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The Irish in Gallipoli

Where Aegean cliffs with bristling menace front The Threatening splendour of that isley sea Lighted by Troy's last shadow, where the first Hero kept watch and the last Mystery Shook with dark thunder, hark the battle brunt! A nation speaks, old Silences are burst. Neither for lust of glory nor new throne This thunder and this lightning of our wrath Waken these frantic echoes, not for these Our cross with England's mingle, to be blown On Mammon's threshold; we but war when war Serves Liberty and Justice, Love and Peace. Who said that such an emprise could be vain? Were they not one with Christ Who strove and died? Let Ireland weep but not for sorrow. Weep That by her sons a land is sanctified For Christ Arisen, and angels once again Come back like exile birds to guard their sleep.

Somme

Francis Ledwidge

Dé Sathairn, an 1 Iúil 2006 um 12.00 meán lae Gairdíní Náisiúnta Cuimhneacháin Cogaidh na hÉireann, Droichead na hInse

An Somme 1916

Ord Reatha Chomóradh Chath an Somme

Tagann an tArd-Mhéara. Tionlacann Pearsanra Míleata go dtína suíochán í. Tagann an Taoiseach. Cúirtéis ag Garda Onóra. Tionlacann an Ceann Foirne agus an ADC an Taoiseach go dtína shuíochán. Tagann an tUachtarán agus Iniúchann sí an Garda Onóra. Tionlacann an Ceann Foirne agus an ADC an tUachtarán go dtína suíochán. Tagann Píobaire Airm i láthair agus glacann áit ar thaobh na láimhe deise den Chros. Tagann Garda Bratach an Airm, agus 11 bhratach ar iompar acu, i láthair ó chúl na Croise chun áit a ghlacadh os comhair na Croise. Tugann Comhalta(í) Léigiún Ríoga na Breataine Leabha(i)r na Marbh chun cinn agus cuireann ar an Leacht Cuimhneacháin iad. Déanann Oifigeach Airm dán a aithris - `On Flanders Fields'. Ceol - `Oft in the Stilly Night'. Léann Oifigeach Airm ómós Mharascal Foch do Shaighdiúirí Éireannacha sa Chéad Chogadh Domhanda. Seinneann Píobaire Airm Marbhna - `The Battle of the Somme'. Tagann Garda Onóra Daltaí isteach ó chlé chun áit a ghlacadh idir an Leacht Cuimhneacháin agus an Chros. Paidreacha. Leagann an tUachtarán fleasc ag an Leacht Cuimhneacháin. Leagann Ambasadóirí fleasca ag an Leacht Cuimhneacháin. Leagann an Maorghinearál The O'Morchoe, Léigiún Ríoga na Breataine, fleasc ag an Leacht Cuimhneacháin. Nóiméad ciúnais. An Ghairm Dheiridh, an Bhratach Náisiúnta a ardú agus Dúiseacht. An tAmhrán Náisiúnta.

Saturday, 1 July 2006 at 12.00 noon The Irish National War Memorial Gardens, Islandbridge

Battle of the Somme Commemoration Running Order

Lord Mayor arrives. Escorted to seat by Militay Personnel. Taoiseach arrives. Courtesy by Guard of Honour. Taoiseach escorted to seat by Chief of Staff and ADC. President arrives and Inspects the Guard of Honor. President escorted by Chief of Staff and ADC to seat. Army Piper enters and takes up position to the right of the Cross. Army Colour Guard carrying 11 flags, enters from back of Cross take up position at front of Cross. Member(s) of the Royal British Legion bring forward Book(s) of the Dead and lay them on the Cenotaph. Poem recited by Army Officer - `On Flanders Fields'. Music - `Oft in the Stilly Night'. Reading by Army Officer of Marshal Fochs tribute to Irish Soldiers in World War One. Army Piper play Lament - `The Battle of the Somme'. Cadet Guard of Honour enters from left to take up position between Cenotaph and Cross. Prayers. President lays wreath at Cenotaph. Ambassadors lay wreaths at Cenotaph. Major General The O'Morchoe, Royal British Legion, lays a wreath at Cenotaph. Minute's silence. Last Post, raising of the National Flag and Reveille. National Anthem.

The Somme 1916

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The (18th Foot) Royal Irish Regiment

Iúil 1916

Grianghraf le caoinchead ón Músaem Cogaidh Impiriúil, Londain

The (18th Foot) Royal Irish Regiment

July 1916

Photograph courtesy of the Imperial War Museum, London

Moladh Marshal Foch do na Saighdiúirí as Éirinn a bhásaigh sa Chéad Chogadh Domhanda

Marshal Foch's Tribute to the Irish Soldiers who died in the First World War

Paris, Friday, Nov. 9th, 1928

The Heroic Dead of Ireland have every right to the homage of the living for they proved in some of the heaviest fighting of the world war that the unconquerable spirit of the Irish race- the spirit that has placed them among the world's greatest soldiers- still lives and is stronger than ever it was. I had occasions to put to the test the valour of the Irishmen serving in France, and, whether they were Irishmen from the North or the South, or from one party or another, they did not fail me. Some of the hardest fighting in the terrible days that followed the last offensive of the Germans fell to the Irishmen, and some of their splendid regiments had to endure ordeals that might justly have taxed to breaking-point the capacity of the finest troops in the world.

Páras, Aoine, 9 Samhain, 1928

Tá omós an bheo saothraithe ag Laochra Marbha na hÉireann mar chruthaigh siad sa chuid ba mheasa den troid sa chogadh domhanda go bhfuil spiorad dochloíte na nGael - an spiorad sin a dhéanann cuid de na saighdiúirí is cróga ar domhan díobh - fós ar marthain agus é níos láidre ná bhí riamh. Chonaic mé crógacht na nGael a throid sa Fhrainc agus cibé arbh ón Tuaisceart nó ón Deisceart iad nó cibé cad é an páirtí ar bhain siad leis níor chlis siad. Ba ar shaighdiúirí as Éirinn a thit cuid den throid ba fíochmhaire sna laethanta dorcha sin i ndiaidh ionsaí deiridh na nGearmánach agus sheas cuid de na reisimintí breátha a bhí acu troid a chriogfadh cuid de na saighdiúirí is ábalta ar domhan.

Ar An Somme

Níor chlis na hÉireannaigh orm an uain sin. Ar an Somme in 1916 chonaic mé laochas na nGael ón taobh ó Thuaidh agus ón taobh ó Dheas. Tháinig mé ar an láthair tar éis bhás an fhir chróga sin an Major William Redmond. Chonaic mé na hÉireannaigh ón Tuaisceart agus ón Deisceart ag cur a gcuid sean-achrainn ar leataobh agus throid taobh le taobh agus iad ag tabhairt a mbeatha ar mhaithe leis an leas coiteann. Le linn cogaidh bíonn uaireanta ann nuair is é íobairt na beatha an dualgas a chaitear a chomhlíonadh agus ba mhinic sin sa choimhlint mhall phianmhar sin a rabhmar páirteach inti. Thug na laochra Gael a mbeatha go toilteanach agus tá súil agam agus muid ag léirú ár n-omóis dóibh nach ndallfaidh ár mbrón muid ar an mórtas atá againn as a laochas glórmhar. Tá oidhreacht ghlórmhar fágtha acu do na glúnta ina ndiaidh agus spreagadh chun dualgais a mhairfidh nuair a bheidh dearmad déanta ar a gcuid ainmneacha. Ní dhéanfaidh an Fhrainc dearmad go brách ar an gcomaoin atá curtha ag laochra marbha na hÉireann uirthi agus maireann cuimhne orthu i gcroí mhuintir na Fraince mar chuimhne ar sheanlaochra, cuimhne a inseoidh seandaoine sa seanchas dá gcuid clainne agus do chlann a gclainne.

On the Somme

Never once did the Irish fail me in those terrible days. On the Somme, in 1916, I saw the heroism of the Irishmen of the North and South, I arrived on the scene shortly after the death of that very gallant Irish gentleman, Major William Redmond. I saw Irishmen of the North and the South forget their age-long differences, and fight side by side, giving their lives freely for the common cause. In war there are times when the necessity for yielding up one's life is the most urgent duty of the moment, and there were many such moments in our long drawn- out struggle. Those Irish heroes gave their lives freely, and, in honouring then I hope we shall not allow our grief to let us forgot our pride in the glorious heroism of these men. They have left to those who come after a glorious heritage and an inspiration to duty that will live long after their names are forgotten. France will never forget her debt to the heroic Irish dead, and in the hearts of the French people to-day their memory lives as that of the memory of the heroes of old, preserved in the tales that the old people tell to their children and their children's children.

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A German Tribute

Moladh Marshal Foch

Moladh ó na Gearmánaigh

I s é an moladh is mó ar chrógacht na nGael ná an moladh sin a thug Ard-Cheannairí de chuid na Gearmáine a raibh aithne agam air tráth, dóibh tar éis an tsocrú síochána. D'fhiafraigh mé de cathain a thug sé faoi deara ar dtús go raibh a chuid saighdiúirí ag cailliúint misnigh agus dúirt sé gurbh é an uair é a raibh saighdiúirí roghnaithe faoina cheannas tar éis casadh arís agus arís eile leis na saighdiúirí calma as Éirinn a tháinig ina n-aghaidh san ionsaí mór deiridh a scoiltfeadh, a ceapadh, airm na Breataine agus na Fraince agus a thabharfadh an bua don namhaid a bhí uathu le fada. Bhí an oiread ionsaithe fulaingthe ag na hÉireannaigh agus gur ceapadh go gcaithfeadh sé go raibh siad ar an dé deiridh ach tháinig siad ar ais arís agus arís eile agus thug faoin namhaid agus sa deireadh thiar chuaigh scoth Arm na Gearmáine i léig agus chaill a mbrí.

I know of no better tribute to Irish valour than that paid after the armistice by one of the German High Command, whom I had known in happier days. I asked him if he could tell me when he had first noted the declining moral of his own troops, and he replied that it was after the picked troops under his command had had repeated experience of meeting the dauntless Irish troops who opposed them in the last great push that was expected to separate the British and French armies, and give the enemy their long-sought victory. The Irishmen had endured such constant attacks that it was thought that they must be utterly demoralised, but always they seemed to find new energy with which to attack their assailants, and in the end the flower of the German Army withered and faded away as an effective force.

`They never failed'

When the moment came for taking the offensive all along our line, it was these same worn Irish troops that we placed in the van, making call after call on their devotion, but never finding them fail us. In the critical days of the German offensive, when it was necessary that lives should be sacrificed by the thousand to slow down the rush of the enemy, in order that our harassed forces should have time to reform, it was on the Irish that we relied repeatedly to make these desperate stands, and we found them responding always. Again and again, when the bravest were necessary to delay the enemy's advance, it was the Irish who were ready and at all times the soldiers of Ireland fought with the rare courage and determination that has always characterised the race on the battlefield.

`Níor chlis siad riamh'

Nuair a tháinig an t-am le dul sa chath feadh na líne ar fad ba iad na saighdiúirí Éireannacha céanna a cuireadh chun tosaigh ag éileamh a gcuid dílseachta go seasta ach níor chlis siad riamh orainn. Sna laethanta tábhachtacha sin faoi ionsaí ag na Gearmánaigh nuair ab éigean na mílte a sheoladh chun a mbáis le bac a chur ar an namhaid le go mbeadh deis ag ár gcuid fórsaí teacht acu féin arís ba ar na hÉireannaigh a bhíomar ag brath arís agus arís eile le seasamh sa bhearna bhaoil agus thug siad aghaidh seasta ar an dúshlán. Arís agus arís eile nuair a bhí na saighdiúirí ba chróga ag teastáil le seasamh roimh an namhaid ba iad na Gaeil a sheas an fód agus throid siad go cróga agus go calma mar a rinne an cine riamh ar pháirc na catha.

`We shall not forget'

`Ní dhéanfaimid dearmad'

Marshal Foch's Tribute

Tá cuid de bhláth na hÉireann sínte sna huaigheanna atá san Fhrainc agus beidh cuimhne ag muintir na Fraince go deo ar an gcomaoin atá curtha ag na saighdiúirí cróga sin orthu. Féachfaimid chuige go dtabharfar aire le gean d'uaigheanna na laochra seo a tháinig trasna na toinne agus déanfaimid ár ndícheall a chinntiú nach ndéanfaidh na glúnta a thiocfaidh inár ndiaidh dearmad ar laochra marbha na hÉireann.

Some of the flower of Irish chivalry rests in the cemeteries that have been reserved in France, and the French people will always have these reminders of the debt that France owes to Irish valour. We shall always see that the graves of these heroes from across the sea are lovingly tended, and we shall try to ensure that the generations that come after us shall never forget the heroic dead of Ireland.

Marshal Foch was the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in World War One.

Ba é an Mairséal Foch Príomh-Cheannasaí na bhFórsaí Comhghuaillíochta sa chéad Chogadh Domhanda.

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` Used with the wisdom which is sown in tears and

blood, this tragedy of Europe may be and must be the prologue to the two reconciliations of which all statesmen have dreamed, the reconciliation of Protestant Ulster with Ireland, and the reconciliation of Ireland with Great Britain.

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An Somme

Saighdiúirí as Éirinn i gcath Somme

Thosaigh Cath Somme, a tharla cothrom an lae seo 90 bliain ó shin i mblianaan 1 Iúil 1916 le súil go mbeadh an oiread de bhua ann agus go gcuirfí deireadh go deo leis an gCéad Chogadh Domhanda. Faoin am a raibh an dé deiridh ann faoi mhí Shamhna bhí breis is milliún saighdiúir ón dá thaobh maraithe agus gan aon athrú mór déanta ar an gcaoi a raibh cúrsaí roimhe sin. Bhí breis is 3,500 saighdiúir as Éirinn marbh agus gortaíodh go leor eile. Bhí an marú níos measa fós sa mhéid is gur tharla go leor de an chéad lá den Chath agus dhá lá i mí Mheán an Fhómhair ina dhiaidh sin. De na 5,500 a thit ó Rannán 36 Uladh an 1 Iúil, ba as pobal amháin i gCúige Uladh cuid mhaith iad ar fad. Maraíodh beagnach 2,000 saighdiúir as cathracha, bailte móra, sráidbhailte agus bailte fearainn i dTuaisceart Éireann sna chéad chúpla uair a chloig den troid, rud a d'fhan riamh anall in intinn na ndaoine sa cheantar sin. Mar chuid den chath céanna d'fhulaing 4,330 saighdiúir as Rannan na hEireann i mí an Mheán Fhómhair, maraíodh 1,200 acu. Ba as na trí chúige eile cuid mhaith iad sin. Chomh maith leis sin bhí na saighdiúirí as Éirinn a bhí i rannáin eile i gceist a bhí mar chuid den arm rialta nó i gcathláin a bhí curtha le chéile as an nua. Ní féidir a bheith beacht faoin líon as Éirinn a thit ach bhí daoine ann as gach cuid den oileán agus fágann sin tionchar fós ar mhúnlú pholaitíocht na hÉireann.

The Somme

Irish Soldiers in the Battle of the Somme

The Battle of the Somme, whose 90th anniversary we commemorate this year, began on 1 July 1916 in the high expectation of a major victory that would bring the carnage of the First World War to an end. By the time it petered out in the rain and snow of the following November, more than one million soldiers from both sides had died without making any appreciable alteration in the opening position. Among the dead were over 3,500 Irish soldiers, with many more wounded. This large loss of life was made even more horrendous by its occurrence within the short space of the first day of the Battle and two days in the following September. In particular, the 5,500 casualties of the 36th Ulster Division on 1 July were men drawn almost entirely from one community in the province of Ulster. Nearly 2,000 soldiers from cities, towns, villages and town lands of the North were killed in the first few hours of fighting, an event which seared itself into the folk memory of their community. In a continuation of the same battle, the 16th Irish Division had 4,330 casualties in September, of whom 1,200 were killed. These came mainly from the other three provinces. Added to these were the Irish soldiers who fought in other divisions as part of the regular army or in the newly raised battalions. The total number of Irish casualties cannot be calculated with certainty but they affected every part of the island and continue to have an influence on the evolution of Irish politics.

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Céad Chogadh Domhanda

Roimh an gCath

Ba léiriú an líne trinsí a shín ó bhaile Nieuport ar chósta na Beilge go dtí teorainn na Fraince / na hEilbhéise an chaoi a raibh cúrsaí ina steig meig ar an bhFronta Thiar ó Fhómhar na bliana 1914. I bhFeabhra 1916 d'aontaigh ceannairí airm na Fraince agus na Breataine comhionsaí a dhéanamh trasna abhainn an Somme ag tús mhí Iúil. Chuir ionsaí na nGearmánach ar Verdun i bhFeabhra iachall ar na Francaigh saighdiúirí a bhíodar le chur chuig an Somme a chur ag cosaint an bhaile stairiúil. Bhí tuilleadh cúnaimh ag teastáil ag Verdun ach ní raibh na Francaigh ach in ann ach cúig cinn de na seacht rannán is fiche a bhí le bheith páirteach san ionsaí a sholáthar. Is é an aidhm a bhí ann ná briseadh trí na Gearmánaigh ag a líne tosaigh ag pointe láidir aitheanta agus dhá rannán marcra a chur tríd an mbearna a dhéanfadh saighdiúirí coise le cíor tuathail a chruthú ag líne cúil na nGearmánach. Mar chuid den ullmhú bhí 17 mianach socraithe ag arm na Breataine faoi dhaingne de chuid na nGearmánach, cinn a phléascfaidís nuair a thosódh an t-ionsaí. Le linn 1915 bhí líne chosanta de chórais sreagáin bhioracha, tolláin coincréite doimhne faoin talamh agus pointí láidre, a dtugtaí redoubts orthu tógtha ag na Gearmánaigh feadh a líne tosaigh ó thuaidh den Somme. Le fáil réidh leo sin thosaigh na Francaigh agus na Breatanaigh ar ionsaí airtiléire mór an 24 Meitheamh 1916. Ar feadh beagnach ocht lá ina dhiaidh sin caitheadh thart ar 1.7 milliún sliogán ar na Gearmánaigh trasna ó líne tosaigh na Breataine. Níor phléasc thart ar an tríú cuid de na sliogáin mar go raibh na fiúsanna lochtach agus níor éirigh leis an tuairteáil a haidhm a bhaint amach mar sin. Thug sé sin deis do na cosantóírí Gearmánacha buntáiste iomlán a bhaint as an áit a raibh siad socraithe ar an talamh ard nuair a d'ionsaigh saighdiúirí coise na Breataine. Ba é an plean a bhí ann ná go mbainfidh na príomhchuspóirí amach laistigh de chúpla uair a chloig. Ní raibh malairt plean ann sa chás nach n-éireodh leis an ionsaí.

Prior to the Battle

The line of trenches that stretched from the Belgian coastal town of Nieuport to the French/Swiss border was visible evidence of the stalemate that had existed on the Western Front since the autumn of 1914. In February, 1916, the British and French commanders-in-chief agreed to launch a joint offensive astride the river Somme at the start of July. The German attack on Verdun in February forced the French to divert troops intended for the Somme to prevent the loss of the historic town. The need to relieve the pressure on Verdun grew but the French could only now provide five of the twenty-seven divisions which were to take part in the offensive. The objective was to pierce the German front line system at a known strong sector and to allow two cavalry divisions to push through the gap opened by the infantry to create havoc in the German rear. As part of the preparation, the British had placed 17 mines under major German fortifications, to be exploded at the start of the attack. During 1915, the Germans had constructed a defensive line of barbed wire systems, deep underground concrete dugouts and strong points, known as redoubts, along their front line north of the Somme. In order to remove these obstacles, the British and French began an intensive artillery barrage on 24 June 1916. Over the following eight days, approximately 1.7 million shells were fired at the German positions opposite the British front line. About one-third of the shells failed to explode due to faulty fuses and consequently the bombardment failed to achieve its objective. This failure enabled the German defenders to take full advantage of excellent positions on higher ground when the British infantry attacked. The plan envisaged the major objectives being achieved in hours. There were no alternative arrangements if the attack did not succeed.

An Chéad Lá

Ní raibh aon súil le cur ina n-aghaidh nuair a tháinig 100,000 saighdiúir aníos as na trínsí ag 7.30 am le siúl trasna No Man's Land. Feadh 23 ciliméadar den líne tosaigh thug siad a n-aghaidh le solas geal na maidine i lár an tsamhraidh de shiúl a gcos mar hordaíodh dóibh i línte díreacha agus 90 méadar idir gach maidhm ionsaithe. Bhuail maidhm de meaisínghunnaí ag caitheamh leo iad agus níor éirigh leis an gcuid is mó acu líne na nGearmánach a bhaint amach. Thit 60,000 acu, thart ar 20,000 acu marbh sular éiríodh as an ionsaí ag meán lae. Ceann de na nithe ar éirigh leis an lá sin i lár an áir, an tsléachta agus an bháis ná chomh maith is a d'éirigh le Rannán 36 (Uladh) agus iad ag baint amach a gcuspóirí ó thaobh líne tosaigh na nGearmánach, ina measc Redoubt Schwaben trasna ó Choill Thiepval, áit a ceapadh nach bhféadfaí a thógáil. Ba chuid d'Óglaigh Uladh iad agus ba é an t-aonad ba mhó de shaighdiúirí as Éirinn é a throid an lá sin, bhí naoi gcathlán ann ón Royal Irish Rifles, trí cinn as na Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and ceann as na Royal Irish Fusiliers. Agus iad calma agus cróga gan scáth bhris fir Uladh trí na cosaintí ba mhó a bhí ag na Gearmánaigh siar trína línte go dtí an cúl agus thóg 500 Gearmánach. Ach de bhrí gur chinn ar na rannáin ar na taobhanna dul chun cinn a dhéanamh

First World War

The First Day

No opposition was expected when 100,000 soldiers emerged from their trenches at 7.30 am to walk across No Man's Land. Along 23 km stretch of front line, they advanced in the bright daylight of a midsummer morning at a walking pace, as instructed, in straight lines with 90metres between each assault wave. They were met with a hail of machinegun fire and most did not reach the German line. There were 60,000 casualties, of whom almost 20,000 were killed, before the attack was halted around noon. One of the outstanding feats on that day of failure, carnage and death, was the success of the 36th (Ulster) Division in capturing their German front line objectives, including the supposedly impregnable Schwaben Redoubt opposite Thiepval Wood. Raised from the Ulster Volunteers, this was the largest unit of Irish soldiers to fight on

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Céad Chogadh Domhanda

Guillemont agus Ginchy

Lean an iarracht le líne na nGearmánach a bhrú chun cúil feadh an tsamhraidh, an dá thaobh suas in aghaidh a chéile. Tugadh líne tosaigh na Breataine chun cinn go mall ach ní gan fulaingt é. Aistríodh Rannán 16 na hÉireann ó earnáil Loos i mí Lúnasa, thit 6,000 acu, 1,496 acu marbh. Bhí an Rannán comhdhéanta de sheacht gcathlán as Laighin, Mumhain, agus Connachta, cúig cinn as Ulaidh agus an 11ú Royal Hampshire Regiment. Iarradh ar Bhriogáid 47 bonnáit na nGearmánach ag Guillemont a thógáil. Bhí roinnt ionsaithe déanta ar an áit sin ó mhí Iúil. An 3 Meán Fómhair thóg 6ú Connaught Rangers, 7ú Leinsters and the 8ú Royal Munster Fusiliers an áit in ionsaí fíor-chróga. Bronnadh Crois Victoria ar an Lt. John Holland as na Leinsters. An 9 Meán Fómhair thóg Briogáid 48 ina raibh an 1ú

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First World War

ba bheag maith gach a ndearna fir Uladh, b'éigean dóibh filleadh ar na háiteanna ar thosaigh siad. Thit 5,500 acu, maraíodh thart ar 2,000. Bhí gach pobal in Uladh beagnach faoi bhrón. Bronnadh ceithre chrois Victoria ar an Rannán as an lá amháin sin. Bhí líon mór de shaighdiúirí as Éirinn i rannáin eile a thug aghaidh ar an mbás an mhaidin sin. Bualadh go dona an 1ú Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, an 1ú agus an 1ú an 2ú Royal Dublin Fusiliers agus Rannán 29 ag iarraidh ionad láidir eile a bhí ag na Gearmánaigh ag Beaumont Hamel a bhí in áit in aice le Rannán 36 (Uladh) a thógáil. Bhí tollán déanta faoin Hawthorne Redoubt ach nuair a socraíodh an stór mór ábhar pléascaidh a bhí ann a chaitheamh ag 7.20am bhí fógra maith ag na Gearmánaigh go raibh ionsaí ar an mbealach agus thug sé deis dóibh áiteanna maithe cosanta a aimsiú thart ar an gcuas mianach sular tháinig na saighdiúirí chomh fada leo. Bhí an 2ú Royal Dublin Fusiliers ar an dara maidhm ionsaithe, ag cur chun catha le 503 fear agus thit 325 acu. Thóg na 1ú Royal Irish Fusiliers an áit ar a dtugtaí an Quadrilateral ach b'éigean dóibh tarraingt siar arís go dtí an áit ina raibh siad socraithe ar dtús. As an dá rannán déag de shaighdiúirí coise de chuid na Breataine a bhí san ionsaí an lá sin bhí Cathlán amháin as Éirinn i dtrí cinn acu. Chuaigh an 1ú Royal Irish Rifles trasna No Man's Land leis an 8 Rannán sa dara maidhm ach maraíodh a gceannfort agus ní dheachaigh siad níos faide. Chuidigh An 2ú Royal Irish Regiment as an 7ú Rannán le trí mhíle de línte tosaigh trinsí na nGearmánach a thógáil in aice le baile Mametz. Bhí an 2ú Royal Inniskillings Fusilers i Rannán 32 a throid ag baile Thiepval, áit ar thit 4,000 fear. Thug sé sin deis do na Gearmánaigh díriú ar Rannán 36 (Uladh) agus chuir iallach orthu cúlú. B'éigean do na 3,000 fear de Bhriogáid Tyneside na hÉireann a bhí ar an dara maidhm dul thar mhíle de thalamh oscailte sular bhain siad an líne tosaigh amach. Chuaigh siad trasna 500 slat ansin de No Man's Land agus lean orthu go dtí nach raibh ach 50 fear fágtha, go domhain ar thalamh trinsí na nGearmánach. Thit 2,139 san ionsaí cróga, bhí 620 díobh sin sa Iú Cathlán. Ba é liosta iomlán oifigiúil na Breataine den líon a thit an 1 Iúil ná 57,470 idir fhir a maraíodh, a gortaiodh, a chuaigh ar iarraidh nó a tógadh ina bpríosúnaigh, sin leath den méid a chuaigh chun catha. Maraíodh 19,240 nó bhásaigh siad óna gcuid créachta. Thit beirt an slat den fronta. Meastar gur 8,000 a chaill na Gearmánaigh.

that day, consisting of nine battalions of the Royal Irish Rifles, three of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and one of the Royal Irish Fusiliers. With conspicuous bravery and disregard for personal safety, the Ulstermen broke through the strongest German defences and penetrated deep into the rear positions, taking 500 German prisoners. But due to the failure of the flanking divisions to make progress, the sacrifices of the Ulstermen were in vain and they had to abandon their hard-won positions and return to their starting positions. The losses amounted to 5,500 of whom almost 2,000 were killed. Nearly every community in Ulster had cause to mourn. Four Victoria Crosses were awarded to the Division in one day. Large numbers of Irish soldiers serving in other divisions had their first and last experience of `going over the top' on that morning. The 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, the 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers and the 1st and 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers suffered heavily in an attempt by the 29th Division to capture another German strongpoint at Beaumont Hamel which was in a sector neighbouring that of the 36th (Ulster) Division. A tunnel had been dug under the Hawthorne Redoubt but the decision to fire the large store of explosives it contained at 7.20 am gave ample warning to the Germans of the impending attack and allowed them to occupy strong positions around the mine crater before the soldiers came forward. The 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers were in the second wave of the attack, going into battle with 503 men of whom 325 became casualties. The 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers captured the position known as the Quadrilateral but they also had to withdraw due to the isolation of their position. Of the twelve British infantry divisions that took part in the attack on that day, three had a single Irish Battalion among their ranks. The 1st Royal Irish Rifles crossed No Man's Land with the 8th Division in the second wave but had its Commanding Officer killed and could go no further. The 2nd Royal Irish Regiment of the 7th Division helped to capture three miles of the German frontline trenches near the village of Mametz. The 2nd Royal Inniskillings Fusilers were in the 32nd Division which was repulsed at Thiepval village suffering 4,000 casualties. This allowed the Germans to concentrate their fire on the 36th (Ulster) Division and force them to withdraw. The 3,000 men of the Tyneside Irish Brigade who were in the second wave had to advance over one mile of open ground before reaching the front line. They then crossed the 500 yards of No Man's Land and continued until there were only 50 soldiers left, deep in the German trench system. The valiant effort had cost 2,139 casualties, 620 of whom were in the 1st Battalion. The final official British casualty list for the 1st of July was 57,470 soldiers killed, wounded, missing or taken prisoner which is about half of those who went into battle. 19,240 were killed or died of wounds. There were two casualties for every yard of the front. The German losses were estimated to be 8,000.

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Céad Chogadh Domhanda

Royal Munster Fusiliers, an 7ú Royal Irish Rifles agus an 8ú agus an 9ú Royal Dublin Fusiliers áit dhaingean eile de chuid na nGearmánach ag Ginchy atá thart ar 1 km as Guillemont. Sin é an t-aon áit ar éirigh leis na Breatanaigh an lá sin, áit ar thit 4,330, thit 50% de na hoifigigh. Ar na daoine a maraíodh bhí an Feisire Parlaiminte Náisiúnach Tom Kettle a chuaigh chun catha i gceannas ar chompántas 9ú Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Níos deireanaí amach sa mhí bualadh go dona na 1ú and 2ú Irish Guards san áit chéanna. Tháinig Cath Somme chun deiridh i Samhain 1916. Le linn an ionsaithe dheireanaigh ar an 13ú chuidigh an 10ú Royal Dublin Fusiliers le Beaumont Hamel, sprioc a bhí leagtha amach don chéad lá a thógáil. Thit 50% de na fir. An líon deiridh a bhí gceist na 420,000 de shaighdiúirí na Breataine, 200,000 de shaighdiúirí na Fraince agus 660,000 de shaighdiuiri na Gearmáine a thit. Tháinig Verdun slán ach ba bheag den talamh a bhí tógtha ag na Gearmánaigh a tógadh ar ais agus ba bheag fiúntas go straitéiseach a bhí ann ó thaobh dul chun cinn na gComhghuaillithe.

Guillemont and Ginchy

The attempts to drive the German line back continued throughout the summer in a war of attrition. The British frontline was slowly pushed forward but at a great cost. The 16th Irish Division was transferred from the Loos sector in August, having suffered 6,000 casualties of whom 1,496 had been killed. The Division was composed of seven battalions from Leinster, Munster and Connaught, five from Ulster and the 11th Royal Hampshire Regiment. The 47th Brigade was assigned the task of capturing the German strongpoint at the village of Guillemont. This had withstood repeated attacks since July. On 3 September, the 6th Connaught Rangers, 7th Leinsters and the 8th Royal Munster Fusiliers took the position in a feat of outstanding bravery. Lt. John Holland of the Leinsters was awarded the Victoria Cross. On 9 September, the 48th Brigade, consisting of the 1st Royal Munster Fusiliers, the 7th Royal Irish Rifles and the 8th and 9th Royal Dublin Fusiliers succeeded in taking another heavily fortified German position at Ginchy which is about I km from Guillemont. This was the only success of the British attack on that day which cost 4,330 casualties, including 50% of the officers. Among those killed was the Irish Nationalist Tom Kettle MP, who went into battle leading a company of the 9th Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Later in the month the 1st and 2nd Irish Guards had very heavy losses in the same area. The Battle of the Somme finally came to an end in November 1916. During the final attack on the 13th, the 10th Royal Dublin Fusiliers helped to capture Beaumont Hamel, one of the objectives for the first day. It had 50% casualties. The final figures came to 420,000 British, 200,000 French and 660,000 German casualties. Verdun was saved but the Battle of the Somme resulted in negligible gains of German occupied land and offered little or no strategic value to the progress of the Allied campaign.

Ina dhiaidh sin

Tháinig an scéala faoin oiread de na hÉireannaigh a thit ag an Somme go hÉirinn agus an tír féin ina cíor tuathail tar éis Éirí Amach na Cásca agus gach a lean é. Go luath in 1917 chúlaigh na Gearmánaigh go Hindenburg, cur amú beatha daoine a bhí sa méid a bhí tarlaithe ag an Somme. I Márta 1918 bhris na Gearmánaigh tríd an méid a bhí bainte amach ó mhí Iúil 1916 agus iad ag iarraidh an méid a d'fhéadfaidís a bhaint amach sula dtiocfadh Meiriceá isteach sa chogadh. Bhí líon na saighdiúirí a bhí maraithe nó gortaithe ar an bhFronta Thiar ag ardú agus ba bheag comhartha a bhí ann go dtabharfadh ceachtar taobh an bua leo. Leis an líon mór daoine maraithe nó gortaithe bhí tuiscint ag daoine ar thionchar cogaidh. Bhí níos mó agus níos mó cosúlachta ar an scéal go dtabharfaí coinscríobh isteach in Éirinn leis na bearnaí a líonadh. Níor léir go dtabharfaí mianta Tom Kettle chun fíre: `Used with the wisdom which is sown in tears and blood, this tragedy of Europe may be and must be the prologue to the two reconciliations of which all statesmen have dreamed, the reconciliation of Protestant Ulster with Ireland, and the reconciliation of Ireland with Great Britain.'

First World War

Aftermath

The news of the large numbers of Irish casualties on the Somme reached an Ireland already in turmoil following the Easter Rising and its aftermath. Early in 1917, the Germans withdrew to the Hindenburg Line thus negating the sacrifices made on the Somme. In March 1918, the Germans swept through all of the gains since July 1916 in their final attempt at victory before the American forces could intervene. The total number of casualties on the Western Front continued to rise with little prospect of early victory. The reality of war was brought home in the long lists of dead and wounded. The introduction of conscription in Ireland to fill the gaps grew ever more likely. It seemed that the hopes of Tom Kettle would not be realised: `Used with the wisdom which is sown in tears and blood, this tragedy of Europe may be and must be the prologue to the two reconciliations of which all statesmen have dreamed, the reconciliation of Protestant Ulster with Ireland, and the reconciliation of Ireland with Great Britain.'

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The Battle of the Somme (36th Ulster Division) by JP Beadle

By kind permission of Belfast City Council

The Battle of the Somme (36th Ulster Division) le JP Beadle

Le caoinchead Chomhairle Chathair Bhéal Feirste

Limistéir Earcaíochta Reisimint Saighdiúirí Coise agus Marcra na hÉireann 1914

The (18th Foot) Royal Irish Regiment (1)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Tiobraid Árann, Loch Garman, Port Láirge, Cill Chainnigh. Bonnáit: Cluain Meala

The (18th Foot) Royal Irish Regiment (1)

The Royal Munster Fusiliers (2)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Corcaigh, Ciarraí, Luimneach, An Clár. Bonnáit: Trá Lí

Recruiting areas for the Irish Infantry and Cavalry Regiments 1914

Recruiting area: Tipperary, Wexford, Waterford, Kilkenny. Depot: Clonmel

The Royal Munster Fusiliers (2)

Recruiting area: Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Clare. Depot: Tralee

The Connaught Rangers (3)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Gaillimh, Sligeach, Maigh Eo, Ros Comáin, Liatroim. Bonnáit: An Rinn Mhór

The Connaught Rangers (3)

Recruiting area: Galway, Sligo, Mayo, Roscommon, Leitrim. Depot: Renmore

The Inniskilling Fusiliers (4)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Ómaigh, Fear Manach, Dún na nGall, Doire.

The Inniskilling Fusiliers (4)

Recruiting area: Omagh, Fermanagh, Donegal, Derry.

The Royal Irish Rifles (5)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Béal Feirste, An Dún, Aontroim, Tír Eoghain. Bonnáit: Béal Feirste

The Royal Irish Rifles (5)

Recruiting area: Belfast, Down, Antrim, Tyrone. Depot: Belfast

The Royal Irish Fusiliers (6)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Muineachán, Ard Mhacha, An Cabhán. Bonnáit: Ard Mhacha

The Royal Irish Fusiliers (6)

Recruiting area: Monaghan, Armagh, Cavan. Depot: Armagh

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Recruiting areas for the Irish Infantry and Cavalry Regiments 1914

Limistéir Earcaíochta Reisimint Saighdiúirí Coise agus Marcra na hÉireann 1914

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The Leinster Regiment (7)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Uíbh Failí , Mí, Lú, Laois. Bonnáit: Biorra

The Leinster Regiment (7)

Recruiting area: Offaly, Meath, Louth, Laois. Depot: Birr

The Royal Dublin Fusiliers (8)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Baile Átha Cliath, Cill Dara, Cill Mhantáin, Ceatharlach. Bonnáit: An Nás

The Royal Dublin Fusiliers (8)

Recruiting area: Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow, Carlow. Depot: Naas

The Irish Guards (9)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Ó ar fud na hÉireann. Bonnáit: Beairic Chelsea Londain

The Irish Guards (9)

Recruiting area: All over Ireland. Depot: Chelsea Barracks London

The Tyneside Irish 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th Battalions of Northumberland Fusiliers (10)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Newcastle. Bonnáit: Campa Alnwick

The Tyneside Irish 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th Battalions of Northumberland Fusiliers (10)

Recruiting area: Newcastle. Depot: Alnwick Camp

The London Irish Rifles (11)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Londain, Chelsea. Bonnáit: Beairic Duke of York

The London Irish Rifles (11)

Recruiting area: London, Chelsea. Depot: Beairic Duke of York

The Kings Liverpool Regiment (12)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Learpholl. Bonnáit: Beairic Seaforth

The Kings Liverpool Regiment (12)

Recruiting area: Liverpool. Depot: Seaforth Barracks

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Limistéir Earcaíochta Reisimint Saighdiúirí Coise agus Marcra na hÉireann 1914

The South Irish Horse (13)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Deisceart na hÉireann. Bonnáit: Cluain Meala

The South Irish Horse (13)

The North Irish Horse (14)

Ceantar Earcaíochta: Béal Feirste, An Dún, Aontroim, Tír Eoghain, An Cabhán, Doire, Dún na nGall, Ard Mhacha, Muineachán. Bonnáit: Béal Feirste

Recruiting areas for the Irish Infantry and Cavalry Regiments 1914

Recruiting area: Southern Ireland. Depot: Clonmel

The North Irish Horse (14)

Recruiting area: Belfast, Down, Antrim, Tyrone, Cavan, Derry, Donegal, Armagh, Monaghan. Depot: Belfast

The 4th (Royal Irish) Dragoon Guards (15) The 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (16) The 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons (17) The 8th (King's Royal Irish) Hussars (18)

The 4th (Royal Irish) Dragoon Guards (15) The 5th (Royal Irish) Lancers (16) The 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons (17) The 8th (King's Royal Irish) Hussars (18)

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Gairdíní Náisiúnta Cuimhneacháin Cogaidh na hÉireann Irish National War Memorial Gardens

Gairdíní Náisiúnta Cuimhneacháin Cogaidh na hÉireann ag Droichead na hInse tíoclachta i gcuimhne ar na 49,400 saighdiúir as Éirinn a bhásaigh idir 1914-1918 sa Chéad Chogadh Domhanda

Gairdíní Náisiúnta Cuimhneacháin Cogaidh na hÉireann

The Irish National War Memorial Gardens at Islandbridge are dedicated to the memory of the 49,400 Irish soldiers who died between 1914-1918 in the First World War.

Na Gairdíní

Ba é Sir Edwin Lutyens a leag amach na gairdíní agus is léir a stíl dínite shimplí. Clúdaíonn siad thart ar ocht heicteár ar an taobh ó dheas den Life, trasna beagnach ón Daingean Airm i bPáirc an Fhionnuisce agus thart ar thrí chiliméadar ó lár Bhaile Átha Cliath. Tar éis cruinnithe de thart ar chéad ionadaí ó gach pháirt d'Éirinn a tionóladh i mBaile Átha Cliath an 17 Iúil 1919 aontaíodh gur chóir Cuimhneachán buan a thógáil i gcuimhne ar na fir agus na mná sin as Éirinn a maraíodh sa Chéad Chogadh Domhanda agus ceapadh Coiste Cuimhneacháin le ciste a chur le chéile agus leis an aidhm a bhaint amach. Moladh roinnt scéimeanna lena n-áirítear lár Chuimhneachán i gCearnóg Muirfean ach frítheadh amach nárbh fhéidir iad a dhéanamh nó go raibh fadhbanna dlí ag baint leo. Ní dhearnadh aon dul chun cinn go dtí in 1929 nuair a mhol Rialtas na hÉireann gur chóir Páirc chuimhneacháin a dhéanamh ar shuíomh ar a dtugtaí Longmeadows ar bhruacha na Life. Mar chuid den scéim bheadh páirc phoiblí a dhéanfaí ar chostas an Rialtais agus ina mbeadh Gairdín Cuimhneachán agus Cuimhneachán Cogaidh a d'íocfaí as cistí an Choiste Cuimhneacháin. Tosaíodh ar thógáil líne-shlí na páirce a bhí thart ar 60 heicteár ó Dhroichead na hInse go Séipéal Iosóid in 1931 agus thóg thart ar dhá bhliain le déanamh. Leagadh amach na Gairdíní Cuimhneacháin idir 1933 agus 1939. Bhí leath den fhórsa oibre comhdhéanta d'iar shaighdiúirí de chuid Arm na Breataine agus an leath eile d'iar-shaighdiúirí as Arm na hÉireann.

The Gardens

The Gardens were designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and are characteristic of his style of simple dignity. They occupy an area of about eight hectares on the southern banks of the River Liffey, almost opposite the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park, and about three kilometres from the centre of Dublin. Following a meeting of over one hundred representatives from all parts of Ireland, held in Dublin on 17th July 1919, it was agreed that there should be a permanent Memorial to commemorate all those Irish men and women killed in the First World War and a Memorial Committee was appointed to raise funds to further this aim. A number of schemes were suggested including a Memorial centre-piece in Merrion Square but all were found to be impractical or inconsistent with legal obligations. The matter had arrived at an impasse, until, in 1929, the Irish Government suggested that a memorial Park be laid out on a site known as Longmeadows on the banks of the Liffey. The scheme embodied the idea of a public park, to be laid out at Government expense, which would include a Garden of Remembrance and War Memorial to be paid for from the funds of the Memorial Committee. Construction of the linear parkway, about 60 hectares in extent stretching from Islandbridge to Chapelizod, began in 1931 and took about two years to complete. The Memorial Gardens were laid out between 1933 and 1939. The workforce for the project was formed of fifty percent of exBritish Army servicemen and fifty percent of ex-servicemen from the Irish National Army.

An Dearthóir Tírdhreacha

Rinneadh Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944), an t-ailtire agus tírdhearthóir mór le rá as an mBreatain a choimisiúnú chun an dearadh a ullmhú. Bhí eolas ag Lutyens ar Éirinn, d'oibrigh sé roimhe sin ar Reachrainn i gCo. Bhaile Átha Cliath do Lord Revelstoke, ag Caisleán Bhinn Éadair do TJ GainsfordSt Lawrence agus ag Heywood, Co. Laoise, don Choirnéal agus Bean Hutcheson Poe. Is iad Oifig na nOibreacha Poiblí atá anois ag reáchtáil Heywood. Is sampla an-mhaith iad na gairdíní de shiméadracht chlasaiceach agus d'fhoirmiúlacht agus aithnítear go forleathan go bhfuil an coincheap do Dhroichead na hInse ar cheann de na cinn is fearr i measc na n-iliomad cuimhneachán cogaí a chruthaigh sé ar fud an domhain. Is léiriú é an gean a bhí aige ar ábhar áitiúil agus an mothú éagsúil i `bpáirteanna' éagsúla de na gairdíní ar an mbarrfeabhas a bhain leis mar ealaíontóir.

Irish National War Memorial Gardens

The Landscape Designer

Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944), the distinguished British architect and landscape designer, was commissioned to prepare the design. Lutyens was no stranger to Ireland having previously worked on Lambay Island, Co. Dublin, for Lord Revelstoke, at Howth Castle for TJ GainsfordSt Lawrence and at Heywood, Co. Laois, for Colonel and Mrs Hutcheson Poe. Heywood is now managed by the Office of Public Works. The gardens as a whole are a lesson in classical symmetry and formality and it is generally acknowledged that his concept for the Islandbridge site is outstanding among the many war memorials he created throughout the world. His love of local material and the contrasting moods of the various `compartments' of the gardens, all testify to his artistic genius.

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Somme 1916

Special Commemorative Cover

Clúdach Comórtha Speisialta

Information

Dept T.

15 pages

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