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PREVALENCE OF KETOSIS IN DAIRY FARMS ­ A SURVEY IN TAMIL NADU M.Thirunavukkarasu, G.Kathiravan, A.Kalaikannan and W.Jebarani

Dept. of Animal Husbandry Statistics and Computer Applications Madras Veterinary College, Chennai ­ 600 007

Keywords: Bovines, Ketosis, Prevalence Animal health problems seriously reduce production potentials of livestock. There is however not much evidence available on how much is the prevalence of various diseases prevailing among livestock It thus becomes important to assess the prevalence of economically important diseases such as ketosis, a metabolic disorder that occurs 2 to 7 wk after calving (Gillund et al., 2001) and causes severe economic losses to the farmers. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of ketosis in dairy farms of five milkshed districts of Tamil Nadu viz., Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai, Vellore and Villupuram on a random sample of 4,116 milch bovines (3,774 cows and 342 she buffaloes). The data were collected during the period from August 2005 to June 2008. Prevalence of ketosis was calculated by enumerating the number of affected cases from the total number of animals observed in the sample farms. Prevalence of ketosis in the study area Of the total of 3,774 cows observed during the study period, 354 cows were found to be affected by ketosis (Table 1). Of 342 buffaloes observed, 10 were affected by ketosis. That is, the overall prevalence of ketosis was 9.38 per cent in cows and 2.92 per cent in buffaloes. It can be seen that the prevalence of ketosis was significantly higher in cows than that of buffaloes. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence of ketosis in cattle was associated with the districts (P < 0.01). The observed low prevalence of ketosis in cows of Erode and Coimbatore districts could be attributed to the relatively better feeding management in these districts. However, the prevalence of ketosis in buffaloes was not associated with the districts (P > 0.05). It needs special mention that the prevalence of ketosis was associated with the species of bovines (P < 0.01). While Dahoo and Martin (1984) found that the prevalence of ketosis was 12.1 percent in cows, incidence rates of ketosis have been reported to be between 11.1 and 12.1 percent (Erb and 193 Gröhn, 1988; Rasmussen et al., 1999; Østergaard and Gröhn, 2000).

Breed wise details of female bovines affected by ketosis Of the 2,909 exotic pure / crossbreds observed, 327 (11.24 per cent) were affected by ketosis, while only 27 (3.12 per cent) of the 865 native pure / non-descripts were affected by it (Table 2). It implies that prevalence of ketosis was higher in exotic pure / crossbreds than native pure / non-descripts. The prevalence was found to be significantly associated with breeds of cattle (P < 0.01). Again, the prevalence of ketosis was more in Vellore, Villupuram and Madurai districts than other districts in both the breed categories. Of 261 Murrah / graded buffaloes observed, 9 (3.45 per cent) were affected by ketosis, while only one (1.23 per cent) of the 81 native pure / non-descript buffaloes was

Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 6 (4) 193-195, July - August 2010

prevalance of ketosis .... affected by it. It can be inferred from this result that prevalence of ketosis was higher in Murrah / graded buffaloes than native pure / non-descripts. However, the prevalence of ketosis in buffaloes was not associated with the breeds of buffaloes (P > 0.05). Again, the prevalence of ketosis was not differing much between the districts in both the breed categories of buffaloes. Ketosis occurs at the most productive stage of the lactation and hence can be extremely costly, as reported by Rajala-Schultz and Gröhn (1999), Østergaard and Gröhn (1999) and Reist et al., (2000), ruining the livelihood of the dairy farming community. Further, there is a high prevalence of ketosis in animals of high genetic potential, as these animals are unable to withstand the pressures arising from the high nutritional demands generated by the production of milk, which ultimately results in development of hypoglycaemia that can remain as a challenge to the successful dairy farming business, eventually ruining the life of dairy farmers. Hence, ketosis needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by keeping cows in good body condition, but not fat, during the dry period, to prevent avoidable economic losses.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for having funded the research scheme on An Economic Evaluation of Metabolic Diseases in Bovines, from the final report of which, this paper was drawn REFERENCES Dohoo, I.R. and S.W. Martin (1984), Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and associations with production and disease, Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 48: 1-5. Erb,H. N. and Y. T. Gröhn (1988), Epidemiology of metabolic disorders in the periparturient dairy cow, Journal of Dairy Science, 71:2557­2571 Gillund,P., O.Reksen, Y.T.Gröhn and K.Karlberg (2001), Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 84:1390­1396 Østergaard,S. and Y.T.Gröhn (1999), Effects of diseases on test day milk yield and body weight of dairy cows from

Table 1: Prevalence of ketosis in the study area

No. of female bovines observed Cattle Coimbatore Erode Madurai Vellore Villupuram Overall

#

District

No. of animals affected Cattle 73 71 70 70 70 354# Buffalo 2 4 2 2 10##

Prevalence (%) Cattle 7.99 7.06 10.39 12.48 11.29 9.38a Buffalo 2.70 3.45 2.94 3.22 2.92 a

Buffalo 74 116 68 62 22 342

914 1005 674 561 620 3774

Prevalence of ketosis in cattle is associated with districts (c2 = 18.22**; P < 0.01); ## Prevalence of ketosis in buffalo is not associated with districts (2 = 0.09NS; P > 0.05); a Prevalence of ketosis is associated with species (z = 4.03**; P < 0.01)

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Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 6 (4) 193-195, July - August 2010

Thirunavukkarasu et al., Table 2: Breed wise details of female bovines affected by ketosis

(Number)

Cattle District Exotic pure/ Crossbred O Coimbatore Erode Madurai Vellore Villupuram Overall 736 793 492 419 469 2909 A 69 (9.38) 69 (8.70) 62 (12.60) 64 (15.27) 63 (13.43) 327# (11.24) Native pure / ND O 178 212 182 142 151 865 A 4 (2.25) 2 (0.94) 8 (4.40) 6 (4.23) 7 (4.64) 27 # (3.12) O 914 1005 674 561 620 3774 Total A 73 (7.99) 71 (7.06) 70 (10.39) 70 (12.48) 70 (11.29) 354 (9.38) Murrah/ Graded O 60 82 52 49 18 261 A 2 (3.33) 3 (3.66) 2 (3.85) 2 (4.08) 9## (3.45)

Buffalo Native pure/ ND O 14 34 16 13 4 81 A 1 (2.94) 1 ## (1.23) O 74 116 68 62 22 342 Total A 2 (2.70) 4 (3.45) 2 (2.94) 2 (3.22) 10 (2.92)

O - Observed; A ­ Affected; Figures in parentheses indicate percentages of affected to total observed; # Prevalence of ketosis in cattle is associated with breeds (c2 = 51.71**; P < 0.01); ## Prevalence of ketosis in buffaloes is not associated with breeds (c2 = 1.07NS; P > 0.05)

Danish research herds, Journal of Dairy Science, 82:1188­1201. Østergaard,S. and Y.T.Gröhn (2000), Concentrate feeding, dry matter intake and metabolic disorders in Danish dairy cows, Livestock Production Science, 65:107­118. Rajala-Schultz,P.J. and Y.T.Gröhn (1999), Culling of dairy cows. Part 1. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 41:195­208. Rasmussen,L.K., B.L.Nielsen, J.E.Pryce, T.T.Mottram and R.F.Veerkamp (1999), 195

Risk factors associated with the incidence of ketosis in dairy cows, Journal of Animal Science, 68:379-386. Reist,M., A.Koller, A.Busato, U.Kupfer, and J.W.Blum (2000), First ovulation and ketone body status in the early postpartum period of dairy cows, Theriogenology, 54:685­701.

Tamilnadu J. Veterinary & Animal Sciences 6 (4) 193-195, July - August 2010

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