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DIVING SAFETY MANUAL

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON

EDITOR Donald E. Harper, Jr. Chair, Diving Control Board

Published by the Diving Control Board Texas A&M University at Galveston

Sixth Edition Effective 1 June 2005

A Part of The Texas A&M University System

DIVER EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

IN AN EMERGENCY, IF POSSIBLE, CALL 911. OTHER IMPORTANT NUMBERS ARE LISTED BELOW. When making an emergency call, DO NOT HANG UP until the emergency personnel tell you to do so.

24-HOUR EMERGENCY RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER/MEDICAL INFO DIVERS ALERT NETWORK (DAN) - 919/684-4326 WORLDWIDE COLLECT CALLS ACCEPTED FOR EMERGENCIES EMERGENCY RADIO FREQUENCIES Marine Radio Channel 16 VHF FM, and Channel 2182 Khz Single sideband Note: both frequencies are monitored by the U.S. Coast Guard Citizens Band Channel 9 EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NUMBERS ACCURATE TO THE BEST OF KNOWLEDGE AS OF 17 OCTOBER 2003. All emergencies Coast Guard Galveston Sabine Pass Freeport Port O'Connor Corpus Christi New Orleans Galveston Fire Department Hospital ER Galveston (UTMB) EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION Coast Guard Life Flight Hermann Hospital 409/772-1521 409/766-5620 800/874-2145 800/392-HELP (4357) 713/704-HELP (4357) EMS of Galveston County EMERGENCY CONSULTATIONS Divers Alert Network, Durham, North Carolina Memorial Hermann Hospital Houston, Texas 409/797-3702 919/684-4326 or 800-326-3822 713/704-4268 911 409/766-5625 409/766-2633 409/971-2195 979/233-3801 361/983-2616 361/939-2079 504/393-6033 409/737-4324 409/737-2134

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DIVING PHYSICIANS - TEXAS Caroline Fife (Memorial Hermann Hospital) 713/704-2222

RECOMPRESSION CHAMBERS Conroe Conroe Regional Medical Center for Wound Care & Hyperbaric Medicine Center 504 Medical Center Blvd. Conroe, TX 77304

210/575-4497 (24 hr, chamber)

Dallas Medical City Dallas for Wound Care & Hyperbaric Medicine Center 7777 Forest Lane Suite 112 Dallas, TX 75230 Houston Memorial Hermann Hospital 6411 Fannin Houston, TX 77030-1501 San Antonio Jefferson C. Davis Wound Care & Hyperbaric Medicine Center 4499 Medical Center, Sub 2 San Antonio, TX 78229 Nix Wound Care & Hyperbaric Medicine Center 414 Navarro, Suite 502 San Antonio, TX, 78205

972/566-4868 (24 hr, chamber)

713/704-4268 (24 hr, chamber)

210/575-4497 (24 hr, chamber)

210/615-8334 (24 hr, chamber) 210/223-1145

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IF DIVING ACCIDENT OCCURS 1. Is the victim conscious or unconscious? 2. Do the symptoms indicate decompression sickness (bends) or air embolism? 3. Is the victim arriving by auto, ambulance or helicopter? If auto, give make, model, license number. 4. Victim's full name, age, sex, social security number, dive profile and estimated time of arrival. 5. Give your name and name of victim's next of kin. 6. Transport the victim to the nearest hospital and notify DAN. DIRECTIONS TO THE EMERGENCY ROOM IN GALVESTON (NOTE: THERE IS NO HYPERBARIC FACILITY AT UTMB): Located on Strand Blvd., first floor UTMB Trauma Center. For direct access, the fastest approaches from Seawall Blvd. are: 1. FROM THE EAST END OF THE ISLAND -- Travel east on Seawall Boulevard, turn north on Holiday Blvd., turn left on Strand, then left directly across from the Life Flight heliport (between TDC and the parking garage). 2. FROM THE WEST END OF THE ISLAND -- Travel west on Seawall Boulevard, turn north on 14th street, turn right on Strand then right just past the Trauma Center entrance, directly across from the Life Flight heliport (between TDC and the parking garage). 3. FROM BOLIVAR PENINSULA -- Travel south on Ferry Road, turn right on Strand, then left directly across from the Life Flight heliport (between TDC and the parking garage). 4. FROM THE MAINLAND -- Take Harborside Drive (formerly Port Industrial Boulevard) exit, travel east on Harborside Drive to the junction with Strand, continue on Strand, then turn right just past the Trauma Center entrance, directly across from the Life Flight heliport (between TDC and the parking garage). DIRECTIONS TO MEMORIAL HERMANN HOSPITAL HYPERBARIC CHAMBER IN HOUSTON: (call ahead to be sure someone is present when you get there): 1. FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF HOUSTON ­ Take I-45 South to 59 South. Exit Shepherd. Follow Shepherd going south to Rice. Turn left at Rice. And follow Rice to Fannin. Turn right and follow Fannin to 6411. Hospital will be on your left. 2. FROM THE SOUTH SIDE OF HOUSTON ­ Take I-45 North to 610 west. Exit Fannin and turn right. Follow Fannin, cross Holcombe, drive through medical center to 6411. Hospital will be on your right. 3. FROM THE EAST SIDE OF HOUSTON ­ Take I-10 West to 59 South. Exit Shepherd. Follow Shepherd going south to Rice. Turn left at Rice. And follow Rice to Fannin. Turn right and follow Fannin to 6411. Hospital will be on your left. 4. FROM THE WEST SIDE OF HOUSTON ­ Take I-10 East to 59 South. Exit Shepherd. Follow Shepherd going south to Rice. Turn left at Rice. And follow Rice to Fannin. Turn right and follow Fannin to 6411. Hospital will be on your left. FOR SERIOUS EMERGENCIES, LIFE FLIGHT SHOULD BE CALLED. Life Flight Hermann Hospital 800/392-HELP (4357) or 713/704-HELP (4357) MEDICAL EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR UNIVERSITY DIVERS

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The common diving emergencies that may require assistance from non-University medical professionals are separated into three categories: A. Emergencies requiring recompression (pressure related accidents, e.g. bends or air-embolism). B. Emergencies requiring first aid and immediate transportation of the injured person to a hospital (minor injuries and severe wounds). C. Emergencies requiring immediate first aid and summoning EMS to the injured person (near-drowning or suspected cervical spinal damage). If the possible docking site(s) and medical treatment facility is other than Galveston, the Dive Master is responsible for obtaining correct emergency telephone numbers and being familiar with possible dock sites, and local emergency medical services prior to departing on a dive trip. PRESSURE RELATED ACCIDENTS Victim should be transported and administered pure oxygen when possible. If radio equipment is available, call the Coast Guard and have a helicopter pick up the victim and the person administering first aid treatment and transport to the UTMB Emergency Room. Necessary information should be provided in advance to the UTMB Emergency Room at: 409-772-1521. Should the Coast Guard be unable to provide transportation, request that a call to 911(EMS) be made to have an ambulance waiting at the nearest dock site. INJURY AND SEVERE WOUNDS Administer first aid as needed. If wound is severe, contact EMS and arrange for transportation to hospital. Continue first aid until EMS arrives. NEAR-DROWNING Contact EMS. Continue application of artificial respiration and CPR until relieved by professional medical personnel. In case of suspected cervical spinal injury, stabilize victim using accepted treatment procedures and transport with as little movement as possible to a point where pre-summoned EMS personnel can treat and transport victim to the Emergency Room.

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PREFACE TO THE SIXTH (2005) EDITION This manual sets forth the policies, procedures and standards that govern training and diving operations of all personnel participating in the Texas A&M University at Galveston (hereafter referred to as TAMUG or the University) diving program. It applies to all divers operating under University auspices, including all students in training, visiting divers, individuals who wish to dive from University facilities or vessels or use University equipment, and campus officials responsible for the management and administration of research and diving programs. This edition of the Manual was prompted by a near-drowning event in the TAMUG swimming pool during advanced open water/rescue training. Upon investigation the Board determined that there was no real medical oversight of students enrolled in the physical education diving courses. This lack of medical oversight has been corrected in the 6th edition of the Manual. The Board also determined that after a student completed a diving medical form, and had a subsequent injury, or event, that might constitute a contraindication to diving, there was no requirement to report that injury or event to anyone. This has also been corrected in the 6th edition of the Manual. The first edition of the Diving Safety Manual, edited by James McCloy, Larry McKinney and Robert Hedderman, was published in 1984. The Manual was written to bring the University into compliance with diving standards established by the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS), of which TAMUG has been an Organizational Member since 1982. A brief history of the raison d'être of AAUS is necessary to provide University divers with a sense of how and why we got where we are. During the winter of 1976-77 Federal OSHA held hearings in New Orleans to allow for comment on proposed commercial diving regulations. Commercial divers were defined as employees who dive, and this included scientists and sport diving instructors (thus establishing an employer-employee relationship). The scientific diving community (which organized and became the AAUS) objected, but the final OSHA standard (29 CFR 1910, Subpart T) included diving scientists. OSHA was subsequently supplied with data demonstrating that the safety record of scientific divers was better than that of bankers, and that significant differences existed between working conditions of scientific divers and commercial divers. In 1979, at AAUS insistence, OSHA requested information concerning how the regulations were causing difficulties. In 1982, following extensive hearings, AAUS was granted an exemption from Federal OSHA's standards for commercial diving safety based on the excellent safety record of scientific diving and ability of the scientific diving community to be self-regulating. The exemption was challenged in court by the Carpenters and Joiners Union (to which commercial divers belong), and the court found in AAUS' favor in 1984. OSHA drew up final guidelines (50 FR 1046) exempting educational/scientific diving from the commercial diving standards. Under the exemption, scientific diving is defined as "diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or educational activity by employees whose sole purpose is to perform scientific research tasks. Scientific diving does not include performing any tasks usually associated with commercial diving such as: placing or removing heavy objects underwater; inspection of pipelines and cutting or welding; or the use of explosives." According to the final rule, a scientific diving program must: 1. 2. fit the definition and have a diving program that includes a safety manual covering diving operations, procedures for emergency care, and criteria for training and certification, and have a Diving Control Board, the majority of which are active divers, which has the authority to "approve and monitor diving projects; review and revise the diving safety manual; certify the depths to which a diver has been trained; take disciplinary action for unsafe practices; and assure adherence to the buddy system for scuba."

It is important for all University divers to realize that the regulations included in this Manual are intended to provide first and foremost for their safety, and not to restrict diving activities. All divers should operate in a safe manner, not only for their own protection, but for the continued protection of scientific diving operations, free from governmentally-imposed constraints.

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My thanks to Christi Atkinson, immediate past Diving Safety Officer, for her thorough update of the Manual, 5th Edition, in which chapters were revised to more closely conform to the AAUS Standards format, and to comply with the new standards adopted by AAUS through August 2003. Extensive use was made of the AAUS Standards for Scientific Diving (2001) when she revised this Manual. Thanks also to the individuals who took time to review the draft and make comments. Donald E. Harper, Jr. Chair, Diving Control Board

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TAMUG DIVING CONTROL BOARD MEMBERS Donald E. Harper, Jr., Ph.D., Chair Diving Certification: Diving Safety Officer Andre M. Landry, Jr., Ph.D. Diving Certification: Thomas Iliffe, Ph.D. Diving Certification: QUALIFICATIONS TAMUG Project Diving Coordinator and Scientific Diver. Principal investigator on projects requiring research diving. PADI - Dive Master, Rescue Diver; NOAA working diver & Nitrox Diver. To be determined TAMUG Project Diving Coordinator and Scientific Diver. Principal investigator on projects requiring research diving NAUI - Qualified Scuba Diver; PADI Dive Master. Nitrox Diver, NULS - 1 (HYDROLAB) Aquanaut. TAMUG Project Diving Coordinator and Scientific Diver. Principal investigator on projects requiring research diving. NAUI Instructor; NSS/CDS Cave Diving Instructor. Graduate of U.S. Navy Scientist-in-the Sea Training Program. Closed circuit SCUBA certified. TAMUG Project Diving Coordinator and Scientific Diver. Principal investigator on projects requiring research diving. PADI Dive Master, Brookhaven Dive Officer, TAMU Diving Safety Board. Principal investigator on projects requiring research diving. NAUI Rescue Diver To be determined. Conducting research on cave-dwelling organisms. PADI Dive Master, NAUI Rescue Diver & Master Diver, IDEA Nitrox Diver, NSS-CDS Cave Diver & Cavern Diver. QUALIFICATIONS Attorney NAUI - Qualified Scuba Diver; PADI - Open-water Research diver for LGL, Inc. PADI - Instructor. Unit Diving Supervisor for the Galveston Laboratory NOAA Dive Master, NOAA Advanced Working Diver, Nitrox, Certified Cylinder Inspector Neurologist, University of Texas Medical Branch

Gil Rowe, Ph.D. Diving Certification: Jay Rooker, Ph.D. Diving Certification: Undergraduate Representative: President, TAMUG Dive Club Lara Hinderstein, Graduate Student Rep. Diving Certifications

ADVISORS TO THE BOARD Michael Fieglein, Diving Certification: Larry Martin Diving Certification: Gregg Gitschlag Diving Certification: Karyl Norcross-Mehlman, M.D., Ph.D.

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION This guide is the result of the Texas A&M University at Galveston (TAMUG) Diving Control Board complying with the Federal government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration ruling on Educational and Scientific Diving. This Manual also establishes guidelines for diving under the auspices of TAMUG. The text has been developed by members of the TAMUG Diving Control Board and its advisors during the Fall, 1983. The Scripps Institute of Oceanography's "Guide for Diving Safety", the University of California San Diego's Manual for Diving Safety (1954), the California State University and College "Dive Manual," the University of New Hampshire's "Dive Manual" and the Texas A&M University "Diving Manual" have been used as references. Board members assumed leadership responsibilities for the following Diving Safety Manual components: Policy on Diving - D. Harper & J. McCloy Diving Regulations - L. McKinney & J. Nance Training - L. McKinney Certification - J. Nance Equipment - J. Nance Legal - M. Fieglein Medical - J. Mader & K. Norcross

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TABLE OF CONTENTS DIVER EMERGENCY PROCEDURES PREFACE TO THE SIXTH (2005) EDITION TAMUG DIVING CONTROL BOARD, 2003-04 PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION SECTION I. GENERAL DIVING POLICY 1.1 SCOPE 1 1.11 Training and Certification 1.12 Equipment 1.13 Revocation of Diving Permission 1.2 PURPOSE. 1.21 The Diving Safety Program 1.22 The Diving Safety Manual 1.23 Supplementary University Guidelines or Manuals 1.24 AAUS Standards and Guidelines 1.25 Consequences of Violations of Regulations 1.3 AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY 1.31 Vice President 1.4 DIVING CONTROL BOARD 1.41 Composition and Authority 1.42 Responsibilities 1.5 DIVING SAFETY OFFICER 1.51 Qualifications 1.52 Responsibilities 1.53 Inability to Perform Duties 1.6 INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL 1.7 RECIPROCITY AND VISITING SCIENTIFIC DIVERS 1.8 WAIVER OF REQUIREMENTS 1.9 DIVING MEDICAL INSURANCE SECTION II. DIVING REGULATIONS FOR SCUBA 2.1 GENERAL POLICY 2.11 Safety Considerations 2.12 Solo Diving Prohibition 2.13 Depth Limitations 2.14 Other Requirements 2.2 RESEARCH DIVING UNDER UNIVERSITY AUSPICES 2.21 Definition of Research Activities 2.22 Responsibilities of the Project Diving Coordinator 2.3 EDUCATIONAL DIVING UNDER UNIVERSITY AUSPICES 2.31 Definition of Educational Diving 2.32 Requirements 2.4 PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DIVING RESEARCH AND TRAINING 2.41 Direct Surface Access 2.42 Required Equipment 2.43 Dive Tables and Alternate Devices 2.44 Accident Management Plan 2.45 Refusal to Dive 2.46 Termination of the Dive 2.47 Ascent Procedures 2.48 Emergencies 2.5 RECREATIONAL DIVING UNDER UNIVERSITY AUSPICES 2.51 Definition of Recreational Diving 2.52 Compliance with Diving Regulations 2.53 Responsibilities of the Recreational Dive Master 2.6 BOAT DIVING REGULATIONS 2.61 General Regulations 2.62 Specific Diving Regulations 2.7 DIVING OPERATIONS Page i v vii VIII 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9

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2.8

2.9

2.71 Emergency Procedures. 2.72 Divemaster/Lead Diver 2.73 Flying After Diving - Recommended Guidelines RECORD KEEPING 2.81 Personal Dive Log 2.82 Required Incident Reports 2.83 Record Maintenance 2.84 Availability of Records TERMINATION OF DIVING PROGRAM

9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 20 20 20 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

SECTION III DIVING EQUIPMENT 3.1 GENERAL POLICY 3.2 DIVING EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 3.21 Regulators 3.22 Breathing Masks and Helmets 3.23 Scuba Cylinders and Valves 3.24 Flotation Devices 3.25 Timing Devices and Gauges 3.26 Dive Tables and Dive Computers 3.3 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT 3.4 HAND-HELD UNDERWATER POWER TOOLS 3.5 DIVING EQUIPMENT TESTING AND RECORD KEEPING 3.51 Regulators 3.52 Breathing Masks and Helmets 3.53 Scuba Cylinders 3.54 Scuba Cylinder Valves 3.55 Flotation Devices 3.56 Timing Devices, and Pressure and Depth Gauges 3.57 Dry Suits 3.6 COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS - TAMUG CONTROLLED 3.61 Requirements 3.62 Testing and Record Keeping 3.7 COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS - COMMERCIAL OPERATION 3.8 BREATHING AIR STANDARDS SECTION IV ENTRY LEVEL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 4.1 ELIGIBILITY 4.11 Applicant 4.12 Age 4.2 MEDICAL EVALUATION 4.3 RELEASE AND WAIVER 4.4 TRAINING STANDARDS FOR ENTRY LEVEL TRAINEES 4.41 Preliminary Swimming and Skin Diving Tests 4.42 Pool Training 4.43 Written Examination 4.44 Ocean or Other Open Water Training 4.45 Instructor Standards 4.46 Course Standards 4.47 Course Records SECTION V SCIENTIFIC DIVER CERTIFICATION 5.1 PREREQUISITES 5.11 Eligibility 5.12 Application 5.13 Medical Examination 5.2 REQUIREMENTS 5.21 Scuba Training 5.22 Waiver of Requirements 5.3 CLASSIFICATION 5.31 Scientific Diver-in-Training Permittee 5.32 Scientific Diver Certification

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5.4

5.5

5.6 5.7

5.33 Dive Master (= Lead Diver of AAUS) Certification 5.34 Project Diving Coordinator Certification 5.35 Temporary Certified Scientific Diver 5.36 Recreational Diving Certification DEPTH CERTIFICATIONS 5.41 30-foot Depth Certification 5.42 60-foot Depth Certification 5.43 100-foot and 130-foot Depth Certification 5.44 Certification to Depths in Excess of 130 Feet CERTIFICATION MAINTENANCE 5.51 Minimum to Maintain Certification 5.52 Term of Certification 5.53 Medical Examination REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATION RECERTIFICATION 5.71 After Lapse or Revocation of Certification 5.72 Annual Recertification

23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 37 37

SECTION VI MEDICAL STANDARDS 6.1 MEDICAL EXAMINATION CRITERIA 6.2 MEDICAL EXAMINATION FREQUENCY 6.3 MEDICAL EXAMINATION REPORTS 6.4 REEXAMINATION 6.5 CONDITIONS WHICH MAY DISQUALIFY CANIDATES FROM DIVING SECTION VII NITROX DIVING GUIDELINES 7.1 PREREQUISITES 7.11 Eligibility 7.12 Application and Documentation 7.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION TO USE NITROX 7.21 Training 7.22 Examinations 7.23 Minimum Activity to Maintain Authorization 7.3 NITROX TRAINING GUIDELINES 7.31 Classroom Instruction 7.32 Practical Training 7.33 Written Examination 7.34 Open water Dives 7.35 Surface-Supplied Training 7.4 SCIENTIFIC NITROX DIVING REGULATIONS 7.41 Dive Personnel Requirements 7.42 Dive Parameters 7.43 Oxygen Parameters 7.44 Gas Mixing and Analysis for TAMUG 7.5 NITROX DIVING EQUIPMENT 7.51 Oxygen Cleaning and Maintenance Requirements 7.52 Scuba Cylinder Identification Marking 7.53 Regulator 7.54 Other Support Equipment 7.55 Compressor and Fill Station SECTION VIII AQUARIUM DIVING OPERATIONS 8.1 GENERAL POLICY 8.2 THE BUDDY SYSTEM IN SCIENTIFIC AQUARIUM DIVING 8.3 DIVING EQUIPMENT 8.4 SCIENTIFIC AQUARIUM DIVER CERTIFICATION 8.5 SCIENTIFIC AQUARIUM DIVING USING OTHER DIVING TECHNOLOGY 8.51 Surface Supplied Scientific Aquarium Diving SECTION IX STAGED DECOMPRESSION DIVING 9.1 MINIMUM EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

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9.2 9.3

9.11 Prerequisites 9.12 Training and Environment 9.13 Minimum Training Requirements MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS MINIMUM OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

37 37 37 38 38 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 A-1 B-3 B-5 B-7 A-1 I-1 E-1 C-1 D-1 O-1 H-1 F-1 G-1 K-1 L-1

SECTION X MIXED GAS DIVING 10.1 MINIMUM EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 10.11 Prerequisites 10.12 Classroom training includes 10.13 Practical training 10.2 EQUIPMENT AND GAS QUALITY REQUIREMENTS 10.3 MINIMUM OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS SECTION XI SPECIALIZED DIVING TECHNIQUES 11.1 SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT 11.11 Dive Computers 11.12 Dry Suit 11.13 Full Face Mask 11.14 Hookah 11.15 Surface Supplied Diving 11.16 Closed and Semi-Closed Circuit Scuba (Rebreathers) 11.2 SPECIALIZED ENVIRONMENTS OR DIVING METHODS 11.21 Low Visibility/Black Water Diving 11.22 Night Diving 11.23 Blue Water Diving 11.24 Cave, Cavern, or Overhead Environment Diving 11.25 Ice or Polar Diving 11.26 Saturation Diving APPENDIX 1. APPENDIX 2. APPENDIX 3. APPENDIX 4. APPENDIX 5. APPENDIX 6. APPENDIX 7. APPENDIX 8. APPENDIX 9. DIVING MEDICAL EXAM OVERVIEW FOR THE EXAMINING PHYSICIAN MEDICAL EVALUATION REPORT OF FITNESS FOR SCUBA DIVING DIVING MEDICAL HISTORY FORM RECOMMENDED PHYSICIANS WITH DIVING EXPERIENCE and SELECTED REFERENCES IN DIVING MEDICINE DEFINITIONS OF TERMS AAUS VERIFICATION OF DIVER TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE DIVING EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON RELEASE AND WAIVER FOR SCUBA DIVING ACTIVITIES TAMUG DIVING PROGRAM APPLICATION

APPENDIX 10. DIVE PLAN SUBMITTAL FORM APPENDIX 11. TAMUG PROJECT DAILY DIVE LOG REPORTING FORM APPENDIX 12. TAMUG PERSONAL MONTHLY DIVE LOG REPORTING FORM APPENDIX 13. TAMUG ANNUAL DIVING REPORT FORM HISTORICAL APPENDIX A. AAUS GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF DIVE COMPUTERS HISTORICAL APPENDIX B. AAUS SAFE ASCENT RECOMMENDATIONS

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HISTORICAL APPENDIX C.

REVERSE DIVE PROFILES WORKSHOP

N-1 P-1 P-1 P-1 P-2 P-2

BYLAWS OF THE DIVING CONTROL BOARD, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON ARTICLE I. FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES ARTICLE II. MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION ARTICLE III. OFFICERS ARTICLE IV. ELECTIONS

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Section I GENERAL DIVING POLICY

1.1 SCOPE The following rules and regulations apply to students, faculty, staff, or any individuals who dive under the auspices of Texas A&M University at Galveston (TAMUG or the University). They apply to anyone who may use, for any purpose, diving equipment owned by, or in the custody of TAMUG, and to those who use diving apparatus, regardless of ownership, during TAMUG sponsored activities, or who dive from TAMUG facilities or vessels. 1.11 Training and Certification Individuals are not authorized to dive under University auspices until they have met the requirements for diving pertinent to the level of the proposed activity as outlined in this Manual and have been granted a University certification card by the Diving Safety Officer. 1.12 Equipment All diving under University auspices shall be done with equipment that conforms to standards set forth in Section III of this Manual regardless of ownership of that equipment. 1.13 Revocation of Diving Permission Diving privileges may be revoked for failure to comply with any regulation contained herein, or noncompliance with any pertinent regulations or laws. 1.2 PURPOSE 1.21 The Diving Safety Program The purpose of the diving safety program is to ensure the safety of all divers. A. Ensure that all diving under the auspices of TAMUG is conducted in a manner most likely to minimize the incidence of injury or occupational illness by complying with standards of safety established by nationally recognized certification agencies. B. Set forth rules, regulations and standards for training and certification that will allow a working reciprocity between campuses, other institutions, state and federal agencies, or organizations engaged in scientific diving that follow the Standards of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS). 1.22 The Diving Safety Manual The purpose of the TAMUG Diving Safety Manual is to set forth basic underwater diving safety policy, organization, regulations and procedures for safety in diving operations associated with TAMUG. All divers diving under University auspices shall possess, and be familiar with the contents of, the Diving Safety Manual. 1.23 Supplementary University Guidelines or Manuals The Vice President or his/her representative may promulgate supplementary University guidelines or manuals with additional rules and regulations to cover specific situations. However, the regulations set forth in the TAMUG Diving Safety Manual are basic and should be observed wherever diving is conducted under the auspices of TAMUG.

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1.24

AAUS Standards and Guidelines The American Academy of Underwater Sciences has provided guidelines of scientific diving to which the TAMUG program adheres. These guidelines are promulgated in the Standards for Scientific Diving, published January 2001. In any area not specifically addressed in the TAMUG Manual, AAUS guidelines, if established, set forth in the above publication will be considered binding. Final interpretation of conflicting or unclear standards shall fall on the Diving Safety Officer (DSO). A copy of the AAUS Standards will be available through the Diving Safety Officer.

1.25

Consequences of Violations of Regulations TAMUG is a long-standing (since 1982) Organizational Member of the AAUS. As such, TAMUG is required to abide by scientific diving standards promulgated by the AAUS. Regulations in this Manual meet or exceed standards of the AAUS. Gross non-compliance with standards in this Manual may be cause for revocation or restriction of the University's recognition by the AAUS, and cause the University's diving program to fall under more stringent OSHA regulations. If an individual fails to comply with regulations in this Manual, his/her diving certification may be restricted or revoked.

1.3

AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY 1.31 Vice President Ultimate authority and operational responsibility for TAMUG is vested in the Vice President of TAMUG. The Vice President is responsible for providing surveillance of University activities, including diving, interpretation of University policies, and development of additional University policies, regulations and standards. The Vice President or his/her representative, as well as the Diving Control Board, may require the Diving Safety Officer to restrict or suspend any diving activity that is, in their judgment, unwise or unsafe. The Diving Safety Officer will inform the Diving Control Board of any restrictive actions that the Diving Safety Officer may initiate. The Board may recommend to the Vice President or his/her representative that the restriction or suspension be overruled, but such a recommendation requires the approval by vote of a majority of the members of the Board.

1.4

DIVING CONTROL BOARD 1.41 Composition and Authority The Diving Control Board is an administrative committee, appointed by the Vice President or his/her representative, to oversee the diving program. A majority of the members must be experienced divers, including the Diving Safety Officer. The Vice President, or his/her representative, may appoint advisors and consultants to the Diving Control Board as appropriate. 1.42 Responsibilities The Diving Control Board has the responsibility to: A. Maintain a Diving Safety Manual, which shall include at a minimum, procedures covering all diving operations specific to the dive program, procedures for emergency care, including recompression and evacuation, and criteria for diver training and certification. (Ref. 29 CFR Part 1910). B. The Board shall at a minimum have the authority to approve and monitor diving projects; review and revise the Diving Safety Manual; certify depths to which a diver has been trained; and assure adherence to the buddy system for scuba diving (Ref. 29 CFR PART 1910). C. Establish and/or approve training programs through which applicants for certification can satisfy requirements of this Manual.

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D. Take disciplinary action for unsafe diving practices, and act as a board of appeal to consider diver-related problems. E. Approve locations where diving may be conducted under University auspices. F. Approve new equipment or techniques for University use. G. Establish and/or approve facilities for inspection and maintenance of scuba and associated equipment. 1.5 DIVING SAFETY OFFICER 1.51 Qualifications The Diving Safety Officer shall: A. Be a State employee who is appointed by the responsible administrative officer or his/her designee, with the advice and counsel of the diving control board. B. C. D. 1.52 Be trained as a scientific diver. Be a full member as defined by the AAUS. Be an active underwater instructor from a nationally recognized agency.

Responsibilities A. The Diving Safety Officer shall provide general surveillance over the health and safety aspects of all diving programs (scientific, instructional, recreational, etc.) in accordance with University policies governing safety and the use of humans during research. B. The Diving Safety Officer shall conduct evaluation and surveillance of all equipment and equipment maintenance programs, that include conducting tests of, and certifying, all University sources of breathing gases, and annual inspections of cylinders and regulators. C. The Diving Safety Officer shall supervise diving instruction and evaluate all training programs. D. The Diving Safety Officer shall prepare recommendations for consideration by the Diving Control Board, i.e. changes in, or additions to, the Manual; regulations to promote diving safety and efficiency; changes in training programs; locations for University sponsored diving programs; new equipment; individuals or agencies qualified to inspect equipment. E. The Diving Safety Officer shall provide annual audits of all diving program records pertaining to safety and instructional standards. F. The Diving Safety Officer shall prepare and submit annual reports of University diving activities to AAUS as required by conditions of organizational membership. G. The Diving Safety Officer has the authority to suspend diving programs that he/she deems unsafe.

1.53

Inability to Perform Duties If, for medical reasons, the Diving Safety Officer is unable to continue diving, he/she may continue to function as the Diving Safety Officer for two years. If, after that time, the Diving Safety Officer is still unable to dive, the Diving Control Board may recommend his/her replacement.

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1.6

INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL All personnel involved in diving instruction shall be qualified for the type of instruction being given. Instructional personnel will be selected by the Vice President, or his/her designee, who will solicit the advice of the Diving Safety Board in conducting preliminary screening of applicants for instructional positions.

1.7

RECIPROCITY AND VISITING SCIENTIFIC DIVERS In the event that TAMUG engages jointly in diving activities with one or more AAUS Organizational Members, or engages jointly in the use of diving resources, the Diving Safety Officers and/or the Diving Control Boards shall mutually agree to designate one of the participating Diving Safety Boards to govern the joint dive project. A scientific diver from another Organizational Member may apply for permission to dive under the auspices of TAMUG by submitting to the Diving Safety Officer a document containing all the information described in Appendix 11 signed by the Diving Safety Officer or Chair of the home Diving Board. A visiting scientific diver may be asked to demonstrate his/her knowledge and skills for the planned diving, as set forth in Appendix 6. If a visiting scientific diver is denied permission to dive, the TAMUG Diving Safety Officer or Chair of the Diving Safety Board shall notify the diver and his/her Diving Safety Board with an explanation of all reasons for the denial.

1.8

WAIVER OF REQUIREMENTS The Diving Safety Officer or Diving Safety Board may grant a waiver for specific requirements of training, examinations, depth certification, and minimum activity to maintain certification. The medical requirements may not be waived.

1.9

DIVING MEDICAL INSURANCE All divers diving under university auspices or otherwise are urged to obtain insurance which will cover costs of transportation to, and treatment in, recompression chambers. The general policy is that research divers shall be covered by such insurance before they participate in scientific diving activities.

4

Section II DIVING REGULATIONS FOR SCUBA

2.1 GENERAL POLICY No person shall engage in diving under the auspices of the TAMUG Diving Program unless they meet one of the following criteria: A. Research Diver who holds a University research diving certification issued by the Diving Safety Officer pursuant to the provisions of this Manual. B. Student in an educational program as described in Section 2.3, and Section 4.0. C. Recreational Diver who meets the definition in Section 2.5 and requirements therein. 2.11 Safety Considerations It is recommended at least one safety diver is equipped and ready to enter the water for every scientific diver conducting research. Scientific diving shall not be conducted unless procedures have been established for emergency evacuation of a diver to a hyperbaric chamber or appropriate medical facility. 2.12 Solo Diving Prohibition All diving shall be conducted in buddy pairs unless a third diver is needed for a specific task. The only exception to this restriction is if the diver is tethered and in communication with the surface. Prior approval of the Diving Safety Officer is required for other than buddy pair dives. The Buddy System is based upon mutual assistance, especially in case of emergency. Dives should be planned around the competency of the least experienced diver and the dive terminated as soon as either team member runs low on air, normally defined as 500 psi. Divers of a buddy team shall maintain close and continuous contact and be in a position to render assistance in case of need. If buddy separation occurs and the buddies lose contact with each other, the divers shall surface immediately and remain there until contact is re-established, unless otherwise directed by the Dive Master or the Project Diving Coordinator. 2.13 Depth Limitations A diver may not exceed his/her certification depth by more than one step (steps are 30, 60, 100, 130, 150 and 190 feet). Diving beyond 190 feet is not permitted. 2.14 Other Requirements If application of specific regulations is not clear, compliance will be based on one or both of the following: A. The regulations that promote the greater safety of divers will apply. B. The Diving Safety Officer's decision as to safety and need.

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2.2

RESEARCH DIVING UNDER UNIVERSITY AUSPICES 2.21 Definition of Research Activities A research project is defined as an activity primarily directed toward the collection of data, specimens, etc., to meet the following criteria; A. Grant or contract compliance. B. Inter-/Intra-agency agreements. C. Graduate research directed toward degree requirements. D. Other institutional research not specifically directed toward degree requirements. 2.22 Responsibilities of Project Diving Coordinator (PDC) Each project must have an Project Diving Coordinator designated by the Diving Safety Officer (see Section 5.34). The Project Diving Coordinator must request permission in writing before engaging in research diving activity. The request must satisfy the following criteria: A. Describe the project in general and include details of all diving related activities. B. List proposed personnel with proof of certification as required. C. Comply with Section 2.6, if applicable. D. Submit accident management plan (refer to Section 2.44, Appendix 7). E. Submit project diving logs at the termination of the project (Appendix 11).

2.3

EDUCATIONAL DIVING UNDER UNIVERSITY AUSPICES 2.31 Definition of Educational Diving Educational diving under the auspices of the University includes: A. Training activities related to all levels of scuba instruction. B. Undergraduate research projects. 2.32 Requirements A. Training activities are addressed in Section IV. B. Revocation of diving permission: See Section 1.13 which applies here.

2.4

PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DIVING RESEARCH AND TRAINING The following regulations apply to research and educational diving. Refer to Section 2.5 for recreational requirements. 2.41 Direct Surface Access No diving activities will be permitted that restrict direct surface access without written approval of the Diving Safety Officer. If an enclosed or confined space is not large enough for two divers, one diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry and an orientation line must be carried by the diver entering the confined space.

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2.42

Required Equipment The diver's flags, alpha and/or national, shall be prominently displayed whenever diving is conducted under circumstances in which boat traffic is probable or whenever otherwise required. If the red flag with a white diagonal stripe is a minimum of 2' x 2' it is illegal for a power boat to pass within 50'. Each diver will have (in addition to basic gear): A. A demand regulator with two functional second stages (the second being the alternate air source or octopus) and a submersible tank pressure gauge. B. A personal flotation device (BCD) with low pressure inflator. C. Timing device. D. Depth gauge. E. Diving knife. F. Compass. All equipment shall meet standards as determined by the Diving Safety Officer and Diving Control Board (see Section III).

2.43

Dive Tables and Alternate Devices Current U.S. Navy diving tables and procedures shall be followed during all diving operations unless an alternate procedure or device is approved by the Diving Control Board. Any alternate procedure or device will be at least as safe as the U.S. Navy Diving Tables. A set of appropriate diving tables must be available at the dive site. Use of dive computers may be approved by the Dive Control Board providing divers using these devices adhere to recommendations of the AAUS (see Historical Appendix A) for use of dive computers, and each diver demonstrates to the Diving Safety Officer that he/she is familiar with the operation, concepts and limitations of the device(s).

2.44

Accident Management Plan To carry out a diving project under the auspices of TAMUG, an Accident Management Plan must first be submitted to the Diving Safety Officer for approval. This plan must include the following: A. Emergency procedures for search and recovery of diver(s). B. Outline of emergency first aid and training of personnel involved. C. List of emergency equipment available on site and brief description of first aid gear. D. Evacuation plan that includes appropriate phone numbers, emergency contacts, hyperbaric facilities, U.S. Coast Guard Helicopter evacuation procedures, etc. E. Provisions for dependable two-way communications.

2.45

Refusal to Dive The decision to dive is that of the diver. A diver may refuse to dive, with no fear of reprisals or penalty, whenever he/she believes it is unsafe to make the dive. It is the diver's responsibility and duty to refuse to dive if, in his/her judgment, conditions are unsafe or unfavorable, or if he/she would be violating the precepts of training, or regulations of this Manual.

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2.46

Termination of the Dive It is the responsibility of the diver to terminate the dive, without fear of reprisals, when the earliest of the following situations exists: A. Either diver in a buddy team believes it is unsafe to continue the dive (unless it compromises the safety of another diver already in the water). B. The dive master or boat captain issues a diver recall to terminate the dive. C. There is still sufficient tank pressure (500 psig minimum) to permit the diver to safely reach the surface, including decompression time, or to safely reach an additional air source at a safety stop or decompression station. D. The dive plan or activity has been completed and both divers agree to terminate the dive.

2.47

Ascent Procedures Ascents should follow AAUS recommendations (found in Historical Appendix B). A. Ascent rates shall not exceed 30 feet per minute. B. A 3 to 5 minute stop in the 10-30 foot depth zone is recommended on every dive. C. When using a dive computer or tables, a diver's non-emergency ascents are to be at the rate specified for the system used. D. Each diver shall have instrumentation to monitor ascent rates.

2.48

Emergencies In emergencies when danger to life exists or is probable, divers may, at their own discretion, violate these Standards. A written report of all such incidents shall be submitted to the Diving Control Board explaining the circumstances and justification for actions taken.

2.5

RECREATIONAL DIVING UNDER UNIVERSITY AUSPICES 2.51 Definition of Recreational Diving Recreational diving under University auspices is defined as diving activities that utilize University equipment, facilities or vessels, and do not meet criteria given in Section 2.2 (Research Diving) or Section 2.3 (Educational Diving). Examples would be: A. Student dive clubs directly affiliated with the University. B. Incidental diving carried on in conjunction with research or educational projects but outside the scope of those projects. 2.52 Compliance with Diving Regulations General recreational diving does not come under Board control unless it meets the definition in Section 2.3. The Diving Safety Officer will thus have the latitude to approve or disapprove these activities within the following guidelines: A. Participating divers must be currently certified by a nationally recognized agency such as NAUI, PADI, YMCA, etc. and have a University certification card. B. The planned activity must fall within the standards for safe diving of either NAUI, PADI, YMCA, etc.

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C. There must be a Recreational Dive Master in overall control of diving. The Recreational Dive Master must be a University certified diver with a minimum of Dive Master rating in good standing with a national agency, and he/she must carry current liability insurance. There will be no exceptions to this requirement. 2.53 Responsibilities of the Recreational Dive Master While restrictions for recreational diving are not as demanding as those for other activities, there are some minimum requirements that include: A. A dive plan that includes a description of the activity, special equipment, and/or procedures, and listings of emergency procedures. B. The Recreational Dive Master will provide adequate first aid, emergency oxygen and safety equipment for the activity. C. The Recreational Dive Master will meet all boat diving requirements and restrictions. D. The Recreational Dive Master will have complete control of all aspects of the diving activity and will have the right to suspend a diver or the activity for failure to adhere to the Recreational Dive Master's best judgment as to safety, etc. E. Revocation of Diving Permission - see Section 1.13 which applies. 2.6 BOAT DIVING REGULATIONS As TAMUG operates numerous vessels, specific regulations will not be promulgated. The Project Diving Coordinator or Recreational Dive Master will be responsible for including vessel specific guidelines in their request for permission to initiate a diving activity. 2.61 General Regulations The following procedures will always be followed when diving from a vessel: A. The blue-white Alpha flag and/or the red-orange/white Diver flag will be flown. B. A safety line of 100 ft. (minimum) will be trailed down current of an anchored vessel. An easily seen float with a safety loop will be attached at line terminus. C. Dependable two-way communications equipment should be carried on vessels traveling out of sight of land. D. The vessel's engines shall be turned off while a tethered or surface supplied diver is in the water. 2.62 Specific Diving Regulations If there are prepared diving regulations for a specific vessel, it will be the Project Diving Coordinator or Recreational Dive Master's responsibility to acquire them from the Diving Safety Officer (or appropriate source) and adhere to them when using that vessel. 2.7 DIVING OPERATIONS 2.71 Emergency Procedures A. Local or remote diving should not be conducted until procedures have been established for emergency evacuation of divers to a hyperbaric chamber or other approved medical facility. All such emergency plans shall be approved by the Diving Safety Officer or the chair of the Diving Control Board.

9

B. The Diving Safety Officer will prepare, distribute, and update, as necessary, an emergency diver evacuation plan for local areas utilized by campus research divers.

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2.72

Dive Master/Lead Diver For each dive, one individual shall be designated as the Dive Master. He/she shall be at the dive site during the diving operations. The Dive Master shall be responsible for: A. Coordination with other known activities that are likely to interfere with diving operations. B. Ensuring all dive team members possess current certification and are qualified for the type of diving operation. C. Producing a dive plan, taking into consideration the following personnel, health and safety aspects: 1. Diving mode, including repetitive dives, if required. 2. Location(s) and approximate number of proposed dives. 3. Estimated depth(s) and bottom time(s) expected. 4. Surface and underwater conditions and hazards. 5. Breathing gas supply. 4. Thermal protection. 6. Diving equipment and boats to be used. 7. Dive team assignments and work to be done. 8. Residual inert gas status of dive team members. 9. Decompression schedules and altitude corrections. 10. Emergency procedures, including, name, telephone number, and relationship of a person to be contacted in case of an emergency. D. Ensuring safety and emergency equipment is in working order and at the dive site. E. Brief the dive team members on: 1. Dive objectives. 2. Unusual hazards or environmental conditions likely to affect the safety of diving operations. 3. Modifications in the diving or emergency procedures made necessary by conditions or the specific diving operation. F. Suspending diving operations if, in his/her opinion, conditions are not safe. G. Reporting to the Diving Safety Officer and DCB any physical problems or adverse physiological effects including symptoms of pressure-related injuries. H. Maintain a Project Dive Log at the diving location and submit a copy of this log to the Diving Safety Officer upon completion of the diving activities for which permission was sought. (See Appendix 11 for a copy of a Project Dive Log).

2.73

Flying After Diving - Recommended Guidelines A. If less than 2 hours of no-decompression diving, wait 18 hours. B. If more than 2 hours of no-decompression diving or if conducting multi-day unlimited diving, wait 24 hours. C. If decompression diving has occurred, wait 24 to 48 hours (48 hours preferable).

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2.8

RECORD KEEPING 2.81 Personal Diving Log Each certified diver shall log every dive made under the auspices of TAMUG and is encouraged to log all other dives. Monthly and annual log sheets (Appendices 12 and 13) shall be submitted to the Diving Safety Officer at the end of each month/year and will be placed in the diver's permanent file. The diving log shall include at least the following: A. Name of diver and partner. B. Date, time and location of dive(s). C. Dry suit or other diving dress used. D. General nature of diving activities. E. Approximate underwater and surface conditions. F. Maximum depths and bottom times, surface interval times. G. Mixed gas profiles, if used. H. Diving tables used, if other than U.S. Navy. I. J. 2.82 Dive computer type, if used. Detailed report of any accidents or potentially dangerous incidents.

Required Incident Reports All diving incidents requiring recompression treatment, or resulting in moderate or serious injury, or death, shall be reported to the Diving Control Board and the AAUS. The Diving Control Board shall investigate and document any incident of pressure-related injury within 45 days of the incident and prepare a report that is to be retained for 5 years. A copy will be forwarded to the AAUS during the annual reporting cycle. This report will contain, at a minimum, the following information: A. Competed AAUS Incident Report Form at www.aaus.org. B. A written descriptive report containing: 1. Name, address, and phone numbers of the principal parties involved. 2. Summary of experience of the divers involved. 3. Location and description of the dive site and description of conditions leading to the incident. 4. Description of symptoms, including depth and time of onset. 5. Description and results of medical treatment. 6. Disposition of the case. 7. Recommendations to avoid repetition of incident.

2.83

Record Maintenance The Diving Safety Officer shall maintain permanent records for each individual diver certified to dive on a University project. The file shall include the certification sheet, log sheets, current physical examination, waiver, certification or understanding of diving and disciplinary regulations and other pertinent information deemed necessary by the Diving Safety Officer and/or the Diving Control Board. 12

2.84

Availability of Records: A. Upon request of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the University shall make available for inspection and copying any record or document required by the OSHA standard, except medical records. B. Medical records shall be available to the attending physician of a diver or former diver when released in writing by the diver, or the Diving Safety Officer, if the diver is a medical emergency. C. Records and documents required by this institution shall be retained by the Diving Safety Officer for the following period: 1. Physician's written reports of medical examinations for divers - 5 years; 2. Diving Safety Manual - last 5 years; 3. Record of dives - 1 year, except 5 years where there has been an accident or pressurerelated injury or incidence of non-compliance with University rules; 4. Pressure-related injury assessment - 5 years; 5. Equipment inspection and testing records - current entry or tag, or until equipment is withdrawn from service; 6. Records of hospitalization - 5 years.

2.9

TERMINATION OF DIVING PROGRAM If the TAMUG Diving Program ceases to exist, all applicable records maintained under the requirements of this section shall be transferred to the Vice President's Office for continued maintenance and disposition. As specified in the Standards of the AAUS, a summary of diving activity of the past 5 years will be forwarded to the AAUS.

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Section III DIVING EQUIPMENT

3.1 GENERAL POLICY The following equipment must be approved by the Diving Safety Officer or an individual designated by the Diving Safety Officer or the Diving Control Board before it may be used for any diving activity under the auspices of TAMUG. Equipment subjected to extreme usage under adverse conditions should undergo more frequent testing and maintenance. All equipment shall be regularly examined by the person using that equipment. Records of all maintenance and tests shall be kept by the Diving Safety Officer. Use of University owned or controlled diving equipment shall be limited to those individuals specified in Section V (certification), or those officially enrolled in TAMUG scuba instructional programs. Texas A&M University at Galveston shall not be held liable for the safety of persons involved in the unauthorized use of University diving equipment. 3.2 DIVING EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 3.21 Regulators A. Only those makes and models specifically approved by the Diving Safety Officer and the Diving Control Board shall be used. B. All regulators must have a functional submersible pressure gauge installed and two functional second stages, one being an alternate air source or octopus. C. Regulators suspected or known to be functioning improperly shall be immediately inspected and repaired by a University-authorized repair facility. 3.22 Breathing Masks and Helmets Breathing masks and helmets shall have: A. A non-return valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask hose that shall close readily and positively. B. An exhaust valve. C. A minimum ventilation rate capable of maintaining the diver at the depth to which he/she is diving. 3.23 Scuba Cylinders and Valves A Scuba cylinders used in University diving operations shall be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with provisions of the Unfired Pressure Vessel Safety Orders (ref: 29 CFR 1910.101 and 29 CFR 1910.Unfired 169 through 171).

B. No tank may be filled unless it has current inspection and hydrostatic test stamps. C. Manually operated reserves such as "J" valves are not permitted.

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3.24

Flotation Devices

A. Each diver shall have the capability of achieving and maintaining positive buoyancy. B 3.25 Personal flotation systems, buoyancy compensators, dry suits, or other variable volume buoyancy compensation devices shall be equipped with an exhaust valve.

Timing Devices and Gauges Both members of the diving pair must have an underwater timing device, an approved depth indicator and a submersible pressure gauge.

3.26

Dive Tables and Dive Computers A. A set of diving tables, approved by the Diving Control Board, must be available at the dive location. B. Dive computers may be utilized in place of diving tables. Dive computers must be approved by the Diving Control Board. C. Use of dive computers should follow AAUS recommendations www.aaus.org

3.3

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT A first-aid kit adequate for the diving operation shall be available. An adequate emergency oxygen supply and delivery system shall be available.

3.4

HAND-HELD UNDERWATER POWER TOOLS Electrical tools and equipment used underwater must be specifically approved by the Diving Safety Officer or Dive Control Board for this purpose. Electrical tools and equipment supplied with power from the surface shall be de-energized before being placed into or retrieved from the water. Hand-held tools shall not be supplied with power from the dive location until requested by the diver.

3.5

DIVING EQUIPMENT TESTING AND RECORD KEEPING Each equipment modification, repair, test, calibration, or maintenance service shall be logged, including the date and nature of work performed, serial number of the item, and the name of the person performing the work for the following equipment: 3.51 Regulators The inspection and maintenance of TAMUG regulators, and those privately owned and used on University projects, will be performed at 12-month intervals by procedures designated by the Diving Safety Officer with the approval of the Diving Control Board. Records of this inspection and maintenance will be maintained by the Diving Safety Officer. This requirement also includes octopus regulators and/or alternate air sources. 3.52. Breathing Masks and Helmets A. The non-return valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask hose shall be tested regularly to ascertain that it closes readily and positively. B. The exhaust valve shall be tested regularly to be certain it is in working order.

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3.53.

Scuba Cylinders A. Will be inspected visually every 12 months. B. Will be hydrostatically tested at intervals required by DOT regulations. The cost of this testing is to be borne by the project or the individual, depending on ownership. A record of inspections, tests and repairs shall be maintained.

3.54.

Scuba Cylinder Valves Scuba cylinder valves shall be functionally tested at 12 month intervals.

3.55.

Flotation Devices All buoyancy devices shall be examined and tested before use by the person using them. Functional inspections and tests shall occur at intervals not to exceed 12 months. Special attention shall be given to leak detection and proper operation of valves and/or CO2 cartridge puncture mechanisms.

3.56.

Timing Devices, and Pressure and Depth Gauges Timing devices and gauges shall be inspected and tested before first use and every 12 months thereafter.

3.57.

Dry suits Dry suits shall be inspected, and the inflator and dump valves shall be tested, every 12 months.

3.6 COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS - TAMUG CONTROLLED 3.61 Requirements A. All air compressor intakes shall be provided with a filter and located away from areas containing exhaust gases, fumes, smoke, or other contaminant, to ensure a supply of clean air. B. Low pressure compressor used to supply air to the diver, if equipped with a volume tank shall have a check valve on the inlet side, a relief valve and a drain valve. C. Compressed air systems over 500 psig shall have slow-opening shut-off valves. D. The discharged compressed air shall be passed to the compressed air holder through frequently cleaned and recharged filters designed to remove carbon monoxide, dust, and droplets of oil and water, and to minimize other contaminants. E. Oil lubricated compressors, cylinders and coolers shall be well ventilated or otherwise cooled, or the operation cycled to ensure against high temperatures at which CO is formed from the oil. 3.62 Testing and Record Keeping Each equipment modification, repair, test, calibration, or maintenance service shall be logged, including the date and nature of work performed, and the name of the person performing the work for the following equipment: A. Compressors B. Air storage systems C. Air filtration systems D. Analytical instruments 16

E. Gas control panels 3.7 COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS - COMMERCIAL OPERATION Breathing air from commercial sources approved by the Diving Control Board shall be certified by the supplier as suitable for breathing, according to specifications in Section 3.8 or it shall be tested before use by the University personnel. One copy of vendor's certification or vendor's verification of producer's certification for each lot of compressed air shall be filed with the Diving Safety Officer. A log shall be maintained showing operation, repair, overhaul, filter maintenance, temperature adjustment, and results of all gas analyses and air tests for all University-controlled breathing air compressor apparatus. Records shall be available for audit. Gas analyses and air tests shall be performed on the output of each breathing air compressor at regular intervals, not to exceed 100 hours of operation or 6 months, whichever occurs first. 3.8 3.81 BREATHING-AIR STANDARDS Breathing air standards shall conform to GCA Grade E. A. Oxygen B Carbon monoxide 20-22% 10 ppm/v 500 ppm/v 5 mg/m3 NS None

C. Carbon dioxide D. Condensed hydrocarbons E. Water vapor F. Objectionable odors

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Section IV ENTRY LEVEL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

This section describes requirements and training for the non-diver applicant, previously not certified for diving, and equivalency for the certified diver 4.1 ELIGIBILITY 4.11 Applicants Persons enrolled at or employed by TAMUG may participate in training under the auspices of the University. Non-University personnel may participate on a continuing education basis or with permission of the Diving Control Board and/or the Diving Safety Officer. 4.12 Age An applicant for basic scuba training and certification shall be at least sixteen (16) years of age. Applicants 16 and 17 years of age must have their parent or guardian's written consent. 4.2 MEDICAL EVALUATION Each applicant for scientific diving scuba training shall complete the medical evaluations listed in this Manual (Appendix 1) prior to any in-water activity. Each applicant for KINE (kinesiology/physical education) scuba training shall complete the appropriate (NAUI, PADI, etc.) medical evaluation form and have the form examined and signed by a physician. This form shall then be presented to the Diving Safety Officer for inclusion in the applicant's file. If, after completing a medical form or exam, any event occurs that would constitute a contraindication to diving, the student must report the incident to the Instructor or Diving Safety Officer. 4.3 RELEASE AND WAIVER Each applicant must complete and submit the required liability release form prior to participation in training, research, or recreational diving under the auspices of TAMUG (Appendices 8 and 9). Instructors and/or the Diving Safety Officer may require additional releases and waivers depending on the training activity. Such forms, if required, must be approved by the Diving Control Board and submitted prior to participation in the activity. 4.4 TRAINING STANDARDS FOR ENTRY LEVEL TRAINEES All training under University auspices shall meet or exceed those of the following national certifying agencies: Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI), National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI), the YMCA, or another equivalent program recognized by the Diving Control Board. To participate in a scientific diving program, a diver must show evidence of appropriate instruction as outlined below. 4.41 Preliminary Swimming and Skin Diving Skills Tests The applicant for training shall successfully perform the following tests, or their equivalent, in the presence of an examiner specified by the Diving Safety Officer or Diving Control Board. ALL swimming and diving skills tests listed in this section must be completed in one session or be repeated. ALL skills in this section must be completed before advancing to pool training.

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A. Swim underwater for a distance of 25 yards (23 m) without surfacing. B. Swim underwater without fins for a distance of 50 yards (45 m), surfacing not more than 4 times during the swim (note: A and B may be combined as long as no breaths are taken during the first 25-yard swim). C. Swim 500 yards (460 m) in 15 minutes or less, without swim aids, using any stroke. D. Within 10 minutes of completing C, demonstrate the ability to swim in a face down position using a snorkel and fins, but not arms, a distance of 500 yards (460 m) in 10 minutes or less. E. Demonstrate the ability, using snorkel and fins to tow an unconscious diver 200 yards/ (184 m) in 7 minutes or less. F. Surface dive without fins to a depth of 10 ft (3 m), recover a swimmer, and tow the swimmer 50 yards (45 m) at the surface. G. Without fins, simulate rescue of a struggling swimmer. H. Tread water, without swim aids, 10 minutes, of these 2 minutes without the use of hands. 4.42 Pool Training The trainee must demonstrate, in a manner acceptable to the instructor, an ability to perform the following in a swimming pool. All skills must be completed in one session or be repeated. All must be completed before advancing to open water training. A. Clear face mask and snorkel. B. Demonstrate the ability to remove and replace equipment while submerged, including weight belt. C. Rescue and transport, in full scuba gear, a simulated victim of a diving accident. D. Enter the water with full equipment by jumping in feet first and rolling in backwards. E. Demonstrate proficiency in buddy breathing and use of an alternate air source with and without a mask while seated, swimming horizontally, and swimming vertically. F. Demonstrate the ability to alternate snorkel and scuba while swimming in the deep end of a pool. G. Demonstrate proper use of personal flotation equipment. H. Demonstrate the ability to enter the pool with all equipment in his/her arms and don the equipment on the bottom of the pool. I. J. Demonstrate the ability to use an alternate air source while ascending from the bottom. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to make an emergency swimming ascent horizontally in a pool for a distance of 40 feet (12 m), and vertically from a depth of 10 feet (3 m), with no interruption of the air supply.

K. Demonstrate an understanding of underwater signs and signals. 4.43 Written Examination Before completing training, the trainee must pass a written examination that demonstrates knowledge of at least the following: A. Function, care, use and maintenance of diving equipment. B. Physics and physiology of diving. 19

C. Diving regulations and precautions. D. Near-shore currents and waves. E. Dangerous marine animals. F. Emergency procedures including buoyant ascent and ascent by air sharing. G. Currently accepted decompression procedures. H. Demonstrate proper use of dive tables. I. J. Underwater communications. Aspects of freshwater and altitude diving.

K. Hazards of breath-hold diving and ascents. L. Planning and supervision of diving operations. M. Diving hazards. N. Cause, symptoms, treatment and prevention of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Near drowning Air embolism Carbon dioxide excess Exhaustion Respiratory fatigue Oxygen poisoning Nitrogen narcosis Decompression sickness Carbon monoxide poisoning Squeeze Motion sickness Hypothermia Hypoxia/anoxia Diving hazards

O. Knowledge of no-decompression repetitive dives, decompression tables, and no-decompression tables and procedures.

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4.44

Ocean or Other Open Water Training The trainee must satisfy an instructor of his/her ability to perform the following activities in the ocean or other open water: A. Surface dive to a depth of about 15 feet (4.5 m) without scuba. B. Demonstrate clearing of mask and regulator while submerged. C. Remove equipment as directed by instructor and replace equipment at a depth greater than 15 feet (4.5 m). D. Enter and leave open water or surf wearing full scuba gear and leave and board a diving vessel while wearing scuba gear. E. Snorkel 400 yards (375 m) with breathing apparatus in position, but not breathing from the scuba unit. F. Compute his/her own surface air consumption rate in cubic feet/minute for each training dive. G. Demonstrate the ability to achieve and maintain neutral buoyancy at the surface and below the surface, navigate underwater and demonstrate techniques of self rescue and buddy rescue. H. Demonstrate the ability to buddy breathe while swimming near the bottom and ascending from a depth of at least 20 feet (6 m). I. J. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to make an emergency swimming ascent from a depth of 20 feet with no interruption of the air supply. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to make a simulated out-of-air ascent using his/her buddy's octopus regulator.

K. Complete 8 dives for a total bottom time of 4 hours at a depth of not greater than 30 feet (10 m), accompanied by or supervised by a diving instructor designated by the Diving Control Board. No more than 3 dives shall be made in any one day. Judgment consistent with safe diving practices should be demonstrated at all times, both above and below water. 4.45 Instructor Standards University instructors shall be members in good standing of one of the agencies listed in Section 4.4. Instructors shall also meet all insurance requirements of these agencies appropriate with their training activities. A. Emergency Training. All instructors shall be current in CPR, First Aid, and Oxygen Administration. B. Rescue Training. All instructors shall have participated in a certified Diver Rescue Course within two (2) years of current teaching activity. 4.46 Course Standards All course offerings (i.e., including diver training activities) must be approved by the Diving Control Board. A course outline, proof of instructor rating and emergency procedures must be on file prior to initiation of a new course. A. Course Outline. An outline shall cover any applicable classroom, pool, or open water activities required for the course if there are any variances from the outlines detailed by the certifying agency (NAUI, PADI, etc.). Special equipment, procedures or activities must also be listed. 21

B. Instructor Rating. Instructors must be certified by one of the agencies listed in Section 4.4 to teach any course. C. Accident Management Plan (see Section 2.44, Appendix 7). 4.47 Course Records Instructors will maintain and submit files on all individuals participating in diver training and diving certification activities. These files will include biographic information on trainees, medical forms, a log of diving activities, evaluation of their activities and acquired skills; the waiver forms; and resulting certifications, if any. Format of these files will be approved by the Diving Safety Officer.

22

Section V SCIENTIFIC DIVER CERTIFICATION

5.1 PREREQUISITES 5.11 Eligibility Only a person diving under the auspices of TAMUG is eligible for University certification. 5.12 Application Application for certification shall be made to the Diving Safety Officer on the form prescribed by TAMUG policy (see Appendix 9). 5.13 Medical Examination Each applicant for University scientific diving certification shall submit a statement from a licensed physician, based on an approved medical examination, attesting to the applicant's fitness for diving prior to any in-water activities. 5.2 REQUIREMENTS 5.21 Scuba Training Each applicant must have successfully completed a basic training program in scuba as designated in Section IV, at TAMUG, or sanctioned by the National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI), the Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI), the YMCA, and/or an equivalent program. Each applicant should be thoroughly familiar with diseases and physical impairments that would be incompatible with research scuba diving. 5.22 Waiver of Requirements If an applicant for certification can show evidence of qualifying experience, the Diving Safety Officer and/or the Diving Control Board may grant a waiver for specific TAMUG requirements of training and experience. 5.3 CLASSIFICATION There shall be six categories of TAMUG divers: 5.31 Scientific Diver-in-Training Divers who have completed the requirements as outlined in Section IV, an Oxygen Administration course, a minimum of 40 hours of training and a minimum of 12 open water dives for a total bottom time of 6 hours since completion of training shall be issued a Scientific Diver-in-Training permit. No more than 3 of these dives may be made in one day. 5.32 Scientific Diver Certification Divers-in-training may advance to Scientific Diver Certification by logging at least twelve (12) research/training dives for a total bottom time of 6 hours, supervised by a scientific diver. No more than 3 of these dives may be made in one day. To obtain Scientific Diver Certification, divers must hold at MINIMUM an Open Water rating (or equivalent) from NAUI, PADI, YMCA, or equivalent program, and current First Aid and CPR, and Oxygen Administration certificates. All certified scientific divers shall have completed a total of 100 hours of classroom and practical in water training.

23

5.33

Dive Master (= Lead Diver of AAUS) Certification Divers with sufficient experience and demonstrated ability to supervise a new diver under open water conditions. These divers must hold at MINIMUM a Dive Master rating (or equivalent) from NAUI, PADI, YMCA, or equivalent program. They must be currently certified in Diver Rescue, First Aid, CPR, and Oxygen Administration.

5.34

Project Diving Coordinator Certification Divers with sufficient experience and demonstrated ability to supervise a research diving operation. These divers must hold at a MINIMUM, a current Dive Master rating (or equivalent) from NAUI, PADI, YMCA, or equivalent program. They must be a scientific diver currently certified in Diver Rescue, and hold valid First Aid, CPR, and Oxygen Administration certifications. The Project Diving Coordinator shall also be familiar with diver training activities.

5.35

Temporary Certified Scientific Diver A scuba diver who has demonstrated required proficiency in diving and can contribute substantially to a specific research diving project may have training requirements listed above waived and be certified to dive under University auspices by the Diving Safety Officer. Such certification is usable only for the project and time specified and may be obtained by presenting evidence of the following: A. A copy of a medical examination performed within the last 12 months. B. A statement of medical insurance coverage. C. A resume of diving experience, including proof of certification by a nationally recognized organization (NAUI, PADI, YMCA, etc.). D. If a visiting diver is certified by an AAUS Organizational Member, AAUS' reciprocity agreement shall substitute for A-C above. E. In all cases, the Diving Safety Officer or Diving Control Board may require an orientation dive to familiarize the temporary or visiting diver with local conditions.

5.36

Recreational Diving Certification Recreational divers must submit their nationally-recognized certification card, their dive log, and a completed application form to the University Dive Officer to obtain certification.

5.4

DEPTH CERTIFICATIONS After the presentation of required documents, a diver will be certified to depth (i.e., 30, 60, 100, 130, 150, or 190 feet) according to his/her background, physical capabilities, and successful completion of required dives. Diving is not permitted beyond a depth of 190 feet. 5.41 30-foot Depth Certification Successful completion of a training program as listed in Section IV will result in certification to 30 feet. 5.42 60-foot Depth Certification For certification to dive to 60 feet, the diver must present evidence of at least 12 supervised dives, and a bottom time of 4 hours, to depths between 31 and 60 feet. 5.43 100-foot and 130-foot Depth Certifications For certification to 100 feet, 6 dives to near 100 feet shall be logged. For certification to 130 feet, 6 dives to near 130 feet shall be logged. Depth certification shall be validated by the signatures of two divers who are certified to at least the same depth. The diver shall demonstrate competency in the 24

use of the U.S. Navy decompression tables. During each training/working dive to the next greatest depth, the trainee must be accompanied by a diver certified to the greater depth. 5.44 Certification to Depths in Excess of 130 Feet Any request for TAMUG Certification to depths greater than 130 feet will be handled on a case by case basis by the Diving Control Board. Certification to 150- and 190-foot depths will be made after the completion of 4 dives to near each depth. Dives shall be planned and executed under close supervision of, and be accompanied by, a diver certified to this depth. The diver must demonstrate a knowledge of the special problems of deep diving and special safety requirements such as decompression procedures, recognition of nitrogen narcosis and detailed planning. 5.5 CERTIFICATION MAINTENANCE 5.51 Minimum to Maintain Certification To maintain certification, the diver must complete the following (see 5.7 for recertification procedure): A. A medical examination as set forth in Section VI and after any serious illness or injury. B. A minimum of 12 logged dives per year. C. A logged dive to certification depth during each 6 month period. D. Maintain current First Aid, CPR, Oxygen Administration and Diver Rescue certification, as applicable. 5.51 Term of Certification All diving certificates shall expire 12 months from the date of issue. A diver's depth certification shall expire 6 months from the date of the last logged dive to his/her certification depth. 5.52 Medical Examination All certified scientific divers shall pass an initial medical examination, and thereafter be examined at 5-year intervals until age 40. After age 40, medical examinations will be performed at 3-year intervals and 2-year intervals if over the age of 60, as stipulated in Section VI. If, after completing a medical form or exam, any event occurs that would constitute a contraindication to diving, the student must report the incident to the Instructor or Diving Safety Officer. 5.6 REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATION Certification may be revoked by the Diving Safety Officer and/or the Diving Control Board for failure to comply with any regulation contained herein; noncompliance with any pertinent regulations or laws; or with willful disobedience of verbal requests by those in charge of diving or vessel operations. The diver shall be informed of the reasons for revocation and will be given an opportunity to present his or her case to the Board. 5.7 RECERTIFICATION 5.71 After Lapse or Revocation of Certification If a diver's certification expires or is revoked, he or she may be re-certified after complying with such conditions as the Diving Control Board may impose. Generally, recertification after expiration shall consist of passing the medical examination and/or a successful dive to certified depth while accompanied by a TAMUG Dive Master.

25

5.72

Annual Recertification The Diving Safety Officer, or the Diving Control Board, may, at their discretion, require recertification on an annual basis. The following skills will be evaluated all of which must be completed in one session, or be repeated. These skills include: A. Swim underwater without fins for 25 yd (23 m) without surfacing. B. Swim underwater without fins 50 yd (45 m) surfacing no more than 4 times during the swim (note: A & B may be combined as long as no breaths are taken during the first 25 yd swim). C. Swim 500 yards (460 m) in less than 15 minutes without swim aids, using any stroke. D. Within 10 minutes of completing B, demonstrate the ability to swim in a face down position using a snorkel and fins, but not arms, a distance of 500 yards (460 m) in less than 10 minutes. E. Demonstrate the ability, using snorkel and fins to tow an unconscious diver 200 yards/ (200 m) in less than 7 minutes. F. Demonstrate the ability to remove and replace equipment while submerged, including weight belt. G. Demonstrate proficiency in buddy breathing and use of an alternate air source with and without a mask while seated, swimming horizontally, and swimming vertically. H. Demonstrate the ability to enter the pool with all equipment in one's arms, and don the equipment on the bottom of the pool. I. Demonstrate knowledge of the causes, signs, symptoms, prevention and first aid for: 1. Near drowning 2. Air embolism 3. Carbon dioxide excess 4. Exhaustion 5. Respiratory fatigue 6. Oxygen poisoning 7. Nitrogen narcosis 8. Decompression sickness 9. Carbon monoxide poisoning 10. Squeeze 11. Motion sickness J. Demonstrate knowledge or use of dive tables by solving decompression and nodecompression diving problems.

26

Section VI MEDICAL STANDARDS

6.1 MEDICAL EXAMINATION CRITERIA Each applicant for a TAMUG diving certification (other than a recreational certification) shall submit the diving physical examination forms (Appendix 1, 2, 3 and 4) to a licensed physician at the time of examination. All medical evaluations required by the medical standard shall be performed by, or under the direction of, a licensed physician. The physician shall be of the applicant's choice, but preferably one trained in, or at a minimum with knowledge of, diving or undersea medicine. All costs for the physical examination shall be the responsibility of the applicant for certification, except in the case of an institutional employee who is required to dive as a part of his or her job activities. The diver applicant shall agree to release the medical information to the Diving Safety Officer and the Diving Control Board (Appendix 2). The diver should be free of any chronic disabling disease and be free of any conditions contained in the list of conditions for which restrictions from diving are generally recommended (Appendix 1). 6.2 MEDICAL EXAMINATION FREQUENCY All certified scientific divers shall pass an initial medical examination, and thereafter be examined at 5year intervals until age 40. After age 40, medical examinations will be performed at 3-year intervals and 2-year intervals if over the age of 60. The criteria for a diving physical examination are as follows (adopted by the AAUS, effective 1 January 2001): Initial Exam Medical History Complete Physical Exam with emphasis on neurological and otological components Chest x-ray Spirometry Hematocrit or Hemoglobin Urinalysis Resting EKG Assessment of coronary artery disease using Multiple-Risk Factor Assessment Any further tests deemed necessary by the physician 6.3 MEDICAL EVALUATION REPORTS A copy of the medical requirements of this standard, including conditions which may disqualify candidates from diving, shall be provided to the examining physician (see Appendix 1 - Diving Medical Examination Forms). The examining physician will provide a written report containing the physician's opinion of the fitness of the individual to dive, including any recommended restrictions or limitations. The Diving Safety Officer will review the completed medical examination form and forward the form, with his or her 27 x x x x x x Every 5 years (up to age 40) x x x x Initial exam at or after age 40 x x x x x x x x x x x Every 3/2 years (after age 40/60) x x x x x x x

recommendation, to the Diving Control Board. These forms will be retained in the applicant's file in the Diving Safety Officer's office. Medical examinations conducted initially and at the intervals specified in section 6.2 shall consist of the following: a) Applicant agreement for release of medical information to the Diving Safety Officer and the DCB (Appendix 2). b) Medical History (Appendix 3). c) Diving physical examination (Required tests listed above and in Appendix 2). 6.4 REEXAMINATION After each illness or injury requiring hospitalization of more than 24 hours, or confinement to bed for a period in excess of 5 days, certified divers shall submit to a medical interview and/or examination appropriate to the nature and extent of the injury or illness, as determined by the examining physician, before resuming diving activities. Further, if, after completing a medical form or exam, any event occurs that would constitute a contraindication to diving, the student must report the incident to the Instructor or Diving Safety Officer. 6.5 CONDITIONS THAT MAY DISQUALIFY CANDIDATES FROM DIVING (adopted from Bove, 1998)

1. Abnormalities of the tympanic membrane, such as perforation, presence of a monomeric membrane, or inability to autoinflate the middle ears. 2. Vertigo including Meniere's Disease. 3. Stapedectomy or middle ear reconstructive surgery. 4. Recent ocular surgery. 5. Psychiatric disorders including claustrophobia, suicidal ideation, psychosis, anxiety states, untreated depression. 6. Substance abuse, including alcohol. 7. Episodic loss of consciousness. 8. History of seizure. 9. History of stroke or a fixed neurological deficit. 10. Recurring neurologic disorders, including transient ischemic attacks. 11. History of intracranial aneurysm, other vascular malformation or intracranial hemorrhage. 12. History of neurological decompression illness with residual deficit. 13. Head injury with sequelae. 14. Hematologic disorders including coagulopathies. 15. Evidence of coronary artery disease or high risk for coronary artery disease. 16. Atrial septal defects. 17. Significant valvular heart disease - isolated mitral valve prolapse is not disqualifying. 18. Significant cardiac rhythm or conduction abnormalities. 19. Implanted cardiac pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators (ICD). 20. Inadequate exercise tolerance. 21. Severe hypertension. 22. History of spontaneous or traumatic pneumothorax. 23. Asthma 24. Chronic pulmonary disease, including radiographic evidence of pulmonary blebs, bullae or cysts. 25. Diabetes mellitus. 26. Pregnancy. 1) "Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk by Use of Multiple-Risk-Factor Assessment Equations." Grundy et. al. 1999. AHA/ACC Scientific Statement. http://www.acc.org/clinical/consensus/risk/risk1999.pdf 2) "Are Asthmatics Fit to Dive? " Elliott DH, ed. 1996 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Kensington, MD.

28

Section VII NITROX DIVING GUIDELINES

The following guidelines address the use of nitrox by scientific divers under the auspices of TAMUG. Nitrox is defined for these guidelines as breathing mixtures composed predominately of nitrogen and oxygen, most commonly produced by the addition of oxygen or the removal of nitrogen from air. 7.1 PREREQUISITES 7.11 Eligibility Only a certified Scientific Diver or Scientific Diver In Training (Section 5.31 and 5.32) diving under the auspices of TAMUG is eligible for authorization to use nitrox. After completion, review and acceptance of application materials, training and qualification as per Sec. 7.12 of these guidelines, an applicant will be authorized to use nitrox within his/her depth authorization, as specified in Section 5.4. 7.12 Application and documentation Application and documentation for authorization to use nitrox should be made on forms specified by the DSO. 7.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION TO USE NITROX Submission of documents and participation in aptitude examinations does not automatically result in authorization to use nitrox. The applicant must convince the DSO and members of the DCB that he/she is sufficiently skilled and proficient. The signature of the DSO on the authorization form will acknowledge authorization. After completion of training and evaluation, authorization to use nitrox may be denied to any diver who does not demonstrate to the satisfaction of the DSO or DCB the appropriate judgment or proficiency to ensure the safety of the diver and dive buddy. Prior to authorization to use nitrox, the following minimum requirements should be met: 7.21 Training The diver must complete additional theoretical and practical training beyond the Scientific Diver In Training air certification level, to the satisfaction of the DSO (see Section 7.2). 7.22 Examinations Each diver should demonstrate proficiency in skills and theory in written, oral, and practical examinations covering: A. B. C. 7.23 Written examinations covering information presented in the classroom training session(s) (i.e., gas theory, oxygen toxicity, partial pressure determination, etc.); Practical examinations covering information presented in the practical training session(s) (i.e., gas analysis, documentation procedures, etc.); Openwater checkout dives, to appropriate depths, to demonstrate the application of theoretical and practical skills learned.

Minimum Activity to Maintain Authorization

The diver should log at least one (1) nitrox dive per year. Failure to meet the minimum activity level may be cause for restriction or revocation of nitrox authorization.

29

7.3

NITROX TRAINING GUIDELINES Training in these guidelines should be in addition to training for Diver-In-Training authorization (Section IV). It may be included as part of training to satisfy the Scientific Diver training requirements (Section 5.32). 7.31 Classroom Instruction A. Topics should include, but are not limited to: review of previous training; physical gas laws pertaining to nitrox; partial pressure calculations and limits; equivalent air depth (EAD) concept and calculations; oxygen physiology and oxygen toxicity; calculation of oxygen exposure and maximum safe operating depth (MOD); determination of decompression schedules (both by EAD method using approved air dive tables and nitrox dive tables); dive planning and emergency procedures; mixing procedures and calculations; gas analysis; personnel requirements; equipment marking and maintenance requirements; dive station requirements. The DSO may choose to limit standard nitrox diver training to procedures applicable to diving, and subsequently reserve training such as nitrox production methods, oxygen cleaning, and dive station topics to divers requiring specialized authorization in these areas.

B.

7.32

Practical Training The practical training portion will consist of a review of skills as stated for scuba (Section IV), with additional training as follows: A. B. C. D. Oxygen analysis of nitrox mixtures; Determination of MOD, oxygen partial pressure exposure, and oxygen toxicity time limits for various nitrox mixtures at various depths; Determination of nitrogen-based dive limits status by EAD method using air dive tables and/or using nitrox dive tables, as approved by the DCB; Nitrox dive computer use may be included, as approved by the DCB.

7.33

Written Examination (based on classroom instruction and practical training) Before authorization, the trainee should successfully pass a written examination demonstrating knowledge of at least the following: A. B. C. D. Function, care, use, and maintenance of equipment cleaned for nitrox use; Physical and physiological considerations of nitrox diving (ex. O2 and CO2 toxicity); Diving regulations and procedures as related to nitrox diving, either scuba or surface-supplied (depending on intended mode); Given the proper information, calculation of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. Equivalent air depth (EAD) for a given fO2 and actual depth; pO2 exposure for a given fO2 and depth; Optimal nitrox mixture for a given pO2 exposure limit and planned depth; Maximum operational depth (MOD) for a given mix and pO2 exposure limit; For nitrox production purposes, percentages/psi of oxygen present in a given mixture, and psi of each gas required to produce a fO2 by partial pressure mixing.

Decompression table and dive computer selection and usage; 30

F. G. H. 7.34

Nitrox production methods and considerations; Oxygen analysis; Nitrox operational guidelines (Section 7.4), dive planning, and dive station components.

Open Water Dives A minimum of two supervised openwater dives using nitrox is required for authorization. The mode used in the dives should correspond to the intended application (i.e., scuba or surface-supplied). If the MOD for the mix being used can be exceeded at the training location, direct, in-water supervision is required.

7.35

Surface-Supplied Training All training as applied to surface-supplied diving (practical, classroom, and openwater) will follow the member organization's surface-supplied diving standards, including additions listed in Section 7.21 and 7.22.

7.4

SCIENTIFIC NITROX DIVING REGULATIONS 7.41 Dive Personnel Requirements A. Nitrox Diver In Training - A Diver In Training, who has completed the requirements of Section IV and the training and authorization sections of these guidelines, may be authorized by the DSO to use nitrox under the direct supervision a Scientific Diver who also holds nitrox authorization. Dive depths should be restricted to those specified in the diver's authorization. Scientific Diver - A Scientific Diver who has completed requirements of Section V and the training and authorization sections of these guidelines, may be authorized by the DSO to use nitrox. Depth authorization to use nitrox should be the same as those specified in the diver's authorization, as described in Section 5.4. Lead Diver - On any dive during which nitrox will be used by any team member, the Lead Diver should be authorized to use nitrox, and hold appropriate authorizations required for the dive, as specified in TAMUG Standards. Lead Diver authorization for nitrox dives by the DSO and/or DCB should occur as part of the dive plan approval process. In addition to responsibilities listed in Section 2.72, the Lead Diver should: 1. 2. As part of the dive planning process, verify that all divers using nitrox on a dive are properly qualified and authorized; As part of the pre-dive procedures, confirm with each diver the nitrox mixture the diver is using, and establish dive team maximum depth and time limits, according to the shortest time limit or shallowest depth limit among team members. The Lead Diver should also reduce the maximum allowable pO2 exposure limit for the dive team if on-site conditions so indicate (see Section 7.42.A.2)

B.

C.

3.

31

7.42

Dive Parameters A. Oxygen Exposure Limits 1. The inspired oxygen partial pressure experienced at depth should not exceed 1.6 ATA, with 1.4 ATA being recommended. All dives performed using nitrox breathing mixtures should comply with the current NOAA Diving Manual "Oxygen Partial Pressure Limits for `Normal' Exposures" The maximum allowable exposure limit should be reduced in cases where cold or strenuous dive conditions, or extended exposure times are expected. The DCB should consider this in the review of any dive plan application that proposes to use nitrox. The Lead Diver should also review on-site conditions and reduce the allowable pO2 exposure limits, if conditions indicate. If using the equivalent air depth (EAD) method, the maximum depth of a dive should be based on the oxygen partial pressure for the specific nitrox breathing mix to be used.

2.

3.

B. Bottom Time Limits 1. 2. Maximum bottom time should be based on the depth of the dive and nitrox mixture being used. Bottom time for a single dive should not exceed the NOAA maximum allowable "Single Exposure Limit" for a given oxygen partial pressure, as listed in the current NOAA Diving Manual.

C. Decompression Tables and Gases 1. 2. 3. 4. A set of DCB approved nitrox decompression tables should be available at the dive site. When using the equivalent air depth (EAD) method, dives should be conducted using air decompression tables approved by the DCB. If nitrox is used to increase the safety margin of air-based dive tables, the MOD and oxygen exposure and time limits for the nitrox mixture being dived should not be exceeded. Breathing mixtures used while performing in-water decompression or for bail-out purposes should contain the same or greater oxygen content as that being used during the dive, within the confines of depth limitations of Section 7.31 and oxygen partial pressure limits set forth in Section 7.32.

D. Nitrox Dive Computers 1. 2. 3. Dive computers may be used to compute decompression status during nitrox dives. Manufacturers' guidelines and operations instructions should be followed. Nitrox dive computers should comply with dive computer guidelines included in the AAUS Standards (Historical Appendix A). Nitrox dive computer users should demonstrate a clear understanding of the display, operations, and manipulation of the unit being used for nitrox diving prior to using the computer, to the satisfaction of the DSO or his/her designee. If nitrox is used to increase the safety margin of an air-based dive computer, the MOD and oxygen exposure and time limits for the nitrox mixture being dived should not be exceeded. Dive computers capable of pO2 limit and fO2 adjustment should be checked by the diver prior to the start of each dive to assure compatibility with the mix being used.

4. 5.

32

E. Repetitive Diving 1. 2. 3. Repetitive dives using nitrox mixtures should be performed in compliance with procedures required by the specific dive tables used. Residual nitrogen time should be based on the EAD for the specific nitrox mixture to be used on the repetitive dive and not that of the previous dive. The total cumulative exposure (bottom time) to a partial pressure of oxygen in a given 24 hour period should not exceed the current NOAA Diving Manual 24- hour Oxygen Partial Pressure Limits for "Normal" Exposures. When repetitive dives expose divers to different oxygen partial pressures from dive to dive, divers should account for accumulated oxygen exposure from previous dives when determining acceptable exposures for repetitive dives. Both acute (CNS) and chronic (pulmonary) oxygen toxicity concerns should be addressed.

4.

7.43

Oxygen Parameters A. Authorized Mixtures - mixtures meeting criteria outlined in Sec. 7.42.A may be used for nitrox diving operations, upon approval of the DCB. B. Purity 1. 2. Oxygen used for mixing nitrox breathing gas should meet purity levels for "Medical Grade" (U.S.P.) or "Aviator Grade" standards. In addition to the Air Purity Guidelines (Section 3.8), the following standards should be met for breathing air that is either a. placed in contact with oxygen concentrations greater than 40%, or b. used in nitrox production by the partial pressure mixing method with gas mixtures containing greater than 40% oxygen as the enriching agent: Air Purity: CGA Grade E (Section 3.8) Condensed Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon Contaminants: 5mg/m_ No greater than 0.1mg/m_

7.44

Gas Mixing and Analysis for TAMUG A. Personnel Requirements 1. 2. B. C. Individuals responsible for producing and/or analyzing nitrox mixtures should be knowledgeable and experienced in all aspects of the technique. Only those individuals approved by the DSO and/or DCB should be responsible for mixing and/or analyzing nitrox mixtures.

Production Methods - It is the responsibility of the DSO or DCB to approve the specific nitrox production method used. Analysis Verification by User 1. It is the responsibility of each diver to analyze prior to the dive the oxygen content of his/her scuba cylinder and acknowledge in writing the following information for each cylinder: fO2, MOD, cylinder pressure, date of analysis, and user's name. Individual dive log reporting forms should report fO2 of nitrox used, if different than 21%.

2.

33

7.5

NITROX DIVING EQUIPMENT All designated equipment and requirements regarding scuba equipment required in the TAMUG Standards should apply to nitrox scuba operations. Additional minimal equipment necessary for nitrox diving operations includes: Labeled Scuba Cylinders Oxygen Analyzers 7.51 Oxygen Cleaning and Maintenance Requirements A. Requirement for Oxygen Service 1. All equipment exposed during the dive or cylinder filling process to concentrations greater than 40% oxygen at pressures above 150 psi should be cleaned and maintained for oxygen service. 2. Equipment used with oxygen or mixtures containing greater than 40% by volume oxygen shall be designed and maintained for oxygen service. Oxygen systems over 125 psig shall have slow-opening shut-off valves. This should include the following equipment: scuba cylinders, cylinder valves, scuba and other regulators, cylinder pressure gauges, hoses, diver support equipment, compressors, and fill station components and plumbing. 7.52 Scuba Cylinder Identification Marking Scuba cylinders to be used with nitrox mixtures should have the following identification documentation affixed to the cylinder. A. B. Cylinders should be marked "NITROX" or "EANx" or "Enriched Air". Nitrox identification color-coding should include a 4-inch wide green band around the cylinder, starting immediately below the shoulder curvature. If the cylinder is not yellow, the green band should be bordered above and below by a 1-inch yellow band. The alternate marking of a yellow cylinder by painting the cylinder crown green and printing the word "NITROX" parallel to the length of the cylinder in green print is acceptable. Other markings that identify the cylinder as containing gas mixes other than air may be used at the approval of the DCB. A contents label should be affixed, to include the current fO2, date of analysis, and MOD (maximum operating depth). The cylinder should be labeled to indicate whether the cylinder is prepared for oxygen or nitrox mixtures containing greater than 40% oxygen.

C. D. E. F. 7.53

Regulators Regulators to be used with nitrox mixtures containing greater than 40% oxygen should be cleaned and maintained for oxygen service and marked in an identifying manner.

34

7.54

Other Support Equipment A. An oxygen analyzer is required that is capable of determining oxygen content in the scuba cylinder. Two analyzers are recommended to reduce the likelihood of errors due to a faulty analyzer. The analyzer should be capable of reading a scale of 0 to 100% oxygen, within 1% accuracy. All diver and support equipment should be suitable for the fO2 being used.

B. 7.55

Compressor and Fill Station A. Compressor system 1. 2. B. The compressor/filtration system MUST produce oil-free air. An oil-lubricated compressor placed in service for a nitrox system should be checked for oil and hydrocarbon contamination at least quarterly.

Fill Station Components - All components of a nitrox fill station that will contact nitrox mixtures containing greater than 40% oxygen should be cleaned and maintained for oxygen service. This includes cylinders, whips, gauges, valves, and connecting lines.

35

Section VIII AQUARIUM DIVING OPERATIONS (This section is provided for future use)

8.1 GENERAL POLICY Section VIII applies to scientific aquarium divers only. Definition - A scientific aquarium diver is a scientific diver who is diving solely within an aquarium. An aquarium is a shallow, confined body of water, which is operated by or under the control of an institution and is used for the purposes of specimen exhibit, education, husbandry, or research. It is recognized that within scientific aquarium diving there are environments and equipment that fall outside the scope of those addressed in this manual. In those circumstances it is the responsibility of the TAMUG Dive Control Board to establish the requirements and protocol under which diving will be safely conducted. Note: All of the standards set forth in other sections of this manual shall apply, except as otherwise provided in this Section. 8.2 THE BUDDY SYSTEM IN SCIENTIFIC AQUARIUM DIVING All scuba diving activities in the confined environment of an aquarium shall be conducted in accordance with the buddy system, whereby both divers, or a diver and a tender as provided below, are always in visual contact with one another, can always communicate with one another, and can always render prompt and effective assistance either in response to an emergency or to prevent an emergency. A diver and tender comprise a buddy team in the confined environment of an aquarium only when the maximum depth does not exceed 30 feet, and there are no overhead obstructions or entanglement hazards for the diver, and the tender is equipped, ready and able to conduct or direct a prompt and effective in-water retrieval of the diver at all times during the dive. 8.3 DIVING EQUIPMENT In an aquarium of a known maximum obtainable depth: A. B. 8.4 A depth indicator is not required, except that a repetitive diver shall use the same computer used on any prior dive. The maximum obtainable depth of the aquarium shall be used as the diving depth if a depth indicator is not used.

SCIENTIFIC AQUARIUM DIVER CERTIFICATION Scientific Aquarium Diver A Scientific Aquarium Diver is a certification enabling the qualified diver to participate in scientific diving in accordance with the standards of this Section as provided below. All of the standards set forth in Sections IV and V of this manual shall apply, except: Practical training shall include at least 12 supervised aquarium dives for a cumulative bottom time of 6 hours. No more than 3 of these dives shall be made in one day.

36

8.5

SCIENTIFIC AQUARIUM DIVING USING OTHER DIVING TECHNOLOGY 8.51 Surface Supplied Scientific Aquarium Diving

Definition: For purposes of scientific aquarium diving, surface supplied diving is described as a mode of diving using open circuit, surface supplied compressed gas which is provided to the diver at the dive location and may or may not include voice communication with the surface tender. A. Divers using the surface supplied mode shall be equipped with a diver-carried independent reserve breathing gas supply. Scientific aquarium divers using conventional scuba masks, full- face masks or non- lockdown type helmets are exempt from this standard provided: 1. There are no overhead obstructions or entanglements, and 2. The diver is proficient in performing a Controlled Emergency Swimming Ascent from at least as deep as the maximum depth of the aquarium, and 3. The diver is proficient in performing out of air emergency drills, including ascent and mask/helmet removal. B. Each surface supplied diver shall be hose-tended by a separate dive team member while in the water. Scientific aquarium divers are exempt from this standard, provided the tender is monitoring only one air source, there is mutual assistance between divers and there are no overhead obstructions or entanglements. C. Divers using the surface supplied mode shall maintain communication with the surface tender. The surface supplied breathing gas supply (volume and intermediate pressure) shall be sufficient to support all surface supplied divers in the water for the duration of the planned dive. During surface supplied diving operations when only one diver is in the water, there must be a standby diver in attendance at the dive location. Scientific aquarium divers are exempt from this standard , provided the tender is equipped, ready and able to conduct a prompt and effective in-water retrieval of the diver at all times during the dive." E. F. Surface supplied equipment must be configured to allow retrieval of the diver by the surface tender without risk of interrupting air supply to the diver. All surface supplied applications used for scientific aquarium diving shall have a non-return valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask hose, which shall close readily and positively.

D.

37

Section IX STAGED DECOMPRESSION DIVING

Decompression diving shall be defined as any diving during which the diver cannot perform a direct return to the surface without performing a mandatory decompression stop to allow the release of inert gas from the diver's body. The following procedures shall be observed when conducting dives requiring planned decompression stops. 9.1 MINIMUM EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 9.11 Prerequisites A. Scientific Diver qualification according to Section V. B. Minimum of 100 logged dives. C. Demonstration of the ability to safely plan and conduct dives deeper than 100 feet. D. Nitrox certification/authorization according to Section VII recommended. Training shall be appropriate for the conditions in which dive operations are to be conducted. Minimum Training shall include the following: A. A minimum of 6 hours of classroom training to ensure theoretical knowledge to include: physics and physiology of decompression; decompression planning and procedures; gas management; equipment configurations; recompression method, emergency procedures. It is recommended that at least one training session be conducted in a pool or sheltered water setting, to cover equipment handling and familiarization, swimming and buoyancy control, to estimate gas consumption rates, and to practice emergency procedures. At least 6 open-water training dives simulating/requiring decompression shall be conducted, emphasizing planning and execution of required decompression dives, and including practice of emergency procedures. Progression to greater depths shall be by 4-dive increments at depth intervals as specified in Section 5.40. No training dives requiring decompression shall be conducted until the diver has demonstrated acceptable skills under simulated conditions. The following are the minimum skills the diver must demonstrate proficiently during dives simulating and requiring decompression: · Buoyancy control · Proper ascent rate · Proper depth control · Equipment manipulation · Stage/decompression bottle use as pertinent to planned diving operation · Buddy skills · Gas management · Time management · Task loading · Emergency skills Divers shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the DSO or the DSO's designee proficiency in planning and executing required decompression dives appropriate to the conditions in which diving operations are to be conducted. Upon completion of training, the diver shall be authorized to conduct required decompression dives with DSO approval. 38

9.12 9.13

B.

C.

D. E. F.

G.

H.

9.2

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS: 9.21 Valve and regulator systems for primary (bottom) gas supplies shall be configured in a redundant manner that allows continuous breathing gas delivery in the event of failure of any one component of the regulator/valve system. Cylinders with volume and configuration adequate for planned diving operations. One of the second stages on the primary gas supply shall be configured with a hose of adequate length to facilitate effective emergency gas sharing in the intended environment. Minimum dive equipment shall include: A. B. C. 9.25 Snorkel is optional at the DCB's discretion, as determined by the conditions and environment. Diver location devices adequate for the planned diving operations and environment. Compass

9.22 9.23 9.24

Redundancy in the following components is desirable or required at the discretion of the DCB or DSO: A. B. C. D. E. F. Decompression Schedules Dive Timing Devices Depth gauges Buoyancy Control Devices Cutting devices Lift bags and line reels

9.3

MINIMUM OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.37 9.38 Approval of dive plan applications to conduct required decompression dives shall be on a case-bycase basis. The maximum pO2 to be used for planning required decompression dives is 1.6. It is recommended that a pO2 of less than 1.6 be used during bottom exposure. Divers gas supplies shall be adequate to meet planned operational requirements and foreseeable emergency situations. Decompression dives may be planned using dive tables, dive computers, and/or PC software approved by the DSO/DCB. Breathing gases used while performing in-water decompression shall contain the same or greater oxygen content as that used during the bottom phase of the dive. The dive team prior to each dive shall review emergency procedures appropriate for the planned dive. If breathing gas mixtures other than air are used for required decompression, their use shall be in accordance with those regulations set forth in the appropriate sections of this standard. The maximum depth for required decompression using air as the bottom gas shall be 190 feet.

39

9.39 9.40 9.41

Use of additional nitrox and/or high-oxygen fraction decompression mixtures as travel and decompression gases to decrease decompression obligations is encouraged. Use of alternate inert gas mixtures to limit narcosis is encouraged for depths greater than 150 feet. If a period of more than 6 months has elapsed since the last mixed gas dive, a series of progressive workup dives to return the diver(s) to proficiency status prior to the start of project diving operations are recommended. Mission specific workup dives are recommended.

9.42

40

Section X MIXED GAS DIVING

Mixed gas diving is defined as dives done while breathing gas mixes containing proportions greater than 1% by volume of an inert gas other than nitrogen. 10.1 MINIMUM EXPERIENCE AND TRANING REQUIREMENTS

10.11 Prerequisites: A. B. C. Nitrox certification and authorization (Section VII). If the intended use entails required decompression stops, divers will be previously certified and authorized in decompression diving (Section IX). Divers shall demonstrate to the DCB's satisfaction skills, knowledge, and attitude appropriate for training in the safe use of mixed gases.

10.12 Classroom training including: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. Review of topics and issues previously outlined in nitrox and required decompression diving training as pertinent to the planned operations. The use of helium or other inert gases, and the use of multiple decompression gases. Equipment configurations Mixed gas decompression planning Gas management planning Thermal considerations END determination Mission planning and logistics Emergency procedures Mixed gas production methods Methods of gas handling and cylinder filling Oxygen exposure management Gas analysis Mixed gas physics and physiology

10.13 Practical Training: A. B. C. Confined water session(s) in which divers demonstrate proficiency in required skills and techniques for proposed diving operations. A minimum of 6 open water training dives. At least one initial dive shall be in 130 feet or less to practice equipment handling and emergency procedures.

41

D. E. F. 10.2

Subsequent dives will gradually increase in depth, with a majority of the training dives being conducted between 130 feet and the planned operational depth. Planned operational depth for initial training dives shall not exceed 260 feet. Diving operations beyond 260 feet requires additional training dives.

EQUIPMENT AND GAS QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

10.21 Equipment requirements shall be developed and approved by the DCB, and met by divers, prior to engaging in mixed-gas diving. Equipment shall meet other pertinent requirements set forth elsewhere in this standard. 10.22 The quality of inert gases used to produce breathing mixtures shall be of an acceptable grade for human consumption. 10.3 MINIMUM OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

10.31 Approval of dive plan applications to conduct mixed gas dives shall be on a case-by-case basis. 10.32 All applicable operational requirements for nitrox and decompression diving shall be met. 10.33 The maximum pO2 to be used for planning required decompression dives is 1.6. It is recommended that a pO2 of less than 1.6 be used during bottom exposure. 10.34 Maximum planned Oxygen Toxicity Units (OTU) will be considered based on mission duration. 10.35 Divers decompressing on high-oxygen concentration mixtures shall closely monitor one another for signs of acute oxygen toxicity. If a period of more than 6 months has elapsed since the last mixed gas dive, a series of progressive workup dives to return the diver(s) to proficiency status prior to the start of project diving operations are recommended.

42

Section XI SPECIALIZED DIVING TECHNIQUES

In some instances, research diving requires specialized diving techniques, training, and/or equipment. This section addresses the requirements necessary to use specific types of equipment or techniques beyond the normal scuba apparatus. No diver is permitted to use the equipment or techniques found in the following sections without prior training, and approval of the Diving Safety Officer or Diving Control Board. 11.1 SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT Dive computers A. Only those makes and models of dive computers specifically approved by the Diving Control Board may be used. B. All use of dive computers must be in accordance with the guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (see Historical Appendix A). C. Any diver planning to use dive computers must apply to the Diving Control Board for training, and take a written test to demonstrate understanding of concepts and proficiency in its use, or document that he/she is competent to use the instrument. D. After the diver has been approved by the Diving Control Board, he/she must agree to follow all policies and procedures that the Diving Control Board may establish in the future as more information regarding the use and limitations of dive computers becomes available. 11.12 Dry Suit A. Only those makes and models of dry suits specifically approved by the Diving Control Board may be used. B. Each diver planning to use a dry suit must demonstrate to the Diving Safety Officer that he/she is familiar with the operation of the suit and with the potential hazards of over inflation leading to uncontrolled ascent. C. A personal flotation device shall be worn with all dry suits unless specifically exempted by the Diving Safety Officer or the Diving Control Board. Personal flotation devices shall not cover the dry suit valves. 11.13 Full Face Mask A. Each diver wearing a full face mask shall have at least one second stage available for emergencies. B. Each diver wearing a full face mask shall have been trained in proper use of the mask. 11.14 Hookah A. Divers using the hookah mode shall be equipped with a diver-carried independent reserve breathing gas supply. B. Each hookah diver, while in the water, shall be hose-tended by a separate dive team member. C. The hookah breathing gas supply shall be sufficient to support all hookah divers in the water for the duration of the planned dive, including decompression. D. Divers and tenders shall know and use line pull signals for communications if communications are not included in the equipment. 43

11.11

44

11.15

Surface Supplied Diving Surface supplied divers shall comply with all scuba diving procedures in this manual except the buddy requirement. Surface supplied diving shall not be conducted at depths greater than 190 fsw (58 msw). Surface supply implies full face or helmet, with a full umbilical that includes gas and communication. A. Divers using the surface supplied mode shall be equipped with a diver-carried independent reserve breathing gas supply. B. Each surface supplied diver, while in the water, shall be hose-tended by a separate dive team member. C. Divers using the surface supplied mode shall maintain voice communication with the surface tender. D. The surface supplied breathing gas supply shall be sufficient to support all surface divers in the water for the duration of the dive, including decompression. E. During surface supplied diving operations when only one diver is in the water, a standby diver must be in attendance at the dive site, suited up and ready to get into the water. F. Divers and tenders shall know and use line pull signals for communications in case of communication equipment failure.

11.16

Closed and Semi-Closed Circuit Scuba (Rebreathers) Closed and semi-closed circuit scuba (Rebreathers) shall meet the following requirements: A. Oxygen partial pressure in the breathing gas shall not exceed values approved by the DSO for TAMUG. The maximum value is 1.5 atmospheres ppO2 at depths greater than 25 fsw (7.6 msw). B. Chemicals used for the absorption of carbon dioxide shall be kept in a cool, dry location in a sealed container until required for use. C. The designated person- in-charge shall determine that the carbon dioxide absorption canister is used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. D. Closed and semi-closed diving equipment will not be used at a depth greater than that recommended by the manufacturer of the equipment.

11.2

SPECIALIZED ENVIRONMENTS OR DIVING METHODS Low Visibility/Black Water Diving Low visibility (< 1 foot visibility) is a common condition encountered by persons diving in the northern Gulf of Mexico. A. All divers shall be familiar with the problems and hazards associated with diving in low visibility or black water. B. A buddy pair diving in low visibility/black water shall consist of at least one individual experienced (as determined by the Project Diving Coordinator or Dive Master) in these conditions. Two divers inexperienced in low visibility/black water diving shall not be paired in any circumstance. C. If the buddy system is deemed hazardous to the divers, solo diving may be practiced as long as the diver is tethered, is in voice communication with his buddy on the surface, both the diver and line tender are proficient in line tending signals, and the buddy diver is fully prepared to enter the water at a moment's notice, i.e. all gear on and mask in hand.

11.21

45

11.22

Night Diving A. Only divers that are certified at TAMUG may participate in night diving unless the Diving Control Board approves a diver from another program. B. A night checkout dive is required before any night dives are made. This checkout will include: 1. An orientation lecture on night diving procedures will be given before the checkout dive is scheduled. 2. The checkout dive will be made only with the Diving Safety Officer or his/her appointed representative. 3. Mask clearing and buddy breathing will be checked as part of the night diving checkout procedure. C. Each member of the dive team must have a properly functioning light designated for underwater use. D. Dive logs shall indicate the night dive in the "type of dive" column.

11.23

Blue Water Diving Blue water diving is defined as diving in open water where the bottom is generally >200 feet deep. It requires special training and the use of multiple-tethered diving techniques. Specific guidelines that should be followed are outlined in "Blue Water Diving Guidelines" (California Sea Grant Pub. No. TCSGCP-014) A. All divers wishing to engage in blue water diving must be aware of the unique problems associated with this mode of diving. B. Divers must be trained and familiar with the provisions in the Blue Water Diving Manual available from the Diving Safety Officer.

11.24

Cave, Cavern, or Overhead Environment Diving Where an enclosed or confined space is not large enough for two divers, a diver shall be stationed at the point of entry and an orientation line shall be used. A. Only those individuals certified by the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section (NSS/CDS), the National Association of Cave Divers (NACD), or Global Underwater Explorers (GUE) may undertake cave or cavern dives. B. Equipment and techniques must meet minimum standards of the above stated organizations.

11.25

Ice or Polar Diving Divers planning to dive under ice or in polar conditions should use the following: "Guidelines for Conduct of Research Diving", National Science Foundation, Division of Polar Programs, 1990. A. Individuals wishing to perform under-ice dives must have the appropriate training and the approval of the Diving Control Board.

11.26

Saturation Diving All divers employing saturation diving shall comply with the standards of the organization under whose auspices the diving is occurring.

46

APPENDIX 1 DIVING MEDICAL EXAM OVERVIEW FOR THE EXAMINING PHYSICIAN

TO THE EXAMINING PHYSICIAN: This person, _______________________________________________________, requires a medical examination to assess fitness for certification as a Scientific Diver for the Texas A&M University at Galveston diving program. The answers on the Diving Medical History Form (attached), may indicate potential health or safety risks as noted. Your evaluation is requested on the attached Scuba Diving Fitness Medical Evaluation Report. If you have questions of a general nature about diving medicine, you may wish to consult one of the references on the attached list or contact one of the physicians with expertise in diving medicine whose names and phone numbers appear on another list attached. Please contact the Diving Officer if you have any questions or concerns about diving medicine or the Texas A&M University at Galveston diving program standards. Thank you for your assistance.

Diving Officer

Phone Number

Printed Name

Date

Scuba and other modes of compressed gas diving can be strenuous and hazardous. A special risk is presented if the middle ear, sinuses, or lung segments do not readily equalize pressure changes. The most common cause of distress is eustachian insufficiency. Most fatalities involve deficiencies in prudence, judgment, emotional stability or physical fitness. Please consult the following list of conditions which usually restrict candidates from diving (Adapted from Bove, 1998: 61 -63, bracketed numbers are pages in Bove) CONDITIONS WHICH MAY DISQUALIFY CANDIDATES FROM DIVING 1. Abnormalities of the tympanic membrane, such as perforation, presence of a monomeric membrane, or inability to autoinflate the middle ears. 2. Vertigo including Meniere's Disease. 3. Stapedectomy or middle ear reconstructive surgery. 4. Recent ocular surgery. 5. Psychiatric disorders including claustrophobia, suicidal ideation, psychosis, anxiety states, untreated depression. 6. Substance abuse, including alcohol. 7. Episodic loss of consciousness. 8. History of seizure. 9. History of stroke or a fixed neurological deficit. 10. Recurring neurologic disorders, including transient ischemic attacks. 11. History of intracranial aneurysm, other vascular malformation or intracranial hemorrhage. 12. History of neurological decompression illness with residual deficit. 13. Head injury with sequelae. 14. Hematologic disorders including coagulopathies. 15. Evidence of coronary artery disease or high risk for coronary artery disease. 16. Atrial septal defects. 17. Significant valvular heart disease - isolated mitral valve prolapse is not disqualifying. 18. Significant cardiac rhythm or conduction abnormalities. 1

19. Implanted cardiac pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators (ICD). 20. Inadequate exercise tolerance. 21. Severe hypertension. 22. History of spontaneous or traumatic pneumothorax. 23. Asthma 24. Chronic pulmonary disease, including radiographic evidence of pulmonary blebs, bullae or cysts. 25. Diabetes mellitus. 26. Pregnancy. 1) "Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk by Use of Multiple-Risk-Factor Assessment Equations." Grundy et. al. 1999. AHA/ACC Scientific Statement. http://www.acc.org/clinical/consensus/risk/risk1999.pdf 2) "Are Asthmatics Fit to Dive? " Elliott DH, ed. 1996 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Kensington, MD. SELECTED REFERENCES IN DIVING MEDICINE Most of these are available from Best Publishing Company, P.O. Box 30100, Flagstaff, AZ 86003-0100, the Divers Alert Network (DAN) or the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Association (UHMS), Bethesda, MD. ACC/AHA Guidelines for Exercise Testing. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Exercise Testing). Gibbons RJ, et al. 1997. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 30:260-311. http://www.acc.org/clinical/guidelines/exercise/exercise.pdf Alert Diver Magazine; Articles on diving medicine http://www.diversalertnetwork.org/medical/articles/index.asp "Are Asthmatics Fit to Dive? " Elliott DH, ed. 1996 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Kensington, MD. "Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk by Use of Multiple-Risk-Factor Assessment Equations." Grundy et. al. 1999. AHA/ACC Scientific Statement. http://www.acc.org/clinical/consensus/risk/risk1999.pdf DIVING MEDICINE, Third Edition, 1997. A. Bove and J. Davis. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia DIVING AND SUBAQUATIC MEDICINE, Third Edition, 1994. C. Edmonds, C. Lowery and J. Pennefather. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Oxford MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF SPORT SCUBA DIVERS, 1998. Alfred Bove, M.D., Ph.D. (ed.). Medical Seminars, Inc. San Antonio, TX NOAA DIVING MANUAL, NOAA. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. U.S. NAVY DIVING MANUAL. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Attachments 1. 2. 3. 4. Medical Evaluation Report of Fitness for Scuba Diving Report Diving Medical History Form Question Evaluations for Diving Medical History Form Recommended Physicians with Expertise in Diving/Undersea Medicine and References on Diving.

2

APPENDIX 2 MEDICAL EVALUATION REPORT OF FITNESS FOR SCUBA DIVING

Name of Applicant (Print/Type) TO THE PHYSICIAN

Date (Day/Mo/Yr)

This person is an applicant for training or is presently certified to engage in diving with self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba). This is an activity which puts unusual stress on the individual in several ways. Your opinion of the applicant's medical fitness is requested. Scuba diving requires heavy exertion. The diver must be free of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. An absolute requirement is the ability of the lungs, middle ear and sinuses to equalize pressure. Any condition that risks the loss of consciousness should disqualify the applicant. TESTS: Please initial that the following tests were completed. [ ] Initial Examination [ ] Re-examination (Every 5 years under age 40, or first exam over age 40, every 3 years over age 40, every 2 years over age 60) _____ Medical History _____ Complete Physical Exam, with emphasis on neurological and otological components _____ Hematocrit or Hemoglobin _____ Urinalysis _____ Any further tests deemed necessary by the physician. Additional testing for over age 40 _____ Resting EKG _____ Assessment of coronary artery disease using Multiple-Risk-Factor Assessment 1 (age, lipid profile, blood pressure, diabetic screening, smoker, diabetic

_____ Medical History _____ Complete Physical Exam with emphasis on neurological and otological components _____ Chest X-Ray _____ Spirometry _____ Hematocrit or Hemoglobin _____ Urinalysis _____ Any further tests deemed necessary by the physician. Additional testing for first exam over age 40 _____ Resting EKG _____ Assessment of coronary artery disease using Multiple-Risk-Factor Assessment 1 (age, lipid profile, blood pressure, diabetic screening, smoker)

Note: Exercise stress testing may be indicated based on risk factor assessment 2 RECOMMENDATION: [ ] APPROVAL. I find no medical condition(s) which I consider incompatible with diving. [ ] RESTRICTED ACTIVITY APPROVAL. The applicant may dive in certain circumstances as described in REMARKS. [ ] FURTHER TESTING REQUIRED. I have encountered a potential contraindication to diving. Additional medical tests must be performed before a final assessment can be made. See REMARKS. [ ] REJECT. This applicant has medical condition(s) which, in my opinion, clearly would constitute unacceptable hazards to health and safety in diving. Pertinent Literature 1 "Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk by Use of Multiple-Risk-Factor Assessment Equations." Grundy et. al. 1999. AHA/ACC Scientific Statement. 1

http://www.acc.org/clinical/consensus/risk/risk1999.pdf 2 Gibbons RJ, et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for Exercise Testing. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Exercise Testing). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 30:260-311, 1997. http://www.acc.org/clinical/guidelines/exercise/exercise.pdf REMARKS:

I have discussed the patient's medical condition(s) which would not seriously interfere with diving but which may seriously compromise subsequent health. The patient understands the nature of the hazards and the risks involved in diving with these defects. M.D. Signature Name (Print or Type) Address Telephone Number My familiarity with applicant is: ___ With this exam only ___ Regular Physician for ___ Other (describe) years Date

My familiarity with diving medicine: ___ On attached list of physicians ___ Other (describe)

2

APPLICANT'S RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION FORM

On this date, I authorize the release of this information and all medical information subsequently acquired in association with my diving to the Texas A&M University at Galveston Diving Officer and Diving Control Board or their designee at Galveston, Texas.

Signature of Applicant

Date

3

APPENDIX 3 DIVING MEDICAL HISTORY FORM

(To Be Completed By Applicant-Diver) Name Sponsor (Dept./Project/Program/School, etc.) TO THE APPLICANT Scuba diving makes considerable demands on your physical and emotional condition. Diving with particular defects amounts to asking for trouble, not only for yourself but also for anyone coming to your aid if you get into difficulty in the water. Therefore, it is prudent to meet certain medical and physical requirements before beginning a diving or training program. Your answers to the questions are more important, in many instances, in determining your fitness than what the physician may see, hear, or feel when you are examined. Obviously, you should give accurate information or the medical screening procedure becomes useless. This form will be kept confidential. If you believe any question(s) amounts to invasion of your privacy, you may elect to omit an answer, provided that you shall subsequently discuss the matter with your physician; and he/she must then indicate, in writing, that you have done so and that no health hazard exists. Should your answers indicate a condition(s) which might make diving hazardous, you will be asked to review the matter with your physician. In such instances, his/her written authorization will be required in order for further consideration to be given your application. If your physician concludes that diving would involve undue risk for you, remember that he/she is concerned only with your well-being and safety. Respect this advice and the intent of this medical history form. Have you ever had or do you presently have any of the following? Trouble with your ears, including ruptured eardrum, difficulty clearing your ears, or surgery Trouble with dizziness Eye surgery Depression, anxiety, claustrophobia, etc Substance abuse, including alcohol Loss of consciousness Epilepsy or other seizures, convulsions or fits Stroke or a fixed neurological deficit Recurring neurologic disorders, including transient ischemic attacks Aneurysms or bleeding in the brain Decompression sickness or embolism Head injury Disorders of the blood, or easy bleeding Heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol Anatomical heart abnormalities including patent foramen ovale, valve problems, etc Heart rhythm problems Need for a pacemaker Difficulty with exercise High blood pressure Collapsed lung 1 Yes No Comments Sex Age __ Wt. Date (Mo/Day/Yr) Ht.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Asthma Other lung disease Diabetes mellitus Pregnancy Surgery If yes explain below Hospitalizations. If yes explain below Do you take any medications? If yes list below Do you have any allergies to medications, foods, environmentals? If yes explain below Do you smoke Do you drink alcoholic beverages Is there a family history of high cholesterol Is there a family history of heart disease or stroke Is there a family history of diabetes Is there a family history of asthma

Please explain any "yes" answers to the above questions.

_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

I certify that the above answers and information represent an accurate and complete description of my medical history.

Signature

Date

2

APPENDIX 4 RECOMMENDED PHYSICIANS WITH DIVING MEDICINE EXPERTISE

RECOMMENDED PHYSICIANS WITH EXPERTISE IN DIVING MEDICINE Local medical doctors that have training and expertise in diving or undersea medicine.

1. Jeffrey Thorley, M.D. 6615 Stewart Rd Galveston, TX 77551 409/744-6373 2. Karyl Norcross-Nechay, M.D. Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical Branch 200 University Blvd. Galveston, Texas 77550 409/722-2222 Other Medical Doctors that have training and expertise in diving or undersea medicine. 1. Divers Alert Network Duke University Medical Center Box 3823 Durham, North Carolina 27710 919/684-2948

SELECTED REFERENCES IN DIVING MEDICINE

DIVING MEDICINE, 1990. A. Bove and J. Davis. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. DIVING AND SUBAQUATIC MEDICINE, Third Edition, 1992. C. Edmonds, C. Lowery and J. Pennefather. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Oxford. (Available from Best Publishing Company, P.O. Box 30100, Flagstaff, AZ 86003-0100). MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF SPORT SCUBA DIVERS, Jefferson Davis, M.D. (ed.). Best Publishing Company, P.O. Box 30100, Flagstaff, AZ 86003-0100.. NOAA DIVING MANUAL, NOAA. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. SCUBA DIVING IN SAFETY AND HEALTH, C.W. Deuker. Madison Publishing Associates, Diving Safety Digest, P.O. Box 2735, Menlo Park, CA 94026. THE PHYSICIAN'S GUIDE TO DIVING MEDICINE, C.W. Shilling, C.B. Carlston and R.A. Mathias. Plenum Press, New York, NY (Available through the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Association, Bethesda, MD). U.S. NAVY DIVING MANUAL. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

3

APPENDIX 5 DEFINITION OF TERMS

. AAUS - The American Academy of Underwater Sciences. Air sharing - The sharing of an air supply between divers. ATA(s) - Abbreviation for "Atmospheres Absolute", defined as the total pressure exerted on an object, by a gas or mixture of gases, at a specific depth or elevation, including pressure. Bounce Dive - A dive of relatively short duration, generally less than 10 minutes. Bottom Time - The total elapsed time measured in minutes from the time the diver leaves the surface and begins descent to the time the diver begins a direct ascent to the surface. Breath-hold Diving - A diving mode in which the diver uses no self-contained or surface-supplied air or oxygen supply. Buddy Breathing - The sharing of a single air source between divers. Buddy Diver - Second member of the dive team. Buddy system -Two comparably equipped scuba divers in the water in constant communication Buoyant Ascent - An ascent made using some form of positive buoyancy. Burst pressure - The pressure at which a pressure containment device would fail structurally. Certified Diver - A diver who holds a valid certification from a recognized certifying agency. If diving under University auspices, a diver who holds a TAMUG certification or is certified by another AAUS Organizational Member. Controlled Ascent - Any one of several kinds of ascents including normal, swimming, and buddy breathing ascents where the diver(s) maintain control so a pause or stop can be made during the ascent. Cylinder - A pressure vessel for the storage of gases. DAN - The Divers Alert Network, affiliated with the Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Decompression Chamber - A pressure vessel for human occupancy. Also called a hyperbaric chamber or recompression chamber. Decompression Sickness - A condition with a variety of symptoms that may result from gas bubbles in the tissues of divers after pressure reduction. Decompression Table - A profile or set of profiles of depth-time relationships for ascent rates and breathing mixtures to be followed after a specific depth-time exposure or exposures. Also called dive tables. Dive - A descent into the water: an underwater diving activity utilizing compressed gas, an ascent, and return to the surface. Dive Computer - A microprocessor based device that computes a diver's theoretical decompression status, in real time, by using pressure (depth) and time as input to a decompression model or set of decompression tables, programmed into the device. Dive Location - A surface or vessel from which a diving operation is conducted. 1

Dive Location Reserve Breathing Gas - A supply system of air or mixed gas (as appropriate) at the dive location that is independent of the primary supply system and sufficient to support divers during any planned decompression dive. Dive Master - The certified scientific diver with experience and training to conduct the diving operation. Dive Site - The physical location of a diver during a dive. Dive Table - See Decompression Table. Dive Team - Divers and support individuals who are exposed to or control the exposure of others to hyperbaric conditions. Diver - An individual in the water who uses apparatus, including snorkels, that supplies breathing gas at ambient pressure. Diver-In-Training - An individual gaining experience and training in additional diving activities under the supervision of a dive team member experienced in those activities. Diver-carried Reserve Breathing Gas - A diver-carried independent supply of air or mixed gas (as appropriate) sufficient under standard operating conditions to allow the diver to reach the surface, or another source of breathing gas, or to be reached by another diver. Diving Mode - A type of diving requiring specific equipment, procedures, and techniques, for example, snorkel, scuba, surface-equipped air or mixed gas. Diving Control Board or DCB - The group of individuals who act as the official representative of TAMUG in matters concerning the scientific diving program. Diving Safety Officer - The individual responsible for safe conduct of the scientific diving program of the membership organization (see Sec. 1.23) EAD - An abbreviation for Equivalent Air Depth (see below). Emergency Ascent - An ascent made under emergency conditions where the diver exceeds the recommended ascent rate of 60 feet per minute. Enriched Air (EANx) - a name for a breathing mixture of air and oxygen when the percent of oxygen exceeds 21%. This term is considered synonymous with the term "nitrox" (see Sec. 7). Equivalent Air Depth (EAD) - The depth at which air will have the same nitrogen partial pressure as the nitrox mixture being used. This number, expressed in units of feet seawater, will always be less than the actual depth for any enriched air mixture. fN2 - fraction of nitrogen in a gas mixture, expressed as either a decimal or percentage, by volume. fO2 - fraction of oxygen in a gas mixture, expressed as either a decimal or percentage, by volume. FSW - Feet of sea water or equivalent static head. Hookah Diving - A type of shallow water surface-supplied diving where there is no voice communication with the surface. Hyperbaric Chamber - See decompression chamber. Hyperbaric Conditions - Pressure conditions in excess of normal atmospheric pressure at the dive location. Lead Diver - See Dive Master.

2

Maximum Working Pressure - The maximum pressure to which a pressure vessel may be exposed under standard operating conditions. Mixed-gas Diving - A diving mode in which the diver is supplied in the water with a breathing gas other than air. MOD - Maximum Operating Depth, usually determined as the depth at which the pO2 for a given gas mixture reaches a predetermined minimum. MSW - Meters of sea water or equivalent static head. Nitrox - Any gas mixture comprised predominately of nitrogen and oxygen, most frequently containing over 21% and less than 40% oxygen. Also referred to as Enriched Air Nitrox, abbreviated EAN. NOAA Diving Manual - refers to the NOAA Diving Manual, Diving for Science and Technology, 2001 edition. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Undersea Research, US Department of Commerce. No-Decompression Limits - The depth-time limits of the "no-decompression limits and repetitive dive group designation table for no-decompression air dives" of the U.S. Navy Diving Manual or equivalent limits. Normal Ascent - An ascent made with an adequate air supply at a rate of 60 feet per minute or less. Oxygen Clean - All combustible contaminants have been removed. Oxygen Compatible - A gas delivery system that has components (o-rings, valve seats, diaphragms, etc. ...) that are compatible with oxygen at a stated pressure and temperature. Oxygen Service - A gas delivery system that is both oxygen clean and oxygen compatible. Oxygen Toxicity - Any adverse reaction of the central nervous system ("acute" or "CNS" oxygen toxicity) or lungs ("chronic", "whole body" or "pulmonary" oxygen toxicity) brought on by exposure to an increased (above atmospheric levels) partial pressure of oxygen. Organizational Member - An organization that is a current member of the AAUS, and having a program which adheres to standards of AAUS as set forth in the AAUS Standards for Scientific Diving Certification and Operation of Scientific Diving Programs. Pressure-related Injury - Any injury resulting from pressure disequilibrium within the body as a result of hyperbaric exposure. Examples include decompression sickness, pneumothorax, mediastinal emphysema, air embolism, subcutaneous emphysema or ruptured eardrum. Pressure Vessel - See cylinder. pN2 - Inspired partial pressure of nitrogen, usually expressed in units of atmospheres absolute. pO2 - Inspired partial pressure of oxygen, usually expressed in units of atmospheres absolute. Psi - Abbreviation for the unit of pressure, "pounds per square inch". Psig - Pounds per square inch gauge. Recompression Chamber - see decompression chamber. Scientific Diving - All diving performed by individuals necessary to and part of a scientific, research or educational activity, in conjunction with a project or study under the jurisdiction of any public or private research or educational institution or similarly recognized organization, department or group. Scuba Diving - A diving mode independent of surface supply in which the diver uses open circuit self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

3

Standby Diver - A diver at the dive location capable of rendering immediate or rapid assistance to a diver in the water. Surface Supplied Diving - A diving mode in which the diver in the water is supplied from the dive location with compressed gas for breathing and is in voice communication with the tender on the surface. Swimming Ascent - An ascent that can be done under normal or emergency conditions accomplished by simply swimming to the surface, Treatment Table - A depth-time and breathing gas profile designed to treat decompression sickness or air embolism. Umbilical - The composite hose bundle between a dive location and a diver or bell, or between a diver and a bell, that supplies the diver or bell with breathing gas, communications, power or heat, as appropriate to the diving mode or conditions, and includes a safety line between the diver and dive location. Underwater Time - The total elapsed time, measured in minutes, from the time a diver leaves the surface in descent until the diver returns to the surface. . Volume Tank - A pressure vessel connected to the outlet of a compressor and used as an air reservoir. Working Pressure - The normal pressure at which the system is designed to operate.

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APPENDIX 6 AAUS VERIFICATION OF DIVER TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE

A scientific diver that is currently certified under the auspices of an organizational member institution of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) shall be recognized by any other organizational member of AAUS and may apply for reciprocity in order to dive with the host organization. Organizational members that are in good standing with AAUS operate, at a minimum, under the AAUS Standards for Scientific Diving (2001 edition). The visiting diver will comply with the diving regulations of the host organization's Diving Safety Manual unless previously arranged by both organization's Diving Control Boards. The host organization has the right to approve or deny this request and may require, at a minimum, a checkout dive with the Diving Safety Officer (DSO) or designee of the host organization. If the request is denied, the host organization should notify to the DSO of the visiting diver the reason for the denial. The DSO for the visiting scientific diver has confirmed the following information: (Date) ______ Written scientific diving examination ______ Last diving medical examination ______ Most recent checkout dive ______ Scuba regulator/equipment service/test ______ CPR training (Agency) ___________________ ______ Oxygen administration (Agency) ___________________ ______ First aid for diving ___________________ ______ Date of last dive Number of dives completed within previous 12 months? ______ Depth certification ______ Any restrictions? (Y/N)______ if yes, explain: ______________________________________________________________________________ Please check any pertinent specialty certifications: ______ Dry suit ______ Rescue ______ Dive Computer ______ Divemaster ______ Nitrox ______ Instructor ______ Mixed gas ______ EMT ______ Closed circuit ______ Dive Accident Management ______ Saturation ______ Chamber operator ______ Decompression ______ Lifesaving Name of diver: Emergency Information (to notify in an emergency): Name: Relationship: (home) Telephone: (work) Address: This is to verify that the above individual is currently a certified scientific diver at: (Name of AAUS Organizational Member) Diving Safety Officer: _____________________________________________________________________ (Signature) (Date) ______________________________________________________________________ (Print name) (Telephone) _______________________________________________________________________ (FAX) (E-mail) ______ Blue water ______ Altitude ______ Ice/Polar ______ Cave ______ Night Other ___________________

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APPENDIX 7 DIVING EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES Introduction A diving accident victim could be any person who has been breathing air underwater regardless of depth. It is essential that emergency procedures are pre-planned and that medical treatment is initiated as soon as possible. General Procedures Depending on and according to the nature of the diving accident, stabilize the patient, administer 100% oxygen, contact local Emergency Medical System (EMS) for transport to medical facility, contact diving accident coordinator, as appropriate. Explain the circumstances of the dive incident to the evacuation teams, medics and physicians. Do not assume that they understand why 100% oxygen may be required for the diving accident victim or that recompression treatment may be necessary. 1. Make appropriate contact with victim or rescue as required. 2. Establish (A)irway, (B)reathing, (C)irculation as required. 3. Administer 100% oxygen, if appropriate (in cases of Decompression Illness, or Near Drowning). 4. Call local Emergency Medical System (EMS) for transport to nearest medical treatment facility. 5. Call appropriate Diving Accident Coordinator for contact with diving physician and recompression chamber, etc. 6. Notify DSO or designee. 7. Complete and submit Incident Report Form (www.aaus.org) to the DSO of TAMUG. List of Emergency Contact Numbers Appropriate For Dive Location: __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Attach any driving directions necessary.

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This portion needs to be completed prior to each dive project United States Coast Guard ­ Channel 16 on Marine VHF Radio Local EMS telephone number ­ Nearest Medical Treatment Facility to Dive Site: Location: Telephone: Nearest Recompression Facility to Dive Site: Location: Telephone: Diver's Alert Network (DAN):_1-919-684-8111 or 1-800-326-3822 24 hour medical advise­if necessary call collect and state "I have a Medical Emergency"­Use to locate closest recompression chamber or physician consultations. Always transport victim to the nearest Medical facility.

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APPENDIX 8 RELEASE OF LIABILITY, WAIVER OF RIGHTS, AND INDEMNIFICATION AGREEMENT (To be completed prior to each University-related dive trip.) 1. In consideration for receiving permission to participate in this SCUBA DIVING activity, I, release, waive, covenant not to sue, and agree to hold harmless The Texas A&M University System, the Board of Regents of The Texas A&M University System, Texas A&M University, and Texas A&M University at Galveston and their officers, servants, agents, volunteers, or employees (herein referred to as RELEASEES) from any and all liabilities, claims, demands, or injury, including death, that may be sustained by me while participating in such activity, or while on the premises owned or leased by RELEASEES, including injuries sustained as a result of the negligence of RELEASEES. I understand that this release and waiver shall not apply to injuries and claims caused as a direct result of gross negligence or willful misconduct on the part of RELEASEES. 2. I am fully aware that there are inherent risks involved with scuba diving, and I still choose to voluntarily participate in said activity with full knowledge that said activity may be hazardous to me and my property. I voluntarily assume full responsibility for any risks of loss, property damage or personal injury, including death, which may be sustained by me as a result of participating in said activity including injuries sustained as a result of the negligence of RELEASEES. I further agree to indemnify and hold harmless the RELEASEES for any loss, liability, damage or costs, including court costs and attorney's fees that may occur as a result of my participation in said activity. 3. My signature below means I agree to abide by the policies, provisions, and standards which govern training and diving operations in the university diving program as set forth in the Diving Safety Manual for Texas A&M University at Galveston. I further agree to familiarize myself with the Manual. 4. I understand that RELEASEES do not maintain any insurance policy covering any circumstance arising from my participation in this activity or any event related to that participation. As such, I am aware that I should review my personal insurance coverage. 5. It is my express intent that this Release of Liability, Waiver of Rights, And Indemnification Agreement shall bind the members of my family and spouse, if I am alive, and my heirs, assigns and personal representatives, if I am deceased, and shall be governed by the laws of the State of Texas. 6. By signing this document I acknowledge and represent that I have read it and understand it and sign it voluntarily as my own free act and deed; no oral representations, statements, or inducements apart this agreement have been made. I sign this document for full, adequate and complete consideration fully intending to be bound by the same, now and in the future. SIGNED this day of , 20____.

Name of Activity: _____________________________________________ Dates of Activity:______________________________________________ Participant Signature: __________________________________________ Printed Name: _________________________________________________ Date of Birth: __________________________________________________ Parent or Legal Guardian Signature: ______________________________ (If Participant is under 18 years old) Parent or Legal Guardian Printed Name: ______________________________ (If Participant is under 18 years old)

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Driver's License No. Certifying Agency/Institution: Diving Certification Level: Date of Certification: Address:

D.O.B shown on License:

Card No.:

Next of kin and relationship to be notified in an emergency: ________________________________________________________________________ Address:

Additional Experience: Describe diving experience not covered on preceding page.

Have DAN or other diving insurance covering evacuation and chamber costs? Yes No ___ Dan Insurance # ______________ Equipment owned: Manufacturer Serial No. Date (M/Y) Purchased Last (M/Y Inspect/test

Regulator Buoy. Comp Wet/dry suit Pressure Gauge Depth Gauge Cylinder Cylinder

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APPENDIX 9 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON DIVING PROGRAM APPLICATION FOR THE YEAR ______

Certification level requested (check one)

Project Diving Coordinator Dive Master Scientific Diver Name Local address City Next of kin Address City Status: Fac Staff Grad State Undergrad State

Scientific Diver-in-Training Recreational Diver Temporary Scientific Diver e-mail add. Telephone Zip Relationship Telephone Zip Dept

Social Security Number

Birth date DAN #

Have DAN or other diving insurance covering evacuation & chamber costs? Yes __ No __ ________ Diving certifications Agency Certification Date Location

Instructor

Ancillary diving certifications Date CPR First Aid Life Saving DAN O2 training Diving Activity Number of years Total number dives Total dives to: 0-30' Time at depth: 0-30' Dive locations

Level

Agency

Comment

Total hours underwater Total number dives this year 31-60' 31-60' 61-100' 61-100'

Greatest depth

101-130' 101-130'

>130' >130'

Diving experience: Check areas in which you have some diving experience and double check areas in which you have much diving experience Ocean Low visibility Research Dive computer Fresh Kelp/weeds Collecting Search/recovery Surf Cold water Photography Decompression Shore Tropical Spearfishing Strong current Night Blue water Surface supply Dry suit

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Caves

Under ice

Mixed gas

Saturation

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APPENDIX 10 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON DIVE PLAN SUBMITTAL FORM

Submit to the Diving Safety Officer Date Submitted: ___________________ Project ID Number:______________ (not required) Proposed Expedition Dates:_____________________through_________________________ Dive Platform Name:_________________________________________________________________ (vessel, lab or shore) General Dive Site Location:__________________________________________________ (i.e.: off Key Largo, off Clearwater) Dive Plan Submitted By:______________________________________________________________ Principal Investigator:_______________________ Lead Diver:_______________________________ Proposed No. of Dives: ____________________ Proposed No. of Divers:______________ (profile each dive on separate sheet) (List each diver with specifics on back) Work Proposed:_____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Tools/Equipment Used:_____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Any Hazardous Conditions Anticipated: (i.e.: cold water, extreme currents, extreme depths, low visibility) ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Safety Precautions: (i.e.: oxygen, chase vessel, dry suits) ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

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Diving Roster: Name Level Depth Certification 1.

Lead Diver-Scientific Diver

fsw 2.

fsw 3.

fsw 4.

fsw 5.

2

fsw 6.

fsw 7.

fsw 8.

fsw 9.

fsw 10.

fsw

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General Dive Plan Considerations _ Any diver has the right to refuse to dive without fear of penalty if s/he feels the conditions are unsafe or unfavorable OR the dive violates the precepts of their training OR the regulations of the USF Diving Safety Program. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ It is the responsibility of each diver to terminate the dive, without fear of penalty, whenever s/he feels it is unsafe to continue the dive, unless it compromises the safety of another diver already in the water. All Dive plans MUST be based on the competency of the least experienced diver. All Divers- in-training must be buddied with a Scientific Diver. Absolutely No Solo Diving is allowed. Depth certification levels may be extended only to the next deepest certification level and only if the diver with the limiting depth certification level is buddied with a diver certified to the deeper depth level. For all diving conducted under hazardous conditions a plan must be formulated to deal with such conditions. A Dive Profile MUST be completed for each proposed dive.(copy forms as needed) An Emergency Plan MUST be completed for each expedition including the following: emergency contact information (including name, relation and telephone number) for each diver, nearest recompression chamber, nearest accessible hospital and anticipated means of transportation.

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APPENDIX 11 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON PROJECT DIVING LOG SHEET LOCATION PROJECT PLATFORM DIVE MASTER PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

Diver's Name Dive Number N2O2% (air, nitrox) Previous Rep. Group Surface Interval New Rep. Group Planned Max Depth Reside. Nitrog. Time No-Decomp. Limit Planned U/W Time Deco Schedule PPO2 Cutoff Time Diver's Initials Time Down Time Up In Water Time Safety Stop Bottom Time Maximum Depth Repetitive Group RNT Cylinder Press. In Cylinder Press. Out Gas Expended

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APPENDIX 12 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON MONTHLY DIVE LOG

Diver ______________________ Department ______________ Certification Depth ____________ Mont

Total dives by depth for month : 0-30' _____ 31-60' _____ 61-100' ______ 101-130' _____ 131-150' ______ 151Total time at depth for month: 0-30' _____ 31-60' _____ 61-100' ______ 101-130' _____ 131-150' ______ 151 _____ No. dives made this month Date Buddy (ies) Location SI Depth Time Stops Comp/RG Type Mode

E

Report additional dives on reverse side For "Type" write "R" for research, "T" for training/proficiency For "Mode" write "SA" for scuba - regular air, "SN" for scuba - nitrox, SM for scuba - mixed gas, "Su" for surface supplied, "R" for rebreather For "Enviro" write "OW" for open water, "RD" for required decompression, "OE" for overhead environment, "BW" for blue w "I/P" for ice/polar, "SD" for saturation diving Did any equipment failures, incidents or potentially dangerous experiences occur? _________Yes _______ No. If yes separate detailed report for all such incidents Submit this report of the month's diving activity to the Diving Safety Officer by the fifth day of each month following.

Date

Buddy (ies)

Location

SI

Dept h

Time

Stops

Comp/RG

Type

Mode

E

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APPENDIX 13 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON - ANNUAL DIVING REPOR

Diver___________________________ Department ________________ TAMUG Cert Level ________ Cert. Depth: Air _______ Nitrox ________ Surf Sup _______ SAT ______ Overhead _______ Reb

Total dives made this year: Total time for this year: Total scientific dives: Total time of scientific dives: Total training/proficiency dives: Total time of training/proficiency dives: Total open circuit Scuba dives: Total time of open circuit Scuba dives: Total dives using Hookah: Total time of Hookah dives: Total dives using surface supplied: Total time of dives using surface supplied: Total rebreather dives: Total time of rebreather dives: Total air dives: Total time of air dives: Total nitrox dives: Total time of nitrox dives: Total mixed gas dives: Total time of mixed gas dives: Total dives using tables: 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130'

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

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Total time of dives using tables: Total dives using computer: Total time of dives using computer: Total dives using software: Total time of dives using software: Total dives requiring decompression: Total time of dives requiring decompression: Total dives in overhead environment: Total time of dives in overhead environment: Total dives in blue water: Total time of dives in blue water: Total dives in ice/polar: Total time of dives in ice/polar: Total saturation dives: Total time of saturation dives: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30' 0-30'

31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60' 31-60'

61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100' 61-100'

101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130' 101130'

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

Please list the dive tables used to profile your dives: Please list the dive computers used to profile your dives: Please list the rebreather models used to support your dives: Please list the concentration(s) of gas(es) and dive tables or computers used to support your nitrox dives: Please list gas(es), their concentrations, and dive tables or computers used to support your mixed gas dives: Please list the dominant overhead environment(s) (such as ice, wreck, cavern, cave, etc.): Please list the band mask and communication rigs used to support your surface supplied dives: Please list the manufacturer of the Hookah system(s) used to support your dives:

Saturation mission completed (if any): No. Excursions _____________ Avg. depth of excursion _______________ Excursion bottom tim Total number of man missions __________________ Total saturation exposure time _________________ Number of dives requiring decompression, not a safety stop _______________

10 11 Please list any equipment failures, incidents, or potentially dangerous experiences on a separate sheet. P-2

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HISTORICAL APPENDIX A GUIDELINES FOR USE OF DIVE COMPUTERS

From AAUS Dive Computer Workshop. Lang and Hamilton (Eds.). U.S.C. Sea Grant Program, Los Angeles, CA, 1989 1. 2. Only those makes and models of dive computers specifically approved by the Diving Control Board may be used. Any diver desiring the approval to use a dive computer as a means of determining decompression status must apply to the Diving Control Board, complete an appropriate practical training session and pass a written examination. Each diver relying on a dive computer to plan dives and indicate or determine decompression status must have his own unit. On any given dive, both divers in the buddy pair must follow the most conservative dive computer. If the dive computer fails at any time during the dive, the dive must be terminated and appropriate surfacing procedures should be initiated immediately. A diver should not dive for 18 hours before activating a dive computer to use it to control his diving. Once the dive computer is in use, it must not be switched off until it indicates complete outgassing has occurred or 18 hours have elapsed, whichever comes first. When using a dive computer, non emergency ascents are to be at a rate specified for the make and model of dive computer being used. Ascent rates shall not exceed 40 fsw/min in the last 60 fsw. Whenever practical, divers using a dive computer should make a stop between 10 and 30 feet for 5 minutes, especially for dives below 60 fsw. Only 1 dive on the dive computer in which the NDL of the tables or dive computer has been exceeded may be made in any 18 hour period. Repetitive and multi-level diving procedures should start the dive, or series of dives, at the maximum planned depth, followed by subsequent dives of shallower exposures. Multiple deep dives require special consideration.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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HISTORICAL APPENDIX B SAFE ASCENT RECOMMENDATIONS

From: AAUS BIOMECHANICS OF SAFE ASCENTS WORKSHOP, 1990 , Lang and Egstrom (Eds.) It has long been the position of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences that the ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the individual diver. The time has come to encourage divers to slow their ascents. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Buoyancy compensation is a significant problem in the control of ascents. Training in, and understanding of, proper ascent techniques is fundamental to safe diving practice. Before certification, the diver is to demonstrate proper buoyancy, weighting and a controlled ascent, including a "hovering" stop. Diver shall periodically review proper ascent techniques to maintain proficiency. Ascent rates shall not exceed 30 fsw per minute. A stop in the 10-30 fsw zone for 3-5 min is recommended on every dive. When using a dive computer or tables, non-emergency ascents are to be at the rate specified for the system being used. Each diver shall have instrumentation to monitor ascent rates. Divers using dry suits shall have training in their use. Dry suits shall have a hands-free exhaust valve. BC's shall have a reliable rapid exhaust valve which can be operated in a horizontal swimming position. A buoyancy compensator is required with dry suit use for ascent control and emergency flotation. Breathing 100% oxygen above water is preferred to in-water air procedures for omitted decompression.

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HISTORICAL APPENDIX C Reverse Dive Profiles Workshop

Michael A. Lang and Charles E. Lehner Co-Chairs Smithsonian Institution October 29 - 30, 1999 Co-Sponsors: Smithsonian Institution Divers Alert Network American Academy of Underwater Sciences Diving Equipment and Marketing Association Dive Training Magazine Workshop Findings __Historically neither the U.S. Navy nor the commercial sector have prohibited reverse dive profiles __Reverse dive profiles are being performed in recreational, scientific, commercial, and military diving __The prohibition of reverse dive profiles by recreational training organizations cannot be traced to any definite diving experience that indicates an increased risk of DCS __No convincing evidence was presented that reverse dive profiles within the no-decompression limits lead to a measurable increase in the risk of DCS Workshop Conclusion We find no reason for the diving communities to prohibit reverse dive profiles for no-Decompression dives less than 40 msw (130 fsw) and depth differentials less than 12 msw (40 fsw).

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BYLAWS OF THE DIVING CONTROL BOARD, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AT GALVESTON

ARTICLE 1. FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES A. The Diving Control Board shall direct and control all educational and scientific diving activities of Texas A&M University at Galveston in accordance with the United States Government as outlined in the Federal Register, 9 January 1985 - Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 50 FR 1046, which exempts scientific and educational diving from commercial diving regulations contained in 29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart T. The Board shall promulgate all diving regulations for both educational and research diving at TAMUG. This shall include developing an acceptable Diving Safety Manual to regulate all diving activities; updating the Manual as appropriate; certifying all instructors, dive masters, and research divers who engage in any and all research diving; approving all educational instructors and dive masters; the Board shall appoint a Diving Safety Officer; approve and monitor diving projects; ensure compliance with the Diving Safety Manual; certify the depths to which a diver has been trained; take disciplinary action for unsafe practices; and assure adherence to the buddy system for SCUBA diving. The Board shall function under its own bylaws and may deliberate any topic it believes important to the welfare of the University. Within the authority delegated by the Board of Regents, the Diving Control Board will make recommendations to the appropriate University and System administrators on matters of diving safety policy and procedures, as well as on other subjects which the Board deems important to safe and prudent management of diving activities. The Diving Control Board may refer specific questions to or may raise specific issues with any University administrative official, council, committee, or other agency, and may create its own committees for carrying out its functions. ARTICLE II. MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION

B.

C.

D.

For purposes of attendance at meetings of the Diving Control Board and participation in its affairs, four groups of persons are recognized: (1) members, (2) advisors to the Board, (3) other participants, and (4) visitors. A. Members 1. Voting. The voting membership of the Diving Control Board shall consist of those members appointed by the Vice President of Texas A&M University at Galveston. In compliance with the exemption in 50 FR 1046, a majority of the Diving Control Board will consist of active divers. Proxies. The sending of proxies or representatives of members is not authorized. Provision for the filling of temporary or extended vacancies shall be at the discretion of the Vice President of the University.

2.

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B.

Advisors to the Board Advisors appointed by the Vice President of TAMUG shall provide advice and counsel to the Board based upon their expertise which is not otherwise available at the University. The Advisors shall be non-voting members of the Diving Control Board.

C.

Other Participants The Vice President may designate other non-voting members of the Board from either within or without the University community.

D. Visitors 1. 2. Specific individuals may be invited to any meeting of the Board by the Chair or with the permission of the Chair by any member of the Board or any Advisor to the Board. The conduct of invited guests and other participants shall be handled according to procedures derived from Article VII. However, regardless of other provisions of these bylaws, a Board meeting in progress may at any point be closed to visitors or other participants by a majority vote, and a motion to such purpose shall take precedence over all other motions except to adjourn. ARTICLE III. OFFICERS A. Chair The Chair and presiding officer of the Diving Control Board shall be appointed by the Vice President of Texas A&M University at Galveston, or his/her representative. B. Vice Chair At its first meeting of each academic year the Board shall elect a Vice Chair from among its voting members. Nominations shall be made from the floor. The Vice Chair shall preside at Board meetings in the absence of the Chair and shall assume such other duties as may be assigned by the Chair or the Board so long as they are consistent with the role of a presiding officer. The same person may not serve as Vice Chair for more than three consecutive years. In case there are more than two candidates, the person receiving the largest number of votes shall be declared elected. C. Secretary The Secretary to the Diving Control Board may be appointed by the Vice President, or his/her representative to serve at the Vice President's pleasure. The Secretary may be a student, staff member, or a faculty member. The Secretary shall prepare agendas and maintain a separately designated file of records, reports, and other documents pertaining to the organization, deliberations and actions of the Board. The Secretary shall be responsible for the final form and accuracy of the minutes; for compiling and maintaining a complete and current list of members and such other lists and rosters as may be required; and for such other duties as may be of assistance to the presiding officer in the conduct of meetings of the Diving Control Board. The Secretary will not be a voting member of the Board.

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D.

Other Officers and Assistants The Chair or other presiding officer may appoint such lesser or temporary officers, assistants or agents as are customary and necessary to serve the needs of the presiding officer and the Diving Control Board with its meetings or other activities. ARTICLE IV. ELECTIONS

A.

Election Procedure All elections shall be in accord with the one-person one-vote principle, shall so far as practicable apply uniformly to similar situations, and shall provide for the prompt filling of vacancies. ARTICLE V. MEETINGS

A.

Regular meetings of the Diving Control Board shall be held at times to be determined by the Chair, but no less than once every long semester. The place of the meetings shall be determined by the Chair in consultation with the Secretary, and the Chair shall issue the call for each meeting. Special meetings may be called by the Chair, and shall be called by the Chair at the written request of 30 percent of the voting members of the Diving Control Board. The time and place of special meetings shall be determined by the Chair. In consultation with the Chair, the Secretary shall provide an agenda with the call for each regular meeting. Priority shall be given to the items on the agenda. Proposals not on the agenda or not reduced to writing and in the hands of the members of the Board prior to the day of a regular meeting may be proposed and discussed at that meeting, but may not be acted upon at the same meeting unless specially authorized by a two-thirds vote of those present and voting. Any member of the Board may place a topic for discussion on the agenda. In consultation with any group presenting a valid request for a special meeting, the Chair shall provide an agenda with the call for such a meeting. At a special meeting only those matters may be acted upon as are specified in the call for the meeting, except this rule may be waived by a two-thirds vote of those present and voting. For both regular and special meetings a quorum shall be a majority of the voting members of the Diving Control Board. In the absence of a quorum, those present may receive reports, may discuss matters without voting on them, and may recommend to the Chair a date and time for an adjourned meeting, but shall transact no other business. ARTICLE VI. COMMITTEES OF THE DIVING CONTROL BOARD

B.

C.

D.

A.

Special Committees The Chair or the Diving Control Board may establish temporary, special or ad hoc committees or subcommittees. All such entities shall report in writing to the Chair of the Board who in turn will inform the Vice President of all pertinent committee actions and recommendations at least during their period of establishment.

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B.

Committee Procedure Unless modified by these bylaws, the committees and subcommittees of the Diving Control Board shall function in accordance with the provisions of the parliamentary authority as outlined in Article VII.

C.

Committee Membership 1. Advisors to the Diving Control Board and other non-voting members of the Board may be members of committees or subcommittees and can vote and otherwise participate fully in the organizations, deliberations, and actions of their respective committees or subcommittees. Other members appointed to the committees or subcommittees of the Diving Control Board, whether members of the University community or not can vote and otherwise participate fully in the organization, deliberations, and actions of their respective committees or subcommittees. Membership of these committees or subcommittees shall be composed of a majority of University members (faculty, staff, and students). ARTICLE VII. PARLIAMENTARY AUTHORITY

2.

The rules contained in the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order shall govern the deliberations and actions of the Diving Control Board and its officers and committees in all cases to which they are applicable and in which they are consistent with these bylaws or with any special rules or order the Diving Control Board, with the approval of the Vice President, may adopt under these bylaws, or with other lawful regulations. ARTICLE VIII. OFFICIAL ACTIONS Official announcements of the Diving Control Board shall be made only by the Chair, or the Vice Chair in the Chair's absence. Both the agenda and the minutes of the Diving control Board shall be available to the public upon request. ARTICLE IX. AMENDING OF BYLAWS A. Procedure These bylaws can be amended at any regular meeting of the Diving Control Board or at any special meeting called in whole or in part for such purpose, by a two-thirds vote of those present and voting, provided that an amendment has been submitted in writing at the previous meeting or submitted in writing to the membership at least 10 days prior to the day of the next meeting. B. Effective Dates Upon approval by the Vice President, an amendment to these bylaws shall go into effect as soon as specified in the regulations authorizing such amendment.

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C.

Distribution The Secretary shall distribute copies of an approved amendment to the Vice President and the Members of the Diving Control Board not later than with the call for the next meeting following its approval. The Secretary shall keep at least one correct copy of these bylaws, as amended, available for public inspection in the files of the Diving Control Board. ARTICLE X. ENACTMENT OF THESE BYLAWS

A.

Procedure These bylaws shall go into effect immediately upon approval of the Diving Control Board and by the Vice President.

B.

Effect on Existing Regulations Nothing in these bylaws shall be interpreted to modify or nullify existing actions of the Diving Control Board or other entities of the University except as they may be inconsistent with these bylaws or amendments thereto. These bylaws of the Diving Control Board were approved by the TAMUG Administrative Planning Council on 25 May 1983.

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