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Electric Energy Storage Technology Options for the Electric Enterprise

Overview of Status, Application Value and U.S. Activities

Dan Rastler Electric Power Research Institute Smart Grid: A 360 View of Battery Storage Atlanta, GA August 30, 2011

Discussion Outline

· Drivers for Electric Energy Storage Solutions · Landscape of Electric Energy Storage Options · Overview of US activities · Quantification of Application Value · Paving the way for Storage Solutions · Summary

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2

Drivers for Electric Energy Storage Solutions

· Managing Increased Wind and PV Penetration on the Grid · Ancillary Services ­ Support Renwables; Optimal use of Fossil Units · Grid Asset Management ­ Managing Grid Peaks,T&D Capital Deployment, Outage Mitigation · Increasing the value of Distributed Photovoltaic systems · Enhancing the value of a Smart Grid: Peak Energy Management

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

3

Industry Drivers for Energy Storage Solutions

Operating Challenges: Variability & Uncertainty

High Levels of Wind and Solar PV Will Present an Operating Challenge!

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

4

Operating Challenges Will Continue to Increase....

350 300 250 300 200 150 100 100 50 0 50

Coal Gas Hydro Wind Biomass Dual Solar Fuel Nuclear Oil Pumped Geothermal Storage

2009 MW (000s) Installed Capacity Wind Capacity 1,044 GW 28 GW

450 400 350

2018 MW (000s) Installed Capacity 1,453 MW Wind Capacity 256 GW

250 200 150

0

Coal Gas

Hydro

Wind Biomass Dual Solar Fuel Nuclear Oil Pumped Geothermal Storage

NERC 2018 Resource Projection

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

5

Industry Driver for Energy Storage Solutions

Increased Penetration of Photovoltaics on the Grid

Concerns: · Voltage Fluctuations · System Protection · Power Quality · Increased Duty · Impact on Demand

Customer Load Customer PV (-)

4

6

8

10

12

Hour

14

16

18

20

22

ANSI Upper Limit

After PV

Voltage

Substation

ANSI Lower Limit

Before PV End of Feeder

Substation

Distance

PV

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

6

Industry Driver: Grid Infrastructure Investments for Delivery and Reliability

· Cost of Power Disturbances to the US Economy $ 180 B/year · Cost of a massive blackout ~ $ 10 B / event · CapEx in Transmission Investments ~ $ 10 B / 2011 · CapEx in Distribution Investments ~ $ 20 B /yr 2010 growing to $ 35 B /yr by 2030 · By 2030, the electric utility industry will need to make a total infrastructure investment of $1.5trillion to $2.0 trillion. (+ $15.5 B with Renewable Penetration)

What if we could Store and Deliver Electricity "when and where" it was needed?

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

7

Current Landscape Energy Storage Penetration is Very Small

Worldwide installed storage capacity for electrical energy

Compressed Air Energy Storage

Pumped Hydro

440 MWs

Sodium-Sulphur Battery

316 MWs

Lead-Acid Battery

127,000 MWel

~35 MWs

Nickel-Cadmium Battery

27 MWs

Fly Wheels < 25 MWs Over 99% of total storage capacity

Source: Fraunhofer Institute, EPRI

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lithium Ion Battery

~20 MWs

Redox-Flow Battery

< 3 MWs

8

Electric Energy Storage Options ­ Not Complete

UPS Power Quality T&D Grid Support Load Shifting Bulk Power Mgt Pumped Hydro CAES ZrBr

Discharge Time at Rated Power

Hours

Flow Batteries: Zn/Cl Zn-Air VRB PSB New Chemistries NaS Battery High Energy NaNiCl2 Battery Super Caps Li-Ion Battery Lead Acid Battery NiCd NiMH

Adv. Lead Acid Battery

Seconds

Minutes

High Power Fly Wheels High Power Super Caps 1 kW 10 kW 100 kW 1 MW SMES 10 MW 100 MW 1 GW

System Power Ratings, Module Size

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2010

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Overview of Energy Storage Solutions

Bulk to Distributed Storage Solutions in the Smart Grid

MWs to kWs: seconds, min, hours of energy duration

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

10

EPRI Testing Several Emerging Battery Storage Systems in Knoxville, Tn

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

11

EPRI - TVA SMART Charging Project

·EV Charging site with 6 charge stations that are assisted by PV and battery storage. ·GSB's scope included providing:

· (3) 10kW battery charger/inverters (Silent Power OnDemand) · 3 sets of (48) SLC704 batteries for a total of 960Ah (46.08kWh) of storage

Knoxville, TN

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

U.S Energy Storage Grid Integration Activities

SustainX 1 MW / 4 MWh Isothermal CAES MA / NH DTE 500 kW / 250 kWh Li-ion MI (A123) PGE 5 MW / 1.25 MWh Li-ion Salem, OR (EnerDel) NYSEG 145 MW Adv. CAES Watkins Glen, NY (EPRI) NGrid 500 kW / 3 MWh ZnBr Everett, MA (Premium Power) NGrid 500 kW / 3 MWh ZnBr Syracuse, NY (Premium Power)

SMUD 500 kW / 3 MWh ZnBr Sacramento, CA (Premium Power) 25 kWh Li-ion Berkeley, CA (Seeo) SMUD 5 kW / 9 kWh Li-ion (Saft) 25 MW Zn-Air Flow Battery Modesto, CA (Primus)

PJM 20 MW Flywheel Chicago, IL (Beacon) DTE 500 kW / 250 kWh Li Ion MA (A123) KCP&L Li-ion Kansas City, MO (Dow Kokam, Siemens) Carnegie Melon Na Ion Pittsburgh, PA (Aquila) AEP 2 MW Li-ion for CES OH (International Battery, S&C)

Amber Kinetics Flywheel Fremont, CA (LLNL) PG&E 300 MW Adv. CAES Kern County, CA (EPRI) SCE 8 MW / 32 MWh Li-ion Tehachapi, CA (A123)

250 kW / 1 MWh Iron / Chrome flow battery Modesto, CA (Ktech Corp ) PNM Adv, Lead Acid Albuquerque, NM (East Penn)

Duke 20 MW TBD Wind Support Notrees, TX

DOE and Utility Funded Energy Storage Demonstrations in the U.S.

What Utilities Are Doing in Energy Storage

Current / Planned U.S. Li-ion Demonstrations

Auto Major Contract

PGE: 5 MW / 1.25 MWh (EnerDel) DTE: 500 kW (A123) AEP: 2 MW (Int'l Battery)

No Auto Contract *Size of star indicates scale of demo

NYPA: 1 MW / 250 kWh (Ultralife Corp) AES: 1 MW / 250 kWh (Altairnano)

SMUD: 5kW / 9kWh (Saft)

Duke Energy: 25 kW & 250 kW (Kokam) KCPL: 1 MW (Dow Kokam)

SCE: 8 MW / 32 MWh (A123)

Southern Co: 60 kW / 240 kWh (GreenSmith TS)

SCE: distributed Li-ion systems, 10 kWh each (LG Chem)

UCSD: 15 kWh (Sanyo)

APS: 0.5 MW (Electrovaya, ABB) HECO: 5 kW / 20 kWh (GreenSmith)

Progress Energy: 5 kW/ 20 kWh (GreenSmith TS)

Battery OEMs · A123Systems · AltairNano · EnerDel · Saft · Dow Kokam · International Battery · GreenSmith / Thundersky · Sanyo ·Ultralife ·Electrovaya

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14

NaS Battery at Xcel ­ Luverne, MN

· 1.25 MVA / 1.0 MW ­ Outdoor Installation · Wind smoothing · Dispatched wind · Peak shaving · Energy arbitrage

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15

NaNiCl2 Battery Systems

Application for PV Smoothing in Tuscany

PLC, Display, Fan, Charger

30kW Bidirectional Inverter

ZEBRA battery

Courtesy of Fiamm

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16

NaNiMx ~ 1 MW / 2 MWh

Courtesy of General Electric

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

17

Advanced Lead Acid Battery Xtreme Power 1.5 MW / 1 MWh

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Flow Battery Systems

Decouple Power &Energy / Positioned for >5 hrs storage

Zn / Br Systems · 0.5 MW / 2.8 MWh Prototype Others include: ­ Vanadium Redox ­ Fe / Cr ­ Zn / Cl ­ Zn / Air

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

19

Li-ion Battery Systems

Being Deployed in High Value Applications

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

20

Global Li-ion Production Capacity

will be at a Scale to Enable Utility Grid Applications

Confluence Industry Drivers

Use of a Common Storage Platform

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

21

Energy Storage Key Asset in Smart Grid

· Costs and Benefits of Smart Grid (EPRI 1022519) March 2011

· Net Investment*: · Net Benefit*: · Benefit-to-Cost: * Billion $

$ 338 ­ $ 476 1,294 ­ 2,028 2.8 ­ 6.0

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

22

EPRI identified 10 key applications along the entire electric value chain ... the list is not comprehensive

Whole Sale Energy Services Renewable Integration

Stationary T&D Support Transportable T&D Support Distributed Storage

C&I Energy Mgt C&I PQ and Rel. ESCO Aggregated

Home Energy Mgt Home Back-up

ISO System Level

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Utility Grid Support

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Customer Energy Mgt

Energy Storage Systems must be able to realize multiple operational uses across the energy value chain

Benefit Type

Higher Value for Energy Storage ($/kWh)

Time

End User

Distribution

Transmission

Utility System

ISO

Energy ($/kWh)

Energy Management

T&D Investment Deferral

Renewable Integration

Energy Arbitrage System Capacity

Reliability ($/kW)

Minutes

Higher Value for Discharge Capacity ($/kW)

Reliability Renewable Smoothing Power Quality Ancillary Services

Power ($/kW)

Seconds

Operations ($/kVAR & $/kW)

T&D System Support DESS

100s kW 10s MW 100s MW

10s kW

Size of Application

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24

Summary of Application Value Analysis

Total Resource Cost Test (TRC)

CustomerSide Applications* Caveat: Energy storage systems to address each application will vary in cost, depending on DESS Substation Grid Support Frequency Regulation

*Values calculated from customer perspective.

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

size, location, and system power-to-energy ratio.

Best economics for near-term utility-scale storage

Value: $/kW-h of usable energy storage

25

TOU rates and demand charge savings represent loss of utility revenue

Gap Analysis

Benchmarking Value to Storage System Cost

Present Value $/kW-h (AC)

· Summary of Energy Storage Cost Options from EPRI's detailed Cost Data Base · Benefit / Cost Gap Analysis for each application · Analytic foundation for utility benefit & cost value analysis

Trans T&D Support

$2,500

$2,000

$1,500

$1,000

$500

$0

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

26

Paving the Way for Storage Solutions

· EPRI's goal: Safe, reliable, costeffective, grid-ready energy storage solutions ­ Identify where storage brings the most value ­ Define clearly what the storage system has to do ­ Test, evaluate, and validate the storage product ­ Determine the effects on the grid ­ Assess the true value of storage in real-life applications.

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

27

Paving the Way for Storage Solutions

Storage must be a complete product...

Power Conditioning System · DC to AC conversion · Charging control · Reactive power management · Integration point to the grid Balance of Plant · Data acquisition and controls · Thermal management · Physical structure Storage Energy Storage Storage · Shipping and Installation

All components must be safe, reliable, low-cost, and seamlessly integrated

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

28

Paving the Way for Storage Solutions

Storage must be integrated with the grid

Grid Operations

Smart Grid

· Regulatory framework · Market framework · Operational algorithms

Energy Storage

· Communications and control protocols · Object models · Cybersecurity

· Protection schemes

Distribution Infrastructure

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

· Understanding capacity implications · Islanding · Interface with public and local agencies

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Paving the Way for Storage Solutions

Storage must make economic sense For Illustration Only

Photovoltaic Peak Shift Demand Peak Reduction Regulation Services Balance of Plant Power Electronics Battery Cost Voltage Support Inertia Support Power Quality and Reliability T&D Upgrade Deferral Market Applications

Customer Side Applications

Rate Based Applications

Costs of Storage

Benefits of Storage

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

30

Summary Key EPRI Energy Storage Resources

· Key Reports: · Electric Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs and Benefits (EPRI 1020676) · Executive summary (EPRI 1022261) · Functional Requirements for Electric Energy Storage Applications on the Power System Grid (EPRI 1022544)

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

31

Summary

· Storage will be a key asset in the Smart Grid · Grid Energy Storage Deployment is in its Infancy · CAES ­ lowest cost (near-term) option for Bulk Storage > 10 hrs; Large Demos Planned. · Li-ion ­ potentially lowest cost (longerterm) for distributed storage < 4 hrs · Several new technologies in the pipeline that look promising for significant cost reduction - stay in tuned! · Work Together to Pave the Way for Energy Storage Solutions!

© 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

32

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Electric Energy Storage Technology Options for the Electric Enterprise Overview of Status, Application Value and US Activities

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