdes saubris rogori ritmi, rogori saxeebia misaRebi swored am konkretuli auditoriisTvis. Tu is zedmetad swrafad anviTarebs moqmedebas ­ dakargavs kontaqts publikasTan. axal auditoriasTan Sexvedrisas axalgazrda reJisors yovel jerze mouwevs teqstis, xmis, musikis, msaxiobebis moZraobis sivrceSi axleburad gadaWra. es saukeTeso reJisoruli skolaa. axalgazrda reJisors ar aqvs ufleba iyos umuSevari. reJisorad aravin gniSnavs, Sen TviTon iniSnav Tavs reJisorad. Tu reJisori wuwunebs, rom mas ar aqvs Teatri, saxelmwifo ar aZlevs fuls dadgmebisTvis ­ is ubralod ar aris reJisori. mas xom yovelTvis SeuZlia Semoikribos mcire Tanamoazreebis jgufi, gadasdos Tavisi energia, da maSin SeuZlia daiwyos TamaSi, sadac unda, nebismier pirobebSi. ai, Cven vsxedvarT kafeSi, sadac skamebi, magida, magidaze yavis finjnebi dgas. es momavali speqtaklis dekoraciaa. morCa! ­ SeiZleba TamaSis dawyeba. unda daiwyo imiT, rac gaqvs da ar daelodo gansakuTrebul pirobebs an saxelmwifos daxmarebas.

yvelaferSi stanislavskia damnaSave

a. s.: polonelma reJisorma eJi grotovskim TqvenTan saubarSi ganacxada: `Cemi Ziebebi reJisorsa da msaxiobs efuZneba. Tqveni ki ­ msaxiobs, reJisors da mayurebels. aseTi gza

dasaSvebia, magram CemTvis is daklaknilia!~ 60-wliani Teatraluri praqtikis manZilze ar gagCeniaT azri, rom grotovski marTalia, rom Tqveni Teatraluri ideebi ufro srulfasovan xorcSesxmas hpovebdnen, Tu Tqven maT publikisgan Sors ganaviTarebdiT da Tan speqtaklze mxolod xeldasmulebs dauSvebdiT? p. b.: ar var sakuTari ideebis realizaciiT dakavebuli! saZaglobaa, roca reJisori kavdeba ideebiT. es ar Sedis mis profesiaSi. es cudi praqtika XX saukunis dasawyisSi iRebs saTaves, roca ruseTSi da germaniaSi reJisori scenis sruluflebiani xelisufali gaxda. amaSi damnaSave k. stanislavski da maqs reinhardia. Semdeg reJisoruli diqtatura Cveulebriv ambad iqca. reJisori ­ diqtatori ­ es cudia, magram saerTod saSinelebaa, roca is piesebis werasac iwyebs. swored aq nadgurdeba yvelaze Rirebuli ram, polifoniurobis, gansxvavebuli individualurobis Serwymis nacvlad, Cven viRebT samyaros viwro, SezRudul xedvas. samagierod viRacam sakuTari idea ganaxorciela. Tu mavani fiqrobs, mas aqvs raRac gansakuTrebuli ideebi, romelTa Sesaxebac unda icodes xalxma ­ daweros wigni, leqsebi an filmi gadaiRos. filmi ­ es, marTlac, erTi adamianis saqmea. reJisori aq avtoria. TeatrSi ki reJisors sul sxva amocana aqvs. misi mizania, rogorc ukve mogaxseneT, misces sicocxle uxilavs. amisTvis aucilebelia sxva xalxi, maTTan kontaqtis xangZlivi periodi, dausrulebeli repeticiebi, romlis procesSi reJisori ki ar Zaladobs msaxiobebze, aramed maT individualobas maqsimalurad warmoaCens. reJisors sWirdeba msaxiobi, msaxiobs ki ­ partniori. ase ikvreba jgufi. SexedeT qimiur procesebs: sivrceSi gamoCndeba raRac ujredi da daiwyebs sxvebis provocirebas, miizidavs maT, rom Seerwyas. ai, swored esaa, reJisori. reJisoris energiam (da ara ideam) unda naxos gamosavali adamianebis jgufis daxmarebiT. misi energiis gamravleba mxolod msaxiobebis meSveobiT xdeba. xolo, roca modis mayurebeli, misi energia asmagdeba.

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mZuls sityva kultura

es Cais momzadebas hgavs: saWiroa wyali, cecxli da Cai. ra Tqma unda, civi wyliTac SeiZleba Cais gakeTeba, magram es sul sxva Cai iqneba. publikasTan urTierToba TandaTan unda ganviTardes. mayurebelsa da msaxiobebs Tanagancda unda gauCndeT. arc idea, arc `mesiji~ (Setyobineba), aramed swored gancda! azri Cndeba mogvianebiT. azri da gancda unda SeerTdes. Tu speqtakli ideazea awyobili, maSin ra saWiroa is? ukeTesia moisminoT leqcia universitetSi an samecniero wigni waikiTxoT. Tu speqtakli mxolod emociazea agebuli ­ isic araa Rirebuli. am SemTxvevaSi ufro didi Sokis miReba SegviZlia rokkoncertze (am mxriv, SesaZloa, rokkoncertma metad SegZras). vimeoreb, azri da gancda speqtaklSi unda SeerTdes. Tumca grotovskis SemTxveva unikaluria. eJi grotovski ­ didi adamiania. is swavlobda ­ Si moskovSi da stanislavskis sistemis didi zegavlena ganicada. araoficialurad ki masze gavlena akrZalulma meierholdma moaxdina. grotovskim miznad daisaxa am ori didi Teatraluri sistemis Serwyma. magram TandaTanobiT grotovski msaxiobis sulieri ganviTarebiT metad dainteresda, vidre sakuTriv Teatraluri kvleviT. vfiqrob, is ver wavidoda Teatridan, vinaidan aTeistur qveyanaSi ar SeiZleboda monastris Seqmna. garda amisa, mas ar SeeZlo ganmartoebiT cxovreba da muSaoba. amitomac airCia arsebobis iseTi forma, romelsac verc Teatralurs da verc religiurs uwodeb! grotovskis teqnika Teatralebma gamoiyenes. magram misi mizani, swrafva, interesi mimarTuli iyo sulierebisken. misi aRmoCenebis gamosayeneblad unda mihyve reJisoris cxovrebiseul princi pebs. misi muSaoba ufro da ufro ganumeorebeli xdeboda. is moculi iyo religiuri ZiebebiT, gars ki is xalxi ertya, vinc eTayvaneboda, rogorc reJisors. mas publika ar sWirdeboda ­ intimurobas saWiroebda, risi miRwevac mxolod samonastro cxovrebis wesiT SeiZleba. misi saqmianoba metad Rrma iyo, vidre stanislavskis, meierholdis, artos kvlevebi. grotovski XX saukunis yvela

did reJisorze win wavida. dRes Teatraluri situacia bevrad ukeTesia, vidre maSin, roca me viwyebdi. axalgazrda reJisors meierholdis. stanislavskis, artos, grotovskis gamocdilebis gamoyeneba SeuZlia, magram ar unda mibaZos, ar unda Seecados sxvisi stilis imitirebas. a. s.:PsakuTar wignebSi Tqvenc uSvebT Teatraluri sistemebis gamoyenebas, Tumca upiratesobas arc erTs aniWebT da Tqvensasac ar qmniT. p. b.: saerTod ar vixrebi im azrisken, rom naziarebi var raRac WeSmaritebas da arc vfiqrob, rom romelime didma Teatralurma praqtikosma miaRwia am WeSmaritebas. ubralod arsebobs WeSmaritebasTan miaxloebis gansxvavebuli saSualebebi. Cven, rom axla 50-iani wlebis Sedevrebi vnaxoT, isini saSinelebad mogveCveneba. Teatri ­ idealisa da praqtikis Sexvedris adgilia. Sen yovelTvis muSaob saSualo pirobebSi, saSualo adamianebTan da Sen TviTonac saSualo xar. magram mainc vcdilobT mivaRwioT idealur dones, Tanac gvesmis, rom is miuwvdomelia. Tuki yvelaze simpaTiuri da niWieri adamianebi akeTeben komerciul Teatrs da xuT repeticiaSi surT kargi speqtaklis Seqmna ­ es SeuZlebelia, magram meore variantic ­ Teatri, rogorc mRvdelmsaxureba, sadac repeticiebi aTeuli wlobiT grZeldeba, sadac mxolod gansakuTrebulad momzadebul mayurebels uSveben, esec absurdia, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba Teatris ideas. erTi sityviT, realoba unda iyos amomavali wertili da ixelmZRvanelo idealuriT. miwaze myarad unda idge da gesmodes, rom fuli saWiroa imisTvis, rom gqondes saSualeba gadauxado Zalian karg msaxiobs. ai, aseT winaaRmdegobebSi mimdinareobs Cveni samuSao. da, swored amitom, me, romelic sul ramdenime wuTis win vlanZRavdi premieris ideas, axla SemiZlia is Sevaqo. xandaxan premieris dRe kargi ram aris, imitom rom samuSaos organizebas axdens. speqtakli xom bolos da bolos mzad unda iyos (icinis).

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marika mamacaSvili

mZuls sityva kultura

a. s.: SeuZlia Tu ara Teatrs konkurencia gauwios kinosa da televizias, da saerTod unda gaakeTos es? p. b.: adamianebze kinosa da televiziis gavlena udidesia. am faqtma TiTqos Teatri pasuxismgeblobisgan gaaTavisufla. Tanac vfiqrob, kino da televizia aqamde rom ar yofiliyo, maSin Teatri wavidoda im araswori gziT, romliskenac miemarTeba televizia da kinematografiis udidesi nawili. roca xedav televiziisa da kinos cud magaliTs, Teatrma ufro naTlad unda gaacnobieros sakuTari pasuxismgebloba da sakuTari adgili Tanamedrove samyaroSi. Teatrs ZaluZs mayurebelSi stereoti pebis gareSe gaaRviZos fantazia. Tu mivdivar TeatrSi da vxedav iq fotos, magaliTad, 11 seqtembers amerikaSi momxdari katastrofisa, ar mgonia, aRmeZras namdvili emociuri reaqcia. magram, Tu scenidan, viRac saWiro momentSi ityvis im aucilebel sityvas, SeiZleba gaCndes Sansi vigrZnoT, Tu ra saSineli tragedia moxda 11 seqtembers da rogor Seicvala mas Semdeg msoflio. a. s.: romelia Tqvens cxovrebaSi yvelaze didi imedgacrueba? p. b.: am TvalsazrisiT warsuli ar mainteresebs. yoveldRe vawydebi imedgacruebas. es cxovrebaa, magram CaeZio ganvlils da xelaxla ganicado? risTvis? Cemi warsuliT ar vtkbebi. interviu, winaaRmdegobebiT savse mosazrebebs Seicavs. swored esaa ­ piter bruki - pirovneba da reJisori. misi mravalferovani azrovneba, mudmivi Ziebis survili da, ra Tqma unda, sakuTari Tavis rwmena, dagrovili didi gamocdilebiTa da saintereso cxovrebiT. mxolod aseT profesionals SeuZlia Tavs ufleba misces, erTsa da imave interviuSi Tqvas, rom mas premierebi sZuls, magram `giJdeba~ festivalebze. misi prerogativaa gaakeTos skandaluri gancxadeba: _ saZaglobaa, roca reJisori kavdeba ideebiT. es ar Sedis mis profesiaSi. brukma Zalian kargad icis, rom XX saukunis Teatris mamoZravebeli swored idea iyo. reJisorTa nawils, maT Soris qarTvel m. TumaniSvilsac miaCndaT, rom speqtaklis `arsi misi ideaa, xolo arseboba _ moqmedeba.~2 brukisTvis ki yvelaferi piriqiTaa... is ambobs: `Tu mavani

fiqrobs, mas aqvs raRac gansakuTrebuli ideebi, romlebis Sesaxebac unda icodes xalxma ­ daweros wigni, leqsebi an filmi gadaiRos. filmi ­ es, marTlac, erTi adamianis saqmea. reJisori aq avtoria. TeatrSi ki reJisors sul sxva amocana aqvs. misi mizania, rogorc ukve mogaxseneT, misces sicocxle uxilavs.~ frangebi amboben, rom nasadilevs odnav kidev unda gSiodeso. swored aseTi grZnoba meufleba, roca vecnobi piter brukis naSromebs, mis wignebs. bruki ambobs: WeSmariti Teatri yovelTvis moZraobaSia. `axla, roca Tqven am wigns kiTxulobT, is ukve moZvelebulia.~ swored amitomaa bruki gansakuTrebuli da mudmivad Tanamedrove. misTvis dro swrafi mdinarea. da cdilobs erTi wamiTac ar CamorCes mis dinebas.

1. `~ 03. 2005 2. m. TumaniSvili `sanam repeticia daiwyeba~ gv. 58.

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televizia, iseve rogorc sxva sakomunikacio institutebi sazogadoebaSi gamefebul politikur, socialur da ekonomikur interesebs emsaxureba. Tumca zogan, es Ria CareviT-cenzuriT, sadRac ki, ufro daxvewili ekonomikuri meqanizmebiT xorcieldeba; Tumca, aRniSnuli, televiziisa da sazogadoebis urTierTdamokidebulebis mxolod erTi mxarea. aranakleb mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom nebismier sazogadoebriv sistemaSi televizia, ara mxolod kontroldeba socialuri struqturebis mier, aramed Tavadac warmoadgens erT-erT umTavres, socialuri kontrolis instituts. am misias is warmatebiT axorcielebs, zemoqmedebs sazogadoebriv cnobierebaze, ayalibebs sazogadoebriv azrs, xels uwyobs gansazRvruli ideebis, faseulobebis, normebisa, Tu qcevis wesebis formirebas. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi SeWrili televizia kolosalur zegavlenas axdens sazogadoebis yovel wevrze da es urTierTdamokidebulebebi, kidev erT, socialuri pasuxismgeblobis problemas ayenebs dRis wesrigSi. dRes naTelia qarTuli satelevizio sivrcis krizisuli mdgomareoba, sadac umTavresad satelevizio arxebisa da sazogadoebis urTierTdamokidebulebis mravali problemuri aspeqti iCens Tavs. upirvelesi da ganmsazRvreli Tavisuflebis xarisxia, romelic miuxedavad imisa, rom nebismieri politikuri, socialuri, ekonomikuri sistemebisTvis metnaklebad pirobiTi cnebaa, komunikaciebis mflobelTa interesebisa da konkretuli miznebis gauTvaliswinebloba, problemis mxolod garegnul aspeqtebze yuradRebis gamaxvilebis perspeqtivas tovebs. sinamdvileSi krizisis mizezebi gacilebiT Rrmaa, istoriuli ganviTarebis ramdenime periodzea ganfenili da amasTan problema mraval plasts moicavs. maT Soris aris ara mxolod organizebis formebi, aramed esTetikuri, teqnologiuri,

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moralur-zneobrivi, profesionalizmis, tradiciisa da erovnulobis, satelevizio memkvidreobis, prioritetebis, gemovnebis, Sinaarsisa da formis da sxva aranakleb mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi. saqarTvelos televizia, romelmac gasuli saukunis 50an wlebSi daiwyo regularuli mauwyebloba, TavisTavad, im centralizebuli satelevizio sivrcis nawili iyo, rasac sabWour, totalitaruli marTvis sistemas vuwodebT, sadac informacia kargavda informaciis umTavres niSnebs da televiziasac ara sainformacio, aramed gasarTobi, aRmzrdelobiTi, propagandistuli funqciebi gaaCnda. televizia, romelic danarCen samyaroSi informaciis gadacemisa da miRebis ualternati vo saS ualebad ganix ileboda, sab WoTa adamianisaTvis socialistur-komunisturi idealebiT gajerebuli, ,,ukonfliqto~ virtualuri garemos Sesaqmneli, sazogadoebis ideologiuri marTvis propagandistul iaraRad iqca. dRes, aRniSnuli tradicia, ara mxolod satelevizio funqciebis, aramed mmarTvelobis formebSic novatorul Strixebs iZens. gasuli saukunis 80-ani wlebis meore naxevridan sabWouri erTiani sakomunikacio sistemis decentralizaciis procesi daiwyo. yvela instituti: radio, televizia, presa, kinematografi sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi iwyebs funqcionirebas. Seicvala maTi funqcionirebis wesebi, organizebis formebi, meqanizmebi da Tavad moRvaweobac. pirvelad, yvelaze naTlad, es procesebi presaSi gamovlinda. gaCnda axali Jurnal-gazeTebi, sadac manamde akrZaluli Temebis publikaciebma mkiTxvelTa interesi gaamZafra. mogvianebiT, analogiurma procesebma televiziazec gadmoinacvla da gaCnda imedi, rom swored es cvlilebebi (gansakuTrebiT, komercializaciis procesi) sabolood daamsxvrevda satelevizio mauwyeblobis sabWour models. 90-ian wlebSi televiziis, rogorc sazogadoebrivi institutis, arsebobisa da Semoqmedebis safuZvlebis Secvlam, manamde ararsebuli saxelmwifo da kerZo mewarmeobis ucnauri simbiozi warmoSva, romelic upirvelesad saxelmwifo

modelidan sabazro modelze gadasvliT iyo ganpirobebuli. Cvens televizias (igulisxmeba ara mxolod qarTuli, aramed mTeli postsabWouri sivrce) gansakuTrebuli istoria aqvs, romelic avtoritaruli reJimis pirobebSi sociokulturuli institutebis specifiuri funqcionirebiT iyo aRbeWdili da fundamentur kvlevas saWiroebs. Tumca, dRes dRis wesrigSi mediis Tavisuflebis problema dgas, _ sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis, masze gavlenis da Tavad sazogadoebis pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi. nebismieri demokratiuli qveynis konstituciaSi aRniSnuli sityvis Tavisufleba sainformacio moRvaweobis, informaciis Tavisufali gavrcelebis, nebismieri ideis, mosazrebis, informaciis Tavisuflad mopovebis ufleba adamianis bunebriv uflebaTa rigSi dgeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavisuflebis princi pebi da informaciis gavrcelebaze da miRebaze kontroli, yovelTvis azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevda. risi Cveneba SeiZleba televiziiT? ramdenad Tavisufalia teleJurnalisti sakuTari azris gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT? daSvebulia, Tu ara eTer Si gansx vavebuli azris demonstrireba? ra formebSi da sazRvrebSi xorcieldeba informaciaze kontroli? faqti udavoa da es Cvenma, gansakuTrebiT bolo wlebis, satelevizio mauwyeblobis istoriam naTlad daadastura, rom Tavisuflebis gamocxadeba sakmarisi ar aris WeSmariti TavisulebisTvis, aucilebelia im pirobebis Seqmna, romelic am uflebis realizebis garantiebs iZleva. meore sakiTxia, Tu rogor SeiZleba am uflebis mopoveba, rodesac sainformacio-sakomunikacio saSualebebi kerZo sakuTrebis formiT arsebobs (gamonaklisi sazogadoebrivi mauwyebelia). masobrivi komunikaciebis istoriam Tavisi arsebobis manZilze daadastura, rom Tavisufleba da kontrolic is tor iul ad cv alebad fo rmebs iRebs . a mer ikeli JurnalistebisaTvis saxelmZRvanelod qceul naSromSi u.riversi aRniSnavs, rom ,,rac ar unda xmamaRla iyviron Tavisuflebis konstituciur mrwamsze, praqtikaSi yoveli

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sazogadoeba zRudavs gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, rac avtorebis, gamomcemlebis, moralisa da saxelmwifoebrivi midgomis, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis princi pebiT ganisazRvreba.~1 sxvadasxva qveynebis gamocdileba upirvelesad im faqtze miuTiTebs, rom Tavisuflebis xarisxi da misi SezRudvis formebi, sazogadoebrivi kontrolis meqanizmebi, im sabaziso princi pebzea damokidebuli, romelSic isini funqcionireben: es iqneba politikur-ekonomikuri, socialur-kulturuli, Tu erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi. aqedan, momdinareobs sakomunikacio saS ualeb aTa sazog adoeb rivi statusis ti peb ic: avtoritaruli, libertarianuli, sabWouri da sazogadoebrivi. Tumca, sinamdvile, yovelTvis gacilebiT rTuli da mravalferovania da ar jdeba abstraqtul, Teoriul sqemebSi. yovel sakomunikacio saSualebas sakuTari specifika da Taviseburebebi gaaCnia, amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia maTi istoriuli ganviTarebis xasiaTi, romelic tradiciis saxiT vlindeba funqcionirebis Semdgom etapebze. Cveni satelevizio sivrce savsea paradoqsebiT. gaCnda satelevizio mmarTvelobisa da funqcionirebis erT modelSi gaerTianebuli urTierTgamomricxavi modeli. erTi mxriv, telearxis garegnuli forma, romelic evropul-amerikul modelzea orientirebuli da garkveulwilad maTgan iRebs satelevizio momsaxurebis ama Tu im formebs. ufro metic, xSirad satelivizio gadacemis formati pirdapiri aslis gziT Cndeba teleeTerSi, yovelgvari erovnuli Taviseburebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. Cvens satelevizio sivrceSi iSviaTad Cndeba originalurobis kodis matarebeli qarTuli proeqti (Tumca aRniSnuli calke kvlevis sagania). meore mxriv, mmarTvelobis forma, sadac sabWouri tradicia erTgvarad gacocxlda da axali StrixebiT gamdidrda. rodesac esa Tu is telekompania kerZo sakuTrebis formaa, Tumca masze kontroli ara mesakuTris, aramed realurad saxelmwifoSi arsebuli mmarTvelobiTi struqturis xelSia, rodesac mesakuTresTvis ZiriTadi orientiri ara sazogadoebisTvis samsaxuria, rac pirdapirproporciulia telearxis

yurebadobasTan da Sesabamisad maRali mogebis miRebasTan, aramed damoukideblobis ,,nebayoflobiT~ SezRudvazea orientirebuli. informaciaze mkacri kontroli, cenzura, rodesac im politikuri da moraluri faseulobebis kritika iricxeba, romelic saxelmwifoSi dominirebs, gamoricxulia Zalauflebis kritika da is, rac gamefebul politikur xazTan da moralur kategoriebTan winaaRmdegobaSi modis, kvalificirdeba danaSaulad, an saerTod ignorirebulia. Cveni satelevizio Jurnalistika Sors aris damoukideblobisgan da ufro metad im pasuxismgeblobrivi poziciisgan, romelic am profesiis adamianebis SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis amosavali unda iyos. gamonaklisi telekompaniebis ,,kavkasiisa~ da ,,maestros~ moRvaweobaa, romelmac Jurnalisturi, moqalaqeobrivi da zneobrivi poziciis dacva moaxerxa da SeZlo Tavisufali mediis statusis, ara mxolod mopoveba, aramed misi SenarCuneba da sazogadoebis moTxovnaTa nawilobrivi dakmayofileba. kidev erTi paradoqsi ikveTeba, rodesac mayurebeli irCevs teqnikuri da esTetikuri parametrebiT naklebi SesaZleblobebis mqone telearxebs, swored im mizeziT, rom maT gaTviTcnobierebuli aqvT is funqcia, romelic televiziam unda Seasrulos. Tu sabWouri modelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo televiziis mxolod saxelmwifo marTvaSi arseboba, dRes miviReT forma, rodesac kerZo mflobelobaSi arsebuli satelevizio arxebi praqtikulad saxelmwifo marTvis niSnebs atareben da Sesabamisad, ,proragandistul institutebad gardaiqmnebian, mkveTri ideologiuri SeferilobiT, dozirebuli informaciiT, cenzuriT da SesaZlo sanqciebiT ,,urCobisaTvis~. biznesi, romelic arsebul socialur-ekonomikur sistemasTan aris kavSirSi sakuTari wvlili Seaqvs, am sistemis statusqvos SenarCunebaSi. ,,masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa Sinaarsi da forma, maTi gadmocemis miTebi da xerxebi mani pulirebazea dafuZnebuli. warmatebuli gamoyenebisas (da Cvens SemTxvevaSi es, asec aris da samwuxarod is, cxovrebis yvela sferoze vrceldeba) maT aucileblad mivyavarT

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individis pasiurobisken, qmedebis uarmyofi inertuli mdgomareobisken. swored individis amgvari mdgomareobisken iltvis masobrivi informaciis xerxebi da mTeli es sistema mTlianobaSi, vinaidan, swored pasiuroba aris statusqvos garanti~.2 sazogadoebriv cnobierebaze mani pulirebis erT-erTi meqanizmi, romelsac televizia iyenebs, garkveuli problemebisadmi sazogadoebis yuradRebis mobilizebaa. vinaidan, yuradRebis centrSi is problema xvdeba, romelsac televizia uCvenebs, ZiriTadi muSaoba midis swored imaze, Tu ra SeiZleba moxvdes satelevizio eTerSi, an movlenis ra nawilis Cvenebaa SesaZlebeli, raTa mayurebels erTi mxriv informirebulobis gancda daeuflos, meore mxriv miiRos swored is, rac wamyvan ideologiur mimarTulebas ar daupirispirdeba. saxezea, rom Cvens sinamdvileSi axali ambebis, mwiri analitikuri satelevizio gadacemebis mier Seqmnili samyaros suraTi, realurad arsebul sinamdvilesTan srul SeusabamobaSi modis, ris mkafio dasturs sxva, sainformacio-sakomunikacio saSualebebi iZleva. gansakuTrebiT, beWduri media, romlis Tavisuflebis xarisxic gacilebiT maRalia, vidre televiziis. dRes, omSi damarcxebuli qveyana, satelevizio gamarjvebis eiforiaSi, virtualur samyaroSi arsebobs da aseTive suliskveTebiT agrZelebs Tavis arsebobas. Tumca, mZime socialur-ekonomikuri siduxWiris fonze, damarcxebulis sindromiT Sepyrobil sazogadoebas, umTavres problemad dasasvenebeli parkebis morTva-molamazebis satelevizio versias sTavazoben. gansxvavebuli azris Tavdapirvelad diskreditaciam, Semdgom ignorirebam da srulma miuReblobam televiziisadmi sandoobis xarisxis niSnuli praqtikulad minimalur zRvramde daiyvana. sainformacio sazogadoebis pirobebSi ki, swored, sainformacio mauwyeblobis xarisxi gansazRvravs satelevizio mauwyeblobis aqtualurobas da ara operatiuloba, risi naTeli magaliTia erTi mxriv telekompania ,,kavkasia~, romelic, sakuTari mauwyeblobis princi pidan gamomdinare, operatiulobiT ar gamoirCeva, Tumca

mudmivad aqtualuria da meore mxriv ,,rusTavi 2~ da ,,imedi~, romelTa axali ambebis specifikas, swored operatiuloba gansazRvravs da ara Sinaarsobrivi mxare, romelTanac pirdapir kavSirSia Temisa, Tu problemis aqtualuroba. yuradRebis gadatanis, informaciis fragmentulobis, mudmivi STagonebis, populizmis, ,,dumilis spiralis~ da sxva mravali, ukve praqtikiT daxvewili mani pulirebis meTodebis wyalobiT, qarTuli satelevizio sivrce mayurebels kargavs. araaqtualuri televizia, is samwuxaro imijia, romelic mcire (z. a.) gamonaklisis garda, satelevizio arxebma ganaCenad gamoutana sakuTar mauwyeblobas. aseT pirobebSi, yovelTvis Cndeba informaciis miRebis alternatiuli saSualebebi da maT rols beWduri mauwyebloba da interneti asrulebs. gasuli saukunis 50-an wlebSi u. Sramma pirvelad wamowia masobrivi komunikaciebis moRvaweobaze socialuri pasuxismgeblobis problema. misi azriT: ,,Cvens sazogadoebaSi sami gavleniani jgufia, romelsac survilisamebr SeuZlia cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba es aris mTavroba, kavSiris xerxebi da saSualebebi da sazogadoeba. pasuxismgeblobac maTze unda gadanawildes~.3 Cvens sazogadoebaSi, samive Zalam unda SeZlos sakuTari wili pasuxismgeblobis aReba da televiziam, romelsac gamRizianeblis diqtatoruli roli aqvs morgebuli, Tavisi roli da mniSvneloba gaacnobieros, konkretul pirovnebaTa interesi qveynisa da sazogadoebis interesebisgan gamijnos da winaswar gansazRvros is prioritetebi, romelic misi srulyofili funqcionirebis, sazogadoebisaTvis sakuTari mniSvnelovnebis amaRlebas uzrunvelyofs. moipovos dakarguli Tavisufleba (sazogadoebrivi funqciis Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli satelevizio sivrce daubrunda imas, risganac ase TavgamodebiT cdilobda bolo oci wlis manZilze ganTavisuflebas). televizia, mxolod garTobis saSualeba ar aris da informaciis mopovebisa da gavrcelebis Tavisufleba gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia, swored krizisuli situaciebis dros, vinaidan winaaRmdegobebiT gaxleCili

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sazogadoebisaTvis SemakavSireblis funqciis Sesruleba SeuZlia. axali ambebis sazogadoebriv-humanuri misia devalvacias ganicdis, Sedegi ki qarTuli telearxebisaTvis, SesaZloa masobrivad mayureblis dakargvaSi aisaxos. gasterilebuli informaciis nakadSi ki, veRarc Sokismomgvreli Sinaarsis sensaciuri informacia, verc ,,rusTavi 2~-is komedi-Souebis gansxvavebuli formatebi daubrunebs televizias dakargul ndobas.

kulturologia

1.Rivers W. News in print. Writing and reporting. N.Y.; Cambridge; Philadelphia; San francisko; Lnd.; Mexiko City; Sydney, 1984. P. 185. 2. . . ., 1980. .47 3.Schramm W. Responsibility for Mass Communication // Mass Communications. A Book of Readings. Urbana, 1960. P.585.

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zviad kviciani musikaluri kulturis sakiTxisaTvis antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi (arqeologiuri artefaqtebi) saqarTvelos musikaluri kulturis Sesaswavlad, werilobiTi wyaroebisa da musikaluri folkloris monacemebTan erTad, antikuri xanis sayuradRebo arqeologiuri Zeglebic aris aRmoCenili. am rigis monapovarTa Soris mniSvnelovania mcxeTis Zvlis salamuri _ Zv. w. XII-XI ss. (a. kalandaZe), ufliscixeli meqnaris Tixis qandakeba _ Zv. w. VIII-VII ss. (d. xaxutaiSvili 1964; 1973), stefanwmindis musikos-damkvrelis brinjaos qandakeba _ Zv. w. VII-VI ss. (p. uvarova 1900; 1950), vanis brinjaos sabeWdavi beWedi orluliani grZeli sakravis (aulosi) gamosaxulebiT _ Zv.w. IV-III ss. (a. Wyonia ­ 1986; 113) (d. xaxutaiSvili ­ 1964; 73) vanis panis qandakeba salamuriT _ Zv. w. II-I ss. xaiSis oqros saxlis _ ax. w. I s. (al. javaxiSvili ­ 1958; 154) da mcxeTis brinjaos _ ax. w. I s. musikosebi. 1959 wels sof. ufliscixidan dasavleTiT adgil `bambebSi~ Zv. w. VII-VI s-is namosaxlaris erT-erTi nagebobis iatakis qveS, im fenaSi, romelSic CaSvebulia Zv. w. IV saukunis samarxebi, aRmoCnda metad saintereso nivTi _ Tixis patara figura _ Cangze damkvrelis gamosaxulebiT (d. xaxutaiSvili ­ 1986; 54). meqnare gadmocemulia dakvris momentSi mjdomare pozaSi. mas niRabi ukeTia da CaCismagvari qudi xuravs. musikosis poza metad moxdenili da bunebrivia. is lega ­ moSavo Tixisagan aris gamoZerwili da Zv. w. VII-VI saukuneebs miakuTvneben (d. xaxutaiSvili ­ 1986; 54). ufliscixeli musikosis figuraze raRac kompoziciis nawili Cans, romelic samwuxarod dakargula. SesaZlebelia, rom igi marto musikosis figuras ki ar moicavda, aramed figuraTa jgufs warmoadgenda, romelic romeliRac warmarTul dResaswaulTan dakavSirebul scenas gadmoscemda (d. xaxutaiSvili ­ 1986; 95). msgavsi scenis amsaxvel ZeglTa Soris aRsaniSnavia 1871

da 1874 wlebSi aRmoCenili stefanwmindis ganZi (udidesi nawili daculia moskovis istoriis muzeumSi. ganZis nawili inaxeba saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi, mcire nawili gabneulia ucxoeTis sxvadasxva muzeumebSi). meore jgufs a. talgreni miakuTvnebs mcire plastikis im nimuSebs, romlebic gamosaxaven ara calkeul figurebs, aramed rTul kompoziciebs. a. talgrenma ganixila ra stefanwmindis ganZis antroporfuli qandakebebi dahyo isini xuT ZiriTad jgufad. aRniSnul ganZSi yuradRebas i pyrobs mcire plastikis namuSevrebi, romlebic warmoadgenen antrofomorful da zoomorful gamosaxulebebs, maTgan nawili ekuTvnis sakulto sagnebs, zogi ritonis samkaulebs warmoadgens. am jgufis mexuTe kompoziciisagan SemorCenilia mxolod erTi qandakeba, musikosdamkvrelisa, romelsac xelSi xuTZaliani sakravi _ Cangi (qnari) uWiravs (S. amariSvili, 1961; 47gv.). es figura am jgufis sxva figurebisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom mas Tavsaburavi aqvs. qnariani musikosis gamosaxuleba gamarjvebis zeimis aRsaniSnavad aris miCneuli (a. talgreni, a. afaqiZe). stefanwmindis ganZis aRwerili yvela kompozicia miZRvnilia brZolisa da gamarjvebis Temas da TariRdeba Zv.w. VII-VI saukuneebiT. vanis naqalaqaris Zv. w. IV-III ss. kulturuli fenidan momdinareobs brinjaos ori sabeWdi beWedi (daculia o.lorTqifaniZis saxelobis vanis arqeologiur muzeumSi). aqedan erTis Wrila farakze gamosaxulia lodze Camomjdari marsiasi, profilSi marjvniv, romelic ukravs orlulian grZel sakrav aulosze (a. Wyonia - 1986; 113). rogorc Cans ukve Zv. w. VII-VI saukuneebidan Tu ufro adre ara qarTuli musikaluri instrumentebis krebulSi mravalZaliani simebiani sakravebic iTvleboda, rac musikaluri kulturis sakmaod ganviTarebul dones gulisxmobs. musikosTa gamosaxulebebi sazeimo viTarebaSi gamosaxulia xaiSis ganZis I saukunis oqros sakidze _ koSkura saxlze (daculia saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi). xaiSis komplqsis oqros nivTTa Soris yvelaze metad TvalsaCino aris patara sakidi, romelic gamoxatavs irgvliv Zewkvebze Sekiduli

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mZivebiT morTul koSkura saxls orferda saxuravze dasmuli mtredebiT da win wamoweuli patara baqanze dayenebuli adamianis ori figuriT (wona 22,52 gr.). adamianTa figurebs qveda kidurebi sruliad ar gaaCniaT, xolo xelebi gakeTebulia erTi wvrili mavTulisagan, romelic ubralod aris gayrili mkerdis areSi CaCxvletil or naCvretSi. marcxena figuras, ubralod CaCxvletil pirSi Camagrebuli aqvs Zirs daSvebuli ori mokle grexili mavTuli; moxrili da gabrtyelebuli xelebi mimagrebulia am mavTulebis Sua welze. aSkarad Cans, rom aq gamoxatulia wyvillulian salamurze damkvreli adamiani. meore figuras marcxena xeli haerSi aqvs moxrili: aseve moxril marjvenaSi mas uWiravs Tavgamsxvilebuli mokle grexili mavTuli. sakravis xmaze mofrenili mtredebi koSkura saxlis orferda saxuravze mowyobilan da SeiZleba vifiqroT `tkbebian~ musikosis sakravis xmiT. sainteresoa 1938 wels mcxeTis arqeologiuri eqspediciis mier samTavros CrdiloeT ubanze aRmoCenili Zvlis salamuri, romelic damzadebulia gedis lulovani Zvlisagan. salamuris Tavi da bolo sworad wakveTilia, uenoa da aqvs 3 mcire naxvreti. saqarTveloSi dRemde moRweuli salamurebi ornairia: eniani da ueno (b. cxadaZe, 2008; 218 gv.). xaiSis I saukunis ganZi Seicavs iseT mxatvrul nawarms, romelic axasiaTebs adgilobriv oqromWedlobaSi mimdinare _ Zveli formebisa da axali formebis Serwymis _ process; amiT SeiZleba aixsnas provinciuli saxelosnos produqciaSi, rogoric aris xaiSis oqros samkaulebi, arqauli motivebisa da formebis mkafio gamovlineba. masalis qimiur-teqnologiurma Seswavlam saSualeba mogvca, maTi nedleulis savaraudo wyaro dagvedgina. amisTvis gamoviyeneT svaneTis teritoriaze mopovebuli qviSrobi sabadoebis xalasi oqros marcvlebis detaluri mikrozonduri kvleva. xalasi oqros marcvlebis qimiuri Sedgeniloba gansazRvruli iqna, rogorc marcvlis zedapirze, aseve gare Sreebsa da Sida ubnebSi. aseTive samuSaoebi Catarda svaneTis teritoriaze arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCenil

saiuveliro oqros nakeTobebzec (n. foforaZe; x. gaCeCilaZe; 2002). arqeologiuri liTonuri masalis (oqro) detalurma mikrorentgenospeqtralurma analizma da misma Sedarebam TviTnabadi oqros qimiur SedgenilobasTan mravali sagulisxmo faqti mogvca, aseTi saxiT damzadebul nakeTobebSi identuri mineraluri CanarTebi da qimiuri elementebis mikrokomponentebi iseTive raodenobiT, formiTa da ganawilebis TaviseburebebiTaa, rogorc TviTnabad oqroSi. svaneTis teritoriaze gamovlenili xalasi oqros qimiuri Sedgenilobis Sedarebam, svaneTis teritoriaze aRmoCenili oqros saiuveliro nakeTobebis qimiur SedgenilobasTan, saintereso Sedegi mogvca: rac ufro adreuli periodisaa oqros nakeToba, miT ufro naklebi xarisxiTaa gadamuSavebuli oqros nedleuli da is, praqtikulad, ise gamoiyeneboda, rogori saxiTac mas moi povebdnen. mxolod zogierT SemTxvevaSi, nakeTobis calkeuli detalis dasamzadeblad (romelzec garkveuli datvirTva modioda), mcire danamatis saxiT umatebdnen vercxls an spilenZs. `momReral-damkvreli~ ­ mesakrave Wabukis brinjaosagan Camosxmuli qandakeba aRmoCenilia 1951 wels mcxeTis mavzoleumis ti pis akldamaSi da ax. w. I-II ss. TariRdeba (g. lomTaTiZe, i. ciciSvili, 1991. #10), (daculia mcxeTis arqeologiur muzeumSi). es qandakeba mxolod welamdea gamoyvanili da Signidan Rrua, ase rom, raRac saganze iqneboda Tavis droze wamocmuli. Wabuks xuWuWa Tma da araadamianurad wawvetil-dagrZelebuli yurebi aqvs; xelebi ise uWiravs, TiTqos salamurs ukravso, xolo piri ise gauRia, TiTqos mReriso (g. lomTaTiZe, i. ciciSvili 1951). qarTuli xalxuri sakravebis ZiriTad funqcias warmoadgens simReris Tanxleba. wminda instrumentuli musika sacekvao JanriT aris warmodgenili. qarTuli sakravebis TanxlebiT, rogorc wesi sruldeboda erTxmiani simRerebi, mravalxmiani simRerebi ki _ uakompanimentod. es faqti gvaZlevs safuZvels, sakravebis gamoyeneba TanxlebisaTvis erTxmian kulturas davukavSiroT. qarTuli instrumentuli Tanxleba

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harmoniuli funqciis gamomxatvelia. qarTuli xalxuri sakravebis TanxlebiT Sesrulebuli simRerebis musikaluri ena ufro mdidaria, vidre instrumentuli hangebisa. es aixsneba qarTuli xalxuri vokaluri kulturis ganviTarebis Zlieri maRali doniT. ganviTarebulma vokalurma azrovnebam asaxva hpova sakravis TanxlebiT Sesasrulebel simReraSi (m. SilakaZe 1988; 15gv.). antikuri xanis qarTuli saxelovno kulturis maCvenebelia qsenofontes cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom mosinikebi `cekvas iwyebdnen, sadac ar unda yofiliyo, TiTqos sxvebisTvis unda eCvenebinaT TavianTi xelovneba~ (T. miqelaZe 1967). mosinikebis cekvisaTvis qsenofontes SeuniSnavs magiuri rokva, dakavSirebuli brZolaSi gamarjvebasTan. es cekva sruldeboda raRac simReris xmazeo, aRniSnavs qsenofonte (T. miqelaZe, 1967; 135gv.). `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ armazis sakulto dResaswaulis aRwerisas naxsenebia `xma oxrisa da sayvirisa... zari saSineli...~ (qarTlis cxovreba, I, 1955; 88gv.). antikur samyaroSi, maT Soris saqarTveloSic popularuli da gavrcelebuli yofila musikaluri instrumenti winwila (flavius ariane). igi Sedgeba TiTberis an sxva liTonisagan damzadebuli ori TefSisagan, romelnic erTmaneTze SemokvriT gamoscemdnen musikalur melodias. werilobiTi wyaroebic da arqeologiuri masalebic adastureben saqarTveloSi winwilis, rogorc `erTimeoris SemokvriT saJRereli~ musikaluri instrumentis arsebobas. rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva arqeologiur Zeglebze dafiqsirebulia antikuri winwilebis aRmoCenis 15-ze meti SemTxveva. mag. saCxereSi modinaxes arqeologiur gaTxrebs ax. w. IV s. samarxebSi aRmoCenili (j. nadiraZe, 975; 71gv.), kaxeTSi, Jinvalis naqalaqaris antikuri xanis meomarTa samarxebSi (v. CixlaZe, 1999; 134gv.), aragvis xeobaSi wifnarisZiris samarovanze (III-IV ss.), neZixis samarovanze (III-IV ss.), mcxeTaSi armazcixeze, gvianantikuri xanis sataZro kompleqsSi (II-III ss.), dedoflis goraze (ax. w. I s.), sof. didRvabunaSi uqimeronis cixis mimdebare teritoriaze ax. w. III-IV ss. instrumentebi yvelgan wyviladaa aRmoCenili,

rac miuTiTebs imaze, rom Sewyvilebuli saxiT ixmareboda. mokled, warmarTuli galobac da sayviric dadasturebulia antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi (sin. I Tb. 1970; 778gv.). antikur xanaSi qarTvel tomTa Soris saero musika, mag. samxedro da sacekvao simRerebi, Zalian gavrcelebuli yofila. Wanebis tomebi omsac ki, Turme, saomari simRera-cekviT iwyebdnen. ueWvelia saero musika aseve danarCen qarTvel tomebsac unda hqonodaT da hqoniaT kidevac. es cxadad mtkicdeba Tundac dRevandlamde daculi ara erTi warmarTuli xalxuri simReriT, romelTa hangebica da sityvebic uxsovari drois anarekls Seicavs (iv. javaxiSvili). antikuri xanis mocekvave figurebi aRmoCenilia saqarTvelos arqeologiur masalebze: samadlos Zv. w. IV-III ss. keramikuli moxatuli WurWeli, sof. niCbisis Zv. w. VIII s.Aarqeologiur-ritualuri Sinaarsis (saferxulo msvleloba) brinjaos sartyeli, brinjaos iTifaluri qandakebebi _ aRmoCenili stefanwmindaSi, zekarSi, xevsureTsa da daRestanSi (S. amiranaSvili, 1944; 72gv.). stefanwmindaSi aRmoCenil ganZSi yuradRebas i pyrobs mamakacis mcire zomis xuTi figura, romelTac, rogorc Cans erTidaigive daniSnuleba hqoniaT da erT mxatvrul wres ekuTvnoda. am figurebs aqvT rgolebi, romlis saSualebiTac isini SeerTebulni arian brinjaos ZewkviT. yvela SiSvelia, mxolod welze, garda erTisa, Semokruli aqvT SesamCnevi sartyeli. 1913 wels sof. zekarSi (baRdadis r-ni) napovnia SiSveli mamakacis gamosaxuleba TvalsaCinod gamosaxuli sqesobrivi niSnebiT (S. amiranaSvili. Tb. 1944 t. I. 69-70gv.). am figuris simaRlea 24 sm. s. makalaTias azriT, qandakebas sxeuli qalisa aqvs, sqesobrivi niSnebi ki mamakacis. Tavis daskvnas s. makalaTia imaze amyarebs, rom qandakebas saxeze ulvaSi aqvs, weli wvrili, grZeli Tma kiserze aqvs damagrebuli (s.makalaTia, 1926; 127gv.). Cven ar viziarebT winamdebare versias da veTanxmebiT S. amiranaSvilis naTqvams, rom gulmkerdis forma am figuras qaluri ara aqvs, rom grZeli

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Tmebi mamakacis figurebze gvxvdeba ara marto qarTul, aramed xeTur da sxva Zeglebze, sadac es Cveulebrivi ambavia. orive win gamowvdili xeli moRunulia, muStebSi mokumSuli, kiserze da xelebis zemo nawilze gamoyvanilia gravirebuli morTuloba, figura kvarcxlbekze dgas. mas arc fexsacmeli acvia, arc Tavsaburavi aqvs da arc sartyeli. qarTuli warmarTobis xanis Zveli religiur wesCveulebebis Seswavla arkvevs im brinjaos figurebis semantikas, romlebisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia moZravi poza, mkafiod gamoxatuli iTifaloba da romelime cxovelis atributi. yvela zemoT aRniSnuli qandakebebis pozebi mkveTrad gamoxatul moZraobas gadmoscemen. zogierTi maTgani aSkarad mocekvave figuris STabeWdilebas tovebs. marTlac, Tu davakvirdebiT maTi xelebisa da fexebis mdgomareobas, gansakuTrebiT ki or urTierTxelCakidebuli mamakacis figuras, sruliad cxadi gaxdeba, rom Cven saqme gvaqvs jgufuri cekvis `ferxulis~ gamosaxulebasTan (i. maqacaria, 1998; 53gv.). yovelive zemoT aRniSnuli gvaZlevs imis safuZvels, rom antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi musikaluri kulturis maRali done warmovidginoT da mravalxmiani qarTuli xalxuri simRerebis, cekvisa da musikaluri instrumentebis arseboba da farTod gavrceleba vivaraudoT. ufro metic, ufliscixeli musikosis morTuloba (tansacmeli, niRabi, Tavsamkauli), stefanwmindis Zv. w. VI-V ss.-is (. , 1900), vanis (d.janeliZe - 1948; 25) da urekis (a. afaqiZe, 1947; 105gv.) Wiqura mZivsakidebi e. w. Maskenperlen anu Teatraluri niRbebi da ufliscixis Teatris nageboba gvafiqrebinebs, rom am dros sakmaod ganviTarebuli yofila ara marto musikaluri kultura, aramed samsaxiobo xelovnebac. L 1. `qarTlis cxovreba~, I. 1955. 2. T. miqelaZe ­ qsenofontes `anabasisi~ (cnobebi qarTveli tomebis Sesaxeb) Tbilisi. 1967. 3. S. amiranaSvili, qarTuli xelovnebis istoria, Tbilisi,

1944, t. I. 4. S. amiranaSvili, qarTuli xelovnebis istoria, Tbilisi, 1961. 5. a. afaqiZe, gvianantikuri xanis arqeologiuri Zeglebi urekidan, saqarTvelos muzeumis moambe XIV, 1947. 6. g. lomTaTiZe, saqarTvelos mosaxleobis socialuri da kulturuli daxasiaTebisaTvis; ax. w. I-III s-Si. Tbilisi, 1955. 7. g. lomTaTiZe, i. ciciSvili, axalaRmoCenili akldama mcxeTaSi, saq. mecn. akademiis moambe, 1951, #10. 8. s. makalaTia, falosis kulti saqarTveloSi, mimomxilveli, t I. Tbilisi, 1926. 9. i. maqacaria, uZvelesi qarTuli qoreografiuli nimuSebi (arqeologiuri masalebis mixedviT) Tsu, krebuli: `kulturis, istoriis sakiTxebi~. t V, 1998. 10. m. SilakaZe, qarTuli xalxuri musikaluri tradiciebi da Tanamedroveoba. tradicia da Tanamedroveoba, Tbilisi, 1988. 11. d. janeliZe, qarTuli Teatris xalxuri sawyisebi, I, Tbilisi, 1948. 12. al. javaxiSvili, xaiSis ganZi, Jurn. `mnaTobi~, #3, 1958. 13. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. t., I, 1970. 14. d. xaxutaiSvili. ufliscixe I, Tbilisi, 1964. 15. a. Wyonia, arqeologiuri gaTxrebi vanis naqalaqaris centralur terasaze. vani, t. VIII, Tbilisi, 1986. 16. i. maqacaria, RmerTebis `didi dedis~ kulti saqarTveloSi. kulturis istoriis sakiTxebi, t. VIII. 2000. 17. j. nadiraZe, yvirilis xeobis arqeologiuri Zeglebi, Tbilisi, 1975. 18. v. CixlaZe, qarTuli xalxuri musikaluri sakravebi, 1999. 19. b. cxadaZe, dudukisa da salamuris warmoebisaTvis. SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis samecniero Sromebis krebuli `saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani~, 1,(34), Tbilisi, 2008. 20. d. alaviZe, qarTuli da saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli

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xalxuri musikaluri sakravebi, Tbilisi, 1978. 21. . . , VIII, 5 1900. 22. .. -, , I. , 1936. 23. A. Tallgren, Kaukasische antropomorphische Figuren und der Volderasiatische Kulturkreis, IPEK. Berlin, 1930 z. 7. 24. A. Tallgren. Caucasisian monuments, The Kasbek Treasure, ESA V. Helsinki, 1930, p. 109-182.

universitetis samagistro programa

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Teona esitaSvili K kinomon strebi ,,me vebrZvi monstrs, vin gaimarjvebs?~ SiSi......panika... isteria......SeuZlebelia, am gancdas gverdi auaro maSin, roca uzarmazari sasaxlis kari bnel gvirabSi gityuebs, iq ki `gurmani~ vampirebi gelodebian. arc maSin gaqvs saxarbielod saqme, Tu fsiqiatriulis viwro kedlebSi kacis xma sam dReSi sikvdils giwinaswarmetyvelebs, uxeSi nabijebi giaxlovdeba da Senc garbixar....ra xdeba maSin, roca Rrmad CaZinebuls `biZia fredi~ nacnob xels `mogicacunebs~, ukan mibrunebuli ki aRmoaCen, rom marto xar. ai, ukve misi ironiuli sicilic gesmis, grZnob, rogor giaxlovdeba, Tumca dilis rva saaTic Sesrulda, maRviZara iwyebs Tavisi funqciis Sesrulebas da Sen aRmoaCen, rom moCvenebaTa samyarodan sul axlaxans dabrundi....Janri _ hororia, Cveni gmirebi ki amoucnobi adamianebi, zeciuri Zalebi, SeSlili mecnierebi, vampirebi, moCvenebebi, demonebi, zombebi...da aq cota xniT SevCerdeT. horori saTaves kinos Seqmnis pirvelive wlebidan iRebs da mimarTulia imisken, rom mayurebelSi mRelvareba gamoiwvios. misi TviTmizani SiSia, romelsac yovelTvis efeqturad iyenebdnen dasavleTis kinematografistebi. `1000 funti girvanqa sterlingi mas, vinc SiSiT mokvdeba!~ 1 _ amgvarad uwevdnen reklamas zogierT saSinelebaTa films 40-iani wlebis inglisSi. Zalian cota films Tu gamovyofdiT, romelsac SeiZleba raime konkretuli mizani hqondes, mTavari mainc xalxSi SiSis gamowvevaa. da mainc, ratom midis mayurebeli saSinelebaTa filmis sanaxavad kinoSi. albaT, imitom, rom iq mas safrTxe ar elis da Tan karg ,,uJassac~ Caatans gemos. yvelafris miuxedavad, am Janris filmebs yovelTvis didi auditoria hyavda. zogisTvis is mxolod gasarTobia, bevrisTvis, albaT kargi kino. zogic amiT Tavs

`Tanamedrove kinoTeoriebi da kriticizmi~

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT. statiebis stli daculia. programis xelmZRvaneli - manana lekboraSvili

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aiZulebs, SiSi daZlios an ubralod ,,mazoxistia~. devid kronenbergi ki sakuTar versias gvTavazobs. misi azriT: `hororis safuZveli imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Cven ar viciT, rogor movkvdebiT.~2 saSinelebaTa filmi eqspresionistulma kinom warmoSva. eqspresionizmi, rogorc mimarTuleba, Caisaxa XX saukunis dasawyisSi, is iyo protestis xelovneba, burJuaziis, sisastikis, omis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli. axali damTavrebuli iyo pirveli msoflio omi, SiSis atmosferos gamoxatvis saSualeba ki xelovnebis dargebidan yvelaze metad kinematografs hqonda. swored xalxSi gaCenilma SiSma da meryeobam ganapiroba kinoSi hororis damkvidreba. es iyo goTikuri stilis filmebi, romlebic unda gadaRebuliyo did sasaxleebSi, bnel adgilebSi, sadac mayurebels SiSi daeufleboda, am yvelafers ki safuZvlad daedo rogorc realuri istoriebi, ise xalxuri zRaprebi eSmakebze da jadoqrebze, miTebi, cnobili melodramebi... mogvianebiT germanelma reJisorebma mosinjes demonebisa da borotebis amoucnobi samyaro. mayurebeli ekranze xvdeboda irealur zebunebriv garemoSi, romelSic iyo sasaflaoebi, vampirebi, monstrebi, urCxulebi, satanuri Zalebis mqone eSmakeuli adamianebi. germanuli saSinelebaTa filmebi popularobiT sargeblobda amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. maTac hqondaT patara eqsperimenti, erTnawiliani filmi frankenSteinze, romelic 1910 wels gadaiRo edisonis kompaniam. miuxedavad imisa, rom es Janri 1930 wlamde auTvisebeli iyo amerikuli kinematografisTvis, eqsperimenti arc Tu ise cudi gamovida, ufro metic, Seiqmna monstris sakmaod saSiSi saxe. es iyo ConCxi, romelic unda gaecocxlebina eqim frankenSteins. mayurebeli ekranze xedavda, rogor isxamda xorcs adamianis Zvlebi da TandaTan Tmagawewil demons emsgavseboda, aq iyo SiSis gamowvevis Zalian kargi mcdeloba. kinomonstrebis aqtualoba ganapiroba 1931 wels gamosulma ,,frankenSteinma~, romelic eyrdnoboda ingliseli mwerali

qalis, meri Selis amave saxelwodebis romans. `frankenSteini~ iTvleba ti piuri goTikuri Janris nawarmoebad. filmis reJisorma jeims veilma, monstris rolSi niWieri msaxiobi boris karlofi (Carlz edvard prati) warmogvidgina, romelic dialogis gareSe qmnis tragikul saxes, misi naRvliani da gawamebuli Tvalebi ki mayurebelSi SiSTan erTad simpaTiasac iwvevs. saSinelebaTa filmis istoriaSi pirvelad iqmneba gmiris saxasiaTo saxe. personaJi erTbaSad saSiSicaa da sayvarelic. is cdilobs dauaxlovdes adamianebs, Tumca adamianebi gaurbian mas. gavixsenoT yvelasagan devnili adamianis da patara gogonas TamaSis epizodi: isini mdinareSi gvirilebs yrian da rodesac monstrs yvavili gauTavdeba, wyalSi gogonas Caagdebs. mas hgonia, rom es swori saqcielia, Tumca bavSvi daixrCoba da es ukanasknelic maleve mixvdeba, rom daaSava. vxedavT mis Sewuxebul saxes _ gaCnda emocia. miuxedavad amisa mayureblis simpaTia gmiris mimarT ki ar neldeba, aramed, piriqiT, Cndeba misdami sibralulis grZnoba, gansxvavebiT pirvelwyarosgan. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, filmis siuJeti sagrZnoblad daSorebulia pirvelwyaros. literaturul wyaroSi frankenSteinis mier gacocxlebuli demoni Segnebulad akeTebs yvelafers, borotia. meri Seli, wignis winasityvaobaSi wers: ,,me vlaparakobdi saidumloebiT moculi adamianis bunebasa da arsze da Tan mindoda gamomeRviZebina mkiTxvelSi saSineli warmosaxvebi~. 3 rac Seexeba e. w ,,SiSis xelovnebas~, reJisori filmis pirvelive kadridan cdilobs mayureblis emociebis marTvas: iyenebs xmovan efeqtebs _ saqmeSi aqtiurad erTveba Weqaquxili, qariSxali, wvima, ismis Semzaravi gruxunis xma da qviT naSenebi uzarmazari, civi cixesimagrec naTdeba. es is adgilia, sadac eqimi frankenSteini drois umetes nawils atarebs. yvelaze STambeWdavi ki, albaT, ekranze monstris pirveli gamoCenaa. es aris didi tanis, tlanqad mosiarule arseba _ sakmaod saxasiaTo personaJi, romelic mayurebels gulgrils ver tovebs. swored am filmma daudo saTave

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kinomonstrebi

kinomonstrebis serias, romlebic Semdgom didi warmatebiT ganviTarda masobriv kulturaSi. boris karlofis gmiri oTxi wlis Semdeg kvlav gvaxsenebs Tavs filmSi ,,frankenSteinis sacole~, romelic 1935 wels gadaiRo jeims veilma. kinosuraTSi naCvenebia, rogor gadarCa ,,mokluli" monstri. iwyeba meore eqsperimentisTvis mzadeba da frankenSteinis misia axla ukve qali monstris Seqmnaa, romelmac partnioroba unda gauwios boris karlofis gmirs, sanacvlod frankenSteinsa da mis ojaxs Tavs daanebebs. aq ukve monstri warmodgenilia saSiS da mavne arsebad, romelic gauTaveblad daZrwis da yvelafers anadgurebs. cdilobs daZlios martooba, gamosavali ki erTaderTia _ megobari, romelic uTanagrZnobs da daemsgavseba mas. es versia 1931 wlis suraTisgan gansxvavebiT, Zalian miuaxlovda literaturul pirvelwyaros. ,, fr a nkenS tei nis ~ Tema Za li a n a qtu al u ri iy o kinoxelovnebaSi ,,SiSis teqnologiis" TvalsazrisiT. eqimi frankenSteini tvinis Teoriaze dayrdnobiT amtkicebs, rom SeuZlia akontrolos rogorc Cveulebrivi adamianis, aseve monstrebisa da zombebis emociebi. gavisxenoT jorj romeros cnobili filmi zombebze ,,mkvdrebis dRe~ (1985), sadac profesori erT-erT zombs azrovnebas aswavlis, cdilobs miaxvedros, ra sagans ra daniSnuleba aqvs da amiT amtkicebs, rom zombsac SeuZlia sixarulis da mwuxarebis gamoxatva. sagulisxmoa, rom amis Semdeg uamravi Tanamedrove frankenSteini moevlina qveyanas. magaliTad, kenet branas ,,meri Selis frankenSteini" (1994), monstris rolSi robert de niro, romelic arc Tu ise gansxvavdeba karlofis gmirisgan. Tumca, rac yvelaze metad aSorebT erTmaneTisgan, maTive statusia _ mayureblis damokidebuleba. is stereoti pi, rom monstri, garda SiSisa, adamianis simpaTiasa da siyvarulsac imsaxurebs, male imsxvreva da de niros gmiric ufro agresias iwvevs mayureblSi, vidre mowonebas. sayuradReboa agreTve kevin konoris ,,frankenSteini~ (2004). am filmze Zalian bevri ram SeiZleba iTqvas.

sanaxaobrivi TvalsazrisiT filmi kargi gamovida, gansakuTrebiT gamovarCev siuJetis dramaturgiul wyobas, rasac ver vityviT samsaxiobo ostatobaze. zogadad aradamajerebelia msaxiobTa TamaSi da kidev ufro cudi monstris saxe. filmSi yvelaferi zedapirulia, TviT demonic ki. reJisoris Canafiqri, eCvenebina yvelasagan devnili adamiani, romelic siyvaruls eZebs da imavdroulad SeeSinebina mayurebeli, kraxiT damTavrda. man Seqmna personaJi, romelic demonad ki ara sacodav arsebad warmogvidgina, monstri, romelic Cveulebrivi adamianiviT dadis da laparakobs, tiris, ganicdis, magram misi saxe iseTi umetyvelo da yalbia, rom Znelia Segebralos an Tundac SegeSindes. gaucxoveba, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi aseT gmirebTan gardauvalia xolme, am filmSi faqtobrivad _ arc arsebobs. erTaderTi, rac monstrs ganasxvavebs danarCenebisgan, ucnauri samosia. Sesabamisad, is arc SiSs iwvevs mayurebelSi, rasac ver vityviT li skotis ,,frankenSteinis dabrunebaze~ (2005). aq SiSis faqtori ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre gmiris gancdebi, survilebi. Cven winaSea saSiSi demoni, romelic Segnebulad Cadis mkvlelobas, borotebas. Tavad midis msxverplis mosaklavad, romelic unda gaacocxlos profesorma frankenSteinma da gaxados misi megobari. vxedavT, rogor ixocebian adamianebi. Tumca es yvelaferi iseTi bunebrivi xdeba, rom mayurebelSi protestis grZnobas aRar iwvevs da egueba mas. es aris ,,neofrankenSteinebis~ seriis bolo suraTi, sadac monstris saxe yvelaze metad uaxlovdeba reJisoris Canafiqrs, SeaSinos mayurebeli da marTos misi emociebi. Tumca films amis garda sxva Rirebuleba ar gaaCnia. cudia Tu kargi, faqtia, rom Tanamedrove fsevdogmirebma mTlianad daangries nawarmoebis mTavari arsi da sazogadoebaSi `dartymuli mecnieris~ mier Seqmnili sabralo msxverpli, saSineli monstris saxeliT sargeblobs. es iyo msxverpli adamianis gulgrilobisa, monstri, romelic eZebda siyvaruls da dRes am uazro ,,neofrankenSteinebiT~ guls vtkenT mas. msxverpli,

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romelic monstrad Tavad adamianma aqcia da mis mimarT SiSi TviTonve daiwyo. da mainc, hororis ZiriTadi amocanaa gadalaxos, daamsxvrios sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis wesiT agebuli jebirebi da masSi damaluli SiSi gaaTavisuflos; aiZulos mayurebeli, daanaxos is, risi danaxvac ar SeeZlo wina wuTebSi; mxolod am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba SiSis esTetikuri gancda. Tu adre mayurebels saSinelebaTa filmebi xiblavda Tavisi daZabulobiT, Tematuri mravalferovnebiT, vampirebiT, monstrebiT, zombebiT da alqajebiT, romlebic sasaflaoebze daZrwian, dRes ukve aqtiurad SeiniSneba SiSis xelovnebis cvalebadoba. teqnologiurma miRwevebma aaRorZina apokalifsuri filmebi, dawyebuli klonirebidan maniakebisa da mkvlelebis Camoyalibebamde. hororma uaryo Tavisi poetika, mayurebelTan urTierTobis birTvi gaxda uecari Soki da horori iqca e. w. `boevikis~ Tanasworad, sadac unda iyos saspensi.

Tamar TargamaZe

Trileri da SiSis teqnologia

`civilizaciam wagvarTva uSualo reaqciebis unari.Ggaxevebuli mdgomareobidan gaTavisufleba da sulieri wonasworobis aRgena mxolod Sokis zRv ar ze moq medi xelov nu ri xerxebi Ta a SesaZlebeli. kino saukeTeso saSualebaa am miznis misaRwevad~. Aalfred hiCkoki.

1. i. maxaraZe. saSinelebaTa filmebi _ ,,axali filmebi~, Tbilisi, 1990, 3, gv. 18-23. 2. . . - ` ", , 2001, 11, . 98-107. 3. i. maxaraZe. Ddasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 18-23.

adamianebi ufro xSirad imisTvisac dadian kinoSi, raTa ganicadon is grZnobebi, romelsac Cveulebriv moklebulni arian realur cxovrebaSi. `saspensi saSinelebaa~ ambobs oskar uaildis erTerTi personaJi, _ `magram me imedi maqvs, rom is gagrZeldeba~.1 es paradoqsuli SegrZneba nacnobia yvela kinomoyvarulisTvis, miT umetes, saspensis udidesi ostatis alfred hiCkokis moyvarulTaTvis. ratom xdeba, rom `gveSinia~ SiSis da mainc siamovnebas gvaniWebs misi gancda (miT umetes, TuU is realur fizikur safrTxes ar ukavSirdeba)? Tavad hiCkoki fiqrobda, rom es jer kidev dedis mklavebidan iwyeba, roca deda bavSvs aSinebs: `buu!~. bavSvi jer SeSinebulia, Semdeg ki kmayofilebiT icinis. Trileri, rogorc termini, 40-50-ian wlebSi gaCnda. igi SeiZleba iyos deteqtivi, socialuri an fsiqologiuri drama, upirveles yovlisa ki _ saSinelebaTa filmi. klasikuri Trileris didi ostati, ingliseli reJisoriAalfred hiCkoki ambobda: `adamianSi misgan damoukideblad imaleba potenciuri mkvleli, msxverpli da maniaki.~ aqedan gamomdinare reJisoris mizani iyo, maqsimaluri adrenalinis gamoyofis saSualebiT mayureblisTvis daenaxvebina es potenciuri `rolebi~. Trilers, rogorc damoukidebel Janrs, Znelad Tu gamoyof iseTi Janrebisgan, rogorebicaa: deteqtivi da saSinelebaTa

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Trileri da SiSis teqnologia

filmi, radgan is am Janrebis erT-erTi arsebiTi Semadgenelia, magram am SemTxvevebSi Trileri emsaxureba raRac sxva mizans, xolo maSin, roca filmis erTaderTi mizani mayurebelSi daZabuli molodinis da SiSis Jruantelis gamowvevaa, albaT, SegviZlia vilaparakoT Trilerze, rogorc Janrze. dReisTvis Trileri erT-erTi popularuli Janria. teqnikis ganviTarebam adamianis moTxovnilebis gazrda da daxvewa gamoiwvia, swored aqedan gamomdinare Trileri erTaderTi Janria im JanrTa Soris, romlis amocnoba ver SeZlo mayurebelma. mudmivi daZabuloba, SiSis molodiniT mijaWvuloba kinoekranTan ufro sainteresos da amoucnobs xdis am Janrs. klasikuri Trileris `mamad~ wodebuli alfred hiCkoki uamravi saidumlo xerxis avtoria am JanrSi, maT Soris aris Soki da saspensi. saspensi danaSaulis molodinis gamZafrebaSi mdgomareobs. am dros mayurebeli iseve ganicdis mTavari gmiris Tavgadasavals, TiTqos igi Tavad iyos filmis gmiri. hiCkokis filmebi gajerebulia aseTi SegrZnebebiT, swored amitom uwodes inglisel reJisors Trileris didi ostati. saspensis Sesaqmnelad hiCkoki sxvadasxva xerxs iyenebs maT Soris aris: msxvili xedi, montaJis Taviseburi xerxebi, aseve specifikuri musika, romelic mTel films gasdevs gansazRvruli drois ganmavlobaSi. Trileris saidumlo sworad gaTvlil drosa da sworad dasmul maxvilebSi mdgomareobs: Tu ar aris gansazRvruli zusti dro, rodis unda moxdes siuJetis daZabva, SeuZlebelia mayureblis damorCileba. bombi, romelic SeiZleba moulodnelad afeTqdes filmis msvlelobis dros, mayurebelSi Soks gamoiwvevs; xolo Tu mayurebelma icis, rom bombi sadRac mTavari gmiris maxloblad aris damontaJebuli da yovel wuTs elodeba mis afeTqebas, swored am dros xdeba mayureblis ekranTan mijaWva da igi ukve siuJetze damokidebuli xdeba. `Trileris dros aucilebelia, mayurebelma kargad icodes filmis siuJeti, radgan saspensi maTze am dros kargad moqmedebs~ _ ambobs hiCkoki. ingliseli reJisoris TiTqmis yvela filmSi arsebobs saidumlo, romlis a m o c n o b a m ay u r e b e l s x a n d a x a n u W i rs . s w o r e d a m sa idu mlo Si a r eJi sor is ga saR ebi da am g asa Reb iT

mayureblis nebismier kategoriaze SeuZlia moergos. filmi `Toki~2 erT-erTi TvalsaCino magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor unda imoqmedo mayurebelze, ise, rom igi daZabo, SeaSino da amave dros filmis erT-erT monawiled gaxado. danaSauli, romelic Cadenilia ubralo adamianuri sisustis dasafarad da imaSi dasarwmuneblad, rom `zeadamians~ mkvlelobis Cadenac xelewifeba da marTlmsajulebaze Tavis aridebac, danaSauli arasodes gamJRavndeba, maSinac ki, roca gvami saaSkaraod gamosaCen adgilas aris damaluli. es aris filmis ZiriTadi RerZi, romlis garSemoc trialeben personaJebi. filmis dasawyisSive ori axalgazrda mamakaci klavs saerTo megobars da gvams sastumro oTaxSi moTavsebul skivrSi malavs. cota xnis Semdeg am skivrze Slian sufras da stumrad moklulis Seyvarebuls, mSoblebs, axloblebs patiJeben wveulebaze. hiCkokis saidumlo imaSi mdgomareobs, rom kamera skivris pirdapir, frontalurad aris damontaJebuli da mayurebels survili uCndeba, miwveul stumrebs Tavad miuTiTos gvamis adgilsamyofeli. sruliad ucnaur viTarebaSi ramdenjerme Cndeba mkvlelobis iaraRi _ Toki, romelic aseve moqmedebs mayurebelze da Cndeba daZabuli molodinis gancda, rom danaSauls sacaa, farda aexdeba. TiTqos umniSvnelo da xSirad ironiuli dialogebiT gajerebuli epizodebi ar gaZlevs gamoTiSvis saSualebas, radgan swored masSia miniSnebuli Tavsatexis gasaRebi da swored am dialogebiT mixvdeba erT-erTi stumari, maTi yofili aRmzrdeli, rom mkvleloba Cadenilia maspinZlebis mier da metic, rom gvami damalulia swored im skivrSi, razec igi cota xnis win vaxSmobda. xelovnurad Seqmnili garemo ferad filmSi Sav-TeTri filmis gmirad gagrZnobinebs Tavs, rac ufro damajerebels xdis yvela im emocias, romelic yurebis dros giCndeba. `Tokis~ msgavsad Trileris saukeTeso nimuSebad SeiZleba miviCnioT `fsiqo~, `Citebi~ da `Tavbrusxveva~. `Citebisgan~ gansxvavebiT zemoT CamoTvlil filmebs aerTianebs adamianuri cduneba da fulisadmi swrafva, Tumca mTavari mainc deteqtiuri elferia, romelic mudam mzadyofnis refleqss aRviZebs. `CitebSi~ konkretuli danaSauli raRac iracionaluri kanonebis mixedviT

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warmoiSoba da Zlierdeba, saSiSroebis neli, gardauvali zrda _ SfoTva, SiSi,Eelda. rogorc hiCkokis sxva filmebSi aqac saspensi Tavis saqmes ubadlod akeTebs. musikis nacvlad am filmSi gamoyenebulia Citebis xmebi da sxvadasxva xmauri. amiT reJisorma ufro damajerebeli da realuri gaxada is sisastike, rac ekranze gvaCvena. es yvelaferi saSualebas gvaZlevs am kinosuraTs erTerTi saukeTeso namuSevari vuwodoT Trileris istoriaSi. am Janris popularoba misma aradamrigeblurma da aramqadegeblurma siuJetma gamoiwvia. TrilerisTvis ar aris mTavari, mayurebels miawodos moraluri recepti, swored es ubraloeba xdis mas saidumloebiT mocul Janrad. is cdunebani, romlebiTac Zalian xSirad iwyeba Trileris Janris filmebi, sakmaod miamiturad gamoiyureba, magram sakmarisia, personaJma cali fexi mainc gayos misTvis dagebul maxeSi, rom mTlianad intrigis qveS eqceva da ukve Tavad ki ar marTavs situacias, aramed mTlianad am situaciisagan xdeba damokidebuli. yvelaferi martivad xdeba: uboroto tyuils Tan mosdevs sxva didi tyuili; patara SantaJis, TiTqmis flirtisa da TamaSis irgvliv TandaTan izrdeba da Zlierdeba mkvlelobebis, devnis, SiSis sulisSemxuTveli atmosfero. es sakmaod mZime Sromaa, romelic did moTminebas da logikur Tanamimdevrobas moiTxovs. kinematografi erT-erTi iaraRia, mayurebels aacilo is safrTxe, romelic misgan damoukideblad arsebobs, xolo Janri enaa, romliTac saSualeba gaqvs, maT esaubro. Seqspiri sasjels codvaSi xedavs, codva danaSaulia, danaSauli ki Trileris mTavari RerZia. hiCkoki erTaderTi reJisoria, romelsac SeuZlia, xiluli gaxados erTi an ramdenime personaJis azrebi ise, rom dialogs ar mimarTos ufro metic, mas SeuZlia publikis yuradRebis dapyroba da ekranze misi sruli koncentrireba ise, rom yvela da yvelaferi daaviwyos.

Mmariam manjgalaZe mozardis reprezentacia Tanamedrove amerikul kinematografSi (eri pozinis filmis `Camskraberi~ magaliTze)

rTulia, kerZo SemTxvevebze Tu situaciebze dayrdnobiT ganazogado Seqmnili problemebi, magram mozardis asakobrivi kvleva sakmao xania xelovnebis Tu mecnierebis Seswavlis sagania, amitom araerTi analitikuri Tu SemoqmedebiTi masala arsebobs am universalur TemasTan dakavSirebiT.Ddasaxelebulia problemebi, maTi warmoqmnis SesaZlo versiebi da am problemaTa aRmofxvris an Sesustebis saSualebebi. magram gamotanili daskvnebi didi veraferi SeRavaTia ufrosi Taobis warmomadgenelTaTvis da arc Tavad axalgazrdebisTvis gamxdara sasikeTo cvlilebebis dasawyisi. SeiZleba iTqvas, problema mecnieruli miRwevebis da civilizaciis ganviTarebis paralelurad met simZafres iZens.Mmisi kompleqsuri bunebidan gamomdinare Seqmnili garTulebebi SeiZleba uamrav garemoebasTan davakavSiroT.Mmizezebis aRwera afasebs damdgar realobas da Semdeg yvelafer amis sababs arkvevs. mozardis aRqma da damokidebuleba gare samyarosTan kvlevisTvis sakmao d rTuli feno m enia.Aaq o ri urTierTsapirispiro mimarTeba: `msxverpli~ da `damnaSave~ xSirad SegviZlia erT epiTetSi gavaerTianoT. siRrmidan wamosuli energia da emociebi yovel jerze Taviseburadaa gamovlenili. individi Tavad irCevs gamoxatulebis formas da xasiaTs. ZiriTadad simptomebi aris agresia, narkomania, depresia, SiSebi, kompleqsebi da kidev bevri niSani, rac garkveul fsiqikur aSlilobaze miuTiTebs.Ees zogjer SeniRbulia, dafarulia gareSe TvalisTvis, zogjer ki aSkaraa da safrTxes warmoadgens garSemo myofTaTvis. narkotiki moCvenebiTi Tavisuflebis da komfortis misaRwevad yvelaze cnobili da ioli gzaa.Ees droebiTi gamosavali mis momxmarebelTa umarTavi moqmedebebisTvis erTgvari stimulia. arsebobs mosazreba, rom pirovnebis Camoyalibebas misi sxvebTan urTierTobebi gansazRvravs. ras vifiqrebT sakuTar Tavze damokidebulia imaze, Tu ras fiqrobdnen Cven Sesaxeb

1. ix.: Oscar Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest. (1895) 2. `Toki~. 1948. reJ., alfred hiCkoki

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reprezentacia Tanamedrove amerikul kinematografSi

Cveni pirovnebis formirebis wlebSi.Mmozardis socialur situaciebSi gamovlenili winaaRmdegobebi realur mdgomareobasa da mis idealizebul warmodgenebs Soris arsebul Seusabamobasac SeiZleba davukavSiroT. sakuTari `meobis~ dasadgenad maT cxovrebis sazrisis swori gageba sWirdebaT. sxvagvarad grZnobebis gauxeSeba xdeba da sasiamovno gancdebis xelovnurad gamowvevis survili viTardeba. dRes ukve amerikuli, da aramarto amerikuli, kino aseve seriozulad svams mozardebis mier antidepresanti saSualebebis xSiri gamoyenebis problemasac.Uukve TiTqos erT plastSi ganixileba mravali saxis narkotikuli Tu antidepresiuli nivTierebis mavne zemoqmedeba. moSvebuli, gaRizianebuli an agresiuli mozardebisaTvis ufrosebi am kategoriis saSualebebs mimarTaven, calkeuli rTuli SemTxvevis dros naklebad iTvaliswineben asakobriv midrekilebebs da individis gansxvavebul unarebs. Sedegma aCvena, rom es `harmoniulobis~ garanti nivTierebebi arcTu ise usafrTxoa, rogorc amas sareklamo diskursi gvawvdis. kino amgvar problemaTa reprezentacias sxvadasxvagvari realobis warmodgeniT axdens. zedapirulad iTvaliswinebs yvela jgufis, klasis identurobas da kulturuli Tu sazogadoebrivi gavlenebidan gamomdinare, Taviseburad afasebs Seqmnil variantebs.Nnebismier SemTxvevaSi viRebT sinamdvilis ara zust anarekls, aramed saxeze gvaqvs specifikuri aRqmis magaliTebi. eri pozinis filmi `Camskraberi~1Aamerikuli sinamdvilis sakmaod saintereso versias ayalibebs.Mmyudro da mSvid qalaqSi, sadac yvelaferi idiliur garemoze mianiSnebs, Seusabamo situaciebia Seqmnili. standartuli fasadis aucilebloba yvelasTvis dadgenilia, wesebi saerTo da gasaTvaliswinebelia. aseT `mowesrigebul~ sazogadoebaSi formireba maTi Cveulebebis gaziarebas moiTxovs. roca saerTo mdgomareoba ariTmetikuli sizustiTaa agebuli, parametrebi SenTvisac winaswarvea gaTvlili. reJisori kritikulad udgeba am saxiT Camoyalibebul realobas. SefasebisTvis is zRapruli suraTis gacocxlebul variants gvTavazobs. yvelaferi erTimeoris miyolebiT saTamaSosaviT faqizad da mimzidveladaa awyobili. xelovnuri

gare ganaTeba Sinagan mdgomareobas faravs,Mmimika ki ar amJRavnebs namdvil emociebs.Aam samyaroSi adamianebi Tavad aweseben SezRudvebs da mere TviTonve veRar aRweven Tavs mis gavlenebs. reJisori maT moCvenebiT keTildReobas aSkara ironiiT afasebs. filmSi mTavari urTierTobebi _ mSoblisa da Svilis, megobrebis, Seyvarebuli wyvilis damokidebuleba mZafrad arakomunikabeluri da uSinaarsoa. am samyaroSi arsebobis mTavari princi pebia _ arasodes dakargo wonasworoba, aravis aCveno sakuTari sisuste da ar Caidino is, rac ewinaaRmdegeba saerTo interesebs.Aam punqtebis dacvas filmis gmirebi bejiTad ekidebian, magram miRweuli balansi mainc irRveva.Mmozardebi erTi mxriv, warmoadgenen am faseulobebis damangrevel, araswor Zalas, magram, meore mxriv, isini ufro jansaR, namdvil saxeebs qmnian, vidre samagaliTo `didebis Taoba~. aq ar dgas socialuri an ekonomikuri problemebi, axalgazrdebs mSoblebi cxovrebis sakmaod karg pirobebs sTavazoben, uzrunvelyofen materialurad, magram swored aseT fonze kargad Cans gaucxovebis, martoobis, TanagrZnobis deficitis problema.Mmozardebs sWirdebaT kavSiri mSoblebTan, Tumca civilizebuli da kulturuli garemo aseT kavSirebs ufro oficialur da gansazRvrul formaSi aqcevs.Aaravis ainteresebs sxvisi mosmena, aravinaa gulwrfeli da veravin gamoxatavs Riad sakuTar emociebs. Znelia irwmuno, rom mSobels winaswar aqvs ganzraxuli, Svils TviTmkvlelobisken, narkotikebisken an danaSaulisken ubiZgos, magram filmSi gamokveTilia safrTxe, rac xels uwyobs maT am fazamde miyvanas. ufrosebis uyuradReboba da gulgriloba, axalgazrdebis ,,Cveulebrivi~ problemebis TiTqmis ignorireba, gadagvarebis mTavar mizezad gvevlineba. filmis mTavari gmiri dini stifli megobris TviTmkvlelobis momswre xdeba.Aamis Semdeg is mudmivad gaurbis nanaxze fiqrs, icis, rom yvelasTvis sulerTia misi gancdebi. erTaderTi eqimi bili CaTvlis saWirod Svilis mdgomareobaSi garkvevas da isic zereled usmens ufro dakvirvebis obieqts, vidre Svils.Bbolos Zlier damamSvidebel preparats uwvdis. dinis rTuli situaciidan gamoyvana da mdgomareobis Semsubuqeba am wamalze xdeba

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damokidebuli. eqims Znelad warmoudgenia ukeTesi saSualeba Svilis dasaxmareblad. reJisori xazs usvams, rom umTavresi adamianuri urTierTobebi gamogonilma nivTierebebma da usulo sagnebma Caanacvla.Aaq xalxi iCqaris imisken, rasac momavali ara aqvs da mxolod umniSvnelo droebiTi warmateba moaqvs.Mmisis bredli imdenadaa Tavisi saqorwilo samzadisiT dakavebuli, rom ver amCnevs Svilis ramdenimedRian gauCinarebas. ver axerxebs saqmros mosmenas, romelic cdilobs sakuTar SegrZnebebze daelaparakos. aseTi absurduli da amave dros saSiSroebis Semcveli situaciebis gamoyenebiT reJisori gauazrebeli problemebis simwvaveze saubrobs.Ddaufaravia misi simpaTia mozardebis mimarT _ ZiriTadad isini amxelen Rirseul ufrosebs gamousworebeli Secdomebis daSvebaSi, garkveul ususurobaSi da upatiebeli sisusteebis gamovlenaSi. filmSi axalgazrdebi ar ibrZvian maT winaaRmdeg, mxolod surT gaTavisufldnen `keTilismsurveli~ meurveebisgan. zogi TviTmkvlelobiT, zogi narkotikiT da ase yvela misTvis misawvdomi gziT aRwevs Sedegs.Aaq reprezentirebulia samyaro, romelSic Svilebi ar iReben mSoblis rudunebiT Seqmnil, maketiviT unaklo, magram amasTan usaZirkvlo realobas. filmSi sinamdvile ukiduresi simwvaviTaa gamoxatuli, miniSnebebis nacvlad xmamaRali Sefasebebi da Ria protesti gaismis. is Seqmnili sistemis ugunurebaze saubrobs. filmis personaJebi, ZiriTadad, amerikis SeZlebul saSualo fenas warmoadgenen.Eeqimi, politikosi, diasaxlisi, saqmiani qali da a. S. TiTqmis Seesabamebian statusiT nakarnaxev stereotipebs, Tumca amave dros maT utrirebul da gauTvaliswineblad winaaRmdegobriv saxeebs qmnian. yofiTi garemo xelsayrelia, ar arsebobs mizezi gaurkvevlobis da masTan dapirispirebisa, erTia, rom es srulyofilad gaTvlili garemo mizanmimarTulad uspobT mTavar princi pebs da SeumCnevlad nergavs adamianis bunebis gadagvarebas.Kkonkretulad veravin asaxelebs, raSia misi sakuTar TavTan gaucxoebis problema.Aaq komforti da diskomforti sinonimebia, amitom aRar SeiZleba isaubro harmoniaze da balansze, filmis gmirebi ki maT mudmiv ZiebaSi arian. isini TandaTan eCvevian ganwyobis, fiqris ignorirebas da tendenciur pirobebTan

adaptaciisTvis emzadebian.Aase aRwevs nawili stabilurobas, nawili ki arabunebriv mdgomareobaSi yofnis gamo winaaRmdegobriv midrekilebebs avlens. filmi `Camskraberi~ am saxis amerikul sociumSi ganviTarebuli mozardis ironiuli, utrirebuli reprezentaciaa, Tumca es ironia gacilebiT Semwynarebluria mozardebis mimarT, vidre mozrdilTa reprezentaciis dros. Cans, rom garemo balansis dasacavad maTganac `Segnebul~ da `dinamikur~ midgomas moiTxovs. sxvanairad is Znelad egueba ukontrolo procesebs.Aaxalgazrdebi Tavad iqmnian realobas, magram mcdari faseulobebis fonze ver axarxeben swori mimarTulebis povnas.Uufrosebis cxovreba da moqmedebis stili gadaWriT uintereso da mosawyenia maTTvis. isini ZiriTad dros profesiul da sazogadoebriv saqmeebs uTmoben.Ddagegmil dRis wesrigSi SvilebTan urTierTobis punqti mxolod saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi xvdeba. gamosavali mogonili sikeTeebis, pozitiuri faseulobebiT CanacvlebaSia. filmis dasasruls maiklis da dinis personaJebi Tavisufldebian garSemomyofebis zewolisagan da TavisTvis misaReb simSvides agneben. is, rom ukompromiso sistema adamianebma Seqmnes, niSnavs, rom mxolod maTive ZalisxmeviTaa SesaZlebeli misi dasusteba. droTa ganmavlobaSi SemuSavebuli tendenciebi da mimarTulebebi Taviseburad niSandobliv pirobebs aarsebs. aq mTavaria swrafva liderobisken, warmatebisken da Zalauflebisken, TiTqmis aRar arsebobs TviTgamoxatvis da grZnobis upiratesoba.

1. `Camskraberi~ (`Chumskraubber~), 2005, reJ. eri pozini (Arie Posin), scen. avt. Eeri pozini, zak stenfordi. rolebSi: jemi beli, kamila beli, glen qlouzi, rori kalkini, ralf faiansi. 2. www.regioncentve.ru

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almodovari da misi homopersonaJebi pedro almodovari Tavis pirvel filmebs iRebs maSin, rodesac frankos diqtatoruli reJimi damxobilia, magram, miuxedavad amisa, espanur sazogadoebaSi bevri tabudadebuli Tema arsebobs. erT-erTi aseTi Temaa homoseqsualizmi, romelsac xSirad vxvdebiT mis filmebSi. es filmebi gadaRebulia misTvis Cveul naturalistur maneraSi da aris erTgvari protesti, mimarTuli espanuri burJuaziuli sazogadoebisken. am filmebs araerTxel gamouwvevia skandali. erT-erTi aseTi skandalis Semdeg reJisori Semdeg komentars akeTebs: `Cemi fi lm eb i skanda lu ri a ara g am os ax ul eb is , ar am ed gulwrfelobis gamo. xalxma icis, rom homoseqsualizmi arsebobs, rom ori mamakaci erTad wveba, magram xalxs aRizianebs is faqti, rom es naCvenebia ekranze. zogadad skandali yovelTvis viRacis subieqturi xedvaa. arian kidev homofobebi, ZiriTadad mamakacebi, romlebic ver uyureben scenas, sadac ori kaci erTmaneTs esiyvaruleba. isini amis Tanamonawiled grZnoben Tavs da es xels uSliT maT mSvidad uyuron amgvar sanaxaobas~.1 pedro almodovaris kino aris Tavisufali samyaros reprezentacia. rogorc Tavad ambobs, is bolomde datkba demokratiiT. misi azriT, XX saukunis bolos Sexeduleba cxovrebaze, siyvarulsa da ojaxze Seicvala da aman Ta na m edr o v e a d a m i a ni u f r o T a v i s u f a l i , m a g r a m gacilebiTYdepresiuli gaxada. misi personaJebi damZimebulni arian Sinagani konfliqtebiT, swored es, maTi mdgomareoba, moqmedebs misi filmebis siuJetis Sinagan logikaze. almodovaris gmirebi mudmivi gardaqmnis situaciaSi imyofebian. isini icvlian garegnobas, profesias da, rac yvelaze sainteresoa, sqess. is erT-erTi pirvelia im reJisorebs Soris, romelmac sociumis fskerze myofi adamianebisgan

klasikuri kinosaxeebi Seqmna. es xdeba 70-80-ian wlebSi, rodesac homoseqsualizmi codvisa da daavadebis sinonimad moiazreboda. homoseqsualizmi dResac kamaTis sagania. zogierTi fsiqologi Tvlis, rom ar arsebobs TvalsaCino gansxvaveba `geebisa~ da `naturalebis~ fsiqikas Soris da, Tuki `geebSi~ raime darRveva SeiniSneba, es gamowveulia mxolod sazogadoebis zewoliT. aseve cnobilia is faqtic, rom homoseqsualistebSi, magaliTad, suicidis SemTxveva ufro xSiria vidre heteroseqsualebSi. almodovars fsiqologebze aranakleb zedmiwevniT hyavs Seswavlili es adamianebi sisusteebiTa da paTologiebiT. gavixsenoT lola filmidan `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~. adamiani sruliad darRveuli fsiqikiT. ra SeiZleba iTqvas mamakacze, romelic gardaiqmna qalad, romelsac aqvs silikonis mkerdi da amasTan, is protests gamoTqvams meuRlis, manuelas, zedmetad mokle bolokabaze. albaT, masSi jer kidev igrZnoba mamakacuri sawyisi. colis gamomwvevi Cacmuloba xom, rogorc wesi, mamakacebs aRizianebT. ai, filmis finalSi ki ukve vxedavT TiTqmis `srulfasovan qals~, romelSic dedobrivi instinqtic ki iRviZebs. albaT, gvaxsovs scena, rodesac mas Svili, patara estebani, uWiravs. misi cremlnarevi Rimili gvagonebs im qalis emocias, romelic axlaxans deda gaxda. agrado kidev erTi personaJia am filmidan, romelic bunebisa da biologiis winaaRmdeg midis. is ikeTebs plastikur operaciebs, gardaisaxeba qalad da gadis panelze. filmSi ar Cans, is amas gamorCenis Tu siamovnebis gamo akeTebs. aSkaraa, rom qalis tyavSi agrado Tavs ukeT grZnobs. almodovaris personaJebSi igrZnoba bedisadmi Seuguebloba, Sinagani disharmonia, romelic maT radikaluri cvlilebebisken ubiZgebs. rac ar unda vilaparakoT sazogadoebis loialurobasa da humanurobaze, aSkaraa misi kritikuli damikidebuleba aratradiciuli seqsualuri orientaciis adamianebis mimarT. sazogadoebis azri filmSi `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~

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reprezentirebulia rosas dedis saxiT. gavixsenoT scena, sadac is ver faravs ukmayofilebas, SeiZleba iTqvas zizRs, rodesac lolas uyurebs. msgavs niuanss vxvdebiT `maRal quslebSi~, srulfasovani mamakacis, manuelisa da transvestiti letalis Selaparakebis scenaSi: _ `letali qalis saxelia Tu kacis?~ _ kiTxulobs manueli cinikurad~, _ `gaaCnia, SenTvis mamakaci var~ _ pasuxobs letali. ZiriTadad pedro almodovaris filmebis gmirebi an qalebi arian, an iseTi mamakacebi, romlebsac surT, gaxdnen qalebi. Cveulebrivi mamakacebi mis SemoqmedebaSi arasaxarbielo mdgomareobaSi warmoCndebian. aSkaraa maTi ususuroba susti sqesis winaSe. magaliTad, imave kinosuraTSi `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~ mxolod erTi mamakacia, rosas mama da isic autizmiT daavadebuli, meuRlezea damokidebuli. `mTrTolvare sxeulSi~ mamakacTa susti mxareebi gansakuTrebiTaa xazgasmuli, maTi yoveli qmedeba, Tundac azrs moklebuli, nakarnaxevia surviliT _ raime Secvalon qalTan mimarTebaSi da Tu, almodovaris mamakaci sCadis znedacemul saqciels, is TiTqmis yovelTvis qalis xeliT kvdeba. rodesac homoseqsualebze vsaubrobT, Tanac almodovarTan mimarTebaSi, ra Tqma unda, maTSi `lesboselebic~ igulisxmebian. mamakacebis mgavsad maT Sorisac aris gansxvaveba. Sors ar waval da isev filmidan `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~ moviyvan ninasa da umas magaliTs. uma Seyvarebulia ninaze iseTi siyvaruliT, rogoric mxolod asakovan qals SeuZlia. is Sepyrobilia misi bolomde flobis surviliT da ver imetebs mas rogorc narkotikebisTvis, iseve sxva mamakacisTvis. rac mTavaria, nina umasTvis arc mxolod seqsualuri ltolvis obieqtia da arc gulgatexili qalis gadawyvetileba, aramed namdvili siyvarulia. nina, Tu SeiZleba ase vTqvaT, ar aris `WeSmariti lesboseli~, is ubralod ikvebeba im siTboTi, romelsac misTvis uma gaiRebs. ufro metic, igrZnoba, rom misTvis homoseqsualizmi miuRebelia, magram Sinagani disharmonia aiZulebs mas, daewafos yovelgvar ugunurebas.

SegviZlia davaskvnaT kidec, rom uma fiziologiurad aris homoseqsuali, nina, ki _ gadawyvetilebiT. espaneli reJisoris filmebSi yvelaze gamokveTilad `gei~ personaJebs vxvdebiT kinosuraTebSi `survilis kanoni~, `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~ da `cudi aRzrda~. `survilis kanoni~ da `cudi aRzrda~ homoerotiuli kriminaluri melodramebia. pirveli pedro almodovarma gadaiRo 1987 wels, meore ­ 2004 wels, rodesac ukve SemoqmedebiT simwifeSi imyofeboda. orive kinosuraTma, miuxedavad 17 wliani intervalisa, TiTqmis erTnairi skandali gamoiwvia sazogadoabaSi. es ori filmi Tavisi personaJebis xasiaTiTa da bedisweriT erTmaneTs hgavs, `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~ zemoT CamoTvlili personaJebisgan (saubari maqvs homoseqsualistebze) ZiriTadad imiT gansxvavdebian, rom pavlo, antonio, enrike da ignasio homoseqsualistebi arian, magram isini mainc rCebian mamakacebad, am sityvebis sruli mniSvnelobiT. lola da agrado ki Sinaganad qalebi arian. maTi qalobis survili imdenad didia, rom isini mamakacis sxeuls ver eguebian. rodesac almodovari amgvar filmebs iRebs, is ar debs maTSi mxolod seqsualuri umciresobis socialurad Seugueblobis problemas an mxolod maT Sinagan konfliqtebs, is saintereso siuJeturi xaziTa da sxvadasxva peri petiiT tvirTavs Tavis filmebs. magaliTad, rodesac Cven vuyurebT `survilis kanons~, ar vfiqrobT imaze, ramdenad Cagrulni arian misi gmirebi socialurad Tu fiziologiurad. masSi bevri sxva niuansi iqcevs yuradRebas: mkvleloba, gmirebis urTierTdamokidebuleba Tu filmis dramaturgia. mayurebelic, Tavis mxriv, iWreba am gmirebis samyaroSi da maT gancdebs iziarebs. erTmaneTze Seyvarebuli mamakacebis grZnobis gamoxatvis forma imxela gavlenas axdens mayurebelze, rom maTi arasaxarbielo statusi sazogadoebaSi ukana planze gadadis. gavixsenoT pavlos mier xuanisTvis miwerili werili: `me Sen miyvarxar da, vgoneb, uSenod Cemi cxovreba carieli

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iqneba. momiyevi yvelaferi Sen Sesaxeb, miTxari ra wignebs kiTxulob, ra filmebs uyureb, ra musikas usmen, momiyevi yvelaferi, oRond erTs gTxov, ar miTxra, rom vinme gaicani da vinme mogewona, ar SemiZlia cxovreba Sen gareSe. gaRmerTeb!~ igive SeiZleba vTqvaT suraTze `yvelaferi dedaCemis Sesaxeb~. arc lola da arc agrado sazogadoebis azrze fiqriT Tavs ar iwuxeben. agrados sadRac eamayeba kidec Tavisi mdgomareoba, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi is ver gabedavda xalxis garTobis mizniT didi auditoriis win sityviT gamosvlas, sadac igi detalurad yveba qalad gardasaxvisTvis gakeTebuli plastikuri operaciebis Sesaxeb. an, gavixsenoT liftis scena, sadac is misTvis damaxasiaTebel naxevrad xumrobiT maneraSi uyveba umas Tavis mamakacur warsulze, roca satvirTo manqanis mZRoli iyo. SeiZleba amgvari gambedaoba Sinagani protestis gamoc Cndeba, magram filmi Sinaarsobrivad isea agebuli, rom agrado da lola mayureblisTvis sainteresoni arian, ara rogorc sazogadoebas morgebuli, an ar morgebuli adamianebi, aramed rogorc individebi, pirovnebebi TavianTi Sinagani samyaroTi. xSirad pedro almodovaris filmebs `gei filmebs~ uwodeben, razedac Tavad almodovars araerTxel gamouTqvams pretenzia. is Tvlis, rom Tavis SemoqmedebaSi saubrobs universalur grZnobebze, romelic damaxasiaTebelia nebismieri orientaciis adamianisTvis.

XX saukunis xelovneba

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT statiebis stili daculia. programis xelmZRvaneli _ irine abesaZe

1. ix.: Nuria Bouza Vidal: The films of Pedro Almodovar, 1988 68 69

nino gvazava oqromqandakeblobis tradiciebis axali sicocxle (koba gurulis Semoqmedebis magaliTze) saqarTvelo uxsovari droidan iyo ganTqmuli brwyinvale miRwevebiT xelovnebis yvela dargSi, romelTagan erT-erT uZvelessa da umdidress Weduri xelovneba warmoadgens. saqarTvelos muzeumebsa da mis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mimofantul eklesia-monastrebSi sasoebiT inaxeba qarTuli xelovnebis fasdaudebeli saganZuri, Wedurobis iSviaTi nimuSebi, r o m e l ni c a m T a v i s T a v a d i o r i g i na l u r i d a r g i s mravalsaukunovan ganviTarebaze mogiTxrobs. saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze ukve brinjaos epoqaSi iqmneboda Weduri xelovnebis srulyofili Zeglebi, romelnic dResac saerTo aRtacebas iwvevs uzado teqnikuri ostatobiT, mxatvruli gemovnebiT. liTonmqanda keblobam udides ayvavebas antikur saqarTveloSi miaRwia, razec metyvelebs arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCenili oqrosa da vercxlis natifi WurWeli, oqromWedlobis iSviaTi nimuSebi, saocari xelovnebiT Sesrulebuli samkaulebi. liToni uZvelesi xanidan moyolebuli saqarTveloSi plastikur saxeTa gadmosacemad yvelaze sasurvel masalas warmoadgenda liTonmqandakebelTa xelSi. ostatebi mxatvruli damuSavebis SesaniSnavi, mravalferovani xerxebiT, im mdidar tradiciebs qmnidnen, romlebic ganaxlebasa da srulyofas ganicdidnen. XX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan Tbilisis arqiteqturuli iersaxis SeqmnaSi arqiteqtorebTan erTad did monawileobas iReben moqandakeebi: elguja amaSukeli, merab berZeniSvili, giorgi da irakli oCiaurebi, koba guruli, gulda kalaZe, ioseb qoiava da sxvebi. swored am periods ganekuTvneba moqandke koba gurulis mier irakli oCiaurTan erTad Seqmnili Weduri reliefebi axladagebuli Tbomavali gemisaTvis `SoTa rusTaveli~.

moqandakeebma gemis interierSi warmoadgines Weduri firfitebi SoTa rusTavelis ukvdavi poemis `vefxistyaosnis~ ilustraciebiT. aq mopovebulma warmatebam ganapiroba koba gurulis mier damoukideblad Sesrulebuli Tbomaval `aWaras~, moskovis kinoTeatr `Tbilisis~, qarTuli sabWoTa enciklobediis Senobisa da yvarelSi Rvinis sadegustacio darbazis gaformebis maRalmxatvrul nimuSebad aRiareba. saxeze iyo e. w. `ormocdaaTianelTa~ SemoqmedebiTi Taobis Rirseul warmomadgenelTa irakli oCiauris da koba gurulis mier wamowyebuli uZvelesi qarTuli liTonmqandakeblobis SesaniSnavi tradiciebis aRorZinebis warmatebuli mcdeloba. moqandake koba guruls SemoqmedebiTi gamarjveba moutana arqiteqtorebis o. liTaniSvilis da T. maWaraSvilis mier TbilisSi agebuli vaso abaSiZis saxelobis musikaluri Teatris Senobis gaformeba. koba gurulma aq Seasrula Weduri frizi `niRbebi~ da didi zomis Weduri bareliefi `avTandilis simRera~. moqandakis mier Sesrulebulma namuSevrebma gamoavlina koba gurulisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gansakuTrebuli SegrZneba monumenturobisa, amavdroulad poetur-metaforuli metyvelebis unari, simboluri ganzogadeba, yvelaferi is, ramac am niWier xelovans saxeli mouxveWa. koba gurulma , Sua s aukuneebis erov nuli liTonmqandakeblobis saukeTeso tradiciebis Tanamedrove interpretaciiT irakli oCiaurTan, guram gabaSvilTan, anTimoz gorgaZesTan, nuradin (nukri) SavguliZesTan da sxvebTan erTad, axladaRorZinebuli dargis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove tendeciebi warmoaCina. upirveles yovlisa, es iyo: liTonis damuSavebaSi feradovani elementebis Setana, reliefis zedapiris tonireba. didi mniSvneloba mieca liTonis zedapiris damuSavebas, mravalferovani masalis: spilenZis, TiTberis, aluminis, rkinis gamoyenebas. mxatvruli gadawyvetisas ki, garkveuli pirobiTobis da natifi stilizaciis gamoyenebas. mravalferovani masalis ­ spilenZi, TiTberi, alumini, rkinis SesaZleblobaTa aTviseba mxatvruli Wedvis ostatebs farTo SesaZleblobebi gauxsna. feris Setana e. w. `daferva~

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liTonis axali qimiuri teqnologiis aTvisebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli, xolo TviT Wedvis teqnikuri mxare tradiciul xerxebs emyareboda. ase Seerwya erTmaneTs Zveli da axali tradiciebi. koba gurulis pirvelive namuSevrebi amJRavnebdnen mis maneras, romelic poetur-lirikul ganwyobas amkvidrebda. am mxriv sainteresoa moqandakis mier Sesrulebuli qalTa portretul-stilizeburi stereoti pi qarTveli qalisa, gamosaxuli _ veeba nuSiseburi TvalebiT, moRerebuli gedis kisriT, dekoratiulad gadmocemuli Tmis talRovani masiT. koba guruli umetes SemTxvevaSi arCevs ti purad erovnul siuJetebs. misi Weduri kompoziciebi ZiriTadad erTfiguriania, sadac figura mTlianad avsebs liTonis furclis zedapirs, aseTebia: `Sen xar venaxi~, `sadRegrZelo~, `gudastviri~, `nikalas Sesandobari~. formebis Taviseburi stilizaciiT miiqcia yuradReba Wedurma reliefma `marani~ ­ aq yvelaferi ganzogadebulia, figurebi erTgvar simboloebad aris qceuli, aq mxatvruli xerxia neitraluri fonidan e. w. silueturi amokveTa figurebis. aSkaraa plastikuri formebisadmi moqandakis Tavisufali midgoma, moZraobis gadmocemisas pozebis erTgvari maneruloba mxatvris mTavar mizans ­ ti purad qarTuli xasiaTis Seqmnas emsaxureba, Cans aseve erovnuli motivebisa da formebis xazgasmuli abstragirebis SeTavsebis cdebi. koba guruli bolo wlebis namuSevrebSi: `iavnana~, `CurCxelebi~, `kalooba~ _ mTavari aqcenti ganzogadebuli eqspresiulad deformirebuli moculobebis, denadi konturebis Serwymazea gadatanili. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna k. gurulis Semoqmedebis erT-ereTi mTavari STagonebis wyaroa SoTa rusTaveli da misi poema `vefxistyaosani~. Sua saukuneebis ostatebis msgavsad k. guruli wignis ydis moWedilobis Seqmnis ideam gaitaca. rusTavelis poemis Weduri yda man ramdenime variantad ganaxorciela, maT Soris erT-erTze Tamarisa da rusTavelis saxeebia gadmocemuli. rusTavelis portretis safuZvlad moqandakem aiRo palestinaSi aRmoCenili SoTa rusTavelis portretuli gamosaxuleba _ muxlmoyrili,

vedrebiT apyrobili xelebiT. am seriidan k. gurulis erTerTi saintereso Weduri namuSevaria `miec glaxakTa saWurWle~. aRsaniSnavia, rom Wedur kompoziciebSi k. guruli ostaturad rTavs xolme warwerebs, romlebic CarTulia ara mxolod moWedilobaSi, aramed dazgur reliefebSic. Wedurobis yovel ostats liTonis dafervis Tavisi sakuTari saidumloebani aqvs. k. gurulis kompoziciebSi liTonis oqrosfer zedapirs gansakuTrebul kolorits aZlevs iisferi, lurj-wiTel sxivTa cimcimi. liTonqandakebebTan formebis sagrZnobi ganzogadebis garda gvxvdeba garkveuli gataceba naturalizmiT, es gansakuTrebiT gamoCnda reliefSi `oboba~. sayuradReboa koba gurulis Semoqmedebis Janrobrivi mravalferovneba. masTn SexvdebiT istoriul pirTa portretebs (daviT aRmaSenebeli, Tamar mefe, rusTaveli, petre iberi, beqa da beSqen opizrebi), miTologiur siuJetebze Seqmnil nawarmoebebs, (`medeas motaceba~), simbolur panoebs (`simSvide~, `poezia~, `gamoRviZeba~). samyaros Taviseburi xedva da cxovrebis movlenaTa originaluri aRqma ganapirobebs k. gurulis nawarmoebTa xasiaTs. mas sakuTari moTxovnebi aqvs Weduri xelovnebis mimarT. k. gurulis azriT Weduri xelovneba, mxolod maSin gaxdeba Cveni drois Sesaferi, rodesac srulad gamovlindeba liTonis, rogorc monumenturi xelovnebis masalis SesaZleblobebi. moqandake Tvlis agreTve, rom qarTuli Weduri xelovnebis warmatebiT ganviTareba, iseve, rogorc dekoratiulgamoyenebeTi xelovnebis sxva dargebisa SesaZlebelia iq, sadac mas adgilobrivi xalxuri xelovnebis safuZvlebi gaaCnia, sadac igi erovnuli xelovnebis nayofier niadagze aRmocendeba, vinaidan Tanamedrove xelovnebis ganviTarebis mTavar xelSemwyob pirobas, xom swored erovnuli safuZveli warmoadgens. tradiciisadmi SemoqmedebiTi damokidebuleba gamoCnda swored k. gurulis iseT nawarmoebebSi, rogoricaa: `mTebis

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simRera~, `mevenaxe~, `firosmanis gaxseneba~ da sxv., romelTa kompoziciuri simwyobre, lakonizmi, xazovani ritmis wina planze wamoweva, zomieri dekoratiuloba, reliefis plastikur mxaresTan Sexamebuli im SesaniSnav perspeqtivebs saxavda, romelTac aRorZinebuli dargis warmatebuli ganviTareba unda ganesaszRvra. samwuxarod, am bolo dros qarTuli saxviTi xelovnebis dargebs Soris liTonmqandakebloba sul ufro naklebad saCinoa. gamofenebze sul ufro iSviaTad gvxvdeba Weduri xelovnebis dazguri qmnilebebi, arc arqiteqturul ansamblSi aqvT miCenili adgili safasado an interieruli gaformebis mizniT, monumentur Wedur reliefebs. es metad seriozuli sakiTxi, vfiqrob xelovnebaTmcodneebis, mxatvrebis, arqiteqtorebis, urbanistebis, zogadad sazogadoebis seriozuli gansjis sagani unda gaxdes, radgan SesaZlebelia sul male, Weduri monumenturi xelovnebis mdidari tradiciebi kvlav daviwyebas mieces da xelSi mxolod salonebSi warmodgenili farTo momxmareblis gemovnebaze gaTvlili mdare xarisxis saiuveliro nawarmi SegvrCes.

Tea marexaSvili qarTveli mxatvari ruseTSi dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis saerTaSoriso gamofenaze minanqars, an rogorc mas didi xnis ganmavlobaSi, XIX saukunemde, uwodebdnen finifts, icnobda Zveli saqarTvelo da ruseTic. mas iuvelirebi xSirad mimarTavdnen da farTod iyenebdnen dekoratiul-gamoyenebiT xelovnebaSi. Tumca, Tu kargad gadavxedavT istorias, maSinve cxadi gaxdeba, rom saminanqro saqme daiwyo Zvel egvi pteSi. tixruli minanqris sayuradRebo nimuSebi gvaqvs berZnul-romaul kulturaSi ax. w. aR. I-III ss. dekoratiuli detalebia moRweuli. am periodis masala saqarTveloSic dasturdeba, Tumca, srulyofilebas minanqris xelovneba Sua saukuneebSi aRwevs. XV saukunidan xelovnebis es dargi qreba, rasac xeli Seuwyo bizantiis imperiis dacemam da saqarTveloSi rTulma politikurma situaciebma. rac Seexeba rusul minanqars, Sua saukuneebSi is berZnuli tixruli minanqris mibaZviT iqmneboda da gansxvaveba mxolod ferebisa da Tematikis mravalferovnebaSi gamoixateboda. misi, rogorc xelovnebis ayvaveba ukve ukavSirdeba solviCegodskis (`usolskis~) ferwerul minanaqrebs (XVIIs.). XVIII saukuneSi am xelobam ganviTareba hpova did rostovSi, sadac amzadebdnen xatebsa da minanqris teqnikis sxva nakeTobebs m. v. lomonosovis mier damuSavebuli masalis safuZvelze. peterburgis samxatvro akademiaSi daarsda kidec saminanqro klasi (pirvelad moxseniebulia 1781 wels). XIX_XX saukuneebis mijnaze ki vercxlisa da minanqris nakeTobebis damzadeba daiwyes msoflioSi cnobilma fabrikebma da firmebma (ovCinikovis, sazikovis, xlebnikovis, kurlukovis, Zmebi graCevebisa da faberJes saxelosnoebi). es mokle istoriuli eqskursi v. g. izvekovis azriT, iZleva pasuxs kiTxvaze, Tu ratom xdeba dRes, XX-XXI saukuneebis mijnaze, maincdamainc iaroslavis mxareSi saminanqro da saiuveliro xelovnebis

1. kiwi maCabeli `qarTuli oqromWedloba~, Tbilisi, 2. g. inaniSvili `siZveleTa teqnikuri eqspertizis safuZvlebi~.

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mxatvari ruseTSi dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis saerTaSoriso gamofenaze

morigi ayvavebis procesi, sadac 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, Seiqmna saminanqro xelovnebisa da xelobis ruseTis saerTaSoriso SemoqmedebiTi centri `emalisi~ (r.s.S.c.). mis mizans warmoadgenda dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis unikaluri formebis ayvaveba da ganviTareba, saxeldobr ki, cxeli minanqris xelovnebis _ cxel minanqarTan SeerTebuli saiuveliro saqme da dazguri cxeli minanqari. r.s.S.c. `emaliss~ saTaveSi Caudga niWieri mxatvari da organizatori aleqsandr karixi. germaniaSi, 1966 wels, mxatvrebis viwro wreSi aRmocenda Creativ-Kreis-Internacional-is saq mianoba. Creativ-KreisInternacional-is (SKI) prezidenti gaxldaT gertrud ritmanfiSeri, am organizaciis mdivani ki avgust fiSeri. swored maTi Zalisxmevis wyalobiT 1991 wels Seiqmna Creativ-KreisInternacional-is ruseTis filiali. 1991 w.-dan moyolebuli rusi mxatvrebi Creativ-Kreis-Internacional-is SemadgenlobaSi monawileobas iRebdnen germaniisa da iaponiis gamofenebSi. maTi SeTavazeba iyo CaetarebinaT gamofena ruseTSic. r.s.S.c. `emalisma~, Creativ-Kreis-Internacional-is ruseTis filialma da saerTaSoriso SemoqmedebiTma gaerTianebam C.K.I. 1994 wels moawyo dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis gamofena. warmodgenili iyo minanqari, teqstili, keramika, liToni, finifti da saiuveliro xelovneba. xolo gamofenaSi monawile qveynebi gaxldaT: avstria, belgia, germania, saqarTvelo, italia, yazaxeTi, ruseTi, amerika, ukraina da iaponia. gertrud ritman-fiSerma SeZlo gaeerTianebina msoflios 10 qveynidan 140-ze meti mxatvari da moewyo gamofena, romelic erTdroulad sam qalaqSi gaixsna. 1994 wlis 15 ivliss petergofSi, benuas ojaxis muzeumSi, 16 ivliss sankt-peterburgSi, v. muxinas saxelobis umaRles samxatvro-samrewvelo saswavlebelSi da 20 ivliss iaroslavSi, samxatvro muzeumSi. TiToeuli avtori warmodgenili iyo erTdroulad sam eqspoziciaSi. gamofenis eqspoziciaSi saminanqro xelovnebis ganxras ZiriTadad Seadgendnen im mxatvrebis namuSevrebi, romlebic sxvadasxva wlebSi imyofeboda saerTaSoriso simpoziumebze ungreTSi q. keCkemetSi,

aseve baltiispireTSi `palangis~ da `dzintaris~ Semoqmedebis saxlebSi sabWoTa kavSiris mxatvarTa gaerTianebis egidiT. mxatvrebs qondaT SesaZlebloba gamoefinaT TavianTi namuSevrebi saqveynod cnobil muzeumebSi da galereebSi, tokioSi, ierusalimSi, aTenSi, parizSi, venaSi da briuselSi. petergofi, sankt-peterburgi da iaroslavi _ qalaqebi cnobili TavianTi istoriuli da kulturuli tradiciebiT ki gaxdnen manmade arsebuli gamofenebis kulminaciad. rogorc zemoT vTqviT gamofenaSi monawile mxatvrebs Soris iyo saqarTveloc.Aar SeiZleba xazgasmiT Semoqmedi, romelmac Cveni qveynis saxe am grandiozul gamofenaze waradgina aris guram gunia. misi namuSevrebi dResac ifineba msoflio masStabiT da saqarTvelos saxels mudmivad axsenebs ucxoel damTvarieleblebs. guram gunia aris mxatvari, romelsac Tavisi niWis gamo araerTxel miupyria sazogadoebis yuradReba. man Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi SesaZleblobebis realizeba moaxdina dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargSi: iqneba es xeze Tu qvaze kveTa, Weduroba, keramika, minis mxatvruli damuSaveba, monumenturi ferwera Tu grafika.Mmagram amjerad gvsurs gamovyoT misi minanqris teqnikaSi Sesrulebuli namuSevrebi, romlebic msoflio katalogebSia moqceuli da namuSevrebi, romlebic momaval aRiarebas elodebian. guram guniam 1969 wels daamTavra Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis gamoyenebiT-dekoratiuli fakulteti. jer kidev swavlis periodSi dainteresda saminanqro xelovnebiT, romelic am periodSi didi xnis miviwyebuli iyo. is moskovSi iZenda minanqris mza naWrebs, romelsac dulevos qarxana uSvebda, saTanadod gadaamuSavebda da Tavis Canafiqrs asxamda xorcs. 1988 wels soWSi gaimarTa minanqarze momuSave mxatvrebis II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi. masSi monawileobas iRebdnen mxatvrebi 26 qveynidan, maT Soris iyo aleqsandr karixi, K.K.I.-is ruseTis filialis direqtori. maTi fotoebi da na mu Sevr eb i wa rmo dg enil ia g am ofeni s ka ta lo gS i. saqarTvelodan mxatvarTa kavSiris mier wargzavnili gaxldaT

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guram gunia, man araerTi saintereso namuSevari Seqmna im Tvenaxevris ganmavlobaSi, rac soWSi dahyo simpoziumze yofnisas: maT Sorisaa `gamocxadeba~, `Seneba~, `samyaro~, `bibliuri wm. mose~ da sxva avangarduli nawarmoebebi (`mzis dabneleba~, 2001, 44X40 sm.). `gamocxadebis~ kompozicias (mravalferovani minanqari, spilenZi, 40X15 sm.) erTi ucnauri istoriac aqvs. gamofenidan is moulodnelad gamqrala, rogorc Semdeg gairkva, namuSevari moipara qalma, romelic am nawarmoebiT moinusxa. sabednierod, kompozicia daabrunes da dRes mxatvris saxlSi inaxeba. masze warmodgenilia rusuli eklesia damaxasiaTebeli mrgvali, zeviT wawvetebuli gumbaTebiT da grZeli, viwro jvrebiT.Kkompoziciis centrSi vxedavT maRal, TaRisebur karibWes, romlis Sesasvlel sivrces TiTqmis srulad avsebs wmindanis figura.MTeTri samosi muq fonze mkveTrad gamoiyofa. Mmarcxena zeaRmarTul xelSi anTebuli sanTeli upyria, Tavze Saravandedi adgas da mTlianad gabrwyinebulia. Kkompozicia agebulia wriuli xazebisa da vertikalebis monacvleobiT. gamas qmnis momwvano saRebavi, romelic gamdidrebulia moSavo, moiasamnisfro, moyavisfro-oxrisferi, mocisfro da mowiTalo elferebiT. eklesiis fasadis, gumbaTis da kibeebis momwvano feri fonis saerTo momwvano gamidan gamoiyofa moiasamnisfro-moSao laqiT. iqmneba iseTi STabeWdileba, TiTqos burusidan nel-nela gamodis da ikveTeba taZris konturebi. Yyvelaze naTeli laqa aris wmindanis figura, romlis samosis drapirebac, iseve rogorc kompoziciis sxva detalebi, moSavo-moyavisfro StrixebiT iqmneba. Mmasze gaTamaSebuli mravalferovani laqebi ki, namuSevars metad ferweruls xdis. meore kompozicia `Senebac~ (mravalferovani minanqari, spilenZi, 40X20 sm.) aseve momwvano gamaSia Sesrulebuli. mTels sasuraTe sibrtyes avsebs qalis Zlieri figura, romelic orive xeliT mxarze Semodebul qvas ezideba. is warmodgenilia taniT fasSi, saxiT ki profilSi. misi sxeuli da samosi, iseve rogorc namuSevris mTeli zedapiri, danawevrebulia mcire zomis geometriul figurebad. fo ni da q ali s s xeu li TiTq os erT sib rty es

Seadgenen da organulad erwymian erTmaneTs. moculobiTia TviTon geometriuli formebic, romlebic riyis qvis faqturas qmnian da naSeni kedlis asociacias iwveven. nawarmoebSi aSkaraa monumenturobis gancda. aqac saxeze gvaqvs ovaluri da swori xazebis Sepirispireba da konturebi aqac muqi Savi laqiT iqmneba. gansakuTrebiT unda avRniSnoT bibliuri `wminda mose~, romelic dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis msoflio katalogSia moxvedrili. is warmodgenili iyo 1994 wlis zemoTxsenebul gamofenaze sxva namuSevrebTan erTad: `kentavri~ (1990, spilenZi, cxeli minanqari, 30X30), `ocneba~ (1993, spilenZi, cxeli minanqari, 12,5X15,5 sm.), `qristianuli samyaros simbolo~ (1994, spilenZi, minanqari, 83X15), `dabadeba~ (1993, spilenZi, cxeli minanqari, 8,5X12,5 sm.) da SoTa rusTaveli (1989, spilenZi, cxeli minanqari, 6,5X8,5 sm. `teqstili~, `keramika liToni~). bibliuri `wm. mose~ aris mcire zomis namuSevari zomebiT 8X14 sm.-ze. Ria fonze Suaxnis mamakacis saxiT warmodgenil wmindans Tavze Saravandedi adgas da xelSi Zveli aRTqmis wigni upyria. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia moyavisfro Tma-wveri da swori nakvTebi. Zalze ferwerulad aris Sesrulebuli misi samosis drapireba _ moyavisfro-oxrisferi, mowiTalo da moyviTalo laqebiT, romlebsac aTamaSebs mxatvari SiSveli sxeulis modelirebisas _ xelisa da fexis mtevnebze da saxeze, aseve saxarebis ydaze. es namuSevari, iseve rogorc danarCeni sxva namuSevrebi, gamoirCeva daxvewili gemovnebiT da zomierebis didi grZnobiT. gamofenaze warmodgenili nawarmoebebidan aseve unda gamovyoT `qri stianu li sam yaros simbol o~, igive saqarTvelos karibWe.Mmas, maSin dausrulebeli saxis miuxedavad, mowoneba xvda wilad da didi interesi gamoiwvia mnaxvelSi. dRes ki saxeze gvaqvs dasrulebuli proeqti, romelic iTvaliswinebs grandiozuli monumentis dadgmas foTsa da baTums Soris. monumentis saerTo simaRlea 107 m. da aqvs ramodenime daniSnuleba: 1. moqmedi samlocvelo eklesia, romlis simaRlec 30 metria, saritualo farTi ki _ 440 kv/m; 2. 33 safexurisgan Semdgari kibe (simaRle 7 m.),

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qarTveli

mxatvari ruseTSi dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis saerTaSoriso gamofenaze

romlis sivrcis farTSic (70X70 m. 4900 kv/m.) ganTavsdeba saeklesio muzeumi da biblioTeka. 3. samreklo, romelic moTavsebulia jvris orive frTis qvemoT. 4. eklesiis gumbaTidan aRmocenebuli jvari (simaRle 66 m.), romelic gansazRvrulia mrevlisa da turistebisTvis, zRvisa da qalaqis panoramis dasaTvaliereblad (gadmosaxedi iqneba 95 metridan). orive farTi 240 turists itevs. aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis gadawyvetileba erTnairia. kibeebis qveda sivrceSi ganTavsebulia swrafmavali liftebi. mTlian fasadze Tandayolili Rari ki Seasrulebs qalaqis Suquris funqcias, romelic naTdeba da iZleva RamiT caze dakidebuli saydrisa da jvris gamosaxulebas. mas zRvidan Semomavali gemi ramodenime aTeuli kilometridan SeamCnevs. monumentis forma aRebulia samTavisis aRmosavleT fasadze gamokveTili jvris dekoridan. qristianuli fesvebidan aRmocenebuli da axleburad gadamuSavebuli Zegli aris axali sityva qarTul xuroTmoZRvrebaSi. axali da uCveuloa minanqrisa da arqiteqturis erTad Sexamebac.Mmonumenturi ferweruli minanqari, romelic taZris saritualo nawilis aRmosavleT da dasavleT fasadebs amkobs, yvelaze masStaburi da rekorduli iqneba msoflioSi (24X18 m.). igive iTqmis taZris gumbaTidan aRmocenebul jvris a r q i teq tu r u l na w i l z e w a r m o dg eni l i j v a r c m i s kompoziciazec. aq saxeze gvaqvs mravalferovani minanqriT Sesrulebuli qristianuli simbolo, vazis foTlebis mcenareuli dekori, romelic srulad faravs jvris mklavebs (32X4 m.). `es mxatvruli monumenti marTlmadidebeli mrevlisTvis mTeli qristianuli samyaros simbolod iqceva da gaiazreba macxovris siZlierisa da sidiadis dasturad~. guram gunias, garda individualuri xedvisa, gaaCnia Taviseburi teqnikac, romelsac xSirad iyenebs ferwerul minanqarze muSaobis dros. es aris cxeli, sibrtyobrivi minanqari, romelic gulisxmobs RumelSi minanqris dacurebis saSualebas, anu sxvadasxva ferebis erTmaneTTan Serevas, rac gaxurebisas wamebSi xdeba. Teoriulad aseTi ram warmoudgenelia, xelmeored misi gameoreba ki _ SeuZlebeli.

am teqnikiTaa Sesrulebuli misi nawarmoebebi: `oqros Tvali~ (2003, spilenZi, minanqari, 14X16 sm.), `iuda~ (1997, spilenZi, minanqari, 8X16 sm.), `mwignobari~ (1995, spilenZi, minanqari, 8X13 sm.) da sxva. es namuSevrebi xasiaTdeba erTgvari monoqromulobiT, magram swored am mxriv arian sainteresoni _ erTi feris uamravi gradaciis gadmocema da moculobisa da siRrmeebis amsaxveli mkveTri Suq-Crdilebi, romelic grizailis teqnikas mogvagonebs da romliTac mxatvari aRwevs did gamomsaxvelobas. msgavsi efeqtebis Seqmna ferweruli minanqris teqnikaSi Zalze rTuli da sainteresoa. `miqael mTavarangelozi~ monoqromul gamaSi Sesrulebul `oqros TvalSi~ vxedavT momwvano, molurjo da mowiTalo-moyviTalo amonaTebebs. am nawarmoebebisgan gansxvavebiT Zalze mravalferovania igive teqnikaSi Sesrulebuli `miqael mTavarangelozi~ (1988, spilenZi, mravalferovani minanqari, 30X19 sm.) da `samyaro~ (1996, mravalferovani minanqari, spilenZi, 14X36sm.). aq saxeze gvaqvs cocxali da mJReri ferebis harmoniuli Sexameba. didi zomis yviTel da wiTel laqebs mxatvari ise debs da anawilebs, rom arc erTi feri ar amovardes feradovani gamidan da miiRos sruli Tanwyoba. orive kompozicia xasiaTdeba CaketilobiT da dasrulebulobiT. Zalze sainteresoa gunias sxva minanqruli kompoziciebic: `qristes Sesvla ierusalimSi~ ( spi lenZi, minanqari),`macxovris gamosaxuleba~ (2005, spilenZi, minanqari, 47X37 sm.), `mzis samyaroSi~(1990, spilenZi, minanqari, 7X9), aseve misi vitraJebi (`avTandilis simRera~, 1969, feradi bloki, broli), qandakebebi (`kolxTa samefo~), mozaikebi (`macxovari~, `wminda nikolozi~) da sxva. guram gunia dResac aqtiurad muSaobs dekoratiulgamoyenebiTi xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargSi. sul cota xnis win mis mier Sesrulebuli mozaika Rv Tism Sobl is gamosaxulebiT, gadaeca Tbilisis samebis sakaTedro taZars da dabrZanebulia xarebis eklesiaSi. xolo misi sxva SesaniSnavi nawarmoebebi aRmarTulia moskovSi, taSkentSi, kievSi, rigaSi da sazRvargareTis sxva qveynebSi. vimedovnebT,

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rom CvenTanac male aRimarTeba is grandiozuli proeqti foTsa da baTums Soris, romelic mxatvars marTlmadidebluri samyaros simbolod dausaxavs da macxovris sidiadisa da siZlieris gamomxatvelia. .

xaTuna melaZe xelovnebis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

sazogadoebis ganviTarebis xangrZlivi istoriis manZilze mozardi Taobis aRzrda-ganaTlebaze, maT zneobriv-esTetikur, fizikur da sulier ganviTarebaze zrunva mudam aqtualuri iyo. am rTul saqmes yvela droSi Tu qveyanaSi saTanado yuradReba eTmoboda mozardTa aRzrdas, maTi sulis sworad Camoyalibebis problemebze jer kidev antikuri xanis moazrovneebi msjelobdnen. sagulisxmoa is, rom rac ufro win miiwevs civilizaciis ganviTarebis tempi, miT ufro neldeba sazogadoebis dadebiTi zegavlena da saWiro xdeba sagangebod organizebuli saaRmzrdelo garemos Seqmna. aRzrda adamianis specifikuri niSania da igi socialur garemoSi xorcieldeba, magram ZiriTadi saaRmzrdelo dawesebuleba mainc skolaa, sadac mozardis aRzrda misi ganaTlebis fonze mimdinareobs. marTalia aRzrda, swavla da ganaTleba skolaSi xorcieldeba, magram es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom ojaxis roli gamoiricxeba. ojaxma iseve, rogorc skolam sistematurad unda izrunos mozardis normalur adamianad formirebisaTvis, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi zogjer aRfrTovanebaSi movyavarT adamianis ganswavlulobas, did codnas, magram gaocebas da srul ganxiblvas iwvevs misi aRuzrdeloba. aseTi Sedegi, rom ar miviRoT amisaTvis unda vizrunoT mozardis esTetikur aRzrdaze adreuli asakidan, Torem gasul saukunes filosofosTa didi nawili zneobrivi krizisis saukuned miiCnevs. esTetikuri aRzrda warmoadgens adamianis sulier samyaros, politikur rwmenas, zneobrivi princi pebis Camoyalibebis umniSvnelovanes saSualebas, gansakuTrebiT misi zneobrivi saxis Camoyalibebis umniSvnelovanes saSualebas. esTetikuri momenti aRmzrdelobiTi saqmianobis yvela formaSi gamoixateba, xolo maSin, rodesac yvela es forma iTvaliswinebs da moxerxebulad iyenebs esTetikur saSualebebs adamianebs uviTardebaT unari sworad, Rrmad da esTetikurad

1. , , -, : , 1994. 2. II : , 1988. 3. zaur fifia. Suqurad aRmarTuli taZari, Jur. `iverioni~, 2007w. #5. gv. 22-23. 4. T. marexaSvili. tixruli minanqari, warsuli didebis gadmonaSTi, Jur. `kavkasiis macne~, 2006w. #15. gv. 224-232. 5. , , . . ., 1986. 6. XII- XX , . 1987.

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xelovnebis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

faqizad Seafason yvelaferi, rac maT cxovrebaSi xvdebaT. uviTardebaT siyvaruli, miswrafeba silamazisaken, moTxovnileba Seqmnan `silamazis kanonebis~ mixedviT, survili ­ gaxadon adamianis mTeli cxovreba WeSmaritad mSvenieri. esTetikuri aRzrdis mniSvnelovani mxarea aRzrdili adamiani xelovnebis saSualebiT, radgan xelovnebis nawarmoebSi xorcSesxmulia samyarosadmi xelovnebis esTetikuri mimarTeba. adamianis esTetikuri aRzrda niSnavs masSi mTeli samyarosadmi da ara marto xelovnebisadmi esTetikuri mimarTebis Camoyalibebas. es mimarTeba aRizrdeba ara marto xelovnebiT, aramed adamianis saqmianobis yvela formiT. Tu aRzrdis yvela sxva formisaTvis esTetikuri sawyisis arseboba sasurvelia, xelovnebaSi esTetikuri momenti aucilebelia, radgan Tu xelovneba adamianze ar moqmedebs esTetikurad, maSin igi kargavs Tavis Zalas. amitom aris xelovneba esTetikuri aRzrdis uZlieresi da ucvleli saSualeba. xelovnebis aRmzrdelobiT funqciaze didi xnis winaT amaxvilebdnen yuradRebas cnobili antikuri xanis moazrovneebi da esTetikosebi, renesansis epoqis didi mxatvrebi, didi rusi revolucioner-demokratebi, qarTveli samocianelebi da sxvebi.1 isini udides mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen xelovnebas, rogorc aRzrdis erT-erT uZlieres saSualebas. xelovnebis nawarmoebma adamians unda gauRviZos kacTmoyvareobis, sikeTis, humanurobis grZnoba, xeli Seewyos adamianis aRzrdas maRali idealebiT. xelovnebis sxvadasxva saxe sxvadasxvagvarad monawileobs adamianis esTetikur aRzrdaSi. arseboben xelovnebis dargebi, romelTa aRqma moiTxovs specialurad amisTvis drois moZebnas, survils, ganwyobilebas. aseTebia: literatura, sasceno xelovneba, kinoxelovneba, ferwera, sakoncerto musika. isini moiTxoven absolutur yuradRebas da adamianze mokle drois ganmavlobaSi axdenen Zlier ideur-emociur zemoqmedebas ideur-emociuri zemoqmedebis am ZaliTa da siRrmiT ganisazRvreba xelovnebaTa aRniSnuli saxeebis roli adamianTa esTetikur aRzrdaSi. mravalricxovani gamokvlevebi adastureben, rom adamianebi, romelTac2 specialuri mxatvruli momzadeba ar gauvliaT, gamoirCevian ganuviTarebeli esTetikuri gemovnebiT, ufro xSirad

ki ugemovnobis tyveobaSi imyofebian da jiutad mieltvian e.w. msubuqi Janris nawarmoebebs (radgan isini ar moiTxoven gonebis did Zalisxmevas), zogjer ki sulac vulgarul, iaffasian, antimxatvrul nacodvilars etrfian. didi xelovneba ki, romlis zegavlenac ase aucileblad sWirdeba sazogadoebasac da pirovnebasac specialuri mxatvruli momzadebisa da Rrma codnis gareSe miuwvdomeli rCeba zogierTaTvis. arada ramdeni sixaruli daakldaT adamianebs imis gamo, rom ar arian mzad Caswvdnen did seriozul xelovnebas. metic, arc Tu iSviaTad adamianebi sruliad usafuZvlod Tavad nawarmoebs adanaSauleben, roca ver gaiges da misgan dadebiTi emocia ver miiRes. mravali esTetikuri filosofosi da xelovnebaTmcodne amtkicebs imas, rom mxatvruli aRzrda aucilebelia adreul asakidan da igi sistematur xasiaTs unda atarebdes, vinaidan am amocanas ver gadaWris veraviTari erTjeradi RonisZieba, verc TavisTavad metad saintereso leqciebi xelovnebaze. aseT leqciebs SeuZliaT aRZran msmenelis yuradReba, interesi, magram maT ar ZaluZT Seqmnan aucilebeli winamZRvrebi Tundac musikis an ferweris Rrma gagebisaTvis. mozards esTetikuri ier-saxis CamoyalibebaSi udidesi roli ekuTvnis skolas.3 skolam unda gauRos farTod kari mozardebs mSvenierebis samyaroSi Sesasvlelad, unda aswavlos maT cxovrebis aSeneba `silamazis kanonebiT~, unda misces aucilebeli, elementaruli codna mainc xelovnebis Sesaxeb. sasurveli Sedegi miiRweva maSin, Tu xelovnebis anbani sworad miewodeba mozards misi ganviTarebis calkeul safexurze. mozardebs miznad unda davusaxoT ara didi moculobis codnis dagroveba, aramed misi moZiebisa Tu mopovebis unaris gamomuSaveba da rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania, konkretul situaciaSi misi gamoyenebis CvevaSi gavarjiSeba. sul sxvagvarad iWreba mozardis cxovrebaSi gamoyenebiTi xelovneba, arqiteqtura, ferwera, qandakebis monumenturi Janrebi. isini e. w. `esTetikuri gamosxivebiT~ mTlianad gansWvalaven misi cxovrebis atmosferos. gamoyenebiTi xelovneba mozardis cxovrebaSi Semodis, rogorc cxovrebiseuli procesis monawile. sulieri zemoqmedebis es uwyvetoba gansazRvravs mis

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xelovnebis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

gansakuTrebul rols mozardTa esTetikur aRzrdaSi. xelovnebis nawarmoebis wvdoma moiTxovs pirvel rigSi fsiqikis aqtivobas, amasTan upiratesi roli ekisreba mis asociaciur meqanizms. asociaciebi is xidia, romlis gareSec nawarmoebSi avtoris mier xorcSesxmuli mxatvruli saxeebi ver gadavlen mkiTxvelis, msmenelis, mayureblis cnobierebaSi. am efeqturobisTvis aucilebelia: sagnobrivi asociaciebi, emociuri asociaciebi, romlebic qmnian warmosaxvas da amave dros iwveven mkiTxvelis, mayureblis, msmenelis emociur reaqcias. yoveli maTgani adamianis cnobierebaSi Cndeba cxovrebiseul asociaciad. garda amisa arsebobs agreTve mxatvruli asociaciebic, romlebic emociebs da emociur damuxtul warmosaxvebs iwveven mxolod gamocdil mayurebelSi, mkiTxvelSi, msmenelSi, romelTac mxatvruli ganaTleba aqvT miRebuli. mxatvruli da cxovrebiseuli asociacia moqmedebs erToblivad, urRvevi urTierTdakavSirebiT. sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi yalibdeba am asociaciaTa myari formebi, romelTac iTviseben calkeuli adamianebi bavSobidan moyolebuli mTeli sicocxlis manZilze. aRqmis es fsiqikuri meqanizmi xelovnebas SesaZleblobas uqmnis mimarTos yvela mayurebels, msmenels, mkiTxvels erTad da Tan daamyaros kavSiri cal-calke, Rrmad SeiWras maT Sinagan samyaroSi, mianiWos yovel adamians udidesi siamovneba, sixaruli, sulierad aamaRlos isini. magram asociaciebis winaswari dazepireba SeuZlebelia. isini iqmnebian mxolod praqtikiT ­ zogadiT, cxovrebiseuliT, specialuriT da mxatvruliT. aqedan daskvna, rom mxatvruli momzadeba SeuZlebelia xelovnebasTan cocxali urTierTobis gareSe. xelovneba unda iqces mTavar iaraRad xelovnebasTan ziarebaSi, magram misi gamoyeneba am rolSi ioli saqme rodia, igi miiRweva mxatvruli ganaTlebiTa da swavlebiT. amas ZiriTadad mxatvruli aRzrda axorcielebs, swored igi iyenebs farTod xelovnebis gansakuTrebul SesaZleblobebs, aRsazrdelTa fsiqikaSi mxatvruli asociaciebis CamoyalibebisaTvis, exmareba maT xelovnebis meSveobiT SeiTvison xelovnebis ena. gamokvlevebma xelovnebis aRqmis sferoSi daadgines am procesis warmmarTveli fsiqikur ganwyobilebaTa udidesi mniSvneloba.4 es aris saerTo ganwyoba xelovnebisadmi, kerZo

xasiaTis ganwyoba xelovnebis garkveuli saxisa da Janrisadmi, agreTve mocemuli avtorisa da konkretuli nawarmoebisadmi. ganwyobebi, saerTod praqtikul cxovrebaSi iqmneba, rac Seexeba esTetikur ganwyobebs (xelovnebaSi) xelovnebisadmi, maTi SesaZlebloba xelovnebasTan morigi Sexvedris molodinSi, Tumca rogorc viciT, xelovnebas WeSmariti tkboba da sulieri aRmafrena moaqvs mxolod maTTvis, vinc Rrmad swvdeba nawarmoebs, e. i. flobs mis enas, TanaSemoqmedebiTi aqtivobis saTanado unars da a.S. aRsaniSnavia, rom `garegani~ ganwyoba uSualod ukavSirdeba esTetikur gemovnebas. gemovnebas veravin gvaswavlis, misi moqmedeba dakavSirebulia fsiqikis emociuri meqanizmis muSaobasTan, ris gamoc SeiZleba mxolod aRzrda gemovnebisa, aRmzrdelad ki isev SeiZleba gamoviyenoT TviT xelovnebis specialurad organizebuli saSualebebiT warmarTuli zemoqmedeba.5 brZolas ukugemovnebasTan da zrunvas daxvewili gemovnebis aRzrdisaTvis, WeSmariti xelovnebisaken miswrafebas, rasac didi roli eniWeba axali adamianis Camoyalibebis saqmeSi, amJamad sruliad samarTlianad ganixilaven rogorc Tanamedrove ideologiuri brZolis erT-erT formas.6 rogorc avRniSneT, pirovnebis aRzrda da harmoniuli ganviTareba, rac saskolo ganaTlebis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens, SeuZlebelia xelovnebasTan misi ziarebis gareSe. xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis Seswavla aRqmasa da grZnobas afaqizebs, warmosaxvis unars, SemoqmedebiT midgomas da kritikul azrovnebas aviTarebs, ris gareSec warmoudgenelia adamianis nebismieri saqmianoba. pirovnebis aRzrda-ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebeli SromiTi saqmianoba axal saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi xelovnebis swavlebasTan aris integrirebuli. am integrirebis safuZvels saxviTi xelovnebis swavlebaSi gamoyenebiT ­ dekoratiuli xelovnebis elementebis CarTva warmoadgens.7 xelovnebis swavleba SromiT saqmianobasTan erTad zog adsag anmanaTleblo skolis yvel a safexur zea gaTvaliswinebuli da am swavlebis mizani imaSi mdgomareobs, rom moxdes moswavleTa Cabma SemoqmedebiT da sainterpretacio

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xelovnebis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi

saqmianobaSi. swored am gziT maTTvis mSvenierebis gancdis da warmosaxvis unaris ganviTraebaa SesaZlebeli.8 Tanamedrove zogadsaganmanaTleblo skola reformebisa da gardaqmnebis umniSvnelovanes etapze gavida. icvleba misi struqtura, muSaobis organizacia da Sinaarsi. epoqam gansakuTrebuli moTxovnebi daayena saganmanaTleblo procesis gardaqmnis mimarTulebiT, radgan formaluri TvalsazrisiT, TiTqosda kargad organizebuli tradiciuli saganmanaTleblo sistema drois moTxovnebidan sakmaod daSorebuli gamodga. pedagogikis mecnierebaSi dRemde moqmedi Teoriebi da maTi Sesatyvisi praqtika met-naklebi sisruliT, mxars uWerda da upiratesobas aniWebda e.w. pedagogiur models, romlis mixedviTac swavlebis procesis wamyvani da erTaderTi subieqti aris pedagogi.9 igi gansazRvravs, gegmavs da ayalibebs mTel im process, romlis mizansac swavleba, swavla da saerTod aRzrdaganaTlebulobis SeZena, garkveuli profesiis daufleba warmoadgens. Zveli berZnuli tradiciiTac pedagogi esaa adamiani, vinc moswavles gzas uCvenebs da cxovrebiseul labirinTebidan Tavis daRwevis Cvevebs aZlevs. es imitom xdeba, rom mozardi jer pataraa, ucodinaria, ususuria, gamocdilebis armqonea da amitom pedagogma nel-nela, nabij-nabij unda daaZlevinos mas sirTuleebi, Seuvsos danaklisi. mozardi am dros ver SeewinaaRmdegeba, ver Seafasebs, ver gansjis, ver airCevs masze zemoqmedebis formebs. man unda miiRos rasac sTavazoben, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi mohyveba sazogadoebrivi sanqciebis zemoqmedebis zonaSi da daisjeba kidec. istoriuli gamocdilebis analizi adasturebs, rom pedagogiuri saqmianobis es ti pi produqtiulia. 10 igi uzrunvelyofs ganaTlebas, codnis SeZenas, RirebulebiTi orientaciebis Camoyalibebas da a.S. amasTan, mas aqvs seriozuli naklovanenebic, rac upirvelesad imaSi gamoixateba, rom Tavisi arsiT igi avtoritarulia, ar scnobs an ufro sworad, sanaxevrod aRiarebs mozardis pirovnebis uflebebs, emyareba diqtats, mbrZaneblobas, imperatiul miTiTebebs, rac, umetes SemTxvevaSi sapirispiro reaqciebs iwvevs. kerZod, mozardi TandaTanobiT eTiSeba momqancvel saswavlo Sromas, iwyeba profesiuli

aqcentebis naadrevi gamovlena sxva saswavlo disci plinebis xarjze, adgili aqvs protestis sxvadasxva formebs da a.S. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom swavlebis organizaciis es ti pi anu pedagogiuri modeli, gansakuTrebiT efeqturia avtoritaruli sazogadoebriv-politikuri wyobis pirobebSi, e.i. iq, sadac diqtati, politikuri sistemis batonoba wamyvania, gafetiSebulia, xolo pirovnebis RirebulebiTi samyaros uflebrivi mdgomareoba meoradi da daqvemdebarebulia ideologiur amocanebTan mimarTebaSi. sakmarisia sazogadoebaSi demokratiuli cvlibebis epoqa dadges, realuri gardaqmnebi daiwyos, rom swavlebis organizaciis avtoritaruli pedagogiuri modeli, myisierad ingreva, igi umal araefeqturi xdeba. zustad am movlenis dadasturebaa Tanamedrove zogadsaganmanaTleblo qarTuli sistema, romelic samwuxarod, TiTqmis amovarda drois konteqstidan. igi arsebiTad, veRarafers aZlevs mozards, an, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, mxolod nawilobriv exmareba misi profesiuli zrdis saqmes. yovelive amis gamo, drom daayena konkretuli moTxovna - swavlebis organizaciis tradiciul formas unda Caenacvlos axali droisaTvis ufro metad Sesaferisi modeli an modelebi. am konteqstSi ki, upirveles yovlisa, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs moswavlis pirovnebaze orientirebuli saswavlo saqmianoba da misi SesaZleblobebi. swavlebis organizaciis axal modelSi mozardi ganixileba, rogorc saswavlo procesis subieqti,11 romlis miswrafebebi da pirovnuli tendenciebi, socialuri garemos faqtorebTan erTad gansazRvravs kidevac saganmanaTleblo aqtivobis Sinaars. aseT situaciaSi, pedagogis funqciaa xeli Seuwyos saswavlo aqtivobis provocirebas, interesis aRZvras, miznisaken svlis mravalvariantuli saqmeebis mofiqreba-realizebas. pedagogi exmareba mozards daeuflos codnis mopovebis gza-saSualebebs, iswavlos swavla, saWiro informaciis mopoveba, garemos cvlad pirobebTan Segueba, sociumas moTxovnebze drouli reagireba da a.S. tradiciuli pedagogiuri moqmedebis pirobebSi mozards codna miewodeba im azriT da rwmeniT, rom mas igi momavalSi usaTuod gamoadgeba. amasTan miCneulia, rom rac ufro mravalmxrivi, moculobiTi da mravalferovani iqneba es codna, miT ufro

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sasargebloa igi, rogorc sakuTriv mozardisaTvis, aseve sazogadoebisaTvis. amisgan gansxvavebiT mozardze orientirebuli pedagogiuri azri miiCnevs, rom yovelTvis da yvela situaciaSi, Tanac mTeli cxovrebis manZilze gamosayenebel codnas, verc veravin mogcems da verc veravin aiTvisebs. amitom, saWiroa miznad davisaxoT ara didi moculobis codnis dagroveba, aramed misi moZiebisa, Tu mopovebis unaris gamomuSaveba da konkretul situaciaSi misi gamoyenebis CvevaSi gavarjiSeba.

maia razmaZe somerset moemis Teoriuli Sexeduleba saTeatro xelovnebis Sesaxeb somerset moemis mravalwlianma siaxlovem Teatralur samyarosTan Rrma kvali daaCnia mTel mis Semoqmedebas. es naTlad Cans 1937 wels gamoqveynebul romanSi `Teatri~, romelic, faqtobrivad, xelovnebisa (Teatris) da cxovrebis urTierTmimarTebis filosofiuri gaazrebis mcdelobas warmoadgens da formis TvalsazrisiTac axlos dgas dramasTan. `TeatrSi~ avtori gamomsaxvelobis dramatul formas iyenebs, ar axvevs mkiTxvels Tavis sakuTar Sexedulebebs, ar awvdis maT banalur WeSmaritebebs. moems romanSi Semoaqvs `scenebi~, romlebSic misi gmirebi warmoadgenen TavianT miswrafebebs, Sinagan samyaros. romanis saxelwodebas orgvari gageba SeiZleba hqondes: Teatri _ xelovneba, Teatri _ realuri cxovreba. mwerlisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda ara marto Teatraluri samyaros zne-Cveulebebisa da yofis warmosaxvas, aramed seriozul esTetikur-filosofiuri da sazogadoebrivi problemebis gaazrebasac. `Teatris~ fabula Zalze martivia. erTi SexedviT, es variaciaa sasiyvarulo samkuTxedis Temaze, magram sinamdvileSi romanis siuJetur xazs warmoadgens msaxiobi qalis SemoqmedebiTi gzis asaxva. romanisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia is niSani, romelic moemis Teoriul-esTetikuri poziciebis mixedviT am Janris nawarmoebs pirvel rigSi moeTxoveba: dainteresebis, `Tavis Seqcevis~, garTobis momenti. amave dros, moemi miiCnevda, rom mxolod saintereso siuJeti da moqmedebis mZafri peri petiebi cxovrebis mravalferovnebisa da sirTulis gamoxatvis saSualebas ar iZleva. misi azriT, xelovnebis mizania, sulierad gaamdidros adamiani, mianiWos mas siamovneba. `TeatrSic~ mTavari Seurigebeli winaaRmdegobaa Semoqmed pirovnebasa da sazogadoebas Soris. Tavad moemis azriT,

.

1. ix.: d. uznaZe. Sromebi. t.V, Tbilisi, 1967 2. iqve; 3. ix.: o. alaviZe. samecniero sromebis krebuli, Tbilisi, 2005 4. ix.: d. uznaZe. Sromebi. t.V, Tbilisi, 1967 5. iqve; 6. ix.: o. alaviZe. samecniero sromebis krebuli, Tbilisi, 2005 7. iqve; 8. iqve; 9. iqve; 10. n. vasaZe. pedagogika. Tbilisi, 2000 11. iqve;

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saxelmwifo sargeblobs Semoqmedi pirovnebiT sakuTari miznebisaTvis. Tuki pirovneba ilaSqrebs am `gamoyenebis~ winaaRmdeg, saxelmwifo fexqveS Telavs mas, xolo Tuki mas keTilsindisierad emsaxurebian, maSin ajildoebs medlebiT, pensiiTa da pativiT. rogorc kritikosi aRniSnavs, s. moemis `TeatrSi~ dascinis pirovnebis snobizms, Surs, amave dros igi aRmerTebs WeSmarit Semoqmeds. mecnieris azriT, moemi Canafiqria warmoadginos WeSmariti niWierebis Seusabamoba arsebul sinamdvilesTan. moemi aRniSnul nawarmoebSi svams rig mniSvnelovan problemas: Semoqmedi da privilegirebuli klasi, Semoqmedi da sazogadoeba, xelovneba da sinamdvile. mwerali g ansa ku Tr eb ul y ur adReba s a ma xv il eb s cx ov rebi s Teatralurobis, rogorc sinamdvilisadmi damokidebulebis Temaze, rodesac mTavari moqmedi piris TamaSi cxovrebaSi yoveldRiur Cvevad iqceva da Taviseburi SeniRbvis, zogjer ki, banaluri realobidan Tavdacvis xerxs warmoadgens. Seqspiriseuli azri, rom mTeli samyaro Teatria da masSi yvelani msaxiobebia, moemTan Tavisebur interpretacias poulobs. igi gvixatavs, Tu rogor yalibdeba wminda profesiul CvevaTa kompleqsi da iqceva mkafiod Camoyalibebul `fsiqologiad~, gaazrebul reaqciad gare samyaroze. `...mxolod Cven, msaxiobebi, varT realurni am samyaroSi, _ msjelobs `Teatris~ mTavari gmiri, msaxiobi qali julia lamberti _ yvela adamiani Cveni nedleulia. Cven Segvaqvs zari maT arsebobaSi. amboben: TamaSi moCvenebaa. swored es moCvenebiToba aris erTaderTi realoba~. julias cxovreba `Teatralur warmodgenaTa jaWvia~. julia lamberti moemis erT-erTi yvelaze axlobeli personaJia. amas avtoric ramdenjerme mianiSnebs. julia, iseve rogorc moemi, frangulenovan, inglisuri warmomavlobis ojaxSi gaizarda. misi bavSvobis zogierTi detali emTxveva mwerlisas. moemi yovelTvis Zalze saRad afasebda Tavis warmatebebs. aseTive mSvidi TviTSefasebis unariT aris dajildoebuli misi gmiric. isini xelovnebis erTsa da imave dargs (moemma xom Teatrs dauTmo ufro meti dro da

Zalebi, vidre literaturul saqmianobis sxva nebismier sferos) da xelovanis erTsa da imave ti ps miekuTvnebian. bunebrivia, Tavisi Sexedulebebi Semoqmedis bunebasa da mis temperamentze mweralma swored am personaJSi ganasaxiera. somerset moemi miiCnevda, rom yoveli xelovnisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Taviseburi `SemoqmedebiTi instinqti~, raRac Zala, romelic imorCilebs mas. magram TviT moemi im xelovanTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, romelTac ara marto gare samyaros analizi ZaluZT, aramed sakuTari Tavisac. aseTivea misi gmiric. dawvrilebiT aRwers moemi Tavis gmirs _ portretul suraTxati misTvis fsiqologiuri daxasiaTebis erT-erTi saSualebaa. julias samsaxiobo kariera dasawyisSive hqonda gadawyvetili, hqonda dauokebeli survili _ daufleboda yvela profesiul Cvevas, TavdaviwyebiT emuSava sakuTar Tavze. Tandayolili niWi mas saSualebas aZlevda, warmatebiT gadmoeca sxvisi grZnobebi da ganwyobilebebi, scenaze warmoeCina Tanamedrove sametyvelo stili, azri mieniWebina piesis umniSvnelo frazebisTvisac ki, magram julia ver TamaSobda Seqspiris gmirebs, ibneoda didi ingliseli dramaturgis mravalferovan azrTa da vnebaTa samyaroSi _ msaxiobi sruliad gansxvavebul sulier samyaroSi cxovrobda amitom, igi TiTqmis arasodes TamaSobda klasikur rolebs klasikur piesebSi. igi mis TanamedroveTa saxeebs egzaltirebisa da zedmeti naturalizmis gareSe qmnida. moemis Rrma rwmeniT, dauRalavi Sroma aucilebelia talantis realizaciisaTvis. msaxiobis `xelobas usazRvro moTmineba sWirdeba. xSirad imedgacruebac mosdevs~, _ wers igi Tavis TxzulebaSi `Sejameba~. warmateba iSviaTad ewveva xolme msaxiobs, radgan igi mTlianad mayurebelzea damokidebuli: igi SeiZleba brbos kerpad iqces da SeiZleba _ yvelasagan daviwyebuli, SimSiliT mokvdes. romanis erTerTi gmiris, reJisor jim lengatinis dasi Zalian bevrs iRwvoda imisaTvis, rom ubralod speqtakli ki ar `warmoedgina~ mayureblisaTvis, aramed scenaze ecxovra da namdvili x el o v neb a S e eq m na . da s i s y v el a w ev r i g r Zno b da

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pasuxismgeblobas. `reJisoroba rTuli saqmea. es xelobaa da, Tu gnebavT, xelovnebac, romlis miRwevac did garjas moiTxovs~1 _ aRniSnavda moemi. reJisori warmarTavs msaxiobis TamaSs, Tvalyurs adevnebs, rom misma individualurma Tvisebebma ar daarRvios speqtaklis kanonzomiereba. mTavarma gmirma juliam kargad icis, Tu ris fasad aRwevs msaxiobi didebas da aRiarebas. igi RimiliT uyurebs maT, vinc moxiblulia misi warmatebiT. romanSi aris pasaJebi, sadac moemis antiTezaa gacxadebuli imis Sesaxeb, rom msaxiobis cxovrebis garemomcveli romantikuli Saravandedis miRma dafaruli daucxromeli Ziebebi, Seupovari Sromis Sepirispirebas emyareba. mwerali iyenebs antiTezas, rogorc erT-erT ZiriTad gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebas, romliTac amZafrebs konfliqts sazogadoebasa da msaxiobs Soris. Teatraluri xelovnebis moemiseuli koncefcia, faqtobrivad, aRebulia frangi ganmanaTleblis, deni didros, traqtatidan `paradoqsi aqtiorze~. moemi ise safuZvlianad amuSavebs msaxiobis Semoqmedebis kanonebis Sesaxeb am traqtatis ZiriTad debulebebs, rom mis romans SeiZleba didros Teatraluri naSromis `romanizacia~ ewodos. TiToeuli debuleba TiTqos Semowmebulia cxovrebiseuli da scenuri gamocdilebiT da swored amitomac iZens gansakuTrebul damajereblobas. deni didro am traqtatSi msjelobs ara mxolod scenis, aramed SemoqmedebiTi kanonebis Sesaxeb, ubralod, msaxiobis magaliTi didros yvelaze Sesaferisad moeCvena: msaxiobi, mxatvrisa da mwerlisagan gansxvavebiT, iZulebulia, yovel saRamos gaimeoros Tavisi roli. swored aq vlindeba, didros azriT, yvelaze naTlad racionalurisa da emociuris urTierTmimarTeba xelovnis pirovnebaSi, cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas, msaxiobis pirovnebasa da mis mier scenaze Seqmnil saxes Soris arsebuli damokidebulebis xarisxi da forma. Tanac Znelia sxva iseTi dargis povna, sadac urTierTobebi xelovansa da imaT Soris, visTvisac iqmneba misi xelovneba, ase uSualo da mWidro iqneboda. artisti xalxis

TandaswrebiT qmnis da sakuTari Tavis Semowmebis SesaZlebloba am SemTxvevaSi Zalze didia. julia lamberti imitom axerxebs morigi gmiris vnebebis mayureblamde mitanas, rom TviTon scenaze ar ganicdis WeSmarit vnebebs _ igi mxolod ostaturad gamoxatavs maT. swored amaSi xedavda didro msaxiobis xelovnebis paradoqss. mas, rasakvirvelia, esmoda, rom arsebobs sxva ti pis msaxiobebic, magram upiratesobas aniWebda maT, vinc civi gonebiT TamaSobda. msaxiobi, didros azriT, Tavis speqtakls mayureblis winaSe dReSi mxolod ori-sami saaTis ganmavlobaSi TamaSobs. mayurebeli ki dilidan saRamomde TamaSobs speqtakls, TamaSobs mas emociurad da TavdaviwyebiT. msaxiobi k,i mxolod Tvalyurs adevnebs, aanalizebs da imaxsovrebs, raTa saRamos es yvelaferi scenaze Semoitanos da kvlavac gvaiZulos msgavsi grZnobebi ganvicadoT. didros mixedviT, xelovnis umaRlesi ti pi aris adamiani, r omelic dajildoebulia dakvirvebisa da vnebaTa zusti gadmocemis unariT, mayurebels isini WeSmarit vnebebad warmouCenia. isini mzad arian, ufro metad Tanaugrnon gmirebs scenaze, vidre cxovrebaSi, radganac cxovrebaSi vnebebi xSirad araesTetikuria, xelovneba ki cxovrebas Seisisxlxorcebs da kidec xvews mas. moemi eTanxmeba didros, magram mas mSvenivrad esmis, rom didro iseve, rogorc sxva polemisti, Tavisi azris ukidures gamoxatulebas gvTavaozbs. igi svams kiTxvas: Tuki msaxiobi Tavis masalas obieqtur realobaSi eZebs, maSin ratom ar aqvs mas ufleba sakuTari Tavic, rogorc adamiani, am realobis nawilad CaTvalos? xom ar aris sakuTari Tavis Secnoba cxovrebis Secnobis nawili? didro aRniSnavda, rom msaxiobs SeuZlia ganasaxieros nebismieri xasiaTi, vinaidan sakuTaris gansaxierebis unari ar gaaCnia. moemi mas am sakiTxSi ar eTanxmeba, magram imavdroulad mas esmis, Tu ramdenad Taviseburia `xasiaTis cneba~ msaxiobisaTvis _ adamianisaTvis, romelic mudam `uTvalTvalebs~ sxvebs da sakuTar Tavsac, romelic afiqsirebs Tavis emociebs da profesiuli sizustiT gansazRvravs Tavisi sityvebisa da qcevebis efeqts.

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moemi Tavis gmirs sastik gamocdas uwyobs: igi gamoacdevinebs mas siyvaruls Zalze umniSvnelo, SeiZleba iTqvas, usaxuri adamianis mimarT. arsebiTad, julia sulieri ganviTarebis garkveul etaps gadis, klerki tomi ki statistia mis gverdiT, meti araferi. julia varskvlavia, romelic alalbedad Sekowiwebul dasSi TamaSobs. magram rogor unda iTamaSo, rodesac garSemo mxolod uniWo msaxiobebi gaxvevia da mTeli am drois manZilze julia Tavisi meore cxovrebiT cxovrobs _ sceniT. aq ikveTeba moemis Teoriul naSromebSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac xelovneba cxovrebis ubedurebis nugeSs, samyaros simkacrisagan xsnasa da yvela ubedurebisagan TavSesafars warmoadgens. 2 marTlac, Tavdapirvelad Tavis gmirebad gardasaxvaSi, yovel saRamos individualobis SecvlaSi julia poulobda Svebas, xsnas Tavisi sulieri siyvarulisagan. Semdeg Tavisi namdvili tanjva scenaze gadaitana da Zalian cudad daiwyo TamaSi. moemi, iseve rogorc didro, darwmunebulia, rom roli sruliadac ar iqmneba scenaze da erTaderTi emocia, romelic msaxiobisaTvis dasaSvebia scenaze, aris TviT SemoqmedebiTi procesiT tkboba. moemi xelovnis SemoqmedebiT Zalas upirispirebs `maRali~ sazogadoebis warmomadgenelTa inteleqtualur parazitizms, romlebsac ar esmiT, ra aris WeSmariti siyvaruli da zneobrioba. moemi ar malavs Tavis siZulvils maT mimarT, aCvenebs aristokratiis TviTkmayofilebasa da klanurobas, mis angarebasa da meSCanur SezRudulobas, `bohemisaken~ yalb ltolvas, rac sinamdvileSi am sazogadoebas `pewis~ SesanarCuneblad sWirdeba. moemisaTvis axlobelia mousvenari adamiani, romelic cdilobs gaeqces cxovrebis prozas Semoqmedebisa da ocnebis samyaroSi, daundobelma sinamdvilem kidec rom gaTelos igi. `Teatris~ mTavari personaJisa da misi garemomcveli sazogadoebis urTierTmimarTebaSi areklilia moemis koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac pirovnebasa da sazogadoebas Soris garkveuli dauwereli SeTanxmebaa dadebuli. meore mxriv, julias saqcieli romanSi Seesatyviseba gaucxoebis Teorias, iRebs bolomde arc moemi uaryofs.

sabolood, julia mainc ver Rebulobs siamovnebas sakuTari egoisturi qcevebisagan, rac mxatvruli gamoxatulebaa moemis im mosazrebisa, rom adamianis sixaruli da bedniereba mxolod Tanaziari SeiZleba iyos.3 moems gansa kuTrebiT xelovnebisa da realobis urTierTmimarTeba ainteresebs. is darwmunebulia, rom xelovnebis sawyisi cxovrebaSia saZiebeli, igi sinamdviles gamosaxavs, magram ar Semoifargleba mSvenierebis fenomeniT. xelovnebas Tavad SeuZlia gaakeTos seriozuli aRmoCenebi adamianis Sinagani samyaros Secnobis sferoSi, Cawvdes yofierebis arss. amrigad, moemi roman `TeatrSi~ Tavis ideaTa kompleqss mxatvrul saxeTa sistemiT, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Rrma fsiqologizmiT, saintereso siuJetiT, weris cocxali da daxvewili maneriT gamoxatavs. mTavari gmiris mxatvrul saxeSi erTmaneTs erwymis sxvadasxva Cveva da Tviseba, kontrastuli, urTierTgamomricxavi Taviseburebebi. mxatvruli saxeebis srulyofisaTvis romanSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba logikurad gamarTul da leqsikurad mdidar enas. sada stili, daxvewili, keTilxmovani da naTeli frazebi, zedmeti `ornamentebisagan~ Tavisufali mxatvruli qsovili mowmobs, rom avtori klasikuri realizmis tradiciebs agrZelebs da sinamdvilis asaxvis realisturi princi pebis erTgulia.

1. moemi s., `Sejameba~, inglisuridan Targmna z. gaCeCilaZem, Tbilisi, 1986, gv. 116. 2. W.S. Maugham, "Theatre", 2005. 3.ix.: n. imedaSvili. `xelovneba da xelovani somerset moemis romanebSi, quTaisi, 2005.

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XVIII saukunis bolos parizis revoluciurma quxilma eqosaviT gadauara mTel evropas. safrangeTis gamaTavisuflebelma ideebma udidesi gavlena moaxdina evropul azrovnebaze da ara marto Secvala saxelmwifoebrivi formebi, aramed saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi dadgenil sazogadoebriv warmodgenaTa da SexedulebaTa mTeli sistema gardaqmna. daiwyo Zvel RirebulebaTa gadasinjva, Seicvala sulieri faseulobebi. bunebrivia, la-manSis meore mxares mdebare didi britaneTi, romelsac safrangeTis revoluciis dasawyisisTvis gadatanili hqonda qariSxliani samrewvelo revolucia da mZlavr kapitalistur saxelmwifos warmoadgenda, gulgrili ver darCeboda mis mezoblad mimdinare movlenebisadmi. XIX saukunis pirvel aTeulSi did britaneTSi gaiSala saxalxo-gamaTavisuflebeli moZraoba, romelsac ajanyebaTa mTeli jaWvi mohyva, da romelic sastikad iqna CaxSobili mTavrobis mier. XVIII-XIX saukuneebis mijnaze Seqmnili mdgomareobiT SemoqmedTa ukmayofilebis SegrZneba, uimedo ganwyoba, sasowarkveTa da e. w. `kosmiuri pesimizmi~ `msoflio kaeSanSi~ gadaizarda da biZgi misca axali mZlavri kulturul-msoflmxedvelobrivi mimarTulebis ­ romantizmis _ warmoSobas.1 ganxeTqileba arsebul sinamdvilesa da warmosaxvas Soris, sakuTari idealebis Zieba religiis, xelovnebis, bunebis, folkloris samyarosa da istoriul warsulSi, yvelgan iq, sadac ar iqmneboda yoveldRiuri proza, merkantiluri, `saRad~ moazrovne Tanamedroveoba _ aseTi iyo romantikuli msoflaRqmis erT-erTi Tavisebureba. romantikos SemoqmedTa ZiriTadi Tema individualobiT gamorCeul pirovnebas ukavSirdeba, gmirs, romelic ver urigdeba arsebul sinamdviles da mis gardaqmnas cdilobs, Tumca xSirad igi sazogadoebrivi usulgulobis gamo damarcxebisTvis aris ganwiruli. romantizmma gansakuTrebiT mZafri forma inglisur

literaturaSi miiRo da araerTi araordinaruli da saintereso Semoqmedi SesZina msoflio literaturas, romelTa Soris gansakuTrebul adgils ikavebs uiliam bleiki _ poeti, mxatvari, graviori, musikosi. is Tavis TavSi aerTianebda modernis stilisa da futurizmis Soreul winamorbeds _ bleiki werda leqsebs, tvifravda graviurebs, romelTac teqstebiT amkobda, akvarelis saRebavebiT aferadebda naxatebs, anu, Tavad qmnida sakuTar foliantebs, romlebic erTi saukuniT win uswreben rusi futuristebis e. w. `saavtoro wignebs~. aRsaniSnavia, rom u. bleiki metad mistikur garemoSi gaizarda. mas bavSvobidanve hqonia ucnauri xilvebi, romelTa realobac Turme sococxlis bolomde swamda. amiT ki man SeSlilisa da saswaulmoqmedis saxeli daimkvidra sazogadoebaSi. uiliam bleiks sistemuri ganaTleba ar miuRia, magram bevrs kiTxulobda da bavSvobidanve icnobda mistikosi svedenborgis, idealisti platonis da ganmanaTleblobis epoqis deistur filosofias; kiTxulobda Seqspirs, miltons, Catertons; icnobda romael da berZen poetebs, gansakuTrebiT xiblavda vergiliusis, ovidiusis da ariostos Semoqmedeba; Seiswavla berZnuli da Zvelebrauli enebi, raTa originalSi waekiTxa biblia, sicocxlis bolos ki italiursac daeufla, rom ukeT Cawvdomoda dantes `RvTaebrivi komediis~ idumalebas da misTvis ilustraciebi Seesrulebina. siRaribe, martooba, dauRalavi Sroma u. bleikis cxovrebis Tanamgzavrebi iyvnen. `profiti verasodes gabedavs gadmoabijos Cems zRurbls~, _ naRvlianad werda igi Tavis erT-erT megobars. Tanamedrove inglisis oficialuri sazogadoebrivi azri an saerTod ignorirebas uwevda mas, an ise uyurebda, rogorc sulierad daavadebuls, magram, miuxedavad amisa, bleiki TavgamodebiT icavda sakuTar sulier damoukideblobas, `inglisSi imas ki ar kiTxuloben, adamiani niWieri da genialuri Tu aris, aramed imas, Tu ramdenad wynari, zrdilobiani da keTilia, rogorc viri; Tu iziarebs didebulTa Sexedulebebs xelovnebasa da mecnierebaze, Tu asea, maSin is kargia, Tu arada, dae, mokvdes mSieri~, _ werda bleiki.2 uiliam bleikis poezia, mxatvroba da grafika sazogadoebrivi usamarTlobisadmi erTgvari gamowveva iyo. am usamarTlobas

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poeti mTeli cxovreba ebrZoda. XVIII saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisisTvis bleiki londonel `iakobinelTa~ revoluciur wres miekuTvneboda da udidesi TanagZnobiT adevnebda Tvals safrangeTSi mimdinare movlenebs. igi demonstraciulad dadioda londonis quCebSi Tavisuflebis emblemiT _ wiTeli qudiT, xvdeboda revoluciur_propagandistuli organizaciis warmomadgenlebs, megobrobda cnobili filosofiur-politikuri traqtatis _ `politikuri samarTlianobis~ avtorTan _ uiliam goldvinTan, da saxelmoxveWil publicistTan, `adamianis uflebebis~ avtor Tomas peinTan. 1789-1794 wlebiT TariRdeba u. bleikis umniSvnelovanesi poeturi nawarmoebi `simRerebi adamianis umankoebisa da gamocdilebis Sesaxeb~. saTaurSive gamoCnda ori urTierTsawinaaRmndego cnebis, umankoeba-gamoucdelobis gamocdilebasTan dapirispireba. krebulis kompoziciac amasve esadageba: TiTqmis yvela leqss, romelic pirvel ciklSi, _ `umankoebis simRerebSi~ Sedis, aqvs Tavisi kontr-wyvili meore ciklSi _ `gamocdilebis simRerebSi~. `umankoebis simRerebSi~ dedamiwa daxatulia rogorc mSvidobisa da mxiarulebis samefo, sadac mTavari moqmedi gmirebi bavSvebi arian. maTi guliTadoba, mimndobloba, mxiaruleba poetis warmosaxvaSi aRiqmeba, rogorc adamianis bunebis saukeTeso da bunebrivi gamovlena. am leqsebSi bedniereba warmogvidgeba rogorc yoveli cocxali arsebis normaluri mdgomareoba. amiT bleiki mWidrod ukavSirdeba ganmanaTlebelTa humanur tradiciebs, romelTa mixedviT bednierebaze adamianis ufleba bunebrivi da kanonzomieri movlenaa. rac Seexeba `gamocdilebis simRerebs~, aq mkveTrad aris darRveuli harmoniuloba. Rrma Sinagani dramatizmi gansazRvravs orive lirikuli ciklis Tanafardobas. poeti TiTqos sakuTar Tavs ekamaTeba: is, rac damtkicebulia pirvel ciklSi, uaryofilia meoreSi. `gamocdilebis simRerebSi~ Zirfesvianad icvleba cxovrebisadmi damokidebuleba. `adamiani iZens gamocdilebas, imas, rac Tavisi ganviTarebis pirvel stadiaSi aklda da risi naklebobac mis arsebobas safrTxes uqadda. adamiani iZens movlenaTa gacnobirebis unars, magram amas igi meore ukiduresobamde mihyavs da simarTles mxolod erTi, cudi mxridan xedavs maSin, roca

ganviTarebis pirvel stadiaSi mxolod karg nawils aRiqvamda [...] axla ki, adamiani vardSi eklebs arCevs, ubedurebaSi _ cremlebs~. yvela adamianSi, bleikis filosofiis mixedviT, arsebobs RmerTi, romelic adamianis cnobierebis mesame napirze imyofeba da romelsac adamiani mxolod damoukidebeli ganviTarebiT Tu miagnebs. damoukidebel ganviTarebas ki adamiani im idealur donemde mihyavs, romliskenac mudam iswrafvoda bleiki. misTvis idealuri adamiani warmosaxvis, anu xilvis, udidesi unariT aris dajildoebuli da maSin aris is RmerTis toli. magram sad aris an ra aris is, rac adamians RmerTis simaRlemde aiyvans?! sad aris is unari, romelic adamians Tavis TavSi RmerTs apovninebs?! bleikis azriT, yvela CvenganSi aris RmerTi, romelmac es sulieri metamorfozebi gaiara, magram ise, rom ganviTarebis arcerTi stadia ar daukargavs. `RmerTi Semoqmedia da is arsebobs yvela sulier arsebaSi [...] RmerTi erTaderTia da is xilulia ieso qristeSi.~ bleikis gagebiT ieso arc warsulSia, rogorc istoriuli ieso da arc momavalSi, rogorc mesia, aramed igi aris axla, realur awmyoSi, romelic realuri warsulisa da realuri momavlis Semcvelia.3 Tu sxva ingliseli romantikosi poetebi TavianT SemoqmedebaSi mimarTavdnen Zveli civilizaciebis (induri, berZnuli, romauli, ebrauli) miTologiur saxeebs, uiliam bleiki sakuTar miTologias qmnis da es miTologiuri fantastika aranair CarCoSi ar Tavsdeba. u. bleiki Tavisi gviani periodis erT-erTi nawarmoebis SesavalSi werda: `Zvirfaso mkiTxvelo, Seminde imis gamo, rasac, iqneb, ar eTanxmebi, da Semiyvare im energiisTvis, romelsac me Cems niWs, Cems samuSaos vaxmar.~ misi energia ukidegano masStabebs iZenda mxatvrobaSic. klasicizmTan aSkara kavSiris miuxedavad, bleiki am stils upirispirdeboda. marTalia, isic irCevda soflis siuJetebsa da maradiul Temebs, uars ambobda batalur scenebze, misi gmirebic mxatvrobasa da grafikaSi gadmodiodnen dantes da miltonis poeziidan, magram bleikis SemoqmedebisTvis rokokosa da barokosken mibruneba iyo damaxasiaTebeli. bleiki-mxatvrisTvis gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia xazi. Tu klasicistebTan es xazi warmoadgens moculobaTa mkacrad dadgenil sazRvars da ganuyofelia figurisa da sagnisagan, bleikTan es xazi gvevlineba

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rogorc sulieri sawyisis matarebeli. xazis gaTavisuflebis es procesi dakavSirebulia u. bleikis ferweris kidev erT TaviseburebasTan: figurebi mis kompoziciaSi xdebian usxeuloni, amitom isini saocrad eleganturni da moqnilni arian. `jojoxeTis karibWeSi~ (dantes `RvTaebrivi komediis~ ilustraciebi) Cven ukve ganvasxvavebT bevr iseT niSans, romelic SemdgomSi modernis stils gansazRvravs: kompozicia simetriulia, xazobrivi ritmi TiTqmis Trgunavs ornamentis gamosaxulebas, figurebis daxrilobasa da Jestebis xasiaTs, Semoaqvs `goTikuri~ egzaltaciis momenti. es erTgvari erTianobaa cocxalTa da m kvdarTa sam yaro si. saint ereso a bleikis m ier `winaswarmetyveluri wignis~ ilustraciebisTvis Seqmnili urizenis boroti saxe _ civi da momakvdinebeli despoti, romelmac daimona yovelive cocxali... bleikis naxatze urizeni warmodgenilia, rogorc mkacri moxuci, romlis mTavari atributia saswori da fargali. is zomavs da wonis yovelive arsebuls da surs daimonos mTeli samyaro, magram urizenis winaaRmdeg aRdgebian cecxlis, sinaTlis da Tavisuflebis stiqiuri Zalebi. Cven winaSe urTierTsawinaaRmdego ZalTa konfliqti iSleba, romelic sabolood urizenis mkvdar, umoZrao samefoze gamarjvebiT mTavrdeba.4 aseTi iyo ocneba uiliam bleikisa. masze saukune naxevris Semdeg daweren: `arsebulan adamianebi, visac momavli, mermisi satrfosebr hyvarebiaT da masac Tavisi sunTqva maTi sunTqvisTvis Seurevia, Tavisi Tma maTTvis Semouxvevia, raTa TavianTi droisTvis Seucnobadi darCeniliyvnen.~5

`qarTuli qoreografiis mkvlevari~

naSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiT. statiebis stili daculia. programis xelmZRvaneli _ anano samsonaZe

1. ix.: i. sariSvili. bleiki da romantizmi, Jurn. `saunje~, #1. Tbilisi, 1987. 2. Willson. H. The life of William Blake. 1948. 3. ix.: i. sariSvili. adamianis faqtori u. bleikis SemoqmedebaSi, Jurn. `saunje~. #6. Tbilisi, 1987. 4. . . . 1960. 5. ix.: m. maisuraZe, `adamianis idea da xati u. bleikis SemoqmedebaSi~, Jurn. `saunje~, #1. Tbilisi, 1987.

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aleko gelaSvili parizis cekvis samefo akademia _ misi warmatebuli da warumatebeli mxareebi XVII saukunis dasawyisisTvis safrangeTSi, samefo karis cekvebi, Tavisi ganviTarebis axal fazaSi Sevida. cekvis i ta l i u r i tr a di c i eb i , ` pa v a neb i ~ , ` g a l ia r deb i ~ , TviTmaswavleblebis _ karozos da negris _ meTodebi TandaTanobiT daviwyebas mieca. warmoiSva axali cekvebi, romlebic ufro kargad gamoxatavdnen grZnobebs, harmonias moZraobis proporciebsa da musikas Soris, sxeulis plastikas da sxva. samefo karis mejlisebze icvleboda sacekvao figurebi. popularuli gaxda qalisa da vaJis mier wyvilSi Sesrulebuli cekva. idgmeboda saerTo cekva, sadac erTdroulad monawileobda ramdenime wyvili. sacekvao praqtikaSi gaCnda sxvadasxva provinciis xalxis cekva: `espanuri sarabanda~, `gavoti~, `bure~, `rigodoni~ da mTeli jaWvi axali saxis cekvebisa, romelTa Soris mefobda cekva `menueti~. xalxidan aRebuli cekvebis rTuli agebuleba gamartivda, gadaiqca yvelasaTvis misaReb formad da arsebobis uflebac gadakeTebuli da Selamazebuli saxiT miiRo. aseTi gzebiT ibadeboda axali wyviluri cekvebi ludoviko XIV saukuneSi. am movlenebisadmi xalxis ganwyoba orgvari iyo: iyvnen iseTebi, romlebic emxrobodnen axal procesebs da iseTebic, romlebic siaxleebs ewinaaRmdegebodnen. maT, piriqiT, moswondaT cekvebis pirvandeli saxe. magaliTad moviyvanT qalbaton de sevinis werilis fragments, romelsac gvacnobs sergei xudiokovi Tavis wignSi `cekvebis istoria~: `me saSinlad gulnawyeni var imiT, rom Sen ar SegiZlia dainaxo provinciebSi, rogor cekvaven bures. es sruliad gasaocaria! ubralo glexebi avlenen iseT grZnobas ritmisa, simsubuqisa da mxatvrulobisa, rom, erTi sityviT, me aRtacebuli var!~1 magram iyo meore mxare, romelic zrunavda sacekvao

xelovnebis daxvewaze, srulyofaze da misi erTi meTodis qveS gaerTianebaze. am mxares warmoadgendnen mocekvaveebi, cekvis maswavleblebi, baletmaisterebi da TviT ludoviko XIV. swored ludoviko XIV-is TaosnobiT da brZanebiT 1661 wels parizSi iqmneba `cekvis samefo akademia~. igi Sedgeboda sabWosgan, romelsac meTaurobda direqtori (pirvelad ­ p. boSani, Semdeg ­ l. pekuri). sabWoSi Sedioda cekvis 13 specialisti ­ baletmaisteri (im dros e. w. ­ cekvis maswavlebeli), romelTac daevalaT cekvebis swavlebis zrunvapatronoba. aq uSvebdnen di plomirebul kadrebs. akademiis damTavrebulebs akademikosebi ewodebodaT. cekvis samefo akademia dakavebuli iyo samefo karisa da saxasiaTo cekvebis modifikaciiT. aq moxda baletis safuZvlis, anu, misi xuTi ZiriTadi poziciis SemuSaveba da dakanoneba. 1780 wels cekvis samefo akademiam arseboba Sewyvita. `uarmyofelni yvelanairi saxis akademiisa gvirCeven, rom cekvis akademiac ar iZleva dadebiT Sedegs, radgan arc erT maswavlebels ar SeuZlia gamoigonos cekva, romelic didi xniT darCeba sicocxlisunariani.~2 Jan Jak noveri wignSi `werili cekvebis da baletebis Sesaxeb~ akademias konservatizmSi adanaSaulebs. 3 mas umarTebulad miaCnia aq SemuSavebuli cekvis Caweris xelovnebis ­ qoreografiis _ arsi da amocanebi. Tvlis, rom cekvis xelovnebis Caweris aseTi saxe aucilebeli iyo pirvel xanebSi, rodesac cekva jer kidev emorCileboda mkacr kanonebs da Sedgeboda arc Tu ise didi raodenobis elementebisagan. mogvianebiT ki, rodesac, `pa~ gaxda rTuli, es sirTule gaormagda da gasammagda. Sesabamisad rTuli aRmoCnda misi gamosaxva werilobiT da ufro rTuli - misi gaSifrva. garda amisa, es meTodi arasrulyofilia: magaliTad, Tu zustad aris Cawerili erTi mxriv, mxolod fexebis moZraoba, meore mxriv, ar aris aRniSnuli xelebis mdgomareoba da maTi Canaxati. ar aris naCvenebi aseve korpusis mdgomareoba, brunebi, Tavis mdgomareoba, gansxvavebuli manerebi imisa, Tu rogor

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unda daiWiro korpusi ama Tu im cekvis Sesabamisad. cekvis akademiis Tavdapirvel mizans warmoadgenda sacekvao xelovnebis dacemis Tavidan arideba da swrafi moqmedeba mis ganviTarebaze. magram droTa ganmavlobaSi imis nacvlad, rom misi saSualebiT dabadebuliyo axali sacekvao moZraobebi, figurebi, suraTebi, pozebi, piriqiT ­ aq imeorebdnen cnobili mocekvaveebis: diupres, kamargos, lanis da sxvaTa mier Seqmnil sacekvao figurebs, romlebic ar Seicavdnen arafers axals, garda warsulSi talantebis mier Seqmnili pirveladi Strixebisa da gamovlinebebisa. amgvarad, `cekvis akademia gadaixara misi Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobidan, daemsgavsa dumilis monasters da akldamas, sadac talantebi ganisveneben~.4 miuxedavad amisa, parizis cekvis samefo akademiis arsebobis istoria saukuneze met xans gagrZelda. misi daniSnuleba iyo warmoadgenda Tvalyuris devneba sacekvao xelovnebis swor moZraobaze. Tu iqmneboda raime axali forma, xalxuri cekvebidan, is Serwymuli iyo drois sulTan da masebis gemovnebasTan. akademiis amocana iyo mkacrad SeenaxaT is esTetikuri idealebi, romlis wyalobiTac qoreografiam gamokveTili adgili daikava xelovnebis dargebs Soris. swored am dawesebulebis meSveobiT qoreografia oficialurad aRiarebul iqna xelovnebad. garda amisa, aq erTmaneTisagan gamoiyo salonuri da sasceno cekvebi. xalxidan aRebuli `branlebi~, `bure~ da sxva cekvebi sxvadasxva variantad idgmeboda. Tumca saTeatro warmodgenebi mTlianad gadmocemdnen Zvel sacekvao formebs, magram Semsruleblebi am warmodgenebSi mainc cvlidnen cekvis adrindel temps Tavisi SesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare. qoreografiis samyaroSi gamobrwyinda maSindeli cnobili mocekvaveebis saxelebi: boSani, pekuri, baloni, a'etapa, diupre, rac axlad daarsebuli akademiis damsaxureba iyo. akademia agreTve zrunavda qoreografiuli literaturis ganviTarebaze, romelsac XVIII saukunidan hyavda uamravi warmomdageneli. maTi meSveobiT WeSmaritad SeiZleba Tvali

mivadevnoT qoreografiuli xelovnebis ganviTarebis gzebs. tuano arbos `orxesografiis~ Semdeg TiTqmis mTeli aswleulis ganmavlobaSi ar gamocemula arc erTi wigni, sadac mocemuli iqneboda `traqtatebi~ qoreografiis Sesaxeb. mxolod 1682 wels gamoCnda mcire zomis nawarmoebi, `Zveli da axali baletebi Teatris kanonebis mixedviT~, romlis avtori iyo menetrie,Mmagram arc am gamocemaSi aris saubari xelovnebis ganviTarebaze. igi gadmogvcems mxolod keTil rCevebs Tu rogor unda SeTxza baleti, magram cekvis teqnikis Sesaxeb ­ arc erT sityvas. XVIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi gamoCnda ramdenime saintereso qoreografiuli naSromi. 1700 wels gamoica `cekvis aRweris xelovneba niSnebis saSualebiT~. wignis avtorad raul oJe felie gvevlineba. igi iyo cekvis maswavlebeli, romelmac es naSromi miuZRvna pekuris _ mocekvavesa da baletis damdgmels musikis akademiaSi. raul oJe felie wignis winasityvaobaSi ambobs, rom misi niSnebis saSualebiT yvelas SeuZlia, masalebis gareSe iswavlos yvela saxis cekva. am ieroglifebis danaxvisTanave eWvi dagebadeba am gancxadebis simarTleSi, magram, yvelafris miuxedavad, felies Sromas aqvs udidesi damsaxureba. man warmoadginda misi drois cekvebis axali arqiteqturis gamomsaxvelobiTi suraTi da sufTa franguli sacekvao xelovnebis formebis dabadebis SegrZneba. garda amisa, aq vxvdebiT Semdegi saxis cnobebs: 1. XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi ludoviko XIV-is mefobis damTavrebis Semdeg, mTel evropaSi cekvis teqnikam miaRwia mniSvnelovan ganviTarebas. samejliso cekvebs gamoeyo salonuri cekvebi kurantasTan da menuetTan erTad, romelTa SesrulebisTvis iswavleboda sakmaod mkacri kanonebi; 2. sabaleto nomrebma scenaze Secvales: `seriuli~ da `maRali~ cekvebi; moZraobebi, romlebic gamoyenebuli iyo `jigaxebSi~, `sarabandebSi~ da `SakonebSi~; dainerga sxvadasxva saxis `furi~, `an turnani~ da `kabrioli~; 3. amave dros maswavleblebma Seqmnes sxvadasxva

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moZraobisTvis sakmaod gafarToebuli franguli terminologia: `kupe~, `sote~, `rigodoni~, `balanse~, `asamble~, `tur de Sape~ da sxva. am terminebidan umetesoba isev arsebobs farTo gamoyenebiT sacekvao leqsikonSi. amdenad, franguli sacekvao skolis ena gaxda saerTaSoriso, xolo parizis akademia ­ kanonmdebeli mTeli qoreografiuli samyarosi. felies wignSi ganTavsebulia mis mier dadgmuli cekvebi, romelTa Sorisaa: `samyaros rigodoni~, `jiga-orisaTvis~, `sarabanda-kavalerebisa da damebisaTvis~, `folie de spane~, `kanaruli~ da bolos _ mTeli baleti. garda amisa, qoreografiuli niSnebiT gadmocemulia pekuris mier Seqmnili cekvebi, romlebic TviTon pekuris mier sruldeboda: `ka bure~, `de aCile~, `la marie~, `le pase pie~, `rigodoni~, `des visux~, `la savoie~, `la forlana~ da `la konti~. mTavari interesi felies wignisa imaSi mdgomareobs, rom aq miTiTebulia im faqtze, Tu rogor Camoyalibda XVIII saukuneSi sakmaod kargad agebuli cekvis xelovnebis swavlebis sistema. am dros arsebobda fexebis xuTi swori da xuTi araswori pozicia da TiToeuli maTgani aRiniSneboda gansxvavebuli niSnebiT. garda xuTi swori da xuTi araswori poziciisa felies sistemis arsi SemdegSi mdgomareobs: 1. iZleva sacekvao moedanze moZraobis gegmis pirobiT grafikul gamosaxulebas; 2. ileTis xasiaTs felie gadmogvcems grafikulad da maT yofs Semdeg saxeobebad: Ria, momrgvalebuli, zigzagiseburi, dakvriTi da a. S. yvela es ileTi SeiZleba Sesrulebuli iqnes `SigniT~ da `gareT~; 3. cekvis moZraobis xazs, musikalur taqtebTan SefardebiT, felie taqtebad yofs; 4. Canawers Tavze awers melodias.5 felies princi pebi didi xniT darCa xeluxlebeli, magram misi poziciebis analizisas unda iTqvas, rom isini sakmarisad ver uzrunvelyofda sacekvao xelovnebis srulyofas. garda

amisa, iyvnen iseTebic, magaliTad, cnobili artistebi: diupre da vestrisi` romlebic ar cnobdnen aranair poziciebs. isini adgendnen sakuTar poziciebs da avrcelebdnen maT, scildebodnen ra wignebSi daweril wesebs. ukve XVIII saukuneSi am artistebis SesaZleblobidan gamomdinare, aRmasvla ganicada moZraobis virtuozulobam. sabaleto warmodgenebisTvis mniSvnelovnad gafarTovda scena da msaxiobebs Tavisuflad SeeZloT, farTod gaeSalaT TavianTi Zalebi da SesaZleblobebi. rac Seexeba fexebis xuT, araswor pozicias ­ sacekvao praqtikam isini Tavidan `moisrola~, radgan fexebis mrude dadgma da xelebis arabunebrivi pozebi amaxinjebdnen korpusis didebul warmosadegobas da amis SemweobiT ikargeboda im xazebis harmonia, romelzec aigo klasikuri cekva. felies wignis Semdeg, 1725 wels, samefo akademiam pier ramos avtorobiT gamosca ori naSromi. pirveli naSromia `cekvis maswavlebeli~, sadac aRwerilia reveransis Teoria, dasamaxsovrebeli rCevebi, romelsac aswavlidnen 100 wlis win italielebi ­ negri da karozo. imavdroulad mocemulia `menuetis~ da `kurantas~ nabijebisa da figurebis saxeobebi. garda amisa, wigns TandarTuli aqvs ramdenime cxrili sadac mocemulia Tu rogor unda daikavo cekvis dros mtevnebi, xelebi, idayvebi da mxrebi. am wignis Semdeg ramom dawera `mokle saxelmZRvanelo~, sadac aRwera mTeli rigi salonuri cekvebi. am cekvebis Sesruleba gamosaxulia Zalian cud naxatze, romelsac xudiokovi Tavis wignSi `cekvis istoria~ gadmogvcems ramos wignidan, rogorc zusts, samefo karis mejlisis naturidan aRebul gauformebel asls.6 zemoT moyvanili qoreografiuli literatura garkveul warmodgenas gvaZlevs XVII-XVIII ss. sacekvao kulturis Sesaxeb. miuxedavad imisa, rom isini qoreografiuli xelovnebis ganviTarebisaTvis siaxleebis naklebobas ganicdian, TavianT adgils mainc imkvidreben qoreografiul literaturaSi, icaven ra cnobebs imdroindeli cekvebis, mocekvaveebisa da cekvis maswavleblebis ­ baletmaisterebis Sesaxeb.

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garda amisa, termini `qoreografia~, romelic dRes cekvis xelovnebas aRniSnavs, pirvelad moxseniebulia swored Cvens mier ganxilul raul oJe felies wignSi, sadac maSindeli mniSvnelobiT, termini `qoreografia~ aRniSnavs cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebis sistemas. amdenad, Cven mier warmodgenil statiaSi, mokled aris ganxiluli yvela is sakiTxi, romelic Seexeba parizis cekvis samefo akademias, mis warmatebul da warumatebel mxareebs, XVII-XVIII ss. sacekvao kulturas da amave drois qoreografiul literaturas. garda amisa, ar viZleviT dawvrilebiT informacias aq dasaxelebuli cekvebis istoriis Sinaarsisa Tu agebulebis Sesaxeb, ar mogvyavs imdroindeli mocekvaveebisa Tu baletmaisterebis farTo biografiuli da SemoqmedebiTi monacemebi, rac, Cveni azriT, Semdegi kvlevaZiebis sagans warmoadgens.

Eeka geliaSvili qaRaldze gadatanili cekva (cekvis Caweris sistemebi saqarTveloSi)

udidesma survilma, wamiT mainc SeCerebuliyo dro da moqmedeba, uZvelesi droidanve miiyvana xalxi cekvis Caweris meTodebis Seqmnis moTxovnilebamde. moZraobebis Casawerad adamianebi sxvadasxva niSnis gamoyenebas cdilobdnen. am miznisaTvis Zveli egvi ptelebi ieroglifebs iSveliebdnen, indoelebi ki _ skulpturul gamosaxulebebs klasikuri cekvis ZiriTadi mdgomareobebiT. Jestis Casawerad pirobiT niSnebs aseve xmarobdnen Zveli romaelebic. dRemde arsebuli masalebiT, dasavleT evropaSi aRmoCenili cekvis Caweris pirveli nimuSi XV saukunes miekuTvneba, romelic xelnaweris saxiT arsebobs. amave periodSi ukve dasturdeba margarita avstrielis `oqros basdansebis~ xelnaweric. Semdeg ukve Cndeba cekvis Caweris mcdelobis pirveli nabeWdi versia, romelic m. tuluzis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli. XVI saukuneSi cekvis Caweris winamorbed cdebze dayrdnobiT Tavisi sistema ufro ganaviTara frangma `tancmaisterma~ tuano arbom (es anagramaa namdvili saxelis Jan taburosi). fabricio karozom (1581) ki, pirvelma scada cekvis sqematuri aRwera grafikul formaSi.1 XVII saukunis bolodan da XVIII saukunis dasawyisidan frangma cekvis maswavleblebma da baletmaisterebma: pier boSanma, raul oJe feiem, p. ramom saTave daudes cekvis Caweris SedarebiT safuZvlian sistemebs. moZraobebis Casaweri srulyofili sistemis Seqmnisaken swrafvam, ioli da myari meTodebis Ziebis survilma specialistTa interesi kidev ufro gaaRrmava, ramac mravali sistemis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba. maT Soris sainteresoa frangi baletmaisteris artur miSel sen leonis (XIX s.) moZraobis Caweris sistema,2 fridrix albert cornis (1890) da vladimer stepanovis (XIX s.) sistemebi ruseTSi, avstrieli baletmaister rudolf fon labanis (romlis namdvili gvaria _ de varaliaSi (De Varaljas), 1938),3 rudolf

1. . . « », . , 1914, II, . 276. 2. . , « », 1981, .17. 3. . . . « », «», 1965 , . 242-254. 4. ix.: . . « », . , 1914, II. 5. a. TaTaraZe. `cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebi~, Tbilisi, 1966. gv.7. 6. . . « », . , 1914, II, . 278.

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beneSis (1955-1956), romlis sistemas gavrcelebis Semdeg `qoreologia~ ewoda;4 aseve _ karl blazisis, i. kulas, p. kontas, i. Siferis, f. delsarfis, s. babicasa da sxvaTa sistemebi. 1940 wels moskovSi gamoica srbui lisicianis naSromi `moZraobis Cawera~ (kinetografia), sadac avtori adamianis moZraobas Slis kinetikur akordebad da frazebad.5 am mravalricxovan sistemaTagan zogierTi maTgani grafikul niSnebs eyrdnoboda, zogi ki pirobiT sqematur figurebs, ilustraciul aRwerasa da sityvier Caweras. cekvis Casawerad grafikuli niSnebis gamoyenebasa da misi gamogonebis mcdelobas aqtualoba dRemde ar daukargavs. winamdebare naSromSi saqarTveloSi arsebuli cekvis Caweris sistemebis urTierTSedarebis safuZvelze maTi problematikis Ziebis mcdelobaa warmodgenili, rac qoreografiuli xelovnebis SeswavliT dainteresebulTaTvis metad mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia. saqarTveloSi cekvisa da misi moZraobebis Caweris mcdeloba pirvelad XIX saukunis miwuruls aleqsi aleqsiZis (sonRulaSvili, 1874-1934) saxels ukavSirdeba. pirvel profesional mocekvaves pretenzia ar gasCenia Caweris sistemis Camoyalibebaze, magram rogorc cda misi utilizaciisa dadasturebulia naSromSi `mTawmindeli mocekvave~.6 analogiuri daniSnulebiT cekvis Caweris mcdelobebi hqonda qoreograf buxuti daraxveliZesac.7 rac Seexeba cekvis grafikulad Caweris sistemas saqarTveloSi, is oria. es aris daviT javriSvilis `qarTuli cekvis Casaweri pirobiTi niSnebi~8 da avTandil TaTaraZis `cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebi~9. daviT javriSvilis sistema naSromis saxiT 1961 wels gamoica, miuxedavad imisa, rom jer kidev 1954 wels avtors ukve SemuSavebuli hqonda da misi swavleba-gamoyenebis eqsperimentsac atarebda Tbilisis mxatvruli TviTmoqmedebis kult-saganmanaTleblo saswavleblis qoreografiuli ganyofilebis mesame da meoTxe kursebze. rogorc Tavad aRniSnavda, eqsperimentma sakmaod warmatebiT Caiara. rac Seexeba avTandil TaTaraZis naSroms `cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebi~, igi 1966 wels daibeWda TbilisSi gamomcemloba `ganaTlebis~ mier.

cekvis Casaweri orive sistema iyenebs avtorTa mier gamogonebul pirobiT niSnebs, romlebic sanoto xazebze grafikulad iwereba. daviT javriSvilma iseve, rogorc avTandil TaTaraZem cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebisTvis SeimuSaves e.w. `gasaRebi~, sxeulis aRmniSvneli simboloebi, romelic am sistemaTa safuZvelia. daviT javriSvilis `gasaRebSi~ mocemulia ori vertikaluri paraleluri a a1, b b1, romelic Suaze kveTs or horizontalur paralelur xazs g g1, d d1-s. gadakveTil xazebs Soris mdebareobs oTxkuTxedi `evTz~. avtori pirobiTad iRebs, rom horizontaluri xazis g g1-s zemoT aRiniSneba Tavi da mklavebi, horizontaluri xazis d d1-is qvemoT _ qveda kidurebi, xolo oTxkuTxediT _ zetani. gasaRebis ufro TvalnaTliv warmosadgenad, avtori Slis mas Semadgenel nawilebad, ris Sedegadac viRebT adamianis sxeulis nawilebis aRmniSvnel pirobiT niSnebs. sxeulis aRmniSvneli `gasaRebi~ daaxloebiT amave princi piT aqvs damuSavebuli avTandil TaTaraZesac, oRond masTan gadamkveTi xazebi ar arsebobs da mis nacvlad gamoyenebulia geometriuli simboloebi. zetani TaTaraZesTan aRniSnulia wertiliani samkuTxediT, romelsac mobmuli aqvs Tavisive RerZi. kidurebic sxvagvari simboloebiT aRiniSneba, magram mTlianad gasaRebis agebis princi pi orivesTan msgavsia. daviT javriSvili, iseve rogorc av.TaTaraZe, zemoT mocemul gasaRebze dayrdnobiT iZlevian mxrebis, idayvebis, winamxrebis, majebis, mtevnebis, muxlebis, wvivebisa da sxeulis sxva nawilebis aRmniSvnel niSnebsac. pirveli ganmasxvavebeli niSani, rac TvalnaTliv SeimCneva am ori sistemis Sedarebisas, aris is, rom daviT javriSvilis sistema

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avTandil TaTaraZisagan gansxvavebiT gankuTvnilia mxolod qarTuli cekvebisa da misi moZraobebis Casawerad, xolo avTandil TaTaraZis sistemiT SesaZlebelia Caiweros ara mxolod qarTuli, aramed nebismieri kuTxisa da saxeobis cekva. d. javriSvilis sistemaSi mocemulia aseve mimarTulebaTa, moZraobaTa da mdgomareobaTa aRmniSvneli pirobiTi niSnebi. magaliTad: svlebi, Cakvrebi, gasmebi, xtomebi, cerileTebi, buqni, muxlileTebi, xelsarTavebi, mxarsarTavebi da sxva. igi sacekvao fragmentebis Caweras awarmoebs ori sxvadasxva xerxiT: striqonebad da xuT xazze Caweris meTodiT. xazebze Caweris dros moZraobas vkiTxulobT qvemodan zemoT, iseve rogorc s. lisicianTan10 pirvel xazze moTavsebulia qveda kidurebis moZraoba, sadac miTiTebulia konkretuli svlis niSani, meoreze Tavsdeba zetani, mesameze zeda kidurebi, meoTxeze Tavis mdgomareoba da mexuTeze moTavsebulia musikaluri notebi, romelic moZraobasTan SesabamisobaSi dayofilia taqtebad. rac Seexeba mTliani cekvis Caweras, aq javriSvili furclis gverds hyofs 8 Tanabar nawilad. mkiTxvelisgan marcxena mxares igi aTavsebs cekvis naxazs, romelsac gverdzeve grafikuli niSnebiT miuTiTebs am momentisTvis gaTvaliswinebul moZraobas. avtori iqve miuTiTebs musikalur taqtebsac. daviT javriSvils am sistemiT aRniSnul naSromSi Cawerili aqvs sami cekva, romlis aRdgena sistemis dawvrilebiTi Seswavlis Semdeg SesaZlebelia. magram imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom avtors niSnebi Seqmnili aqvs mxolod qarTuli cekvebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli moZraobebisTvis, rac ukve aRiniSna, SeuZlebeli xdeba sxva, araqarTuli cekvebis Cawera. garda amisa, is terminologia, romliTac sargeblobs avtori moZvelda da zogjer saerTod gaugebari xdeba, Tu ra moZraoba igulisxmeba ama Tu im niSnis qveS. naSromis meTodur miTiTebanSi aRniSnulia kidec, rom am niSnebis gamoyenebas SeZlebs mxolod is piri, romelmac icis qarTul xalxur ileTTa terminologia. es ki, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, did problemas uqmnis cekvis CaweriTa Tu misi aRdgeniT dainteresebul specilists. avTandil TaTaraZes, daviT javriSvilisagan gansxvavebiT, sistemaSi gamoyenebuli aqvs sxeulis sivrceSi gadaadgilebis

aRmniSvneli niSani, romelsac axorcielebs sivrcisaTvis damaxasiaTebel samganzomilebian RerZTa sistemaze. aqedan gamomdinare, igi advilad sazRvravs ara mxolod gadaadgilebis mimarTulebas, aramed sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilis moxrisa da gaSlis sididesac gradusis saSualebiT. a. TaTaraZe kidurebis aRsaniSnavad iyenebs sanoto sistemisTvis damaxasiaTebel pirobiT niSnebs sxvadasxva damatebiTi simboloTi, romelsac niSanSive miuTiTebs moxrisa da gaSlis sxvadasxva sididis aRmniSvnel simbolos. kidurebis am niSnebs igi Semdeg aerTianebs sanoto sistemis msgavsad damakavSirebeli xaziT. garda zeda da qveda kidurebis niSnebisa, avTandil TaTaraZe gvTavazobs Tavis, zetanis, moZraoba-mdgomareobaTa da mimarTulebaTa aRsaniSnavad gankuTvnil pirobiT niSnebs. mis Caweris sistemas, gansxvavebiT d. javriSvilisagan, esaWiroeba ori xuT xaziani sanoto sistema, romelTaganac qveda xazebze Caiwereba qveda kidurebis, zetanisa da Tavis, xolo zedaze _ mxolod zeda kidurebis moZraoba-mdgomareobani. pirobiTi niSnebi iwereba rogorc xazebze, aseve xazebs Soris. xazze iwereba mxolod is niSnebi, romlis drosac xdeba sxeulze an iatakze Sexeba, xolo xazebs Sua sivrceSi mdebare sxeulis nawili. xazebi aqac iseve, rogorc d. javriSvilTan iTvleba qvemodan zemoT da masac zeda damatebiT xazze emateba musikis sanoto masala dayofili taqtebad. sanoto sistemaze sxeulis moZraobis Cawera Semdegi wesiT xdeba: jer iwereba marjvena fexis, xolo Semdeg mis gverdiT _ marcxena fexis moZraobamdgomareoba. ganmarteba qveda kiduris muxlisa da koWis saxsarSi moZraoba-mdgomareobaTa Sesaxeb iwereba ZiriTadi niSnis Tavze Tanmimdevrulad marjvenisTvis, marjvenis gaswvriv, xolo marcxenisTvis _ marcxenas gaswvriv. zetanis mdgomareoba iwereba im fexis niSnebis gaswvriv, romel fexzecaa sxeulis simZimis centri. qveda kidurebis ZiriTad niSnebs Soris terfebis mdgomareoba SeiZleba daiweros maSin, rodesac isini erTmaneTTanaa SeerTebuli quslebiT, wverebiT, cerebiT an sxva, daSorebis SemTxvevaSi ki iwereba cal-calke. aseve asrulebs avtori Caweras zeda kidurebis aRmniSvnel niSnebs Sorisac. miuxedavad imisa, rom aseTi saxiT Cawerili cekvis aRdgena

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niSnebis Seswavlis Semdeg SesaZlebelia, es sakmaod did sirTules warmoadgens. sistemaSi yuradReba eqceva sxeulis nawilebis TiToeul, sul mcire cvalebadobasac ki. es, ra Tqma unda, profesionalurad miRebulia, magram auarebeli ucnobi niSnis damaxsovreba sakmaod rTulia. garda amisa, yovelive es ikavebs sakmaod did drosa da adgils. Cvens varauds kidev ufro asabuTebs is garemoeba, rom TviT sistemis avtorsac ki, arc erT gamocemul naSromSi, gamoyenebuli ar aqvs Tavis mierve Seqmnili cekvis grafikulad Caweris meTodi da is mxolod sityvieri aRweriT kmayofildeba. rogorc irkveva, cekvis Casaweri erTiani srulyofili sistemis gamogoneba, romelic daakmayofilebs profesionalur moTxovnebs da imavdroulad martivi da yvelasaTvis gasagebi iqneba, urTulesi problemaa. savaraudod, swored am mizezebis gamo ver daimkvidres Tavi grafikulad Caweris sistemebma. maTi arsebobis miuxedavad, praqtikul gamoyenebaSi kvlav cekvis aRweris sityvieri meTodi da Tanamedrove teqnikuri saSualebebi rCeba.

nino daraxveliZe cekvis dadgmis mosamzadebeli periodis reJisoruli kuTxiT gaazrebis sakiTxisaTvis qarTuli xalxuri qoreografia aTaswleulebs iTvlis. saukuneebTan erTad ganviTarda sasceno qoreografia, magram amasTan erTad dadga tradiciebis dakargvis saSiSroeba. Taobebis cvalebadobam da cxovrebis ritmma kidev ufro meti siaxle moiTxova. Tanamedrove mayurebels aRar akmayofilebs Zveli, mravaljer nanaxi da ukve Stampad qceuli qoreografiuli nimuSebi. adamianebs surT ixilon raRac axali, originaluri da saintereso. rogor unda Seiqmnas iseTi xelovnebis nimuSi, romelic mayureblis aRfrTovanebas daimsaxurebs da adamianebis gulebSi adgilis damkvidrebasTan erTad Semoqmedsac gauxangrZlivebs sicocxles? amisaTvis niWTan erTad Sromismoyvareoba da codnaa saWiro, magram ra gziT SeiZleba qoreografma miiRos ganaTleba, rodesac literatura qarTuli xalxuri qoreografiis Sesaxeb sakmaod mcirea? Tanamedrove qoreografma cekvis Seqmnamde, uSualod mis dadgmamde unda Seiswavlos qveynis istoria, geografia, wes-Cveulebebi da tradiciebi. TavisTavad, saWiroa safuZvliani codna qoreografiuli xelovnebis istoriaSi, musikis safuZvlebSi. sasurvelia ZiriTadi komponentebis: melodiis, ritmis, tempis, tembris, musikaluri frazis, periodis, bgeris grZliobis codna. yovelive amas Tu gemovnebac daemateba, Sedegad miviRebT Sinaarsian, tradiciebze aRmocenebul axal qoreografiul nimuSs, romelic Tanamedrove mayureblis moTxovnebs daakmayofilebs. qoreografis sadadgmo xelovneba Zalian hgavs reJisoris muSaobas. garda imisa, rom cekvac da speqtaklic emorCileba dramaturgiis kanonebs, cekvis dadgmisaTvis saWiro bevri etapi Zalian hgavs speqtaklisas. xelovnebis sxva dargebisgan gansxvavebiT Teatri da qoreografia sinTezuri, drosa da

1. ix.: baletis enciklopedia, iuri grigoroviCis redaqciiT, m., 1981. 2. . . , http://www.krugosvet.ru/articles/65/1006568/ print.htm 3. http://www.isra-trainings.com/articles/dance/laban_patterns.html 4. ix.: multimediuri enciklopedia, http://www.aggregateria.com/KH/ xoreografija.html 5. ., . (), . - ., 1940. 6. ix.: lili gvaramaZe. mTawmindeli mocekvave (al. aleqsiZesonRulaSvili), Tbilisi, 1962. 7. ix.: besik svaniZe. cekvisa da qcevis raindi (buxuti daraxveliZe), Tbilisi, 2007. 8. ix.: daviT javriSvili. qarTuli cekvis Casaweri pirobiTi niSnebi, Tbilisi, 1961. 9. ix.: avTandil TaTaraZe. cekvis Caweris pirobiTi niSnebi, Tbilisi, 1966. 10. ix.: ., . (), . - ., 1940.

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sivrceSi ganfenili dargebia, Tanac masalac cocxalia. Teatric da qoreografiac iyeneben sxva xelovnebis dargebs: literaturas, musikas, saxviT xelovnebas... Teatri Tavis saarsebod xelovnebis sxva dargebTan erTad qoreografiasac iyenebs. xSirad reJisorebi cekvas yvelaze kulminaciur momentSi CarTaven xolme, radgan dgeba momenti, rodesac sityva uZluria da speqtaklis dinamikis, epoqis an raime grZnobis gamosaxatavad saWiroa raRac sxva, es sxva ki xandaxan swored qoreografiuli gadawyvetaa. Tavad qoreografiac warmoudgenelia Teatris gareSe, radgan cekvis Seqmnisas saWiroa dramaturgiis kanonebis dacva. am dros qoreografi gverds ver auvlis bevr iseT etaps, romelsac gadian reJisorebi speqtaklis dadgmamde. erTaderTi, rac SeiZleba mkveTrad mijnavdes erTmaneTisgan speqtaklsa da qoreografiul nimuSs, es aris specifika, anu, gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis sxvadasxvaoba. TeatrSi mTavari sityvaa, xolo qoreografiaSi _ moZraoba. msaxiobi ZiriTadad eniT gadmogvcems Tavis saTqmels, mocekvave-msaxiobi ki _ mxolod sxeulis plastikiT. Tanamedrove qoreografiuli nimuSis erT-erTi mTavari Rirseba saintereso qoreografiuli `aRmoCenaa~. saWiroa trdiciebisa da novatorobis Serwyma, yoveli axali Sto xom fesvidan aRmocendeba. xelovnebasTan urTierTobis sixaruli swored isaa, rom ucnobSi nacnobi dainaxo, axalSi _ Zveli. erTi da igive speqtakli an cekva SeiZleba dadgas mravalma reJisorma an qoreografma, mTavaria, `xedva~ iyos axali da originaluri, ara banaluri, sadRac nanaxis, Tvalmokrulis amotivtiveba. visac yovelgvari fiqrisa da momzadebis gareSe SeuZlia cekvis dadgma, aRmosaCenic araferi rCeba, radgan iqve aqvs yvela Tavisi Stampi da gacveTili xerxi. pol valeris azriT, imisaTvis, rom aRmoaCino vardis siaxle, romelsac ukve aTasjer umReres, umjobesia an icode, rac ki vardze dawerila da ecado ipovo sakuTari, aTasmeerTe gadawyveta, an araferi icode. ise Sexedo, TiTqos pirvelad vixileo. qoreografebis sadadgmo xelovnebis specifikis gaazrebis,

gaTavisebisa da srulyofisaTvis sasurvelia qoreografi gaecnos iseTi reJisorebis sistemebs, romlebmac gadatrialeba moaxdines Teatris samyaroSi. Zalian saWiro da sainteresoa stanislavskis, nemiroviC-danCenkos realisturi princi pebi (daxvewili fsiqologizmi, scenaze realisturi atmosferos Seqmna), aseve saWiroa da aucilebelic vs. meierxoldis, h. kregis, m. rainhardtis, b. brextis, p. brukis, e. vaxtangovis, a. tairovis, k. marjaniSvilis, al. axmetelis, g. tovstonogovis, o. efremovis, d. aleqsiZis, m. TumaniSvilis, r. sturuas da sxv. muSaobis Sesaxeb warmodgenis arseboba. mTavaria, arc erTi maTgani ar iqces dogmad. TiToeuli sistema gaazrebul unda iqnes qoreografiuli kuTxiT. ramdenime reJisoris sistemis Seswavlis Sedegad Camoyalibda sadadgmo xelovnebis winaperiodis sqema. mivediT im daskvnamde, rom, reJisoris msgavsad damdgmelma qoreografma uSualod cekvis dadgmamde unda gaiaros ori ZiriTadi etapi:1 1. individualuri mosamzadebeli etapi _ ideis, Temis, kompoziciis umTavresi momentebis sakuTar TavTan dadgena. 2. koleqtiuri momzadebis etapi _ Ziebis procesi, Canafiqris, varaudis praqtikuli ganxorcieleba SemoqmedebiT gundTan erTad. pirvel etapze, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac qoreografi muSaobs Tematur-siuJetur kompoziciaze, aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia Tavdapirveli mimarTulebis arCeva da saboloo miznis moxazva, raTa mimarTuleba zeamocanisaken iyos naTeli. qoreografi ganixilavs sxvadasxva nawarmoebs, axdens momavali cekvis analizs, ecnoba epoqas, istoriul, eTnografiul masalas,EeZebs musikalur masalas. Tavis warmosaxvaSi qmnis cekvis saxierebas, xats. am dros qoreografs TavSi mosdis uamravi idea, romelic TeatrSi e.w. `nabodvari ideebis~ saxeliTaa cnobili, amitom sasurvelia maTi CaniSvnac. Tu qoreografi cekvas dgams literaturuli nawarmoebis mixedviT (moTxroba, poema, Canaxati da sxv.), saWiroa fabulis gansazRvra, romelic aris momavali qoreografiuli kompoziciis ideuri formula, Zunwi, koncentrirebuli moTxrobis saxiT Camoyalibebuli. mxolod,

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cekvis dadgmis mosamzadebeli periodis reJisoruli kuTxiT gaazrebis sakiTxisaTvis

sifrTxilea saWiro, raTa forma ar daicalos azrisagan da Sinaarsi _ formisagan. qoreografis SemoqmedebiTi procesi, romelic pirvel etaps, individualur mosamzadebel periods ukavSirdeba, Sedgeba analizisagan, ideis warmoqmnisa da modelirebisagan, am modelirebis gamocdiT: 1. literaturuli analizi _ ideur-Tematuri Canafiqri; 2. qoreografiuli analizi _ gadawyveta, moqmedebis gadayvana plastikis xerxebiT literaturulidan qmediT formaSi. gegmis orive nawili Taviseburad rTulia da fiqrs iTxovs, radgan ideur-Tematuri Canafiqri ganapirobebs qoreografiuli kompoziciis Rirebulebas. ideis xarisxi cekvis xarisxia, magram aranakleb rTulia formis monaxva, gadawyveta. xerxi unda iyos axali, moulodneli da imavdroulad zusti da natifi. epizodebi, movlenebi, naxazebis gadasvlebi, xasiaTis niSnebi da maTTan dakavSirebuli qoreografiuli leqsika da teqsti unda erTiandebodes mwyobr sistemad da yovelive es viTardebodes dramaturgiis kanonebis mixedviT. kompoziciis ZiriTadi elementebis sakuTar TavTan dadgenisTanave qoreografi wers programas, romelSic gansazRvrulia nawarmoebis fabula, Tema, idea, musikaluri masala,HJanri, rekviziti, kostiumi da zusti qronometraJi. mosamzadebel periodSi aqtiurad arian CarTuli kompozitori da mxatvari, romlebic avtorTan erTad ecnobian nawarmoebis Sinaarss, epoqas, moqmedi gmirebis xasiaTebs, yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT kompozitori qmnis musikas cekvisTvis, mxatvari ki muSaobs kostiumebis eskizebze, dekoraciebsa da rekvizitebze. m s a x i o b - m o c e kv a v i s te q n i k u r i da a r t i s tu l i SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT xdeba saxasiaTo gmirebis SerCeva, rolebis ganawileba, romlis Semdegac iwyeba meore etapi romelic, Tavis mxriv, iyofa periodebad. pirvel periods reJisorebi `magidasTan muSaobas~ uwodeben. repeticiebis dawyebamde qoreografi dass acnobs momavali cekvis saerTo mimarTulebas, nawarmoebis ideas. xdeba rolebis fsiqologiuri

axsna da daxasiaTeba, qoreografi yveba Tavis Canafiqrs, igi cdilobs bolomde gasces dagrovili informacia. meore periodi, anu `muSaoba ZgideebSi~, moicavs mizanscenebis dalagebas, naxazisa da qoreografiuli teqstis Seqmnas. xdeba calkeuli suraTebis repeticiebi, romlebic sabolood ikinZeba gamWoli moqmedebiT. cekva ixveweba darbazSi da emzadeba scenaze gadasasvlelad. bolo periodi _ `scenaze~ msaxiobi irgebs kostiums da grims. xdeba Segueba rekvizitTan, ganaTebasTan, scenasTan. damdgmeli qoreografi kompozitoris, mocekvave-msaxiobis, mxatvris da mayureblis mTavari SemaduRebeli Zalaa. erTerTi mTavari da Sromatevadi samuSao qoreografs mocekvave msaxiobTan uwevs, radgan isini, faqtobrivad, Tanaavtorebad gvevlinebian. es aris cocxali masala, riTac iZerweba saboloo suraTi. xSirad yvelaferi repeticiebze, mocekvaveebTan erTad keTdeba. SeiZleba, winaswar mofiqrebuli azri Seicvalos da mizanscenebisa da qoreografiuli teqstis saxiereba-stilis migneba swored maTTan erTad moxdes, es organuli TanaSemoqmedebis procesia. TavisTavad, qoreografi darbazSi momzadebuli unda Sevides, magram ecados, rom saxlSi mofiqrebuli miseuli gadawyveta Tavs ar Semoaxvios msaxiobs, raTa scenuri saxe mSrali da usicocxlo ar gamovides. amdenad, qoreografia aris profesia, romelic mayurebelTan urTierTobs mxatvruli, qmediTi saxeebis meSveobiT. cekvis avtori vlindeba yvelgan, igi Tavis nawarmoebSi sufevs, viTarca ufali samyaroSi, yvelgan myofi da uCinari, amitom misi valia iyos mravalmxriv ganaTlebuli Tavis profesiaSi.

1. ix.: v. kiknaZe. reJisoris xelovneba, Tbilisi, 1977; g. tovstonogovi. reJisoris profesia, Tbilisi, 1975; n. arvelaZe. msaxiobi, reJisori, repeticia, Tbilisi, 1978; d. aleqsiZe. reJisoris muSaoba speqtaklze, Tbilisi, 1961; k. stanislavski. Cemi cxovreba xelovnebaSi, Tbilisi, 1988; n. gorCakovi. k. s. stanislavskis reJisoruli gakveTilebi, Tbilisi, 1962; m. TumaniSvili. sanam reopeticia daiwyeba... saqar. Teatr. sazog., Tbilisi, 1977.

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1870 wlis seqtemberSi parizSi gardaicvala gold operis baletmaisteri artur sen-leoni. misi dabadebis zusti TariRi ucnobia. xudiokovi miiCnevs, rom igi 1811 wels daibada, xolo, pleSeevis azriT, is 1815 welsaa dabadebuli. Tumca Tavad senleoni niuterisaTvis miweril werilSi, romelic 1869 wliT TariRdeba, wers, rom man meSvide aTwledSi Seabija. aranakleb burusiTaa moculi misi cxovrebac. araa cnobili misi zusti warmomavloba, misi pirveli pedagogebi. man meteoriviT gaielva germaniis scenaze, Semdeg ise, rom misi safuZvliani SeTvalierebac ver moaswres, ukve italiaSi cekvavda. ase moiara man evraziis bevri qveyana. igi gaielvebda ama Tu im Teatris scenaze da maSinve gzas agrZelebda. bolos ki aRmoCnda parizSi, musikisa da cekvis nacionalur akademiaSi ­ gold opera.1 XIX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi evropaSi sabaleto krizisi daiwyo. frangul baletSi SeimCneoda talantTa simcire, aravis surda Statiani baletmaisterebis Senaxva, radgan sezonebi Zalian mokle iyo. 20-40-ian wlebSi popularulma romantikulma baletebma aqtualuroba dakarga, axali dadgmebi ki, rogorc wesi, Zalian cota da mdore xarisxisa iyo. baletmaisterebi, romlebic cdilobdnen am dargis gadarCenas, eZebdnen sxvadasxva xerxs, magram es Zalian rTuli procesi aRmoCnda. amisaTvis saWiro iyo uzarmazari niWi da energia, rac sen-leons sakmarisze meti hqonda. igi Tavis Semoqmedebas daJinebiT sTavazobda yvela wamyvan Teatrs, Tanxmdeboda yvelanair pirobaze. sinamdvileSi ki misi gansakuTrebuloba mis mravalferovnebaSi gamoixateboda. iyo damdgmeli, SemTxzveli, musikosi, kompozitori. ra Janric ar unda gamoCeniliyo, yovelTvis moiZebneboda presaSi masze dadebiTi recenziebi. mis dadgmaSi `eSmakis violino~ igi cekvavda mTavar partias, virtuozulad ukravda violinoze da masve ekuTvnoda musika. sen-leonma Zalian advilad auRo alRo imdroindel moTxovnebs da swored amitom gaxda metad popularuli da

moTxovnadi Semsrulebeli. man yuradReba gaamaxvila ara baletis romantikul Sinaarsze, aramed SemsrulebelTa teqnikur SesaZleblobebze. igi partniorebs swored am kriteriumiT arCevda. misi aRmoCena iyo fani Carito, romelTan erTad mravali qveyana moiara warmatebiT. mogvianebiT sen-leoni damkvidrda peterburgis did TeatrSi, man aq Seqmna da daxvewa rusi balerina muraviova da Semdeg igi gastrolebze waiyvana parizSi. sen-leonis sabaleto moRvaweoba dasawyisSive moeqca kritikis yuradRebis qveS. igi iyo pirveli baletmaisteri, romelmac ugulvebelhyo baletis Sinaarsi da wina planze wamowia misi Sesrulebis done da cekvebis mravalferovneba. ra Tqma unda, am tendenciis danergvas iolad da umtkivneulad ar Cauvlia. sazogadoeba, romelic miCveuli iyo sxvadasxvagvar sanaxaobas, advilad ver egueboda mis aseT saxecvlilebas. amas mohyva kritikosTa araerTgvarovani Sexedulebac. erTni Tvlidnen, rom es arasworia da xelovnebis am dargs daRupvamde miiyvans, meoreni ki ambobdnen, rom krizisul situaciaSi swored es iyo saukeTeso gamosavali. am yvelafris miuxedavad artur sen-leoni ganagrZobda nayofier muSaobas da yovel nabijze cxadad xedavda Tavisi muSaobis dadebiT Sedegs. Zveli dadgmebisgan gansxvavebiT senleonma daiwyo aqtiurad muSaoba sasceno efeqtebze. Tvlida, rom marto cekva, rac ar unda maRal teqnikur doneze iyos is Sesrulebuli, ver miiqcevs mayureblis yuradRebas, sWirdeba saTanado SefuTva efeqtebiT. swored am sasceno efeqtebis simravliT gamoirCeva sen-leonis araerTi dadgma. sen-leonis Semoqmedeba metad nayofieri gamodga. Tu ki sxva baletmaisterebi ramdenime weliwadSi erTi speqtaklis gamoSvebas axerxebdnen, sen-leoni weliwadSi ramdenime sabaleto dadgmas axorcielebda. swored amitom mas xSirad ar swyalobda kritika. isini Tvlidnen, rom, `Tu kargad davakvirdebiT, misi speqtaklebi Zalian hgavs erTmaneTs, ubralod, yoveli axali dadgma morgebulia am baletSi mTavari rolebis SemsrulebelTa SesaZleblobebze~.2 sen-leoni ki jiutad amsxvrevda klasikur baletSi arsebul stereoti pebs da axali dadgmebiT miiwevda didebis mwverevalisaken.Ees ki, ra Tqma unda, bevri kritikosis gaRizianebas iwvevda.

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munjiSvili

msoflio

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ostatebi

artur sen-leonis mTeli Semoqmedeba mayurebelze iyo gaTvlili. cdilobda, zustad Seeqmna iseTi ram, rac im konkretul speqtaklze mosul mayurebels daainteresebda. igi iTvaliswinebda yvela qveynis mayureblis moTxovnebs da xSirad Tavis dadgmebSi iseT detalebs iyenebda, rac speqtaklis warmatebas gardauvals xdida. swored am mizniT dainteresda igi sxvadasxva qveynis xalxuri cekvebiT, safuZvlianad Seiswavla da SemdgomSi Tavis dadgmebSi gamoiyena. uZvelesi droidan araerTi qoreografi muSaobda cekvis Caweris sistemebze. gamonaklisi arc artur miSel sen-leonia. swored am mizniT man Seqmna traqtati _ `stenoqoreografia~, sadac cekvis Casawerad gamoiyena grafikuli pirobiTi niSnebi. sen-leonis mier Seqmnil Caweris sistemas SemdgomSi popularizacias uwevda germaneli pedagogi fridrix albert corni, romelmac es sistema ruseTSic danerga.3 60-ian wlebSi kritikosebi axal moTxovnas uyenebdnen baletmaisterebs. - gamoyenebul iqnes axali da saintereso Temebi baletis dadgmebis dros. kritika iTxovda xalxuri motivebis gamoyenebasac. swored amaze fiqri ar aZlevda mosvenebas sen-leons. igi ruseTSi moRvaweobda, magram sakmarisad ar icnobda rusul xalxur motivebs. gamoCnda ramdenime dadgma rusul Tematikaze, romlebmac warmatebas ver miaRwia. aman ufro daafrTxo sxva baletmaisterebi. saWiro iyo zusti gasaRebis povna, rac moutanda ama Tu im dadgmas warmatebas. sen-leonma amaze bevri ifiqra da sruliad SemTxveviT waawyda rusul zRapars ­ `kaniokgorbunok~ _ saswrafod aTargmnina igi da daiwyo misi dadgma. am baletma gadaCrdila aramarto sxva sabaleto speqtaklebi, aramed dramatuli da saopero dadgmebic. am dadgmis scenaze gamoCena Sefasda rogorc rusuli nacionaluri xelovnebis namdvili zeimi, xolo sen-leons ewoda nacionaluri baletis fuZemdebeli. amiT gaTamamebulma baletmaisterma moindoma kidev erTi rusuli baletis dadgma. es iyo puSkinis `oqros Tevzi~. sen-leoni apirebda masStaburi dadgmis ganxorcielebas, magram im faqtorma, rom is Sinaarss ar aqcevda saTanado yuradRebas da ar hqonda praqtika am kuTxiT muSaobisa, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi xeli SeuSala. dadgmam ar gaamarTla. misma arsebobam mxolod erT sezons gastana da Semdeg samudamod gaqra scenidan. aman gamoiwvia

kritikosTa risxva da sen-leoni ruseTidan wavida, magram mis win gaiRo parizis operis kari. man Tavisi dideba iq ganimtkica baletiT `kopelia~; magram es gamodga sen-leonis gedis simRera, igi imave wels gardaicvala. artur sen-leonis Semoqmedebaze saubrisas SeiZleba CamoiTvalos misi mravali damsaxureba sabaleto xelovnebis ganviTarebaSi. man droulad auRo alRo axal moTxovnebs da mravali novatoruli idea gaatara sabaleto xelovnebaSi. misi didi damsaxurebaa, rom baletSi aqcenti gakeTda ara Sinaarsze, aramed uSualod mocekvaveebze, kerZod, balerinebze. man aRmoaCina da gazarda im periodis balerinebis didi nawili da isini mTel msoflios gaacno, riTac uzomo samsaxuri gauwia rusul balets. is, da ara pero (rogorc amas bevri amtkicebda), iyo marius peti pas aRmzrdeli da maswavlebeli. swored peti pa darCa sen-leonis Semdeg misi ideebis gamtareblad ruseTSi. swored sen-leonisagan Seiswavla man divertismentuli nomrebis Seqmna, nacionaluri elementebis gamoyeneba da balerinis, rogorc speqtaklis mTavari gmiris, gamoCena misi saukeTeso kuTxiT. nacionaluri simdidrisadmi cocxali interesi, saxasiaTo baletebis Seqmnis idea, nebismieri masalisadmi Tavisufali midgoma, kompoziciuri Canafiqris simkveTre, gamocdileba komikur JanrSi, unari, aRmoaCino da warmoaCino artistSi misi saukeTeso Tvisebebi ­ es sen-leonis damsaxurebaTa arasruli CamonaTvalia. swored amitom ewoda mas wina aswleulis qoreografiuli Teatris udidesi ostati.

1. . . « », . , 1914. 2. `antraqti~, #4, Tbilisi, 1867. 3. . , « », 1981, .17.

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marine (maka) vasaZe _ Teatrmcodne. daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis sax. Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo institutis TeatrmcodneobiTi fakulteti. (1986w.) xelmZRvanelobs SoTa rusTavelis Taetrisa da kinos universitetis sauniversiteto gamomcemlobas `kentavri". aris amave universitetis gazeT `durujis" redaqtori, agreTve damaarsebeli da redaqtori gazeTisa `kultura". moRvaweobs saerTaSoriso kulturis fond `kavkasiaSi" menejerad, aris kulturis saerTaSoriso bazrobis (2003. 2005, 2007) kordinatori, Teatris da kinos saCvenebeli programis xelm-li. sistematiurad aqveynebs statiebs, werilebs, recenziebs Tanamedrove Teatralur procesebze da problemebze Jurn. `Teatri da cxovreba", gazeTebSi `kultura", `duruji". tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60 el-fosta: [email protected] marika mamacaSvili ­ Teatrmcodne daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis sax. Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo instituti Teatrmcodnis specialobiT. ibeWdeboda JurnalebSi: `xelovneba~ da `Teatraluri moambe~. amJamad muSaobs specialistad gamomcemloba `kentavrSi~. ikvlevs piter brukis Semoqmedebas. tel: +995 (77) 41 00 11; +995 (32) 22 21 11 el-fosta: [email protected] nana doliZe - kinomcodne SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis mecnierTanamSromeli, satelevizio kritikis samagistro programis xelmZRvaneli. daamTavra amave universitetis kinomcodneobis fakulteti. muSaobs Tanamedrove msoflio kinoSi mimdinare procesebze, satelevizio Teoriisa da praqtikis problemebze. tel: +995 (32) 23 32 33; +995 (99) 58 48 85 el-fosta: [email protected]

eTer okujava _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, kinomcodne. SoTaA rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatris, kinos, mediis, menejmentis da tradiciuli xelovnebis saswavlo-samecniero kvleviT institutis mTavari mecnier TanamSromeli. daamTavra Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, istoriis fakulteti, xelovnebaTmcodneobis ganxriT. staJireba gaiara kinomcodnis specialobiT moskovis sax. kinoinstitutSi (, e.surkovis jgufSi). misi samecniero kvlevebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia: qarTuli kinos SemoqmedebiTi tendenciebi, filmis saxviTi gadawyvetis problemebi, zogadad gamomsaxvelobiTi struqturebi, qarTuli filmis esTetika, Janrebi, calkeul xelovanTa SemoqmedebaTa kvleva drois faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT (xelovani da dro), Tematuri Ziebani da filmis, sazogadod kinoTeoriis sakiTxebi da a.S. gamoqveynebuli aqvs 50-ze meti statia, aqedan umetesi referirebul JurnalebSi _ qarTul da ramdenime _ ucxo enebze. avtoria wignebisa: `imeda kaxiani~, `aqtiori~ (1990), `kultura _ gza gadarCenisa~(1997, piveli gamocema; 2000, meore gamocema), `daviT kakabaZe kinosa da TeatrSi~ (2008). aris: internet-gamocema `qarTuli kino eTer okujavasagan~ _ mTavari redaqtori. nato vaCnaZis saxelobis qarTuli kinos akademiis erT-erTi damfuZnebeli, fizikuri piri da kulturuli iniciativebis fondis `nato~ damfuZnebeli da prezidenti. tel.: + 995 (32) 37 06 29; mob. +995 (99) 92 11 92; el-fosta: [email protected] veb-gverdi: www.ethmo.narod.ru zviad kviciani _ istoriis doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetisa da saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis asocirebuli profesori. daamTavra Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis istoriis, Jurnalistikisa da iuridiuli fakultetebi, muSaobs Tsu-Si. axalgazrda mecnierTa saprezidento sti pendiis laureati. svaneTis, biWvinTis, Sida qarTlis (dedoflis gora), breTis, walkis, gonio-afsarosis, ujarmis, bebriscixis, artasatis (somxeTi), borovecis (bulgareTi), sevastopolis (ukraina), qobuleT-fiWvnaris, fasisis, gudabertyis, grakalis goris (igoeTi), petra-cixisZiris arqeologiuri eqspediciebis monawile-xelmZRvaneli, sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso konferenciebisa da kongresebis monawile.

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Tsu da sxva umaRles saswavleblebSi kiTxulobda da kiTxulobs saleqcio kursebs Semdeg disci plinebSi: arqeologiis safuZvlebi (zogadi arqeologia), antikuri arqeologia, saqarTvelos istoriuli xanis arqeologia, bibliuri arqeologia, msoflio civilizaciis istoria, qarTuli kulturis istoria, kavkasiis mTielTa eTnokulturuli urTierTobebi, eTnoarqeologia, arqeologia da Tanamedroveoba, qarTuli samarTlis istoria. aris 50-mde samecniero naSromis (maT Soris ori monografia da erTi saxelZRvanelo) avtori, aqedan 12 ucxoenovani. tel.: +995 (99) 96 59 95;

Teona esitaSvili - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo universitetis, xelovnebaTmcodneobis fakulteti, kinomcodneobis specialoba. iklvlevs `hororis~ Janrs. tel: +995 (93) 96 76 01; el-fosta: [email protected] Tamar TargamaZe - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, kinomcodneobis specialoba. ikvlevs Trileris Janrs. mariam manjgalaZe - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, kinomcodneobis specialoba. ikvlevs mozardis reprezentaciis problemas Tanamvedrove amerikul kinematografSi. tel: +995 (32) 93 39 97; +995 (99) 41 71 57; rusudan papunaSvili - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis xelovnebisa da socialur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, kinomcodneobis specialoba. muSaobs Temaze: `qalis reprezentacia espanur kinematografSi~. nino gvazava - daamTavra Tbilisis eqvTime TayaiSvilis saxelobis ku l tu ris a da xel ov nebis saxel mwifo u niv ersit eti xelovnebaTmcodne-eqspertis specialoba. ikvlevs oqromqandakeblobis tradiciebs.

Tea marexaSvili - daamTavra eqvTime TayaiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis kulturis fakulteti, xelovnebaTmcodne-eqspertis specialobiT. gamoqveynebuli aqvs: `tixruli minanqari _ warsuli didebis gadmonaSTi", Jur. kavkasiis macne, 2006, #15 da `ferweruli minanqari, misi teqnika_teqnologia~, 2006, #15. 2005 wels monawileoba miiRo samecniero konferenciaSi TemiT `tixreuli minanqari". amJamad muSaobs Temaze `mxatvruli minanqri~, Temis xelmZRvaneli _ prof. aleqsandre CxeiZe. tel: +995 32 71 60 68; +995 58 10 92 76; xaTuna melaZe - muSaobs samagistro naSromze: `xelovnebis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodologiis zogierTi aspeqti saqarTvelos regionalur sajaro skolebSi~. maiko razmaZe - daamTavra eqvTime TayaiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis kulturis fakulteti, inglisuri enisa da literaturis specialobiT. aris inglisuri enis pedagogi damoukidebel saerTo gimnaziaSi `Savnabada~. amJamad muSaobs Temaze: `xelovneba da xelovnebis saxe somerset moemis romanSi `Teatri~. tel: + 995 (99) 41 80 42; eka qumsiaSvili - daamTavra eqvTime TayaiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis kulturis fakulteti, inglisuri enisa da literaturis specialobiT. gamoqveynebuli aqvs prozauli da poeturi nawarmoebi Jurnal `nostalgiasa~ da gazeT `qarTul kulturaSi~. amJamad muSaobis Temaze: `eqsperimentuli tendenciebi qarTuli ferweris ganviTarebaSi (XX s.-is 20-iani wlebi)~. tel.: +995 (24) 17 18 03; +995 (93) 56 76 14; aleko gelaSvili - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti qarTuli cekvis damdgmeli qoreografiis specialobiT. aris kaxa bakuraZis `moZraobis Teatri~-s msaxiobi, samejliso da sportuli cekvebis studia `Tela~-s wevri-mocekvave. agreTve _

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`studenturi dReebi 2003~-is samecniero komferenciiaSi pirveli adgilis mflobeli. sxvadasxva dros qarTuli da saerTaSoriso xalxuri TviTmoqmedebis festivalebis laureati. tel.: +995 (32) 69 54 61; +995 (93) 32 34 17; el-fosta: [email protected]

eka geliaSvili _ SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asistent profesori. qoreografi. daamTavra Tbilisis kulturisa da xelovnebis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTuli cekvis damdgmeli qoreografis specialoba.. gamoqveynebuli aqvs publikacia qarTuli qoreografiuli literaturis problematikaze. amJamad ikvlevs cekvis Caweris sistemebis problematikas saqarTveloSi. tel.: +995 (99) 18 88 24;

THEATRE STUDIES

Maka Vasadze FORMATION OF ROBERT STURUA'S THEATRICAL LANGUAGE (Interpretation of Georgian Classical Literature a la Robert Sturua) Summery It is widely known that each important drama piece can be variously interpreted. When interpreting a work from a different perspective, it's utterly important to preserve the main idea, inner structure, concept and specifics of a genre. Plays staged by Robert Sturua in Rustaveli Theatre are good example of this. Still, where does Robert Sturua's theatrical language formation begin? He himself claims that he wanted to become a movie director, however, due to several reasons, he became a theater director. A play represents a rough material for Robert Sturua, in which he can portray his personal conception. In this part of the article I am discussing Robert Sturua's plays: "Khanuma" (1968) by Tsagareli, "Step-mother of Samanishvili" (1969) by Kldiashvili (with Chkheidze), "Kvarkvare Tutaberi" (1974) by Kakabadze, "Betrayal" (1975) by Sumbatashvil-Iuzhin. Robert Sturua's Georgian classical plays set in the Rustaveli theater have had relative success. Nevertheless, they have become the subject of active discussions among the society. Probably reason for this was a completely new approach by the director. "Khanuma" played an exceptional role in of Robert Sturua's further stylistical formation. Exactly "Khanuma" bears the first trace of Sturua's exceptional vision. In this play the director has discovered visual forms that would help him to define the direction of his future work. Maybe falsely, but I have identified these forms as "Sturua's Eclectic Theater".

nino daraxveliZe - daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universiteti, qarTuli cekvis damdgmeli qoreografis specialobiT, aris ansambl `rokvis" mocekvave msaxiobi. eweva pedagogiur moRvaweobas Tbilisis me6 sajaro skolaSi. muSaobs Temaze: `qoreografi, rogorc cekvis damdgmeli reJisori~ tel: +995 (93) 91 50 77; Tamar munjiSvili _ SoTa rusTaveli Teatrisa da kinos universitetis asistent profesori, qarTuli cekvis pedagogi. daamTavra ilia WavWavaZis saxelobis universitetis qarTuli filologiis fakulteti. ikvlevs sabavSvo qoreografiisa da pedagogikis sakiTxebis problematikas. tel.: +995 (99) 90 22 77;

ABOUT AUTHOR Theater critic Has graduated from the faculty of theater art of Tbilisi Theatrical Institute. Head of Shota Rustaveli Theater and Film University publishing house

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"Kentavri". Editor of another newspaper of the same institution "Duruji" and a founder and editor of a newspaper "Kultura". Holds a position of a manager at the Stichting Caucasus Foundation is one of the coordinators of the International Cultural Fare (2003, 2005, 2007). Is the editor of several books; systematically publishes articles and reviews on the processes and problems of contemporary theatre: Magazines: "Soviet Art", "Theatrical News", "Theater and Life". Newspapers: "Kultura", "Duruji". Tel: +995 (95) 30 50 60 Email: [email protected]

FILM STUDIES

Nana Dolidze THE NONE ACTUAL TV Summery Constitution of any democratic State, declares and protects the freedom of speech, ideas, reception and distribution of information; that means to receive, distribute or impart information without a restriction and any fail - It is one of the absolute norms of Human Rights. At the same time, the principles of informational Freedom ­ from one side, and control of information - on the other, always has been and still is ­ the matter of dispute. What can be shown by TV-broadcasting? What level of freedom are possessing television journalists - to demonstrate an opinion? What is the level of possibilities, for presenting the different vision of the event by TV? What is the degree of information-broadcast control and where are "The Scopes of Limitation Margins"? Television broadcasting history has clearly showed us, that only the declaration of freedom, is not enough for the existence of real freedom. It is necessary to provide terms and create the conditions, guaranteeing the realisation of the indicated freedom. Another question which appears is how to attain this right in folded situation, when all broadcasting companies are in the private ownership (exception - "Public Television"). A censorship and strict control over the information, makes criticism impossible, neither of "political principles", nor recently emerged "concomitant moral categories"- dominating in the State. Moreover, very often the criticism of the outgoing principles and categories are either totally ignored, or qualified as violation of law. In the most, Georgian TV-journalism is distant from the real independence and very far away from high responsibility. Consequently, for the people engaged in this business, personal "self-responsibility" - should become the only initial point of their creative activity. An attention transfer and redirection, presentation of information by fragments, permanent convincing, populism, "spiral of silence " and many other well improved "manipulationmethods" - are those factors, from which Georgian television loses the audience. "The non-actual TV" - is a pitiful and non-popular image, which the wide majority of Georgian TV channels have issued as verdict to their own broadcasting (simultaneously, it should be noted, that the rear exceptions still exist).

Marika Mamatsashvili I HATE THE WORD `CULTURE' Summery This artikle is about Peter Brook (b. London, 21 March 1925).Director, of Russian descent:One of the twentieth century's most innovative and productive practitioners.He has worrked on a variety of deferent kinds of perfomances and texts including Shakespeare, Seneca, major European and American voices (Sartre, Anouilh, Geret, Durrenmatt, Fry, Miller) and seminal modernists (Eliot) as well asovertly commercial forms, such as musical comedy (Irma la douce,1958). In addition, he has directed opera and films. This extraordinary person gives interviw to the "Izvestias" corespondent Artur Solomonov. We think this interview is very special and helpful for both proffessionals and amataurs too, to know Peter Brook's inner world.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University with major in theatre studies in the year of 1989. She has published in the magazines "Khelovneba" and "Teatraluri Moambe". Now she is working as a specialist in the publishing house "KENTAVRI". She is a resercher of Peter Brooks creative works. Tel: +995 (77) 41 00 11; +995 (32) 22 21 11; E-mail: [email protected]

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The Public and humane missions of News-broadcasting devalues; as a result Georgian TV channels are facing the perspective to reach the critical point of "spectators-loss". In the stream of "sterile information", neither the episodic show of shocking incidents and broadcasting the sensational startles, nor the different formats of "Comedy-show" ("Rustavi-2" company ), wouldn't be able to recover and return to TV-companies the Lost Trust. P.S "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. (The Universal Declaretion of Human Rights; art. 19).

CULTURAL STUDIES

Zviad Kvitsiani TO THE ISSUE OF MUSICALCULTURE IN GEORGIA OFTHE ANCIENT PERIOD (ARCHEOLOGICALARTIFACTS) Summery Archeological monuments important for the study of Georgian musical culture of the Ancient period were discovered together with the existing written sources and musical folklore. Among the such kind of found units, we have to note clay the sculpture of the musician playing at lira VIII-VII B.C. Uplistsikhe, bronze sculpture of musician VII B.C. Stepantsminda, bronze signet IV-III B.C. Vani, golden tower I A.D. Khaishi, bronze sculpture of signer I-II B.C. Mtskheta etc. Revealing of such sculptures and dancing figures of the Ancient Period let us to represent the high level of archeological artifacts of Georgian musical culture of the Ancient Period.

ABOUT AUTHOR Film Historian .Scientist ­collaborator, the leader of muster program in TV critics at Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Graduated from the same university's faculty of Film Studies. She works on the current processes in world film, on the problems existing in the theory of television and pratice. Tel: +995 (32) 23 32 33; Mob: +995 (99) 58 48 85; E-mail: [email protected] www.medialogia.ucoz.com

ABOUT AUTHOR He has graduated from the faculties of History, Law and Journalism at TSU. Z. Kvitsiani has waked at TSU since 1985. He has written more than 40 scientific wala (among them one monograph and one textbook).He is a participant of a number of archeological expeditions in Svaneti, Pitsunda, Dedoplisgora, Tsalka and gonio as well as a participant of various international conferences and congresses. He delivers lectures for students of TSU and other Universities in Foundations of Archeology, Biblical Archeology, Archeology of the Ancient Period, History of the world civilization, History of Georgia, Civilization, Ethnocultural relations among the Caucasian Highlanders, Archeology and the Modern World. Currently he is a doctor of History, professor of Archeology. Tel: +995 (99) 96 59 95;

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UNIVERSITY'S MA PROGRAM "CONTEMPORARY FILM THEORIES AND CRITICISM"

Program Leader - Manana Lekborashvili

Tamar Targamadze

THRILLERAND TECHNOLOGIES OFFEAR Summery People often go to the theatre in order to experience emotions that they normally lack in real life. "Suspense is dreadful" says one of the characters of Oscar Wilde. "But I hope it will continue". This contradictory feeling is familiar to anyone who likes movies and in particular to the ones who especially favor Alfred Hitchkock as the greatest master of suspense. Why is that so that we "fear" the fear but still get such pleasure from experiencing it (especially when it is not connected with actual physical danger)? Hitchcock himself thought of it as being originated from the arms of the mother when the mother scares the child with the words "Buu"! The child is scared at first but then laughs with satisfaction. "Civilization has stripped us of the ability of initial reactions. Freeing oneself from static condition and restoring spiritual balance is possible only on the edge of shock with help of existing artifical means. Film is the best possible way to reach this goal". (Alfred Hitchcock)

Teona Esitashvili KFILM MONSTERS

Summery Birth of horror is connected with gothic films, which would be surveyed in big black palaces, where spectators should have been frightened. It took as a principle real stories, popular tales about devils and magicians, also myths, well-known melodramas and others. Spectator is in unreal surroundings, where the monsters, devil man and vampires "suck blood". Probably, you will remember sweetheart character, from the film "Frankenstein", which leaves the fear and love inside spectators at the same time. There were many "Frankensteins", among them, version of 1931 years is the best and the monster is convincing and typical, which makes tragic face out of dialogue. His sad and tortured eyes leaves fear with sympathy too. Though, modern pseudo-characters destroyed completely the main point of the production and in society, the poor sacrifice uses terrible monster's name. If, earlier spectators liked horror, with its tension, thematic various, with vampires, monsters, zombies and witches, which strolls on the cemetery, today already, actually notice changeability of fear art. The technological advance regenerated apocalyptical films, from the beginning of clone, till the maniac and the killer formation.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's faculty of Arts and Social Sciences with major in Film Studies. She is researching thriller genre.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from the Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, with specialty in film criticism. Researches horror genre. Tel: + 995 (93) 96 76 01; E-Mail: [email protected]

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Mariam Manjgaladze

DEPICTION OFTEENAGER IN CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN FILM (On basis of "Chumscrubber" by Arie Posin) Summery Article's Topic referrs to teenager's social condition and problems in contemporary American film. Arie Posin's "Chumscrubber" tells about the difficulties of transitional period and about the negative influence of common structure. Against the background of senseless, very regulated relations we see different kinds of teenagers in the phase of their formation. Involuntarily they find themselves on the territory of unknown obstacles. They come in touch with drug abuse, suicide and crime but typical alarming situations reveal the causes. Arie Posin's artistic style boarders the caricature drawing. It easily reveals the entire face, but the "victim's weaknesses" are so emphasized and underlined that it brings smiles to our faces, distorted details amuse us, although the artist's straightforwardness and boldness is annoying and repressing for our sensitive nature. The director The film makes fun of uncompromised and artificial perfection.

Rusudan Papuashvili

ALMADOVAR AND HIS HOMOCHARACTERS Summery The movie of Pedro Almadovar is the representation of free universe. He is one of the first directors, who created classical screen faces from the people being at the bottom of society. Basically his characters are women and men, who desire to be women. Homosexual theme is one of the basic in Almadovars' movies, but when he makes such film, he does not put in them only unsociability problem of sexual minority or their inner conflicts, Almadovar loads the film with interesting subject line and various interrelations. In that way his personages are interesting for spectators not as human beings fitted or not to the society, but as individuals, personalities with their internal world. Frequently the films of Pedro Almadovar are called "Gay films". Many times he commented Almadovar that in his creations he talks about universal feelings that are typical for people of any orientation.

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's faculty of Arts and Social Sciences with major in Film Studies. She researches the problems of teenage depiction in contemporary American Film. Tel: +995 (32) 93 39 97; +995 (99) 41 71 57;

ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University's faculty of the Arts and Social Sciences with major in Film Studies. Works on topics: "Depiction of a woman in Spanish Film"

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TWENTIETH CENTURY ART Program Leader ­ Professor Irine Abesadze

Tea Marekhashvili

GEORGIAN ARTIST IN RUSSIA ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF DECORATIVE-APPLIED ARTS Summery

Nino Gvazava THE ANCIENT TRADITIONS OF GOLDSMITHS IN THE ARTCRAFTS OF KOBA GURULI Summary This article is about the activities of the famous Georgian sculptures I. Ochiauri and K. Guruli in revival of ancient traditions of Georgian gold metal work. The art crafts of the Koba Guruli demonstrate the best ways of carving (chiseling) on metals. The author emphasizes the modern state of Georgian goldsmith art direction. Russian Enamel Art reached its heyday of glory in pictorial enamel technique in XVII century. Its rich traditions conditioned the fact that at the edge of XX-XXI centuries decorative applied art was still in heyday of its glory in Yaroslavl side, particularly hot enamel. In 1994 international exhibition of decorative applied art was organized in three Russian cities at the same time, more than 140 artists took place in the exhibition from 10 countries all over the world. It was a proud fact that there was a person who represented Georgia in the above mentioned exhibition. Guram Gunia, artist, whose art and creation attracts enormous attention. His works are new and original, various in hot enamel technique ("Juda", "Bibliophile", Golden Eye" and etc.). As regards his project Georgian Door ­ "Symbol of orthodox universe", where with the difference from traditional diminutive painting we have monumental pliquea-jour and pictorial enamels. Combination of enamel with architecture is outstanding and it is new for the both field of art. Hoping that this multifunctional project will take place in Poti and Batumi (as thought) where our cultural tradition and modern ideas are significantly outlined. ABOUT AUTHOR She graduated from the Tbilisi State University of Culture and Art and completed the Bachelor's program with a major In Art Critic - Expert. She is the author of two articles: 1. "Cloisonne Enamel ­ Remains of past Glory"; journal "Caucasus Herald", 2006, # 15; 2. "Painting Enamel", its Techniques ­ Technology, 2006, # 15. In 2005 she participated in scientific conference with a theme: "Cloisonne Enamel" Nowadays she works on a subject "Artistic Enamel". Supervisor ­ professor Irina Abesadze. Tel.: (+995 32) 71 60 68; (+995 58) 10 92 76;

ABOUT AUTHOR She graduated from Ekvtime Takaishvili Tbilisi State University of Arts and Culture with major in Art History expertise. She does research in traditions of gold metal work.

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Khatuna Meladze

Maiko Razmadze

THE MAIN ITEMS OF CONTEMPORARY METHODS OF MODERN ART TEACHING Summery

THEORETICALVIEW OF SOMERSET MAUGHAM ON THEATRE ART Summary The significance of the theme of Art and Artist in Somerset Maugham's fiction can hardly be overestimated. This problem acquires special importance in his novels "The moon and the Sixpence" and "Theatre". The comparative study of these novels can serve as a basis for revealing similarities and differences in the writer's attitude to this problem at different stages of his creative evolution. This aspect of Maugham's writings has given rise to much controversy among literary critics. Whether his attitude to such issues as art and life, artist and art, spiritual mission of artist and art, their social and aesthetic functions was serious or marked with playfulness was a common question for critics. Their opinion has always been conflicting and mutually exclusive. The novel "Theatre" is focused on the relationship between art and life. According to Maugham, art is derived from life and on the contrary, life is theatre where everybody plays his/her own role. The writer perceives theatre as a metaphor of life, thus expressing his attitude towards existing reality.

During the development of human history, it was important to care about youth education. It's true that growing up, training and getting education takes place at school, but it does not mean at all that it excludes the role of the family. A family just as school must systematically assist youth to become adults. In resistance cases sometimes we are enthusiastic about a person's great knowledge, but sometimes these very educated people lack proper behavior. To avoid these situations, it is our responsibility to develop a child's mind as well as to teach them how to live a proper life. The philosophers of the last century thought that this time period was a time of personal crises.

ABOUT AUTHOR Works on master's thesis: "Certain aspects of contemporary teaching methodology of the arts in regional public schools of Georgia".

ABOUT AUTHOR She graduated from Tbilisi State University of Culture and Arts and completed Bachelor's program with major in English Language and Literature. Nowadays she works on a subject "Art and Artist in the novel of Somerset Maugham "Theatre". Tel.: +995 (99) 41 80 42;

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Eka Kumsiashvili THE POINT OF GENESIS OF THE STYLE "ART NOUVEAU" IN WILLIAM BLAKE'S WORK Summery A famous English poet and artist William Blake is known in the history of Culture as an extremely originally creator, who was defending his spiritual independence. He was universal person, in his poetry and fine art W. Blake established his own style. He often painted in colors and details on each page by hand. To support himself, Blake worked for other authors as an illustrator. William Blake's most important poetical composition "Songs of Innocence and Experience" is dated at about 1789-1794. These poems explore his favorite themes - the denting of the human spirit and the possibility of renewing our perceptions. He came to believe that a return to innocence was not, at least by itself, sufficient for people to attain true self-awareness. Blake's credo was that there must be a union of opposites, or a fusion of innocence and experience. W. Blake illustrated his poems with striking, integrated designs. These illustrations seem to swirl through the words and become part of their meaning. Blake claimed that many of the images he drew as illustrations were likenesses of his inner visions. They have a childlike feeling and were very different from the strict, formal styles of his time.

"RESEARCHER OF GEORGIAN CHOREOGRAPHY"

Program Leader - Anano Samsonadze

Aleko Gelashvili PARIS ROYAL ACADEMY OF DANCE ­ ITS SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL SIDES Summery XVII-XVIII century French dance occupies a major role in the history of choreography. When Italian transitions of "Pavan", "Galiardi", methods of self-taught teachers like Karozo and Negri became history, the complex structure of folk dance became simplified and transformed into well accepted forms. Spanish "Sarabanda", "Gavoto", "Bure", "Rigodon" and Menuet as well as other forms of dance became popular. This processes were mainly lead by the Paris Royal Academy of Dance, which was created by the command and wish if Louis XIV in 1661. The essential goal of the dance academy was to prevent the fall of dace and its rapid development, but through the times, instead of it giving birth to the means of new dance movements, figures and postures the academy started to copy the dance figures created by the famous dancers like Dupres, Kamargo, Lani and others. These figures contained nothing new only the original sketches created by the past talents. In spite of it, it was due to the academy that choreography took a distinctive place in the fields of art and was officially proclaimed as an ar tform. The academy differentiated salon and stage dance forms from each other. Thanks to the academy the names of the great dancers of those times emerged: Boschan, Pekure, Balon, Dupret and others. The dance academy also provided for the development of choreography literature. One of the most important books is a 1700 year addition of Raoul Auger Feuillet's "Art of describing dance with the help of signs". This is the book which mentions the term "choreography" for the first time, which is used to briefly describe the art of dance nowadays. At that time it was used to describe the system of conventional signs used to record dance.

ABOUT AUTHOR She graduated from the Tbilisi State University of Culture and Art and completed the Bachelor's program with a Major in English Language and Literature. She worked as a journalist in journal "Nostalgia" and newspaper "Georgian Culture", where were published her poetical and prosaic writings. In Rustavi she organized the Student Film Festival "Muza". Nowadays she works on a subject ­ "Expressionistic tendencies in development of Georgian Fine Arts. 1920-s of the 20-th century". Tel: +995 (24) 17 18 03; +995 (93) 56 76 14;

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ABOUT AUTHOR Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University, majoring in choreography of Georgian Dance. Actor of "Movement Theatre" of Kakha Bakuradze. Member-dancer of the Ball and Sport Dance studio "Tela". He took the first place in "Student Days 2003" science conference. At various times was the laureate of Georgian and International folk festivals. Tel: (+995 32) 69 54 61; +995 (93) 32 34 17; E-mail: [email protected]

is used for recording movements and conditions of lower body parts, torso and head, whereas the upper is used for upper body parts only. Despite the authors' efforts, these systems are too complex to study and at times confusing (meaning Davit Javrishvili's terminology) and practically useless. It seams that coming up with a single, perfect system for recording dance, which would be satisfactory for professionals as well as easy to understand for everyone is quite a serious problem. Supposedly this is the reason why the recording systems have not been able to implicate themselves. Inspite of their existence, only an oral method and modern practical means for recording dance remain. ABOUT AUTHOR Assistant Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University. Choreographer. Graduated from Tbilisi Culture and Arts State University (currently Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University) with major in choreography of Georgian dance. From 1998 works at the same university as teacher of Georgian dance. Is an author of publication on problems of Georgian choreographic literature. Currently she is working on problems of dance recording in Georgia. Tel: +995 (99) 18 88 24;

Eka Geliashvili DANCE TRANSFERED ON THE PAPER (Systems of dance recording in Georgia) Summery Efforts to record dance existed in ancient Egypt, India and Rome. The first example of recording dance was actually discovered in Europe in fifteenth century. "Golden Basdances" manuscript by Margarite the Austrian and the effort of dance recording in a form of a printed version associated with the name of M. Toulouse date also of the same time period. From the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth century French dancing teachers and ballet masters Pierre Beauchamps , Raul Oje Feie and Pierre Rameau have come up with relatively basic systems of dance recording, that have been improved in the future by other specialists. In Georgia there are two systems of dance and movements recording. The first is "Conventional signs for recording Georgian dance" by Davit Javrishvili and "Conventional signs for recording dance" by Avtandil Tataradze. Both systems use the conventional signs created by the authors, which are written down on a music sheet as well as the body parts that are represented by the so called music "key". Davit Javrishvili's system is used to record only Georgian dance and its movements. It works in two different ways: In verses and written on five line system. His system also contains conventional signs used for recording directions, movements and conditions. As opposed to this system, the other author uses two five line music system. The lower part

Nino Darakhvelidze FOR CONSIDERATION OF DANCE STAGING PREPARATORY PERIOD WITH POINT OF VIEW OF DIRECTOR Summery Dynamic development of the modern epoch changed choreographic folklore into stage folk dance submitting folk art to some laws. Only scenic character created by technical and artistic dancer can satisfy the desires of modern audience. One of the important places in creation of perfect choreographic composition takes art of staging. Creation of dance by choreographer is connected directly to the director's work on the performance. Consequently we consider that it is must be interesting the subject of dance staging preparatory period from the point of view of the director.

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ABOUT AUTHOR She has graduated Shota Rustaveli University of Theatre and Cinema as Astudent in 2007 (stage director of Georgian dances). She is dancer-actress of the dance group "Rokva". Also she works as a teacher in Tbilisi 6th Public high school.

ABOUT AUTHOR Assistant Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University Teacher of Georgian Dance First year Master's student of the same university, specializing in the research of Georgian dance. Graduated from Ilia Chavchavadze University, Faculty of Georgian language studies. Tel: + 995 (99) 90 22 77;

Tamar Munjishvili MASTERS OF WORLD CHOREOGRAPHY (Arthur Saint-Leon -Artistic Profile) Summery World choreography has preserved the names of many talented artists. Each of them in different time periods has tried to make their contribution in the development of this field of art. Among the artists of the nineteenth century one of the most interesting figures was represented in the face of Arthur Michele Saint-Leon. He was a phenomenally talented person, a dancer, musician, choreographer, screen writer. He was the one to bring some of the most novel ideas to the classical dance. This is the very reason why SaintLeon is considered to be one of the greatest artists of his time. When talking about Arthur Saint-Leon it is impossible not to mention his theoretical work ­ a pamphlet ­ "Stenochoreography", which serves the recording process of dance. With the help of conventional signs the author tried to demonstrate in this work the development of dance in space. He also brought in new sings with the help of which he correlated every movement of the leg with the movements of hand, head and body. Further this very system was implicated and improved by Albert Zorn. Arthur Saint-Leon traveled the world with his art and discovered several marvelous examples of dance having later introduced them to the world. Every epoch brings its own novelty, everything around undergoes change. The same could be said about art. Although not every artist is able to keep up with these novelties. Arthur Saint-Leon was an artist of this kind. This is the reason why he is one of the most renowned artists of the past century.

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