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Fortified Builders Guide 1.0 Welcome

Builder's & Homebuyer's Guide

May 2003

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Fortified Builders Guide 1.0 Welcome

Table of Contents

1.0 Welcome.......................................................................................................................................... 2 2.0 Definitions of Peril Regions by State.............................................................................................. 5 3.0 Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria ........................................................................... 12 4.0 Flood Region Criteria.................................................................................................................... 28 5.0 Wildfire Region Criteria................................................................................................................ 31 6.0 Hail Region Criteria ...................................................................................................................... 35 7.0 Freezing Weather Criteria ............................................................................................................. 35 8.0 Seismic Criteria (w/Appendix A & B). ......................................................................................... 36 9.0 Reference....................................................................................................................................... 53 10.0 Contact Information ...................................................................................................................... 55

1.0 WELCOME

Fortified...for Safer Living is a program designed to raise national awareness about home safety features that can help families become better prepared for windstorms, floods, wildfires, earthquakes and freezing weather. Homes all across the country are at high risk from property damage due to natural disasters. For example, Florida has had more than $35 billion in insured losses due to disasters in the past decade, the highest of any state in the nation, whereas wildfires caused $2.1 billion losses in the year 2000 alone. Safer homes would mean fewer damages after a natural disaster ­ saving lives and money. One way to make American homes a safer place to live is to ask builders, home inspectors, and homeowners to make sure that the homes they build, inspect and live in are Fortified...for Safer Living. The Fortified program specifies construction, design and landscaping guidelines to enable homes to increase their resistance to the following natural hazards that are most likely to occur in the area: Hurricanes Tornados High Winds Floods Wildfire Hail Earthquake Freezing Weather

The Fortified program heralds a new way to build, remodel, inspect and sell more secure homes in disaster-prone areas.

1.1

Who is IBHS?

IBHS is a nonprofit organization, supported by the insurance industry. IBHS conducts studies, public and professional educational activities, and data gathering to gain greater understanding of the effects of losses that occur as a result of natural disasters, and determine how best to reduce them.

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Fortified Builders Guide 1.0 Welcome

The vision of IBHS is that construction in the United States will incorporate structural and nonstructural loss reduction initiatives enabling the public and business communities to live and work in an atmosphere of personal safety, financial security and social stability. The mission of IBHS is to reduce the deaths, injuries, property damage, economic losses and human suffering caused by natural disasters. IBHS and its members seek ways to demonstrate what works to make homes and businesses safer. IBHS has targeted three areas in which it identifies ways to meet its goals. They are: 1. Evaluate the merits of disaster-resistant building practices and materials and recommend improvements. 2. Provide technical expertise in public policy and construction arenas on behalf of safe residential and commercial practices. 3. Conduct communications to stimulate property loss reduction activity by home and business owners. .

1.2

Fortified ... for safer living Program: Benefits

Using proven principles, IBHS and its partners have developed construction; design and landscaping guidelines that will help homes to better withstand the effects of high winds, floods, wildfire, hail, earthquake, and freezing temperature. These criteria are labeled Fortified...for safer living. While they do not eliminate the threat of damage, they help homeowners enhance and protect their property, thus minimizing the risk of damage. Fortified...for safer living homes meet every specification for the particular hazards it faces. The Fortified...for safer living program heralds a new way to build, remodel and sell homes in disasterprone areas for safety-conscious consumers desiring homes that have an enhanced degree of protection from natural disaster.

1.3

Building Code Requirements

Building codes set a baseline of performance for many features within the home. While the Fortified...for safer living program requires many items above and beyond building code requirements in terms of natural disaster resistance, it is still crucial that the home meet minimum requirements regarding electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and interior fire protection measures. Therefore, for the home to receive the Fortified...for safer living designation, it must be established that the home meets the requirements of one of the existing model building codes. There are two ways to establish this: The first is to determine if the community's Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule (BCEGS) rating is between 1 and 5. The schedule grades communities based on the code adopted and how well it is enforced. To achieve a grade of 5 or better (lower is better), a community must have adopted a model code that is no more than 2 cycles old and have a complete building inspection and plan review department. To obtain the BCEGS rating for the community, consult the local building department. They should know their current rating, especially if they are part of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which uses the rating in determining insurance premiums.

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Fortified Builders Guide 1.0 Welcome

The second method is used if the community does not enforce a current model building code or has a BCEGS rating higher than 5. In this case, the builder will have to establish model code compliance by having a registered architect or professional engineer attach a signed and sealed statement that indicates the home meets all applicable requirements of a specific model building code.

1.4

Fortified Inspection Process

For a builder to participate in the Fortified...for safer living program, the building will need to be inspected by a qualified Fortified Inspector. IBHS has been working to develop a network of Fortified inspectors to assist the builder during the process. All Fortified...for safer living program inspectors must complete a training seminar and pass a test established by IBHS. Armed with their knowledge, and a hazard resistance criteria list that is specific to their geographical area, Fortified inspectors will be able to check building plans and homes for compliance and recommend strategies to bring homes up to the standards set for the Fortified...for safer living program. The inspector will meet with the builder prior to construction to discuss the appropriate criteria and review the building plans. The intent of this step is to set the stage for most of the field inspections. The Fortified inspector will review the drawings for all relevant criteria and communicate the requirements of the program to the builder. In order to effectively complete the drawing review, the builder will need to supply the following information: · · · · · · Architectural drawings showing floor plans and elevations Window/Door Schedule Structural drawings if applicable Flood Elevation Certificate (if applicable) Truss drawings from the truss manufacturer Documentation on roof sheathing nails and roof covering

The inspector will visit the site approximately 4 times during the construction of the building to verify compliance to the Fortified...for safer living standards. After the last inspection, the builder will receive a certificate from IBHS designating compliance with the Fortified...for safer living program. (Figure 1-1)

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Fortified Builders Guide Definitions of Peril Regions by State

Figure 1-1: Sample of Fortified...for safer living Certificate

2.0 DEFINITIONS OF PERIL REGIONS BY STATE

The following are descriptions of the areas of the country where each of the Fortified perils are currently defined. Note that only one of the three wind perils (Hurricane, Tornado, or High Wind) can be applied to any one site. The choice of which peril is appropriate is based on the design wind speed map (Figure 2-1) and tornado frequency map (Figure 2-2). These determinations have already been made and are summarized in Table 2-1.

2.1

Hurricane Prone Region

ASCE 7-98 defines hurricane prone regions for the United States as areas along "the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 mph, and Hawaii". The Fortified... for safer living program also uses the definition of ASCE 7- 98 to define areas where Fortified homes meet Hurricane Requirements. However, Fortified Hurricane Requirements exceed ASCE 7-98 recommendations for wind-borne debris regions by requiring that all Fortified...for safer living homes "within one mile of coastal mean high water" in wind zones of 100-110 mph or where basic wind speed is greater than or equal to 110 mph include wind borne debris protection for all

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Fortified Builders Guide Definitions of Peril Regions by State

openings greater than one square foot. In addition all homes in Florida regardless of wind zone must meet wind borne debris requirements to be designated Fortified...for safer living.

2.2

High Wind Region

Areas inland of the 100 mph wind contour in the Northeast Region of the United States, including Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Pennsylvania are particularly susceptible to high winds from Nor'easters, and the state of West Virginia is susceptible to high wind due to its mountainous terrain. IBHS considers these areas of the United States to be a High Wind Region. California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona are also in the High Wind Region. Prescriptive requirements for Fortified...for safer living homes in this region include the structural elements necessary for wind loading, but do not require windborne debris protection or impact resistant roofing materials.

2.3

Tornado and Hail Region

From the Rocky Mountain States to the southeast, severe thunderstorms are known to produce hail and tornadoes. Fortified...for safer living considers all Tornado regions to be Hail regions as well. The western boundaries of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico establish the western boundary of this region and the eastern boundary is the state border of West Virginia and the 100 mph wind contour in Virginia and the Carolinas. The south is also bounded by the 100mph wind contour where applicable.

2.4

Wildfire Region

The "Wildland/Urban" interface may apply anywhere in the country where buildings are located in proximity to natural areas similar to Figure 2-3. Applicability is determined by site-specific risk assessments of vegetation and many other factors.

2.5

Flood Region

Homes in Special Flood Hazard Areas (A or V zones) as determined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) must meet the Fortified...for safer living Flood Criteria. Your community flood plain management official, mortgage lender, or insurer/insurance agent can help you determine the applicable flood zone for your site. Homes not in a Special Flood Hazard Area are exempt from the Fortified flood criteria.

2.6

Earthquake Region

Homes designated as Fortified...for Safer Living are built to withstand the lateral loading brought about by 130 mph winds regardless of geographic location. For the most part, they are therefore capable of withstanding the lateral loading brought about by slight-to-moderate ground accelerations as well (i.e., ground accelerations between 17% and 50% of the acceleration due to gravity). For this reason, only Fortified homes built in regions of significant seismic risk are required to adhere to the seismic criteria.

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Fortified Builders Guide Definitions of Peril Regions by State

2.7 Freezing Weather Region

Water damage, both structural and non-structural damage to homes due to moisture invasion of the building envelope as a consequence of heavy rains, flooding, or freezing weather, can inflict considerable damage to a home and potentially harm the health of its occupants. The Fortified...for safer living home program provides within the windstorm criteria specific guidelines for sealing the building envelope from water penetration as a result of external forces and makes recommendations for reducing the prospects homes experience water damages from internal causes such as: appliance malfunctions, leaky piping or burst hoses as an addendum to this guide. Additionally, Freezing Weather criteria specifically addresses the potential for structural damage from ice dams in areas prone to snowfall accumulations greater than 12 inches. Fortified criteria for Freezing Weather are based on an average daily temperature in January of 32 degrees or colder from the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook and a 20 lb/sq. ft. ground snow load from the 2000 International Residential Code. The northern boundaries of NC, KY, AK, OK, NM, and AZ roughly define a geographic line where the danger of ice dams from snow accumulation and freezing weather are most likely to occur. In California ice dams are a factor in the mountain region and northwest of San Francisco. Fortified freezing weather criteria are required in all states and areas where the probability of ice dam formation is high. .

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Fortified Builders Guide Definitions of Peril Regions by State

Table 2-1: Fortified Perils by State

State Alabama: Alaska: Arizona: Arkansas: California: Applicable Perils 100 mph and greater - Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail High Wind Freezing Weather Seismic High Wind Seismic (manycounties) Tornado and Hail Seismic (some north east counties) High Wind Freezing Weather (Northern and Eastern Region) Seismic Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (southwestern counties) Hurricane Freezing Weather Hurricane Freezing Weather High Wind Freezing Weather Hurricane 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail Seismic (northwestern counties) Hurricane High Wind Freezing Weather Seismic (many counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (some southern counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (some southern counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Freezing weather Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (some western counties) State Missouri: Montana: Nebraska: Nevada: New Hampshire: New Jersey: New Mexico: New York: Applicable Perils Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (some south east counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (some western counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather High Wind Freezing Weather Seismic 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ High Wind Freezing Weather 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ High Wind Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Seismic (some northcentral counties) 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ High Wind Freezing weather Seismic (some northern counties) 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail Seismic (southwestern counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail High Wind Freezing Weather Seismic (many counties) High Wind Freezing Weather Hurricane Freezing Weather 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail Seismic (most counties) Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Seismic (some counties)

Colorado: Connecticut: Delaware:

District of Columbia: Florida: Georgia: Hawaii: Idaho: Illinois: Indiana: Iowa: Kansas: Kentucky:

North Carolina: North Dakota: Ohio: Oklahoma: Oregon: Pennsylvania: Rhode Island: South Carolina: South Dakota: Tennessee:

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Fortified Builders Guide Definitions of Peril Regions by State Louisiana: Maine: Maryland: Mass: Michigan: Minnesota: Mississippi: 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ High Wind Freezing Weather Eastern Shore ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ High Wind Freezing Weather 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ High Wind Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail Seismic (some northern counties) Texas: Utah: Vermont: Virginia: Washington: West Virginia: Wisconsin: Wyoming: 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail High Wind Freezing Weather Seismic (many counties) High Wind Freezing Weather 100 mph and greater ­ Hurricane Other areas ­ Tornado and Hail ­ Freezing Weather High Wind Freezing Weather Seismic (some counties) High Wind Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Tornado and Hail Freezing Weather Seismic (some western counties)

Note: In states where both hurricane and tornado/other high wind regions exist, the dividing line will be defined along county boundaries in the vicinity of the 100 mph (3 second gust) wind contour on the ASCE 7-98 map. Wildfire & Flood occur in all states and are determined by a risk assessment and flood maps respectively.

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Design Peak Gust Hurricane Wind Speeds (mph) In Open Terrain

90 - 100 100 - 110 110 - 120 120 - 130 130 - 140 140 - 150 150 - 160

Figure 2-1: Design Wind Speed Map from ASCE 7-98

Fortified Builders Guide

Definitions of Peril Regions by State

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Fortified Builders Guide Definitions of Peril Regions by State

Figure 2-2: Tornado Activity in the United States

Figure 2-3: Typical wild land urban interface areas (adapted from Western Fire Chiefs Association).

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.0 HURRICANE/TORNADO/HIGH WIND REGION CRITERIA

The following sections summarize the Hurricane, Tornado, and High Wind requirements developed by IBHS for the Fortified...for safer living program. Collectively these will be referred to as "wind requirements" throughout the guide. The underlying premise behind the Fortified wind requirements is to use hurricane resistant building techniques to protect homes against damage from all three types of wind perils. With this in mind, the prescriptive requirements were developed based on the 110 mph (fastest mile)) (equivalent to about 130 mph 3 second peak gust) requirements from SSTD-10-99 Standard for Hurricane Resistant Residential Construction. The prescriptive requirements listed for the Fortified Hurricane Program can be applied if the following conditions are met: · · · · · · · · Construction type is either wood frame or reinforced masonry. Wood species used has a specific gravity greater than 0.49; i.e., Southern Pine, Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir, Red Oak and mixed Maple. Maximum spacing of studs in exterior wood frame walls is 16 inches on center Wall/story heights are 10 feet or less for wood, 20 ft for masonry Buildings are either 1 or 2 stories in height for wood, 3 or less stories for masonry. Horizontal building dimensions are between 18' to 60' in length and 18' to 36' in width. A length to width ratio less than or equal to 2. Height to eaves less than 30 feet.

If these conditions are met, then the Fortified Inspector will verify that the following prescriptive requirements are in place. If any of these conditions are not met, then a registered Professional Engineer or Architect must certify that the structure was designed for wind loads corresponding to at least 130 mph (3 second peak gust) for a home to be considered Fortified.

3.1

Elements common to all Wind Perils

A continuous and adequate load path from the roof to the foundation of the home exists. To be considered Fortified, the building must have positive connections from the roof to foundation as a means to transmit wind uplift and shear loads safely to the ground. This includes providing roof-to-wall connection hardware (e.g. hurricane straps), inter-story connection hardware, anchorage to the foundation and full structural wood panel sheathing on exterior walls as detailed below. In addition, the roof framing, sheathing and covering all must be constructed to resist wind loads and wind effects. This includes thicker roof sheathing fastened with ring-shank nails, bracing of gable ends, wind resistant roof coverings (impact resistant roof coverings in Tornado/Hail Regions) and upgraded roofing underlayment.

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.1.1 Anchor Bolts · · All anchor bolts shall be minimum 5/8" bolts with 3"x3"x3/16" washers. They shall have a minimum 7" embedment into concrete or masonry. Sill plates shall have anchor bolts every four feet and within 6 to 12 inches of the end of each plate. EMBED 5/8" ANCHOR BOLTS MIN. 7" w/ 3"x3"x3/16" PLATES AT 4'o.c. MAX.

SILL PLATE BOND BEAM REINFORCING

FOOTING

WALL REINF. @ 4'o.c. MAX W/ GROUTED CELL STANDARD HOOK

Figure 3-1: Typical foundation details for wood wall construction. Fortified inspectors are only required to check for proper anchor bolts size and spacing.

3.1.2 Wood Shear Walls · All exterior wood framed walls must be fully sheathed with minimum 15/32" wood structural panels (Plywood or OSB). Sheathing shall overlap both top and bottom plates and be continuous from the plate for at least 2 feet into the wall (as shown in Figure 3-2). Nail schedule shall be 10d nails at 6"/12" spacing on edge and field of plywood. In one story wood frame walls, blocking shall be provided at 48" on center in the first two framing spaces of wood framed walls from all corners and at either end of garage door openings. In two story wood frame walls, blocking shall be provided where needed in all framing spaces to allow nailing around the perimeters of wall sheathing. All exterior walls shall be considered "shear walls" for at least 50% of their length. Fully sheathed wall segments wider than 48 inches without any openings larger than 144 square inches are considered shear walls provided that they have hold downs at the end of each segment (Figure 3-4) with minimum allowable load capacities as follows: Top story end wall 1st story (under 2nd) 3,100 lbf. 10,000 lbf. Top story Sidewall 1st story (under 2nd) 2,600 lbf. 5,300 lbf.

·

·

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

Min 2 ft

Min 2 ft

Figure 3-2: Example of how sheathing should overlap inter-story connection by at least 24 inches.

Note that these values reflect only the hold-down capacities required to resist overturning. Additional uplift resistance must be provided through either separate hardware or by selecting holddown connectors with sufficient capacity to resist both overturning and uplift. Ideally, the shear wall segments and therefore the hold-down connectors will be aligned vertically. However, there is no specific requirement for vertical alignment in the Fortified program. Specific Simpson Strong Tie connectors that will meet the hold-down requirements for overturning resistance alone are shown in Figure 3-5 below. Depending upon the required uplift resistance, this hardware may also be sufficient for the combined hold-down requirement. Note that a single hold-down may be used when two shear walls meet at a corner. This is allowed as long as the hold-down is sized for the larger of the two required capacities, and the details shown in Figure 3-6 are followed. See Section 305.7 of SSTD 10-99 for more information on hold-down connectors. Also note that hold-down connectors for second stories must extend across floor framing to connect first and second story walls (as shown in Figure 3-7). Note that this figure shows three types of connectors, and does not reflect the required spacing of the holddown connectors.

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

Holddown on each segment

Ignore openings smaller than or equal to 144 sq in.

Sheathing full wall height

Shear wall figure from APA

1x1 ft

a+b+c > 0.5 L

At least 50%

Min width of 48 in.

Figure 3-3: Illustration of Shear wall length criteria.

2600 lbf hold-down 5300 lbf hold-down

3100 lbf hold-down

10,000-lbf hold-down

Figure 3-4: Typical Locations of hold-down connectors on 2-story house (adapted from SSTD10-99 from Southern Building Code Congress International. 1999)

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

PHD2 = 3610 lb capacity One story and top story of 2 story sidewall and end wall

PHD6 = 5860 lb capacity Lower story sidewall

HD14A = 11,080 lb capacity Lower story end wall

Figure 3-5: Examples of hold-down connectors from Simpson Strong-tie that will qualify for the Fortified hold-down requirements. (Simpson Strong Tie, 2002).

Figure 3-6: Example of single hold-down connection detail at corner. (adapted from SSTD10-99 )

Figure 3-7: First to Second story hold-down installation examples. (adapted from SSTD10-99).

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.1.3 Inter-story connections Inter-story (2nd story to 1st story) details must include metal strapping every 48 inches (every 3rd stud or 48 inches) with an allowable load capacity of at least 980 lbf and be sheathed with continuous wood structural panels of at least 15/32 inches. Figure 3-8 shows four types of acceptable strapping. Note that the hold-down connectors for the 1st to 2nd story connectors (Figure 3-7) required for the wood shear walls can be counted as inter-story connections if they are sized correctly. In addition to the straps the builder should install sheathing so that the horizontal joints between sheathing are at least 2 feet above/below the floor connection as shown in Figure 3-2. This essentially implies that sheathing shall be oriented vertically across the inter-story connection.

Figure 3-8: Metal Strapping used for inter-story connections (adapted from SSTD10-99 from Southern Building Code Congress International. 1999)

3.1.4 Flooring · All wood framed floors must have 2x blocking in the first two spaces between the floor joists at each end every 4 feet with 10d nails at 6"/12" on 1st floor and 10d nails 4"/12" on 2nd floor nails for shear resistance.

Figure 3-9: Required blocking of floor joists for wood frame floors (SSTD 10-99).

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.1.5 Roof-Wall Connectors Hardware connectors must be provided from all roof framing members to wall frames. All connectors shall wrap over the top of the roof truss or rafter and be installed according to manufacturers recommendations. Minimum allowable load capacities for these straps are 1345 lbf. at 24" framing spacing, or 900 lbf at 16" framing spacing (per SSTD 10-99) for a building 36' wide and a roof load of 7psf. Indicate on the plans the rated capacity of the roof-wall connection (including the 160% capacity increase allowed under allowable stress design).

Figure 3-10: Strap types used in wood construction. Note that the non-wrapping clip styles on the left and right are not accepted by the Fortified program. (with permission from Simpson Strong-Tie, 1991).

3.1.6 Attached Structures Securely anchor connections for exterior attached structures such as carports and porches that attach to the main structure of the house (as shown in Figure 3-11 and Figure 3-12). Hot dipped galvanized hardware shall be used for any connections that will be exposed to weathering in service and stainless steel hardware including nails, screws and bolts are required on hardware exposed to a salt water climate.

Figure 3-11: Connection of column on porch to foundation with post anchor.

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

Figure 3-12: Strapping of top of porch column to supporting beam.

3.1.7 Gable Bracing Gable end bracing shall be provided at all gable end walls to resist uplift and lateral loading of the gable truss. This shall include lateral bracing of the bottom chord, anchoring of the bottom chord, cross-bracing, and lateral bracing of top chord. The following specifications and guidelines apply only to gable end construction with flat ceilings constructed with truss or rafters/joists. Other configurations such as cathedral ceilings may be accepted, but may require review by the Fortified inspector or by a design engineer. Note that for truss roofs, the truss manufacturer has designed the truss under the guidance of a professional engineer. Therefore, the installation instructions should come with details about bracing the gable end. If the Fortified requirements are different than the specifications from the truss manufacturer, then the truss manufacturer's engineer should review the bracing requirements specified here prior to construction in the same way that any other modifications or repairs to the trusses must be reviewed by the truss manufacturer's engineer. 3.1.7.1 Lateral Bracing of Bottom Chord

Install horizontal braces at 4 feet on center and extending back 8 feet from the gable end wall. The brace will consist of a 2x4 fastened with 2 10d nails at each truss and 4 10d nails into the blocking in the first space. (Figure 3-13) 3.1.7.2 Bottom Chord Anchoring for Uplift

For the platform styles of wall construction (wood or masonry), it is important to transfer the uplift loads from the gable truss/frame wall to the sidewall below. Anchorage may be done in one of two ways. Install a connector designed for this application (e.g. HGA10 from Simpson strong tie) at 48

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

inches on center (Figure 3-14). Or else install a series of flat metal straps with 450-lbf tensile strength at 48 inch spacing that attaches the gable truss/frame to the wall below (Figure 3-13). In addition, for wood construction, the wall sheathing should overlap the connection between the end wall and gable truss/frame by at least 12 inches (Figure 3-15). 3.1.7.3 Cross Bracing

This type of bracing will transfer lateral loads from gable truss to the ceiling and roof sheathing planes where loads can be effectively transferred to shear walls. The Fortified program requires cross bracing to be installed at the same spacing as the lateral bottom chord braces described above (every 4 feet). This bracing will be installed in all configurations with flat ceilings. Keep the orientation of the X in the vertical plane, and make sure that the connection between the cross braces and trusses is done into the side of the top chord and bottom chord of the trusses, as shown in the inset of Figure 3-16. . 3.1.7.4 Top Chord Bracing Install 2x4 blocking at 48 inch spacing between top chords of last three truss bays. (Figure 3-17)

@ 4'-0"o.c.

Metal strap satisfies uplift requirement of gable truss

Figure 3-13:Horizontal Lateral Bracing Construction Details (adapted from SSTD10-99 from Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL, 352131204).

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

Figure 3-14: Hurricane Gusset Angle is designed to transfer uplift and lateral loads from gable end truss to the wall below (Simpson Strong Tie, 2000). This can be used as alternative to metal strap in Figure 3-13.

Note sheathing overlapping the gable-side wall connection by 12 inches

Sheathing overlaps bottom plate

Figure 3-15: Example of how wall sheathing should overlap the gable wall-side wall connection.

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

Figure 3-16: Gable End Wall Cross Bracing. [Inset: Cross Bracing should connect to truss as close to sheathing as possible. In this case, a special metal connector was used to make installation easier in existing attic] Rat-run not shown.

THREE FRAMING

Figure 3-17: Blocking required for top chord of truss/rafter when gable wall is balloon framed or full masonry wall.

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.1.8 Roof Sheathing The program requires plywood roof sheathing with a roof thickness of 19/32" and a nailing pattern of 8d ring shank (2.5" by 0.120" diameter) nails at 4" on center on any panel adjacent to a gable end. The same nails are required at 6 inches on center everywhere else. A minimum withdrawal capacity of 60 lbf per fastener is required. Note that the nails must be a full 2.5-inch long to qualify. Shorter nails may be qualified by the Fortified inspector through comparative analysis using information about the nail size and wood species from NER 272. All nails shall be installed such that they do not protrude out the side of the framing members as shown in Figure 3-18.

Figure 3-18: Avoid sidesplitting nails in deck to rafter connections. Note frequency of misses in this case causes roof deck to be very vulnerable to wind damage.

6" spacing in nonshaded panels

4" spacing in shaded panels

Figure 3-19: Nail Spacing requirements for plywood roof deck

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.1.9 Secondary Water Resistance All roof-sheathing joints shall be sealed with a self-adhered asphalt/rubber tape (modified bitumen) at least 4" wide to provide a secondary moisture barrier. Product must comply with ASTM D 1970 "Self-Adhering Polymer Bituminous Sheet".

Figure 3-20: Installation of secondary water resistance using self-adhering strips.

3.1.10

Roof Underlayment

Roofing underlayment shall consist of either a single layer of 30# felt with a minimum 2" overlap or two layers of 15# felt with a 19" overlap. Both underlayments require a minimum 6" overlap on end. Nail spacing shall be no greater than 6" along the laps and 12" in the interior of each strip using low profile roofing nails with load distribution disks or capped head nails. Roofs within 3000 feet of salt water require hot dipped galvanized fasteners for attachments of all roof coverings, including the underlayment. 3.1.11 All Openings: Flashing and Installation

Windows and doors are installed according to manufacturers specifications. The Fortified program has specific requirements for flashing around all windows and doors in wood frame walls that may exceed requirements from manufacturer. Confirm that flashing meets the following specifications. Note that there is no requirement for flashing in masonry walls. The intent of these details is to prevent moisture penetration into the wall cavities as well as the interior spaces. As a builder, you are encouraged to obtain training and certification through the AAMA InstallationMastersTM Residential and Light Commercial Window and Door Installation Program. Contact Larry Livermore at (540) 877-9957 to obtain more information. The steps presented below are consistent with Method "B" from the AAMA InstallationMastersTM guide for windows with mounting flanges and weather resistant barriers applied

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

after installation of the windows. These recommended steps are presented in a step-by-step format as well as in Figure 3-21. Other types of windows or installations methods are acceptable as long as the AAMA InstallationMastersTM guide, or ASTM E 2112-01 ­ Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors, and Skylights, recommends them. Steps for installing windows with mounting flanges. 3.1.11.1 Step 1: Sill Flashing Install a 9" wide piece of flashing flush with the rough opening of the window allowing the flashing material to overlap the sheathing below. Fasten with staples at the top edge and do not remove release paper until weather resistant barrier is installed in Step 5. Extend the flashing 9" beyond the rough opening at the side jambs. 3.1.11.2 Step 2: Jamb Flashing Install 9" wide flashing on the side jambs of the windows opening letting the material extend above the top opening 8.5" and extending below the sill for a minimum of 9". Jamb flashing should overlap the sill flashing. Attach entire length except for lowest 9" to allow weather resistant barrier to be installed in Step 5. 3.1.11.3 Step 3: Install the window Apply a continuous bead of sealant to back of perimeter of mounting flange in line with the prepunched holes. Install window in wall according to the manufacturers recommended schedule. Cover up any pre-punched holes in nailing flange with sealant. 3.1.11.4 Step 4: Head Flashing Apply a bead of sealant to outside of top mounting flange and then install 9" wide flashing overlapping nailing flange. Head flashing must cover top edge of jamb flashing and should extend a minimum of 9" past side jambs of window. . 3.1.11.5 Step 5: Weather Resistant Barrier Install weather resistant barrier consisting of house wrap or building paper in weather board fashion starting from base of the wall and working upward. The first course of weather resistant barrier should be tucked up under the sill and loose ends of jamb flashing. Attach sill and jamb flashing to barrier. Apply next courses of barrier to overlap the jamb flashing as shown in Figure 3-21.

Page 25

Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria Step 2: Jamb Flashing - Install 9" wide vertical strips of flashing at either side. Extend 8.5" above head of rough opening. Overlap the sill flashing by 9".

Step 1: Sill Flashing - Install 9" wide strip of flashing aligned with rough opening. Fasten at top with staples only. Extend 9" past side jambs. .

Step 3a: Install Window - Apply a bead of caulk on perimeter of mounting flange (all 4 sides) in-line with pre-punched holes.

Step 3b: Install window frame while the caulk is still wet. Drive the nails in all the way; never bend them over.

(Optional) For added protection, first bed a 25-gauge metal Z-flashing into the caulk, then caulk again and add the flashing.

Step 4: Head Flashing - Apply a liberal bead of caulk across the top of the window flange, then run a strip of 9" flashing across the top, pushing the flashing into the caulk. Flashing must cover top of jamb flashing and extend 9" past window sides.

Step 5: Weather Resistant Barrier - Apply barrier in weather-board fashion from bottom to top. Tuck barrier under the sill and loose ends of jamb flashing, then attach flashing to barrier. Next courses overlap jamb flashing.

Figure 3-21: Water Penetration Resistant Window Flashing Details

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Fortified Builders Guide Hurricane/Tornado/High Wind Region Criteria

3.2

Elements that Differ by Wind Peril

3.2.1 Roof Covering 3.2.1.1 Hurricane Regions

Roof covering must be certified for use in hurricane regions. For asphalt shingles, this means passing either the SFBC (PA107/108) or the Palm Beach County (modified ASTM test) and being installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. For all other roof coverings, documentation showing confirmation that hurricane level wind loads were used in determining the fastening requirements. Any documentation showing acceptance in Dade county will be adequate. If the builder is looking for a list of what products have Dade county approval, they should consult www.buildingcodeonline.com and click on the Product Approvals link. Builders may also contact the Fortified Program manager at IBHS. The following standards are acceptable. SFBC PA 107 or PA 108 ­ Dade County's standards for wind resistance of shingles. A Notice of Acceptance from Dade County is acceptable documentation. Palm Beach County ASTM D 3161 (modified to 110 mph). This is a standard test method for wind resistance of roof shingles. Note that there is an ASTM D 3161­95a standard which is a rating at a lower wind speed. This un-modified version of D 3161 is not acceptable to the Fortified program. UL 997 ­ modified to 110 mph. 3.2.1.2 Tornado/Hail Region

An approved impact resistant roof covering ­ UL 2218 class 4 or FM 4473 Class 4 is required. (Note that UL test is designed for flexible roof covering products, and the FM test is designed for rigid roof covering products). See Section 6.0 for details. 3.2.1.3 High Wind Region There are no special wind requirements for roof covering in this region. 3.2.2 Openings: Doors, Windows, Skylights, and Garage Doors 3.2.2.1 Hurricane Region

All entry doors, windows, skylights, patio doors and garage doors must be tested and certified to meet impact resistance and pressure standards. If the units themselves are not tested, then they must be protected by a protection system (storm shutter or screen) that meets the impact resistance standards. Systems must be compliant with at least one of the following: · ASTM E 1996 · SSTD-12 · Miami-Dade County Protocol A 201 · Florida Building Code TAS 201

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Fortified Builders Guide Flood Region Criteria

3.2.2.2

Tornado Region

All garage doors, doors, skylights and windows over 32 square feet in area must be impactresistant or protected by a passive protection system that complies with one of the impact standards listed for the Hurricane Region. (No specific DP requirements on openings larger than 32 square feet.) All other openings must be rated for a minimum design pressure of positive or negative 50 pounds per square foot as specified by the North American Fenestration Standard, which combines the AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S.2 and AAMA/WDMA 1600/I.S.7 test standards. Either the WDMA Hallmark Certification or the AAMA Gold Label Certification Program shall certify these openings with a minimum DP rating of 50psf. Passive protection means that the window or door can withstand wind-borne debris without any external protection; i.e., shutters or screens. Window units connected by mullions supplied by the window manufacturer are considered to be separate units in the determination of area for impact criteria. Two double hung units side by side that are 4 ft by 5 ft each are considered to be separate units with areas of 20 SF instead of a single opening that is 40 SF. In this case the double hung windows would need to meet a DP of 50, but not need impact protection. When one examines a double door, or a double slider then the rough opening of the unit should be considered. The support between the door slabs is not a fixed permanent one, and thus is considered to be different than the mullions in window systems. Thus the double door or slider will often exceed the 32SF limit and therefore will need to meet the impact criteria. 3.2.2.3 High Wind Region

Figure 3-22: Metal Screen that provides impact protection, and allows sunlight into the building.

All openings must be rated by WDMA Hallmark or AAMA Gold Standard certification for a minimum design pressure of positive or negative 50 pounds per square foot. All openings must be flashed or properly caulked if installed directly to masonry.

4.0 FLOOD REGION CRITERIA

The IBHS flood requirements are, in general, no different than the minimum requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) except in two respects. First the building must be at least 2 feet higher than the BFE, and second, the foundations in Coastal A zones must adhere to the same requirements as V zones. That is, only open elevated foundations are allowed in the Coastal A zone in the Fortified program.

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Fortified Builders Guide Flood Region Criteria

4.1

Flood Zones

Coastal A zone ­ A zone landward of a V zone, or landward of an open coast without mapped V zones (e.g., the shorelines of the Great Lakes), in which the principal sources of flooding are astronomical tides, storm surges, seiches, or tsunamis - not riverine sources. An example an elevation showing a Coastal A zone is shown in Figure 4-1.

Figure 4-1: Typical shoreline elevation showing flood zones V, Coastal A and X (from Coastal Construction Manual, 3rd edition FEMA 55. Federal Emergency Management Agency).

4.2

Building Requirements

4.2.1 Foundation

Homes in Non-Coastal A zones must be designed and constructed with the lowest habitable floor (including basements) above the Base Flood Elevation (BFE) by at least 2 ft. Community records or a licensed survey are required to determine the BFE. (Figure 4-2) Homes in V or Coastal A zones must be constructed on open foundation (including elevatedenclosed with breakaway walls) with continuous piles in accordance with the FEMA Coastal Construction recommendations and the bottom of the lowest horizontal support member must be above the BFE by at least 2 ft. Note that the NFIP would normally allow other foundation types such as crawlspaces with flood vents in the Coastal A zone. (Figure 4-2)

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Fortified Builders Guide Flood Region Criteria

4.2.2

Utilities

Electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air conditioning equipment and other service facilities must be elevated or above the BFE by at least 2 ft in Special Flood Hazard Areas. (**Mike the diagram should indicate "Toward River/Lake" in non-coastal A)

Toward River/Lake

100-Year Wave Crest Elevation (BFE)

Crawlspace Foundation 2 ft FreeBoard

Non-Coastal A zone requirements

Top of Lowest Floor

100-Year Stillwater Depth

Wave Trough Wave Height < 3ft

Toward Ocean

Flood Vents

Eroded Ground Elevation

100-Year Wave Crest Elevation (BFE) Wave Height > 3ft Bottom of Lowest Horizontal Structural Member 2 ft FreeBoard

V zone and Coastal A zone

100-Year Stillwater Depth

Wave Trough

Eroded Ground Elevation

Figure 4-2: Requirements for Fortified foundations (adapted from Coastal Construction Manual, 3rd edition FEMA 55. Federal Emergency Management Agency).

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Fortified Builders Guide Wildfire Region Criteria

5.0 WILDFIRE REGION CRITERIA

The Wild land Urban Interface is an area where structures and other improved property meets or intermingles with wild land or vegetative fuels.

5.1

Site Evaluation

The Fortified Inspector will identify the wildfire hazard level for the site by examining the following items: · Ingress and Egress into subdivision · Road Widths · Road Condition · Road Terminus · Surrounding Vegetation (Fuel) · Topography/slope of surrounding area · History of Fire Occurrence due to lightning, railroads, burning debris, arson, etc. · Building Setback · Fire Protection systems (fire hydrants) · Utilities: Gas and Electric Each factor is assigned a point value and the cumulative value of the points determines whether the site is in a low, moderate, high or extreme wildfire hazard setting. Note that if the hazard level is determined to be Low, then none of the Wildfire criteria are applicable.

5.2

Wildfire Protection Criteria Common to Extreme, High and Mderate Wildfire Hazard Levels

The following items are applicable to all Hazard Areas. These requirements must be augmented by the hazard specific requirements that follow this section. · A non-combustible street number at least four inches high, reflectorized, on a contrasting background, at each driveway entrance, visible from both directions of travel. · Firewood storage and LP gas containers must be at least 50 feet away from any part of the home structure, and have at least 15 feet of survivable space around them. · Non-combustible, corrosion-resistant screening with a mesh size no greater than ¼" covering the attic and sub-floor vents. Vent openings shall not exceed 144 square inches at each vent. · Spark arrestors in all chimneys (Figure 5-1)

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Fortified Builders Guide Wildfire Region Criteria

Figure 5-1: Spark Arrestor for chimney

·

Eaves of noncombustible materials as defined in Table 5-1. For materials not listed in Table 5-1, any material that has been tested in accordance with Section 8 of ASTM E 136 "Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C (1382°F)" are generally considered to be non-combustible.

Table 5-1: Combustible and Non-combustible Soffit Materials

Combustible: Vinyl PVC Plywood less than ½" thick · · · ·

Noncombustible: Aluminum Plywood ½" thickness or more

Gutters and downspouts of noncombustible materials. Typical aluminum gutters and downspouts are considered to be acceptable A driveway must be provided at least 12 feet wide with at least 13.5 feet of vertical clearance. If gated, a gate that opens inward and that has an entrance at least two feet wider than the driveway and at least 30 feet from the road. If secured, the gate must have a key box of a type approved by the local fire department. Individual Fire Extinguishers

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Fortified Builders Guide Wildfire Region Criteria

5.3

Wildfire Protection Criteria that Varies by Wildfire Hazard Level

5.3.1 Survivable Space Characteristics

The following characteristics shall be applied in the survivable space whose extent is defined by the wildfire hazard level below. · Grass mowed below 6 inches · Provide regular irrigation · For trees taller than 18 feet, prune lower branches within 6 feet of ground. · Trees are 10 feet apart from each other · No tree limbs within 10 feet of home · All plants or plant groups are more than 20 feet apart. · No vegetation under decks · Remove all dead/dying vegetation

50'

No fire wood within 50 ft of structure'

Figure 5-2: Survivable Space features (courtesy of Western Fire Chiefs Association, 1996).

5.3.2 Extreme Hazard Areas If your home is in a wild land/urban interface area and has an "Extreme" hazard rating, it must have the following additional items: · A survivable space of 100 feet. · A roof covering assembly with a Class A fire rating according to UL 790. Other standards that are also accepted include ASTM E 108 Class A, or UBC 15-2 ratings. Consult the product packaging or other manufacturer literature to determine if the product meets this standard. There are also publications available from the National Roofing Contractors Association that list fire ratings (and other information) by manufacturer and product name [NRCA 1999a, 1999b]. Wood shakes and wood shingles do not qualify regardless of rating.

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Fortified Builders Guide Wildfire Region Criteria

· · · · · ·

Non-combustible material enclosing the undersides of aboveground decks and balconies. Exterior windows are double-paned glass with tempered outside lite and non-combustible, corrosion resistant screens OR have non-combustible shutters. Exterior glass doors and skylights are double paned, tempered glass. Exterior wall assemblies must have one-hour fire resistive rating with non-combustible exterior surfaces. The following materials are considered to be Non-combustible exterior surfaces: brick veneer, concrete block, concrete, stone. Monitored smoke alarms. In-home sprinkler system that complies with NFPA 13-D-1999: Installation of sprinklers in 1 and 2 family dwellings. 5.3.3 High Hazard Area

If your home is in a wild land/urban interface area and has a "High" hazard rating, it must have the following additional items: · A survivable space of 50 feet. · A roof assembly with a Class A fire rating. Wood shakes and wood shingles do not qualify regardless of rating. · Non-combustible material enclosing the undersides of aboveground decks and balconies. · Exterior windows are double-paned glass and non-combustible, corrosion resistant screens OR has non-combustible shutters. · Exterior glass doors and skylights are double-paned glass. · Exterior wall assemblies must have one-hour fire resistive rating with fire resistant exterior surfaces. The following materials are considered to be fire-resistive: wood sheathing ½" thick or more, stucco, plaster. · Non-monitored smoke alarms. 5.3.4 Moderate Hazard Area If your home is in a wild land/urban interface area and has a "Moderate" hazard rating, it must have the following additional items: · A survivable space of 30 feet. · A roof assembly with a class B fire rating. · Fire-resistive material enclosing the undersides of aboveground decks and balconies. . · Exterior windows and skylights are double-paned glass. · Exterior walls are fire resistant materials. The following materials are considered to be fire-resistive: wood sheathing ½" thick or more, stucco, plaster. · Non-monitored smoke alarms.

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Fortified Builders Guide Hail Region Criteria

6.0 HAIL REGION CRITERIA

Install an impact resistant roof covering ­ UL 2218 Class 4 or FM 4473 Class 4. (Note that UL test is designed for flexible roof covering products, and the FM test is designed for rigid roof covering products). This is the only criterion for Hail regions. UL 2218 is a test that is administered by Underwriters Laboratories and involves dropping steel balls of varying sizes from heights designed to simulate the force of falling hailstones. Class 4 indicates that the product was still functional after being struck twice in the same spot by 2 inch steel balls. Examine the package of the roof cover product, or consult manufacturer documentation to determine if the product has met the Class 4 designation of UL 2218. If difficultly is encountered locating products that meet UL 2218 Class 4, contact the Fortified Program manager at IBHS for a list of approved roof covering products. Note that this standard is appropriate for flexible roofing products like asphalt shingles. FM 4473 is administered by Factory Mutual Research and is a test that is similar to UL 2218, but instead of using steel balls, frozen ice balls are used. The FM 4473 test standard is used on rigid roof covering materials (like cement tiles) and involves firing the ice balls from an air cannon at the roofcovering product. Class 4 indicates that the product was still functional after being struck twice in the same spot by a 2-inch ice ball.

7.0 FREEZING WEATHER CRITERIA

7.1 Overview

Freezing weather criteria address the potential for structural damage from ice dams in areas prone to snowfall accumulations greater than 12". Fortified criteria for freezing weather are based on an average daily temperature in January of 32 degrees or colder from the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook and a 20 lb/sq. ft. ground snow load from the 2000 IRC. The northern boundaries of NC, KY, AK, OK, NM, and AZ roughly define a geographic line where the danger of ice dams from snow accumulation, however it is the responsibility of the builder to confirm whether freezing temperature compliance is necessary. and freezing weather are most likely to occur. In mountainous regions of the western US, ice dams are a factor wherever ground snow loads are 20 lb/sf or greater according to the 2000 IRC. Fortified freezing weather criteria are required in all areas where the possibility of ice dam formation exists. Fortified...for safer living homes located in areas within the freezing weather criteria boundary shall also include the following additional requirements:

7.2

Roof Requirements

An additional moisture barrier shall be applied to the roof by using at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or a self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet. The moisture barrier must extend from the eave's edge to at least 24" past the exterior wall line. Where roof valleys exist, the additional moisture barrier shall extend up the entire length of the roof valley.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

7.3

· · · · ·

Attic Requirements

No heat sources shall be installed in unconditioned attic space. No uninsulated recessed lights. All attic access doors located in conditioned spaces shall be treated as exterior doors, properly insulated, sealed and weather-stripped or gasketed. All hidden attic penetrations (stack vents, partition walls, electrical chases, etc) shall be properly sealed and insulated.

8.0 SEISMIC CRITERIA

8.1 Introduction

Fortified criteria have been developed for mitigation of damage brought about by earthquakes in seismically active regions of the United States,. Structures built within these regions will likely experience their most severe loadings during seismic events. Although it is impractical to build a home such that it will withstand an intense earthquake unscathed, one may be built in such a manner that it poses a minimal risk to the lives and safety of its occupants. Likewise, the severity of damage incurred by homes built in this manner may be minimized as well. This paper details the seismic criteria that have been developed for the Fortified...for Safer Living program. Many of these criteria were developed using the International Residential Code's (IRC) special provisions for residential buildings in Seismic Design Category D2 as a basis. The IRC is a variation of the International Building Code (IBC) intended specifically for one- and two-family dwellings. It is used as a basis for Fortified seismic criteria because it, along with the IBC, is compatible with ­ and designed to eventually replace ­ the other model building codes currently used in the United States. For the Fortified seismic criteria that are based upon the IRC, special provisions established within the IRC for Seismic Design Category D2 were used because they provide a practical level of protection from earthquake damage in most seismically active regions of the United States. If the stringency of any criterion herein prescribed is less than that which is mandated by building codes applicable to the site of construction, code mandated provisions shall take precedence over the Fortified criterion in question. All remaining Fortified criteria that are not directly nullified by a more stringent building code provision, however, shall be adhered to. The Fortified program requires wind peril criteria of one form or another throughout the entire United States. Because of this, many of the features that would otherwise be required for prevention of earthquake damage are already required for protection against high wind, tornado, or hurricane damage, and are thus not included herein. It is therefore imperative that the seismic criteria specified in this document be used in conjunction with the applicable wind peril criteria of the Fortified...for safer living program. In some cases, the requirements for protection against earthquakes are more stringent than the corresponding criteria for other perils. In such cases, the earthquake criteria take precedence. One example of this is seen in the reinforcement required for stem walls and concrete masonry walls; Fortified earthquake requirements mandate the use of No. 5 reinforcement bar for all concrete and masonry, as opposed to the No. 4 bars that are required for the wind perils.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

8.2

Seismic Risk Zones

Homes designated as Fortified...for Safer Living are built to withstand the lateral loading brought about by 130 mph winds regardless of geographic location. For the most part, they are therefore capable of withstanding the lateral loading brought about by slight-to-moderate ground accelerations as well (i.e., ground accelerations between 17% and 50% of the acceleration due to gravity). For this reason, only Fortified homes built in regions of significant seismic risk are required to adhere to the seismic criteria prescribed herein. The Fortified definition of an area having significant seismic risk is based upon the US Geological Survey map of 0.2 second Design Spectral Response Acceleration (SDS), given in Section 301.2 of the 2000 IRC. Contours of equivalent SDS shown on this map are the maximum 5 Hz ground accelerations expected with a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. They represent what the SDS contours would be throughout the contiguous United States for a uniform site class of D. Since the areas defined by these contours are not contained within easily identified political and natural boundaries, it was necessary to develop a separate map defining areas in which the Fortified seismic criteria apply. This map, in conjunction with its accompanying list, identifies all states and counties in the contiguous United States where the Fortified seismic criteria must be in place before a home may be designated as Fortified...for safer living. Both the Fortified Seismic map and the list of counties are given in Appendix A. Counties identified therein are those containing areas with an SDS of at least 50% of the acceleration of gravity (50% g) ­ corresponding to a Seismic Design Category of D1, D2, or E. If any part of a county is within an area having an SDS of 50% g or more, the entire county is considered a zone of significant seismic risk under the Fortified program. In some cases, every county in a given state contains areas with an SDS of greater than or equal to 50%. In such cases, the state is listed rather than its individual counties.

8.3

House Geometry

One of the biggest factors affecting a building's susceptibility to earthquakes is its basic geometry. The building's height and shape ­ both in plan and in elevation ­ have major influences on its response to seismic loading. All other factors being equal, the greater a building's height, the higher its center of gravity. A higher center of gravity results in greater overturning forces. The Fortified program places a limit on building height in order to ensure that the overturning forces brought about by seismic events do not exceed the allowable loads of the hardware designed to resist them. Homes with light-frame wood (i.e., "wood-frame") exterior walls shall have no more than 2 stories (not including a basement), eave heights no greater than 25' above grade, and a mean roof height no greater than 30'. Homes with masonry exterior walls are limited to one story (not including a basement), with eave heights no greater than 15' above grade, and a mean roof height no greater than 20'. Allowable heights for individual stories are discussed in Section 8.7. Buildings with complex or irregular geometries have historically incurred more damage due to seismic events than buildings with more traditional geometries. Because of their detrimental affect on a building's response to seismic loading, features that cause a building to be irregular, as defined by the IRC, are not permitted in Fortified homes. Such features include the following: · Where shear wall lines of the second story are offset, or not in the same vertical plane as shear walls of the first story.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

· · · · · · ·

Where the floor or roof diaphragm ­ or a part of either ­ is not directly supported by shear walls along all sides. Where any part of a shear wall in the second story is not directly over a shear wall in the first story. Where an opening in the floor or roof diaphragm has a dimension greater than or equal to the lesser of 12 feet or 50% of the least floor or roof dimension. Where a floor diaphragm does not lie entirely within one horizontal plane, except when the entire perimeter of the diaphragm is supported directly by a continuous foundation. Where shear wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions. Where the shear walls within a given story of a house are constructed of dissimilar bracing systems such that they have differing stiffness, strength, or other mechanical properties.

8.4

Building Material Mass

Another factor having a major influence on a building's susceptibility to earthquake damage is the mass of building materials used within it. The magnitude of lateral loading imposed upon a structure during a seismic event is directly proportional to the structure's overall mass. For this reason, the Fortified program places limits on the allowable masses of structural assemblies making up the home. The following mass (weight) limitations shall apply to all Fortified homes in seismic regions: · Floor diaphragms dead loads shall not exceed 10 pounds per square foot (psf) · Exterior wood-frame walls shall have dead loads no greater than 15 psf · Interior wood-frame walls shall have dead loads no greater than 10 psf · Masonry walls shall have dead loads no greater than 80 psf · Masonry veneer shall have dead loads no greater than 30 psf · Roof and ceiling dead loads shall not exceed 10 psf These limitations on dead loads are based upon the provisions of Section R301.2.2.4 of the IRC.

8.5

Site Specific Criteria

The Spectral Response Acceleration map that was used to develop the Fortified seismic map is based upon Site Class D. Site Class D was chosen as a basis for this map because it corresponds to a practical worst-case scenario for soil conditions. Although it is acceptable to assume Site Class D as a default soil condition in most cases, building sites with exceedingly poor soil characteristics must be more closely analyzed for seismic risk. If the site index is E or F, methods specified in the IBC shall be followed to determine the SDC. In such cases, construction of homes under Seismic Design Categories D1 and D2 mandate the utilization of Fortified seismic criteria, regardless of whether or not the building site is within a seismic risk zone as defined by the Fortified Seismic map. In states such as California, where designated fault zones have been established and mapped, Fortified homes are not permitted to be built within the so-called "fault zones." This requirement is designed to prevent construction of Fortified homes in areas where surface rupture is a concern, and also keeps the homes out of the areas where the most intense ground shaking occurs during a seismic event. Additionally, if the state has developed Seismic Hazard Zone maps (as has California), Fortified homes that are to be built in an area designated as being at risk of either liquefaction or ground failure must have their foundations designed by a licensed structural engineer.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

8.5.1 Foundations In seismically active regions, Fortified...for safer living homes constructed using these prescriptive criteria must have foundations consisting of one of the following three types: · A monolithic slab-on-ground with integral footing, · A reinforced concrete foundation wall, or stem wall, on a continuous reinforced concrete strip footing, or · A grouted, reinforced masonry block foundation wall, or stem wall, on a continuous reinforced concrete strip footing. Other foundation types, including piers if deemed necessary, must be designed by a licensed professional engineer to resist the applicable seismic forces, as defined in ASCE 7-02. For foundations of the three types previously mentioned, all concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 3000 pounds per square inch. All reinforcement for concrete and masonry walls shall consist of Grade 60 No. 5 rebar. In addition to these and the code requirements of the IRC, the following criteria must be in place: 8.5.2 Footings · Foundations shall have a footing depth ­ both for perimeter and interior footings ­ of at least 18" below exterior grade. Note that in many areas of the United States, the frost line mandates greater depth. Footing widths must be sized as required for soil load bearing, but must not be less than 12" in width. 8.5.2.1 · · Strip Footings

·

·

·

Strip footings shall be no less than 10" thick, and greater than the projection lengths beyond the interior and exterior planes of the foundation wall. Strip footings shall have horizontal reinforcement consisting of a minimum of one No. 5 bar in the center of the footing width with 4" clear cover from the bottom of the footing. For footings with widths greater than or equal to 16", an additional two (2) No. 5 bars shall be added, one on either side of the central bar. Strip footings supporting concrete foundation walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement of No. 5 bars at 40" spacing. Vertical reinforcement shall hook around the horizontal reinforcement with a 180-degree standard hook and shall have a minimum clear cover of 3" from the bottom of the footing. Vertical reinforcement shall extend to a minimum of 28" above the top of the footing and into the foundation wall. The minimum requirement for vertical reinforcement of strip footings supporting masonry foundation walls depends upon the type of above-grade shear walls that will be constructed. Strip footings for homes that will have wood-frame shear walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement of No. 5 bars at 40" spacing. Strip footings for homes that will have reinforced, grouted masonry shear walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement of No. 5 bars at 16" spacing. In either case, vertical reinforcement shall hook around the horizontal reinforcement with a

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

180-degree standard hook and shall have a minimum clear cover of 3" from the bottom of the footing. Vertical reinforcement shall extend to a minimum of 28" above the top of the footing and into the foundation wall.

8.6

·

Slab-on-Ground Foundations

·

·

·

Footings cast monolithically with a slab-on-ground shall have minimum horizontal reinforcement consisting of one No. 5 bar approximately 4" from the bottom of the footing, and one No. 5 bar approximately 3" from the top of the slab. Horizontal reinforcement in footings shall result in a reinforcement ratio (by area) of at least 0.002. Slab-on-ground foundations supporting masonry shear walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement consisting of No. 5 bars at 16" on center. Vertical reinforcement shall hook around the horizontal footing reinforcement with a 180-degree standard hook, shall have a minimum of 3" clear cover from the bottom of the footing, and shall extend a minimum of 28" into the shear wall to allow for an effective lap splice. Slab-on-ground foundations supporting cast-in-place concrete shear walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement consisting of No. 5 bars at 40" on center. Vertical reinforcement shall hook around the horizontal footing reinforcement with a 180-degree standard hook, shall have a minimum of 3" clear cover from the bottom of the footing, and shall extend a minimum of 28" into the shear wall to allow for an effective lap splice. Slab-on-ground foundations supporting wood-frame shear walls shall have 5/8 "J" or "L" anchor bolts embedded in the slab to a minimum depth of 7". These bolts shall be spaced no greater than 48" on center and shall also be embedded between 6" and 12" of the ends of each sill plate in the bottom of the wood-frame wall.

· · · · ·

8.7

Foundation Walls

Foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 8". Foundation wall height shall be limited to 8'. The maximum allowable height of unbalanced backfill against the foundation wall is 4'. 8.7.1 Cast-in-Place Concrete Foundation Walls Cast-in-place concrete foundation walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement consisting of No. 5 bars at 40" on center, in addition to placement within 8" of the edges of openings and corners. This vertical reinforcement shall either be continuous from the bottom of the footing to the top of the foundation wall, or shall be lap spliced with vertical reinforcement in the footing for a minimum of 28". Cast-in-place concrete foundation walls shall have minimum horizontal reinforcement consisting of one No. 5 bar in the top 12" of the wall, in addition to one No. 5 bar at mid-height for foundation walls greater than 4' in height. Horizontal No. 5 bars shall also be placed within 8" of the tops and bottoms of openings. Where vertical control joints are located, horizontal No. 5 bars shall be spaced no more than 16" on center from the bottom to the top of the wall, and shall extend at least 28" on either side of the control joint.

·

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

·

Cast-in-place concrete foundation walls supporting wood-frame shear walls shall have 5/8" diameter "J" or "L" bolts embedded a minimum of 7" into the top of the foundation wall for sill plate anchorage. These bolts are required at spacing no greater than 48" on center, with additional placement required between 6" and 12" from where each end of each sill plate will fall. Calculations are required to determine the proper placement of these anchor bolts, as the location of each end of each sill plate must be determined prior to construction of the foundation wall. Care must also be taken to ensure that the bolts to not interfere with ­ or end up to close to ­ the bottoms of wall studs. 8.7.2 Masonry Foundation Walls

·

·

·

Masonry foundation walls shall have minimum vertical reinforcement consisting of No. 5 bars at 16" spacing, regardless of whether the shear walls being supported by the foundation are wood-frame or masonry. For masonry shear walls, the vertical reinforcement shall either be continuous from the foundation wall into the shear wall, or shall be lap spliced with the vertical reinforcement in the shear wall a minimum of 28". Regardless of the type of shear wall to be built, vertical reinforcement in masonry foundation walls shall either be continuous with vertical reinforcement of the footing or shall be lap spliced to it for a minimum length of 28". Masonry foundation walls shall have minimum horizontal reinforcement consisting of one No. 5 bar in the top 12" of the wall, in addition to No. 5 bars at spacing of no greater than 16" on center. Note that the maximum allowable spacing corresponds to placement after every 2 rows of 8" masonry block. Masonry foundation walls supporting wood-frame shear walls shall have 5/8" diameter "J" or "L" bolts embedded a minimum of 15" into the top of the foundation wall for sill plate anchorage. These bolts are required at spacing no greater than 48" on center, with additional placement required between 6" and 12" from where each end of each sill plate will fall. Calculations are required to determine the proper placement of these anchor bolts, as the location of each end of each sill plate must be determined prior to construction of the foundation wall. Care must also be taken to ensure that the bolts to not interfere with ­ or end up to close to ­ the bottoms of wall studs.

8.8

Floor Diaphragms

Due to the fact that floors (acting as diaphragms) play an integral role in the three-dimensional response of a residential structure to ground accelerations, certain limitations and/or specifications are necessary to ensure dynamic stability. All structural elements of floor diaphragms shall be installed in such a manner that there are direct load paths ­ both for gravity loads, lateral loads, and uplift loads ­ to adjacent floor diaphragm members, interior supports, and exterior supports. In addition to the code requirements of the IRC, the Fortified seismic requirements for floor diaphragms are as follows: · Where a floor diaphragm is supported directly by the foundation, sill plates on which floor joists rest shall be directly anchored to the foundation with the previously specified anchor bolts (see Sections 5.1.2, 5.2.1, and 5.2.2). Plate washers with minimum dimensions of 3"x 3"x 1/4" must be placed between the nut and the sill.

·

Full-depth blocking is required at all floor joist supports. Additionally, steel or wood diagonal bridging shall be installed at a maximum spacing of 6' for joists with depths of 12" or greater and 8' for joists with depths of less than 12".

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

· · ·

The greatest dimension of openings in the floor shall not exceed the lesser of 12' or 50% of the least floor dimension. No split-levels shall be permitted unless each floor level is supported directly by the foundation at the perimeter. Total dead loads of floor assemblies shall not exceed 10 psf, and shall be relatively uniformly distributed.

8.9

Walls

Load-bearing walls acting as "shear walls" are not only responsible for transmitting vertical loads to the foundation, but also for horizontal (lateral) loads. Since lateral ground accelerations during an earthquake may approach ­ or in some cases even exceed ­ the acceleration of gravity, it is imperative that a home has a sufficient percentage of its exterior wall length devoted to serving as shear walls. Equally as important is each wall's ability to transmit its base shear into the foundation. The Fortified seismic requirements for walls are designed to address these concerns. They are as follows: · Where wood-frame shear walls are supported directly by the foundation, the bottom sills of the walls shall be directly anchored to the foundation with the previously specified anchor bolts (see Section 3.1.1, 8.6, 8.7 and 8.8). Plate washers with minimum dimensions of 3"x 3"x 1/4" must be placed between the nut and the sill. · At least 55% of the lengths of exterior walls on the first floor of a two-story building shall be shear walls. · Story heights shall be no more than 10' for wood-frame walls and 9' for masonry block walls. The height of the 2nd floor can be less than the 1st floor by no more than 12". Reinforced masonry walls shall be no more than one story high. · Masonry block walls shall have the same reinforcement as is specified for masonry block foundation walls. Vertical reinforcement shall be continuous or effectively lap spliced with a minimum lap length of 28" from the top of the wall to the foundation. · On wood frame walls, brick veneer is allowed up to 10' feet above grade provided that a minimum of # 9 gage wire ties are used to anchor the brick veneer to the shear wall with a maximum spacing of 16" on center both vertically and horizontally. No. 9 gage wire reinforcement shall be continuous in veneer bed joints. Masonry veneer shall weigh no more than 30 pounds per square foot. Perimeter nail spacing for connections between sheathing and wall framing shall be reduced to 4" on center wherever brick veneer is present. · Steel straps shall be nailed or screwed to the corners of openings in non load-bearing walls prior to application of gypsum wallboard.

8.10 Roofs

In general, the roof criteria specified for 130 mph winds, including fastenings for sheathing as well as roof-to-wall connections, are more than sufficient for seismic loading. Some additional requirements include the following. · · The greatest horizontal projection of an opening in the roof shall not exceed the lesser of 12' or 50% of the least roof dimension. The combined dead load of the roof and ceiling shall average 15 psf or less and shall be relatively uniformly distributed.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

8.11 Nonstructural

The following criteria, while not related to the structural integrity of the home, will help prevent other seismic-related disasters such as personal property damage, flooding, and fire. · · · · Water heaters shall be securely attached to structural members such as wall studs within a loadbearing wall. All glazing shall either consist of tempered glass or shall have a safety film applied on the interior side, even for windows that have protective shutters. All natural gas lines shall have flexible connections, in addition to an automatic shutoff valve. Masonry chimneys shall be connected to structural members of exterior walls in the same manner as is required for masonry veneer. Chimneys shall not extend more than 24" above the rooftop.

8.12 Additional Criteria

The length of an exterior wall line beyond a re-entrant corner shall be less than or equal to 15% of the total building dimension in that direction for at least one projection of said corner.

8.13 Recommendations

The following criteria, while not required by the Fortified...for safer living program, are strongly recommended. For the most part, they are simple steps that can be taken to drastically decrease the amount of damage done to the homeowners' possessions within the home during an earthquake. See "A Homeowner's Guide to Earthquake Retrofit" for details on the best methods of accomplishing these. · · · · · Install L-brackets or Z-brackets to attach bookcases, file cabinets, entertainment centers, and other furniture to the wall. Secure picture frames and bulletin boards to the wall by using closed screw-eyes instead of traditional picture hangers. Secure ceiling lights to supports using safety cables. Anchor large appliances such as refrigerators to the wall using safety cables or straps. Install locking mechanisms on cabinet and cupboard doors to prevent them from opening and letting the contents fall out during an earthquake.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

Appendix A ­ Fortified Risk Zones Fortified...for Safer Living Seismic Zones

The Fortified Seismic Criteria applies to the following states in their entiriety: California Nevada Additionally, the Fortified Seismic Criteria applies to the following counties listed below: Arizona Coconino Arkansas Arkansas Clay Cleburne Craighead Crittenden

Mohave

Pima

Yuma

Fulton Greene Independence Izard Jackson

Lonoke Mississippi Monroe Phillips Poinsett

Randolph Sharp St. Francis Stone Van Buren

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria Cross Faulkner Colorado Delta Georgia Catoosa Fannin Idaho Adams Bannock Bear Lake Bingham Blaine Boise Bonneville Illinois Alexander Bond Clay Clinton Crawford Edwards Effingham Fayette Franklin Indiana Gibson Knox Kentucky Ballard Caldwell Calloway Carlisle Christian Crittenden Mississippi Benton Coahoma DeSoto Missouri Bollinger Butler Cape Girardeau Lawrence Lee Prairie Pulaski White Woodruff

Gunnison

Hinsdale

Ouray

Murray

Walker

Whitfield

Butte Camas Caribou Cassia Clark Custer Elmore

Franklin Fremont Gem Idaho Jefferson Lemhi Madison

Oneida Power Teton Valley Washington

Gallatin Hamilton Hardin Jackson Jasper Jefferson Johnson Lawrence Madison

Marion Massac Monroe Perry Pope Pulaski Randolph Richland Saline

St. Clair Union Wabash Washington Wayne White Williamson

Pike Posey

Spencer Vanderburgh

Warrick

Daviess Fulton Graves Henderson Hickman Hopkins

Livingston Lyon Marshall McCracken McLean

Muhlenberg Todd Trigg Union Webster

Lafayette Marshall Panola

Quitman Tate

Tippah Tunica

Jefferson Madison Mississippi

Perry Reynolds Ripley

St. Francois St. Louis Ste. Genevieve

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria Carter Dunklin Iron Montana Beaverhead Broadwater Cascade Deer Lodge Flathead Gallatin New Mexico Bernalillo Los Alamos New York Clinton North Carolina Cherokee Oregon Baker Benton Clackamas Clatsop Columbia Coos Curry South Carolina Aiken Allendale Bamberg Barnwell Beaufort Berkeley Calhoun Charleston Tennessee Anderson Benton Blount Bradley Carroll Chester Cocke Crockett Decatur New Madrid Oregon Pemiscot Scott Shannon Stoddard Washington Wayne

Glacier Granite Jefferson Lake Lewis and Clark

Lincoln Madison Meagher Missoula Park

Pondera Powell Sanders Silver Bow Teton

Rio Arriba Sandoval

Santa Fe Socorro

Valencia

Franklin

St. Lawrence

Graham

Swain

Deschutes Douglas Harney Hood River Jackson Josephine Klamath

Lake Lane Lincoln Linn Malheur Marion Multnomah

Polk Tillamook Umatilla Wasco Washington Yamhill

Chesterfield Clarendon Colleton Darlington Dillon Dorchester Fairfield

Florence Georgetown Hampton Horry Jasper Kershaw Lee

Lexington Marion Marlboro Orangeburg Richland Sumter Williamsburg

Gibson Grainger Hamblen Hamilton Hardeman Hardin Haywood Henderson Henry

Jefferson Knox Lake Lauderdale Loudon Madison McMinn McNairy Monroe

Perry Polk Sevier Shelby Stewart Tipton Union Weakley

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria Dyer Fayette Utah Beaver Box Elder Cache Carbon Davis Duchesne Emery Washington Benton Chelan Clallam Clark Cowlitz Grays Harbor Island Wyoming Fremont Lincoln Houston Humphreys Montgomery Obion

Garfield Iron Juab Kane Millard Morgan

Piute Rich Salt Lake Sanpete Sevier Summit

Tooele Utah Wasatch Washington Wayne Weber

Jefferson King Kitsap Kittitas Klickitat Lewis

Mason Pacific Pierce San Juan Skagit Skamania

Snohomish Thurston Wahkiakum Walla Walla Whatcom Yakima

Park Sublette

Teton

Uinta

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

Appendix B ­ Foundation Design Details

Appendix B ­ Foundation Reinforcement Requirements for Seismic Regions

This appendix contains five illustrations, each of a different commonly used foundation system. The drawings and text contained therein show the minimum reinforcement requirements for foundations of Fortified homes built in areas defined by the Fortified program as seismic risk zones. Note that each illustration is preceded by a title that describes what type of system it is. An elevation (left) and a profile (right) are shown for each system.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

Reference

ANSI/AAMA/NWWDA 101/1.S.2-97. American National Standard. Voluntary Specifications for Aluminum, Vinyl (PVC) and Wood Windows and Glass Doors. American Architectural Manufacturers Association, Schaumburg, IL, 1997 ASCE 7-98: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, Virginia, 2000. ASTM D 1970-01. "Standard Specification for Self-Adhering Polymer Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Used as Steep Roofing Underlayment for Ice Dam Protection." ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001. ASTM E 136 "Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C (1382°F), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. ASTM E 2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors, and Skylights" ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001. Coastal Construction Manual, 3rd edition, FEMA 55. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Mitigation Directorate, June 2000 FM 4473: Specification Test Protocol for Impact Resistance testing of Rigid Roofing Materials by Impacting with Freezer Ice Balls. Class 4473. September 1999. Factory Mutual Research. GA-600-2000 - Fire Resistance Design Manual, Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2000. HIP-91 Commentary and Recommendations for Handling, Installing and Bracing Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses, Truss Plate Institute, Inc., Madison, WI, 1991. "Installation Masters Training Manual", American Architectural Manufacturers Association, Schaumburg, IL, 2000. "Is your home protected from hail damage? A homeowner's guide to roofing and hail." The Institute for Business and Home Safety. Tampa, FL 1999. "Is your home protected from hurricane disaster? A homeowner's guide to hurricane retrofit." The Institute for Business and Home Safety. Tampa, FL 1998. "Is your home protected from wildfire disaster? A homeowner's guide to wildfire retrofit." The Institute for Business and Home Safety. Tampa, FL 2001. Low Slope Roofing Material Guide, 1999, National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL, 1999. NER-272: Power-Driven Staples and Nails for use in all types of Building Construction. National Evaluation Service, Inc. September 1997.

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Fortified Builders Guide Seismic Criteria

SSTD10-99 "Southern Standards Technical Document 10 - Standard for Hurricane Resistant Residential Construction". Southern Building Code Congress International, Birmingham, AL 1999. Steep Slope Roofing Material Guide, 1999, National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL, 1999. UL 2218 Impact Resistance of Prepared Roof Covering Materials, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Northbrook, Illinois, 1996. ISBN 0-7629-0033-4

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Fortified Builders Guide Contact Information

10.0 CONTACT INFORMATION

Institute for Business & Home Safety 4775 E. Fowler Avenue Tampa, FL 33617 Charles T. (Chuck) Vance Fortified Program Manager 813 675-1039 813 286-9960 (fax) [email protected]

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Information

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