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The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process

by Joseph P. Trungale Published by Jelmar Publishing 1997,134 pages, hard cover Item Number: 0638AR ISBN: 1885067038 In this first-ever book on the anilox roll, the author describes the history and development of the anilox roll, how anilox rolls are used in flexographic printing, and how these rolls should be properly maintained. Thirteen chapters cover the following topics: Author Joe Trungale is the former chairman of TAPPI's Corrugated Containers Division and has worked in the flexographic printing area for forty years.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ...........................................................................................................1 Chapter One. History ...........................................................................................3 Chapter Two. Industries Using Anilox Rolls .........................................................9 Chapter Three. Function of Anilox Roll and volume Calculations ......................28 Chapter Four. Mechanically Engraved Anilox Rolls ...........................................33 Chapter Five. Laser Engraved Anilox Rolls........................................................42 Chapter Six. Anilox Base Construction ..............................................................50 Chapter Seven. Rubber Roll Ink Distribution Systems .......................................64 Chapter Eight. Doctor Blade Ink Distribution Systems .......................................75 Chapter Nine. Effect of Surface Tension on Ink Transfer ..................................86 Chapter Ten. Selecting Anilox Rolls...................................................................88 Chapter Eleven. Ultraviolet Ink Transfer ..........................................................102 Chapter Twelve. Volumetric Measuring Devices..............................................105 Chapter Thirteen. Care and Maintenance of Anilox Rolls ................................114 Appendix A. Guidelines for Roll Care...............................................................127 Appendix B. Laser Engraving Volume Chart....................................................130

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The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

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Early Ink Distribution System ...........................................................4 Type of Gravure Coating Station Observed by Doug Tuttle ............6 Early Ink Distribution system............................................................6 Typical Ink Distribution system Using Rubber Fountain Roll to transfer Ink to the Anilox Roll..................................................8 Corrugated Board is Made by Combining Three Layers of Kraft Paper ...............................................................................14 Kraft Paper Medium after Exposure to Steam ...............................15 Coating or laminating Station.........................................................26 Engraving Tool Being Forced into Steel Base ...............................29 Engraving Tool Used to Engrave Cells on Anilox Roll ...................29 Punches are Hand Made by the Diemaker ....................................30 Typical Chrome-Plated Anilox Roll at the Inspection Stand...........34 Optimum Chrome-Plating Thickness .............................................35 Ceramic Coating Being Applied to a Roller....................................37 Typical Plasma Coating Gun .........................................................38 Plain Unengraved Ceramic Roll Surface .......................................39 Second Generation of Ceramic Anilox Rolls..................................41 Example of How TIR can Affect Flexo Printing ..............................44 The Laser Machine is Started........................................................45 Laser Beam Exiting the Lens and Engraving the Anilox Roll .........46 Laser Engraving Forms Different Cell Shapes...............................48 Tubular Construction Design of Roller Base..................................50 Solid Steel Construction of Anilox Roll Base .................................50 Exaggerated Example of Total Indicated Runout (TIR) ................51 Tight Tolerance Design of Journals ...............................................52 Demountable Anilox Rolls Have a Locking Plate...........................54 The Journals and Sides of the Face are Coated ...........................57 A Small Layer of Copper is Removed on a Lathe..........................58 Flame Spraying of Either Stainless Steel or a Blend of Powders................................................................................59 Lightweight Anilox Roll...................................................................60 Fiber Composite Roll Care ............................................................62 Square Pin or 90-Degree Angle Engraving....................................65 Pyramid Shaped Anilox Cell Configuration ....................................66 Pyramid Cell Schematic.................................................................67 Durometer Gage ............................................................................68 Quadrangular Shaped Anilox Cell..................................................70 Trihelical Shaped Cell Configuration .............................................71 Hexagonal Shaped Anilox Cell ......................................................71 Channeled Cells ............................................................................72 QCH® Engraving ...........................................................................73 Quad Cell Schematic .....................................................................74

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process Another Concept of Channeled Engraving ....................................74 Conventional Doctor Blade Assembly............................................76 Original Concept of Reverse Angle Doctor Blade..........................78 Reverse Angle Doctor Blades........................................................79 Chambered Doctor Blade Systems ...............................................82 Dual Ink Metering System..............................................................84 Example of Moire Pattern ..............................................................90 Dot Dunking ...................................................................................92 Comparison of Conventional Halftone Dots and Stochastic Screening ................................................................93 Excessive Chrome Plating .............................................................95 Banded Anilox Roll ........................................................................97 Laser Engraving of 60-degree Cell Angle ....................................100 Stamp on the Edge of the Face of the Roll..................................107 Volumetric Carrying Capacity of an Anilox Roll............................108 Microscope Connected to a Video Monitor ..................................109 Liquid Volume Measuring System ...............................................110 Scanning Head of Interferometric Measurement Device .............111 Interferometric Volume Measuring Device...................................112 Improper Cleaning .......................................................................115 Typical Brush used for Cleaning Anilox Rolls ..............................116 Dried Ink or Foreign Material in the Ink Can Score a Roll.......................................................................................118 Simple Ink Filter ...........................................................................120 Ultrasonic Cleaning of Anilox Rolls ..............................................123 Plastic Beads as a Cleaning Medium ..........................................124

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The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process

INDEX

Aniline dye inks ...................... 3-4 '"ANILOX" ..............................6 Anilox ratio ............................91 Anilox roll Aluminum...........................61 Function of ................... 28-33 Engraving Angles...........................47 Sealers.................... 46-47 Laser engraved............ 42-49 Process.........................43 Wall Thickness ....... 43-44 Laser Machine ............. 44-45 Limitations.................... 47-49 Mechanically engraved 33-41 Ceramic coated....... 36-37 Engraved .................40 Micro ceramic Coated ................40 Random or Unengraved .. 37-40 Chrome plated ..............53 Copper plated moisture barrier ........... 33-35 Nickel-plated moisture barrier ........... 35-36 Special coatings............41 Recast material..................46 Volume calculations..... 28-33 Early volume Moistures ............31 Anilox roller ..............................6 Invention of ...................... 5-7 Anilox rolls Identifying ............... 106-108 Industries using.............. 8-27 Coating & laminating25-27 Corrugated packaging12-20 Printed Linerboard18-19 Envelope printing ...............11 Milk cartons.................. 11-12 Newspapers................. 23-35 Paper cups.........................12 Wide web flexible Packaging ............... 20-23 Glassine & Coated papers ..21

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Multiwall bags 21-22 Anilox rolls Industries using Wide web flexible Packaging (con't). Plastic Film ... 22-23 Uncoated paper ..21 Aluminum base construction ....61 "ARMI" Anilox roll measuring instrument ........................109 Band roll ...................... 97-98 Base construction............... 50-63 Aluminum...........................61 Buildup materials, New types of . 56-59 Wire spray .............. 58-59 Composites.................. 61-62 Copper plating buildup. 55-56 Demountable roller ...... 54-55 Journal header depth.........52 Lightweight materials ... 60-61 Roll balancing ....................55 Shrink fitted........................53 Solid Steel..........................53 Rollers, weight of ..........53 Specifications & tolerances ...........63 Steel ............................50 Tubular ...................... 51-52 Welded journals........... 52-53 Welding ...................... 58-60 Buildup materials................ 58-59 Care & maintenance ...... 114-126 Cleaning methods.... 122-126 Brush cleaning ... 125-126 Pressure washing124-125 Soak tanks ......... 123-124 Ultrasonic cleaners ....122 Guidelines for........... 127-128 Ink balance ......................121 Ink filters ..........................119 Cells Pyramid ............................56

The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process Dot dunking 91-92 Cells Dot gain 92-93 Quad shaped .....................25 Central impression (CI) presses18, 20 Early ink distribution system... 3-4 Chambered doctor blade Engraving tool .................... 28-31 systems ...................... 81-83 Envelope printing .....................11 Channeled cells.................. 72-75 "QCH" ............................73 Flame spraying................... 57-58 "Roto-Flo" ..........................74 Flexographic Technical Cherry soda theory...................89 Association (FTA) ..............78 Chrome plating.........................34 Flexography ..............................7 Chromium oxide ............. 117-118 Introduced to the corrugated Cleaning methods .......... 122-126 Box industry ....................13 Coating & laminating .......... 25-27 Flexo Quality Consortium ... 19-20 Coating Specialist, Inc. (CSI) ...42 Flexo Users Group ...................25 Computerized interferometer111-113 Flute sizes ............................13 Conventional doctor blade .......76 FM screening ..................... 93-94 Corrugated Folder-gluer and diecutter ........16 Flute sizes..........................13 Food & Drug Administration .......7 Packaging .................... 12-20 Fountain roller ............................3 Preprinted linerboard 18-20 Four-color process printing.......90 Printing of.................. 17-18 Substrate ..........................1 Gravure blade ..........................76 Singlewall...........................15 Gravurescope............. 31-32, 107 Demountable roller............. 54-55 Hexagonal cell shapes ....... 70-72 Depth-to-opening relationship ..99 History .......................... 3-8 Dick, Frank ............................86 Doctor blade ink distribution Ink systems ...................... 75-86 Balancer ..........................121 Blade installation.......... 77-78 Distribution system .. 5, 64-74 Blade materials ..................85 Cell shapes .............. 64-66 Blue spring steel .............85 Channeled cells ........ 72-74 Composites.....................85 Doctor blade systems 75-85 Plastic ............................85 Hexagonal cell shapes70-72 Mechanical engraving Angle............. 64-65 Quad shaped cells ..........59 Rubber fountain rolls. 68-69 Chambered doctor Tri-helical cell shape . 69-70 blade systems........... 81-83 Variable speed drive . 67-68 Conventional doctor blade ............................76 Dual systems ............... 83-84 Reverse angle doctor Filters ..........................119 Blade ...................... 79-83 pH balancer .....................121 Disadvantages ................81 Ruboff ............................23 Pressure setting..............80 Ultraviolet transfer of 102-104 Printing quality .......... 80-81 International Printing Ink Division Thickness.................. 79-80 Of Interchemical Corporation Speed sensitive .................76 (IPI) ....................5, 6, 78 Doctor blade materials .............85

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The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process Printing quality ............. 80-81 Thickness..................... 79-80 Jenkins, Jerry ...........................42 Roll Balancing ..........................55 Journal header depth ...............52 Roll care, guidelines for.. 127-128 Juice cartons ............................11 Rollers, weight of solid steel.....53 "Roto-Flo" ............................74 Laser engraving angles .... 99-101 Rubber roll ink distribution systems Lightweight materials.......... 60-61 ...................... 64-74 Liquid volumetric measuring Systems .................. 108-109 Selecting anilox rolls......... 68-101 "LITHOX" ..............................6 Anilox ratio .........................91 Banded roll................... 97-98 Mechanical engraving ..............28 Depth-to-opening relationship Moss, Franklin............................7 ............................99 Mosstype Corporation ................7 Doctoring method ..............89 The Mosstyper ...........................7 Dot dunking.................. 91-92 Dot gain ...................... 92-93 Narrow web ........................ 9-11 FM Screening .............. 93-94 Industry ............................61 Laser engraving angles99-101 Newspapers ...................... 23-25 60-degree chart ............129 Laser rolls for process printing Pamarco, Incorporated.............40 ............................97 pH balancer ..........................121 Plugging ..........................101 Plasma Process printing ........... 90-91 Coating ............................37 Four-color process Spraying ...................... 57-58 ............................90 Plugging ..........................101 Transparent inks .90 Polyester (PET)........................22 Chrome-plated rolls for Polyethylene (PE) ....................22 ............................95 Roll volumes ................ 98-99 Transparent inks ..............909 Type of graphics .......... 88-90 Type of ink system.............89 Type of substrate ...............89 Volumetric carrying capacity94 Polypropylene ..........................22 Praxair Surface Technologies 110 Preprinted linerboard.......... 18-20 Singlewall ............................15 Presses, central impression (CI) Stochastic screening .......... 93-94 Stork Cellramic, Inc. .................42 Surface tension, effect on ink transfer ...................... 86-87 ......................18, 20 Printing quality.................... 80-81 Trailing blade............................76 Transfer roll ..............................4 "QCH" ............................73 Transparent inks ......................90 Quad shaped cells ...................69 Tri-helical cell shape .......... 69-70 Tuttle, Douglas E..................5, 40 Recast material ........................48 Reverse angle doctor blade 79-83 Ultraviolet ink transfer .... 102-104 Disadvantages ...................81 Ultraviolet inks..........................89 Pressure setting.................80

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The Anilox Roll: Heart of the Flexo Process Union Carbide Corporation ......42 "URMI II" ..........................110 UV inks ............................89 Video microscope systems ....108 Viscosity measurement ..............4 Volumes 98-99 Volumetric carrying capacity ....94 Volumetric measuring Devices .................. 105-113 Computerized interferometer .................. 111-113 Gravurescope ................107 Liquid volume systems108-109 Video microscope ..........108 Systems 108 Vorrier, Robert..........................78 Wide web flexible packaging20-23 Glassine & coated paper ...21 Multiwall bags .............. 21-22 Plastic film.................... 22-23 Uncoated paper .................21

Wilson Engraving Company, Inc. ..........................109 Wiper Blade 76

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