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Read Amish Mennonites in text version

Amish Mennonites

in Tazewell County, Illinois

AND WOODFORD COUNTY

GENEALOGY

PART TWO OF TWO

Updated April 2012 Compiled by Joseph Peter Staker PLAIN TEXT VERSION

UNZICKER ­ ROTH ­ ZIMMERMAN ­ LITWILLER ­ SOMMER ­ RICH ULRICH ­ WAGLER ­ BRENNEMAN ­ EIGSTI ­ BIRKEY ­ SUTTER HEISER ­ AUGSBURGER ­ ZEHR ­ YORDY ­ ESCH/OESCH ­ EHRESMAN HOCHSTETTLER ­ SCHWARZENTRAUB ­ MILLER ­ SCHLEGEL ­ ERNST SMITH ­ PETERSMITH ­ SCHWEIZER ­ GOOD ­ PLANK ­ GOLDSMITH REDIGER ­ STEIDER ­ KINSINGER ­ RINGENBERGER ­ CAMP RUVENACHT ­ REESER/RISSER ­ SPRINGER ­ DELLENBACH ­ EIMAN

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

ON THE COVER, clockwise from upper left: Tazewell County; a Ropp team about 1915; Bryan Nicklow with the Peter Ropp family Bible he rediscovered in 2006; the Christian Farny family Bible, photo courtesy of descendant Larry Ball; the signature of Niglas Schlegel; Peter Gerber's accidental death as reported in the Peoria Herald on March 19, 1892; a packet ship; and (center) a Bernese ducat from 1703.

This text can also be found online at www.tcghs.org/links.htm courtesy of the Tazewell County Genealogical & Historical Society, Pekin. Document facsimiles, maps, and photos can be found in a full version of this text held by the Tazewell County Genealogical & Historical Society, Pekin and the Mennonite Heritage Center, Metamora. Because this text is posted online in an format identical to hard copies, page numbering starts from the cover (page 1).

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

and Woodford County

Text only copyright © April 2012. Permission is given to reproduce up to 50 lines without a formal request. [email protected]

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

PART TWO OF TWO

UNZICKER Unzicker of Wörth Peter Unzicker (Morton) Blacksmith Jacob Unzicker (Elm Grove) Johannes Unzicker/John Unsicker (Morton) Butler County Unzickers Hunsicker/Unsicker of the Rohrhof Roth of Hochburg Zimmerman of Denzlingen Collinsville Zimmermans Zimmerman of Berrwiller Leutweiler/Litwiller of Schupfholz Ontario Litwillers Illinois Litwillers Barbara and Samuel Sommer of Neuviller Rich of Ruederbach Daniel Rich Ulrich of Hirsingue Wagler of Muesbach Jacob Berse to Christian Wagler Brenneman of Wohra Eigsti of Strasbourg Forty-Eighters Augustin to Eigstin to Eigsti Birky/Birkey: Variations of Bürki The Crooked Alsace Chain The Little Red Birkys The Big Birkeys Sutter of Neuburg an der Donau Heiser of Hanfeld Barbara Eyer Heiser Ramige Bavarian Branch of the Augspurgers Zehr of Struth Yordy: Jordi of Windstein Christian Yotty Eash/Oesch: Ösch Variations Christian Esch (Worth ) Christian Oesch (Elm Grove) Christian Ehresman The Bärbelsteinerhof The Mechtersheimerhof Württemberg and North America Nephew Rudolph Ehrisman The Ehresmans of Neuhausen The Ehresmanns of Dörrmoschel Catherine Ehresmann A Speculative Family Tree Erismann in Bureau County 5 5 7 8 9 12 16 27 32 35 38 40 42 46 48 52 54 56 60 63 67 72 75 78 81 81 86 97 100 105 112 114 118 125 130 134 134 136 140 140 141 145 153 154 159 162 164 164

ROTH ZIMMERMAN

LITWILLER

SOMMER RICH ULRICH WAGLER BRENNEMAN EIGSTI

BIRKY/BIRKEY

SUTTER HEISER AUGSBURGER ZEHR YORDY ESCH/OESCH

EHRESMAN

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

HOCHSTETTLER SCHWARZENTRAUB MILLER

SCHLEGEL ERNST SMITH

PETERSMITH SCHWEIZER

GOOD PLANK GOLDSMITH REDIGER

STEIDER KINSINGER

RINGENBERGER

CAMP RUVENACHT REESER/RISSER

SPRINGER

DELLENBACH

EIMAN Unattributed Stories Acknowledgements

Erisman in McLean County Hochstettler of Winterkraut Schwarzentruber of Königsberg Daniel Schwarzentraub Miller: Müller of Hochburg Deacon Michel Müller/Michael Miller Elder Jacob Müller/Miller Schlegel of Grandvillars Ernst of Bois Lachat Smith: Schmitt of Linstroff The Smiths of Zimming (Worth) The Smiths of Bisping (Congerville) Petersmith: Peter Schmidt of Muntzenheim Schweizer of Steffisburg Why Minnesota? The Visitor Joseph Schweitzer Canadian Schweitzers Good: Guth of Eppenbrunn Plank: Blank of Steffisburg Goldsmith: Goldschmid of Richterswil Rediger: Reutiger or Reidiger of Ichenheim Joseph Rediger (Partridge) Benjamin Rediger (Washington ) Forty-Eighter Redigers Steider of Kerprich-aux-Bois Kinsinger: A Variation of Küenzi Johannes/John Kinsinger (Elm Grove) Minister Michael Kinsinger (Montgomery) Ringenberger of Fribourg The French Peter Ringenberger (Groveland) The Bavarian Peter Ringenberger (Elm Grove) Camp: Kempf of Rhodes Rouvenacht of Rhodes 'Ruewenach' Christian Reeser Indiana Zimmermans Joseph Risser and John Forney Risser/Reeser-Stecker Connection Springer David's Cousin Jean Springer/John Spring McLean County Springers Dellenbach of Donon Chrétien/Christian Jacques/Jacob Pennsylvania Dellenbachs Peter Eiman of Elm Grove

167 169 178 180 182 182 184 186 204 212 212 215 220 228 235 237 237 242 247 253 259 260 261 263 264 270 270 276 280 280 284 288 293 297 298 303 304 307 308 309 311 313 315 317 320 328 330 331

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Unzicker of Wörth

T

he surname 'Unzicker' is thought to stem from the village of Hunzicken in the Aargau region of Switzerland. In the 1600s the region followed all mandates of the city-state of Bern, and persecuted its Anabaptists with equal fervor. In 1720 Bachmanns and Haurys became the last extended families to depart. By 1726 authorities confidently agreed that not one Anabaptist remained in the land. Emigrants settling in the Alsace region after 1670 either adapted to their new surroundings by muting the 'h' pronunciation, or saw the letter dropped in the records of French-speaking officials. In Amish Mennonites in Germany, Hermann Guth cites Swiss sources when he writes that, "...Two brothers named Hunzicker, as very young men, came to the Palatinate in the 1670s with their father and grandfather as Anabaptist refugees. One brother then probably became the progenitor of the Mennonite (and later protestant) Hunzickers/Hunzingers in the Kraichgau and in Mannheim and Krefeld in Germany. At least two Alsatian (and therefore Amish) Unzicker branches are descended from the other brother; the beginning letter was dropped in France, where it was not pronounced." Hermann Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany is the best source for information on the history of this family in Europe. Guth draws a line down from Joseph Unzicker and Maria Stauffer. They were associated with Wörth, in what is now Lower Alsace. Their son Peter Unzicker was born in Alsace May 15, 1740, and died at Gräveneck, Nassau-Weilburg Dec. 17, 1800. He married Katharina Holly, a daughter of Jakob Holly and Marie Kurtz of Mühlhofen. She died on the Offental estate at Sankt Goarshausen, Nassau-Weilburg. Nassau-Weilburg was a princely domain far north of Alsace. One reached it by traveling north (downstream) on the Rhine River, beyond the Upper and Lower Palatinates on the west bank and Hesse-Darmstadt on the east. In 1775 the chancellor for Prince Carl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg visited a royal property, the Münsterhof estate at Dreisen in the Palatinate. It was leased by Amish Mennonites (see KENNEL). The chancellor was so impressed by their progressive methods that he commissioned farm manager David Holly to find families willing to come to Nassau-Weilburg. His proposal offered generous 12-year leases on princely estates, on the condition that the leasors cultivate underdeveloped acreage and share their knowledge with neighboring landowners. Four family heads accepted the arrangement: Peter Unzicker of Wörth, Johannes Nafziger of Alsace, Peter Schantz of Alsace, and Peter Schwarzentruber/Schwarzentraub/Schwartztaub.1 Peter Unzicker brought several brothers who also claimed properties. According to Guth, Holly received a 200 gulden reward from the chancellor. The Unzicker family settled on a princely estate at Gräveneck, and remained there until at least 1806. The village is 13 miles northeast of the larger community Limburg an der Lahn, downstream on the Lahn River.

Peter Unzicker (Morton)

One of the sons of Peter Unzicker of Wörth and Gräveneck was Jakob Unzicker. Jakob was born at Gräveneck in 1781. In 1807 at Trippstadt he married Elizabeth Jordy of the Wilensteinerhof ; she was a daughter of Jakob Jordy and his first wife Magdalena Imhof. This couple leased the Offental estate at Sankt Goarshausen after 1813. Their son Peter Unzicker was born on the Offental estate June 1, 1816 (Wiesbaden appears as his birthplace on the 1880 census, but this may have simply been the nearest well-known city; Wiesbaden is about 24 miles southeast of Sankt Goarshausen). He may have been the 24-year-old Peter Unsieger of Nassau found on the passenger list of the Argo as it arrived at New York from Le Havre May 24, 1841. He arrived in Butler County, Ohio in October 1847. The Spring 2001 issue of Illinois Mennonite Heritage has a translation of a letter of recommendation [Ger. Zeugnis] Peter received from ministers Johannes Müller/John Miller and Daniel Holly of Butler County date Oct. 14, 1848.2 In December 1848 he married Katharina Kennel. She was born at Dreisen Oct. 1, 1822, a daughter of Johannes Kennel and Magdalena Naffziger (Magdalena was a sister to 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger). She had immigrated with her family on the De Rham in 1830, appearing on the passenger list as 'Catherine, 5' (see STAKER for details of the journey; see NAFZIGER for more on the family). The following summer the couple settled at Morton. Peter was naturalized at Pekin Aug 25, 1856.

1 2

Nassau-Weilburg was represented at the Essingen assembly of ministers in 1779 by Peter Schantz and Johannes Nafziger. The same issue shows a photo of Peter and his family.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The family appears on the 1860 census of Morton as farmer Peter Unsenker, 44, Germany; Catharine, 28, Germany; August, 10, Illinois; Magdelin, 9, Illinois; Anna Eliza, 5; and laborer Louis Greene, 25, Germany. The 1864 plat map shows 'P. Unzicker' living on a Morton farm on the boundary line with Groveland, and holding additional woodland in the northwest corner of Morton above the Staker, Roth, and Roberts farms. The 1870 census of Morton shows farmer Peter Unsicker, 56; Catharine, 45; Augusta [August], 26; Magdalena, 19; Amelia [Emilie], 16; Magdalena Kennel, 79; farm laborer Benedict Hauger, 38; and Julia [Julius] Unsicker, 26 [6]. The 1880 census of Morton shows farmer Peter Unsicker, 64; Catherine, 54; and son Julius, 16 [daughter Julia, 16], born in Illinois to a father from Wiesbaden and a mother from Bavaria. The family would travel as much as 12 miles by carriage to attend services with a number of congregations. Peter Unzicker died Feb. 19, 1881. Katharina Kennel died Jan. 11, 1898. They are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. Their children born at Morton include:

1. August K. Unzicker was born Sept. 25, 1849, and died at Roanoke, Woodford County Sept. 27, 1939. On Dec. 10, 1870 in Tazewell County he married Elizabeth Birky. 3 She was born Dec. 25, 1847, and died April 13, 1898, a daughter of John Birkey ('Big Birkeys') and Elizabeth Birky ('Little Red Birkys'). They are buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Gospel Herald, November 1939: "Unzicker. - August, son of Peter and Katherine Unzicker, was born near Morton, Ill., Sept. 25, 1849; died at the home of his son (S. E. Unzicker), Roanoke, Ill., Sept. 27, 1939, after an illness of seven weeks; aged 90 y. 2 d. On Dec. 20, 1870, he was united in marriage with Elizabeth Birkey. To this union were born 7 sons and 6 daughters. He was preceded in death by his wife, 3 sons (Daniel, John, and August), also 2 daughters (Emma and Elizabeth). There remain 4 sons (Oscar and Peter of Low Point, Samuel E. of Roanoke, and Julius of Morocco, Ind.), also 4 daughters (Mrs. Val Springer of Foosland, Mrs. Frank Welts of Cazenovia, Mrs. Prosper Heppard of Roanoke, and Mrs. Andrew Ulrich of Shelbyville), 64 grandchildren, 116 greatgrandchildren, 1 brother (Julius of Foosland), and a host of other relatives and friends. He received Christ in his youth and for the past eleven years held his membership in the East Bend Mennonite Church of Fisher, Ill. Funeral services were conducted at the Roanoke Mennonite Church with J. A. Heiser of Fisher, Ill., in charge. Text, Psalm 23. Burial in the Roanoke Cemetery." Magdalene Unzicker was born Dec. 25, 1850, and died Feb. 8, 1914. On Feb. 21, 1871 in Tazewell County she married Andrew Oesch. He was born at Elm Grove Dec. 16, 1848, and died Jan. 23, 1940. They can be found on the 1880 census of Indiantown, Bureau County as farmer Andrew Oesch, 33, born in Illinois to German parents; Magdalena, 29, born in Illinois to German parents; Ella L., 7; Lena E., 6; and Alma E., 3; all children born in Illinois; and the first minister of Willow Springs Mennonite Church (his deacon was Christian Zehr). They moved to Aurora, Nebraska in 1888, and can be found on the 1910 census of Aurora as Andrew Oesch, 61, born in Illinois to German parents; and Maggie, 59, born in Illinois to German parents. After Magdalene's death Andrew lived with daughter Anna and a Hochstetttler son-in-law at Upland, Calif. (1920), then at Long Beach, Calif. (age 81 in 1930). They are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. Amalie/Amelia Unzicker was born May 10, 1854, and died July 22, 1935.4 She married John S. Sommer. He was born Oct. 12, 1849, and died March 24, 1935, a son of John Sommer and Barbara Schertz. They lived at Elm Grove. Julius K. Unzicker was born July 18, 1864, and died March 21, 1961. On May 3, 1887 in Tazewell County he married Maria/Mary Oesch. She was born at Tremont July 16, 1869, and died at Foosland, Champaign County Dec. 21, 1928, a daughter of Christian Oesch and his second wife Mary Abersole. Gospel Herald, April 1961: "Unzicker, Julius, son of Peter and Katharina (Kenell) Unzicker, was born July 18, 1864, at Morton, Ill.; died March 21, 1961, at Fisher, Ill.; aged 96 y. 8 m. 3 d. On May 3, 1887, he was married to Mary Oesch, who died Dec. 21, 1928. Surviving are 5 sons (Otto, Arthur, Walter, Ezra, and Roy, all of Fisher). He was a member of the East Bend Church, where funeral services were held March 23, in charge of J. A. Heiser and J. Alton Horst." Gospel Herald, January 1929: "Maria (Oesch) Unzicker, wife of Julius Unzicker and daughter of Christian and Mary Oesch, was born July 16, 1869, near Tremont, Ill.; died Dec. 1928, at her home near Foosland, Ill.; aged 59 y. 5 m. 5 d. On May 21 [3], 1887, she was united in marriage to Julius Unzicker of near Pekin, Ill. This union was blessed with 5 sons, all living at and near her home. At the age of 17 years she accepted Christ as her personal Savior and united with the East Washington Mennonite Church, and during her last sickness again renewed her covenant with her Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and united with the East Bend Mennonite Church near Fisher, Ill. She gave every evidence, and her own testimony that she was at peace with God and her fellowman, ready to depart to be with her Christ. She leaves a sorrowing husband, 5 sons, 9 grandchildren, 2 sisters besides many relatives and friends. Six brothers and 4 sisters

2.

3. 4.

This date is confirmed by the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index. Many Amish Mennonites were sympathetic to Amalie, the wife of Duke Karl II August of Zweibrücken. The duke was a Wittelsbach, the family that hosted them as tenant farmers and leasors. The ducal family lost considerable property value during the cross-border turmoil of the French Revolution. As a widow Amalie managed to retain some estates, and passed them on to a chancellery director who continued to lease to Anabaptists. See Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany for more on this relationship.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

have preceded her in death. Funeral services were held at the East Bend Church Dec. 24, with Bros. Joseph Heiser of Fisher, Ill., and Allen H. Miller of Pekin, Ill. in charge."

Jacob Unzicker (Elm Grove)

Cousin to Peter Unzicker of Morton Another son of Peter Unzicker of Wörth and Gräveneck, a younger brother to Jakob, was Peter Unzicker. He was born at Gräveneck and became a leaseholder at Heckholzhausen, located eight miles to the east. His wife had not been identified. The children of Peter Unzicker and his unidentified wife include:

1. Elizabeth 'Barbara' Unzicker was born in 1800, and died on the Eichelscheiderhof near Waldmohr in the Palatinate April 6, 1873. She married Peter Schantz. He was born on the Rotherhof at Henriettental, Nassau-Weilburg Feb. 24, 1797; sources give his place of death as either the Langweiserhof at Jägershof or Montabaur Feb. 11, 1835, a son of Peter Schanz and Elise Unzicker. On May 16, 1840 she remarried to Christian Heinemann. He was born at Gommerscheid, a neighborhood of Neuwied in 1805, and died on the Krayerhof at Andernach (next to Neuwied) in 1863, a son of Georg Heinemann and Christine Schlabach (this couple leased an estate in Gommerscheid at Neuweid on the north side of the Rhine River, then the Krayerhof at Andernach on the opposite side). The Heinemann family from the estate Langenau near Siegen became Mennonite through a marriage in 1771. Johann Unzicker was born in 1805, and died at Stedebach, Hesse (16 miles above Giessen) in 1863. Jacob Unzicker was born at Heckolshauzen April 17, 1808. Peter Unzicker was born in 1811, and died on the Krayerhof at Andernach Dec. 25, 1875. He married Hélène Heinemann. She was born at Ründeroth (now in the state of Rhine-Westphalia), and died on the Alkerhof at Brohl (five miles upriver from Andernach) Feb. 14, 1902, a daughter of Jakob Heinemann and Jakobina Doetweiler. After Peter's death, Hélène remarried to Christian Siemeister.

2. 3. 4.

Jacob Unzicker was born at Heckholzhausen April 17, 1808. The story of his October 1830-April 1831 journey from Le Havre to Butler County, Ohio is told in the account of the packet ship De Rham in the genealogy STAKER. The De Rham passenger list shows him as a 25-year-old blacksmith bound for the United States. In 1837 Jacob married Marie Krehbiel in Butler County. She was born at Darmstadt, Hesse Aug. 5, 1814. Within a year or two they resettled in Tazewell County, where Jacob became a deacon of the Dillon Creek Meeting. Jacob Unzicker appears on the 1840 census of Tazewell County, living next door to 'Andrew Rowp' (Andrew Ropp, later a bishop of the Dillon Creek Meeting and Pleasant Grove Amish Mennonite Church). The census page shows a household with one male checked off in the 30-40 age column; one female checked off in the 20-30 age column; and one female checked off in the under 5 age column. The household appears on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as blacksmith Jacob Hunnicker, 40, Germany; Mary, 30, Germany; Elizabeth, 12; Jacob, 8; Mary, 6; and Catherine, 3 (all children born in Illinois); and two blacksmiths 18 and 20. The 1860 census of Elm Grove shows farmer Jacob Unsiker, 57, Nassau; Mary, 40, Darmstadt; Elisabeth, 19; farmer Jacob, 17; Mary, 14; Catharine, 11; Madalene, 8 (all children born in Illinois); and laborer Stephen Dansner, 26, Bavaria; and Catharine Kraber, 20, of Darmstadt. In 1870: farmer Jacob Unsicker, 62, Prussia; Maria, 56, Hesse-Darmstadt; Catharine, 20, Illinois; and Magdalen, 19, Illinois. Their next door neighbors were son-in-law Christian Hochstettler, 27, Bavaria; their daughter Mary, 25, Illinois; and Louise, 1, Illinois. The 1880 census shows farmer Jacob Unsicker, 72; Mearie, 62; and Catharine, 25, born in Illinois to parents from Germany. Jacob died at Elm Grove June 14, 1893. Herald of Truth, July 1893: "On the 16th of June, 1893, of the infirmities of old age, Pre. Jacob Unzicker, aged 85 years and 2 months. He came to America in 1832 and for the last 51 years has been a resident of Tazewell Co., Ill. In 1837 he married Mary Kreubill [Krehbiel], with whom he had six children, one of whom preceded him. He was a minister for many years and was faithful in his calling. Buried on the 18th in Elm Grove. Funeral services by Joseph Stuckey, M. Kinsinger, Peter Ropp and Joseph Buerckey." Marie Krehbiel died at Elm Grove March 28, 1904. She was buried beside Jacob in Pleasant Grove Cemetery, where her headstone calls her 'Mary K.' Herald of Truth, April 1904: "Sister Mary Unziker, one of the oldest settlers of Tazewell Co., Ill., died March 21, 1904. She was 90 years old and left to mourn her departure 5 children, 20 grand children and 6 great-grandchildren. She was born in Germany in 1814, coming to this country when she was quite young. Her husband preceded her ten years ago to the spirit world. Funeral at the Pleasant Grove Amish Mennonite M. H. Services were conducted by Sam. Gerber and Val. Strubar. Text, 2 Tim. 4:7." The children of Jacob Unzicker and Marie Krehbiel born at Elm Grove include:

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

Elizabeth Unzicker was born Sept. 28, 1839, and died Aug. 10, 1920. On July 6, 1862 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Hochstettler.5 He was born at Siebenbrunnenfeld, Bavaria Feb. 3, 1836, and died July 4, 1896, a son of Joseph Hochstettler and Jacobina 'Phoebe' Gingerich. They are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. Jacob Unzicker was born Dec. 27, 1841, and died at Hopedale Jan. 22, 1933. On Nov. 7, 1867 in Woodford County he married Jacobina 'Bena' Engel; the Eureka record calls her 'Jacobena Engle.' She was born at Metamora Aug. 22, 1843, and died at Hopedale Nov. 20, 1929, a daughter of John Engel and Barbara Detweiler. They are buried in Orndorff Cemetery at Hopedale. Their household can be found on the 1880 census of Boynton as farmer Jacob J. Unzicker, 38, born in Illinois to parents from Germany; Bena, 33, born in Illinois to parents from France; Edwin, 11; Rudolph, 8; and William, 5 (all children born in Illinois). Mary Unzicker was born Nov. 26, 1844, and died Feb. 24, 1940. She is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery as Mary Hochstettler. On Feb. 9, 1868 at Pekin she married Christian Hochstettler.6 He was born at Meringerau March 8, 1840, and died at Aurora, Nebraska Jan. 2, 1896, a son of Joseph Hochstettler and Jacobina 'Phoebe' Gingerich. He can be found on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as 19-year-old 'Christian Hostetler,' a Bavarian laborer in the household of 50-year-old farmer 'Andrew Birgy.' Catharine Unzicker was born in 1848 and died in 1927. She is buried beside her parents at Pleasant Grove Cemetery as 'Katie.' Magdalena 'Lena' Unzicker was born June 19, 1851. On March 13, 1873 in Tazewell County she married Daniel Albrecht.7 He was born Feb. 8, 1848, and died at Arispie in 1924, a son of Joseph Albrecht and Barbara Gingery. An extended household is found on the 1880 census of Arispie, Bureau County: farmer Joseph Albrecht, 63, Bavaria; Barbaray [Gingery], 62, Hesse-Darmstadt; Daniel, 33, Illinois; Magdalen, 29, born in Illinois to a father from Nassau and a mother from Hesse-Darmstadt; and Otto, 5, Illinois. An unidentified sixth child died at less than 10 years of age (not appearing on any 10-year census) before 1893, according to Jacob's obituary.

Johannes Unzicker/John Unsicker (Morton)

Second Cousin to Peter and Jakob Peter Unzicker (1740-1800) was the grandfather of the two figures just described, and the older brother of Josef Unzicker. Josef was born at Wörth circa 1746, and moved north with his brother. In 1778 he became leaseholder on the Windhof estate near Ahausen (above Weilburg, Hesse). He married Katharina Güngerich, a daughter of Christian Güngerich and Verena Schwartzentruber of the Hünighausen estate at Helsen in Waldeck. Their son, minister Johannes Unzicker, was born at Gräveneck Dec. 14, 1778, and died on the Henriettenthal at Wörsdorf May 28, 1847. He married Barbara Nafziger, a daughter of Valentin Nafziger and Elisabeth Nafziger of the Ludwigsburgerhof estate at Selbach, Nassau-Weilburg. Guth describes Johannes as "a model farmer and preacher on the estate Henriettental." According to minister-archivist-historian Steve Estes, it seems likely that Johannes and Barbara were the parents of Johannes Unzicker, known in Tazewell County as John Unsicker. He was born May 2, 1815, and died at Morton Oct. 23, 1888. On Oct. 14, 1849 Johannes married Katharina 'Katie' Kennel. She was born on the Herfingerhof estate at Börrstadt April 6, 1824, and died at Washington July 12, 1909, a daughter of Peter Kennel and Magdalena Holly. The couple joined Katharina's cousin Jacob Kennel, visiting from Morton, and sailed from Le Havre on the Radius, arriving at New Orleans Dec. 27, 1849. The passenger list described them as 'Johann Unsicker, 33; Catharina, 24; no accompanying children; of German nationality.'8 They wintered in Butler County and presumably traveled to Central Illinois with the arrival of warm weather. They purchased a farm at Morton July 30, 1851.

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as Joseph Hachstetler. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as Christian Hoehstettler. 7 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists her as Maggie Unzicker. 8 On the Radius passenger list: Jacob Kennel, 27. He was born at Dreisen Nov. 16, 1821, and died at Morton March 22, 1909, a son of Johannes/Jean Kennel and Magdalena Naffziger. His family had been passengers on the 1830 voyage of the De Rham from Le Havre to New York; he was also a nephew to 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger. See KENNEL. Another passenger on the voyage of the Radius was listed as Jacob Hautter, 24. Jacob Hauter was born Nov. 9, 1823, and died in Tazewell County April 26, 1905, a son of Christian Hauter and Katharina Gungerich. On Feb. 25, 1853 at Turtle Creek, Warren County, Ohio he married Maria Brenneman. She was born at Wohra, Hesse Feb. 24, 1829, and died in Tazewell County March 15, 1882, a daughter of Daniel Brenneman and Elizabeth Jutzi of Boynton (passengers on 100 Hessian Mennonite voyage in 1832). See BRENNEMAN.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

A Past and Present of Mahaska County, Iowa entry for one of his sons describes John: "John Unsicker was a native of Germany, and became one of the pioneers of Tazewell County, where he located in 1849. He opened up a large farm there and became a prosperous agriculturist and stock-breeder, dealing in pure-blooded shorthorn cattle, Poland China hogs, and Norman horses. He raised his family upon the old farm and there he spent the greater portion of a useful and well-directed life, passing away in October 1887." Their surname is spelled 'Unzicker' on the 1860 census of Morton, and 'Umsicka' on the 1870 census of Morton. Johannes/John and Katharina are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. Details of this family including a portrait photo can be found in A Kennel Family Outline Part II, Steven Estes' excellent article in the Spring 2003 issue of Illinois Mennonite Heritage. The children of Johannes Unzicker/John Unsicker and Katharina Kennel born at Morton include:

1. Amalie/Amelia Helen Unsicker was born Oct. 1, 1851, and died at Deer Creek Jan. 17, 1922. On Jan. 28, 1873 at Morton she married John W. Garber. He was born Aug. 5, 1849, and died Nov. 21, 1920, a son of Christian Garber and Catherine Nafziger. They are buried in Buckeye Cemetery. Magdalena 'Lena' 'Helen' Unsicker was born Sept. 19, 1853, and died March 9, 1883 (her headstone in Glendale Cemetery calls her 'Helen Sweitzer'). On April 21, 1881 at Morton she married Peter Schweitzer. He was born Sept. 7, 1849, and died May 22, 1923, a son of Jean/John Schweitzer and Marie/Mary Engel. On July 12, 1888 in Scott County, Iowa Peter remarried to Rachel Engel, with Peter Strubhar as a witness. Rachel was born Jan. 3, 1853, and died at Morton Dec. 6, 1938, a daughter of John Engel and Barbara Dettweiler. Peter, Helen, and Rachel are buried in Glendale Cemetery. Julius Kennel Unsicker was born July 23, 1855, and died in 1859. Daniel Kennel Unsicker was born March 8, 1857, and died at Wright, Iowa July 4, 1943. On Feb. 14, 1886 he married Elizabeth Kinsinger Zimmerman. She was born in Butler County June 21, 1862, and died at Wright Dec. 14, 1920, a daughter of Christian Zimmerman and Barbara Kinsinger. Daniel graduated from Evergreen City Business College at Bloomington. He late farmed in Livingston County and bought 490 acres at Wright. This farm grew to 1,000 acres. His biography can be found in Past and Present of Mahaska County, Iowa. Katharina 'Katie' Unsicker was born Feb. 1, 1859, and died Jan. 13, 1941. She is buried in Hirstein Cemetery. John Kennel Unsicker was born Jan. 31, 1866, and died Jan. 6, 1897. He is buried in Hirstein Cemetery.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

According to Estes, Cardina 'Carrie' Niederson was adopted into this family. She was born in December 1868 and died in 1956, a daughter of Mitchell Niedercorn and Mary Shoff. On Jan. 17, 1897 she married Arthur F. Hoffman.

Butler County Unzickers

Daniel Unzicker (1798-1863) of Milford

Johannes Unzicker is known to us only as a name on the entry for the first marriage of his son. Some sources say he was married to Veronika Hechler [possibly Bechler]. His son Daniel Unzicker (Sr.) was born at Wörth, Lower Alsace Nov. 11, 1773. He married Jakobea Holly at Wörth in 1793. She was a daughter of Johannes Holly and Barbara Eyer. It is probable that Elizabeth Unzicker born in 1794, the wife of Valentine Birky of the 'Little Red Birkys,' was their daughter. Jakobea died in 1795, and Daniel Unzicker remarried to Elisabeth Hauter, born circa 1775, a daughter of Nikolaus Hauter and Susanne Oesch of the estate Monbijou near Zweibrücken. 9 According to Hermann Guth in Amish Mennonites in Germany, Unzicker was a leaseholder on the Konigreicherhof estate at St. Wendel (now in Saarland) in 1802. He shared the lease with brother-in-law Christian Hauter. In 1802 or 1803 Unzicker moved farther east into Bavaria. In Bavaria Daniel and Elisabeth leased an estate belonging to the cloister Polling (40 miles southwest of Munich). Later they purchased the dairy farm Abtsried of the Wessobrunn cloister, in the same area as Polling. Daniel Unzicker (Jr.) was born March 4, 1798, possibly at Wörth. He married Magdalena Kahn in Bavaria Jan. 28, 1821. She was born in Prussia or Galacia (now part of Poland, then considered part of Russia) near the Prussian border Dec. 4, 1801. Her congregation would now be called Volhynian Mennonite. They lived on the Freudendorf farm at Altenbeuern, 42 miles southeast of Munich.

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Elisabeth Hauter Unzicker may be the Elisabeth Unzicker buried in Daartown Cemetery. She died Dec. 17, 1861, aged 86

years.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

According to William H. Grubb in History of the Mennonites in Butler County, Ohio (1916), they emigrated to Canada in 1828. They would have arrived at Hamilton, Ontario (a port at the western end of Lake Ontario) and traveled by carriage 40 miles west to the German Block at Wilmot, Ontario (near present day Kitchener). They lived on Bleam Street until 1831-32. Christian Nafziger's agreement with the British government had provided 50 acres of land for each settler at Wilmot, with no down payment. The stakeholder could apply for free ownership rights after seven years, provided a substantial dwelling was constructed and adjacent roads were cleared. Each 50 acres had another 150 acres behind it; many settlers assumed they would later purchase the 150 acres at discounted prices. The story of a migration from Waterloo south to Ohio in 1831-32 is told in ROPP. Christian Ropp: "...Several of our number decided to move to Ohio, for it was too cold in Canada. These were the following: Joseph Goldschmidt [later Goldsmith], Peter Danner [later Donner], Daniel Unzicker, Peter Nafziger, and several others." Grubb says that Daniel and Magdalena arrived in Butler County in 1834. Memoirs of the Miami Valley says they arrived in 1828. Other sources say they lived briefly in Pennsylvania before resettling in Ohio. However, the birth years and birthplaces of the children (as shown on federal censuses) give a different story. They substantiate the idea that they migrated south in 1831-32, as noted above. It is likely that if they lived in Pennsylvania at all, it was briefly, before they lived in Ontario; this would be consistent with the experiences of other settlers in the German Block of Wilmot. Their first home in Butler County was St. Clair, about four miles above Hamilton. The location was later called Overpeck when a combination train station and general store was constructed there, with the Overpeck family as storekeepers.10 After 1834 they lived on 80 acres in Darrtown, which they bought for $300. 'Danial Hansaker' and his family appear on the 1840 census of Darrtown. Their home site at Darrtown became part of Milford, then Oxford. Their homestead is now described as 2975 Oxford-Middletown Road in Oxford. It is on the National Register of Historic Places, called the Unzicker-Cook House. A photo can be found in the booklet Damals auf dem Lande, Once Upon a Farm: A Self-Guided Driving Tour of the Historic Amish Mennonite Community of Butler County, Ohio published by the Friends of Chrisholm. The web site of the Ohio Historic Preservation Office of the Ohio Historical Society: "When the Unzickers moved to the land, which was a tract of school land in Section 9 of the township, there was a clearing with an old log cabin and stable. Unzicker continued to improve the land with the construction of several stone buildings. He farmed the land and increased his holdings to 160 acres. Daniel Unzicker and his wife were Mennonites. At the time they moved there was an influx of Mennonites into Butler County from Canada and Pennsylvania. Many settled in St. Clair and Madison townships. He was also a preacher and both were active and faithful members of their church. They had 13 children." Memoirs of the Miami Valley: "For his first eighty acres he paid $300, this being school land upon which there was a small clearing and an old log cabin and stable. He erected a stone house, which is still standing as one of the community's old landmarks, as well as a good barn, and continued to be engaged in farming all his life. He voted the Democratic ticket but was not an office seeker. A member of the Mennonite church, he became a preacher of that faith. . ." The family appears on the 1850 census of Milford as 52-year-old farmer Daniel Unseker born in German; Magdalena, 47, born in Germany; Folendine [Valentine], 27, born in Germany; Daniel, 21, born in 'G.B. Canada' [Great Britain Canada] ; Joseph, 20, also born in Canada; Barbaray, 18, born in Ohio; John, 16, born in Ohio; Elizabeth, 12, born in Ohio; Jacob, 10 or 16, born in Ohio; Chris., 8, born in Ohio; and David, 4, born in Ohio. The birthplaces and ages are consistent with a move from Canada to Ohio in 1831-32. They appear on the 1860 census of Milford as 62-year-old farmer Daniel Unsaker born in Germany; Magdalene Unsaker, 58, born in Germany; E. [Elizabeth] Unsaker, 20, born in Ohio; Jacob Unsaker, 19, born in Ohio; Christian Unsaker, 18, born in Ohio; and David Unsaker, 14, born in Ohio. They lived next door to Joseph Augspurger, 74, a younger brother of Christian Augspurger.

From A History and Biographical Cyclopaedia of Butler County, Ohio published in 1882: "About twenty years ago [1862] the Mennonite Church at Overpeck's was organized. An acre of ground, upon part of which the church stands, was given to this denomination by Christian Slonacker, an early member. The membership is composed mainly of Germans. Among those who were instrumental in the organization were Dr. John Borker, the Augspurgers, and Peter Imhof. The Rev. Nicholas Augspurger was an early preacher. The first meetings of this society were held in private houses. In the neighborhood where this society is best known it goes by the name of the 'Hook-and-Eye' Church. . . The Apostles' Church, in this same neighborhood, sprang from the other Mennonite Church, and was composed principally of the younger members. The division was caused on account of some disagreement in discipline. The outside people call the Apostle the 'Button' Church, in order to note the improvement of hooks-and-eyes."

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

According to Grubb, "Having been called to the ministry before he came to America, he [Unzicker] identified himself with the Collinsville congregation [Collinsville and Darrtown are located within Milford] and served as one of its ministers until his death, which occurred Sept. 18, 1863, and he is buried in the Darrtown cemetery." Daniel was killed by lightning as he stood at the open window of his home calling for his sons to come in from a storm. Magdalena Kahn appears as a widow on the 1870 census of Milford. Her family is identified as Magalene Unzicker, 68, keeping house, born in Prussia; David, 24, born in Ohio; and Ellen [Ella Kessler, David's wife], 20, born in Maryland. The household of her son Jacob appears elsewhere on the page. Magdalena Kahn died July 28, 1880 and is buried in Darrtown Cemetery. Their children include:

1. Peter Unzicker was born on Freudendorf Farm at Altenbeuern, Bavaria (about 40 miles southeast of Munich) Jan. 13, 1822, and died at Collinsville March 21, 1866. On Jan. 13, 1850 at Collinsville he married Catherine 'Katie' Schertz in a ceremony conducted by Nicholas Augspurger. She was born Dec. 22, 1832, a daughter of Christian Schertz and Elisabeth Hauter. They are found on the 1850 census of Milford as farmer Peter Unseeker, 28; and Keate, 27. Peter was also a stone mason. Valentine Unzicker was born on Freudendorf Farm at Altenbeuern, Bavaria Aug. 15, 1823, and died at Milford, Nebraska Oct. 17, 1881. On March 9, 1851 at Collinsville he married Magdalena Schertz in a ceremony conducted by Nicholas Augspurger. She was born Sept. 15, 1826, and died at Milford, Nebraska Dec. 9, 1898, a daughter of Christian Schertz and Elisabeth Hauter. Herald of Truth, January 1882: " Oct. 14th, in Seward Co., Nebr., of dropsy, Valentine Unzicker, aged 58 years, 1 month and 29 days. A bereaved wife and 8 children are left to mourn their loss. Funeral services were held by P. P. Hershberger and Joseph Gascho." Herald of Truth, January 1899: "Sister Magdalena Unsicker, nee Schertz, was born Sept. 15th, 1826, died Dec. 9th, 1898, aged 72 years, 2 months and 24 days. Her husband and two daughters preceded her to the spirit world. She leaves three sons, four daughters, and twenty-seven grandchildren to mourn their loss. Services by Joseph Schlegel from 2 Cor. 5:1 and by Jacob Stauffer from 2 Tim. 4:7, 8. Was buried in the Fairview cemetery, near Milford, Seward Co., Neb." Magdalena Unzicker was born on Freudendorf Farm at Altenbeuern, Bavaria Nov. 29, 1824, and died at Collinsville March 24, 1851. In 1845 she married David Augspurger. He was born in 1823 and died in McLean County Jan. 4, 1895, a son of Jacob Augspurger and Maria Schlabach. They had two children. Following her death he remarried to Elizabeth Schertz in Butler County Sept. 11, 1851. She was born in 1826, and died Nov. 3, 1895, a daughter of Christian Schertz and Margaret Mueller. She is buried at Milford. They can be found on the 1860 census of St. Clair, Butler County; her father Christian Schertz was a guest in their household, described as a 65-year-old. They later lived in McLean County and had seven children. Their son David D. Augspurger was ordained at East Washington Mennonite Church, Tazewell County in 1889. Catherine 'Katie' Unzicker was born at Wilmot, Ontario March 21, 1827, and died at Danvers Nov. 23, 1869, where she is buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery. She appears on the 1850 census of Milford as 22-year-old 'Catharine Unsiker' in the household of Joseph Augspurger, where he birthplace is given as 'Canada G.B.' On May 23, 1852 she married Jacob Zimmerman at Collinsville, Butler County, in a ceremony conducted by Nicholas Augspurger. He was born at Bourgfelden May 12, 1829, died in Elm Grove July 18, 1899 (also found as Crandall, Ill. July 18, 1898), and is buried in the Old Apostolic Cemetery in Morton. He was a son of Christian Zimmerman and Catherine Sommer. Widower Jacob Zimmerman can be found on the 1870 census of Dry Grove, McLean County as a 41-yearold farmer born in France, with children Magdalina, 17; Barbary, 16; Catherine, 14; Fanny, 9; Henry, 7; Emma, 4; and Daniel, 2; the oldest pair born in Ohio, the others in Illinois. Jacob remarried to Susan Rector Feb. 12, 1872 in Tazewell County. Daniel (Jr.) Unzicker was born at Wilmot, Ontario Feb. 11, 1829, and died in Nebraska before 1919. He married Jacobene 'Phoebe' Birky in Tazewell County Nov. 17, 1857. She was born at Gern (now a neighborhood of Munich) Jan. 15, 1838, and died Sept. 15, 1914, a daughter of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. She may have been his half-cousin. Daniel was a shoe maker and farmer. They are found on the 1870 census of Morton as farmer Daniel Unsecker, 40, Canada; Josephine, 32, Bern; with four children born in Illinois. They can be found on the 1910 census of Milford, Nebraska and are buried there. Joseph Unzicker was born at Wilmot, Ontario Sept. 1, 1830, and died at Covington, Kentucky Oct. 28, 1909. On Aug. 11, 1859 in Butler County he married Magdalena 'Malinda' Schmucker. She was born at Bertambois, Meurtheet-Moselle Jan. 13, 1822, and died in McLean County July 23,1906, a daughter of Joseph Schemouker and Magdelaine Sommer. On June 20, 1907 Joseph remarried to Celine Geubourg. She was born at Baccarat, Meurtheet-Moselle Feb. 21,1859, and died at Meadows, McLean County April 10, 1938, a daughter of Joseph Geubourg and Madalena Lehe. Barbara Unzicker was born at Wilmot, Ontario March 28, 1832, and died in McLean County Dec. 29, 1891. On March 19, 1854 in Butler County she married Daniel Schoenbeck. He was born Nov. 28, 1826, and died Sept. 2, 1906. They are buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery at Danvers. Herald of Truth, January 1892: "On Dec. 29, 1891, in Danvers, McLean Co., Ill., of cancer, Barbara, maiden name Unsicker, wife of Daniel Schoenbeck, aged 59 years, 9 months and 1 day. She was one of a family of 13, and was born in Canada. She accepted Christ in her early youth, uniting with the Mennonite church in Butler Co., Ohio. She was united in matrimony to Daniel Schoenbeck,

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

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March 19, 1854. They moved to McLean Co., Ill., where they lived since. Of their seven children two have preceded her in death. Buried on the 31st, followed to the grave by many friends. Funeral services by Christian Guengrich, Joseph Stuckey and Peter E. Stuckey in English and German." John Unzicker was born at Collinsville April 30, 1834, and died there Oct. 27, 1886. On Dec. 15, 1858 he married Mary Slonneger at Collinsville in a ceremony conducted by Nicholas Augspurger. She was born circa 1835, a daughter of John Slonneger [Schlunegger] and Barbara Schlatter. Grubb: "John Unzicker, son of Rev. Daniel and Magdalena Unzicker, was born near Collinsville, Ohio, April 30, 1834. He was married to Mary Slonneger on December 15, 1859. In 1867 he was elected a minister in the Hessian congregation. The family appears on the 1870 census of Milford as 36-year-old farmer John Unzicker, born in Ohio; Meary, 35, born in Ohio; Emma, 9, born in Ohio; William, 8, born in Ohio; Edward, 6, born in Ohio; Anna, 2, born in Ohio; and Lizzie [John's sister Elizabeth], 32, born in Ohio. His death occurred October 27, 1886, and he is buried in the Union Cemetery, Collinsville." Herald of Truth, November 1886: "On the 27th of October, in Butler Co., Ohio, of consumption, Pre. John Unzicker, aged 52 years, 5 months and 27 days. He was sick only 3 weeks and confined to his bed about 10 days. He remained rational up to his last moments. He was aware that death was near. His last words that could be understood were: "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit." "Dear Savior, thou hadst to suffer, I will bear my cross with patience." He was buried on the 31st in the Collinsville graveyard. Services by Joseph Augspurger and Pre. Walker. He leaves a wife and five children to mourn their loss." Maria/Marie Unzicker was born at Milford, Butler County June 24, 1836, and died March 19, 1842. Elisabeth 'Lizzie' Unzicker was born at Collinsville Aug. 21, 1838, and died there Nov. 8, 1925. She appears on the 1870 census of Milford as Lizzie Unzicker, 32, living in the household of her older bother John. She was a school teacher. Jakob Unzicker was born at Collinsville Sept. 6 or 7, 1840, and died there Feb. 20 or 28, 1929. On Jan. 9, 1865 he married Veronica 'Fanny' Slonneger. She was born in Butler County June 4, 1835, and died Jan. 15, 1922, a daughter of John Slonneger and Barbara Schlatter. Memoirs of the Miami Valley: "Jacob Unzicker was educated in the home schools and remained on the homestead place up to the time of his marriage, January 9, 1865, to Veronica Slonacker, who was born in Milford township, January 4,1836, a daughter of John and Barbara (Schlatter) Slonacker, natives of Switzerland, the father born May 22, 1809, in the western part, on French soil. . . After his marriage, Jacob Unzicker was engaged in farming in Stony Hollow, Milford township, for two years and then went to the old home place, where he spent fifteen years. He built the home in 1867 and lived therein until 1884, in December of which year he took up his residence on the old Slonacker place, where he remained until 1904. He then moved to Collinsville, where in 1905 he built his present home, and since then has been retired from active pursuits. . . a school director of Milford township for nine years and as assessor for one year. . . He and his wife are faithful members of the Mennonite church at Trenton, while his daughter, Magdalena, belongs to the Presbyterian church at Collinsville." The family appears on the 1870 census of Milford as 29-year-old farmer Jacob Unzicker, born in Ohio; Fanny, 34, born in Ohio; John C., 2, born in Ohio; and Mary L., 9 months, born in Ohio. Christian Unzicker was born at Collinsville April 2, 1842, and died at Oxford, Butler County Feb. 17, 1929. On Feb. 13, 1868 in Butler County he married Mahala M. Williams. She was born near Terre Haute, Ind., and died Dec. 16, 1910. Memoirs of the Miami Valley: "Christian Unzicker secured his educational training in the schools of his home county, and was reared to agricultural pursuits on the home farm, where he remained until his marriage, at the age of twenty-six years, to Mahala Williams, who was born near Terre Haute, Ind., and died December 16, 1910... After his marriage, Christian Unzicker lived at Collinsville for one year, and then engaged in farming north of this place for six years, near Seven Mile for three years, at Collinsville for another year and near Darrtown for seventeen years. He then purchased a farm from Christian Goldsmith, which he operated successfully for five years, and in 1902 built his present home at 510 Maple avenue, where he has since lived in comfortable semi-retirement. He also carries on truck farming on five acres of land surrounding his comfortable and attractive residence. . . one term in the position of school director of Milford township. He is a Democrat in his political affiliation, and he and the members of his family belong to the Methodist Episcopal church." David Unzicker was born May 3, 1846, and died in Edwards County, Kansas Dec. 29, 1920. He became a farmer in Edwards County, where he could be found as late as the 1920 census. He married Ella Kessler and Christina Donner.

Hunsicker/Unsicker of the Rohrhof

Tazewell County also became a home to Hunsickers from the area of Mannheim, Baden. These families generally spelled their surname 'Unsicker' in Central Illinois. Peter Hunsicker and Magdalena Schwartzentruber farmed on the Rohrhof estate in the Schwetzingen district southeast of Mannheim.11

Hermann Guth identified Magdalena Schwartzentruber as a daughter of Christian Schwartzentruber and Katharina Ruby of Freinsheim.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

We could identify three of their children born on the Rohrhof estate:

1. 2. Jacob Hunsicker/Unsicker was born circa 1800. Katharina Hunsicker/Unzicker married Peter Nafziger on the Rohrhof estate March 3, 1829. Katharina and Peter emigrated in 1848, and settled at Boynton in 1850 (see NAFZIGER). Katharina's headstone calls her 'Katharina Unzicker,' and says she died Oct. 16, 1876, aged 72 years, 9 months, and 21 days (yielding a birth date of Dec. 26, 1803). Magdalena Hunsicker married Johannes Müller at Enkenbach. He was born on the Münsterhof estate at Dreisen in 1795, and died on the Froschauerhof estate at Weierhof in 1881, a son of Daniel Müller and Magdalena Jakobina Kennel.

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Jacob Hunsicker/Unsicker was born on the Rohrhof estate circa 1800. On March 13, 1821, Jacob married Barbara Eyer. She was born circa 1800, and died at Mannheim, Baden Dec. 8, 1844. As a widower Jacob immigrated with all of his children but the oldest son in 1847-48. He may have gone directly to the home of his sister Katharina at Boynton. He succumbed to cholera the same year. His children are found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County: Marceline [Magdalena] Honsucker, 24; Catharine [Katharina], 20; Barbara, 18; Peter, 15; Jacob, 13; John, 12; and Christian, 10. On the same census we find probable employment duplications: Catharine Hunsucker, 24, Germany, in the household of Isaac Leonard; and Peter Hunsaker, 17, Germany, in the household of Martin Myers. Jacobina 'Bena' was likely living with her new husband, Nicholas Kropf. The children of Jacob Hunsicker/Unsicker and Barbara Eyer born on the Rohrhof estate in the Schwetzingen district near Mannheim had the spelling 'Hunsicker' on their birth entries, but used the spelling 'Unsicker' in Illinois. They include:

1. Daniel Hunsicker was born Feb. 19, 1822. He remained in Baden after the emigration of his father and siblings, and died at Schwetzingen Nov. 20, 1848. The death entry named his parents as Jakob Hunsicker and Barbara Eier. Magdalena Unsicker was born July 26, 1823. She appears on Morton censuses in 1870 and 1880 as sister 'Malinda' in the household of younger brother John. Barbara Unsicker was born Nov. 7, 1824, and died within a day. Katharina Unsicker was born July 28, 1826, baptized Aug. 14, died April 4, 1902, and is buried in the Old Apostolic Cemetery at Tremont as 'Katharina Unsiker.' She is found as 'Catarina Hunsicker' in her birth entry. She appears on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as Catharine Unsiker, 30, Baden, living in the household of Nicholas 'Kroup' and her sister Jacobina. Jacobina 'Bena' Unsicker was born Dec. 2, 1829, and died at Elm Grove Feb. 4, 1905. She is thought to be buried in Railroad Cemetery. On Feb. 17, 1850 in Pekin she married Nicholas Kropf/Krop/Grubb. He was born at Hartzviller, Meurthe, France May 26, 1813, and died in Tazewell County April 8, 1881, a son of Pierre Kropf and Suzanne Ringberger [Ringenberg]. He is buried in Antioch Cemetery at Dillon. They appear on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as farmer Nicholas Kroup, 45, France; Jacobena, 25, Baden; Barbara, 4, Illinois; John, 1, Illinois; Fred Bartty, 20, Illinois; and Catharine Unsicker 30, Baden (Jacobina's older sister Katharina). The father's name appears on the 1864 plat map of Elm Grove as 'N. Grubb.' The appear on the 1870 census of Elm Grove as farmer Nicholas Cropp, 54, France; Jacobine, 35, Baden; John, 10; Peter, 8; Magdalena, 6; and Christian, 6; all children born in Illinois. The 1880 census shows them as 'Grubb.' Nicholas was a younger brother to André Kropf, whose name also evolved into Grubb at Elm Grove. Peter Unsicker was born Aug. 18, 1832 (according to his headstone; the 1900 census gives the date May 18, 1831). Barbara Unsicker was born Sept. 9, 1833, and died at Tremont Dec. 2, 1916. She is buried in the Old Apostolic Cemetery at Tremont. In 1860 she married Ludwig/Louis Getz. He was born in Württemberg in January 1829 (his headstone says 1830), and died at Elm Grove Oct. 22, 1898, a son of Ludwig Getz. History of Illinois and her People: "Mrs. Getz, whose maiden name was Barbara Unsicker, was born in Bavaria, Germany, where occurred the death of her mother, she having later accompanied her father and other members of the family to the United States and the home having been established in Tazewell County, Illinois, where the death of the father occurred prior to the Civil War." They are found on the 1880 census of Elm Grove as farmer Louis Getz, 50, Württemberg; Barbara, 46, Baden; and nine children born in Illinois. Jacob Unsicker was born June 21, 1835, baptized June 28, and died Aug. 18, 1919. He may be the 25-year-old laborer Jacob Unsicker found on the 1860 census of Dillon. He is found on the 1870 census of Morton as

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The administration of the Rohrhof estate merged with adjacent Brühl in 1878. In 1944 part of Rohrhof was also absorbed by Mannheim. It would now be described as Rohrdorf, one of two neighborhoods (the other Brühl) within the municipality of Brühl, in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

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farmer Jacob Unsicker, 35, Switzerland; Lena, 36, Switzerland; Elizabeth, 5; John, 3; Lena, 2; and Joseph, 1; all children born in Illinois. The 1880 census of Morton shows the household as farmer Jacob Unsicker, 45. born in Baden with parents from Baden; Malinda, 43, born in Switzerland to Swiss parents; and nine children younger than 16, all born in Illinois. On the 1910 census of Metamora Jacob's year of immigration is given as 1848. His wife, who is thought to be a Nafziger, is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland as 'Magdalena Unzicker, Jan. 9, 1835-Feb. 12, 1900.' Johannes/John Unsicker was born Aug. 1, 1837, baptized the same day, and died at Fairbury, Livingston County Oct. 11, 1826. He is found on the 1870 census of Morton, on the page following his brother Jacob: John Unsicker, 33, Baden; sister Malinda, 40, Baden; and farm laborer Edward Hearn, 13, Switzerland. In 1880 he appears on the same page as Jacob: farmer John Unsicker, 41, Baden; and sister Malinda, 50, Baden. On Feb. 21, 1892 in Livingston County he married Regula Fehr.12 She was born circa 1852, and died at Fairbury Jan. 4, 1823, a daughter of Solomon Fehr and Regula Henner. They are found on the 1920 census of Indian Grove, Livingston County as John A. Unsicker, 81; Regula, 69; and Mary Arnsicker, 25. Christian Unsicker was born July 1, 1839, baptized July 20, and died at Hopedale May 6, 1928. On May 20, 1867 in Tazewell County he married Wilhelmina Kahler (the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index calls her 'Minnia Kohler', indicating that the spelling probably appeared on the marriage certificate). She was born at Schloss Hessen, Brunswick, Germany June 6, 1849, and died at Hopedale Jan. 8, 1926, a daughter of Frederick Kahler and Dorothea Beitz. They are found on the 1910 census of Hopedale, where it states that he immigrated in 1848, and she immigrated in 1855. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont.

Peter Unsicker was born on the Rohrhof estate Aug. 18, 1832, and died at Tremont Aug. 29, 1925. His death entry gave this birth date, named his birthplace as 'Rohrhoff, Germany,' and named his parents as Jacob Unsicker and Barbara Aurer [Eyer]. On April 22, 1860 in Tazewell County he married Anna Barbara Blunier. She was born at Trub, Canton Bern, Switzerland Nov. 7, 1834, and died at Tremont Feb. 9, 1919, a daughter of Casper Blunier and Elizabeth Schönthal. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. The 1860 census of Elm Grove shows Peter Unseicker, 27, Baden; Barbara, 24, Switzerland; Christian [Peter's brother], 21, Bavaria; and Madeleine, 30, Baden in the same household. They lived next door to John Schrock. The 1870 census of Elm Grove shows Peter Unsicker, 38, Baden; Anna, 36, Switzerland; six children born in Illinois, and laborer Samuel Maurer, 21, Switzerland. In 1880 they appear as P. Unzacker, 47 Germany; Barbara, 45, Switzerland; and seven children born in Illinois with a Swiss servant Hy Hartman. On the 1900 census of Tremont, Peter Unsicker's birth date is given as May 18, 1831 in Germany; Anna is born Dec. 7, 1833 in Switzerland [both dates disagree with their headstones]; they had one boarder. On the 1910 census of Tremont Peter gives his year of immigration as 1847, Anna Barbara gives hers as 1855. Their children born at Elm Grove include:

1. Lydia Unsicker was born June 30, 1861, and died Dec. 4, 1901. She is buried in the Old Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. On Jan. 1, 1884 in Tazewell County she married Philip Gauger. He was born at Bonefeld in the Rhineland Palatinate Jan. 24, 1859, and died Nov. 4, 1923, a son of John Gauger and Julia Wacker. The family appears on the 1910 census of Tremont as farm operator Philip Gauger, 51, born in Germany; and 10 children ages 11-25, all born in Illinois. Persida Unsicker was born March 23, 1863, and died April 21, 1935. She is buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. Samuel P. Unsicker was born July 7, 1864, and died Feb. 23, 1942. On June 1, 1890 in Tazewell County he married Lena Zimmerman. She was born in Illinois Dec. 4, 1866, and died Jan. 2, 1957, a daughter of Andrew Zimmerman and Elizabeth Pfister. They appear on the 1900 census of Metamora, Woodford County as farmer Samuel P. Unsicker, born in Illinois in July 1864 to German parents; Lena, born in Illinois in December 1865 to parents from Ohio and Germany; and five children born in Illinois. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Roanoke, Woodford County. Peter S. Unsicker was born in February 1866, and died in 1916. On Jan. 1, 1899 in Tazewell County he married Marie/Mary Stuber. She was born at Solothurn, Canton Solothurn, Switzerland in July 1871, and died in 1932, a daughter of Jacob Stuber and his first wife Mary Nussbaum. Her family sailed from Le Havre on the Labrador, arriving at New York Nov. 8, 1883. They arrived at Tremont the same year. They are buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery at Elm Grove. Elizabeth Unsicker was born March 31, 1868, and died April 16, 1928. She is buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. Priscilla Unsicker was born June 30, 1870, and died Sept. 25, 1958. On Feb. 21, 1897 in Tazewell County she married John Knapp. He was born in Germany Dec. 12, 1872, and died April 10, 1937. He immigrated in 1888. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists her as Regina Fehr.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

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They appear on the 1910 census of Tremont as farmer John Knapp, 37, Germany; and Priscilla, 40, Illinois. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. Anna Barbara Unsicker was born Nov. 7, 1871, and died Dec. 11, 1951. On Nov. 16, 1893 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Dreyer. He was born in Illinois March 19, 1869, and died Oct. 12, 1930. Their household appears on the 1900 census of Elm Grove as farmer Joseph Dreyer, born in Illinois in March 1869; Anna, born in Illinois in November 1877; Matilda E., 7, born in Illinois; and Elizabeth M., [age illegible] born in Illinois.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Roth of Hochburg

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ention of the Roth family can be found in Hilterfingen and Steffisburg records as far back as 1560, when their name was also spelled 'Rott,' 'Roht,' 'Root,' or 'Rodt,' all derived from 'red.' Like the Stückers, their records could be found at Schwarzenegg after 1693. The Roth and Zimmerman families that came to Tazewell County via Butler County had begun their travels from the Hochburg district of Baden. Swiss Anabaptists had arrived there soon after the persecution of 1670. As early as 1687 the administrative records of Windenreute mentioned a Hodel family of Anabaptists that had come from Steffisburg, Bern; this surname became 'Hodler' in Alsace. But for the most part, the Bernese families of the Hochburg congregation came from Alsace after the expulsion order of 1712. In 1713 Amish Mennonite minister Christian Rupp came from Kunheim (on the opposite side of the Rhine River in Alsace) and leased the Hochburg estate, the grounds of a ruined castle owned by the margrave. (Speculation about his identify can be found in LITWILLER). The Hochburg estate and the Weier castle estate at Schupfholz later became meeting places of the Hochburg congregation. When Margrave Karl Friedrich came to power in 1771, his domain consisted of an upper Catholic region (Baden-Baden), a lower Lutheran region (Baden-Durlach), and a patchwork of properties owned by the Austrian Hapsburgs, the prince-bishop of Basel, and knights of the Holy Roman Empire. In that year Baden-Durlach was further divided into (north-to-south) an upper margravate, the district of Hochburg, and a lower margravate. The events in this portion of text are concerned almost entirely with the district of Hochburg. The district was composed of villages on the west and north sides of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. Between 1800 and 1830 a number of historical events affected the Hochburg district:

In 1803 the Russian czar used his influence to elevate the margrave into a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The move was intended to strengthen Baden-Durlach as a buffer between the Holy Roman Empire and France. The story of Baden smuggler Karl Ludwig Schulmeister, and his part in von Mack's surrender of 25,000 troops to Napoleon at the Battle of Ulm in 1805, is told in EIGSTI. Following the event the new prince-elector of BadenDurlach allied with France. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was abolished, and Napoleon made Karl Friedrich a grand duke and leader of the Confederation of the Rhine. His domain became a grand duchy (Ger. Grossherzogtum Baden), and was now seen as a buffer protecting France from its enemies. In 1811 Grand Duke Karl Friedrich died. The former margrave had played both sides to increase his political influence and enrich his family. His grandson Karl Ludwig Friedrich became grand duke. In 1812, Napoleon's Grand Army retreated from its humiliating losses in the Russian Campaign. Very few of the 7,000 troops from Baden returned home. Those who had deserted had their homes confiscated and sold at auction. In 1813 losses from the Russian Campaign caused the grand duke to rethink his alliances. Between the first and third days of the Battle of Leipzig (also called the Battle of Nations) he did a complete turnaround, and shifted his allegiance to the winning allied side in a 'War of Liberation.' In 1814 typhus spread from town to town, carried by the fleas brought by billeted soldiers. In the village of Auggen alone 1,500 people died. From 1814 to 1818 the citizens of the Hochburg district "lived to quarter troops" ­ housing and feeding Austrians, Hungarians, Prussians, and Russians. In 1815 Baden became part of the German Confederation under the Treaty of Vienna. It remained a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire in 1871. (It is now part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg). The Little Ice Age of 1814-16, created by volcanic eruptions in the Pacific Ocean, affected all of Europe and caused widespread starvation over the 1816-17 winter. Grand Duke Karl Ludwig Friedrich signed a relatively liberal constitution shortly before his death in 1818. However, his successor reversed most of his concessions by 1830.

Nicolas/Nikolaus Roth was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines circa 1770.13 We could not determine when he first came to Baden.

Several researchers attempting to find earlier roots for Nicolas/Nikolaus Roth have looked toward the prominent and well-documented Amish Mennonite Roth family that settled in Montbéliard. Their ideas were based on the false assumption that Nikolaus Roth was a son of elder Hans Roth of Les Gouttes and his second wife Verena Stucki. According to Joe Springer of Goshen College and Lorraine Roth, this was not the case. Springer, who has researched Montbéliard church records for several

13

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

His only identifiable sibling was a sister, Barbara Roth. She was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines in 1769, and died at Umkirch Jan. 24, 1821. Barbara Roth married Johannes König, who was likely born on the Obernimburg monastery grounds at Nimburg circa 1768, and died on the Mundenhof estate at Umkirch Dec. 18, 1804. Their children are listed in KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG. On July 9, 1805 at Umkirch Barbara remarried to Jacob Sommer (1765-1838) of Le Ban de la Roche (Ger. Steinthal), Lower Alsace. Jacob and Barbara renewed the lease on the Mundenhof estate. Nikolaus was a witness to the 1805 wedding, and the marriage entry describes him as the brother of the bride: "Brder, der hof Zweinrin von Maria Kirch rin at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. It is also likely that Nikolaus was a brother or cousin to elder Jakob Roth. Jakob was born at Ste. Marie-auxMines circa 1765, and married Barbara Wagler at Hochburg in 1785. The three Roths in Baden may also have been younger siblings of Christian Roth, who was born circa 1752.14 Christian became an elder at Herbéviller, and died at the age of 93 at Xouaxange Feb. 13, 1845 (recorded under the name 'Christian Rhodes'). Anne Mosimann (1761-1799) was the first of his three wives; she was also an aunt to bishop Michael Mosiman. (This would mean that minister Nicholas Roth of Morton and bishop Michael Mosiman of Wesley City/Creve Coeur were cousins, sharing Christian Roth and Anne Mosiman as uncle and aunt; the minister and bishop established the congregation at Groveland that became the Defenseless Mennonite/Evangelical Mennonite Church). In 1807 or 1808 Nicholas married Verena Zimmerman. She would be known as 'Fanny' in America. She was born circa Dec. 31, 1789, a daughter of Michael Zimmerman and Anna Maria Zimmerman. She was probably born at Denzlingen, the birth place of her older brother, but it is also possible that she was born at the home of her uncle Jakob Zimmerman at Sexau, the seat of the Grand Duchy of Baden (see ZIMMERMAN for more on her background and brothers who also came to Tazewell County). She died at Morton April 10, 1878, and is buried near her son-inlaw Joseph Stecker/Staker in Roberts Cemetery. Her gravestone gives her name as 'Veronika Roth,' with the inscription "gest. D. 10 Apr. 1878, 88 Jahre, 3 Mon., 10 Tage alt" (died on April 10, 1878, 88 years, 3 months and 10 days old). On a hand-drawn genealogy chart, Verena's grandson Daniel K. Roth used the title Groshertzogthum [Grand Duchy of] Baden-America 1837 to describe his grandmother's origin. Daniel K. wrote that, "I am not certain as to the village where my father and grandmother came from in Germany, but I heard them talk a great deal about Stuttgart and Baden...From what I remember them say, this country had very good land ...Grandmother Roth [Verena Zimmerman Roth] could speak French as well as she could talk German" (Roth-Zimmerman Genealogy). The birth records of their first seven children and the wedding entry of brother-in-law Andreas Zimmerman identify Nikolaus as a Mennonite tenant farmer on the Buggingen estate of the steward Roggenburger until 1817. 15 The Roggenburgers were a Catholic family, and their records can be found dating back to 1740 in the Buggingen Kirchenbuch. We found the surnames Rieser/Riesser, Schad, and Stucki in Buggingen church records 1770-82. The village of Buggingen is 16 miles southwest of Freuburg im Breisgau, in a wine-growing area called the Markgräflerland. 'Buggingen' was written on the back cover of the Roth Family Bible, now held by the library of the Mennonite Historical Society at Metamora. The volume is an original Christoffel Froschauer Bible published in 1536. Late in 1817 Nikolaus appeared as a witness on the wedding entry of farm laborer Johannes von Gunde (later known in America as John Gundy; see KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG). He was identified as a leaseholder at Mengen, a village only four miles southwest of Freiburg im Breisgau. The 1817 and 1818 birth entries of children were found in records of the Protestant Reformed Church at Mengen.

years, points out that Hans Roth of Les Gouttes died in 1802. His son Nicolas died unmarried in 1825. The late Steve Roth of Ohio located the 1825 death record that showed that the Nicolas/Nikolaus who married Verena Zimmerman could not have been a son of Hans Roth of Les Gouttes. Material on the Montbéliard Roths can be found in Protestant Refugees of the 17th Century, Anabaptists of Montbéliard, and Recherches Historiques sur les Anabaptistes by Charles Mathiot, published in Belfort in 1922. These items can be found on film 1071437 in any LDS Family History Center. We could not identify the source of the idea that Nikolaus Roth was born at 'Les Gouttes,' which was also passed down in the Roth-Zimmerman Genealogy. If this is approximately accurate, it is far more likely that the location was Le Goutte St. Blaise (the drop, slope, or waterfall of St. Blaise, an Anabaptist farm) in Ste. Croix-aux-Mines, within walking distance of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. 'La Goutte St. Blaise' is clearly indicated on the Cassini map published in 1778. But we suspect this was only part of the confusion of the erroneous attribution. 14 His civil death entry stated that he was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. The 1805 wedding entry of his oldest son identified him as a resident of Basel, but this may have been a legality to help his sons at a time of high military conscription. 15 FHL microfilm 189585, Buggingen.

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A poor harvest prompted many to emigrate from Baden to America in 1830. Letters from America made life there seem relatively luxurious. Nikolaus Roth died in 1833 (according to son Peter Roth's obituary) or 1834 (according to his grandson Daniel K. Roth's hand-drawn genealogy chart). Widow Verena's oldest daughter, Barbara, married Joseph Stecker's cousin Peter Zehr in Europe and migrated to New York State in 1835. Verena also chose to emigrate. The ship François 1st sailed from Le Havre with only 17 passengers Jan. 26, 1837. It arrived at New York City March 10. Verena is noted on the passenger list as 'Ferenica Roth,' age 47, from Bavaria. Her five accompanying children were Nicolas [Nicholas], 23, farmer; Ferenica [Frena], 16; Anna, 10; Pierre [Peter], 8; and Daniel, 4. In 1837, widow Verena (Zimmerman) Roth and her children traveled from New York City directly to Butler County, Ohio, where she had family connections. KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG shows how the Roth children and the Goldschmidt/Goldsmiths were cousins, sharing Johannes König and Barbara Roth as aunt and uncle. The Roth children's relationship to minister Benedict King was less direct ­ his older brother Johannes had married Barbara Roth, their aunt ­ but they must have known him as the former leading church elder in the Breisgau region. We have already shown how the Roth children were likely cousins to bishop Michael Mosiman. Verena likely arrived at Morton between 1844 and 1850.

VERENA AND THE ROBERTS SETTLEMENT The Underground Railroad in Illinois was a loose association of people with a strong belief in the abolition of slavery. It originally existed to conceal fugitive slaves as they fled from the south to urban areas in the north. In 1841 Queen Victoria issued a policy statement, "That every fugitive from United States slavery be recognized and protected as a British subject the moment his or her foot touched the soil of her domain." After this, the ultimate goal became the Canadian border. The Revised Statutes of the State of Illinois Sections 3 and 9 stated that, "It shall be the duty of all coroners, sheriffs, judges and justices of the peace, who shall see or know of, or be informed of any such assemblage of slaves or servants, immediately to commit such slaves or servants to the jail of the county, and on view or proof thereof to order each and every such slave or servant to be whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes on his or her bare back." "If any slave or servant shall be found at a distance of ten miles from the tenement of his or her master, or person with whom he or she lives, without a pass or some letter of token whereby it may appear that he or she is proceeding by authority from his or her master, employer or overseer, it shall and may be lawful for any person to apprehend and carry him or her before a justice of the peace to be by his order punished with stripes, not exceeding thirty-five at his discretion." According to Charles Chapman's History of Morton, "The Underground Railroad which began late in 1830 and ceased early in 1850 was operating in the Morton vicinity. This railroad originated in some of those causes which culminated in the Civil War...The Roberts settlement, one and one-half miles northwest of town, was one of the main stations." The Roth-Zimmernan Genealogy states that Verena (Zimmerman) Roth, "When first arriving in the Morton area, lived several miles north of Morton [center], likely in this Roberts settlement." It is unlikely that Verena was unaware of her circumstances. Chapman's History of Tazewell County: "Pro-slavery men complained bitterly of the violation of the law by their abolition neighbors, and persecuted them as much as they dared; and this was not a little. But the friends of the slaves were not to be deterred by persecution. 'The blood of martyrs is the seed of the church,' and persecution only made them more determined than ever to carry out their just convictions of right and duty. No class of people ever made better neighbors than the Abolitionists, or better conductors on a railroad." The four adjacent farms of the Roberts settlement belonged to brothers (west to east) John Montgomery Roberts, Darius Phelps Roberts, Walter Basset Roberts, and Ambrose Bryant Roberts. The Roberts family had come from New York State, and claimed their "improvement bordering on the Illinois timber land" in 1831. Oldest brother John was known to be an ardent abolitionist, and it was later acknowledged that all four brothers were conductors. The homes of Josiah Matthews of Elm Grove and lawyer John Albert Jones of Tremont were often the first stations for fugitive slaves crossing Tazewell County. History of Tazewell County describes how federal marshals captured a mother and children as they rode in a wagon from the Matthews home north toward the farm of Uriah Crosby of Morton. The father and son on foot were picked up by John Roberts. He arranged for them to be taken to Peoria Lake to escape their pursuers. They eventually reached Canada. But the mother and her three children were taken to St. Louis and sold, "as the slave hunters could realize more by selling them than by returning them to the owner and receiving the reward." Another time a fugitive slave arrived in Tazewell County alone. "A company [of fugitives] had passed on northward when a young man hastily came up. He had invented a cotton gin, and was in haste to overtake the others of the party as they had the model of his invention. He was separated from them by fright. J. M. Roberts found this young man in the morning hid away in the hay-stack, fed him, and sent his son, Junius, with him to hasten Mr. [Uriah] Crosby. On his arrival Conductor Crosby put him in his wagon, covered him with a buffalo robe, and drove through Washington and delivered him to Mr. Kern, who took him in an open buggy to the Quaker settlement. He overtook his companions." Early History of Washington, Ill. and Vicinity tells a story about one Roberts home, Prairie Lodge: "John M. Roberts was quite an artist, and on the walls of his living room he painted scenes. There was a blind door at the side of the fireplace and back of that was a space in which he secreted Negroes. A master came searching for his slaves. Mr. Roberts' mother,

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

an elderly lady, sat in a rocking chair in front of this door knitting. He [the master] said, 'I will not ask grandmother to get up.' He went away without finding his slaves, but later swore he could smell them, but not find them." The Underground Railroad became more of a risk to the conductors in 1850. In that year the Fugitive Slave Act made the federal government responsible for apprehending fugitives. A conductor faced the possibility of a $1,000 fine and six months in prison. Escaped slaves could no longer blend into northern urban areas, and were forced to take more direct paths to the Canadian border. This made evasion much more difficult. On May 30, 1854, Joseph Stecker/Staker and Verena's daughter Frena Roth purchased an improved farm in Morton from Joseph N.H. Campbell. Four months later Verena's son Nicholas Roth and his wife Katharina/Catherine Habecker bought the adjoining farm from James Palmer. The two farms were on the east side of the four farms that made up the Roberts Settlement.

Nikolaus and Verena had at least 13 children from 1808 to 1833. Six died before 1837. The Roth Family Bible only provides a date of death for one (many of the entries were blurred by water damage).

1. 2. 3. Christian Roth was born May 14, 1808. He is known to us only as a crossed out note in the Roth Family Bible. He likely died young. Nicolas Roth was born July 31, 1809. He is also found in the Roth Family Bible as a crossed out name. He died before April 1815. Andreas/Andrew Roth was born Dec. 9, 1811, and died Feb. 23, 1886. He is buried at the S. Apostolic Church Cemetery at Fairbury. On April 24, 1842 in Butler County he married his cousin Ann/Anna Zimmerman. Minister Peter Naffziger conducted the ceremony; a civil entry was created June 18, 1842. She was born at Auggen June 21, 1818, and died June 9, 1884, a daughter of Andrew F. Zimmerman and Anna Müller. He became the first of his family to move west from Ohio, resettling at Washington, Tazewell County in 1844. He may have been accompanied by his cousin Benjamin Goldschmidt/Goldsmith, who also resettled at Washington about that time. 'Andreas' Roth can be found in Public Domain Land Tract Sales records of Tazewell County, as the claimant of 40 free acres at Washington Sept. 9, 1852. 'Andrew' Roth can be found on the same lists, gaining 40 more free acres there Aug. 6, 1853. On Aug. 7, 1854, he purchased another 40 acres from John Wilson for $1,200. Andrew and Ann had eight children (according to a hand drawing by Daniel Roth in the Roth-Zimmerman Genealogy). As an Apostolic Christian (also called 'New Amish') he "...was reported to have remained in the house-yard at the funeral of his mother, Veronica [Verena], who had remained a member of the Amish Mennonite church." (Roth-Zimmerman Genealogy). One son, Daniel Roth, became an Apostolic Christian minister. 'Magdleine' Roth was born at Buggingen Dec. 12, 1812, and died 12 days later. She is listed in the Buggingen Kirchenbuch. Her entry in the family Bible has been obliterated by water damage. Barbara Roth was born at Buggingen Dec. 28, 1813, and died Sept. 21, 1888. Her birth is recorded in the Buggingen Kirchenbuch. It notes that Verena Zimmerman was the mother of Barbara and Nikolaus (Jr.), mentioning that there was "yet another older child [Andreas/Andrew] who was not registered because Mennonite." Barbara married Peter Zehr (1809-1898) in 1831. He attended medical classes in Paris. They sailed from Le Havre, and arrived at New York on the Formosa Dec. 28, 1835. Their first child Andreas/Andrew was born Dec. 16, 1835 on the Transatlantic voyage; other children include Barbara 1837 (who married Daniel Eymann/Eiman), Peter birth date unknown, Magdalena 1846, Joseph 1848, Christian 1852, and Anna 1854. They were accompanied by Peter's mother Magdalena/Madeleine Farny and her second husband Joseph Risser; and 11-year-old John Forney and 7-year-old Magdalena Farni, the illegitimate children of Peter's cousin Marie Farny of Singling (the biological father is thought to be Joseph Risser; see REESER). Peter and Barbara first settled at Croghan in Lewis County, N.Y. One of the earlier settlers who might have eased their transition was Peter's older stepbrother Michael Zehr, who had become a minister there. Michael and his wife, Anne Jantzi of Belgrade farm, had arrived in America in 1833 (see FARNY). Peter continued to study medicine and was ordained as a minister by bishop Joseph Farny. According to Lorraine Roth, Peter and brother-in-law Jean/John Jantzi made a trip to Canada in June 1837. She also writes that Peter, Barbara and their children may have visited Butler County, Ohio in 1838 or 1839, before they moved to Wilmot, Ontario in 1839. Kennels, Jantzis, and Gerbers from Lewis County also resettled at Wilmot. Peter became the first preacher of a congregation in South Easthope. This later became the East Zorra Mennonite Church. Peter Zehr and Barbara Roth traveled to Illinois in 1871 where he attended the Diener Versammlung ministers meeting, and visited their daughter Barbara living at Elm Grove. Barbara died in 1888, and Peter died in 1898. For more information about the Zehrs, see the article Dr. Peter Zehr's European Ancestry in the April 1994 issue of Mennonite Family History. Herald of Truth, Feb.15, 1898: "Dr. Peter Zehr ­ The township of South Easthope lost one of its very oldest and most highly respected residents on Sunday morning, January 2, 1898, by the death of Brother Peter Zehr at his home, lot 11, con. 2, aged 89 years and 8 months. He was widely known throughout this entire section, and while the sorrow of his death is general yet it is mitigated by the knowledge that after a long, useful and happy life, a good man has gone home. Deceased was born in the then French province of Lorraine in 1808, and was therefore about seven years old at the time of the battle of Waterloo. He chose medicine as a profession, and underwent a thorough study in his youth. In 1831 he was married to Barbara Roth. He emigrated with his family, landing in Lewis Co., New York, 62 years ago. After remaining there for three years he came to South Easthope, Perth Co., Ontario, in 1836, settling on the farm upon which he died. The township was then a wilderness and he had to make his way through the woods

4. 5.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

6. 7. 8.

9.

10. 11.

12.

13.

to Goderich to get the title to his land. Being a prudent, hard-working man he accumulated a competency besides placing each of his four sons upon farms and providing for his daughters. His family consisted of four sons and three daughters of whom one son and two daughters preceded him to the grave; four children, 41 grandchildren and 22 great-grandchildren survive. A year ago the old minister's' rugged health gave way before the encroachments of old age and since that time he has gradually failed until the end came. He was a strong Christian character and for about 67 years he was a preacher in the Amish Mennonite church. His funeral drew out an immense gathering at the East Zorra Amish Mennonite M. H. from far and near who came to pay their last tribute of respect to the departed friend whose kindness and skill and generosity had brightened the lives of so many in this section. Funeral services by Chr. Litwiller from Mark 12:26, 27 and by Jacob M. Bender from John 17:3." Nikolaus/Nicholas Roth was born at Buggingen April 25, 1815, and died at Washington. Feb. 3, 1894. Anna Roth was born at Mengen Jan. 18, 1817, and died Nov. 2, 1821. Her birth entry was witnessed by Johannes von Condé and Ulrich von Condé of Alsace. Johannes Roth was born June 8, 1818, and died Aug. 7, 1818. His birth entry with a death notation was also found in the records of the Protestant Reformed Church at Mengen.16 (An entry in the family Bible may have been obliterated by water damage). Witnesses were Ulrich von Condé of Alsace and Johannes Müller of Ginzling, born at Mangau. Frena Roth was born July 3, 1819. She married Joseph Stecker/Staker (see STAKER). The Froschauer Bible handwritten entry of her birth: "die Frena Rothin ist gebohren den 3ten Heimonath im Jahr Christy 1819" ("Frena Roth was born the 3rd of July in the year of Christ 1819"). Like her mother, she was known in America as 'Fanny.' Her headstone in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland calls her 'Veronika Roth.' Joseph Roth was born Jan. 20, 1822. He is known only from the Roth Family Bible; he likely died young. Anna Roth was born May 24, 1826, and died Sept. 14, 1887. She married Christian Gerber (1819-1907) on Oct. 25, 1844. They had 10 children. They are buried in Railroad Cemetery at Elm Grove. (See GERBER AND GARBER). Peter Roth was born Feb. 12, 1829, and died Aug. 9, 1901. On Feb. 8, 1857 he married Jacobina 'Phoebe' or 'Bena' Naffziger; the ceremony was conducted by bishop Michael Mosiman. She was born in Butler County Jan. 9, 1836, and died at Panola Jan. 17, 1928, a daughter of minister Jacob Naffziger (brother of 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger) and Barbara Krehbiel (see NAFZIGER. They had nine children. His family can be found on the 1860 census of Morton: Peter, 31; Jacobina, 24; Sam, 6; Lydia, 2. El Paso Journal, Aug. 17, 1901: "Last Friday night at 10:30 o'clock occurred the death of a well known and highly respected citizen of Panola township in the person of Mr. Peter Roth. Mr. Roth was born in Alsace, Germany Feb. 12, 1829. His father died when Peter was four years of age and three years later Mrs. Roth brought her children, Peter being third in order of birth to America. They were forty two days on the ocean landing At New York City, and locating in Butler County, O. Peter was early compelled to earn most of his own living. At the age of 16 he commenced to make his own way, first as a farm laborer for a period of twelve years. In 1856 he came to Tazewell county, this state, and soon after married Miss Bena Naffziger, which event occurred Feb. 8, 1857. To them nine children were born, six of whom with their mother are living. The three who preceded their father to the great beyond were Peter, Jr.: Lydia, wife of John Krug and William. The six living children are Daniel, John, Jacob, Mrs. S.E. Schertz, Mrs. Jas. Holt and Ella, the latter living at home. The family moved to this county in 1874 and have lived in Panola Township ever since. The funeral services were held in Shiloh Church last Monday morning at 10 o'clock, Revs. Lackland, of Gridley: Schantz, of Hudson, and Egle, of Waldo officiating. A large number followed the remains to the Baughman Cemetery, where the interment took place." Daniel Roth was born Feb. 5, 1833, and died at Morton Feb. 10, 1922. He was the well-known preacher of the Pleasant Grove Mennonite Church. From the Roth-Zimmerman Genealogy: "Mr. Roth was a man about five feet, nine inches tall, of fair weight, with a long Amish style beard. Both it and his hair inclined to be red. Red in German is 'Roth,' and this is an inherited trait." On Feb. 27, 1855 at Dillon he married first wife Catherine 'Katie' Ropp (she was born at Pekin Dec. 27, 1835, had nine children including a set of twins, and died at Dillon March 25, 1885, a daughter of Andrew Ropp and Jacobena Vercler), then second wife Lisette Goldsmith on Sept. 15, 1887 (born in Alsace Oct. 27, 1854, died at Dillon Sept. 11, 1923). Their two children were Amelia, born at Morton May 5, 1889, died at Morton in 1955; and Samuel Raymond, born July 7, 1891, died at Morton in 1963). The 1860 census of Morton shows Daniel Roth, 27; Catherine, 25; Frances, 4; Phoebe, 4; and Joseph, 2. The value of their farm was appraised at $2,700, and personal possessions at $200. Their daughter Jacobina, also known as 'Bena' ('Phoeba' is found on the county marriage record) married Nicholas Staker, a son of Nicholas Staker on March 7, 1880.17 Their

FHL microfilm 1189608, Mengen. Several of the participants at the 2003 Staker reunion in Morton were her descendants. Gospel Herald, Jan. 8, 1925: "Staker. Sister Jacobina Staker, daughter of the late Daniel Roth, was born near Morton, Ill., Feb. 14, 1856; fell asleep in Jesus Dec. 24, 1924; aged 68 y. 10 m. 10 d. She accepted Jesus as her personal Savior in her youth and united with the Mennonite Church remaining a loyal and faithful member to the end. In the year 1880 she was united in matrimony to Nickolas Staker. To this union were born 9 children, 4 of whom preceded her to the Great Beyond. She leaves to mourn her departure her husband, 5 children, 15 grandchildren, 5 brothers, 5 sisters, and many other relatives and friends. The children surviving her are: Mrs. Ed. Backman, Tiskilwa, Ill.; Mrs. Chris Yoder, Morton, Ill.; Daniel, Mrs. Joseph Kurtz, and Mrs. Otto Gerber, all of Tremont, Ill.

17

16

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

grandson Roy Daniel Roth was a pastor of the Pleasant Hill Church at East Peoria, and later became president of Hesston College. Gospel Herald, March 2, 1922: "Roth. - Daniel Roth was born in France Feb. 5, 1833; died at his home in Morton, Ill., Feb. 10, 1922; aged 89 y. 5 d. Brother Roth came to America with his widowed mother when but four years of age. For a few years they lived in Ohio but later moved to Tazewell Co., Ill., where he lived the rest of his life. He was one of the pioneer settlers of this country, experiencing many of the privations and hardships of those early days, having been enabled to see the changes in the community in the course of its development from raw prairie to the thickly settled, modernized farms and towns of today. This can be better understood when we remember how he often related the fact that he helped to cut wheat with the cradle on the ground where the town of Morton now stands. He accepted Jesus as his personal Savior when a young man, uniting with the Mennonite Church. His Christian character won the respect of his fellow Christians, being called to the ministry by his church in which capacity he served them until the infirmities of old age settled upon him, having been a faithful shepherd of the flock and remaining loyal to his Master until called by death. In the year 1855 he was married to Catherine Ropp, who preceded him in death in 1885. This union was blest with nine children. In 1887 he was married the second time to Lisette Goldsmith. Two children were born to this union. He leaves his loving wife, eleven children, 43 grandchildren, and 25 great-grandchildren, and a large concourse of neighbors and friends. The children were all in attendance at the funeral. They are Mrs. Fannie Hieser, Mrs. Phoebe Staker, Joseph, Amos, Jacob, Mrs. Louisa Rich, Mrs. Katie Rediger, Daniel, Mrs. Mary Teuscher, Amelia, and Samuel. The funeral was largely attended, conducted by Bro. C. F. Derstine at the home, and at the church by Bro. Derstine and Bro. Simon Gingerich. Texts, Eccl. 12:5; Psa. 90; Phil.1:21." From the Roth-Zimmerman Genealogy: "He was chosen minister by the Dillon Creek congregation and served till the close of his life. His preaching was all in German and in his lifetime he saw the church make the complete change from the old ways to the modern; from all German to English; from the assembly in the home to the church houses; from our hook and eye days to buttons everywhere; from everything so plain and simple, so just like old Germany, until today, when the show begins in a sort of immaculate polish on the car as it rolls up to the door and lasts till most of the benediction is forgotten." Daniel and his two wives are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery.

Verena's son Nikolaus/Nicholas Roth was born at Buggingen April 25, 1815, and died at Washington. Feb. 3, 1894. His birth record can be found in the Buggingen Kirchenbuch. His marriage to Katharina/Catherine Habecker is thought to have taken place in Butler County circa 1843, though no civil entry is found there. She was born circa 1823, and died at Washington Dec. 2, 1888. They are buried together in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. The 1850 census of Tazewell County shows farmer Nicolas Rhodes, 35, Germany; Catherine, 26, Germany; Andrew, 6, Ohio; Barbara, 3, Illinois; Fanny, 3, Illinois; Caleline [Caroline?], one month, Illinois; and laborer Daniel Rhodes [Nicholas's younger brother], 17, Germany. They lived next to brother Andrew Roth and Anna Zimmerman, and are found on the same census page as Peter Good, Benjamin Redger [Rediger], and Jacob Ower [Oyer], indicating that the community was Washington. The Tazewell County Grantor's Index of Deeds lists land purchases from brother Daniel Roth ($235 on May 24, 1852); Daniel Stauffer ($850 on Sept. 21, 1853); J.B. and J.J. Reidiger ($1,050 on Feb. 25, 1854); bishop Michael Mosiman ($1,050 on Feb. 25, 1854); and James Palmer ($590 on Sept. 12, 1854). The Palmer purchase at Morton became their home. Nicholas became a next door neighbor not only to the abolitionist Roberts brothers, but to his sister Frena and her husband Joseph Stecker/Staker as well. Frena and Joseph had purchased 160 acres three months earlier. 'N. Roth' can be found in the northwest quarter of Section 17 on the 1864 plat map of Morton (this map also shows that Nicholas was living one mile west of abolitionist Uriah Crosby). As a minister, Nicholas fellowshipped with minister Henry Egly (1824-1890), who founded the Defenseless Mennonite Church of Berne, Indiana in 1865-66. Nicholas collaborated with bishop Michael Mosiman to establish the Egly Amish Church in Groveland in 1879 (later called the Defenseless Mennonite Church, and now the Evangelical Mennonite Church of Groveland). The 1870 census shows them as farmer Nicholas Roth, 55, Baden; Catharine, 47, Germany; and Fanny, 23, Illinois. The family before them on the census page was that of brother Andrew Roth; the family following them was son Andrew Roth, 26, Illinois; and Barbaray [Staker], 27, Ohio.

Our beloved sister lived a devoted Christian life and was a kind and sympathetic mother. The church and community are bereft of a devoted sister and loving friend. Our loss is her gain. May we all meet her in heaven. Funeral services were held Dec. 26 at the home and at Pleasant Grove Mennonite Church, by Bros. Samuel Gerber and Jonas Litwiller. Text, II Cor. 5:1-10. Interment at Pleasant Grove Cemetery."

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Late in life Nicholas and Catherine lived with their oldest son Andrew and his wife Barbara Staker, a daughter of Joseph Stecker/Staker and Frena Roth. The 1880 census of Washington listing the household of Andrew Roth includes retired farmer Nicholas Roth, 65, and Catherine, 57, born in Bavaria. 18 The children of Nicholas Roth and Katharina/Catherine Habecker include:

1. Andrew Roth was born in Butler County, Ohio Feb. 8, 1844, and died April 27, 1911. On March 12, 1868 he married Barbara Staker; the ceremony was performed by bishop Michael Mosiman. Since Nicholas was Frena Roth's older brother, this was a marriage of cousins as well as next-door neighbors. She was born at Hamilton, Butler County Jan. 26, 1841, and died Jan. 26, 1918, a daughter of Joseph Stecker/Staker and Frena Roth. The couple lived in Groveland Center, just north of the farm of Barbara's brother Christian. They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Veronika 'Fanny' Roth (twin) was born at Washington April 26, 1847, and died there April 8, 1922. On Jan. 2, 1877 in Tazewell County she married Ernst Schmallenberger.19 He was born at Brooklyn, N.Y. Dec. 7, 1852, and died at Morton in August 1889 (headstone date), a son of Heinrich Schmallenberger and Elizabeth Stalter. They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Fanny shares a joint headstone with her daughter Katie, who died three days later. Barbara Roth (twin) was born at Washington April 26, 1847, and died at Harper, Kansas Sept. 1, 1920. On Dec. 18, 1863 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Smith. He was born at what is now Congerville May 23, 1843, and died at Harper Jan. 3, 1889, a son of Christophe Schmitt/Christian Smith and Magdalena Schrag/Schrock (see SMITH). They are found on the 1880 census of Morton as Joseph Smith, 37, born in Illinois to German parents; Barbara, 32, born in Illinois to parents from Alsace and Bavaria; and seven children born in Illinois. They lived next door to Barbara's aunt Frena Roth Stecker/Staker (now 1000 W. Jefferson Avenue), and Peter Oyer and Anna Garber. Joseph and Barbara are buried in the Christian Apostolic Cemetery at Harper. Caroline Roth was born at Washington in 1850, and died young. 'Caleline' appears as a one-month-old on the 1850 census of Tazewell County. She may be buried in Roberts Cemetery.

2.

3.

4.

THE ROBERTS DIARIES Nicholas Roth purchased the property between the Roberts brothers and his brother-in-law Joseph Stecker/Staker. The 1830-1886 diaries of John Roberts (1807-1886) are being edited by his great-great-great grandniece Marilyn Gottwald of Peoria. John's journeys began at Blenheim, N.Y. Aug. 21, 1830. He traveled through Illinois to St. Louis and New Orleans, then back to New York, and finally to Illinois where he picked out the land that became the family farms. On the second trip he brought his parents, wife, three brothers, and a sister. His diary comments on Indian mounds, prices, weather, the Black Hawk Indian War of 1832, and the abolitionist movement. A few excerpts: Sept. 11, 1830 at Olean, N.Y.: "I proceeded on my journey, and passed through Newtown, which is quite a pretty village. One sidewalk is paved... I met a man who was returning from Illinois. He talked quite discouragingly. He said I would curse the day in which I started. I then felt rather dejected, but still determined to see the country." Nov. 7, 1830: "At length arrived at Cincinnati, which is 65 miles from Maysville, Kentucky, and 110 miles from Kentucky line. One thing is a little remarkable here. We started from Olean [N.Y.] on Sunday, the next Sunday arrived at Franklin [N.Y.] half-way to Pittsburgh, next Sunday arrived at Pittsburgh, next Sunday at Wheeling, next Sunday at Marietta [Ohio], next Sunday at Burlington [Ohio] at the Kentucky line, and finally at Cincinnati on the 6th Sunday. I am now over 1,100 miles from home." Dec. 10, 1830 in Illinois: "Snow falles plentious this morning. At last turns into hail. There are many curiousities in Illinois. Remains of fortifications, walls, human bones, etc. In one place on the side of a hill, some hunters discovered a stone standing outside of a mound. They took it down and entered a room 20 ft. square where they judge were five or six cartloads of human bones...." Dec. 11, 1830 on the Illinois prairie: "The prospect is sublime beyond description. There are two kinds of wild plum, crab apple, pawpaw, persimmon, black and white walnut, black and white oak acorn, pecan for wild turkeys, etc., geese, prairie hens, wolves, foxes; black, moccassin, and adder snakes, etc. abound. The streams are full of fish ­ cat, buffalo, pike, pickerel, bass, etc." Dec. 29, 1830 in Illinois during the Great Snow of 1830: "Snow falls from abundance coming from the south. Yesterday clear...Flannel worn next to the skin both summer and winter are the antidote to the endemics of the climate. Winter generally sets in about the 10th of November and lasts till the last of February, though hard frosts and even snows are common from October to March... Northern people, after living here two years, generally enjoy a good degree of health. Those living on the borders of great waters are seized with diseases generally of the A Genealogical Study of the Nicolaus and Veronica (Zimmerman) Roth Family (1834-1954), written by Ruth C. Roth and Roy D. Roth, was published for a Daniel Roth family reunion in 1955. This has been an invaluable and reliable source, although some dates differ from those in the Roth Family Bible. 19 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Ernest Smallberger and Fannie Roth.

18

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

intermittent kind. Those from the southern and middle states are subject to those disorders, especially the first settlers after their arrival. The settlers of all descriptions who settle themselves in the interim at a distance from any large body of water are seldom attacked by endemics." Dec. 31, 1830 at St. Louis during the Great Snow of 1830: "A severe cold morning. A heavy snow squall last evening. The Missourians say this is far the hardest winter for upwards of 25 years." March 26, 1831 on the Mississippi River: "The planters' houses are elegant and the slave houses are arranged in rows, all of them the same size. Some of them are all framed and painted white. In the rear of the two rows of slave houses is the planter's mansion ­ in front the overseer, in the center a beautiful park the width of the plantation. There now are one mile and more large droves of slaves plowing and hoeing the cane and cotton. The river here is much narrower than at St. Louis. It is not more than a half-mile, in some places less, very narrow. From Natchez down, no islands. Water even with the banks within 30 miles. Every now and then, we see sloops, schooners, and barges trading on the shore for cotton and sugar. Met seven or eight steamboats today. On every plantation we see 50 or 60 negroes, women and men at work hoeing cane, etc." March 27, 1831 at New Orleans: "Have walked over a good part of the city. Words alone will not admit of a correct detail of this place. Stores and shops all open, music sounding, fiddling and dancing in the streets, no attention to the holy day. All noise and confusion in the markets. More than two-thirds of the inhabitants colored ­ negroes, mulattoes, Indians. Indian in all kinds of costumes, some almost naked. The city is below the surface of a river, defended in front by a wide levee. Buildings similar to those of New York, though in some places the French and Spanish style still exist..." March 31, 1831: "Walked about some and went through the markets, etc. I saw yams, bananas, pineapples, oranges, lemons, figs, besides a number of other fruits and nuts which I do not know the names of. This evening a schooner came up and lashed alongside of us loaded with slaves for the market. I looked on them with pity. I saw several of them sold. Too cruel!!" Aug. 23, 1831 in what became McLean County: "My father and I started for the Fox River country, passing through Dry Grove and Staat's Grove [Stout's Grove, later Danvers] and Mackinaw town, and crossed the Mackinaw. The river was quite high ­ up midside to our horses and a very rapid current. I feared trouble. Pursued onto the Illinois timber toward Fort Clark [Peoria]. Put up for the night." Aug. 24, 1831 in what became Morton: "Examined some land and at last bargained for an improvement bordering on the Illinois timber. The flies are being very troublesome. We returned to our family. Thirty miles in the evening, came to the Mackinaw River and found it had risen about one foot. After much deliberation, we ventured to cross it. Nearly swam our horses ­ it was four feet deep and a powerful current. Came to the house where we had left our family, and found them gone. We at last found them in another house three-quarters of a mile distant." The following day Roberts stopped by the Illinois River to make a sketch of Peoria. Though Roberts died in 1886, his sketch was used as the basis for a mural painted in Peoria City Hall during its construction in 1898. No doubt Roberts would have been astonished at the $50,000 commission paid to the artists. April 22, 1832 on his farm, hearing news of what became the Black Hawk Indian War: "Yesterday received a letter from N.P. Tyler. News comes from disturbance at Rock Island with the Indians. Men are rendezvousing at Fort Clark, and from Beardstown to Naples." May 14, 1832: "Our troops had a battle with the Indians; ten killed, one missing. Captain Adams of our company killed. Pleasant weather about these days." May 24, 1832: "Again called up to go against the Indians on Fox River. Nearly every family above here is moving away from the Indians, even from Black Partridge. Last Monday, there were 16 persons massacred on Indian Creek, about 13 miles from the mouth of the Fox River." June 1, 1832: "Our neighbors began to build a fort for their mutual defense against the Indians. There is great alarm throughout this country. The Menominees, together with the whites, are going to drive the Sioux out of Illinois." Dec. 25, 1839: "Christmas. Attended church. After sermon by Rev. E.S. Huntington, Dr. Davidson delivered a lecture on temperance. In the evening I was appointed vice president of the [temperance] society. Went to Father Waters. Took supper. In the evening, visited Mr. Morst. Came home and got lost on the prairie, it being foggy and no road. Wandered around for about 2 hours or upwards, the horse was nearly tired out. Finally, the moon arose, which enabled me to tell where east was. I then, after a long while, came on a road which had a house, at nearly one o'clock." May 20, 1842: "Mr. M took possession of the Presbyterian Church. Speeches by Elihu Chase and Moffat, Darins, Burton, etc. with swearing ruffians with clubs at the door to keep out all the abolitionists. We left Washington and went to Pleasant Grove. Had a discourse with Mr. Lovejoy and Dicky ­ 15 or 20 joined the society." History of Tazewell County published in 1879 retells this incident: "In those exciting days of the Underground Railroad, old Father Dickey and Owen Lovejoy, strong anti-slavery men, made an appointment to speak at Washington. On the notice of the meeting being announced, the pro-slavery men took forcible and armed possession of the church to be occupied by these speakers, and determined, at all hazards, to prevent the meeting from being held there. A prominent man of conservative views on the slavery question advised the anti-slavery men not to

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

attempt to hold the meeting as they were determined to do, as the mob, he said, was frenzied with liquor, and he feared the consequences. So they concluded to go to Pleasant Grove Church, Groveland [the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church, constructed on the south side of Allentown Road at Elm Grove in 1833] where they addressed one of the most enthusiastic anti-slavery meetings ever held in this part of the state. Owen Lovejoy was the operator of the day. The mob was determined to follow and break up that meeting also, but was deterred by being told that as the antislavery men were on their own ground they would fight, and doubtless blood would be shed." James Henry Dickey (1780-1856) was a well-known minister from Delavan. He was the father of Theophilus Lyle Dickey (1811-1885), a prominent supporter of Stephen A. Douglas. Owen Lovejoy's brother Elijah was killed defending their Alton Observer printing press from a pro-slavery mob in 1837. Lovejoy became an agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society; minister of the Congregational Church at Princeton, Bureau County; a founder of the Republican party; a state representative in 1854; and a representative to Congress in 1857. In Washington, D.C. during the Civil War he was a close friend and advisor to Lincoln. Feb. 7, 1843: "22 degrees below zero. Some say 30 below." Nov. 7, 1843: "Two colored men from St. Louis on their way to Canada came here ­ at night, sent them on. Received a letter from Eliza Farnham." Eliza Woodson Burhans Farnham was the sister of John's first wife Mary Woodson Burhans Roberts. She was born at Rensselaerville, N.Y. in 1815. She traveled to Illinois in 1835, and married author Thomas Jefferson Farnham in Tazewell County July 12, 1836. In 1839 her husband departed on an expedition to Oregon, and in 1841 she returned to New York. Through reformer-publisher Horace Greeley she obtained an appointment as matron of female prisoners at Mount Pleasant Prison (Sing Sing) on the Hudson River in 1844. As a matron she treated her prisoners humanely and tested theories correlating crime and phrenology. At Sing Sing she also had time to write a book about her experiences in Tazewell County 1835-41, Life in Prairie Land. She died in New York in 1864. March 18, 1844: "4 degrees above zero ­ it snowed 2 inches last night. Cold winter's day. The Erysipelas ­ or black tongue ­ grows worse in Pekin. Hardly a day without hearing of more or less death ­ truly the judgments of God are abroad in the land." Oct. 20, 1844: "Three negroes came from St. Louis. Wind turned south ­ warmer. Snow not all gone yet." Aug. 9, 1845: "Bought 80 acres of land. Attended an anti-slavery meeting at Dillon settlement. Rev. Mr. Skinner addressed this meeting." This may have been Universalist minister and reformer Otis Ainsworth Skinner of the Warren Street Church at Boston. In 1857 he became president of Lombard University at Galesburg. Nov. 1, 1845: "Antislavery meeting at Morton school house. Lecture by Rev. Mr. Spencer. Dry, dry." This may have been abolitionist Levi Spencer, a Congregationalist minister at Bloomington and Peoria. March 18, 1846: "Scott came after shrubbery. G. Parker taking the census. [Parker] Served a petition on R. Scott for harboring negroes. I count security for his appearance at court ­ bond of 400 dollars. Warm, with thunder showers." May 6, 1846: "Another rain storm. Attended a mass meeting of the Abolitionists at Peoria ­ heard Mr. Codding and Mr. Blanchard lecture in the evening. A mob drove them out." Ichabod Codding was a lecturer for the American Anti-Slavery Society. He was one of the original publishers of the American Freeman, an abolitionist circular distributed from Milwaukee. Minister Jonathan Blanchard was a nationally-known abolitionist speaker who became president of Knox College at Galesburg in 1845. June 1, 1846: "Every able-bodied man notified to appear at Tremont to raise volunteers for the Mexican war. War with all its horrors I feel is our doom." Oct. 7, 1848: "Anti-slavery meeting at Morton Schoolhouse. Lecture by Mr. McCoy of Woodford County. Began gathering apples yesterday." Nov. 14, 1848: "Four colored ladies from St. Louis came and Boggs and Oakley followed them to my house." May 16, 1849: "Went to Peoria ­ cholera there pretty bad. Dreadful news from Cincinnati, St. Louis, and the canal of the fatality of the cholera ­ fearful times. Mary had a chill today ­ poor little girl. Commenced planting in the big field." See STEIDER for more on the cholera epidemic of 1848-49. July 4, 1849: "Celebrated the day at Mr. Crandall's [Charles Crandall of Morton, an underground railroad operator]. Anti-slavery address ­ no temperance speeches. Fine dinner ­ good time." June 6, 1854: "Anti-slavery meeting at Morton. I am to write to Frederick Douglass to get him to lecture to us." Douglass visited Illinois from Rochester, N.Y. later that year, as noted below. He spoke at Peoria in 1859, 1864, and 1870. In his autobiography he wrote that on one of the first two visits to Peoria he was forced to walk the streets all night to keep from freezing, after failing to find receptive accommodations. Discussing the first visits he wrote, "Perhaps there were Christian ministers and Christian families in Peoria at that time...In charity I am bound to say there probably were such ministers and such families, but I am equally bound to say that in my former visits to this place I had failed to find them." June 26, 1854: "Anti-slavery meeting at Morton. Extremely hot weather ­ 102 degrees in the shade." Oct. 17, 1854: "Mass anti-slavery meeting at Morton. Mr. Cooper addressed the meeting." Thomas Cooper was later elected town supervisor of Morton, with John Montgomery Roberts as town clerk.

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Roberts does not mention speeches by Abraham Lincoln and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at Peoria the previous day. The most widely reprinted quotation from Lincoln's speech was, "Although volume upon volume is written to prove that slavery is a very good thing, we never hear of the man who wishes to take the good of it, by being a slave himself." Lincoln spent Oct. 17 in a carriage traveling north to Lacon, where he expected to speak again with Sen. Douglas (the senator pleaded poor health and told Lincoln he could not appear; when Lincoln went on to other business, Douglas went immediately to Princeton, Bureau County where his speaking adversary was the bombastic abolitionist Owen Lovejoy). On Oct. 20, Frederick Douglass was scheduled to speak with Sen. Stephen A. Douglas in the First Congregational Church at Aurora, a reprise of the Lincoln-Douglas debate at Peoria. Apparently both were taken ill, and made only brief remarks. Oct. 9, 1856: "Attended a Republican mass meeting in Peoria. Heard Lincoln and Senator Trumbull ­ Morton obtained the silk banner." Senator Lyman Trumbull's abolitionist views would be considered contradictory today. He supported the Illinois black codes restricting the movement of former slaves. He may be best remembered for the statement, "There is a great aversion in the West ­ I know it to be so in my state ­ against having free Negroes come among us. Our people want nothing to do with the Negro." However, he felt that the slave indenture system was immoral ("A crime against nature"), and held that both slave holders and slaves were morally damaged by their experiences. This had strong appeal to voters whose ancestors had worked off indenture contracts to pay for the immigration voyage. In 1864 Trumbull co-sponsored the bill that created the Freedman's Bureau to help former slaves find housing and later education. In 1865 he wrote the final draft of the Thirteenth Amendment declaring slavery and servitude illegal. Nov. 1, 1856: "[Senator Stephen A.] Douglas spoke in Peoria ­ cannon firing all day." Nov. 4, 1856: "Election day ­ great excitement. Fremont, Buchanan, and Fillmore." Jan. 4, 1857 at Galesburg: "Heard Mr. Tyler preach and Dr. Beecher. Heard Mr. Bacon play church music." Minister Henry Ward Beecher used his position at the Plymouth Congregationalist Church in Brooklyn, N.Y. to press for social reforms. He was an ardent abolitionist who supported the Free Soil Party, and later the Republican Party. In October 1858 the Republican Party in New York was searching for a viable presidential candidate; Beecher acted as their representative when he invited Lincoln to speak at his church. The venue was changed to the Great Hall at Cooper Union at the last minute to allow a large audience. The address at Cooper Union Feb. 27, 1860 has been called 'the speech that made Abraham Lincoln president.' The 90-minute 'audition' for New York Republicans convincingly demonstrated that he could hold an audience. During the Civil War, Beecher raised funds to equip an infantry regiment, lectured in England on abolitionism, and urged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. His sister Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. June 15, 1858: "Went to Pekin for an Old Settlers meeting. Saw the oldest and first settlers in Tazewell County. Mr. Eades 78, and Mr. Dillon, Jacob Tharp aged 85. Had a good time." William Eads and Willam Davis constructed a grist mill at what is now Elm Grove in 1825. Tazewell County was incorporated in 1827. The headstone of Nathan Dillon at Dillon Cemetery says he was the "first white settler of Tazewell County, died June 17, 1868, aged 69 yrs. 11 mo. 23 d." (born June 24, 1798). He built the first cabin in Tazewell County on Dillon Creek in what is now Dillon in 1823. The headstone of Phoebe Crawford (1750-1827) in Weyhrich Cemetery at Elm Grove is the oldest in Tazewell County. She came to the area in 1824 after the death of her husband Jacob W. Tharp (1744-1793), with her son Jacob F. Tharp. Jacob was born at New Providence, N.J. Oct. 10, 1773, and died at Pekin Nov. 28, 1871. Aug. 14, 1858: "Republican mass meeting at Tremont." Aug. 30, 1858: "Republican Convention at Tremont. Lincoln and Kellogg spoke. Cool weather." This was only a local meeting. Lincoln had been nominated as a candidate for the Senate in the Republican State Convention at the Springfield Statehouse June 16, 1858, the same day he gave the extreme 'House Divided' speech that may have doomed his campaign. He debated Stephen A. Douglas at Freeport (near the Wisconsin border) Aug. 27. According to the brass plaque at the site, Aug. 30 was the last time he spoke at the Tremont Courthouse, where he had participated in many 8th Circuit trials. The second speaker was minister Hiram Kellogg, the first president of Knox College at Galesburg. In 1843 Kellogg served as one of nine U.S. delegates to the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. Diary pages for the period 1859-1871 have not been located. April 2, 1872: "Joseph Staker died today." The son of Josephe Stecker and Barbe Farny, and husband of Frena Roth. Sept. 10, 1872: "Went to Forpaugh Menagerie. John Ali sick." Adam Forpaugh (1831-1890) competed with P.T. Barnum. He was the first promoter to combine circus with wild west show. John Ali was the youngest of Roberts's children, born Dec. 11, 1853. April 1, 1873: "Town meeting. Thomas Cooper Supervisor, J.M. Roberts Town Clerk. The 14 th time we voted to build a town house." March 21, 1874: "Joseph Staker died this morning." Joseph, the oldest son of Joseph Stecker/Staker and Frena Roth, was kicked by a horse during shoeing and suffered grave internal injuries. He and his parents are buried in Roberts Cemetery.

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Dec. 9, 1876. "Birthday ­ 70 years old. 14 below freezing. Last night saw an eclipse of Venus by the Moon ­ a curious spectacle. Shall never see again." Venus was next eclipsed by the moon June 8, 2004. See antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040615.html. July 17, 1882: "Mrs. Abraham Lincoln died in Springfield last Saturday of apoplexy." April 10, 1883: "Peter Cooper of New York died a few days ago. Called on Thomas Roberts, John Ali, and Crosby." Peter Cooper was an abolitionist, industrialist, inventor, and philanthropist who established the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York City in 1858. He was also a supervisor at the laying of the firstTransatlantic telegraph cable, invented the first steam engine for a train built in America, and ran for president in 1876 on the Greenback Party ticket. Abraham Lincoln's address at Cooper Union Feb. 27, 1860 has been called 'the speech that made Lincoln president.' Lincoln spoke after Frank Blair and Cassius Clay. The 90-minute 'audition' for New York Republicans convincingly demonstrated that he could hold an audience as well as the two well-known orators. They also noticed that his lean, well-reasoned style of speech made easily-readable newspaper copy. The following day the New York Tribune said, "No man has ever made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York audience." Frederick Douglass also spoke at Cooper Union, at a celebration following the issue of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. Oct. 22, 1886: "Frosty and clear." John M. Roberts died October 23, 1886. Brothers John Montgomery Roberts, Darius Phelps Roberts, and Walter Basset Roberts are buried in Roberts Cemetery. Ambrose Bryant Roberts is buried at New Market, Iowa.

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Zimmerman of Denzlingen

B

irth entries suggest that the grandparents of the Zimmerman generation that came to America were Christian Zimmerman (found as 'Zimmermann' in Baden records) and his wife, whose last name was Rpp. Christian was born on French territory. He was a leaseholder at Sexau 1728-38, then took a lease at Denzlingen until his death. In Eighteenth Century Anabaptists in the Margravate of Baden and Neighboring Territories, Mark Häberlein and Michaela Schmolz-Häberlein wrote that, "In March 1739, Christian Zimmermann leased for nine years the so-called Widdumsgut in Denzlingen, a hereditary fief of the collegiate chapter of St. Margarethen in Waldkirch administered by the community. Zimmermann had to deliver 60 Malter (9000 liters) of rye ­ 30 to the collegiate chapter, 20 to the margrave's Burgvogtei, and 10 to the community ­ and pay 135 gulden (silver coins) annually. When Zimmermann renewed the contract for the Widdumsgut in June 1757, Jakob Rupp, Anabaptist tenant of the Steckenhof estate, gave surety for him. Zimmermann rented the estate until his death in 1771. His widow then took over the lease contract with her son Andreas, for whom the Anabaptists Christian Leutweiler of Schupfholz and Jakob Zimmermann of the Hochburg estate gave surety in 1774." 20 Hüppi calls Michael Zimmerman, who died before 1801, a "probable son of Christian Zimmerman." The Häberleins wrote that, "In 1787, Michael Zimmermann, who managed the Laberhof, another property of the Cistercian abbey of Tennenbach, was summoned to declare his allegiance to the Margrave of Baden-Durlach. Zimmermann, a native of Denzlingen, was married to Anna Maria, daughter of the tenant on the Hochburg estate" (probably one of the Müller brothers; Michaels' wife is found as 'Anna Maria Zimmermann' on the Riedseltz civil marriage entry of their son Michael). Four of the children of Michael Zimmerman and Anna Maria Zimmerman have been identified: Michael, Barbara, Verena, and Andreas/Andrew F. MICHAEL ZIMMERMAN Minister and farmer Michael Zimmerman was born at Denzlingen circa 1777. On Aug. 18, 1801 at Riedseltz, Lower Alsace, he married Barbara Roggy (the civil entry calls her 'Barbara Rogi') . She was born on the Diefenbacherhof at Riedseltz circa 1781, and died in or before 1830, a daughter of Johannes/Jean Roggy and Elisabethe Eyer. Her mother Elisabethe Eyer was born at Remchingen, Baden, a child of Benedikt 'Benz' Eyer (see OYER). The marriage was the first of three Zimmerman-Roggy connections that drew the Zimmermans into a circle of Illinois-bound families. Two of Michael's cousins from the Hochburg estate also married at Riedseltz, where civil records were kept in German until 1812. The two cousins, Michael and Johannes, were sons of Michael's uncle, elder Jakob Zimmerman: 1) Michael Zimmerman, born in 1780, married Barbara's sister Veronica at Riedseltz Sept. 7, 1801; and 2) Johannes Zimmerman married Barbara's sister Elisabethe at Riedseltz Nov. 12, 1807 (Michael Zimmerman of Denzlingen signed the entry as a witness). The marriages have a greater significance because the Roggy sisters had a brother, Jean, who married Catherine Guingerich and relocated to the Weidesheim estate at Kalhausen. Weidesheim was the site of a number of family events involving Roggys, Engels, Ringenbergs, Guingeriches, and Nafzigers. Thus Riedseltz served as a geographic link between Amish Mennonite families in Baden and those in Moselle Michael and Barbara leased the Schlatthof at Tiengen bei Freiburg 1811-1817, then farmed at Château le Vannes (now simply Vannes), Meurthe-et-Moselle. The children of Michael Zimmerman and his first wife Barbara Roggy include: 1.

Marie Zimmerman was born in the district of Freiburg, Baden in 1802, and died at Bar-le-Duc, Meuse Nov. 16, 1831.21 On Oct. 26, 1828 at Domgermain, Meurthe-et-Meuse she married miller Joseph Dettweiler. He was born at Zweibrücken Dec. 8, 1805, and died at Sarreguemines June 7, 1853, a son of Joseph Dettweiler and Madeleine Hauter. Following her death Joseph remarried to Jacobine Roggy of Weidesheim farm at Kalhausen, who was born Dec. 7, 1817, and died at Kalhausen March 1, 1885. Jean Zimmerman was born in the district of Freiburg June 2, 1803. In 1824 he married Madeleine Guingerich. Michael Zimmerman Jr. was born in the district of Freiburg in 1804. He remained in Europe.

2. 3.

20 An invaluable article published in the October 2001 issue of Goshen College's Mennonite Quarterly Review, found online at goshen.edu/mqr/pastissues/oct01schmnolz.html 21 No Anabaptist birth records were kept at Freiburg before 1810.

27

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10.

11.

Magdalena/Madeleine Zimmerman was born in the district of Freiburg Dec. 20, 1805, and died at Naives-en-Blois, Meuse, Nov. 9, 1879. On March 21, 1832 at Domgermain, Meurthe-et-Moselle, she married David Schmitt. He was born at Keskastel Jan. 20, 1807. André/Andrew Zimmerman was born in the district of Freiburg Aug. 22, 1807, and died at Chenoa, McLean County Feb. 23, 1889. 22 On Feb. 6, 1832 at Domgermain, Meurthe-et-Moselle, he married Jacobine 'Phebe' Guingerich. She was born at Rhodes Sept. 25, 1814, and died in Livingston County June 9, 1880, a daughter of Jean Guingerich and Anne Marie Müller (see GINGERICH). Herald of Truth, March 15, 1889: "On the 23d of February, at 11 o'clock, P.M., Pre. Andrew Zimmerman, of McLean County, Ill., calmly fell asleep in Jesus, aged 81 years and 6 months. On the 26th his mortal remains were consigned to mother earth, on which occasion many relatives and friends assembled to pay our departed brother and fellow-worker their last tribute of respect. Funeral services were conducted by Joseph Yoder, of Indiana, Daniel Steinman and John P. Smith. The deceased brother was born in the district of Freiburg, Baden, Germany in 1807. His companion preceded him several years. He leaves three children, two sons and a daughter and a number of grandchildren to mourn his death. He was a devoted member and faithful minister in the Amish Mennonite church. Peace to his ashes." Herald of Truth, July 1880: "On the 9th of June, in Livingston Co., Ill., of general debility and consumption, Sister Jacobina Zimmerman, wife of Andrew Zimmerman, aged 66 years. Buried the 11th. Funeral services by Chr. Schlegel and J. P. Schmitt, from I Cor. 15." Elisabeth Zimmerman (twin) was born at the Schlatthof May 9, 1811, and died there July 11, 1811. Earlier children may have been born at Tiengen, but authorities there were not obligated to keep records of Anabaptists before 1811. The Schlatthof at Tiengen entries noted here were found in Protestant Reformed records. Jacob Zimmerman (twin) was born at the Schlatthof May 9, 1811, and died there Aug. 7, 1811. Witnesses listed on the death entry include Michael Zimmerman of Hochburg and Jacob Zimmerman (his location is illegible), both described as Wiedertäufer. Daniel Zimmerman was born circa 1813, and died in Tazewell County Oct. 19, 1888. No birth entry has been identified, and he may have been adopted into this family. Descendant Larry Zimmerman found him as Daniel Zimmerman, 21, on an abstract of passengers who arrived at Baltimore in 1834. He married Magdalena Miller.23 They were living in Hamilton County, Ohio (the area of Cincinnati, below Butler County) when their son Andrew was born there in 1837. Their household appears on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as Daniel Zimmerman, Baden; Madaline, 50, Baden; Andrew, 22, Ohio; Christian, 12, Illinois; and Daniel [David], 11, Illinois. The 1880 census of Elm Grove shows widower Daniel Zinnerman, 66, Germany, living in the household of his son C. Zinnerman, 34. The death entry of their oldest son Andrew Zimmerman described his parents as "Daniel Zimmerman born in AlsaceLorraine and Madeline Miller born in Germany." Their children include: a. Andrew Zimmerman was born in Hamilton County, Ohio Nov. 26, 1837, and died at Roanoke, Woodford County Sept. 30, 1924.24 On Feb. 8, 1863 in Tazewell County he married Elizabeth Pfister. She was born July 7, 1844, and died Nov. 11, 1934. They can be found on the 1880 census of Roanoke as farmer Andrew Zimmerman, 41, born in Ohio to a father from Alsace and a mother from Baden; Elizabeth, 34, Switzerland; and seven children born in Illinois. They farmed Section 30 of Roanoke. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Roanoke, Woodford County. b. Christian Zimmerman was born in Illinois July 5, 1847, and died Sept. 10, 1932. On Sept. 24, 1876 in Tazewell County he married Marie Anne Maurer.25 She was born in Switzerland Feb. 6, 1846, and died Feb. 12, 1931. They are buried in Milford Cemetery at Milford, Indiana. c. David Zimmerman was born in Illinois March 1, 1850, and died July 14, 1901. On Oct. 3, 1874 in McLean County he married Barbara Katharina Rosina Franz. She was born at Döttingen, Württemberg Nov. 3, 1851, a daughter of Friederich Franz and Barbara Katharina Ackermann.26 They can be found on the 1880 census of Roanoke as druggist David Zimmerman, 30, born in Illinois to a father from Alsace and a mother from Baden; and Barbara, 28, Baden. Barbara Zimmerman was born at the Schlatthof Aug. 27, 1814, and died there Oct. 11, 1816. Verena Zimmerman was born at the Schlatthof Dec. 26, 1815, and died there Jan. 25, 1816. Christian Zimmerman was born at the Schlatthof Feb. 3, 1817, and died at Pekin March 27, 1887. On June 13, 1847 in Peoria County he married Elizabeth Stalter. She was born in 1814. They are found on the 1850 census of unincorporated parts of Tazewell County living next to his father Michael Zimmerman; and on the 1870 census of the Third Ward, Pekin as miller Christian Zimmerman, 54, France; and Elizabeth, 57, Bavaria. Christian is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Jacob Zimmerman (also known as Jacob J. Zimmerman) was born at Château le Vannes, Meurthe-et-Moselle April 19, 1818, and died at Flanagan, Livingston County Oct. 15, 1849. He is buried in Center Cemetery at Flanagan. On Oct. 15, 1844 in Tazewell County he married Mary Ringenberger. She was born on Hingsange farm at Linstroff Oct.

His French marriage entry said he was born at Bourgematt, Freibourg. This was likely Burgmatt. A family genealogy compiled by Elias Zimmerman called her 'Mary Salina Miller.' 24 Elias Zimmerman wrote that Andrew was born in Hamilton County, Ohio (the location of Cincinnati). Descendant Larry Zimmerman believes that he was actually born at Hamilton, Butler County, Ohio. 25 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists her as Mary Ann Mowrer. 26 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as David B. Zimmerman and Barbara Franze.

23

22

28

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

12.

13.

1, 1823, and died at Flanagan Aug. 24, 1905, a daughter of Pierre Ringenberg/Peter Rinkenberger and Anna Schrag/Schrock. She is buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Flanagan. Catharine Zimmerman was born at Château le Vannes April 17, 1820, and died at Morton Oct. 1, 1864. Her birth entry described her father as a 40-year-old cultivator and farmer at Château le Vannes, and gave the age of her mother Barbara as 39. She is buried in Guth Cemetery at Washington as "Catharina Riser, wife of John." On Oct. 15, 1841 in Butler County she married Jean/John Risser, also known as John Reeser. His headstone at Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery says he was born Oct. 15, 1811, but his mother's marriage document statement says he was born at Gros-Réderching Oct. 9, 1817. He died Feb. 9, 1902, a son of Jean Risser and Françoise Bergmann (see REESER). An unnamed child was stillborn at Château le Vannes Sept. 3, 1822.

Michael remarried to second wife Magdalena Erb in or before 1830. The civil birth entry of a daughter born in 1830 gave Magdalena's age as 26. However, her obituary said she was born in 1810. They lived at Bois le Comte, Domergermain, Meurthe-et-Moselle where Michael was a cultivator and farmer until their emigration from Europe. Joe Springer found the passenger list of the Poland as it arrived at New York from Le Havre May 3, 1839: Michel Zimmmerman, 58, France; Magdalena, 33; Joseph, 13; Maria, 3; and Jacobina, six months. They can also be found on the 1840 census of Liberty, Butler County, Ohio on the same page as Michael's younger brother, Andrew. The entry lists one male in the age range 60-70 (Michael, who would have been 62), one female 30-40 (Magdalena), one male child 10-15, and two female children under five years of age. They moved west in a covered wagon in 1843. At first they lived at Tremont, then at Washington with a daughter. The Zimmerman Genealogy notes that they saw more than one home destroyed by hearth fire accidents. An 1850 census of unincorporated portions of Tazewell County lists Michael Zimmerman, 70, a farmer from Germany; Magdalena, 46, Germany; Mary [Maria], 14, Germany; Phoebe [Jacobina], 12, Germany; and Peter, 8, Ohio. He lived next door to his 35-year-old son Christian and his wife Elizabeth Stalter. An 82-year-old Michael Zimmerman is listed on the 1860 census in the Elm Grove household of son-in-law Christian Schrock. He died later that year. He is thought to have been buried in Railroad Cemetery at Elm Grove, though there is no headstone for him. Magdalena Erb outlived every one of her husband's first family, and died at Flanagan, Livingston County Feb. 23, 1892. She was buried in Waldo Cemetery. Herald of Truth, March 15, 1892: "On the 23rd of Feb. 1892, in Livingston Co., Ill., of the infirmities of age, widow Magdalena Zimmerman, aged 82 years. She was found dead in her bed in the morning, having retired as usual the evening before. Before midnight her daughter had gone to her room, and found her quietly sleeping. For several years her mental vigor had wandered, but her trust in God remained steadfast. She was a faithful mother in Zion and had been a widow for many years. Buried on the 25th. Funeral services by John P. Schmitt from Sir. 41: last seven verses, Joseph Buercky of Bureau Co., and Daniel Orendroff, from 2 Cor. 5. The deceased sister leaves one son and two daughters, 23 grandchildren, and 15 great grand children." The children of Michael Zimmerman and his second wife Magdalena Erb include:

14. 15. 16. Anne Zimmerman (twin) was born at Domgermain, Meurthe-et-Moselle Oct. 8, 1830, and died the following day. Her civil birth entry described her father as a 53-year-old, and gave her mother's age as 26. Madeleine Zimmerman (twin) was born at Domergermain Oct. 8, 1830, and died Oct. 17, 1830. Maria/Mary Zimmerman was born Nov. 5, 1835, and died Dec. 20, 1920. On March 14, 1852 in Tazewell County she married Christian Schrag/Schrock. He was born at Kösching, a suburb of Ingolstadt April 24, 1826, and died Oct. 29, 1917, a son of Christian Schrag and Elizabeth Bürki/Birky. They lived at Nebraska, Livingston County. Gospel Herald, Nov. 29, 1917: "Christian Schrock was born in Bavaria April 24, 1826; died at his late home near Flanagan, Livingston Co., Ill., Oct. 29, 1917; aged 91 y. 6 m. 5 d. He emigrated to New Orleans, La., in 1846, and in 1850 came to Pekin, Tazewell Co., where in 1852 he was married to Mary Zimmerman. They resided at this place until 1868 when they moved to Nebraska Twp., being of the earliest settlers. Twelve children were born to them. He united with the Amish Mennonite Church when a young man and remained a faithful member. He leaves a devoted wife and seven children, also 25 grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren. Funeral services were held at the house by Bro. D. M. Slagle and at the Church by Bro. Dan Orendorff in German and Bro. Geo. Sommer in English. Buried in the Waldo Cemetery." Jacobina Zimmerman was born June 17, 1838, and died at Peru, Bureau County June 1, 1900. On Feb. 25, 1858 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Burcky. He was born in Illinois May 29, 1836, and died at Peru Aug. 1, 1920, a son of Andrew Burcky and Barbara Oyer. He served as a minister and bishop at Willow Springs Mennonite Church of Tiskilwa, Bureau County. He apparently spelled his own name 'Buercky'; it appears that way on many obituaries included in this text (his obituary is given in a footnote to BIRKY/BIRKEY).

17.

29

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

18.

Peter Zimmerman was born in Ohio Dec. 15, 1842, and died at Garden Cinty, Missouri May 5, 1931. On Feb. 26, 1865 at Gridley City he married Magdalena Schlegel. She was born in Tazewell County May 3, 1846, and died July 3, 1921, a daughter of Christian Schlegel and his wife Salomé 'Sarah' Sommer (see SCHLEGEL). She is buried in the Metamora Township Mennonite Cemetery. Gospel Herald, July 31, 1931: "Peter Zimmerman was born in Ohio, Dec. 15, 1842; died at the home of his son Edward in Garden City, Mo., May 5, 1931; aged 88 y. 4 m. 20 d. On Feb. 26, 1865, he was married to Magdalena Slagle of Tazewell Co., Ill., who preceded him in death July 3, 1921. They spent over 56 years in wedded companionship. This union was blessed with six children, two of whom died in infancy. Those surviving him are William and wife Leah, who have 4 children, 12 grandchildren and 1 greatgrandson; Edward and wife Martha, who have 5 children and 2 grandchildren; Lydia and husband with 6 children and 2 grandchildren; Jonathan and wife Elizabeth have 3 children and 1 grandchild. These with a host of relatives and friends are left to mourn their loss. He was laid to rest beside his helpmate in the Harmony Cemetery. Services were held at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Joseph D. Helmuth, and at the Roanoke, Ill., Church Thursday afternoon, May 27, 1931. He united with the A. M. Church in his young manhood and was a member of the same at the time of his death. He was ordained to the ministry in 1878 at the Roanoke Church, in which capacity he served for over fiftyone years ­ including the congregations at Larned, Kans.; Garden City, Mo.; Delaplaine, Ark.; and later returning to Roanoke, Ill., where he remained until the last six years which were spent with his children in their different homes." See SCHLEGEL for Magdalena's obituary.

BARBARA ZIMMERMAN Barbara Zimmerman was born circa 1782 (presumably at Denzlingen), and died on the Schlatthof at Tiengen bei Freiburg Oct. 19, 1812. She married Anabaptist Matthias Kaltenbach. VERENA ZIMMERMAN Verena Zimmerman was born Dec. 31, 1789; she married Nicolas/Nikolaus Roth, and became the matriarch of the Roth family in Tazewell County (see ROTH). ANDREAS/ANDREW F. ZIMMERMAN Andreas/Andrew F. Zimmerman was born at Denzlingen in 1793, and died in Butler County Jan. 13, 1841. On May 15, 1815 he married Anna `Fanny' Müller. She was born at Auggen Aug. 7, 1797, and died Jan. 2, 1850, a daughter of Jakob Müller and Anna Rupp (see MILLER). Witnesses at the wedding included older brother Michael Müller and brother-in-law Niklaus Roth, who was identified as a leaseholder at Buggingen. All participants were described as Wiedertäufer. In 1821, Andreas/Andrew F. Zimmerman was a leaseholder on the farm of Martin Koger at Auggen. Koger was a village administrator [Ger. Vogt] and blacksmith who had been involved in a poaching dispute in 1798.27 The Andrew F. Zimmerman family sailed from Le Havre aboard the Rhone, arriving at New York June 17, 1839. Ship's list #38 was located by Alana Bauman on National Archives microfilm roll 38. The family is listed as: Andreas Zimmerman, 45, farmer, Baden; Anna, 40; Anna, 20; Michael, 16; Johannes, 13; Christian, 11; and Jacob, 6. The passenger list also shows Christ Zear, 26, Bavaria (see ZEHR). His name appears three lines below that of Jacob Imhof, 24; and Peter Imhof, 23. Peter Imhof or Imhoff later became elder/bishop of the conservative Augspurger congregation in Butler County (see EHRESMAN). Andrew's family is listed on the same page as older brother Michael on the 1840 census of Liberty, Butler County, Ohio. The household includes one male in the 40-50 year age range [Andrew F.]; one female 40-50 [Anna]; and one male between 5-10 years of age [Jacob]. Children of Andrew F. Zimmerman and Anna Müller include:

1. 2. 3. Andreas Zimmerman was born on the Hochburg estate Nov. 10, 1816. He accidentally drowned at Kollmarsreute Sept. 22, 1821. On the Sexau death record the parent is described as Wiedertäufer. Anna/Anne Zimmerman was born at Auggen June 21, 1818, and died June 9, 1884. She married her cousin Andreas/Andrew Roth in Butler County April 24, 1842. Michael Zimmerman was born at Auggen Sept. 27, 1820, and died at Congerville Feb. 7, 1913. On April 20, 1845 at Montgomery, Woodford County he married Katharina/Catherine Naffziger. She was born aboard the Nimrod July 9, 1826, and died at Congerville March 9, 1919. She was a daughter of minister 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger and Barbara Beck, and was born at sea before her family's landing at Philadelphia (see NAFZIGER). They settled in Tazewell County in 1848, then moved to Montgomery Township and settled at what is now Congerville the following year.

After two residents of Auggen were arrested for poaching and given sentences in a Lörrach prison, Koger led a group of protesting farmers on a march to Badenweiler. The group broke up after a vicar blocked their path. As a result the margrave issued an edict relieving Koger and his village council of authority. Koger died Jan. 12, 1827. His house still stands behind the Hotel Rebstock.

27

30

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Michael became a minister of the German Apostolic Church and a prosperous farmer. The household is found on the 1880 census of Montgomery as farmer Michael Zimmerman, 59, born in Baden; Catherine, 53, born on the ocean to parents from Germany; Lydia, 23; Christian, 21; Hannah, 18; Joshua, 16; Cobb [Caleb], 13; and Lillie, 10; all children born in Illinois. Portrait and Biographical Album of Woodford County, 1889: "Rev. Michael Zimmerman, one of the most prosperous and best known German farmers of Montgomery Township has been a citizen of this county since January, 1849. His present estate consists of 490 acress of land, which is divided into three different farms..." The 1900 census of Montgomery shows Michael Zimmerman, 79, born in Germany in September 1820, immigration 1839; and Katharine, 73, born at sea in July 1826, immigration 1826. Michael and Catherine are buried in Lantz Cemetery at Carlock; at his death Michael left 70 grandchildren, and 36 great-grandchildren. Their children include: a. Anna Zimmerman was born in Butler County, Ohio April 25, 1846, and died at Montgomery May 9, 1935. On Oct. 6, 1872 in Woodford County she married John Witzig. He was born in Switzerland Nov. 15, 1837, and died at Goodfield March 29, 1915. John was a minister at the German Apostolic Church at Mackinaw Dells. They can be found on the 1900 census of Montgomery Township as John Witzig, 62, born in Switzerland in November 1837; Anna, 53, born in Ohio in April 1847 to a father born in Germany and a mother born at sea; and three children born in Illinois. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Congerville. b. Catherine 'Katie' Zimmerman and all later children were born at Montgomery, Woodford County. She was born Oct. 14, 1847, and died Sept. 12, 1852. c. Barbara Zimmerman was born May 23, 1849, and died Jan. 29, 1934. On Oct. 19, 1873 in Woodford County she married John Ramseyer. He was born Nov. 1, 1847, and died April 17, 1919, a son of Nicholas Ramseyer and Barbara Sommer. They are found on the 1910 census of Kawkawlin, Michigan as John Ramgerer, 62, born in Ohio to a French father and a Swiss mother; Barbara, 60, born in Illinois to a German father and a mother born at sea; and an adopted son Otto Ramgerger, born in Kansas to a father from Ohio and a mother from Illinois. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Morton. d. Elizabeth Zimmerman was born May 29, 1851, and died July 20, 1853. e. John Zimmerman was born March 13, 1853, and died Jan. 6, 1934. On Dec. 17, 1876 in Woodford County he married Catherine Schrock. She was born Feb. 27, 1853, and died May 14, 1944, a daughter of Joseph Schrock and Magdalena Guingrich. They are found on the 1880 census of Montgomery next door to his parents as farmer John Zimmerman, 27, born in Illinois to a father from Baden and a mother from Germany; Catherine, 27, born in Illinois to a father born on the ocean and a mother born in Germany; and Emma, 2, born in Illinois. An interesting coincidence that highlights the inaccuracies on this census report: both mothers-inwere born at sea on their immigration voyages, in 1826 and 1929 respectively. The 1900 census of Kansas Township, Woodford County shows John Zimmerman, 47, born in Illinois in March 1853 to a father from Germany and a mother born at sea; Catherine, 47, born in Illinois in February 1853 to French parents; and eight children born in Illinois. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Congerville. f. Jacob Zimmerman was born Jan. 25, 1855, and died at Montgomery Oct. 11, 1867. g. Lydia Zimmerman was born Feb. 22, 1857, and died at Morton. June 2, 1951. In 1877 she married Abraham Rinkenberger. He was born July 19, 1857, and died at Gridley, McLean County April 3, 1940, a son of Peter Rinkenberger and Catherine 'Katie' Garber. They lived at Montgomery, then at Hancock, Minnesota, and finally at Gridley. They are buried in Gridley Cemetery. h. Christian Zimmerman was born Feb. 12, 1859, and died March 26, 1940. He married Martha Minkosiwitz. They can be found on the 1900 census of Forest Township, Livingston County as farmer Christian Zimmerman, 41, born in Illinois in February 1859 to German parents; Marthe, 35, born in Illinois in September 1864 to a Hungarian father and a mother from Illinois; and eight children born in Illinois. i. Hannah Zimmerman was born Aug. 15, 1861, and died May 3, 1949. She married John Hohulin. He was born in April 1867, and died in 1946, a son of minister Gottlieb Hohulin and Augustine Wenger. The Hohoulin family immigated in 1858. John and Hannah appear on the 1900 census of Montgomery Township as John Hohulin, 33, born in Illinois in April 1867 to German parents; and Hanna, 38, born in Illinois in August 1861 to a father born in Germany and a mother born at sea. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Congerville. j. Joshua Zimmerman was born April 13, 1864, and died Feb. 25, 1926. On Feb. 25, 1890 he married Maria/Mary Wuethrich. She was born at Metamora June 7, 1871, and died June 18, 1960, a daughter of Johann Ulrich Wuethrich and Elizabeth Aeschliman. Her family had immigrated from Trub, Bern circa 1870. In 1906 Joshua and Marie/Mary settled at Milford, Indiana. They are buried in Milford Cemetery. k. Caleb Zimmerman was born April 26, 1867, and died at Congerville Oct. 28, 1957. He married Lena Wuethrich. She was born at Metamora April 4, 1873, and died July 1, 1955, a daughter of Johann Ulrich Wuethrich and Elizabeth Aeschliman. They farmed Section 23 of Montgomery. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Congerville.

31

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

Lillie Zimmerman was born Feb. 7, 1870, and died Oct. 13, 1960; she is buried as 'Lillie Holliger' in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Congerville. Her father's obituary names her husband 'Louis Holliger,' but we suspect he was Fred Holliger, who was born in 1873, died in 1928, and is buried in the same cemetery. Andreas Zimmerman was born at Auggen Nov. 21, 1821, and died Feb. 18, 1822. Jacob Zimmerman (#1) was born at Auggen Jan. 23, 1824, and died Oct. 22, 1825. Johannes/John Zimmerman was born at Auggen Oct. 16, 1825, and died at Fairbury, Ill. Jan. 7, 1910. On Oct. 22, 1850 in Butler County he married Sara Capp. She was born Oct. 6, 1823, and died March 2, 1909. He is buried in the Southside Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Fairbury. Christian Zimmerman was born at Auggen Jan. 21, 1827. Although he appears on the 1839 ship passenger list, he has not been identified on American census lists. A stillborn girl was born at Auggen Aug. 24, 1828. Magdalena Zimmerman was born on the Hochburg estate Nov. 2, 1829, and died Feb. 24, 1830. Jacob Zimmerman (#2) was born on the Hochburg estate Jan. 7, 1831, and died in 1914. On July 6, 1852 at St. Louis, Missouri he married Katharina/Catherine Leiter. She was born in 1837, and died in 1894. They are found on the 1880 census of Olio, Woodford County as Jacob Zimmerman, 50, Baden; Cathrine, 45, Holland; and seven children born in Illinois.

l.

Collinsville Zimmermans

This portion is included to explain the background of Christian Zimmerman (1827-1879), who is buried in Railroad Cemetery at Elm Grove, and Jacob Zimmerman (1829-1898), who is buried in the Old Apostolic Cemetery at Morton. Their sister Catherine 'Katie' Zimmerman (1831-1902) may have lived at Morton, and may also be buried in the Old Apostolic Cemetery there. Jacob Zimmerman was born Dec. 16, 1735. He grew up at Denzlingen, Baden. In 1772 he became coleaseholder of the Hochburg estate at Sexau with elder Jakob Müller and his brother Christian Müller. The farm surrounded a ruined castle owned by the Margravate of Baden. It had been leased by Rupps and Müllers since 1713. It remained a traditional Amish Mennonite meeting place under the custodianship of the two families until it became a government agricultural school in 1846 (see ROTH). Jacob's wife Barbara/Barbe Schneider was born on the Wangen estate at Tiengen (16 miles southwest of Sexau) Oct. 2, 1742. Christian Zimmerman was born circa 1768, and died at Bourgfelden Nov. 8, 1805. In 1789 he married Elisabetha König. She was born on the Obernimburg monastery estate at Nimburg (eight miles west of Sexau) in 1769, and died at Bourgfelden Dec. 13, 1833, a daughter of Christian König and Elisabetha Stucki (see KÖNIG OF NIMBURG). They farmed with Christian's brother Jacob on the Michelfelderhof at St. Louis, Upper Alsace (just above Basel). On Feb. 16, 1803 they leased a farm at Bourgfelden. Bourgfelden is west of Basel, adjacent to Saint-Louis at the three-way border point where France and Switzerland meet below Baden-Württemberg. Someone in French Bourgfelden could simply walk across the town boundary into the Swiss city of Basel, or cross a bridge over the Rhine and walk four miles to German Weil am Rhein. Christian/Chrétien Zimmerman was born on the Hochburg estate at Sexau March 10, 1790. An entry at Hegenheim, Upper Alsace dated Oct. 19, 1823 stated that a child had been born there to Christian Zimmerman of Bourgfelden, 33, and Barbe Sommer. When that child died at Bourgfelden Oct. 20, 1824, age 1, the parents were named as Christian Zimmerman and Catherine Sommer. Four weeks later, on Nov. 17, 1824, Christian's marriage to Catherine Sommer was entered into Bourgfelden civil records. She was born at Sélestat, Lower Alsace March 11, 1802, a daughter of Johannes/Jean Sommer and Barbara Stucki. Christian and Catherine/Barbara sailed from Le Havre on the Hebrew and arrived at New York June 23, 1836. The passenger list shows Christian Zimmerman, 46; Catharina, 34; Christian, 9; Jacob, 7; Catharina, 5; and Barbe, 3. Christian was naturalized at Hamilton, Butler County, Ohio March 10, 1840. His household appears on the 1840 census of Wayne, Butler County: one male in the 50-59 year age range; one male 10-14; one female 40-49; and two females 5-9. They lived next door to Christian's cousin Christian König, a son of minister Benedict 'Benz' König/King and Maria Magdalena Reidiger/Rediger (see KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG); 'Benz' likely lived there as well.

32

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Christian Zimmerman died circa 1845. The Wayne farm was assumed by Catherine/Barbara's brother David Sommer, and the orphaned Zimmerman children relocated to Collinsville in Milford Township.29 The 1850 census of Collinsville shows cooper Christian Zimmerman, 23, France; Barbaray [Kinsinger], 26, Germany; Barbaray, 54, Germany [likely the widowed Catherine Sommer]; Jac., 21, France; and Catharine, 19, France.30 The widow Catherine/Barbara Sommer remarried to John Bower. The ceremony was performed by Rev. Nicholas Augspurger before the Hessian congregation at Collinsville March 23, 1852. Augspurger's journal listing their ceremony, copied verbatim into William H. Grubb's History of the Mennonites of Butler County, Ohio describes them as "____ Boor and Barbra Cimmerman." Augspurger also performed the marriage of her son Jacob Zimmerman and Catherine 'Katie' Unzicker exactly two months later. Bower's first wife Françoise 'Fanny' Bergmann had died after the 1850 census of Liberty, Delaware County, Indiana. Her first husband had been Johannes/Jean Risser, and she was the mother of future Woodford County minister Christian Reeser (see REESER). The household of John Bower and Catherine/Barbara Sommer appears on the 1860 census of Collinsville, Milford Township as John Bowers, 57, France; Barbaray Bowers, 65, France; and Catherine Zimmerman [her daughter], 29, France. Catherine/Barbara died before the 1870 census of Oxford, Milford Township, where John Bower appeared as 65-year-old fence builder John Bowers of Germany, in the household of carpenter Aaron Silvers. The children of Christian Zimmerman and Catherine/Barbara Sommer include:

1. Catharina Zimmerman was born at Hegenheim, Upper Alsace Oct. 19, 1823, and died at Bourgfelden Oct. 20, 1824. The mother is named on the birth entry as 'Barbe Sommer.' However, Catharina's death entry one year later states that her mother was Catherine Sommer. Christian Zimmerman was born at Bourgfelden March 27, 1827, and died in Tazewell County June 23, 1879; he is buried in Railroad Cemetery at Elm Grove, where his grave is marked by a small white obelisk along the right-ofway fenceline. His birth entry names his mother as Madeleine Rediger. Magdalena Rediger was actually his aunt, the wife of father Christian Zimmerman's younger brother Johannes/Jean. According to The History of Tazewell County, Illinois (Chapman) his mother was named Barbara Sommer. On Sept. 8, 1850 in Butler County he married Barbara Kinsinger, in a ceremony conducted by minister Nicholas Augspurger. She was born on the Heckanaschbacherhof estate at Contwig, Zweibrücken Jan. 1, 1820, and died at Washington Nov. 17, 1896, a daughter of Johannes Kinsinger and Christina Schrag (see KINSINGER). She is buried as 'Barbara Zimmerman, grandma' in the Slonneger grouping at Glendale Cemetery at Washington. The family can be found on the 1860 census of Oxford, Butler County as 'C. Simmerman,' 33, a farmer from France; Barbra, 37, France; Fanny, 8; Barbra, 6; Bena, 4; Cristena, 3; and Christian, one month; all children born in Ohio; and others including laborer Joseph Sumers [Sommer], 66, France; housekeeper C. Kinsinger, 64; and servant Barbara Slenicker [Slonneger], 16, Ohio.32 The property of 'C. Zimmerman' can be found in the northwest quarter of Section 3 (along the line with Washington) on the 1864 plat map of Morton. Widow Barbara can be found as 'Barbara Kensenger, 50' on the 1880 census of Morton. She was a boarder in the home of John Frank; Alsace is given as her birthplace and the birthplace of her parents. The children of Christian Zimmerman and Barbara Kinsinger born in Butler County, Ohio include: a. Fannie Zimmerman was born in 1852. She is found as servant 'Fany Zimmerman,' 28, Ohio, in the household of Jacob A. Augspurger, 33, and Magdalena [Kennel], 28, on the 1880 census of Madison, Butler County. b. Barbara Zimmerman was born Dec. 19, 1853, and died at Washington March 30, 1926. On March 30, 1888 she became the third wife of John Slonneger. He was born at Trenton, Butler County Dec. 12, 1839, and died at Washington, Tazewell County April 6, 1921, a son of Jacob Schlunegger and Elizabeth King (see KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG). On Jan. 29, 1864 he married Magdalena Sommer, who was born in June 1839, and died March 28, 1867. On Aug. 29, 1871 he remarried to Mary Belsley, who was born Nov. 16, 1848, and died April 18, 1878. John Slonneger, third wife Barbara Zimmerman, and second wife Mary Belsley are buried in Glendale Cemetery.

2.

David Sommer married Barbara Schlunegger, a daughter of Johannes Schlunegger and Veronica/Freni 'Fanny' Lichty. They can be found on the 1850 census of Wayne Township as David Sommer, 49, Germany; Barbaray, 47; John, 21; Christian, 20; Peter, 18; Fanny, 17; Jacob, 15; Mary, 14; David, 12; Joseph, 10; Daniel, 8; and Hanna, 6; all children born in Ohio. Their next door neighbors were Elizabeth Ire [Eyer] the widow of Christian König, and her daughter Mary Konig. 30 Milford Township holds Collinsville, Darrtown, and Somerville. It is located adjacent to Wayne Township. Wayne Township holds Jacksonburg and Seven Mile. The congregation at Collinsville under Joseph Goldschmidt/Goldsmith and Benedict König/King had taken a neutral stance in the 1835 division between 'hook and eye' conservative and 'button' progressive churchgoers. 32 Barbara Slonneger was born at Collinsville in September 1844, a daughter of Jacob Schlunegger and Elizabeth King.

29

33

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

Jacobina/Bina/Phoebe Zimmerman was born Feb. 3, 1856, and died at Cincinnati, Ohio April 28, 1928. She married Joseph F. Augspurger. He was born at Madison, Butler County in January 1856, and died in 1930, a son of Moses Augspurger and his first wife Veronica Frey. They can be found on the 1900 census of Madison, Butler County, where her birthdate is given as February 1856. d. Christian Zimmerman was born in February 1858. On Jan. 27, 1881 in Tazewell County he married Rose Ann Hoffman. She is found on the 1880 census of Groveland as Rosa Hoffman, 19, born in Illinois to parents from Darmstadt; her parents appear as farmer Philip Hoffman, 48, Darmstadt; and Joanna, 49, Darmstadt. The 1900 census of Deer Creek shows them as farmer Cris Zimmerman, born in Ohio in February 1858 to German parents; Rosana, born in Illinois in June 1861 to German parents; and nine children born in Illinois. e. Christina Zimmerman was born May 30, 1860, and died in Tazewell County Aug. 5, 1888. On March 31, 1881 in Tazewell County she married Johannes/John Schunk. He was born in Webenheim, Germany Feb. 16, 1851, and died in Polk County, Iowa Aug. 26, 1907. He can be found on the 1880 census of Morton as day laborer John Shunk, 29, Germany; he was living as a boarder in the home of Carl Ueberrhein. They are buried in Roberts Cemetery at Morton. f. Elizabeth K. Zimmerman was born June 21, 1862, and died at Wright, Iowa Dec. 14, 1920. On Feb. 4, 1886 she married Daniel Unsicker. He was born at Morton March 8, 1857, and died at Wright July 4, 1943, a son of Johannes Unzicker/John Unsicker and Katharina Kennel (see UNZICKER). Daniel graduated from Evergreen City Business College at Bloomington. He later farmed in Livingston County and bought 490 acres at Wright. This farm grew to 1,000 acres. On the 1900 census of Spring Creek, Mahaska County, Iowa he is listed as a grain dealer; on the 1920 census of the same location he is a bank president. His biography can be found in Past and Present of Mahaska County, Iowa. Jacob Zimmerman (or 'Jacob F. Zimmerman' as found in the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index) was born at Bourgfelden May 11, 1829. His headstone in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Morton says he was born May 12, 1830, and died July 18, 1899. On March 23, 1852 at Collinsville, Butler County Jacob married Catherine 'Katie' Unzicker, in a ceremony conducted by minister Nicholas Augspurger. She was born at Wilmot, Ontario March 21, 1827 (though some of her children believed she was born in Ohio), and died at Danvers Nov. 23, 1869, a daughter of Daniel Unzicker and Magdalena Kahn. She is buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery at Danvers. She can be found on the 1850 census of Milford, Butler County, as 'Catherine Unziker, 22, Canada' in the household of Joseph Augspurger and Barbara König/King. Jacob and Catherine can be found on the 1860 census of Danvers as farmer Jacob Zimmerman, 31, France; Catharine, 33, Canada; Magdalena, 7, Ohio; Barbara, 5, Ohio; Catherine, 3, Illinois; Fanny, 2, Illinois; and Mary, 1, Illinois. Widower Jacob Zimmerman can be found on the 1870 census of Dry Grove, McLean County as a 41-year-old farmer born in France, with children Magdaline, 17; Barbary, 16; Catherine, 14; Fanny, 12; Liddy, 9; Henry, 7; Emma, 4; and Daniel, 2; the oldest pair born in Ohio, the others in Illinois. On Feb. 12, 1872 in Tazewell County Jacob remarried to Susanna Tunis Rector, the widow of Ezra Rector. Tunis and Rector had married at Muskingum, Ohio Nov. 15, 1840 and settled in Dillon. Jacob and Susanna are found on the 1880 census of Nemaha, Kansas as farmer Jacob Zimmerman, 49, born in Prussia to parents from Prussia; Susan, 57, born in Ohio to parents from Ohio; and stepson and schoolteacher Ava [Alvie] Rector, 26, born in Ohio to a father from Virginia and a mother from Ohio. Fannie, Henry, and Daniel Zimmerman lived next door in the Wymer household. The children of Jacob Zimmerman and his first wife Catherine 'Katie' Unzicker include: a. Magdalena Zimmerman was born at Collinsville, Butler County Feb. 23, 1853, and died at Stanford, McLean County Dec. 7, 1885. On Sept. 1, 1870 in McLean County she married Heinrich Christian Wick. He was born at Marburg, Hesse Sept. 16, 1836, and died in McLean County Nov. 20, 1904, a son of Justus Wick and Dorothea Itzel. In America he was known as Conrad Henry Wick. The 1880 census of Stanford shows them as harness maker C.H. Wick, 43, Hesse-Cassel; Magdalanie, 27, born in Ohio to a father from Germany and a mother from Ohio; and two children born in Illinois. b. Barbara Zimmerman was born at Collinsville, Butler County July 29, 1854. On Jan. 7, 1875 she married Christian Ayersman in McLean County. They are found on the 1880 census of Danvers: laborer Christian Ayersman, 27, born in Ohio to a father from Hesse-Darmstadt and a mother from Prussia; Barbara, 24, born in Ohio to a father from Hesse-Darmstadt and a mother from Canada; and three children born in Illinois to parents from Ohio. c. Katharina/Catherine Zimmerman was born in Illinois Nov. 9, 1856. She is found as recently as the 1870 census. d. Fannie Zimmerman was born in Illinois Feb. 26, 1858. On Aug. 2, 1877 in McLean County she married Jacob Wimer. He was born in Ohio circa 1844. Their household is found on the 1880 census of Nemaha, Kansas as farmer Jacob Wymer, 36, born in Ohio to parents from Ohio; Fannie, 22, born in Illinois to a father from Prussia and a mother from Ohio; Otto, 1, born in Illinois to a father from Ohio and a mother from Illinois; brother-in-law (of Jacob Wymer) laborer Henry Zimmerman, 17, born in Illinois to a father from Prussia and a mother from Ohio; and brother-in-law Daniel Zimmerman, 12, born in Illinois to a father from Prussia and a mother from Ohio. e. Mary Zimmerman was born in McLean County March 28, 1860. She died before the 1870 census.

c.

34

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

5.

Lydia 'Liddie' Zimmerman was born in McLean County July 1, 1861, and died Dec. 2, 1947. On Dec. 18, 1892 in McLean County she married James M. Davis. He was born in Illinois March 2, 1852, and died July 28, 1928 (headstone dates). The 1900 census of Deer Creek shows them as lumber dealer James M. Davis, born in Illinois in March 1850 to parents from New York; milliner Lydia, born in Illinois in July 1861 to a father from Germany and a mother from Ohio; and Mary, born in Illinois in October 1884. They are buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery at Danvers. g. Henry Zimmerman was born in McLean County May 28, 1863. He is shown on the 1880 census of Nemaha. He married Minnie Burger. She was born in Jefferson County, Illinois in February 1868, a daughter of M.M. Burger and Mary Emily Scoville. The 1900 census of Seneca, Nemaha County, Kansas shows his household as Henry Zimmerman, born in Illinois in May 1863 to a father from Germany and a mother from Ohio; Minnie, born in Illinios in February 1868 to a father from New York and a mother from Vermont; and three children born in Kansas. h. Emma Zimmerman was born in McLean County Aug. 26, 1865. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists only one Emma Zimmerman married in McLean County, to Peter Auschicks Sept. 1, 1882 ­ just after Emma's 17th birthday. We could find no further record of the groom. i. Daniel Zimmerman was born in McLean County circa 1868.33 He is found on the 1880 census of Nemaha, Kansas living with his sister Fannie and brother Henry, next door to his parents. Catharine 'Katie' Zimmerman was born at Bourgfelden July 10, 1831. Her birth entry gives her mother's name as Barbe Sommer. She is found on the 1860 census of Collinsville, Milford Township as a 29-year-old from France, living with her mother and John Bower. The 1880 census of Morton shows a Catherine Zimmerman, 49, widowed, Germany; and the 1900 census of Morton has Katie Zimerman, 68, born in Germany in June 1831 to German parents, immigration 1837. Tazewell County Register of Deaths Book 3 shows that this individual was buried in the Apostolic Christian Ground at Morton (the Old Apostolic Cemetery), though she is not found in the newer county cemetery book transcriptions from headstones 34 The record has Katie Zimmerman, born in Baden, lived in Illinois 25 years (from 1877), died at Morton Jan. 22, 1902 at age 70 years, 4 months, 27 days. This would equate to a birth date circa Aug. 25, 1831. Barbara Zimmerman was born at Bourgfelden March 17, 1833, and died at Milford, Nebraska Sept. 2, 1896. She is buried in Fairview Mennonite Cemetery at Milford. On Sept. 22, 1853 in Butler County she married Jakob/Jacob Zimmerman, in a ceremony conducted by Nicholas Augspurger. Jacob was born at Lörrach, Baden March 18, 1827, and died at Milford, Nebraska July 1, 1885, a son of Johannes/Jean Zimmerman and Anna Maria Schneider. He is buried in the Amish Cemetery at Milford. He became a minister in Indiana and Nebraska. They can be found on the 1880 census of Pike, Livingston County as farmer Jacob Zimmerman, 53, born in Baden to parents from Baden; Barbara, 47, born in France to French parents; and four children born in Illinois. Herald of Truth, August 1885: "On the 1st of July, at Milford, Seward county, Neb., of consumption, Jacob Zimmerman, aged 58 years, 3 months and 14 days. On the 2nd he was buried at the Amish graveyard. He was a member of the Amish Mennonite Church. Services by Joseph Gasho and Joseph Retiger. Text, John 5 : 20--30." Herald of Truth, February 1897: "Barbara Zimmerman was born on the 18th of March, 1833 in Alsace, Germany, was married to Jacob Zimmerman on the 22d of September, 1853 in Butler Co., Ohio. She lived in matrimony 32 years and died on the 2d of September, 1896, aged 63 years, 5 months and 15 days. She leaves one brother, one sister, five children and twenty-six grandchildren to mourn her death. A son and daughter preceded her. Her remains were laid to rest on the 4th of Sept. in the Fairview Cemetery, Seward Co., Neb. Funeral text, 1 Cor. 15:53."

f.

Zimmerman of Berrwiller

Christian/Chrétien Zimmerman was born circa 1734, and died at Froeningen April 24, 1804. He married Susanna Goldschmitt. She was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Upper Alsace in 1745, and died at Froeningen, Upper Alsace Dec. 23, 1812, age 67, a daughter of Jean Henry Goldschmid (born at Richterswil circa 1715) and Anna Maria Neuhauser. Susanna's brothers and sister included Jacob Goldschmitt (1737-1810) who married Barbe Eymann/Eiman (an aunt to Andreas Ropp's wife Elisabeth Eymann/Eiman); Marie Goldschmitt (1750-1831) who married Nicolas Hyser (see HEISER) and Noah/Noé Augspurger (see AUGSBURGER); and Heinrich/Henri Goldschmitt (17531813) who married Anne Reck.

We found Daniel's birthdate as Jan. 7, 1868 in one source; however, this may be confused with Daniel D. Zimmerman born at Mason City, Mason County, adjacent to Tazewell County. He was married to Flora E. Ide in Mason County in 1893. 34 The first Apostolic Christian Church of Morton was constructed at the corner of Jefferson and Third Streets in 1867. It was rebuilt to accomodate more members in 1891. The building was destroyed by arson Dec. 12, 1912. The present building was constructed on Jefferson Street in 1913. The Old Apostolic Cemetery at the corner of Queenwood Road and Robin Avenue was established in 1876. The Apostolic Christian Cemetery at the corner of Fourth Street and Birchwood Road was established in 1910.

33

35

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The children of Christian/Chrétien Zimmerman and Susanna Goldschmitt include:

1. 2. 3. Christian/Chrétien Zimmerman was born at Soultz circa 1764, and died on Weckenthal farm at Berrwiller March 4, 1809. Jacob/Jacques Zimmerman was born in 1784, and died in 1852. On Dec. 9, 1805 at Froeningen he married Catherine Ropp, a daughter of Hans Roup/Jean Ropp and Barbara Hochstettler (see ROPP for more on this couple). Andreas/André Zimmerman was born at Ungersheim June 1, 1788, and died in 1823. On April 7, 1819 at Blotzheim, Upper Alsace he married Catherine Schneider. Witnesses included Jean Freyenberger, Joseph Karber, and Jacques Meyer. The entry was signed 'Andreas Zimmerman'. Catherine signed with an 'x', indicating she was illiterate. She was born at Dornach in the autumn of 1791, a daughter of Jacob/Jacques Schneider and Elisabeth Stauffer. Johannes/Jean Zimmerman was born at Ungersheim June 26, 1794, and died at adjacent Pulversheim Sept. 16, 1846. His civil birth entry described his parents as Christian Zimmerman der Alte and Susanna Goldschmid. He married Magdalena Roth. She was born circa 1788, and died at Pulversheim July 28, 1848, age 59.

4.

Christian/Chrétien Zimmerman was born at Soultz circa 1764, and died on Weckenthal farm at Berrwiller March 4, 1809. He married Elisabeth Röschli (found as Röschlin, Reschly, Reschley, Roschlé, Reshlé, and Roschler). She was born at Saulxures Nov. 11, 1764. They farmed at Ungersheim and then on Weckenthal farm at Berrwiller above Mulhouse. Weckenthal farm was on the grounds of a ruined castle that had last been rebuilt in 1650. On June 4, 1810 at Berrwiller Elisabeth remarried to widower laborer Christian Brechbühl, a resident of Homboug near Mulhouse who was born at Bellfosse May 28, 1759. He may have been a son of Martin Brechbühl and Anne Bachmann of Bénaville. If so, he would have been a brother to Magdalena Brechbühl (often found as 'Madeline Prachpiller' or 'Prachpil'), the wife of Christian Rp (uncle to Andreas Ropp). Christian Brechbühl's first wife had been Elizabeth Roup (aunt to Andreas Ropp). They had lived at Bénaville, on a rise between Plaine and Saulxures in Lower Alsace, then at Soultz. Elizabeth died at Hombourg near Mulhouse Feb. 12, 1810. The children of Elisabeth Röschli and her first husband Christian/Chrétien Zimmerman include:

1. Barbe Zimmerman was born at Ungersheim March 6, 1792. On Nov. 17, 1814 at Berrwiller she married Peter/Pierre Roth. The civil marriage entry described the groom as a 24-year-old servant at Weckenthal farm. He was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Upper Alsace Nov. 23, 1790, and died at Uffholtz, Upper Alsace Oct. 5, 1828, a son of Nicolas Roth and Anne Müller. Witnesses on his civil death entry included brother Joseph Roth, a 36-year-old cultivator at Weckenthal; and 27-year-old neighbor and day laborer Jean Wintenberger. On April 17, 1829 at Uffholtz Barbe remarried to Jean Wintenberger. The civil marriage entry described him as the 52-year-old widower of Jean Marie Rauch. He was born at Uffholtz Dec. 7, 1777, a son of the deceased Joseph Wintenberger and Anne Marie Berger. The bride was described as the 37-year-old widow of anabaptiste cultivator Pierre Roth of Weckenthal, Berrwiller, a daughter of the deceased Chrétien Zimmerman and farmer Elisabeth Reschly of Weckenthal, who was present and consenting. Magdalena Zimmerman was born at Ungersheim April 25, 1794, and died before Aug. 20, 1795. Her civil birth entry described her parents as Christian Zimmerman der Jng, a Wiedertäufer [Anabaptist] plowman, and Elisabet Röschlin. Magdalena Zimmerman was born at Ungersheim Aug. 20, 1795. Her civil birth entry described her parents as Christian Zimmerman and Elisabeth Röschlin. It was witnessed by Hans Roth and Johannes Volf. Catherine Zimmerman was born at Ungersheim April 2, 1797. On April 28, 1819 at Berrwiller she married Jacob/Jacques Rich. He was born at Ruederbach Jan. 12, 1789. The civil entry described the groom as 30-year-old Jacques Rich, born at Ruederbach Jan. 12, 1789, a son of the deceased Peter Rich (who had died July 15, 1814) and Barbe Linder (who had died Jan. 15, 1809) from 'Burgenhoff,' Ruederbach. The bride was identified as Catharine Zimmerman, 22, born at Ungersheim April 2, 1797, a daughter of the deceased Chrétien Zimmerman and Elisabeth Röschlé [Röschli] who was living at Weckenthal, Berrwiller, and was present and consenting. Catherine died in Tazewell County before 1870, and was buried in Guth Cemetery at Washington. Jacob appears as an 83year-old in the household of his son Joseph on the 1870 federal census of Morton. For the story of their immigration see RICH. Jean Zimmerman was born circa 1801, and died at Berrwiller April 5, 1806. His civil death entry said he was 5 years old. Anne Marie Zimmerman was born at Berrwiller March 7, 1802. Marie Anne Zimmerman was born at Berrwiller March 30, 1803. On June 2, 1822 at Pulversheim she married Johannes/Jean Roth. He was born at Pulversheim Feb. 23, 1794. The marriage entry described the groom as a son of 'annabaptiste' laborer Christian Roth and the deceased Barbe Schirch, who had died at Pulversheim Oct. 6, 1808. The bride was described as 18 years, 9 months old, born at Berrwiller, a daughter of the deceased Chrétien Zimmerman and Elisabet Reschly of Weckenthal. It was witnessed by Joseph Rupp, 30, of Bollwiller; and Chrétien

2.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

36

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

8. 9. 10.

Roth, 31, of Pulversheim; both brothers of the groom. Another witness was brother-in-law of the groom Christian Rupp, 30, an Anabaptist shopkeeper at Pulversheim (see ROPP, FULTON COUNTY RUPPS). Their son Christian Roth was born at Bollwiller Aug. 2, 1833, and died in Tazewell County in 1897. On March 8, 1868 at Morton he married Frances 'Fanny' Staker. See STAKER for the details of his Civil War service and his marriage. Anne Zimmerman was born at Berrwiller Dec. 13, 1804, and died there April 6, 1806. Elisabethe Zimmerman was born at Berrwiller March 31, 1806, and died there March 24, 1807. Anne Zimmerman was born at Berrwiller June 12, 1808. On May 4, 1827 at Berrwiller she married Jean Ulrich Amstutz. Their civil marriage entry described the groom as 37-year-old Jean Ulrich Amstutz, born at Roches [in the district of Münster in the Jura Mountains of Canton Bern] Sept. 19, 1790, a son of the deceased Jean Ulrich Amstutz who had died in Maison Rouge, Normanvillars, Florimont in the Territoire de Belfort May 7, 1824, and Barbe Wenger of Florimont. The bride was described as 19-year-old Anne Zimmerman, born on Weckenthal farm at Berrwiller June 12, 1808, a daughter of the deceased Chrétien Zimmerman who had died March 4, 1809, and Elisabeth Reschler, living on Weckenthal farm.

37

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Litwiller: Leutweiler of Schupfholz

T

he surname Leutwiler originated in the Aargau region of territories administered from Bern. Leutwil is a village in the upper (southern) sector, adjacent to Berrwil and Reinach. 35 The Aargau region takes its name from the Aare River, which flows north from Lake Thun through the city of Bern and into the region. From the 15th through 18th centuries it was considered a territory of the city-state of Bern, and its administrators persecuted Anabaptists under the same laws. It was not until 1803 that the region became a canton/state of the reconstituted Swiss Confederation. It appears the Amish Mennonite Litwillers who immigrated to Illinois and Ontario came from a single family grouping that appeared in the area above Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden in the mid-1700s. The first generation mingled with many of the Hochburg congregation families mentioned in ROTH and ZIMMERMAN. The second generation migrated west into Alsace and Lorraine and settled among the Dieuze circle of families in Moselle. A third generation made decisions to emigrate or remain in Europe. The genealogy trail was somewhat muddied by a wide variety of creative spellings. We found...

Leutweiler Letteweiler Littweiler Litewiler Luetweiler Lettweiler Litteviller Ritwiller Luitenweiler Letweller Littevilleur Lidewiller Leitenwiler Letwiller Lithwiller Lüttwüller Letweiler Littweller Lütweiler Lüttwüllr Letweiller Lidviller Lütwyler Leutwiler Ludvuleur Lhitevuleur Ladwiller Litwiller

It would be incorrect to say the surname evolved from one form to another. Variety is still found in Europe and North America. To avoid confusion in what follows, we have reduced all the forms to only two: Leutweiler (the earliest form found in Baden) and Litwiller (the spelling generally employed by North Americans). An individual may be called 'Litwiller' in this text, though he or she may actually have signed 'Lidviller' or some other variant. Schupfholz is a tiny village in the administrative district of Denzlingen, Baden. It is only four miles west of Hochburg, Sexau, Emmendingen, and Denzlingen, and six miles north of the city Freiburg im Breisgau. The fields of the Weier castle estate [Ger. Weierschlossgut] at Schupfholz may have been cultivated by Anabaptists as early as 1670.36 These farm workers worshipped with the Hochburg congregation (see ROTH).37 In 1764 the noble von Dungern family put the Weier castle estate up for auction. As Swiss citizens, the members of the Hochburg congregation were prohibited from owning land, and could not place a bid. The property and their burial ground were sold in parcels to bidders that included the mayor of Emmendingen. At least one portion of the estate was then leased back to Anabaptists by a new owner. According to the Häberlein article Eighteenth-Century Anabaptist in the Margravate of Baden and Neighboring Territories, the district archives at Denzlingen show Weier castle estate tenant Christian Leutweiler "appears in the village of Schupfholz from 1771 to 1794." Christian married Elisabeth Wagner (also found as Vagner and Vagnerin). She was born at Mussbach, a village 10 miles northeast of Schupfholz. The Anabaptist Wagner family worked on the Laberhof at Tennenbach (adjacent to Mussbach), a property leased from a Cistercian abbey by Anabaptist Michael Zimmerman. The Leutweilers must have prospered. According to the Häberlein's account, Christian Leutweiler of Schupfholz and Jakob Zimmerman of Hochburg acted as guarantors for a 315-guilder commitment when the lease on a Denzlingen property was renewed by the widow of Christian Zimmerman in 1774. In 1787 Leutweiler reached an agreement with a landowner in Tunsel to lease his property for 10 years. Tunsel is 17 miles southwest of Schupfholz, in an area where the Hapsburgs had interests. The lease had to be approved by outer Austrian authorities. According to the Häberleins, a second would-be leaser named Gschwander objected. The second candidate was an outer Austrian native, and the authorities decided in Gschwander's favor, on the grounds that "Anabaptists were not generally tolerated but only accepted under particular circumstances."

35 Some genealogists have suggested that antecedents of the surname 'Litwiller' come from the Netherlands. However, the surname only appears there after the arrival of Johannes Leutweiler of Basel in 1742. There has also been some confusion with the Rhineland Palatinate village Lettweiler. Through sheer coincidence, there is a Littenweiler only 9 miles southeast of Schupfholz, Baden, on the edge of the Black Forest. The Freiburg im Breisgau suburb was called 'Lutenwile' in the 11th century. 36 Aerial photos of Schupfholz show a distinctive rise next to a reservoir, marking the former site of the Weier castle. 37 One of the earliest Anabaptist tenant families found on the Weier estate was Hodel of Steffisburg (found in Alsace as 'Hodler').

38

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

There are no strict rules that might lead us to Anabaptist records for this period in Baden. In some villages they were disregarded as non-citizens or because they were not affiliated with recognized religions. In others Catholic or Protestant churches kept their entries at the request of the tolerant margrave. It is possible that we will eventually be able to find records for the generation born at Schupfholz. In the meantime, a tentative list of the children of Christian Leutweiler and Elisabeth Wagner might include two that cannot be directly connected to Schupfholz by known documentation:38

1. 2. Christian 'Littwiler' (Jr.) was born circa Dec. 6, 1758. An entry in the Denzlingen Kirchenbuch says he died there June 6, 1805, age 46 years, 6 months. Denzlingen is four miles east of Schupfholz. Jacob/Jacques Litwiller may have been born at Schupfholz circa 1759, and died at Tagsdorf, Upper Alsace Feb. 19, 1814. His civil death entry described him as 52-year-old cultivator 'Jaque Lüttwüllr,' and stated that he died in the home of 39-year-old cultivator Morand Bühl at Tagsdorf. His birthplace was given as 'Schupfholtz en Brussgaure' [Schupfholz by Freiburg im Breisgau]. Earlier civil entries reported him to be 38 in 1797 (1759), 40 in 1799 (1759), 44 in 1801 (1757), and 48 in 1803 (1755). The overall pattern is consistent with many married males who feared losing their conscription exemptions during the Napoleonic wars -- their ages 'accelerate' until they pass beyond the 45-year mark, a second disqualifier. See ONTARIO LITWILLERS. Elisabetha Litwiller was born at Schupfholz circa 1763, and died at Ostheim, Upper Alsace (32 miles west of Schupfholz) Dec. 18, 1818.39 She married Jean Hochstettler, who was born in 1760, and died at Ostheim March 19, 1789. His Latin death entry called him 'Joannes Hochstettler annabaptista'; witnesses were Melchior Rees (17211802) and his son Johannes (1761-1795), found as 'Reiss.'40 Jean Hochstettler was a son of minister Johannes/Jean Hochstettler and Christina Wittmer, who had lived in the Katzenwangen Mill at Bennwihr before coming to Ostheim. She was living on the Schoppenweir estate at Ostheim when she remarried to Conrad Schweitzer there April 10, 1793. He was born at Bergzabern in the Palatinate (four miles from the Wissembourg, Lower Alsace border station) Aug. 2, 1767, and died at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Upper Alsace May 24, 1827, a son of Conrad Schweitzer and Madeleine Eyer. Conrad and Elisabetha's civil marriage entry was recorded in the German language. It described Elisabetha's father as Christian Leutweiler of Schupfholz (spelling both the surname and location accurately) and her mother as Elisabeth Vagner [Wagner] born in Mbach [Mussbach, Baden]. The bride signed her name 'Elisabetha Wagner,' and there was no mention of her first marriage. (To say that her parents were married or that she had been married might have required documentation from Baden). Like first husband Jean Hochstettler's death entry, Elizabeth's second marriage entry was witnessed by Johannes Reiss. A son, Conrad Schweitzer (Jr.), married his cousin Elisabeth Zehr at Arracourt Dec. 27, 1827. She was a daughter of Christian Zehr and Catherine Litwiller. Johannes/Jean Litwiller was born circa 1764. He died at Repaix, Meurthe-et-Moselle Jan. 29, 1822; the civil entry stated his age as 58. See ILLINOIS LITWILLERS. Anne Litwiller was born circa 1764, and died at Hellering, Moselle (now Hellering-lès-Fénétrange, 11 miles northeast of Diane-Capelle) April 25, 1804. Her civil death entry gave her age as 40 and her birth place as 'Emering, Autriche' [Emmendingen or Emeringen, Baden?]. She married Jean Martin, and they lived at Hellering. Barbe Litwiller was born circa 1766, and died on a leased Benedictine Abbey farm between Domèvre-sur-Vezouse and Blamont in 1853. In 1788 she married Joseph Salzman. He was born circa 1764, and died in a daughter's home at Lafauche, Haute Marne July 29, 1854. He is thought to have been a son of Christian Salzman and Marie Rider of the Zelle farm at Petit-Tenquin (see SALZMAN). They lived on Ban St. Jean farm at Denting, Moselle (Ger. Dentingen) 1795-1801; on the Tensch farm between Grostenquin and Francaltroff, Moselle 1807-12; at Marimont, Moselle 1820-36; then on a leased Benedictine Abbey farm between Domèvre-sur-Vezouse and Blamont, Meurtheet-Moselle until 1853. They had a dozen children. Catherine Litwiller was born circa 1767, and died at Arracourt, Meurthe-et-Moselle (23 miles west of Diane-Capelle) Oct. 5, 1838. On Feb. 17, 1787 at Rohrburg bei Altenheim she married Christian Zehr (also found as 'Zert').41 He was born at Neuvillers-sur-Fave (later in Vosges Department) circa 1761, and died at Arracourt Aug. 3, 1853. They

3.

4.

5.

The index of civil death entries at La Petite Pierre includes the name of Nicolas Lituvill, who died Sept. 3, 1810. Jacob Litwiller and Anna Maria Maurer moved from there to Hattigny circa 1798, so it is unlikely he was one of their children. 39 There were earlier connections between the Hochburg congregation and the village of Ostheim. Benedict 'Benz' Stucki/Stucky (circa 1716-1793) was mentioned in ROPP as a minister who represented the Colmar congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1759 with Hans Rupp/Jean Ropp, the father of Andreas Ropp. Benedict and his wife Anna Maria Neuhauser lived on the the Schoppenwihr estate at Ostheim. Their daughter Barbara Stucki married Johannes Zimmerman of Emmendingen; after the marriage the couple farmed at Ostheim. Their daughter Elisabetha Stucki married Christian König of Nimburg, Baden (see KING). The surnames Hochstettler and Dettweiler could also be found at both locations. 40 The Rees had originally lived at Pforzheim, Baden before moving to Ostheim. 41 Rohrburg bei Altenheim [Rohrburg near Altenheim] is so named to differentiate it from a Rohrburg ruined castle site at Dursenheim, Baden. The village of Rohrburg is actually midway between Altenheim and Ichenheim; Ichenheim was the location of the Ottenweierhof estate, a home to Reidiger/Redigers. These locations are on the eastern side of the Rhine River, about 12 miles southeast of Strasbourg, and about 30 miles north of the area of the Hochburg congregation.

38

39

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

had a daughter Elisabeth Zehr born at Domèvre-sur-Vezouse, Meurthe-et-Moselle Aug. 25, 1808; she married her cousin Conrad Schweitzer (Jr.).

Ontario Litwillers

Older son Jacob/Jacques Litwiller was born at Schupfholz circa 1759. He married Anne Marie/Anna Maria Maurer. She was born circa 1767, and died at Wilmot, Ontario Sept. 22, 1836, a daughter of Johannes/Jean Maurer and Marie Conde.42 Jacob and Anne Maria lived in a variety of locations. From 1793 to 1797 children were born in the German-speaking hamlet Litzelstein near La Petite Pierre in 'Crooked Alsace,' about six miles from the border of Lorraine. The area is now encompassed by the Parc naturel régional des Vosges du Nord. In 1798 they relocated about 30 miles southwest to the Risholz farm at German-speaking Hattigny, Moselle (Ger. Hattingen), where children were born 1799-1803. The village is adjacent to Richeval (Ger. Reichental), the home of brother Johannes/Jean's oldest son Christian; also adjacent to Niderhoff (Ger. Niederhof), the home of the Oyers; and only eight miles from Diane-Capelle (Ger. Dianenkappel), the home of Johannes/Jean. Another couple living on Risholz farm was Johannes/Jean/Hans Roth (found in local records as 'Rodh') and his wife Freni/Véronique Mosimann; they were uncle and aunt to bishop Michael Mosiman (see MOSIMAN). The Litwillers lived among the 'Dieuze circle of families' ­ the mostly Bernese Anabaptists who lived in the network of lakes, ponds, and small rivers that interlace the area surrounding Dieuze, Moselle. In 1805 Jacob and Anne Marie migrated southeast to Illfurth, Upper Alsace (Ger. Illfurt, four miles above Altkirch). They had children there in 1805 and 1809. An 1813 civil marriage entry for one of their daughters created at Tagsdorf (three miles east of Altkirch) described the parents as residents of Tagsdorf. Jacob died at Tagsdorf Feb. 19, 1814. Anne Marie was farming there in 1816, and may have remained in the area until her migration to Ontario in 1827. The difficulty in locating records of Jacob's children was heightened by small complications: Jacob spelled his signature a number of ways over the years; he often formed the letter 'e' as an Old German 'n,' similar to the way the handwritten Engel surname often appeared to be 'Engnl'; and Anne Marie Maurer was occasionally described in French-language records as 'Marie Masson' or 'Marie Mason,' a literal translation of the German 'Maurer,' which means 'brick layer.' It was also obvious that Jacob was either functionally illiterate or did not care to correct the entries written over his signature. The children of Jacob Litwiller and Anne Marie Maurer include: 1.

Catherine Litwiller was born April 10, 1786, and died at Wilmot April 11, 1873. On June 24, 1813 at Tagsdorf (next to Altkirch) she married Christian Boshart. He was born at Staffelfelden circa 1785 (he was 28 at his wedding), and died at Wilmot Nov. 20, 1850, a son of Johannes/Jean Boshart and Anna Maria Müller. After his father's death on the Schönensteinbach convent farm at Wittenheim in 1794, his mother had moved the family to Luemschwiller. There Christian became a farmer and cultivator, and was a witness at the wedding of Christian Hirschi and Anne

The identification of Anne Marie Maurer's parents rests on a civil marriage entry filled with spelling errors. It was created at Hattigny March 11, 1803. Christian Roth, 25, a son of Jean Roth and Marie Lehman, married 'Elisabeth Mourni,' 23, a daughter of 'Jean Mourni' [Maurer] and 'Madelaine Conti' [Conde, derived from von Gunten -- both spellings and other variations found particularly in Salm]. Witness 'Jacquob Lhitevuleur' (as found in the entry text), 40, who signed his name 'Jacob Litweiler, ' was described as a brother-in-law of the bride. Other witnesses included brother-of-the-groom Jean Roth, 30; maternal uncle-of-the-groom Christian Lehman, 40; and Michel Mosimann, a friend of the bride. The residence of the bride's parents was described as 'Clainedal, Haut-Fain.' This may have been Klingenthal, a foundry town in the Boersch forest next to Rosheim, Lower Alsace. If so, 'Jean Mourni' may have been the Johannes/Jean Maurer who is mentioned by J. Virgil Miller in Both Sides of the Ocean, born circa 1750, and found in 1780 on a leased farm "...at Rosheim, on the road to Strasbourg...He may have been the son of Johannes Maurer and Christina Fahrni, who were married at Bärbelstein [another name for Bewartstein Castle near Erlenbach in the Palatinate near the border of Lower Alsace] in 1720." The older Johannes was in turn the son of Michael Maurer (also found as 'Michel Murer'), who was born circa 1690 and was at Ste. Marieaux-Mines in 1763. Coincidentally, when Anne Marie Maurer Litwiller arrived at Wilmot Township in 1827, there was already someone there with a connection to Bewartstein Castle. Johannes/Hans/John Oesch was born there in 1791, a son of Johannes 'Hannes' Esch and Freni Heres [Ehrisman?]. He married Barbara Schultz at Rothsee below Munich in 1820; they farmed at Probfeld in the Danube Marsh, left Neuburg an der Donau (see SUTTER) June 1, 1824, sailed from Amsterdam, and arrived at New York on the Osprey Sept. 2, 1824. Oesch arrived at Wilmot Township shortly after it was surveyed, became a minister in February 1829, and replaced 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger as elder/bishop in September 1829. He died at Bayfield, Huron County in 1850.

42

40

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10.

Marie Ropp, a cousin to Andreas Ropp (see ROPP). Christian was still living at Luemschwiller at the time of their marriage, but afterward they lived at Tagsdorf. Their civil marriage entry described the groom as 28-year-old cultivator 'Cretien Poshart,' born at Staffelfelden but living at Luemschwiller, a son of the deceased Jean Poshart and Anna Maria Müller. The bride was described as 'Catarina Lüttwüller,' 27, a daughter of Jaques Lüttwüller and Maria Mürer of Tagsdorf. The bride and groom signed with an 'x', indicating they were illiterate; signatures of witnesses include Jacob Litwiller and Maria Marer. Catherine and Christian are thought to have arrived at Wilmot in 1827. They settled on the northern side of Erb Street in the German Block of Wilmot. Catherine can be found as a widow on the 1851 and 1861 censuses of Wilmot, nationality France, religion 'Amish.' Joseph Litwiller was born at La Petite Pierre Oct. 18, 1793, and died there March 2, 1798. The birth entry indicated that the family resided at Litzelstein; Jacob signed 'Jacob Luitenwiler.' Jean Litwiller was born at La Petite Pierre Aug. 24, 1795, and died at Hattigny, Moselle Dec. 13, 1798. Father Jacob signed Jean's birth entry as 'Jacob Leitenwiler.' Magdalena/Madeleine Litwiller was born at Litzelstein circa 1796, and died at Wilmot between 1862 and 1869. On Dec. 3, 1816 at Hirtzbach, Upper Alsace (Ger. Hirzbach) she married Christian/Chrétien Liechti. He was born at Friesen, Upper Alsace March 12, 1796, and died at Wilmot Sept. 6, 1865, a son of Johannes/Jean Liechti and Magdalena Joder. Liechtis and Joders from Morvillars farmed at Grantzelen, the castle estate of the Château de Hirtzbach. The civil marriage entry stated that the 22-year-old groom was a farmer at 'Granlzelen,' and noted that the 24-year-old bride was born at 'Lutzelstein, Meuse.' The parents of the bride were described as the deceased Jacques Litwiller and Marie Maurer, who was farming at Tagsdorf and was present and consenting. Witness Chrétien Boshart of Tagsdorf, 30, was described as a brother-in-law of the bride. In 1821 a civil entry created at Largitzen for the birth of their son Christian indicated that 'Chrétien Liechti' and 'Magdalen Ritviller' were residents there; this was also the residence of Andreas Ropp and Elisabeth Eymann. Marie/Maria Litwiller was born at La Petite Pierre Oct. 29, 1797, and died at Wilmot Sept. 4, 1863. The birth entry indicated that the family were residents of Litzelstein; Jacob signed 'Jacob Luitenweiler.' On April 2, 1823 she married Rodolphe/Rudolph/Rudolf Roth. He was born Jan. 23, 1799, and died at Wilmot June 1, 1853, a son of Jean Roth and Marie Lehmann. Like Christian Liechti and Magdalena Litwiller, in 1824 the civil entry for the birth of son Jean stated that Rudolf Roth, 28, and 'Marie Anne Ritwiller,' his wife, were living at Largitzen. Roth was ordained a minister in 1835 and a bishop in 1843. Later he and his family left their congregation to become Reformed Mennonites. They are found on the 1851 census of Wilmot as Rudolf Roth, 54, France, yeoman, married; and Maria Roth, 54, France, married. Elisabeth Litwiller was born at Hattigny Nov. 22, 1799. The birth entry calls the father 'Jacquob Littevilleur,' though he signed 'Jacob Litewiler'; he was described as a 40-year-old cultivator. The mother was identified as 'Marie Mason,' a literal translation of the German 'Maurer,' or bricklayer. Elisabeth presumably died before 1806. Freni/Véronique/Veronica/Frances Litwiller was born at Hattigny Dec. 6, 1801. Her birth entry described her as 'Freny Ludvuleur'; her father as Jacob Ludvuleur, a 44-year-old cultivator (he signed as 'Jacob Litewiler'); and her mother as 34-year-old Marie Mason. She died in Ontario in 1869. In 1828 at Wilmot she married Jacob Gingerich. He was born in Alsace circa 1797, and died in Waterloo County, Ontario Nov. 21, 1869, a son of Peter Gingerich. Freni left the church to become a Reformed Mennonite. Joseph Litwiller was born at Hattigny Dec. 23, 1803, and died there April 18, 1804. The death entry described his father as a 48-year-old living on Risholz farm, and identified his mother as 'Marie Masson.' Elisabeth 'Barby' Litwiller was born at Illfurth, Alsace Oct. 4, 1805. Her civil birth entry described her father as "Jaques Lidewiller agé de quarante six ans anabaptiste natif de Schupfholz pres Fribourg en Brisgau, domicilé a Illfurth," and her mother as 'Marie Murer.' At Wilmot she married Jacob Gardner. 43 He was born circa 1802, a son of Daniel Gärtner and Elizabeth. He served as a minister 1845-50, but they left the church to become Reformed Mennonites. Peter/Pierre Litwiller was born at Illfurth, Upper Alsace Jan. 8, 1809, and died at Wilmot July 7, 1878. His civil birth entry named him 'Pierre Lidwiller,' describing his father as 50-year-old farmer Jaques Lidwiller living at Illfurth, and his mother as Anna Maria Maurer. The father's signature looks like 'Jacob Littnviller,' the surname 'n' representing an 'e.' The report of Peter's death at Wilmot stated that he was born at "France, Gamay," a location we could not identify.44

In 1827 widow Anna Maria sailed from Le Havre with her extended family on the brig Abby Jones. They arrived at New York July 12. The passenger list included Frances Lidwell, 25; and Peter Lidwell, 18; and farther down the page Mary Lidwell [Anna Maria Maurer Lidviller], 60; and Barby Lidwell, 15 [Elisabeth, 20]; as well as

43

According to Guth, the Gardner family was descended from Franz Benedikt Gurtner. He was born at Seftingen, Bern in 1687; lived on the Winchenbach estate near Siegen, Nassau after 1726; and died in 1773. His descendants in Nassau used the spelling 'Gärtner.' 44 Peter Litwiller's Death Register information was provided by witness Mennonite minister John Gascho, who also stated that Peter had been ill with rheumatism and sciatica for a year and a half. He described Peter's occupation as "minister of the Gospel."

41

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

the Rudolph Roth/Marie Litwiller and Christian Liechti/Magdalena Litwiller families (found as 'Rhodes' and 'Leact'). They made their way to Wilmot, Ontario, where they arrived in August. Catherine Litwiller and Christian Boshart are thought to have arrived a year earlier. At Wilmot Peter Litwiller selected a lot on the north side of Erb Road. He was directly across the street from two lots occupied by Andreas Ropp and his oldest son Andrew; they moved south to Butler County in 1831-32. Peter's brothers-in-laws lived only a few lots west on Erb Street. A census of Wilmot created by assessor John Hamacher 1830-34 (with spellings as found) includes: Jacob Gingrich, Lot 15, Bleam Street, North-South; Christian Boshard, Lot 9, Erb Street North; Christian Lichty, Lot 10, Erb Street South; Jacob Gardner, Lot 24, Bleam Street South; Rudolph Roth, Lot 9, Erb Street South; and Peter Litwiller, Lot 7, Erb Street North. In 1830 Peter married his sister-in-law Elizabeth Liechti. She was born at Hirtzbach Oct. 2, 1808, and died at Wilmot Feb. 25, 1882, a daughter of Johannes/Jean Liechti and Magdalena Joder. They completed improvements on their property and claimed a free title in 1835. Peter became a minister of the Wilmot Amish Mennonite congregation in 1845, following the example of others such as 'Apostle Peter' Nafziger, Christian Farny, his brother-in-law Rudolph Roth, and his brother-in-law Jacob Gardner. In 1850 he became a bishop with oversight over the entire area from Wilmot to Lake Huron. The family can be found on the 1851census of Wilmot as Peter Litwiller, 44, France, Amish, yeoman; Elizabeth Litwiller, 44, France, Amish, married; and 11 children born in Canada, ranging from 2-21 years of age. Peter had a warm relationship with a Catholic priest at St. Agatha. More than 200 carriages formed a procession for Peter's funeral in 1878; as they passed the Catholic Church, its bells chimed in tribute. Herald of Truth, August 1878: "July 8th, of long suffering with rheumatism, Peter Litzwiler, bishop of the Amish Mennonite church, at the age of 69 years, 5 months, and 27 days. He was beloved by all who knew him." A Froschauer Bible that belonged to bishop Peter Litwiller is now held in the Nelson and Ada Litwiller Collection at Goshen College. The second page inscription in German reads, "This book was the property of Bishop Peter Litwiller, who was born in Alsace, Jan. 8, 1809. He traveled to America in January 1827 and was married to Elisabeth Lichti in the year 1830. He was called to the office of bishop in which he served faithfully to his end. He died on the 7th of July 1878, at the age of 69 years, 6 months less one day. He left me this book as a remembrance. At his suggestion I had this rebound in the year 1881. Christian Litwiller, Wilmot, April 15, 1881."45 Christian (1848-1924) became a minister of the Wilmot Amish Mennonite Church. Herald of Truth, April 1882: "On the 25th of February, in Waterloo County, Ontario. Widow of Peter Litwiler aged about 70 years. She leaves a large number of children and grand-children. She was respected by all who knew her and was very kind to the poor." Peter and Elizabeth's 11 children left many descendants in the area.

Illinois Litwillers

Younger son Johannes/Jean Litwiller was born circa 1764, and died at Repaix, Meurthe-et-Moselle on Jan. 29, 1822. Johannes/Jean married Freni Zehr, who is also found as Françoise or Véronique Serre. She was born in 1766, and died at Repaix Aug. 9, 1819, a daughter of Christian Zehr (also found as Chrétien Zeer) and Freni Martin. Three of their children lived in Butler County, then Tazewell or Livingston Counties. It is likely that they were welcomed to Butler County by a cousin, Magdalena Litwiller (1777-1864), and her second husband Christian Sommer (1790-1865)(see BARBARA AND SAMUEL). The children of Johannes/Jean Litwiller and Freni Zehr include:

1. Jean Litwiller was born at Richeval circa 1783, according to his marriage entry. Richeval is adjacent to Hattigny, which was later the home of Jacob Litwiller and Anna Maria Maurer. He died at Repaix May 13, 1851. On March 2, 1814 at Chazelles-sur-Albe he married Marie Mosimann; the civil entry described him as a laborer at Richeval. She was born at St. Quirin (on the opposite side of Hattigny from Richeval) Nov. 6, 1794, and died at Repaix March 19, 1853 or 1855, a daughter of Michel Mosimann and Suzanne Brechbühl. She was an older sister to bishop Michael Mosiman (see MOSIMAN). Descendants of this couple belonged to the Repaix congregation; when that congregation was absorbed by a church at Lunéville in 1928, the last elder was named Jean Lidviller. Christian Litwiller was born at Diane-Capelle (eight miles above Richeval and Hattigny) April 13, 1791, and died at Badonviller, Meurthe-et-Moselle (12 miles below Hattigny) July 15, 1840. On Dec. 1, 1814 at Badonviller he

2.

45 A transcription by Steve Buckwalter from the mcusa-archives website. Correspondence, a deed, and a sermon are also part of the collection. The Mennonite Archives of Ontario at Conrad Grebel University College holds Peter's business account book and a communion sermon.

42

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

4.

married Elisabeth Sommer. She was born at Saulxures, Vosges Nov. 2, 1799, and died at Badonviller Oct. 12, 1854, a daughter of Moise Sommer and Marie Innocente Bansept. They lived on Le Chamois farm at Badonviller, which is still in the possession of a Lidviller family. Catherine Litwiller was born at Diane-Capelle March 11, 1796. Her father signed the civil entry 'Johannes Lutviller,' and her mother was described as 'Frene Sere.' One witness was cultivator George Steider, 32 (see STEIDER). Catherine died Nov. 15, 1806, according to a civil entry created at Diane-Capelle. Joseph Litwiller was born at Diane-Capelle March 29, 1799, and died at Dillon May 27, 1884. On his birth entry his parents were described as 'Jean Litwiller' and 'Frène Sère'; the father signed his name 'Johannes Litwiler,' and farmhand Jean Abresol, 26, served as witness. On Sept. 19, 1829 at Hirsingue, Upper Alsace he married Barbe/Barbara Ulrich. Their civil marriage entry described him as wagonmaker (Fr. charron) Joseph Lidwiller, 30, a resident of Hirsingue for six years. It was signed 'Joseph Liviller' and signed with 'x's for the names of the the bride and her father (indicating they were illiterate); it was witnessed by Jean Pierre Schmitt, a 32-year-old cultivator, who would be known in Illinois as John P. Smith (see PETERSMITH). Barbe was born at Walheim, Upper Alsace March 20, 1804, and died in Butler County Dec. 29, 1847, a daughter of weaver Pierre Ulrich and Catherine Lauber (see ULRICH and WAGLER). They sailed from Le Havre with her brother Peter in May 1831, arriving at New York in July after a 44-day voyage. They raised their family in Butler County, where Joseph appears on the 1840 census of Milford as 'Joseph Lithwiller.' The form shows two males under five years of age, one male 5-10, 1 male 40-50, 1 male 60-70; two females 5-10, one female 30-40, and two females 50-60. Widower Joseph appears on the 1850 census of Milford as 'Litwell.' In 1851 he brought his children to Dillon. On Feb. 3, 1856 in Tazewell County he remarried to Magdalena 'Malinda' Sommer. 46 She was born Nov. 20, 1803, and died Feb. 21, 1878. The 1860 census of Dillon lists the household as Joseph Letwiler, 60, farmer, France; Madalene, 57, France; Joseph, 24, Ohio; Peter, 20, Ohio; John, 19, Ohio; and Fanny, 18, Ohio. The 1870 census of Dillon shows Jos. Letweiler, 71, retired farmer, France; and Malinda, 69, France; they lived next to sons Peter and John. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Gospel Herald, June 1884: "On the 27th of May, in Tazewell Co., Ill., Deacon Joseph Litwiller, aged 84 years and a few months. The funeral was very largely attended. Services by Joseph Springer, Christian Naffziger and Noah Augsburger. He was a peaceful member of the Amish Mennonite Church." The children of Joseph and his first wife Barbe/Barbara Ulrich include: a. Peter Litwiller was born June 1, 1830, and died before 1839. b. Barbara Litwiller was born at Milford Sept. 25, 1831, and died at Hopedale June 12, 1899. On Jan. 12, 1851 in Butler County she married George Zehr. He was born Sept. 27, 1825, and died April 16, 1904. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Herald of Truth, August 1899: "On June 12, 1899, near Hopedale, Tazewell Co., Ill., Barbara Littwiller, wife of George Zehr, aged 67 years, 8 months and 17 days. She leaves her husband, four children, twenty-one grandchildren and three greatgrandchildren. She lived in matrimony forty-eight years, was a member of the Amish Mennonite Church and well liked by all who know her. She always admonished her children to do good, and tried to do good herself. She always had hopes and was glad to go to Jesus. She was buried on the 14th. Funeral services were conducted by John Egli, J. Littwiller, J. Egli, and J. C. Birky." Herald of Truth, June 1904: "George Zehr died April 16, 1904, at the home of his son, Christian Zehr, near Minier, Ill., at the age of about 78 years. He had been sick quite a long time, but was very patient in his affliction. His hope was built on Jesus' blood and righteousness. He was a member of the A. M. congregation at Hopedale, Ill. Buried April 17, in the A. M. burying ground near Hopedale, Ill. Funeral by John Egli, Sr., in German and Samuel Gerber in English." c. Joseph Litwiller was born at Milford March 13, 1833, and died before 1836. d. Catherine Litwiller was born at Milford May 21, 1834, and died at Milford, Nebraska May 1, 1930. On April 1, 1855 in Tazewell County she married her second cousin Nicholas Martin. 47 He was born at Imling, Moselle March 15, 1834, and died Feb. 19, 1905, a son of Christian Martin and Elisabeth Zehr.48 They are found on the 1870 census of Boynton as Nicholas Martin, 36, France; Katharina, 35, Ohio; with five children born in Illinois. Gospel Herald, June 1930: "Catherine (Litweiler) Martin was born in Butler Co., Ohio, May 21, 1834; died at the home of her eldest daughter, Barbara Birky, Milford, Nebr., May 1, 1930; aged 95 y. 1 m. 10 d. She was married to Nicklos E. Martin in April, 1854. He preceded her in death Feb. 19, 1905 at Beemer, Nebr. This union was blessed with 4 daughters and 1 son (Barbara Birky, Joseph, Mary Birky, Emma Birky, and Katie Stoltzfus). She leaves 4 daughters, 37 grandchildren, 92 great-grandchildren, 13 great-great-grandchildren and many friends. She was exceptionally blessed with long life and good health. Even in her last days she could think clearly and see the beauties of nature. The last four years of her life she lived with A. D. Birky's. She accepted Christ as her Savior in

Gary L. Yordy found them listed in the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index as Joseph Settweiler and Madaleine Sommers. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Catharine Letwiler and Nicholas Mirten. 48 Christian Martin was born at Zilling, Moselle in 1786, and died before 1846. He was a son of Jean Martin and Anne Litwiller. On Dec. 13, 1810 at Domèvre-sur-Vezouse, Meurthe-et-Moselle, he married his cousin Elisabeth Zehr. She was born at Hellering Nov. 12, 1789, and died at Imling March 11, 1873, a daughter of Christian Zehr and Catherine Elisabeth Litwiller (found as 'Litteviller'), a daughter of Christian Leutweiler and Ann Wagner of Schupfholz, Baden).

47

46

43

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5.

6.

her youth and was a member of the Amish Mennonite Church for about 78 years. She died trusting in the Lord. It was her desire to depart and be with Christ, and she patiently waited for the call. "Not by works of righteousness, which we have done, but according to his abundant mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost" (Tit. 3: 5). Short funeral services were held at the home of Bro. Birky on Sunday afternoon. On Monday her remains were taken to her former home at Beemer, Nebr. Services were conducted by J. E. Zimmerman of Milford, Nebr. Text, I Pet. 1: 4, 24, 25." e. Christian Litwiller was born at Milford Sept. 15, 1835, and died at Waldo, Livingston County Aug. 13, 1917. On March 27, 1859 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Springer. She was born Feb. 2, 1840, and died at Colfax, McLean County July 16, 1921, a daughter of David Springer and Elizabeth Guth. f. Joseph Litwiller was born at Milford Dec. 12, 1836, and died March 28, 1914. On March 9, 1862 in Tazewell County he married Catherine Birkey, in a ceremony performed by Andrew Ropp. She was born March 13, 1843, and died Dec. 30, 1923, a daughter of Christian Birkey and Catherine Mosiman. They are found on the 1880 census of Elm Grove. Joseph became a minister at Hopedale. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery there. Gospel Herald, April 1924: "Catherine (Birky) Litwiller was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., March 13, 1843; died Dec. 30, 1923; aged 80 y. 9 m. 17 d. She was united in marriage to Joseph Litwiller, March 9, 1862. To this union were born nine children, namely: Mary Oswald, Beemer, Nebr., Salome Eichelberger, Emden, Ill., Katie, at home, Christian A., John W., Daniel and Louis of Hopedale, Ill., and Ben F., Lakeworth, Fla. Her husband and two sons preceded her to the great beyond. She is also survived by 3 brothers, 3 sisters, 36 grandchildren, and 25 great-grandchildren, besides many relatives and friends. She united with the Amish Mennonite Church in her youth and remained faithful and loyal to the end. Funeral services were held Jan. 2, at the A. M. Church near Hopedale, Ill., conducted by Samuel Gerber, of Tremont, Ill." g. Veronica/ Frances Litwiller was born at Milford Oct. 28, 1838. She died before the 1840 census. h. Peter Litwiller was born at Milford Sept. 9, 1839, and died June 28, 1900. On March 8, 1864 in Tazewell County he married Anna 'Nancy' Ehresman.49 She was born Feb. 22, 1841, and died at Hopedale April 11, 1909, a daughter of Christian Ehresman and his second wife Anna Barnett. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. See EHRESMAN for her obituary. i. John Litwiller was born at Milford Feb. 27, 1841, and died July 15, 1922. On Nov. 8, 1863 in Tazewell County he married Veronica 'Fannie' Birkey. The ceremony was performed by bishop Michael Mosiman, who was a cousin to the bride's mother. Veronica was born in Tazewell County Nov. 16, 1845, and died at Hopedale Dec. 21, 1930, a daughter of Christian Birkey and Catherine Mosiman. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. j. Veronica or Frances 'Fanny' Litwiller was born at Milford June 17, 1842. She married Peter Zehr in Tazewell County Feb. 3, 1861. k. Magdalena Litwiller was born Oct. 19, 1844, and died within the year. Magdalena/Madeleine Litwiller was born at Kerprich-aux-Bois (next to Diane-Capelle) March 30, 1801, and died in Livingston County in 1855. On Nov. 20, 1829 at Niderhoff, Moselle she married Joseph Oyer (see OYER). At the time Magdalena was living on Le Chamois farm at Badonviller, Meurthe-et-Meuse with older brother Christian. Magdalena assumed the care of eight Oyer children, and had five more before the family emigrated on the Superior in 1830. Peter/Pierre Litwiller was born Jan. 30, 1808, and died in Tazewell County June 26, 1871. We could not confirm this birth date or ascertain his place of birth. He may have been buried in Schertz-Mosiman Cemetery at East Peoria, which now lies beneath Interstate 74; or was one of many who were buried in Railroad Cemetery under perishable wooden markers.

Peter/Pierre Litwiller was born Jan. 30, 1808, and died in Tazewell County June 26, 1871. He sailed with Mosimans and Oyers on the Superior from Le Havre to New Orleans in October 1830, and arrived at New Orleans Dec. 4. He appears on the passenger list as 'Peter Ledwidder, 23, farmer'; the entire party was labeled 'Suisse.' From New Orleans the group traveled to Butler County, where Peter soon married fellow passenger Marie/Mary Mosiman. She was born in 1807, and died in 1871, a daughter of Joseph Mosiman and Maria Zwalter of Azoudange, Moselle (see MOSIMAN for more on Marie/Mary's place in the Mosiman family, and STAKER for more on the voyage). The land of 'Peter Lithwiller' appears in Section 27 of the 1836 plat map of Milford, Butler County. The land was purchased with Christian Mosiman and Barbe Schmitt/Barbara Smith. The household appears under the name 'Peter Lithwiller' on the 1840 census of Milford, next door to Christian Mosiman and on the same page as older brother 'Joseph Lithwiller': one female under five years of age; one female 20-30; one female 30-40; two males under five years of age; one male 5-10; and one male 30-40.

49

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Peter Letweiler and Anna Ehreamon.

44

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Peter filed a Naturalization Declaration of Intent as 'Peter Letweller, 31, from France' at Hamilton, Butler County in September 1840: He went to the courthouse with Christian Gerber, whose sons Christian and Peter later settled on Allentown Road in Elm Grove, and John Iutzi. The complete list of those who filed in this time frame is given in STAKER.

"Peter Lettweller an alien. Butler County. Be it remembered that Peter Lettweller, an Alien or native of France aged thirty-one years, on solemn affirmation in open Court declares that it is bona fide his intention to become a Citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign Prince, Potentate, State, or Sovereignty whatever and particularly to the King of France, whereof he is now a subject."

In 1842 Peter was involved in litigation involving repayment of a $500 note at 8 percent interest. In 1849 the Litwillers purchased land at North Pekin, directly below Wesley City; this property is labeled 'Letweiller' on the west side of the 1864 plat map of Groveland. The household appears on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as Peter Letwiller, 42, miller, France; Mary, 42, France; Catherine, 18, Ohio; Mary, 17, Ohio; Frances, 16, Ohio; Joseph, 13, Ohio; Peter, 10, Ohio; and Barbara, 8, Ohio. In 1870 they appear on the census of Elm Grove as Peter 'Letweiler,' 62, farmer, France; and Mary, 62, France. Their next door neighbors were John Young and John Ropp, indicating they lived near the west end of Allentown Road. Peter's probate papers file at Pekin named his heirs as widow Mariah and children Catharine Birkey, Maria Gerber, Fanny Schertz, Joseph Litwiller, and Peter Litwiller Jr. Peter Jr. acted as executor of his estate. The children of Peter/Pierre Litwiller and Marie/Mary Mosiman include:

1. Catherine Litwiller was born in Butler County July 28, 1832, and died Aug. 24, 1870. On June 20, 1848 in Tazewell County she married Andreas/André/Andrew Birky. He was born Oct. 10, 1822, and died at Morton Nov. 7, 1893, a son of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. On the 1850 census he is listed as 'Andrew Birkie'; he is also shown as 42-year-old farmer Andrew 'Buckey' on the 1860 census of Tremont, and the 1870 census of Morton as 'Andrew Burky.' In 1880 Andrew is found as a widower on the census of Morton. He is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland as 'A.L. Birky.' They set aside the land for Landes Mennonite Cemetery, and it is possible that Catherine is buried there in the unmarked center row. Marie/Mary Litwiller was born in Butler County Dec. 28, 1833, and died Nov. 18, 1856. On Dec. 8, 1850 in Tazewell County she married Samuel Garber. He was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Sept. 2, 1824, and died at Emden, Ill. Dec. 7, 1909, a son of John Garber and Eva Caroline Paithe. Marie/Mary is buried in the Gerber grouping of graves in Railroad Cemetery. On June 27, 1858, Samuel remarried to Catherine 'Kate' Staker, a daughter of Christian Farny/Stecker/Staker and Magdalina Gabriel, in a ceremony conducted by bishop Andrew Ropp. She was born in Moselle March 22, 1834, and died July 13, 1893. They are buried in Prairie Rest Cemetery at Delavan. Frances 'Fannie' Litwiller was born in Butler County in 1834. On July 7, 1857 she married David Schertz. He was born in 1832, and died in 1875, a son of David Schertz and his second wife Anne Rocher. They can be found on the 1870 census of Pekin. Joseph Litwiller was born at Hamilton, Butler County Dec. 24, 1837, and died at Tremont June 1, 1902 (his headstone says 64 years, 6 months, 7 days according to the Tazewell County cemetery book, yielding the birth date). On May 8, 1862 in Tazewell County he married Mary Ropp. The ceremony was conducted by bishop Michael Mosiman. She was born July 6, 1841 and died Feb. 7, 1920, a daughter of Andrew Ropp and Jacobina Vercler. They are found on the 1880 census of Elm Grove as Joseph Litwiller, 42, born in Ohio to parents from France; Mary, 37, born in Illinois to parents from Alsace; and six children born in Illinois. They eventually had eight children. Joseph was a minister of the Pleasant Grove Amish Mennonite Church; his son Jonas also became a minister.50 They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery.

2.

3.

4.

50 Jonas Litwiller followed his father as a minister of the Pleasant Grove Church. Gospel Herald, June 2, 1944: "Jonas Litwiller, son of Preacher Joseph and Mary (Roop) Litwiller, was born near Tremont, Ill., June 12, 1865, and passed away May 7, 1944; aged 78 y. 10 m. 24 d. He was united in marriage to Katie Eigsti on Jan. 31, 1889, who survives him with the following children: Elmer of Tremont; Louella (Mrs. Harvey Staker), Groveland; Albert and Lester, Morton; and Raymond, Chicago. He leaves also 13 grandchildren and 2 great-grandchildren. One brother, Andrew of Metamora, and 2 sisters, Elizabeth (Mrs. John Augsburger), Hopedale and Martha (Mrs. Dan Stauffer) Milford, Nebr., preceded him in death. The brothers and sisters surviving are Silas, Middlebury, Ind.; Thomas, Tremont, Ill., Mrs. Emma Litwiller, Hopedale, Ill.; and Anna (Mrs. Dan Stauffer) Milford, Nebr. In youth he accepted Christ as his Savior and united with the Pleasant Grove Mennonite Church near Tremont, Ill. He was ordained to the ministry in 1903 at the age of 38 and served as a faithful servant of the church. He engaged in farming near Tremont until 1904 when he moved to the farm one mile south of Morton. In 1926 the family moved to Morton where he spent the remainder of his life. He believed in the simple life, in honest dealings and few words. He leaves behind many friends who will remember his quiet and unpretentious life. Funeral services were conducted at the home of his son, Albert, by Bro. Leland

45

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5.

6.

Peter Litwiller was born at Hamilton, Butler County Sept. 9, 1840, and died at Mattoon Sept. 1, 1915 (according to the Mattoon death entry, where he is found as 'Peter Litwiler'). On Nov. 22, 1863 in Tazewell County he married Josephine Ropp.51 She was born in 1844, and died in 1904, a daughter of Jacob Ropp and Elizabeth Schlegel. They lived at Mattoon, and are buried in Railroad Cemetery. Barbara Litwiller was born at Milford in 1841, and died in Tazewell County in 1854.

Barbara and Samuel

A few genealogy fragments suggest that Christian Leutweiler had siblings. 52 Barbara/Barbe Litwiller was born circa 1743, and Samuel Litwiller was born circa 1750. BARBARA/BARBE LITWILLER

On July 26, 1710 three ministers at 'Cunonheim im Elsass' (Kunheim on the Rhine River, now in Upper Alsace) wrote a letter to Canton Bern, asking when a boatload of exiled Anabaptists would arrive at Briesach. The signers were Martin Egli, Hans Blum, and Christian Rupp.53 Christian Rupp came across the Rhine River into Baden in 1713. In the same year he leased an estate surrounding a ruined fortress at Hochburg from the margraviate for 650 guilders.54 His lease guarantor was Michael Müller, the leaseholder on the Weier castle estate at nearby Schupfholz (see MILLER). Very little is known about Christian Rupp's background. The entire Baden branch of Rupps must be considered separately from the Ropp family of Alsace until Christian's parentage can be determined. One of the few mentions in local records was a note created in the Ratsprotokoll 1735-1744 on Jan. 10, 1741; Anabaptist Christian Berner of Weier recalled that in 1714 he had seen an argument between Christian and Emmendingen resident Jakob Weil. Christian died in 1746 and the Hochburg estate lease turned over to Müller. Christian's son Jakob Rupp is found as leaseholder of the Steckenhof estate at Denzlingen in 1757, and represented the Hochburg congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1759. Jakob's son cultivator Christian/Chretién Rupp was born circa 1740. In 1764 he married Barbara/Barbe Litwiller (found as Littweiller, Lindweiler, and Littwiller). She was born circa 1743, and died Oct. 29, 1791. They farmed at Rohrburg bei Altenheim, Baden, where they held a lease in 1772. Their home was on the east side of the Rhine River, but only about 12 miles southeast of Strasbourg. Christian may have been 'Christian Rub,' the minister representing the Strasbourg congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779. 55 The Strasbourg congregation consisted of families living from the outskirts of Strasbourg east to the Rhine River. Their children include: 1. Barbara/Barbe Rupp was born at Rohrburg bei Altenheim circa 1771, and died at Lingolsheim July 14, 1828. She married Chrétien/Christian Stucki. According to the research of Neil Ann Stuckey Levine, they applied to emigrate at Strasbourg March 1, 1819, and this was granted March 17, 1819; however, they remained in Alsace. 2. Christian Rupp was born at Rohrburg bei Altenheim in 1772, and died at Sexau, Baden in 1832. 3. Johannes 'Hans' Rupp was born at Rohrburg bei Altenheim Sept. 29, 1776, and died at Eckbolsheim Aug. 14, 1814. On Feb. 21, 1805 at Lingolsheim he married his cousin Magdalena/Madeleine Litwiller, a daughter of Samuel

A. Bachman and at the church by Bro. Simon Litwiller, assisted by Bro. J. N. Kaufman. Text 11 Tim. 4:7, 8. Interment in the Pleasant Grove Mennonite Cemetery, north of Tremont, Illinois." 51 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as Peter Lettwiller. 52 According to Mark Häberlein in Weisweil: Ein Dorf am Rhein, "An Anabaptist named Leutweiler ­ perhaps identical with or related to the Christian Leutweiler who had earlier resided in Schupfholz ­ left the village of Weisweil on the Rhine River just north of the Kaiserstuhl hills for the Alsace in 1795." We could not identify this individual; it is apparent that several Litwillers had crossed into Alsace well before this date. 53 Did Christian Rupp of Kunheim fit into the Hilterfingen/Steffisburg family? If so, we can only guess at a 'higher probability' suspect. The appendix to ROPP, MORE RPPS FROM HILTERFINGEN TO STEFFISBURG, mentions Hans Rpp. He was baptized at Hilterfingen Feb. 17, 1633. On Jan. 30, 1666 at Steffisburg he married Babi/Barbara Joder. She was baptized at Steffisburg March 8, 1644, a daughter of Niclaus Joder and Anna Trachsel (and thus a cousin to Cathrin Joder who married Hans Rpp der Jung). One of their children was Christen Rpp. He was baptized at Steffisburg Sept. 27, 1672. A land or tax document showing Christian's age might support or negate this theory. 54 At the time Hochburg was an estate in the village of Sexau. Hochburg later became a community in its own right. 55 Essingen hosted assemblies of Amish Mennonite ministers in 1759 and 1779. In ROPP we saw that the Colmar area congregations were represented by Niclaus Blank, Benz Stucky, and Hans Rupp/Jean Ropp in 1779. The Strasbourg area was represented at both assemblies. In 1759 their representative was Hans Roggi. In Amish Mennonites in Germany, Hermann Guth calls him Johannes Roggy, and lists two possible descendants. One is Christian Roggy, who lived near Strasbourg and may have been his son. He died at the Katzenwangen Mill at Bennwihr in 1788, at the age of 60. The other may have been Johannes's grandson, with the same name. We recognized the Katzenwangen Mill as the place where Johannes Hochstettler and Benz Stucky had Hans Rupp/Jean Ropp buried in 1788.

46

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

Litwiller and Barbara Rupp. She was born at La Wantzenau (Ger. Wanzenau) Oct. 21, 1777. They had four children at Lingolsheim. For the details of her next marriage to Christian/Chrétien Sommer, see SAMUEL LITWILLER. Anna Rupp married Jakob Müller of Hochburg before 1801. He was born at Hochburg in 1767, and died in 1837. He was a son of Jakob Müller, who is thought to have farmed at Sexau, and represented the Hochburg congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779. They farmed at Rohrburg bei Altenheim. They took a nine-year lease on Baldenwegerhof above Zarten, Baden in 1798.56

SAMUEL LITWILLER Samuel Litwiller (found as Littweiller) was born in Baden circa 1750, and died before 1815. He became a farmer at La Wantzenau, just across the Rhine River in Alsace, northeast of Strasbourg. Before 1774 he married Barbara Rupp. She was born at Emmendingen in October 1749, and died at Lingolsheim, Lower Alsace Nov. 6, 1821, a daughter of Samuel Rupp and Fronica Müller. Their children include: 1. Barbara Litwiller was born circa 1774. On Feb. 14, 1797 at Lingsolsheim she married Johannes Rothacker. He was born circa 1777, a son of Christian Rothacker and Anna Rupp. He acted as a witness at the wedding of Barbara's sister Magdalena and Johannes/Hans Rupp. 2. Magdalena/Madeleine Litwiller was born at La Wantzenau Oct. 21, 1777, and died in 1864. On Feb. 21, 1805 at Lingolsheim she married her cousin Johannes/Hans Rupp. They had four children at Lingolsheim. On Dec. 20, 1815 at Eckbolsheim she remarried to Christian/Chrétien Sommer. He was born at Belmont, Lower Alsace Feb. 4, 1790, and died in 1865, a son of Johannes/Jean Sommer and Barbara Stucki/Barbe Stucky of Ribeauvillé. Neil Ann Stuckey Levine described him as "a maimed veteran of Napoleon's winter campaigns in 1813." They had two children at Eckbolsheim. On March 1, 1819 they petitioned at Strasbourg for permission to emigrate with Barbe Rupp and Christian Stucki; their request was approved March 17, 1819. The Christian Stucki family remained in Alsace, but the Sommers and their six children sailed that summer with four of Christian's brothers. The party arrived in Butler County, Ohio later that year. The Sommer family joined the progressive 'button church' in the division of Butler County congregations in 1835. They appear on the 1850 census of Clay, Montgomery County, Ohio as farmer Christian Summers, 60, France; Magdalena, 73, France; and Magdalena Baupe, 46, France; next door to Joseph Summers, 34, France and his wife Lydia, born in Ohio, and six children born in Ohio. 3. Michael Litwiller died at Lingolsheim Dec. 28, 1793.

Baldenwegerhof is still a thriving estate inviting tourists with its own website. The community around Baldenwegerhof seceded from Zarten to become Wittental in 1970; both are within the Freiburg district.

56

47

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Sommer of Neuviller

T

he Sommer family is associated with Sumiswald, a village 20 miles northeast of Bern. The Emmenthal community was a commandery of the Teutonic Knights of Alsace-Swabia-Burgundy from 1225 until its purchase by the city of Bern in 1698. The parish of Sumiswald had been home to Hans Haslibacher, an elderly minister who became the last Anabaptist martyr to be beheaded in 1571. The valley of the Emme River (Ger. Emmenthal) held many citizens who here sympathetic Halbtäufer. When the council at Bern cracked down on Anabaptists in 1670-71, the Halbtäufer protested the intolerance of their government by warning or hiding their neighbors. When a few Anabaptists were arrested, 60 citizens stormed the local jail before they could be transferred to the nearby prison-castle at Trachselwald. The friendship and cooperation of Halbtäufer families no doubt influenced the attitude of Sumiswald elder Hans Reist, who opposed Jacob Amman's intolerant stance in 1693. In 1702 the Täuferkammer or Anabaptist Commission at Bern ordered an Anabaptist hunt. "The efforts of the hunters were frustrated when the majority of the populace aided the Anabaptists to escape through various signals, as blowing horns, shooting, calling, and the like. Between sixty and seventy Anabaptists were released from prison through mob action of the sympathetic residents at Sumiswald April 24, 1714. Bern fined the community 100 Taler ($2,000) for its actions." The Sommers settled in the area of Le Ban de la Roche (now in Lower Alsace). French genealogist MoniqueMarie François has made an extensive study of the families there. Several interrelated Swiss Rpp/Roup/Ropp families lived there after 1716, concentrating in the hamlet Le Haute Goutte. Ulrich Sommer was born at Sumiswald, Bern circa 1635-45, and died at Rothau Jan. 8, 1725. On Nov. 22, 1669, Ulrich married Christine Rehsee/Resse (1651-1691). They resettled at Waldersbach in the area of Le Ban de la Roche about 1671, where Christine had one child. "On Oct. 16, 1691, between 11 p.m. and midnight, Christine Ris, the Swiss wife of Ulrich Sommer died at Fouday between 11 p.m. and midnight Oct. 16, 1691, and was buried there Oct. 18." After Christine's death, Ulrich remarried Feb. 2, 1696 at Waldersbach to Christine Kommer [Kammerer]. They had three more children. Johannes/Jean Sommer was born in 1672, and died at Waldersbach Feb. 10, 1706. "Jean Sommer of the reformed religion, a 34-year-old landowner at Waldersbach, died there Feb. 10, 1706 at 3 a.m., and was buried the following day in the cemetery at Fouday." He was the one child of Ulrich and his first wife, Christine Rehsee/Resse. He married Catherine Kommer. (Johannes/Jean Sommer's half-brother was André Sommer, a son of Ulrich Sommer and second wife Christine Kommer. He married Anne Pinckele [Bingeli]. One of their children was Elizabeth Sommer. It is probable that she was the wife of Jacob Roup, and a grandparent to Andreas Ropp.) Jean Sommer was born circa 1700-1705. He married Marie Barbe Neuhauser. He settled on Sommerhof farm, located outside Neuviller (it became Neuviller-la-Roche in 1961) at the Croix-Rouge meeting of the Rothaine Valley (the Rothaine River came from the western Rothau direction) and the Chergoutte Valley (coming from the eastern Barr direction). Jean Sommer was born circa 1731, and died on Sommerhof Dec. 9, 1805. He married Marie Rubi/Robÿ before October 1769. She was born circa 1749, and was present at her son Joseph's marriage in 1806. Joseph Sommer was born on Sommerhof Sept. 18, 1775, and died at Paris, Stark County, Ohio Aug. 4, 1856. On Jan. 15, 1806 at Neuviller he married Anne Marie/Mary Göerig/Guérich. She was born in the Le Hang basin near Bourg-Bruche, Lower Alsace Sept. 14, 1788, and died at Paris, Ohio in 1859, a daughter of Jean Göerig and Barbe Goldschmidt. Witnesses at the ceremony included Joseph's brother Christian Sommer, 44, and Anne Marie's brother André Göerig, 24. Both witnesses were described as residents of Sommerhof. In the latter half of the 18th century, the Le Ban de la Roche area was influenced by three strong personalities:

­ Lutheran pastor and teacher Jean-George Stouber lived at Waldersbach and Bellefosse 1750-54 and 1760-67. He believed that literacy spread the message of the Bible, and published an elementary primer in 1762. His daughter wrote, "The beliefs of the Moravian brethren [Anabaptists] held many attractions in his eyes. He once made a footnote with points for and against the Anabaptists, and it became very controversial. But finally he renounced the temptation to join them, in particular because of their very shocking banter about the love of Jesus, and their unpleasant way of saying that one washes oneself and bathes in his blood; that one rests and sleeps comfortably in his wounds; and other oddities of their speech." ­ Stouber's successor as pastor and teacher was Jean-Frédéric Oberlin (1740-1826) of Strasbourg. He visited in 1766, and made a permanent move to Waldersbach March 30, 1767. He studied theology and surgery, and served as a regimental

48

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

chaplain. He expanded Stouber's library, published an almanac, established a mutual insurance company and loan office, and organized an agency that placed abandoned children in families. While Stouber was wary of industry, Oberlin welcomed it. He is best known for his contributions to early education. His `knitting rooms' for children gave them a place to knit, draw, or garden while their parents worked. Oberlin is buried next to his church at Fouday. An Oberlin museum is located in Waldersbach. ­ Jean Dietrich (1719-1795) became Jean de Dietrich, a baron of the Holy Roman Empire and the largest landowner in Alsace. He also became the Comte du Ban de la Roche when he bought up its mineral rights in 1771. His mineralogists found valuable ores and expanded a foundry at Rothau. This created jobs and a new demand for horses and oxen. However, the area ultimately could not sustain the resource-intensive industry. His blast furnaces consumed huge quantities of wood, while his livestock stripped the pastureland. Pastor Oberlin helped a little by encouraging communal cooking to conserve wood, a notion he may have borrowed from Swiss settlers. (See JORDY for more on the Dietrich family).

In 1814, Napoleon's armies chose to leave the Bruche Valley undefended. Allied troops approaching from the east saw it as a potential gateway into Lorraine. Rothau mayor Nicholas Wolff hastily organized a ragtag army of foundry workmen armed with farm implements to meet them. They engaged Russian and Austrian soldiers in the woods, where their scythes and spades were no match for rifles. Wolff's men retreated to the cemetery at Rothau, while the Russians wheeled around to the south and camped at Fouday. The two sides reached a tentative truce until Wolff's home was looted and burned. The mayor took refuge on Sommerhof. When Cossacks knocked at the door, Wolff answered in simple black clothing and a broad-brimmed hat borrowed from his host, Joseph. He misled the Cossacks by suggesting that the Bonapartist force had retreated eastward toward Barr. The Cossacks were never seen again. Sommerhof was once embedded in woods. But the industrial consumption of its trees apparently led the family to relocate after 1815. (The farm was finally abandoned when the last of the extended family came to America in 1834). The Sommers resettled on Zellerhof farm above the Zinsel River west of Dossenheim, Lower Alsace (above Saverne). This location is about 40 miles north of Neuviller. Their civil records can be found at Dossenheim-surZinsel. According to the Alsace Emigration Index, the family applied to emigrate at Dossenheim in 1828. They sailed from Le Havre on the Carolina Agusta. The passenger list for the ship's arrival at New York May 16, 1828 has a number of errors. It lists John [Joseph] Somer, 52; Maria, 36; Joseph, 19; Peter, 17; Christiann, 19; John, 14; Madeline, 13; Cathena, 11; Elzabeth, 8; Barbe, 6; and John [Jacob], 2. From New York they went to Butler County, Ohio, where they lived until 1834. When the older children left to settle in Illinois, the remaining family members moved to Stark County. The family of 'Joseph Summers' is found on the 1840 census of Paris, Stark County, Ohio living next door to 'John Ramesayer.' In 1850 the Paris census lists the household of 'Joseph Somers,' 75; Mary, 65; and Anna, 20. The children of Joseph Sommer and Anne Marie/Mary Göerig include:

1. Joseph Sommer (Jr.) was born on Sommerhof Feb. 13, 1807, and died at Columbus, Ohio Aug. 25, 1847. In 1833 in Ohio he married Marie/Mary Vercler. She was born on the Château de Romecourt estate at Azoudange, Moselle June 12, 1809, died at what is now Congerville Nov. 4, 1855, and is buried in Dillon Cemetery at Elm Grove. She was a daughter of Joseph Vercler and Catherine Ringenberg of Hellocourt. General Land Office certificates 8445 and 8323 describe full payment by 'Joseph Sommer of Tazewell County, Illinois' for one 40-acre parcel of land in the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 19, and another in the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 19 of what later became Elm Grove, on Oct. 15, 1835. The household of 'Joseph Summer' is listed on the 1840 census of unincorporated Tazewell County. History of the Illinois River Valley: "When Peter Sommer [Joseph Jr. and Marie/Mary's son] was but three years of age [1847] the family decided to return to Ohio to visit his grandfather [Joseph Sommer Sr.], making the trip in a covered wagon, and it was on this journey that his father [Joseph Jr.] passed away at Columbus, Ohio. The mother [Marie/Mary] remained with her husband's people in Ohio for about a year and then returned to the little log cabin home near Pekin." Marie/Mary also lived with her oldest brother Joseph in Woodford County. On Feb. 3, 1852 she remarried to Joseph Guingrich (1803-1875; see GINGERICH). Mary/Mary Vercler is buried in Dillon Cemetery at Elm Grove as 'Mary Sommer Gingrich'; Joseph Guingrich is buried in Imhoff Cemetery at Danvers. One of Joseph Sommer and Marie/Mary Vercler's children, Peter Sommer (1843-1920), is credited with inventing the wire fencing method that led his son Peter Jr. to establish the Keystone Steel and Wire Company. Christian/Christianne Sommer was born on Sommerhof Nov. 7, 1808, and died in Allen County, Indiana in 1900. On June 10, 1841 in Stark County he married Mary Conrad. She was born at Montandon, Franche-Comté, France June 14, 1819, a daughter of Jacob Conrad and Anneli Graber. Their household can be found on the 1850 census of Paris

2.

49

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10.

as Christian Somers, 42; Meary, 29; Jacob, 8; Joseph, 5; and Chritian, 4. Christian was naturalized in Allen County Nov. 3, 1856. The 1880 census of Cedar Creek, Indiana lists their household as Christian Sommers, 73, retired farmer; Marry, 62; Christian, 33; Anna, 28; Elias, 24; and Caroline, 22. Peter/Pierre Sommer was born on Sommerhof April 28, 1811, and died at Gridley March 29, 1880. He came to Illinois in 1834, and married Catherine Schertz in Woodford County July 13, 1834. She was born in August 1816 and died in August 1874, a daughter of David Schertz and Catherine Belsley (see SCHERTZ and BELSLEY). They lived at Montgomery, Woodford County 32 years, and resettled at Gridley in 1866, where they farmed 160 acres. They became Apostolic Christians. History of McLean County: "Peter Sommer, farmer and stock-raiser: Post Office at Gridley; has been a resident of Illinois since 1834. He was born near Strasburg, Alsace, France, April 24, 1811. He came with his parents to the United States in 1828; they settled in Butler County, Ohio; there he lived till his removal to Illinois in 1834; he was one of the pioneers of Woodford County, the Indians not having yet left their hunting grounds on the Mackinaw, when Mr. Sommer took up his claim form the Government, built his log cabin, and began to carve himself a home in the wilderness. After living there thirty-two years he settled on his present farm in 1866. He owns a fine farm of 160 acres, well improved, his set of buildings being among the best in the township. His success in life is due entirely to his own exertions. He is emphatically a self-made man. Has held no political offices, giving all his attention to his legitimate business of farming. He is a leading member of the Apostolic Christian Church and was prominent in the building of the church in Gridley. He was first married in August 1834 to Miss Catharine Schertz of Woodford County. She came with her parents from Alsace, France in 1832. She was born in August 1816 and died in August 1874. They had ten children, four of whom are living: Catherine, wife of John Ehresman of Livingston County; Barbara, wife of Peter Ehresman of Gridley Township; Mary; and Elizabeth, wife of Jacob Rich of Gridley Township." Jean/John Sommer was born on Sommerhof May 24, 1813, and died Aug. 28, 1893. Magdalena/Madeleine Sommer was born on Sommerhof Aug. 2, 1815, and died Aug. 10, 1902. In 1833 she married Joseph Gerber, who was born at Insviller, Moselle May 25, 1806 (his headstone says May 6), and died Feb. 2, 1882 (the cemetery book gives these dates as May 26, 1806 and Feb. 21, 1882), a son of Peter/Pierre Gerber and Barbe Schertz. They relocated from Ohio to Illinois in 1838. They can be found on the 1880 census of Montgomery, Woodford County as farmer Joseph Gerber, 74; and Magdalena, 64. They are buried in Imhoff Cemetery at Danvers. See GERBER AND GARBER for a list of their children. Catherine Sommer was born on Zellerhof farm near Dossenheim, Lower Alsace April 19, 1818, and died at Leo (Leo and Cedar Creek have merged into Leo-Cedarsville), Allen County, Indiana June 30, 1895. On March 4, 1836 in Stark County, Ohio she married John Klopfenstein. He was born in 1813, and died April 10, 1891, a son of Jean Klopfenstein and Catherine Linder of Belfort. They can be found on the 1880 census of Cedar Creek as John Klopfenstein, 66; Catherine, 65; and Magdalenia, 36. Elisabeth/Elizabeth 'Eliza' Sommer was born on Zellerhof farm (her civil birth entry actually names the mill Zellerseegmühl) near Dossenheim, Lower Alsace 15, 1821, and died in Allen County, Indiana May 26, 1885. She is buried in Leo Cemetery at Cedar Creek, Indiana. On May 28, 1840 in Stark County she married Jacob Conrad. He was born in Montbéliard Nov. 3, 1811, and died in Allen County Nov. or March 22, 1885, a son of Jacob Conrad and Anneli Graber. She may be the 28-year-old Eliza Sommers who appears in the household of Jacob and Catharine Weiz on the 1850 census of Paris with children Jeremiah, 4; and Meary, 1. Barbara Sommer was born in 1822. No record of her birth could be identified at Dosseneim-sur-Zinsel, leaving the possibility that she was born elsewhere, adopted, or taken in from another line of the extended family. On Jan. 8, 1843 she married Nicholas Ramseyer. He was born March 28, 1821, and died at Harper, Kansas in 1895, a son of Johannes/John Ramseyer and Barbara Kauffman. Barbe/Barbara Sommer was born on Zellerhof farm near Dossenheim March 14, 1823. Her civil birth entry mistakenly called her 'Madeline,' suggesting that her father could sign his name but not read the text. Jacques/Jacob Sommer was born on Zellerhof farm near Dossenheim May 29, 1826, and died at Ashtabula, Ashtabula County, Ohio Feb. 24, 1892. In October 1851 he married Leah Lantz. She was born at Belleville, Pennsylvania Aug. 28, 1831, and died March 17, 1868, a daughter of John Lantz and Magdalena Yoder. On May 5, 1872 at Mansfield, Ohio Jacob remarried to Kathryn Steiner. She was born at Wayne, Ohio Feb. 21, 1841, and died at Mansfield, Ohio Sept. 21, 1923. Anna Sommer was born in Ohio circa 1830, and died in Illinois in 1852. She was still living with her parents in Stark County in 1850.

Jean/John Sommer was born on the Sommerhof May 24, 1813, and died Aug. 28, 1893. On Nov. 30, 1839 in the part of Tazewell County that would become Woodford County he married Barbara/Barbe Schertz. She was born circa 1824, and died May 28, 1894, a daughter of David Schertz and Catherine Belsley. They would farm on the Elm Grove land that had been purchased by John's older brother Joseph in 1835. They can be found on the 1850 census of Elm Grove as farmer John Sommer, 54; Barbara, 50; Joseph, 24; John, 20; Madelaine, 17; and Elizabeth 14. In 1860: farmer John Summer, 47, France; Barbara, 40, France; Catharine, 17; Joseph, 14; Mary, 12; John, 10; Magdaline, 8; Elizabeth, 4, all children born in Illinois; and Bavarian

50

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

laborer Joseph Stalder [Stalter], 30.57 The farm was appraised at $3,000. By 1870 the value of the family farm had risen to $20,000: farmer John Sommer, 54, France; Barbara, 50, France; Joseph, 24, Illinois; John, 20, Illinois; Madelaine, 17, Illinois; and Elizabeth, 14, Illinois. The 1880 census of Elm Grove shows John Summers Sr., 67, France; Barbara, 51, France; a Fahsbender working on the farm; John Summers Jr., 29, Illinois; Mena [Amalie/Amelia Unzicker], 35, Illinois; and Andrew, 3 months, Illinois.

1. 2. 3. David Sommer was born March 1, 1840, and died in 1842. Anna Sommer was born Oct. 2, 1841, and died in 1844. Catherine Sommer was born Oct. 15, 1843, and died July 4, 1897. On Dec. 28, 1869 in Tazewell County she married Christian Mosiman.58 He was born March 27, 1835, and died July 4, 1897, a son of bishop Michael Mosiman and Maria Rocher. The 1880 census of Fond du Lac lists them as retired grocer C. Moseman, 45, born in Illinois to French parents; Catharine, 39, born in Illinois to French parents; and brother Joseph Mosiman, 43, a hardware merchant born in Illinois to French parents. Joseph S. Sommer was born Oct. 22, 1845, and died June 21, 1926. He married Mary F. Lange. She was born April 1, 1855, and died May 12, 1942. They can be found on the 1900 census of Groveland as farmer Joseph Sommer, 54, born in Illinois in 1845 to German parents; Mary, 45, born in English Canada in April 1855 to German parents; and six children. Mary Sommer was born June 30, 1847, and died in June 1930. On Feb. 17, 1867 she married Christian Augspurger, a namesake grandson of Christian Augspurger. He was born in Wayne, Butler County, Ohio Dec. 9, 1840, and died March 14, 1880, a son of Christian Augspurger (Jr.) and Magdalena Roes. They can be found on the 1870 census of Prairie, Iowa as tanner Christian Augspurger, 29, born in Ohio; Mary, 24, born in Ohio; John, 2, born in Iowa; and Anna, 6 months, born in Iowa. Herald of Truth, April 1880: "March 14th, in Pulaski, Davis Co., Iowa, Christian Augspurger, aged 39 years, 3 months and 4 days. He leaves a bereaved wife and five children to mourn the loss of a husband and father." Peter Sommer was born in Woodford County Aug. 13, 1847, and died at Pulaski, Iowa Dec. 17, 1910. In November 1875 in Woodford County he married Susan Landis. She was born Feb. 19, 1854, and died at Pulaski July 12, 1901. John S. Sommer was born Oct. 12, 1849, and died March 23, 1935. On Oct. 24, 1878 he married Amalie/Amelia Unzicker. She was born May 10, 1854, and died Oct. 24, 1935, a daughter of Peter Unzicker and Katharina Kennel of Morton. They can be found on the 1910 census of Elm Grove as John S. Sommer, 60, born in Illinois to a German father and French mother; Emelia, 55, born in Illinois to German parents; and two children. Magdalena 'Maggie' Sommer was born March 8, 1852, and died Nov. 4, 1928. On Feb. 5, 1877 in Tazewell County she married Jacob Rich. He was born at Morton March 15, 1853, and died Aug. 20, 1929, a son of Joseph Rich and Catherine Zimmerman (niece of Andreas Ropp). They can be found on the 1880 census of Cruger, Woodford County. They are buried in Glendale Cemetery. Elizabeth Sommer was born Jan. 30, 1856, and died March 18, 1938. She married Jacob F. Ropp. He was born July 20, 1853, and died Nov. 21, 1928, a son of Jacob Ropp and Elizabeth Schlegel. They lived at Gridley, and had three children. They are buried in Gridley Cemetery.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

57 58

This may have been Josef Stalter of Gern, a son of Heinrich Stalter and Jakobine Stalter born in 1828. The Illinois Stateside Marriage Index lists them as Christian Moseman and Catharine Summers.

51

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Rich of Ruederbach

T

he surname 'Richen' or 'Rychen' is associated with the village of Frutigen in the Oberland south of Lake Thun in Bern. Spelling variations have included Riche, Reich, and Rychener. Many Anabaptist families found havens with Duke Leopold Eberhard in Montbéliard after the expulsion from the Markirch valley in 1712 (see STAKER). The principality was a detached enclave of Württemberg, located west of what later became Upper Alsace. By 1740 Alsatian restrictions were relaxed. Many of Montbéliard's second generation migrated east into the French-speaking district of Belfort, where the lords of Florimont owned estates. Over the next decades some migrated farther east. into the German-speaking Sundgau Region, drawn by its accessible farm land and proximity to Basel. French genealogist Thierry Huckel has identified an early generation of this family. Cultivator Peter/Pierre Rich was born circa 1746. His Anabaptist Rychen/Richen family had migrated from Frutigen, Bern to Montebéliard and then to the area below Altkirch, Upper Alsace. 59 Before the French Revolution the Anabaptists living near Altkirch attended services at Neunich, a remote farm in the foothills of the Jura Mountains between Ligsdorf (14 miles south of Altkirch) and the Swiss border (two miles below Ligsdorf). The religious liberties promised by the revolution apparently encouraged Peter to lead a service on the Baumerthof estate at Riespach June 20, 1790. The occasion was the first documented open meeting of Anabaptists in the area. Later meetings were held at a number of locations including the Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach; Blochmont farm at Kiffis on the Swiss border; Haushof farm between Oltingue and the Swiss border; the grounds of Château de Liebenstein at Liebsdorf; Montigo farm at Levoncourt; and Schweighof farm at Altkirch. Peter/Pierre served as elder on the Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach (Ruederbach is only three miles east of Largitzen, where Andreas Ropp farmed). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online on Peter at Birkenhof: "He served more than 30 years as elder. His influence was felt far beyond his own congregation. He had great prestige everywhere among the Mennonites." In 1798 Peter/Pierre became involved in some sort of dispute involving business. His adversary was also named Peter Rich; he lived on the grounds of the Château de Liebenstein at Liebsdorf (seven miles south of Ruederbach).60 Outside elders unsuccessfully attempted to mediate the argument on the Birkenhof Oct. 28. The two Peters finally came to agreement at a second meeting on the Baumerthof estate April 5, 1801. 61 In 1802, simultaneous assemblies of Amish Mennonites took place at Pulversheim and Richwiller, both suburbs of Mulhouse. Military conscription for Napoleon's campaigns had become a function of local government, and this was undoubtedly a topic of discussion. Jean Pierre attended as an elder representing his congregation. Other elders included Jacob Hirschi of Sigolsheim and Bollwiller, Hans Roth of Dornach, and Benedict Tschantz of Bolwiller; family names likely included Amstutz, Bächer, Brechbühl, Conrad, Eicher, Frey, Frutiger, Goldschmidt/Goldschmitt, Görig/Gerig, Graber, Hochstetter, Hochstettler, Joder/Yoder, Kauffmann, Lehmann, Litwiller (found there as Lidviller), Luginbuhl, Maurer, Ropp, Schlegel, Schmitt, Schmucker, Schürch/Schirch, Schwartz, Schwari/Schwary, Sommer, Stucki/Stucky/Stocky, Ummel/Hummel, and Zimmermann. Barbe Linder died Jan. 15, 1809. Peter/Pierre Rich died at Ruederbach July 15, 1814. His civil death entry described him as a 68-year-old cultivator, and identified his deceased wife as Barbe Linder. We could identify three of their children:

1. Johannes/Jean Rich was born circa 1788. He was described as a 26-year-old cultivator from Ruederbach when he signed the civil death entry of his father in 1814. He married Barbe Rich, and was living at Ruederbach when they had daughter Barbe there Sept. 9, 1818. The civil birth entry described the father as Jean Rich, a 35-year-old cultivator. Jacob/Jacques Rich was born at Ruederbach Jan. 12, 1789. He died in the home of his son Joseph at Washington, Tazewell County in August 1876. Anne Rich was born circa 1792, and died at Ruederbach Jan. 4, 1812. Her civil death entry gave her age as 19, and described her father Pierre as a 67-year-old cultivator.

2. 3.

59 Frutigen is about 6 miles south of Lake Thun. It was also home to large Kaffman and Stücki families. The Richen/Rychen family extended to Adelboden, which is higher up in the same valley as Frutigen. 60 The Peter Rich at Leibsdorf was married to Catherine Stauffer of Schwarzenegg, Canton Bern. 61 A cemetery was established on the Birkenhof Oct. 15, 1807. A minor dispute about who should pay community fees was resolved Nov. 26, 1808.

52

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

Barbe Rich was born at Ruederbach Dec. 13, 1797.

Jacob/Jacques Rich was born at Ruederbach Jan. 12, 1789. He died in the home of his son Joseph at Washington, Tazewell County in August 1876. The Morton and Washington cemetery book says that he is buried in Guth Cemetery at Washington, though no headstone is found there. Jacob/Jacques was conscripted into the French Grand Army, presumably in a noncombatant role such as teamster or medical aide. He participated in the disastrous Russian Campaign. On June 24, 1812, between 450,000 and 690,000 troops assembled on the Neman River and began a march to Moscow. The Battle of Borodino on Sept. 7 caused more casualties than any other day of the Napoleonic Wars. But the Russian armies retreated, and the French Grand Army impetuously advanced again. When they arrived at Moscow they found an empty city. Over the next few days it burned, depriving the French troops of shelter as winter set in. On the retreat many horses were either frozen or killed for food. Supply wagons were abandoned. Approximately 31,000 troops managed to return in formation, while another 35,000 returned as stragglers. The remainder were killed in battle, by disease or starvation, or froze to death after receiving wounds. 62 On April 28, 1819 at Berrwiller, Upper Alsace veteran Jacob/Jacques married Catherine Zimmerman. The civil entry described the groom as 30-year-old Jacques Rich, born at Ruederbach Jan. 12, 1789, a son of the deceased Peter Rich (who had died July 15, 1814) and Barbe Linder (who had died Jan. 15, 1809) from 'Burgenhoff,' Ruederbach. The bride was identified as Catharine Zimmerman, 22, born at Ungersheim (above Mulhouse) April 2, 1797, a daughter of the deceased Chrétien Zimmerman and Elisabeth Röschlé [Röschli] who was living at Weckenthal, Berrwiller, and was present and consenting. Their son Joseph Rich emigrated circa 1840. The remainder of the family was processed for emigration at Illzach (a suburb above Mulhouse) in 1848. Father Jacob/Jacques stated that he was born at Ruederbach, was 60 years old, and would be accompanied to New York by his wife and three daughters. They sailed from Le Havre on the St. Nicolas, arriving at New York Jan. 22, 1849. The passenger list shows them as Jacques Rich, 62, France; Catherine, 54; Babette, 24; Elisab., 16; and Catherin, 7. Jacob/Jacques's wife Catharine Zimmerman died before 1870, and was buried in Guth Cemetery at Washington. Jacob appears as an 83-year-old in the household of his son Joseph on the 1870 federal census of Morton. The children of Jacob/Jacques Rich and Catherine Zimmerman include:

1. 2. 3. Joseph Rich was born Jan. 1, 1822, and died Nov. 30, 1894 (headstone dates); he is buried in Glendale Cemetery at Washington. Barbe/Barbara 'Babette' Rich was born at Hirsingue, Upper Alsace April 8, 1823, and died in Adams County, Indiana Aug. 23, 1905. Pierre Rich was born at Hirsingue Jan. 19, 1825, and died there Nov. 12, 1825. His civil birth entry described his father as 33-year-old Jacques Rich, a farmer and cultivator on the farm of Joseph Sengelin. Pierre died at Hirsingue Nov. 12, 1825. Pierre Rich was born at Hirsingue March 16, 1827, and died there March 23, 1827. Anna Rich died at age 21, before her family's emigration from Europe. Elisabeth Rich was born at Bollwiller, Upper Alsace April 19, 1832. Catherine Rich was born Sept. 21, 1841, and died at Wheatland, Missouri Dec. 3, 1931. On Feb. 20, 1862 at Washington she married Daniel Schindler. He was born in Lorraine July 3, 1836, and died at Wheatland Nov 30, 1905, a son of Daniel Schindler and Marie Liechti. They are buried in Crutsinger Cemetery at Wheatland.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Joseph Rich was born Jan. 1, 1822, and died Nov. 30, 1894 (headstone dates); he is buried in Glendale Cemetery at Washington. According to Chapman's History of Tazewell County, he arrived at New York in 1840. He worked in New York for two years, then traveled to New Jersey, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh before living in Butler County, Ohio for five years. In 1848 he settled on a farm at Washington, Tazewell County.

Marriage was a grounds for exemption from military service. In 1811, the year before the Russian Campaign, 203,000 marriages were entered in état civil records. In 1813, the year following, the number leaped to 387,000. In 1852 Napoleon's nephew become Napoleon III. More than 80,000 awards of the Médaille de Sainte-Hélène were made to former soldiers of the Grand Army who had served between 1792 and 1815 (it was estimated that 405,000 were still living in 1857). A French delegation visited graves in Central Illinois to hold commemoration ceremonies. One representative donated the headstone of Russian Campaign veteran Jean Pierre Mougeon (1781-1852) in Fagotte Cemetery at Groveland, also called the Old French Burial Ground.

62

53

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

On Feb. 1, 1852 in Tazewell County he married Catherine Rich (her maiden name). She was born in 1826. The children of Joseph Rich and his first wife Catherine Rich include:

1. David Rich was born Feb. 5, 1850, and died May 6, 1901; he is buried in Glendale Cemetery. David may have been adopted, or brought to the marriage. On May 1, 1873 in Tazewell County he married Catherine Zook. She was born May 2, 1854, and died Dec. 22, 1909, a daughter of Michael Zook and Barbara Otto. She is buried in Evergreen Cemetery at Bloomington, McLean County. Jacob Rich was born at Washington Feb. 15, 1853, and died Aug. 20, 1929. On Feb. 5, 1877 in Tazewell Count he married Magdalena 'Maggie' Sommer. She was born in March 8, 1852, and died Nov. 4, 1928, a daughter of Jean/John Sommer and Barbara/Barbe Schertz of Elm Grove (see SOMMER). They can be found on the 1880 census of Cruger, Woodford County. They are buried in Glendale Cemetery. Mary Rich was born at Washington Sept. 10, 1854, died Jan. 6, 1881, and is buried in Hickory Point Cemetery at Metamora. On Dec. 29, 1874 in Tazewell County she married lumber and grain dealer Peter Schertz. He was born at Worth Aug. 8, 1848, and died at Metamora July 15, 1904, a son of Joseph Schertz and Anna Zehr. On May 26, 1881 at Metamora Peter remarried to Emma Dora Kuhl. She was born April 8, 1862, and died at Peoria June 20, 1935, a daughter of Johann Kuhl and Mary Ellen Forell. Peter, Mary, and Emma are buried in Oakwood Cemetery at Metamora. Lydia Rich was born at Washington May 1, 1856, and died at Eureka Dec. 9, 1934. On Feb. 22, 1883 in Tazewell County she married Peter R. Lehman. He was born Dec. 3, 1860, and died Jan. 4, 1901; his parents appear on the 1880 census of Nebraska, Livingston County as Peter Lehmann, 36, France; and Magdalena, 44, Bavaria. Lydia and Peter R. lived at Flanagan. Lydia remarried to Christian King, a minister of the Goodfield Mennonite Church. He was born at Liberty, Butler County Oct. 13, 1840, and died at Deer Creek Nov. 2, 1924, a son of Michael King and Elizabeth Barnett (see KING for details of his three marriages). Lydia was an invalid from February 1931 until her death in 1934. She and her first husband are buried in Glendale Cemetery. Daniel Rich was born at Washington Oct. 25, 1857, and died Aug. 19, 1947. On Feb. 20. 1883 at Nebraska, Livingston County he married Ella B. Lehman. She was born Aug. 12, 1865, and died Dec. 6, 1923, a younger sister to Peter R. Lehman. They are buried in Glendale Cemetery.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Catherine Rich died at Morton in 1859, and is buried in Hirstein Cemetery. On April 6, 1860 in Johnson County, Iowa Joseph remarried to Catharine Zimmerman. She was born at Froeningen, Upper Alsace May 22, 1824, died in Tazewell County April 12, 1891, and is also buried in Glendale Cemetery at Washington. She was a daughter of Jacob/Jacques Zimmerman and Catharina/Catherine Ropp of Froeningen, and a niece to Andreas Ropp. Their farm can be seen in the northeast corner of Morton on the 1864 plat map. The 1870 census of Morton shows their household: Joseph Rich, 49, a farmer from France; Catharine [Zimmerman], 46, keeping house, from France; and children born in Illinois including Jacob, 17; Mary, 15; Lydia,14; Daniel, 12; Joseph, 9; and Christian, 5. Jacob Rich, 83, is also listed. The 1880 census of Morton shows farmer Joseph Rich, 57, Alsace; Catherine, 55 Alsace; Lydia, 24; Daniel, 21; Joseph, 18; and Christian, 14; all children born in Illinois. The children of Joseph Rich and his second wife Catherine Zimmerman include:

6. Joseph Rich was born at Morton July 9, 1861, and died at Washington Dec. 10, 1933. On April 26, 1887 in Tazewell County he married Louisa Roth. She was born April 29, 1866, and died Jan. 7, 1940, a daughter of Daniel Roth and Catherine Ropp. They are buried in Glendale Cemetery. Christian Rich was born at Morton March 8, 1865, died at Meadows Nov. 20, 1839, and is buried in Glendale Cemetery. On Dec. 30, 1890 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena 'Lena' Eicher. She was born at Elm Grove Jan. 10, 1874, died at Chicago June 7, 1957, and is buried in Irving Park Cemetery. She was a daughter of Pierre/Peter Eicher and Verène Stocki/Veronica 'Fannie' Stucky. They divorced, and she remarried to a Fischer before 1912.

7.

Daniel Rich

Brother-in-law to Joseph Rich Two or perhaps three Richen/Rychen family lines followed the same emigration route to end up in Upper Alsace. One line is better documented than the others. Peter Rychen was born at Frutigen, Canton Bern Feb. 15, 1583. On June 12, 1615 he married Anna Wandfluh. Their son Jacob Rychen was born at Frutigen March 8, 1635. On April 26, 1669 he married Marguerite Zurcher. Their son Peter Rychen was born at Frutigen Oct. 20, 1681. On Feb. 2, 1706 he married [first name illegible] Rosti. Their son Peter Rychen was born at Frutigen Aug. 21, 1707. On Dec. 8, 1733 he married Margreth Schmid. Their son Peter Rychen was born at Frutigen June 6, 1741. On June 11, 1761 he married

54

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Elisabeth Furer. On Dec. 12, 1768 he remarried to Susanna Rychen, a daughter of Jacob Rychen and Susanna Gueman. Peter Rychen/Peter Rich was a child of first wife Elisabeth Furer, born at Leibsdorf, Upper Alsace Feb. 14, 1768. On April 10, 1792 Peter married Anne Müller. She was born circa 1774, and died at Riespach, Upper Alsace (nine miles below Altkirch) Oct. 30, 1809, age 36. Their children born on Baumerthof farm at Riespach include:

1. Daniel Rich was born in 1793. His birth entry was the first in état civil records at Riespach. We had difficulty interpreting the German script, which appeared to say the date was January 22 in the second year of the French Republic. Christian Rich was born July 11, 1802, and died at Riespach Dec. 1, 1807. Catherine Rich was born April 23, 1803. When she died at Riespach Dec. 10, 1807, the civil entry incorrectly stated that she was only 2 years old. Catherine Rich was born Jan. 22, 1808, and died on the Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach in 1859. Her civil birth entry described her parents as 43-year-old laborer Pierre Rich and Anna Müller. It was signed 'Pierre Riche' perhaps by a municipal clerk, since he usually signed 'Petter Rich.' In 1828 Catherine married Jean Hirschy, a son of elder Jacob Hirschi/Hirschy and Anne Marie Zimmerman of Bollwiller.

2. 3. 4.

Cultivator Daniel Rich was born on Baumerthof farm at Riespach in 1793, and died at Walheim, Upper Alsace Jan. 6, 1845. His civil death entry described him as a 51-year-old cultivator born on Baumerthof farm, the husband of Eve Rich, 50. He married Eve Rich circa 1818. She was born circa 1795. (The birth entry of their son said that they had been married on Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach, but did not give a date; we could not locate a civil marriage entry at either Ruederbach or Riespach). Daniel died at Walheim, Upper Alsace Jan. 6, 1845. The civil death entry described him as a 51-year-old cultivator, and Eve as a 50-year-old. Their son Daniel Rich was born at Riespach July 14, 1819. On March 12, 1848 at Dornach he married Barbara/Barbe Zimmerman. She was born at Froeningen March 9, 1815. She was an older sister to Catherine Zimmerman (mentioned earlier as the second wife of Joseph Rich). Mother-of-the-groom Eve Rich was present and consenting at the wedding. Dominique Dreyer's Emigrants Haut-Rhinois en Amérique 1800-1870 states that 32-year-old cultivator Daniel Rich applied for a passport for himself and his family at Colmar April 23, 1851. He was from Riespach and Dornach; his intended destination was New York. Daniel Rich and wife are listed as 1851 applicants bound for New York in the Alsace Emigration Index. Daniel Rich appears as a resident of Washington, Tazewell County on the 1852 Illinois state census. He died in Johnson County, Iowa July 6, 1855 (bishop Joseph Goldsmith established an Amish Mennonite congregation there that year). As a widow, Barbara appears on the 1860 federal census of Morton as a 44-year-old born in France, in the household of her younger sister Catharine and brother-in-law Joseph Rich. In 1870 she appears as a 55-year-old born in France and living in Iowa City, Iowa. She died Jan. 24, 1899. They had no children.

55

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Ulrich of Hirsingue

U

nder the Heimatort legal rights sytem created in Canton Bern in 1672, 'Ullrich' and 'Ulrich' are considered distinct families, and the spellings are standardized. The Ullrichs have points of legal origin (Heimat) at Albligen, Guggisberg, Rüschegg, and Wahlern . The Ulrichs have points of legal origin at Huttwil, Trub, Rüegsau, and Sumiswald . However, before this the surnames had already devolved into Uhlrich, Ulli, Uhlmann, and Utz. Alsatian administrators later created Oillery, Oulry, Ullery, Voilery, Voilrich, and Voile. Mattheis Ulrich is found on a list of Anabaptists at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines in 1708. Too little is known about him to identify links. Anabaptist Hans Ulrich was living at Badevel in 1723. Badevel is located in Doubs, Franche-Comté, less than two miles from the Swiss border. He may be the Hans Ulrich who married Rosina Bachler. They were the parents of Pierre Ulrich (also found as 'Voilrich' and 'Oillery'). He was born at Mortzwiller (now in Upper Alsace, 25 miles north of Badevel) circa 1739, and died at Heimersdorf Sept. 13, 1807. He married Marie Berse. She was born at Aubure (three miles below Ste. Marie-aux-Mines) Aug. 21, 1754, and died at Hirtzbach Feb. 5, 1799, a daughter of Abraham Berze and Catherine Cofechemette [Küpferschmidt] (see WAGLER). Pierre found work at Bambois de Plaine, the forest opening at Plaine where a lumber mill was constructed. This location was a home to the Ropp family. Their son Pierre Ulrich was born at Plaine circa 1767. On Aug. 24, 1794 at Bourg-Bruche, Lower Alsace he married Catherine Lauber. She was born at Mussig (now in Lower Alsace) circa 1775, a daughter of Christian Lauber and Katharina Schwartz. Their civil marriage entry described the groom as Pierre Volrich, 26, a native of Plaine and son of weaver Pierre Voilrich and Marie Vagler. The bride was described as Catherine Laubre, 18, born in the mill at Bruche, a daughter of the deceased Christianne Laubre and Catherine Schwartzenet. Witnesses included father-of-the-groom Pierre Voilrich; brother-of-the-groom Jean Voilrich, 24, a weaver at Lubine; George Risser, a brother-in-law of the bride living at Bruche; and Jacob Pierre Marchal, a brother-in-law of the bride living at an illegible address (presumably Muntzenheim). The legible signatures on the document include Catharine Lauber, Hans Ulri [Ulrich], and Jacob Petter Schmid (broken off by the right page edge, possibly more letters). Thus Jacob Petter Marchal (mentioned as a witness in the text) was actually Jacob Peter Schmid of Muntzenheim (see PETERSMITH). He was married to Barbara Lauber, a sister of the bride. In 1796 Pierre and Catherine moved south to the area of Altkirch, Upper Alsace. There Pierre worked as a weaver in the fabric industry. A number of family events were recorded in three adjacent villages below Altkirch: Heimersdorf, Hirtzbach, and Hirsingue. Pierre and Catherine sailed from Le Havre on the France, arriving at New York July 12, 1833 (the passenger list is given in WAGLER). From there they traveled to Butler County, Ohio. Pierre died shortly after arriving in Butler County. Catherine died in the Milford home of her son-in-law Joseph Litwiller and daughter Barbara Dec. 29, 1847. The children of Pierre Ulrich and Catherine Lauber include:

1. Christian Ulrich was born at Bambois de Plaine Feb. 10, 1796, and died at Hirsingue Jan. 29, 1854. His father Pierre signed his civil birth entry created at Plaine with an 'x', indicating he was illiterate. On Oct. 9, 1820 at Bourg-Bruche, Lower Alsace he married Anne Beller. She was born at La Broque Jan. 18, 1786, and died at Hirsingue Jan. 27, 1851, a daughter of Jacob Beller and Marie Anne Lehmann. The witnesses at their wedding included Joseph Kolchemette [Goldschmidt], a 30-year-old cultivator from Le Hang basin near Bourg-Bruche who was a brother-inlaw to the bride (he married Barbe Beller); and Jacob Petter Schmid (see PETERSMITH), described as Jacob Pierre Chemette, a 21-year-old weaver from Bonnedof [Bendorf], Upper Alsace. Christian was described as a weaver at Hirsine [Hirsingue], Upper Alsace. Catherine Ulrich was born at Hirtzbach March 2, 1797, and died at Pekin May 21, 1887. On April 7, 1831 at Hirsingue she married Jacob Berse. He was born at Chipal (or Le Chipal, Vosges) Nov. 30, 1803, and died as Christian Wagler at Pekin Dec. 22, 1877, a son of Isaac Berse and Anne Krahenbühl (for the story of Jacob Berse/Christian Wagler see WAGLER). Anne Marie Ulrich was born at Steinbrunn-le Haut (above Altkirch) Nov. 8, 1801, and died at Hirsingue Oct. 23, 1826. Barbe/Barbara Ulrich was born at Walheim (above Altkirch) March 20, 1804, and died at Milford, Butler County, Ohio Dec. 29, 1847. On Sept. 19, 1829 at Hirsingue she married Joseph Litwiller. He was born at Diane-Capelle,

2.

3. 4.

56

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5. 6.

Moselle March 29, 1799, and died at Dillon May 27, 1884, a son of Jean Litwiller and Freni/Françoise Zehr (see LITWILLER and WAGLER). Madeleine Ulrich was born at Hirsingue June 22, 1807, and died there Nov. 11, 1808. Pierre/Peter Ulrich was born at Hirsingue July 10, 1811, and died at Eureka Feb. 8, 1904.

Pierre/Peter Ulrich was born at Hirsingue (Ger. Hirsingen) below Altkirch, Upper Alsace July 10, 1811, and died at Eureka Feb. 8, 1904. Like his sister Catherine, Peter may have experienced adult baptism on the Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach, Upper Alsace. The farm was associated with the Rich and Hirschi families. Before 1826, Andreas Ropp had lived only three miles away at Largitzen. The threat of renewed military conscription for the occupation of Algeria prompted an exodus from Alsace and Lorraine in the years 1830-34 (see STAKER). Peter, his younger sister Barbe/Barbara, and her husband Joseph Litwiller sailed from Le Havre. They departed in May, and arrived in New York in July 1831 after a 44-day voyage. Past and Present of Woodford County says they remained in New York "...but a short time, as Mr. Ulrich had the experience of someone stealing his hat; they then went to Cincinnati, O. via canal, flat and steamboat; eight days from N.Y. to Cincinnati, O.; here he remained one year as a teamster; then in the country at farming for seven years." In September of 1837 in Butler County, Ohio Peter married Anna Oyer. She was born at Niderhoff, Moselle Nov. 29, 1811, and died at East Peoria Aug. 5, 1855, a daughter of Joseph Oyer and his first wife Catherine Schrag The couple resettled at East Peoria in September 1838. There Peter purchased 80 acres and farmed for five years. In 1843 he sold the farm and leased another for five years. Anna Oyer died Aug. 5, 1855. On Nov. 5, 1858 in Tazewell County Peter remarried to Barbara Zimmerman. She was born in Baden circa 1812. We could point to someone who would fit the time, geography, and relationship/religious context: Barbara Zimmerman was born at Umkirch, Baden March 4, 1812, a daughter of Jacob Zimmerman and Barbara König; she was a second cousin to Michael King. But no information has been available that could verify this one way or another. The 1860 census of Montgomery shows farmer Peter Ullrich, 48, France; Barbara [Zimmerman], 48, Baden; Joseph, 31; Peter, 19; Christian, 17; John, 15; Andrew, 12; David, 9; Samuel, 7; Catherine, 18; and Valentine Nauhauser, 40. Barbara Zimmerman died at Montgomery April 5, 1865. Over the next six years Peter sold 200 acres. In 1867 he purchased 178 acres of improved land at Olio, and moved there the following year. The 1880 census of Olio, Woodford County shows farmer Peter Ulrich, 69, France; daughter Cathrine, 37, Illinois; son Christian, 36, Illinois; son David, 30, Illinois; son Samuel, 27,Illinois; Annie [Reeser, David's wife], 25, Indiana; Barbara, 5, Illinois; Annie, 3, Illinois; Christian, 2, Illinois; Fannie [Reeser, Samuel's wife], 19, France, parents born in France and Baden; Peter, 2, Illinois; and Christian, one month, Illinois. Herald of Truth, February 1904: "Feb. 8, 1904, near Eureka, Ill., Bro. Peter Ulrich, aged 92 Y., 6 M., 28 D. He was born in Alsace, Germany, July 18, 1811, came to America in May 1831 and located in Ohio. He was married to Sister Annie Oyer, Sept. 1837. This union was blessed with seven sons and one daughter. He went to Illinois in September 1838. His companion preceded him to the better world Aug. 5, 1855. In 1858 he was married to Sister Barbara Zimmerman, who died April 5, 1865. From that time until he died he lived with his children. The deceased was a faithful member of the Amish Mennonite church. He leaves six sons, one daughter, 51 grandchildren and 52 great-grandchildren. One son, ten grandchildren, and seven great-grandchildren preceded him to the other world. Funeral was held at the Roanoke M. H. Feb. 10. Services by Chris. Reeser and Andrew Schrock in German and John Smith in English from 1 Peter 3:3-5." The children of Peter Ulrich and his first wife Anna Oyer born at East Peoria include:

1. Joseph Ulrich was born Dec. 16, 1838, and died at Pioneer, Ohio Jan. 6, 1927. On Feb. 9, 1865 in Woodford County he married Fanny King. She was born at Liberty, Butler County, Ohio Aug. 17, 1842, and died at Flanagan, Livingston County in May 1872, a daughter of Michael King and Elizabeth Barnett. They are buried in Waldo Cemetery at Flanagan, Livingston County. The Pontiac Leader: "Joseph Ulerich. Flanagan, Ill. Jan. 11 - Funeral services for Joseph Ulerich were held at Salem Mennonite Church Sunday afternoon. Mr. Ulerich was born in Tazewell county, December 16, 1838. On February 9, 1865, he was married to Veronica King, to which union were born six children. For many years Mr. Ulerich cared for a friend, Daniel R. King, who resided two miles south of Flanagan and it was through Mr. King's benevolence that the Salem orphanage was established. After the death of Mr. King in 1902, Mr. Ulerich spent some time in central Illinois and a few years later moved to the state of Missouri. Later, he located at Pioneer, O., where he continued to reside until his death on January 6. Surviving are

57

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

four children: Peter J. of Flanagan, Elizabeth, Anna, and Samuel of Pioneer, O.; three brothers, Peter of Shelbyville, David of Eureka and Samuel of Idaho; 16 grandchildren and 13 great grandchildren. The services at the Salem Church on Sunday were conducted by Rev. Benjamin Rupp, of Bloomington. The Salem choir gave several selections. Pallbearers were grandsons or near relatives of Mr. Ulerich. Rev. Emanuel and William Ulerich, Elmer Schrock, Stephen and Valentine Zehr, Jr., and David Ulerich. Burial was in Waldo Cemetery." Peter P. Ulrich was born March 24, 1840, and died at Okaw/Shelbyville, Shelby County, Indiana Sept. 6, 1928. On July 22, 1866 at Eureka he married Magdalena 'Melinda' or 'Martha' King. She was born at Dry Grove, McLean County May 12, 1845, and died at Okaw/Shelbyville, Shelby County Dec. 17, 1915, a daughter of Michael King and Elizabeth Barnett. They are found on the 1870 census of Montgomery, Woodford County as farmer Peter Ulrich, 30, Illinois; Martha, 25, Illinois; and five children born in Illinois. Catherine Ulrich was born Nov. 1, 1841 (headstone date; Past and Present of Woodford County gives Oct. 1, 1842), and died Jan. 17, 1905. She is buried in Roanoke Mennonitee Cemetery. Christian Ulrich was born May 26, 1843, and died at Eureka Dec. 17, 1898. He is buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Herald of Truth, February 1899: "Christian Ulrich died at his home near Eureka, III,, Dec. 17th, 1898, of lagrippe in connection with an old trouble. Bro. Ulrich was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., May 26, 1843, and had therefore attained the age of 55 years, 6 months and 21 days. At the age of sixteen he gave himself to his Master, uniting with the Amish Mennonite Church, of which he was a faithful and zealous member until death. He was never married, and lived on the home place with his father, Peter Ulrich, Sr., who survives him at the advanced age of 88 years. He also leaves six brothers and one sister to mourn their loss. He was laid to rest in the Roanoke burying ground, Dec. 19th. Funeral services conducted by Bishop John Smith and Pre. Peter Sommer." John Ulrich was born Aug. 18, 1845, and died July 15, 1912. On Jan. 31, 1869 in Woodford County he married Katharina/Catherine Rediger. She was born at Freiburg, Baden April 22, 1843, and died at Manson, Iowa Aug. 3, 1937, a daughter of Jacob Rediger and Magdalena Schrock. Gospel Herald, July 1937: "Catherine, daughter of Lena and Jacob Rediger (deceased), was born near Freiburg, Germany, April 22, 1843; died Aug. 3, 1937, near Manson, Iowa. When she was a young woman she came with her parents to Woodford Co., Ill., where she was united in marriage to John Ulrich in 1867 [1869]. To this union were born 10 children, 2 passed away in infancy and Samuel in 1933. Her husband died in July, 1912. She is survived by 8 children (Lena Schertz and Peter Ulrich, of Manson; Lizzie Bachman, of Washington, Ill.; John of Estlin, Sask.; Katie Moery of Carlisle, Ark.; and Chris and Fannie). One sister (Elizabeth Wirkler of Los Angeles, Calif.), 2 brothers (Ben Rediger of Hoopersville, Ill., and Joe Rediger of Milford, Neb.), 33 grandchildren, 37 great-grandchildren survive. Four great-grandchildren, 1 grandchild, 2 sisters and 3 brothers preceded her in death. She lived with her children at Manson most of her married life. God blessed her with good health until she was old. She had been bedfast since February, 1934. She was cared for in the home of her son Peter for over a year, when she was taken to her granddaughter (Mrs. E. E. Zehr) where her daughter Lena, cared for her and where she passed away. She was always appreciative of all favors shown her. She was always patient and endured her affliction with Christian fortitude. She often expressed her eagerness to go to her eternal home, but was willing to wait until God called her. "While I lay here, I often wonder how beautiful heaven must be, and how glad we will be to meet those gone before," was typical of expressions she often made. She was a faithful member of the Mennonite Church for more than seventy years. Funeral services were held Aug. 6 at the Mennonite Church, conducted by Bro. Nick Stoltzfus. Burial in Rose Hill Cemetery." Andreas/Andrew Ulrich was born June 5, 1848, and died at Deer Creek Feb. 13, 1919. On March 6, 1873 in McLean County he married Elizabeth Zehr. She was born at Deer Creek Sept. 28, 1854, and died Aug. 1, 1948, a daughter of Christian Zehr and his second wife Marie/Mary Schrag. They are buried in Stumbaugh Cemetery at Goodfield, Woodford County. David Ulrich was born July 29, 1850, and died at Eureka July 7, 1934. Samuel Ulrich was born Jan. 12, 1855, and died at Nampa, Idaho Dec. 20, 1936. In January 1878 in Woodford County he married Veronica 'Fannie' Reeser. She was born at Eureka April 25, 1861, and died March 29, 1937, a daughter of Christian Reeser and Barbara Zimmerman. They lived near Bloomington and later at Nampa, Idaho. They are found on the 1920 census of Canyon County, Idaho as farmer Samuel Ulrich, 67, born in Illinois to a father from Alsace-Lorraine and a mother from France; Fannie, 59, born in Illinois to parents from France and Germany; Vernie, 26, Illinois; Benjamin, 20, Illinois; and Mattie, 17, Illinois.

David Ulrich was born at East Peoria July 29, 1850, and died at Eureka July 7, 1934. On Oct. 22, 1874 in Woodford County he married Anne Marie/Anne Mary/Anna Reeser. She was born at Muncie, Indiana Dec. 17, 1855, and died at Eureka Oct. 12, 1941, a daughter of Christian Reeser and Barbara Zimmerman (see REESER). They farmed Section 35 of Roanoke. They are buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Gospel Herald, August 1934: "Ulrich. - David, son of Peter and Anna Ulrich, was born near East Peoria, Ill., July 29, 1850; died at his home in Eureka, Ill., July 7, 1934; aged 83 y. 11 m. 9 d. His parents had come to America from Alsace Lorraine, and were among the early settlers in this part of Illinois, arriving in 1838. From East Peoria the family moved to Deer Creek, where his mother died, when he was five years old. In his early youth they moved to the vicinity of Eureka, where his father purchased the farm now occupied by his son, C. M. Ulrich, and which is

58

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

spoken of as the old home place. Oct. 22, 1874, he was united in marriage to Anna, daughter of Christian Reeser, who lived to the age of 103 years. To this union were born 11 children, all of whom survive. They are: Barbara Schertz, Eureka; Anna, at home; Christian M., Eureka; Emma Schertz, Cazenovia; Peter N., Eureka; Elizabeth Schertz, Falfurrias, Texas; Fannie Schrock, David, Ella Schertz, Emanuel and Viola Harnish, all of Eureka. After marriage he farmed for thirty years in Woodford Co., living in the vicinity of Eureka and Metamora, from which latter place they moved to Garden City, Mo., in 1904, where he had purchased a farm. After living there for six years they returned to Woodford Co., locating south of Roanoke, remaining there until January, 1919, when he retired from the farm, moving to the home in Eureka where he passed away. In his youth he united with the Mennonite Church, in which he was a devoted and active member until his Lord called him home. For twenty-two years he served as a trustee of the Roanoke Mennonite congregation northeast of Eureka, of which he was one of the early members, and where he had his church home these many years... Saturday evening he was seized with a heart attack, peacefully passing away about two hours later. All his children were at his bedside, except Emma Schertz, who was visiting at Fisher, Ill., and Elizabeth Schertz of Falfurrias, Texas, who also was not able to come to the funeral because of ill health. He leaves his younger brother (Samuel Ulrich of Nampa, Idaho), the only one remaining of a family of eight; his wife (who was his faithful companion for almost sixty years); 11 children; 46 grandchildren; 10 great-grandchildren; and a host of other relatives and friends. Funeral services were held July 11, at the home by Andrew Schrock and at the Roanoke Mennonite Church by Ezra Yordy. Burial in the church cemetery."

59

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Wagler of Muesbach

A

1.

ccording to genealogist Delbert Gratz, the Bernese surname 'Wagler' was derived from 'Wagner,' and described a wagon maker. The English equivalent would be 'Wainwright' or 'Cartwright.' Muesbach [Ger. Muesberg] is a pocket valley in mountains between Ribeauvillé and Aubure. It has a creek running through it, but the dryness of the surrounding soil prevented habitation by more than a few families. Waglers, Sommers, and Eymanns lived there up to 1850. Only overgrown stone foundations remain. No vital records were kept there. There is no surviving documents that might tell us when when Waglers first came to Muesbach. Hans Wagler was the leaseholder in 1764, and turned the lease over to his son. Isaac Wagler was born circa 1729, and died at Muesbach April 18, 1804. In 1760 he married Barbe Eymann. She was born at Ribeauvillé circa 1731, and died there Jan. 21, 1811, a daughter of Nicolas Eymann and Frena Kropf. Isaac and Barbe passed the lease on to their sons Jacob and Christian. The children of Isaac Wagler and Barbe Eymann born at Muesbach include:

Johannes/Jean Wagler was born in 1764, and died at Muesbach O ct. 15, 1846. On June 4, 1794 at Ribeauvillé he married Anne Catherine Liechti. She was born at St. Amarin (now in Upper Alsace) in 1769, and died at Muesbach Nov. 3, 1833, a daughter of Friedrich Liechti and Barbara Frey. Nicolas Wagler was born in 1767, and died at Muesbach July 26, 1803. On April 16, 1795 at Lièpvre, Upper Alsace he married Barbe Sommer. She was born at St. Stail (now in Vosges) Aug. 21, 1769, and died at Senones, Vosges March 1, 1820, a daughter of Jean Sommer and Babe Hüsser. Jacob/Jacques Wagler was born Feb. 25, 1769, and died at Muesbach Jan. 16, 1846. Barbe Wagler was born circa 1770, and died after July 1829. On Sept. 6, 1799 at Ribeauvillé she married Jacob/Jacques Haas. He was born circa 1764, and died at Lièpvre, Upper Alsace July 25, 1829. Christian Wagler was born in 1775, and died in 1851. On May 13, 1807 at Ribeauvillé he married Anne Marie Sommer. She was born at Bambois de Plaine (now in Lower Alsace) in June 1783, a daughter of Christian Sommer and Barbe Hüsser. The Waglers of Ontario are their descendants. Elisabeth Wagler was born in 1778, and died at Muesbach June 13, 1848. On April 20, 1805 at Ribeauvillé she married Christian Sommer. He was born at Bambois de Plaine in March 1775, and died at Ribeauvillé Sept. 15, 1815, a son of Christian Sommer and Barbe Hüsser.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

Jacob/Jacques Wagler was born at Muesbach Feb. 25, 1769, and died there Jan. 16, 1846. On Nov. 14, 1804 at Ribeauvillé he married Anne Marie Sommer. She was born at Richwiller, Upper Alsace Sept. 4, 1779, and died at Muesbach Nov. 17, 1839, a daughter of Christian Sommer and Anna Maurer. Their son Jacob Wagler was born at Ribeauvillé, Upper Alsace April 29, 1806, and died at Waldo, Livingston County Feb. 13, 1872.63 On April 11, 1830 at Marckolsheim, Lower Alsace he married Magdalena Röschli (found as Roeschli, Rechely, and Reschly). She was born at Mussig (five miles north of Marckolsheim) Nov. 4, 1803, and died at Waldo Nov. 30, 1877, a daughter of Jean Röschli and Elisabeth Wagler. The marriage entry described the groom Jacques Wagler as a 24-year-old laborer born at Muesbach, and the bride Madelaine Röschlÿ as a 25-year-old. Witnesses included miller Jean Risser, 30, a brother-in-law of the groom; weaver Jean Wagler, 25, a cousin; laborer Joseph Wagler, 26, a second cousin; and laborer Jean Wagler, 24, a cousin. Jacob and Magdalena were residents of Marckolsheim at the time of their marriage, and resided there for the births of seven daughters 1831-44. The birth entries describe the father as a farmer or cultivator. He signed each one legibly. We could not determine when Jacob and Magdalena left Europe.64 Our best guess might be 1854, the year of immigration given by daughter Anna on a 1900 census.

Jacob's brother Jean Baptiste Wagler was born at Ribeauvillé June 20, 1810, and died in Ontario in 1869 or 1887. On Oct. 5, 1837 at Ribeauvillé he married his cousin Barbe Wagler. She was born at Muesbach July 6, 1815, a daughter of Christian Wagler and Anne Marie Sommer. They sailed from Le Havre on the Louis Philippe, and arrived at New York May 13, 1842. The passenger list names Jean Wagler, 32, France; Barbara, 26; and Barbara, 2. They can be found on the 1861 census of South Easthope as Mennonite farmer John Wagler, 50, France; Barbara, 45, France; Magdalena, 16, Ontario; Anna, 11, Ontario; and John, 6, Ontgario. 64 Magdalena had a brother Johannes/Jean/John who also immigrated. He may have been born at Moussey, Vosges June 7, 1812, and died at Roanoke, Woodford County May 19, 1881. A birth entry that is thought to be his was created at Moussey June 8. It describes the father as cultivator Jean Rechely, 45, and the mother as Elizabeth Vocker (a later entry says 'Vargler').

63

60

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The Waglers may have corresponded with Christian Schlegel before choosing Tazewell County as their destination. Though they had never met, they had family ties.

WAGLER AND SCHLEGEL About a month after their marriage, Jacob Wagler and Magdalena Reschly journeyed 59 miles southwest for another wedding. On May 23, 1830 Magdalena's sister Elisabeth became the wife of Christian Schlegel's nephew Joseph Wagner (Joseph's mother was Christian's much older sister Elisabeth Schlegel). The ceremony took place at Reppe in the Territory of Belfort. Reppe was the hometown of Christian's mother. The marriage entry lists witness Jacques Wagler of Marckolsheim, 23. Christian did not atte in New York City for 10 years before resettling at Washington, Tazewell County in 1835. Christian and Jacob would finally meet at Washington 24 years after the marriage connecting their two families. The 1855 state census of Washington shows the household of Jacob Wagler as two males under 10 years of age; one male 10-19; one male 20-29; one male 50-59; one female under 10 years of age; five females 10-19; and one female 30-39. The household of Christian Schlegel appears on the same census page.

The Jacob Wagler household is later found on an 1865 state census of Waldo, Livingston County as one male under 10 years of age; one male 50-59; one female 10-16; and one female 50-59. The next names on the census page are their sons-in-law Jacob Sutter and Christian Springer. Jacob and Magdalena are found twice on the 1870 federal census. They appear in the Metamora household of son-in-law John Steider and their daughter Elizabeth: John Stider, 34, France; Elizabeth, 34, France; Catharine, 6, Illinois; Sara, 5, Illinois; Phoeba, 3, Illinois; Mary, 1, Illinois; Jacob Wagler, 65, Bavaria (Alsace was annexed by Germany 1870-1919); Madalade, 68, Bavaria; and Catherine Stider, 67, France. They are also found in the household of daughter Reine/Regina at Waldo: farmer John Deerberger, 26, Bavaria; Rachel [Reine/Regina], 25, Bavaria; Jacob, 4, Illinois; Malinda, 3, Illinois; John, 2, Illinois; Catherine, six months, Illinois; Malinda Resley, 66, Bavaria; and Jacob Wagler, 64, Bavaria. Jacob's obituary indicates that he was a Prediger, or minister. Herald of Truth, April 1872: "On the 13th of Febr., in Livingston co., Ill., Pre. Jacob Wagler, of the Amish church, aged 65 yrs., and 10 months. He bore his suffering with Christian patience. Three weeks before his death, his wife was so sick that she was not expected to live; at this he was very much grieved, and frequently expressed a desire to go first, saying that he was ready, and had a desire to be with Jesus. After an illness of nine days he went to his Savior, who will wipe all tears from his eyes. 'Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord.' He was buried the 15th, in the presence of many friends and acquaintances. Services by Chr. Schloegel, and John P. Schmidt." (The minister Christian Schlegel was a son of the the immigrant). Gospel Herald, January 1878: "Nov. 30th, in Livingston co., Ill., very suddenly, Magdalena Wagler, aged 74 years and 20 days. Her disease was bronchial consumption. Buried Dec. 2nd, followed to the grave by many to pay the last tribute of respect. She was a beloved sister of the Amish Mennonite Church. She was at communion on Sunday previous, and said, that would be the last time she would partake. Services by Joseph Gascho and J. P. Schmitt." The children of Jacob Wagler and Magdalena Reschly born at Marckolsheim, Lower Alsace include:

1. Madelaine/Magdalena Wagler was born Jan. 13, 1831, and died at Pike, Livingston County Dec. 7, 1870. On Aug. 30, 1857 in Tazewell County she married Christian Ehresman (Jr.). He was born Oct. 18, 1832, and died Feb. 14, 1893, a son of Christian Ehresman and his first wife Magdalena Barnett. Gospel Herald, February 1871: "On the 7th of December, in Livingston county, Ill., Magdalena Erisman, daughter of Jacob Wagler, in the 42nd year of her age. She was buried on the 9th. Funeral sermons were preached by Chr. Schloegel and John P. Schmitt from I Cor. 15. The deceased leaves her aged parents, a deeply afflicted husband and 7 children to mourn her sudden departure. She bore her affliction with patience and asked her friends to forgive her if she in any way wronged them, and committed her soul into the hands of her Creator saying, 'The Lord's will be done - I am prepared to die.' Dear reader, let us

However, the name of the child is given as Joseph. His headstone at Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery says, "John Roeschley, starb. May 19, 1881, 69 Jahre, 5 Monat, und 11 Tag alt." This would yield Dec. 8, 1811. Jean immigrated in 1854, settling at Spring Bay. On Jan. 28, 1856 in Tazewell County he married Elizabeth Salzman. She was born circa 1831, and immigrated in 1855 or 1856. Her headstone in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery says, "Elizabeth Roeschley, gest. d. 7 Jan. 1891, 60 Jahre alt." They are found on the 1880 census of Roanoke as retired farmer John Roschelz, 68, France; Elisabeth, 53, France; and five children born in Illinois. They are buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Their children include Jacob (1857) who marrried Lydia Zehr; Magdalena (1858) who married Christian Zehr; John (1859) who married Elizabeth Orendorff; Elizabeth (1862) who married Joseph P. Yordy; and Mary (1869) who married Daniel Schlegel.

61

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

reflect upon these words. J.P. Schmitt." After Magdalena's death Christian remarried to Mary Oyer; see EHRESMAN. Barbe/Barbara Wagler was born March 13, 1833. Anne Marie/Mary Wagler was born Nov. 28, 1834 (her birth entry called her Anne Marie Wagner), and died Feb. 14, 1894. On Dec. 13, 1855 in Tazewell County she married Daniel Zehr. 65 He was born at Mannreid, Bavaria May 3, 1828, and died at Remington, Indiana May 18, 1915, a son of Daniel Zehr and his first wife Barbara Ingold. They are found on the 1880 census of Gridley as Daniel Zehr, 53, Germany; Mary, 48, France; with seven children born in Illinois. Daniel's headstone in the Christian Apostolic Cemetery at Wolcott, Indiana gives the dates 1829-1915. Elisabethe/Elizabeth Wagler was born June 7, 1836, and died in Nebraska Dec. 26, 1907. On July 1, 1863 in Woodford County she married Jean/John Steider. He was born at Diane-Capelle in March 1837, and died at Milford, Nebraska circa 1900, a son of Joseph Steider and Catherine Miller. Herald of Truth, January 1908: "Elizabeth Steider was born in Markirch, Alsace, France, on June 15, 1836, and died Dec. 26, 1907; aged 71Y., 6 M., 11 D. Her maiden name was Wagler. She was married to John Steider. To this union were born nine children, four sons, five daughters, 38 grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Her husband and one son preceded her to the eternal world. The Lord comfort the mourning friends with the rich promises of his word." See STEIDER for more on this couple. Catherine Wagler was born March 23, 1838, and died at Milford, Nebraska July 30, 1908. On Feb. 18, 1858 in Tazewell County she married Jacob Sutter.66 He was born at Probfeld, Bavaria Nov. 27, 1833, and died at Milford, Nebraska Feb. 26, 1923, a son of Johannes/John Sutter and Barbara Oesch. Gospel Herald, July 1908: "Catherine Sutter, nee Wagler, was born in Alsace, Germany, March 23, 1838; died at Milford, Nebr., July 30, 1908; aged 70 y. 4 m. 7 d. She lived in matrimony with Jacob Sutter 50 y. 4 m. To them were born 15 children, 8 sons and 7 daughters; 5 children preceded her to the spirit world. She leaves to mourn, her husband, 10 children and many relatives and friends, but not as those that have no hope, for Sister Sutter was a faithful member in the A. M. Church from her youth; her desire was to depart and be with Christ, which is far better. Funeral services were held at the Fairview Church near Milford, July 31, by Jos. Schlegel. Text, II Tim. 4:1, and N. E. Roth, Rev. 21:7." See SUTTER for more on this couple including Jacob's obituary. Anne/Anna Wagler was born Oct. 28, 1839, and died at Aurora, Nebraska Sept. 10, 1906. She was admitted to Jacksonville State Hospital Aug. 18, 1861 after suffering seizures, and discharged Jan. 8, 1862. 67 In Peoria County May 10, 1862 she married Christian Springer. He was born in 1834, and died at Aurora Aug. 12, 1907. They are buried in Pleasant View Cemetery there. On Sept. 30, 1871 Christian purchased 40 acres of public land for $440 in Section 14 of what is now Rook's Creek (adjacent to Waldo). They are found on the 1880 census of Waldo, Livingston County as farmer Christian Springer, 46, France; Anna, 40, France; and seven children born in Illinois. The 1900 census of Precinct G, Seward County, Nebraska (now the city of Seward) shows them as farmer Chris Springer, 64, born in France to a German father and French mother in September 1834, immigrated 1856; Anna, born in 60, born in France in October 1839, immigrated 1854; and two children born in Illinois. Gospel Witness, October 1906: "Anna, beloved wife of Christian Springer, was born in Lorraine, Germany; died at the home of her son, B. W. Springer, near Aurora, Neb., Sept. 10, 1906; aged 67y., 10m., 18d. She was sick only a few hours. She united with the A. M. church at the age of fourteen and remained a faithful member until death. She leaves a sorrowing husband, with whom she lived in happy union, in joy and sorrow, for 41 years. To them were born ten children, two having preceded her to the spirit world. Besides a husband, she is survived by eight children, twenty-seven grandchildren, one great-grandchild, two sisters and a host of relatives and friends. She was a good loving mother and we sadly miss her, but our loss is her gain, and we pray to meet her in that heavenly home where she awaits our coming. Funeral services were held at the Mennonite church conducted by Chr. Rediger in German and Andrew Oesch in English. Interment in the Fairview cemetery. A daughter." Gospel Witness, September 1907: "Christian Springer was born near Nance, France, Apr. 1834; died at the home of his son Benjamin, of Aurora, Neb., Aug. 12, 1907; aged 73 y. 4 m. He suffered for some time with cancer of the stomach. He united with the A. M. Church in his youth and was a faithful member until his death. His prayer during his suffering was that Christ should take him home, so we feel that we need not mourn as those who have no hope. There remain to mourn the loss of a kind and loving father, three sons, five daughters, thirty grandchildren and one great-grandchild. His wife died about eleven months ago and two children died in their youth. Funeral services at the Mennonite Church on Aug. 14, by Pre. A. Oesch in English and Pre. C. Rediger in German. By a daughter." Reine/Regina Wagler was born April 4, 1844, and died in Livingston County Aug. 13, 1871. On April 22, 1866 in Livingston County she married John Dierberger. He was born at Neudingen, Baden May 10, 1840, a son of Valentin Dierberger and Veronika Kammerer. The 1870 census of Waldo, Livingston County shows them as farmer John Deerberger, 26, Bavaria; Rachel, 25, Bavaria; Jacob, 4, Illinois; Malinda, 3, Illinois; John, 2, Illinois; Catherine, six months, Illinois; Malinda Resley, 66, Bavaria; and Jacob Wagler, 64, Bavaria. Gospel Herald, November 1871: "On the 13th of August, in the same county, also of sore throat, Regina Dierberger, daughter of Jacob Wagler, aged 27 years, 4 months and 9 days. On the 14th her remains were buried, followed to the grave by a large concourse of

65 66

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Daniel Sears and Mary A. Wagler. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Jacob Sutor and Catharine Wagler. 67 She was described as Anna Wagler, 21; her father as Jacob Wagler of Washington, Tazewell County.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

friends and relatives. Funeral discourses were preached by the same as the above. She bore her suffering with patience, was willing to die, and desired to be with Christ. A few minutes before she died, she was asked if she wanted water. 'No,' she replied, 'I have now better water to drink than that.' She leaves a husband and 4 children. She was a faithful member of the Omish Mennonite church." On March 17, 1872 in Tazewell County John remarried to Mary Neuhauser.68 She was born in Butler County, Ohio Jan. 9, 1847, and died April 25, 1883, a daughter of Peter Neuhauser and Anne Marie/Mary Peter Schmidt. Herald of Truth, June 1883: "On the 30th of April, in Tazewell Co., Ill., in child-bed, Mary Dierbarger, daughter of Peter and Mary Neuhauser, aged 36 years, 3 months and 21 days. On the 2nd of May she and her infant child were consigned to mother earth, on which occasion services were held by John P. Smith, of Livingston Co., Ill., from 1 Cor. 15, and by Peter Stuckey in English, from 2 Cor. 5:1. She leaves a husband and seven children, four of them step-children, of whom she was much beloved and who sadly mourn their loss. She was a faithful sister in the Amish Mennonite Church. Her aged parents followed her remains to the grave, which makes the fourth time that they follow one of their children to their last resting place. This was a very solemn and affecting occasion. Peace to her ashes." As a widower John appears on the 1900 census of J Township, Seward County, Nebraska in the home of his son Samuel as farm laborer John Dierberger, 60, born in Germany in May 1840, immigrated in 1856.

Jacob Berse to Christian Wagler

'Wagler' may not be the true original surname of the family that came to America in 1833 and settled at Elm Grove in 1844. However, we have only recently discovered how complicatied this question can be. Of the locations mentioned below, Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Ste. Croix-aux-Mines, and Aubure are now situated in the Department Haut-Rhin or Upper Alsace; La Croix-aux-Mines is situated in Department Vosges. However, all these locations are within a 6-mile area. Abraham Berze was born at Aubure circa 1720. He married Catherine Cofechemette [Küpferschmidt]. The couple farmed at Chipal, a valley hamlet near La Croix-aux-Mines.69 The earliest Berze/Berse civil entry we found there documented Abraham's death at age 75 on Dec. 28, 1795. It names Catherine Coffechemette as his widow and was witnessed by two neighbors and a son-in-law, 'Jean Grapierre' (later found as 'Jean Crabiel'). Abraham and Catherine were the parents of six known children:

1. Marie Berse was born at Aubure Aug. 21, 1754, and died at Hirtzbach, Upper Alsace Feb. 5, 1799. She married Peter/Pierre Ulrich (also found in French entries as 'Voilrich'). He was born at Mortzwiller circa 1739, and died at Heimersdorf (next to Hirtzbach) Sept. 13, 1807, a son of Johannes Ulrich and Rosina Bächler. When their son Pierre Ulrich married Catherine Lauber at Bourg-Bruche Aug. 24, 1794, the parents of the groom were noted as Pierre Voilrich [Ulrich] and Marie Vagler. (Note that Marie's younger brother Isaac would later taken on the surname Wagler as well). Isaac Berse was born circa 1760. He is found in civil documentation at La Croix-aux-Mines as 'Isac Berse.' Elisabeth Berze was born circa 1761, and died at Chipal Feb. 9, 1786. On Jan. 25, 1780 at La Croix-aux-Mines she married Nicolas Roth (1760-1840) of Echery. Roth remarried twice, to Anne Müller and Anne Munier. The entry for his third marriage states that he was an Anabaptist. He continued to live at La Croix-aux-Mines and acted as a witness on several Berse civil entries. Anne Berse married cultivator Johannes 'Hans' Krayenbühl, who signed his own name 'Krahenbuhl' and is also found as Jean Crabiel. He was born at Ste. Croix-aux-Mines circa 1752, but resided at Chipal and appears as a witness on many Berse family entries created at La Croix-aux-Mines. A civil entry for his death created at La Croix-aux-Mines April 18, 1810 was witnessed by brother-in-law Nicolas Roth, 51, and brother-in-law David Richely [Rüschli], 23. It stated that he was 58, the son of cultivator Pierre Craipiel [Krayenbühl] and Anne Aousboure [Augspurger], cultivators at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. Magdelaine Berse was born in 1768. She was 35 years old at the time of her marriage to David Richely at La Croixaux-Mines April 12, 1803. The groom was 17 (though perhaps this should be taken with a grain of salt). The civil entry describes Richely as a 17-year-old weaver's assistant born on Le Harcholet farm at Le Saulcy, Vosges Jan. 7, 1786; it is possible that his age was adjusted downward to help him avoid military service. It remained consistent on all La Croix-aux-Mines entries. He was a son of Jean Richely, a cultivator at Le Harcholet, and Elisabeth Hertique [Hertig]. Magdalena Berse was described as "de la secte annabaptiste," and it was explained that her birth date had not been recorded and was not known. She was the daughter of the deceased Abraham Berse, who had been a

2. 3.

4.

5.

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as John Deerberger and Mary Newberger. Chipal's homes were destroyed in the summer of 1914, leaving only a church standing. The site was plowed under to establish a farm in 1919. Its administrative records were kept at nearby La Croix-aux-Mines, and the farm is now called Le Chipal and is part of that community in Vosges.

69

68

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

6.

cultivator at La Croix-aux-Mines, and 'Catherine Cophrechmetre' [Küpferschmidt]. Witnesses included the bride's brother 'Isac Berse,' 42; and her brother-in-law cultivator 'Jean Grapiel,' 50. Abraham Berse was born circa 1770. He lived at Aubure and Chipal, and married Barbe Hone [Hoen?]. They are only known to us from an entry documenting the stillbirth of a child at Chipal Dec. 17, 1807. The entry was witnessed by paternal uncles Johannes 'Hans' Krahenbühl and David Richely.

Cultivator Isaac Berse was born circa 1760, and died at Chipal Dec. 2, 1826. He married Anna Krahenbühl, who died before 1798. She was a daughter of Jean Krayenbühl/Krahenbühl and Anne Augspurger (a daughter of Jacob Augspurger and Elisabeth Ummel; Augspurger is found as 'Augsbourger' in French entries related to this family); she was also a stepsister of Noé Augspurger, who married Julie Diebler, starting the chain of Augspurgers who later lived at Hanfeld, Bavaria and came to Tazewell County (where their surname is spelled 'Augsburger'). The child of Isaac Berse and Anne Krahenbühl: 1.

Joseph Berse (1) was born at Chipal in 1788, and died there Feb. 23, 1798. A civil entry for his death was created at La Croix-aux-Mines Feb. 23, 1798. It states that he was 10 years old, mentions that his mother Anne Krahenbühl was deceased, and was witnessed by his uncle Jean Crapierre (presumably Johannes 'Hans' Krahenbühl). .

Isaac remarried to Elisabeth Marchal in 1799. Their children born at Chipal include:

2. 3. Barbe Berse (1) was born in March 1800, and died at Chipal Nov. 12, 1805 age 5 years, 8 months. Joseph Berse (2) was born April 15, 1802. On Feb. 13, 1826 at Bruebach, Upper Alsace he married Barbe Hodler. The civil marriage entry described him as a 23-year-old weaver from La Croix-aux-Mines, and correctly identified his parents. It described her as 'Barbe Hedler,' 30 years and 11 months old, born at Biesheim, Upper Alsace. Her parents were Jacques Hedler [Jacob Hodler], a day laborer living at Bruebach, and the deceased Elisabeth Roth. Three neighbors of the bride signed as witnesses. Jacob Berse was born Nov. 30, 1803, and died at Pekin as Christian Wagler Dec. 22, 1877. Isaac Berse was born in August 1805 and died at Chipal Nov. 25, 1805 at 10 weeks. Barbe Berse (2) was born July 2, 1807, and died at Chipal in 1816, age 9.

4. 5. 6.

In 1826 two events prompted the family to relocate in the Sundgau region of Upper Alsace. On Feb. 13, oldest son Joseph Berse married Barbe Hodler at Bruebach, a village just below Mulhouse. On Dec. 2, father Isaac Berse died at Chipal. Widowed mother Elisabeth Marchal and her younger son Jacob presumably relocated to join Joseph and Barbe, though Bruebach was more than 55 miles to the south. On April 7, 1831at Hirsingue, Upper Alsace Jacob Berse married his cousin Catherine Ulrich. He appears on the civil entry as Jacques Berse, a 28-year-old finishing carpenter born at La Croix-aux-Mines but living at Bruebach.70 His parents were described as the deceased cultivator Isaac Berse and the widow Elisabeth Marchal, who was living at Bruebach.71 Though her age is given as 31 on her 1831 marriage entry, bringing it closer to the groom's, Catherine Ulrich was actually born at Hirtzbach (next to Hirsingue) March 2, 1797, a daughter of Hirsingue weaver Peter/Pierre Ulrich and Catherine Lauber. Catherine Ulrich had been baptized as a 15-year-old on the Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach, Upper Alsace Nov. 27, 1812. The farm was associated with the Rich and Hirschi families. Before 1826, Andreas Ropp had lived only three miles away at Largitzen. (See the ROPP and RICH genealogies). On the civil entry for the marriage ceremony of Jacob Berse and Catherine Ulrich, two of the witnesses were decribed as Chrétien Hirschÿ [Christian Hirschi], a 41-year-old cultivator, and Jacques Hirschÿ, a 35-year-old cultivator, both from the Birkenhof farm at Ruederbach. Christian Hirschi was born at Sigolsheim March 3, 1793, and died on the Birkenhof at Ruederbach May 19, 1864. His father, elder Jacob Hirschi, had been a co-worker with Johannes Ropp at Sigolsheim (see ROPP) and later lived at Bollwiller. On Sept. 8, 1813 Christian married Anne Marie Ropp, a cousin to Andreas Ropp. She was born Feb. 18, 1792, and died on the Birkenhof Aug. 23, 1864. Catherine Ulrich's younger brother Peter/Pierre and younger sister Barbara/Barbe sailed from Le Havre to New York in May-July 1831. Jacob and Catherine soon joined the exodus caused by military conscription for the French occupation of Algeria. Their ship France sailed from Le Havre and arrived at New York July 12, 1833. It is

Fr. menuisier denotes a finishing carpenter, usually an all-round craftsmen who might also make furniture (a joiner) or carve wooden ornamentation. 71 Jacob Berse, Catherine Ulrich, Peter Ulrich, Catherine Lauber, and Elisabeth Marchal all signed the civil marriage entry with an 'x', indicating they were illiterate.

70

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

probable that Jacob traveled on the passport obtained much earlier by his younger brother-in-law. Gary L. Yordy found this grouping on the France passenger list:

Pete Ulrich Catherine Ulrich Peter Ulrich Ludwick Schoften Peter Ulrich Catherine Lowber 30 23 2 28 60 55 carpenter [Jacob Berse] [his wife, Catherine Ulrich, actually age 36] [their son, Peter Jacob Berse] [unknown] [Catherine's father Pierre Ulrich] [Catherine's mother Catherine Lauber]

Just as Jacob Berse had become 'Peter Ulrich' aboard ship, he became Christian Wagler in Ohio. In an earlier version of the text we wrote, "It has been proposed that the Berse family was a Wagler family several generations earlier; however, to the best of our knowledge this has not been demonstrated." It has been suggested that the name change was a prudent precaution for an emigré evading military conscription. More on this a little later. The 'Christian Wogler' household appears on the 1840 census of Ross, Butler County. It is checked off as two males under 5 [Christian H. and Joseph]; one male 5-10 [Peter]; one male 10-15; one male 30-40 [Christian]; one female under 5 [Barbara]; one female 5-10 [Katharina/Catherine]; and one female 30-40 [Catherine Ulrich]. Christian worked as a finishing carpenter in Ohio. The family came to Tazewell County in 1844. The household appears on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer Christian Wagler, 51, France; Catharine, 54, France; Peter, 17, France; Catharine, 16, Ohio; Christian, 14, Ohio; Barbara, 13, Ohio; Joseph, 12, Ohio; and Isaac, 10, Ohio. From the names of their next door neighbors, it is apparent that they were already living on Allentown Road at Elm Grove: Valentine, Andrew, and Joseph Birky were holding land awaiting the arrival of their father Valentine from Bavaria. The 1860 census of Elm Grove shows farmer Christian 'Wagner,' 58, France; Catharine, 60, Switzerland; Christian, 23, Ohio; Barbara, 20, Ohio; Joseph, 19, Ohio; and Isaac, 18, Ohio. The household of the oldest son appears as Peter Wagler, 27, France; Catherine, 21; Illinois; and Christian, 7 months, Illinois. On the 1870 census Peter's family has moved to Morton, while the parents and two sons remain on the Elm Grove farm: farmer Christian Wagler, 67, France; Catharine, 71; Joseph, 35; and Christian, 34. Christian Wagler died at Pekin Dec. 22, 1877, and was buried in Railroad Cemetery. 72 The 1880 census of Elm Grove shows widow Catherine, 83, living with her son Joseph Wagler, 42. She died at Pekin May 21, 1887, and was buried beside her husband. The children of Jacob Berse/Christian Wagler and Catherine Ulrich include:

1. Peter Jacob Berse (later Wagler) was born at Hirsingue, Upper Alsace Nov. 29, 1831, and died at Morton Aug. 28, 1903. On Dec. 28, 1858 in Tazewell County he married Catherine Rediger. She was born at Washburn, Woodford County Oct. 4, 1839, and died at Morton Oct. 10, 1915, a daughter of Joseph Rediger and Anna Schmidt. They are found on the 1880 census of Elm Grove as farmer Peter Wagler, 48, born in France to French parents; Catherine, 40, born in Illinois to a father from Germany and a mother from France; and nine children. They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Katharina/Catharine Wagler was born in Butler County, Ohio June 8, 1834, and died Sept. 2, 1910. In 1850 she married Jacob Heiser. He was born Feb. 15, 1817, and died at Morton Dec. 24, 1871 (see HEISER), a son of Jacob Heiser and his first wife Katharina Oesch. He is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery; she is buried in Buckeye Cemetery at Morton. Gospel Herald, Oct. 20, 1910: "Mother Catherine Heiser, nee Wagler, was born in Butler Co., O., June 8, 1834; passed to her reward near Morton, Ill., Sept. 2, 1910; aged 76 y. 2 m. 24 d. Her death was caused by the infirmities of old age. Mother Heiser united with the A. M. Church in her younger years and remained a faithful member to her blessed end. She was united in matrimony with Jacob Heiser in 1850. This union was blessed with 13 children. Father Jacob Heiser, her husband, 4 children, 5 grandchildren, 1 great-grandchild, preceded her to the spirit world. She leaves 9 children, 48 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren, 2 brothers and many friends to mourn her departure. Funeral services were conducted by Christ King at the house in German, text 90th Psalm; and at the church near Morton, Ill., by Andrew Schrock in German and Val. Strubar in English; text, Heb. 9:27, 28. Burial in cemetery nearby."

2.

According to Tazewell County, Illinois Cemeteries Volume Two, Christian Wagler's headstone says he was born Jan. 30, 1803; that he lived 73 years, 10 months, and 22 days; and that he died Dec. 22, 1877. However, there have been several interpretations of the headstone, and in November of 2007 we found it impossible to read. The white stone is located midway along the north rail (on the side of the abandoned railroad way), amid the lower branches of a small tree. Many of the graves in Railroad Cemetery have been completely overgrown and headstones buried. The cemetery was once completely enclosed by the Gerber farm, within sight of Railroad Schoolhouse.

72

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

4.

5. 6.

Christian H. Wagler was born in Butler County July 9, 1836, and died in Seward County, Nebraska Jan. 6, 1917; he is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. On May 14, 1875 in Tazewell County he married Barbara Oyer. She was born in December 1838, and died at Milford, Nebraska, a daughter of David Oyer and Susan Farney. They are found on the 1880 census of Elm Grove as farmer C. Wagler,42, born in Ohio to French parents; Barbara, 23, born in Illinois to a father from France and a mother from Canada; and John, 2 born in Illinois. They can be found on the 1900 census of District 49, Precinct J., Seward County, Nebraska (now the town of Ruby) as Christian Wagler, 61, born in Ohio in July 1838 to a father from France and a mother from Germany; and Barbara, 41, born in Illinois in December 1858 to a father from Germany and a mother from Canada. They had a son John born in 1878 , but he died in 1881; in Nebraska they adopted a daughter, Zola May. Barbara Wagler was born in Butler County Feb. 19, 1837, and died at Tremont Oct. 9, 1902 (though her headstone says November 1839-October 1902). On March 10, 1861 at Groveland she became the second wife of Johannes/John Kinsinger. He was born on the Heckanaschbacherhof estate at Contwig, Zweibrücken Oct. 21, 1815, and died at Tremont in October 1900, a son of Christian Kinsinger and Magdalena Schrag. See KINSINGER for more on this couple. Joseph 'Bachelor Joe' Wagler was born in Butler County in 1838, and died at Tremont Feb. 20, 1909. Isaac Wagler was born at Hamilton, Butler County Oct. 15, 1840, and died at Groveland March 30, 1920. On April 29, 1866 in Tazewell County he married Frances 'Fannie' Rediger. She was born at Washburn, Woodford County March 13, 1846, and died at Pekin Nov. 19, 1934, a daughter of Joseph Rediger and Anna Schmidt. They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland.

Revisiting the question of Jacob Berse's name change... Jacob was born in 1803, and married in 1831 under his own name. He sailed in 1833 under the name of, and presumably carrying a passport in the name of his brother-in-law Peter Ulrich, who was already in America. It was only after arriving in Ohio that he became 'Christian Wagler.' At first this seemed straightforward. However, we have recently come across an illiterate Berse who openly used both surnames when Jacob was only 9 years old. On June 24, 1812 Napoleon and his armies crossed the Neman River to begin a disastrous invasion of Russia. On Sept. 7, they won a victory at the Battle of Borodino. But as the months wore on, they suffered with inadequate clothing, food, and transport in the severe winter. The campaign turned into a brutal route and a wholesale retreat. At the height of their misery a wedding ceremony took place at Rosheim, Lower Alsace. A marriage entry dated Dec. 12, 1812 describes the groom as Joseph Eimann, who was born on Pré du Chêne farm at Lubine, Vosges March 19, 1780 (this was also the birthplace of Elisabeth Eymann, the wife of Andreas Ropp), and was living at Liepvre near Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. His parents were named as cultivator Voily [Ulrich] Eimann, who had died on Pré du Chêne farm April 14, 1795; and Regine Proquerin, who was still living there. The bride was described as Madeleine Berse appellé Vacklaire, or 'Magdalena Berse called Wagler.' She was born at La Croix-aux-Mines Sept. 25, 1790, and was living at Rosheim. Her father was named as Jacques Vaklaire [Wagler], who died at Colroy-la-Grande, Vosges Jan. 6, 1795.73 Her mother was named as Catherine Raber, who had remarried to Chrétien Maurer and was living at Rosheim. They were both present, and Chrétien signed as a witness. Magdalena Berse and Catherine Raber were illiterate, and signed with an 'x'. Two days after the wedding the first French troops retreating from Moscow managed to reach the border of what is now Poland. The news reached Alsace about two weeks later. With all this in hand, we lose one question and gain another. When Jacob Berse took on the name Christian Wagler, it was a prudent precaution after evading military conscription. Wagler was a familiar Anabaptist surname. We now know that it had been used by another Berse several years before. But why did Magdalena mention it at her wedding? Why not Maurer, the surname of her stepfather?

73 What surname did the Jacques who died at Colroy-la-Grande in 1794 have on his death entry? The Republican calendar year III (1794) is the only year missing from the town's état civil death records.

66

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Brenneman of Wohra

B

rendi was once a location on the Aare River, about halfway between Steffisburg and the city of Bern. The name Brendi, which indicated a clearing created by fire, evolved over time into Brönni. Presumably families of Brendimans became families of Brönnimans, a name that is still common in Bern. Brönni is located just across the Aare River from Munsingen. A number of genealogies including Albert Gerberich's imposing The Brenneman History published in 1938 have suggested a connection between Melchior Brönniman of Oberdiessbach (just south of Munsingen) and the known ancestors of the families that came to Central Illinois. Melchior was born at Seftigen (five miles west of Steffisburg) or Oberdiessbach (just above Steffisburg) in 1631. He was a weaver. In 1655 at Buchholterberg he married Christina Reusser, who was born at Oberdiessbach Dec. 18, 1636, a daughter of Stefan Reusser of Steffisburg. Melchior was imprisoned in the castle at Thun Oct. 28, 1659. A Chorgericht entry reads: "The Mennonite Melchoir Brönnimann, from the district of Steffisburg, is held in prison in the castle at Thun. The bailiff and the pastor superior have been unable to bring him to forswear his Anabaptist convictions. He only promises to attend preaching services in the state church. The government decrees that he shall be given a period of probation; if he does not give up the Anabaptists in that time the provisions of the recent law of August 9, 1659, shall be applied against him. According to these he shall be banished from the land, and if he should return unconverted he shall be beaten with rods and again driven away, while his property is to be confiscated." In 1671 Melchior had his property confiscated and given to the state church. He was banished from Bern. He and Christina went north to the village of Griesheim, four miles west of Darmstadt, Hesse, where 53 Swiss Mennonite families eventually found refuge. 74 The family appears on a census taken there Jan. 1, 1672 as Melchior Brenneman, 40; a 35-year-old wife; and seven children between the ages of 18 months and 15 years. According to a letter sent by Griesheim residents to a Mennonite elder in Holland, Melchior's possessions consisted of a horse, a trundle bed and bedding, and 43 rix dollars.75 Melchior is thought to have died at Griesheim in 1678. It has been suggested that this family was influenced by Quaker William Penn when he visited Griesheim in September 1677. However, it is likely that Penn was only interested in Quaker concerns in the relevant time frame. Penn received his charter for Pennsylvania in 1681, but his fortunes were reversed by a change of governing family in England only seven years later. He was arrested for treason and had his estates siezed, and was not pardoned until 1690. He hid for four years, and lost his Pennsylvania lands through sloppy business practices. Two of Melchior's sons did immigrate to America, but their presence is not documented until they registered land purchases in 1717. In 1932 Albert Gerberich corresponded with Rudolph Schäfer of Darmstadt, an officer of the Hessian Genealogy Union (Ger. Hessische Familienge schichtliche Vereinigung). He was probably the single person most familiar with original documents pertaining to the family. Schäfer had arrived at the conclusion that Melchior's youngest son Adam Brenneman was the next figure in our chain. Adam Brenneman was born at Griesheim in 1673. He married Katharina Würtz of Mönchhof, and they farmed at Fischbach in the early 1700s. (Fischbach and Enkenbach were located seven miles east of Kaiserslautern, on either side of Alsenborn. Enkenbach, Alsenborn, and Sembach are now Enkenbach-Alsenborn). Adam Brenneman's sons were Johannes Brenneman, who married Anna Beutler and lived at Enkenbach; an unidentified son who lived at Friedelsheim; and Abraham Brenneman, who "left Enkenbach and probably lived for some time at Friesenheim." (Friedelsheim is located 24 miles east of Kaiserslautern; Friesenheim is located 41miles northeast). Gerberich proposed that one of the three was the father of the next figure in the chain. The Brennemans who settled in Central Illinois are descendants of Nikolaus Brenneman (#1). He may have been a son of one of the three brothers mentioned above, but it appears just as likely that he was a later arrival from another branch of the family. (The Brönniman name is found in numerous entries recorded in the area above Steffisburg after Melchior's departure in 1671). According to J. Virgil Miller in Both Sides of the Ocean, Nikolaus #1 came from Steffisburg, Bern. Miller further suggests that he spent some time in the Palatinate before living on the Katharinentaler Hof above Pforzheim in Baden-Durlach.

74 Some genealogists have confused Griesheim, the suburb of Darmstadt associated with Brennemans, with Kriegsheim, which is 22 miles to the southwest. 75 In this instance a rix dollar was probably a silver thaler minted in Saxony. A rix dollar could also be a silver coin minted in Holland or the Scandinavian countries, ranging in value from 30 cents to $1.10. Thus Melchior had coins worth no more than $47.30.

67

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

He was married to a widow whose first husband was named Kendel/Kennel, and she brought to the marriage a son Hans Kennel and a daughter Maria Kennel (see KENNEL) Nikolaus #1 joined with other prominent Amish Mennonites to guarantee the lease on the Katharinentaler Hof, which was used as a common meeting place (for more on this location see OYER). On Feb. 8, 1750 he signed the agreement as 'Claüs Brn' alongside minister Peter Rothaker and the leading elder of his day Johannes 'Hans the elder' Nafziger, who represented Benedict 'Benz' Eyer and his son Rudolf Eyer. A facsimile of the document can be found in Hermann Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany. The same year Nikolaus #1 became leaseholder of the Karlshäuserhof estate at Dürrn, an adjunct farm to the Katharinentaler Hof. Nikolaus #1 died in his son's home on the Braunshardt estate at Wieterstadt Feb. 12, 1785. Nikolaus Brenneman (#2) was born circa 1736, and died May 5, 1789. On Dec. 1, 1756 he married Barbara Kurtz. She was born on the Katharinentaler Hof circa 1736. She was a daughter of deacon Jakob Kurtz, who was a co-leaseholder of the Karlshäuserhof estate beginning in 1743. Nikolaus #2 must have lived on the Karlshäuserhof at Dürrn for 10 years before he leased the Braunshardt estate at Weiterstadt in 1760. Too close to be a coincidence, Weiterstadt is adjacent to Greisheim, the place where Melchior Brenneman found refuge in 1671 ­ and the two Darmstadt suburbs are more than 86 miles from Dürnn. Barbara had six children, and died on the Braunshardt estate in 1770. The children of Nikolaus Brenneman #2 and his first wife Barbara Kurtz include:

1. 2. Jakobina Brenneman was born on the Karlshäuserhof state at Dürrn Dec. 20, 1757. She married Jakob Güngerich of the Albacherhof at Lich. Samuel Brenneman was born on the Karlshäuserhof estate at Dürrn Dec. 7, 1759, and died at Itzenhain July 20, 1834. On March 3, 1786 at Schaaken he married Marie Schwartzentraub. She was born at Ernsthausen (11 miles west of Wohra) circa 1766, was living at Lichtenfels at the time of her marriage, and died at Itzenhain (four miles east of Wohra) May 5, 1829. They leased the Bellnhausen estate at Itzenhain. According to Guth, they also leased the Fiddemühle at Wohra. Jakob Brenneman was born on the Braunshardt estate at Weiterstadt Feb. 1, 1762, and died there in March 1763. Jakob Brenneman was born on the Braunshardt estate at Weiterstadt April 7, 1764. Johannes/John Brenneman was born on the Braunshardt estate at Weiterstadt March 30, 1766, and died at Wilmot, Ontario Oct. 21, 1848. He lived on Lot 13, Bleam Street South, Wilmot. In 1824 bishop John Stoltzfus of Pennsylvania organized the first Wilmot congregation and ordained Johannes/John Brenneman and Joseph Goldsmith as ministers. One source says his unidentified wife died Sept. 22, 1842. Daniel Brenneman was born on the Braunshardt estate at Weiterstadt Sept. 10, 1769, and died at New Germany, Maryland May 16, 1842. On Feb. 20, 1803 he married Maria Bender of Bödenhausen (now in Lower Saxony). She died at New Germany, Maryland in 1856. They arrived at Baltimore in 1826; the National Archives holds a quarterly index that lists passengers Daniel Brenneman, 50; Maria, 40; Jacob, 19; Maria, 17; Caroline, 13; Elizabeth, 9; Helena, 7; Christian, 5; and Daniel, 2. They lived at 'The Glades' near Elk Lick in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, and then settled on a farm at New Germany.

3. 4. 5.

6.

On Feb. 2, 1771 Nikolaus #2 remarried to Magdalena Unzicker. She was born in Erzhausen (adjacent to Weiterstadt) circa 1750, and also had six children. The children of Nikolaus Brenneman #2 and his second wife Magdalena Unzicker were all born either at Erzhausen or on the nearby Braunshardt estate at Weiterstadt. They include:

7. Christian Brenneman was born Jan. 30, 1772, and died Jan. 12, 1828. In 1809 he married Barbara Jötter, who was born circa 1776. They farmed at Erzhausen until the death of his father Nikolaus #2 in 1789, and then assumed the lease on the Braunshardt estate. Barbara Brenneman was born Jan. 21, 1774. Elisabeth Brenneman was born Dec. 9, 1776, and died on the Albacherhof at Lich May 3, 1851. She became a much younger second wife to married Jakob Stähly. He was born at Enkenbach July 25, 1752, and died on the Obertraisa estate July 26, 1822. This is the same individual who became step-grandfather to 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger (see NAFZIGER, the story of the De Rham in KENNEL, and EHRESMAN, ERISMAN OF BUREAU COUNTY). Peter Brenneman was born Aug. 23, 1780. On March 10, 1806 he married Magdalena Güngerich. Their children immigrated to Canada; the parents may have emigrated as well. Veltin/Valentine Brenneman was born Nov. 20, 1786. He hanged himself at Gross-Gerau (adjacent to Weiterstadt) in 1809. Katharina Brenneman was born June 15, 1789. In 1809 at Trippstadt she married Johann August Imhof (found on the civil entry as 'Jean Rocke'). He was born in 1795, a son of elder Christian Imhof and Jakobine Kinzinger of the Wilensteinerhof. Their son Johannes Roggy (1828-1909) became mayor of Trippstadt.

8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

68

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Jakob Brenneman was born on the Braunshardt estate April 7, 1764. On June 20, 1788 at Mahlberg, Waldeck he married to Anna Güngerich. She was born at Mahlberg May 6, 1768, a daughter of Peter Güngerich. 76 Immediately after their marriage they leased the Klosterhof estate at Wohra. This estate was located 88 miles north of Darmstadt. Anna died there Dec. 17, 1842, and Jakob died there May 17, 1848. Their children born at Wohra include:

1. 2. Peter Brenneman was born May 11, 1789, and died in 1792. Maria Brenneman was born Jan. 26, 1792, and died in Butler County, Ohio in the fall of 1836. On March 20, 1814 at Wohra she married Johannes Bender. He was born circa 1786 and died in Butler County in April 1833, a son of Jakob Bender and Helena Brenneman of Bödenhausen. They lived at Zwesten (15 miles northeast of Wohra) until 1822, then on the Schmitthof/Schmiedenhof between Kraftsolms and Kröffelbach, Hesse. They appear on the '100 Hessian Mennonites' passenger list of 1832 as Johann Bender, 46; Jacob, 11; Daniel, 9; Maria, 40; Maria, 13; Anna, 17; Helena, 16; Jacobine, 7; and Elise, 5. The story of the voyage is told in STAKER. Peter Brenneman was born Feb. 19, 1794, and died in Butler County Oct. 31, 1850, only three months after arriving in America. On May 24, 1818 he married Jakobine Holly. She was born at Bellersheim April 10, 1797, and died in Putnam County Aug. 17, 1852, a daughter of estate manager Daniel Holly and Jakobine Eyer living at Langsdorf (adjacent to Bellersheim). They farmed in Vetzberg (six miles northwest of Giessen), then sailed from Le Havre on the Admiral, arriving at New York July 17, 1850. Their family appears on the passenger list as Peter Brenneman, 56, Bavaria; Jacobine, 53; Elisa, 29; Jacob, 27; Helene, 26; Cathrina, 21; Jacobine, 19; Herrman, 17; Anna, 12; and Emelie, 10.77 Katharina Brenneman was born May 7, 1796, and died May 24, 1799. Michael Brenneman was born May 2, 1798, and died at Eden, LaSalle County Jan. 18, 1886. On Sept. 1, 1822 he married Elise Güngerich. She was born at Zwesten March 14, 1805. They lived at Wohra, then on the Eichhof near Rosenthal. They emigrated in 1851. They appear on the 1860 census of Eden, LaSalle County as farmer Joseph Brenneman, 30, Germany; Michael Brenneman, 62, Germany; Eliza, 55, Germany; and Emily Brenneman, 18, Germany. Helene Brenneman was born April 26, 1800, and died July 5, 1831. Johannes Brenneman was born March 22, 1802, and died Feb. 28, 1820. Daniel Brenneman was born March 16, 1804, and died in Tazewell County March 14, 1884. Christian Brenneman was born in June 1806, and died Nov. 11, 1806. Joseph Brenneman was born Dec. 3, 1807, and died in Putnam County April 22, 1890. On Feb. 4, 1843 he married Elise Unzicker. She was born on the Offental estate at Sankt Goarshausen Aug. 14, 1816, and died in Putnam County Oct. 29, 1853, a daughter of Jacob Unzicker and Elisabeth Jordy. They lived in Rathenhausen near Kirchheim, Kassel, then emigrated in 1852. Joseph appears as a widower on the 1860 census of Granville, Putnam County: farmer Joseph Brenniman, 52, Hessen; Eliza, 14; Burdy, 12; Oscar, 10; Julius, 8; with Catharine Schanbeck, 55, and Catharine Linker, 17. On the same page is found Jacob Brenneman, 36, and his family (Jacob was a nephew, the son of Joseph's older brother Peter). Jakob/Jacob Brenneman was born July 19, 1809, and died Feb. 16, 1895. On April 25, 1840 in Butler County he married Christine Güngerich. The ceremony was performed by minister 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger, and a civil entry was created July 6, 1840. She was born in Gemünden an der Wohra (adjacent to Wohra) March 29, 1809. He had immigrated in 1834, and she had immigrated in 1839. They may have been the first of the Brennemans to settle in Central Illinois. They appear on the 1850 census of Putnam County, listed between John Burkey and Peter Albright [Albrecht]: farmer Jacob Brenniman, 40, Germany; Christiana, 40, Germany; Jacob, 9, Illinois; Catharine, 7, Illinois; Mary, 3, Illinois; and Ellen, 1, Illinois. They appear on the 1880 census of Dry Grove, McLean County as boarder Jacob Brenneman, 70, and Christena, 71, both from 'Hessia,' living in the home of their 39-year-old son Jacob Brennemen.

3.

4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11.

Daniel Brenneman was born on the Klosterhof estate at Wohra March 16, 1804, and died in Tazewell County March 14, 1885 (his headstone: 79 years, 11 months, 29 days). On Sept. 26, 1826 he married Elizabeth Jutzi. She was born at Altenburg (30 miles southwest of Wohra) Oct. 16, 1804, and died in Tazewell County July 26, 1879 (her headstone: 73 years, 9 months, 9 days), a daughter of Michael/Michel Jutzi and Marie Holly. Elizabeth's maternal grandfather was Langsdorf estate manager Daniel Holly. They are buried in Orndorff Cemetery at Hopedale.

76 The location Mahlberg is now in North Rhine-Westphalia. It has also been suggested that this location was Momberg, a village only 11 miles southeast of Wohra. 77 Other passengers in the same part of the Admiral list include Daniel Kennel, 30; Peter Gangerich, 26; Catherine Guengerich, 46, with children Peter, 20, Christian 17, Louis, 15, and Daniel, 13; Valentin Naffziger, 19, and Elise Naffziger, 17.

69

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

After their marriage Daniel and Elizabeth lived with Daniel's parents in the Klosterhof at Wohra. They made the decision to emigrate in 1831, and relocated to live with Elizabeth's parents at Altenburg until arrangements could be made. On May 16, 1832 they departed Bremen on the charter A Two-Masted Brig. Their family appears on the '100 Hessian Mennonites' passenger list as Daniel Brenneman, 26; Elise or Elisabeth, 23; Jacob, 5; Marie, 3 (she later married Jacob Hauter); and Elise, 1. Augusta Iutzi Phillips in A Brief History of the Daniel Brenneman Family: "They left Bremen the 16th day of May and landed at Baltimore July 31. After a rest of several days, wagons of the prairie schooner type were engaged to convey the party to Wheeling, West Virginia. Their road lay over the Allegheny Mountains, and it took them 13 days to make their journey. At Wheeling they took passage on a steamboat on the Ohio River to Cincinnati, then up the Miami River, and landed at Hamilton, Ohio, their destination, arriving there on the 3rd day of September." At Hamilton the family shared a rented house with two other families. The following spring the Brenneman family moved onto a 220-acre farm at Turtle Creek, Warren County, Ohio (Turtle Creek borders on Monroe, Butler County). Turtle Creek was the location of a Shaker settlement called Union Village. The first Shakers to come to Ohio arrived there as missionaries from Mt. Lebanon, N.Y. in 1805. 78 Although nine more children were born at Turtle Creek, the three youngest died in 1840, presumably from a cholera epidemic that year. Daniel 'Bannam' appears on the 1840 census of Turtle Creek, Warren County, Ohio (adjacent to Butler County). The Brennemans appear on the 1850 census of Turtle Creek submitted Oct. 23: farmer Danial Branaman, 47; Elizabeth, 44; farmer Jacob Bramanan, 23; Maria, 21; Eliza, 19; Joseph, 17; Carolin [Helene], 15; Anna, 10; William, 7; Amelia, 4; Christian, 6 months; farmer Jacob Braman, 27; Helena, 26; and laborer Herman, 17; all of Germany. The last three individuals were children of Peter Brenneman, who died in Butler County Oct. 31. Their farm was appraised at $4,800. Daniel's younger brother Jakob was living at Granville, Putnam County after 1840. Other family members probably visited Illinois before the main body of the family resettled there. In 1854 the Turtle Creek farm was sold to George Jutzi/Iutzi, a son of Jakob/Jacob Jutzi/Iutzi and Maria Holly. The journey of the parents from Ohio to Tazewell County in 1854 was recounted by Augusta Iutzi Phillips: "They came to Illinois making the trip by water from Cincinnati, Ohio on the Ohio River to Cairo, Illinois, from there to the mouth of the Illinois River, and up this river to Pekin. At this place they were met by friends with wagons and were taken to Danvers where they moved onto a farm belonging to a Mr. Naffziger, which they had rented for one year, and in the fall of that year they bought a farm of 320 acres in Boynton, Tazewell County, for which they paid $15 per acre for part and $20 for the balance...At this time there were no fences, roads, bridges or railroads on this vast prairie, one always taking the shortest route to their destination. A few houses were scattered about the prairie, and these and a huge tree or cluster of trees served as guides to the traveler. Streams were forded, and if a heavy rain came up while the traveler was across the stream, he had but to wait patiently until the swollen waters subsided ere he could return. This was sometimes a matter of several days. The nearest markets were Peoria, Pekin, and Atlanta [southeast of Tremont]. For their groceries, hardware, etc., they usually went to Tremont, where there was a general store and where they could obtain almost anything needed. Game at that time was abundant, such as wild geese, ducks, chickens, partridges, and deer." The parents appear on the 1860 census of Boynton living next door to sons Jacob and Joseph: farmer Dan. Brenneman, 56, Germany; Elizabeth, 54, Germany; Wm. [Wilhelm], 16, Ohio; Amelia, 14, Ohio; and Edward, 10, Ohio. In 1870 their Boynton household contained farmer Daniel Brenne[illegible], 66, Hesse-Darmstadt; Elizabeth, 64, Hesse; Wm., 23, Ohio; Edward, 21, Ohio; [son-in-law] Fred Iutzi, 28, Ohio; [daughter] Amelia, 24, Ohio; Jacob Erisman, 40, farm laborer, Hesse-Darmstadt; and Katharine Rosch, 23; domestic servant, Baden. Son Jacob Brenneman and his wife Jacobine Jutzi appear only one household removed. In 1876 Daniel and Elizabeth celebrated their golden anniversary with a family reunion. In 1880 Daniel is found as a widower living in the Boynton household of youngest son Edward. The children of Daniel Brenneman and Elizabeth Jutzi include:

1. Jakob/Jacob Brenneman was born at Wohra July 8, 1827, and died in Tazewell County April 6, 1887. On Nov. 20, 1853 he married Jakobine/Jacobine Jutzi. She was born on the Mittelhof estate at Felsberg (14 miles below Kassel, Hesse) March 12, 1829, and died May 5, 1926, a daughter of Christian Jutzi/Iutzi and Maria Sommer. Her family

78 The Shakers believed in "celibacy, self-denial, repression of passion, communal living and ownership of property, withdrawal from the secular world, and pacifism." They were also called The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. The Protestant denomination was established in England in 1772, but met in New York State only two years later. After 1847 many Ohio Shakers left to join the Mormon exodus to Utah. The remaining members increased their number by adopting and converting orphans. The total national membership may have peaked at 6,000 in 1850.

70

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11.

12.

13.

came with the '100 Hessian Mennonites' in 1832. They appear on the 1860 census of Boynton as farmer Jacob Brenneman, 33, Germany; Jacobin, 31, Germany; Maria, 5, Illinois; Julia, 4, Illinois; and Albert, 2, Illinois. They are buried in Orndorff Cemetery at Hopedale. Maria/Marie Brenneman was born at Wohra Feb. 24, 1829, and died at Boynton March 15, 1882. On March 3, 1853 in Warren County, Ohio she married Jacob Hauter.79 He was born in Zweibrücken, Bavaria Nov. 9, 1824, and died at Delavan April 26, 1905, a son of Christian H. Hauter and Catherine Gingerich. Jacob can be found on the passenger list of the Radius from Le Havre arriving at New Orleans Dec. 27, 1849, along with Morton resident Jacob Kennel and John Unzicker (who later spelled his surname 'Unsicker' at Morton). After marriage they lived in Putnam County, then at Boynton. They can be found on the 1870 census of Boynton as farmer Jacob Hauter, 45, Bavaria; Mary, 41, Hesse; and seven children born in Illinois. They are buried in Orndorff Cemetery at Hopedale as Jacob Hauter and Mary. Peter Brenneman was born at Wohra Nov. 4, 1830, and died there Dec. 25, 1830. Elise/Eliza Brenneman was born at Wohra Oct. 13, 1831, and died June 7, 1919. On Nov. 13, 1856 in Tazewell County she married Peter D. Springer. He was born at Lorquin, Moselle Sept. 5, 1826, immigrated with his parents in 1830, and died April 24, 1916, a son of Christian Springer and Magdalena/Madeleine Engel. The 1860 census of Mosquito Grove, McLean County calls her Eliza, 27, born in Ohio; but the 1870 census of Allin (the same community under a new name) describes the household as farmer Peter D. Springer, 43, France; Eliza, 39, Hesse; and four children born in Illinois. Springer became a justice of the peace in McLean County. They are buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery at Stanford, McLean County. Joseph Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek May 7, 1833. On June 5, 1858 in McLean County he married Elisabeth/Elise/Eliza Ehrismann.80 She was born at Schrecksbach, Hesse (22 miles southeast of Wohra) Jan. 23, 1838, a daugher of Peter Erisman and Magdalena Stähly (see EHRESMAN). They can be found on the 1860 census of Boynton living next door to his parents: Jos. Brenneman, 26, Ohio; Eliza, 22, Germany; and Adelia, 1, Illinois. They sold their farm in Tazewell County in 1883, and then farmed at Lincoln, Nebraska; Hubbell, Nebraska; and finally Republic County, Kansas. Helene Brenneman (twin) was born at Turtle Creek March 21, 1836. On July 1, 1858 in Tazewell County she married Thomas E. Orendorff.81 He was born in Tazewell County Aug. 19, 1835. They are found on the 1860 census of Boynton as Thos. Orendorff, 25, Germany; Helen, 24, Germany; and Isabella, 5 months, Illinois. Jacobine Brenneman (twin) was born at Turtle Creek March 21, 1836, and died there from cholera Feb. 3, 1840. Christian Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek Nov. 27, 1837, and died there from cholera Feb. 9, 1840. Johannes Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek in 1840, and died perhaps from cholera within a month. Anna Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek Oct. 20, 1841, and died in 1914. On Sept. 20, 1859 she married Carl Philip Tomm. He was born at Salaska in Pomerania, Germany Jan. 22, 1829, immigrated in 1849, and died Jan. 13, 1876. She can be found on the 1880 census of Delavan as Anna Tomm, 38, born in Ohio to parents from HesseCassel, with seven children. They are buried in Oak Grove Cemetery at Pekin. Wilhelm/William Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek Oct. 22, 1843, and died at Kansas City, Missouri. On Dec. 24, 1878 in Tazewell County he married Emma Dettmer. 82 She was born in Logan County Sept. 15, 1858. They are found on the 1900 census of Albion, Kansas as W. Brenneman, born in Ohio to German parents in October 1843; Emma, born in Illinois to German parents in September 1858; and two daughters born in Illinois and Nebraska. Amelia Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek Jan. 3, 1845, , and died at Boynton Jan. 22, 1892. On Nov. 2, 1869 she married Frederick 'Fritz' A. Iutzi. He was born in Butler County Dec. 26, 1841, and died at Boynton July 5, 1911, a son of Peter Jutzi/Iutzi/Yutzi and Barbara Augspurger. Their household can be found on the 1870 censusof Boynton. In 1900 the Boynton census describes farmer Fred A. Iutzi, born in Ohio in December 1841 to German parents; seven children born in Illinois; and Fred's brother Christian Iutzi. They are buried in Orndorff Cemetery at Hopedale. Edward Christian Brenneman was born at Turtle Creek Dec. 9, 1849, and died at Hopedale Jan. 6, 1932. On Dec. 28, 1876 he married Laura Amelia Bender. She was born in Putnam County Sept. 14, 1856, and died in 1923. Their household appears on the 1880 census of Boynton as farmer Edward Breimemann, 30, Ohio; Laura, 23, Illinois; Bertha, 2, Illinois; Ella, 1, Illinois; and Daniel [Brenneman], 76, Hesse-Darmstadt. Edward and Laura are buried in Orndorff Cemetery at Hopedale.

79 Warren County, Ohio Marriage Records 1834-1854 Brides Index A-K lists them as Mary Brenneman and Jacob Hunters. 80 She is listed in the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index as Eliza Erisman. 81 They are listed in the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index as E. F. Orendorff and Helen C. Brenniman. 82 She is listed in the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index as Emma Dittmar.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Eigsti of Strasbourg

The Eigstis have a relatively new name and a colorful history. They are representative of the 'Forty-Eighters,' the second wave of families that came to the Dillon Creek Meeting (later Pleasant Grove Amish Mennonite Church). The earliest form of the surname that we found related to Amish Mennonites was Augster, describing a family that moved from Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to Strasbourg, Lower Alsace. Augster is a common Swiss surname found in Canton Appenzell Interrhoden, located below Lake Constance. 83 It may be derived from the communities of Augst and Kaiseraugst, both built on Roman foundations along the Swiss side of the Rhine River between Basel, Switzerland and Rheinfelden, Baden. The variation Augstein appeared about the time one family member - Nicolas - moved from Strasbourg to Bavaria. Variations on Augstein continued to be used by family members even decades after their arrival in Illinois, as shown on a number of census entries in Tazewell County (Eigstein) and Livingston County (Augstein, Augstin, Augustin, and Augustine). Eigsti was a compromise -- a standardization of the surname created in Central Illinois in the 1880s. This portion of the text has presented the greatest difficulty to research. The genealogy of the Eigsti family should probably be considered 'unsolved' until documentation can be found that tells us more about Nicolas, who died in Europe (his widow Barbara Gascho brought their children to Tazewell County). Relevant documentation may no longer exist because of gaps in civil records for the area around Munich.

C

hristian/Chrétien Augsti was born about 1758. He married Elisabeth Eymann, who was also born about 1758. She was a daughter of Ulrich Eymann and Barbara Mosimann, and an aunt to the Elisabeth Eymann who married Andreas Ropp. The couple lived on the Pré du Chêne farm near Lubine, Vosges, then relocated onto Canardière estate at Strasbourg in 1796-97, according to census ledgers identified by Neil Ann Stuckey Levine. To understand their situation, it is necessary to know a little about their notorious employer and landlord at Canardière, smuggler-spy-general Karl Ludwig Schulmeister. Schulmeister was born at Neufreistett, Baden Aug. 5, 1770, the son of a Lutheran minister. The community of Neufreistett [now part of Freistett] is only 15 miles northeast of Strasbourg, on the German side of the Rhine River. On Feb. 20, 1792, Schulmeister married Louisa Charlotta Unger, the only daughter of the mining director at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. He set himself up as an iron merchant in Neufreistett, but soon found it more profitable to smuggle goods between Baden and Alsace. At the time smuggling along the Rhine River was inextricably linked with military activities. Troops of the Austrian 8th Hussar Regiment under Field Marshal Count DagoldertSigismond de Wurmser were billeted in Schulmeister's home village between 1792 and 1795. Wurmser was constantly undermined by minor German princes who provided his Alsatian counterparts with arms, food, and carts. When a rumor circulated that Schulmeister had killed a customs agent, he chose to conduct further smuggling activities from Strasbourg. The Ungers already owned a home in the Lower Alsace city. Schulmeister purchased his own small house there in 1798. All of France suffered during the French Revolution of 1789 and its aftermath. Before the revolution Strasbourg had been a prosperous royal free city. The city hall was looted only two days after the storming of the Bastille at Paris. But the rise of Napoleon and a new 1,300-foot bridge across the Rhine River brought prosperity back to Strasbourg. During his early years at Strasbourg, Schulmeister profited by increased demand for goods and confusion caused by the devaluation of assignat currency. It was later alleged that during this time he spied on political emigrés and cultivated friendships with general staff officers. In September of 1805, Strasbourg authorities expressed disapproval of his shady activities, and expelled him from Alsace. It later became obvious that this was a charade arranged by General Savary, giving Schulmeister an excuse to return to Baden.84 On the eve of his departure Oct. 1, 1805 Schulmeister met face to face with

Another derivation may come from the communities of Augst and Kaiseraugst, both built on Roman foundations along the Swiss side of the Rhine River across from Rheinfelden, Baden. To add a bit of confusion, it might also be noted that the Swiss Augspurger family name is presumed to have been taken from the city of Augsburg (now in Bavaria). From about 1260 to the late 15th century the city flag featured a cluster of a variety of grapes called Augster, apparently in the mistaken belief that grapes had something to do with the city's name. However, it was actually founded over a Roman settlement, Augusta Vindelicorum. 84 Schulmeister was employed at various times by General Anne Jean Marie René Savary, the head of military intelligence, Napoleonic wars with his fortune intact. He has been described as a Jacobin fanatic with calculated cunning and no scruples.

83

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Napoleon to receive his assignment. Austrian troops were massing in Baden, and Napoleon was looking for someone like the smuggler: cold, logical, reckless, and greedy. Within a few days a disguised Schulmeister managed to pass through the Austrian lines. After making a few financial arrangements with Austrian officers at the headquarters encampment, he appeared before chief of staff Karl von Mack posing as an Austrian spy. He personally provided von Mack with forged newspapers and letters that described a non-existent rebellion in Paris. Bribed officers reassured their chief of staff that the news was real, and von Mack became convinced that Napoleon was withdrawing to head west. Von Mack even gave Schulmeister a liberal payment for his misinformation. Napoleon displaced part of his troops to give the appearance of a withdrawal. When von Mack's troops took to the field on low ground for the Battle of Ulm, they found themselves surrounded by French artillery on high ground. Schulmeister's deception directly resulted in the surrender of 25,000 Austrian troops only 19 days after his meeting with Napoleon. Napoleon is supposed to have made a remark that Schulmeister "was worth 10,000 troops." Schulmeister briefly served as commissioner-general of police in occupied Vienna before returning to Strasbourg in early 1806. There he purchased a tract of municipal park land called Canardière at an exclusive low price. The arrangement was understood to be a gift from a grateful French nation. With the sale, 22-year-old day laborer Joseph Augster (also found as Eigst and Eigsty) became Schulmeister's employee and tenant. Schulmeister was not content with the simple quarters at Canardière, and in 1809 he contracted an architect and a sculptor to create the elaborate Château Meinau on adjoining land. 85 The Amish Mennonite brothers Christian Augspurger, 27, and Joseph Augspurger, 23, came from Ixheim, Zweibrücken to be estate managers (they were born on Point du Jour farm at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines; see STAKER, CHRISTIAN AUGSPURGER IN BUTLER COUNTY).86 Schulmeister took on a number of aliases, but at Meinau he was known as Charles Louis Schulmeister or 'Monsieur de Meinau.' The onetime smuggler became a millionaire celebrity. In Meinau's first year Schulmeister's wife received visits from the Empress Josèphine, Queen Hortense of Westphalia, and the Grand Duchess of Baden.87 He spent lavishly to entertain diplomats and officers over the next four years. According to Neil Ann Stuckey Levine, the Strasbourg population register shows more than 40 individuals with familiar Amish Mennonite surnames working at Canardière 1798-1811, including 'Eigsty,' Augspurger, Egli, Eyer, Gerber, Lauber, Müller, Ummel, and Zimmerman. The good life came to an end with the disastrous Russian Campaign of 1812. Baden went over to the allied coalition, and allied troops approached Strasbourg Jan. 5, 1814. A light force encircled the city for three months, while the majority moved on. Typhus broke out in the city, resulting in 600 civilian deaths. Paris surrendered March 31, and Napoleon abdicated unconditionally April 11. Strasbourg finally flew a white flag above its cathedral, and Meinau was sacked by Austrian troops. A warrant was issued for Schulmeister's arrest, and his brother in Baden was imprisoned. On Dec. 23, 1814, the Parisian prefect of police suggested that Schulmeister should be exiled for the good of the French nation. The concern was ignored, but helped to fuel rumors that Schulmeister was visiting Napoleon in exile on Elba. The failure of the Hundred Days tarnished Schulmeister's image even more. On March 1, 1815, Napoleon escaped from Elba and landed in Southern France. The troops sent to arrest him instead pledged their allegiance and escorted him to Fountainebleau. Schulmeister's son Charles-Isidore, who was serving in the National Guard, rode from Paris to Fountainebleau to personally notify Napoleon that Louis XVIII had fled. On March 20 it was reported that Karl Ludwig Schulmeister was in Vienna. It was suspected that he had engaged in an abortive plot to kidnap Napoleon's son from Austrian custody at Schönbrunn Palace. When Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, the British exiled him to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. Schulmeister was arrested in September 1815 and taken to a fortress at Wesel, Prussia, but was released after just two months. After being forced to make public apologies for his conduct during the wars, he

The château was named for Meinau, an island in Lake Constance on the border of Baden, Austria, and Switzerland. Meinau may have been incidental to his early smuggling activities. It is now the name of Strasbourg's soccer stadium. 86 Joseph Augspurger later managed another Schulmeister estate at Boissy-Saint-Léger near Paris. 87 The empress's luck was about to run out. On Jan. 10, 1810, Napoleon divorced her to remarry Austrian duchess Marie Louise for a child who could be a legitimate heir. Josephine retired to the Château de Malmaison near Paris and died four years later, in the same month that Napoleon abdicated unconditionally.

85

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

wrote and published a pamphlet, Fragments of the life of Schulmeister of Meinau, accused of having been the favorite spy of Napoleon. It was meant to exonerate his actions.88 In 1817, Meinau estate manager Christian Augspurger made his first trans-Atlantic voyage. He took his family to Pennsylvania, then went on to scout for land in the Miami River Valley north of Cincinnati. The following year he returned to Europe. By 1818, both Canardière and Meinau had fallen into disrepair. In 1819 former estate manager Christian Augspurger and his close relatives at Meinau sailed for America. Although more than 60 individuals made the voyage, no members of the Augspurger branch at Canardière were included in the party. We have identified four children of Christian/Chrétien Augsti and Elisabeth Eymann:

1. Joseph Augster was born circa 1784, and died at Raon-sur-Plaine, Vosges (seven miles northwest of La Broque) June 11, 1832. He was a day laborer on Canardière estate. He also appears in Strasbourg documentation as Augstin, Eigst, and Eigsty. Some time before 1810, Joseph Augster married Barbara/Barbe Augspurger on Canardière. Barbara was born circa 1784, and died at Strasbourg May 22, 1832, one of four children of Noé Augspurger and Anna Müller (see AUGSBURGER). Joseph died in the home of his daughter Barbe at Raon-sur-Plaine, Vosges; Barbe and Joseph Dellenbach had been married there only five months earlier. The civil death entry created the following day stated that Augster was a 48-year-old operator from Strasbourg, married to 'Barbe Augsburger.' Joseph Augster's father-in-law Noé Augspurger remarried to Anna Maria Heiser in 1807 and left the area of Strasbourg to resettle at Hanfeld, Bavaria; he died there after 1831. The children of Joseph Augster and Barbara Augspurger born at Strasbourg include: a. Barbe Augster was born Aug. 13, 1810. On Jan. 21, 1832 at Raon-sur-Plaine, Vosges she married Joseph Dellenbach. He was born at Lagarde, Moselle Feb. 2, 1801 (this date should be verified because it conflicts with the stated bith date of a younger sister), and died at Turquestein-Blancrupt, Moselle July 24, 1844, a son of Christian Dellenbach and Barbe Schrensberg (her signature is found as 'Trensberg' and 'Schvensberg'); for more on this couple see DELLENBACH). The entry said that her parents, cultivator Joseph Augster and Barbe Augsburger, were present and consenting. On April 8, 1847 at Hermelange, Moselle she remarried to Jean Kempf, a son of André Kempf and Madeleine Abresol. b. Joseph Augster was born Feb. 8, 1812. c. Valentine Augstein/Augstin was born June 17, 1813, and died at Flanagan, Livingston County Nov. 5, 1872. He married three times. On Aug. 14, 1848 at Turquestein-Blancrupt he married Freni/Véronique Bacher. She was born at Ranrupt, Lower Alsace (near Saales) March 25, 1822 and died at Turquestein Blancrupt April 5, 1850. On Dec. 18, 1850 at Turquestein-Blancrupt he remarried to Marie Lehmann. Marie was born at Saulcy-sur-Meurthe, Vosges Oct. 19, 1824 and died at Turquestein-Blancrupt Oct. 27, 1851. On March 13, 1859 he married third wife Anna König/King in McLean County.89 Anna was born Nov. 4, 1822, and died at Nebraska, Livingston County Aug. 20, 1903, a daughter of Johannes König and Jacobea 'Phoebe' Riediger (see KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG). They moved to Livingston County in 1868. Herald of Truth, December 1872: "Died on the 5th of November, in Livingston co., Ill., of inflammation of the nerves and bladder, Valentine Augstein, aged 51years and ten months. He was buried the 7th in the presence of many relatives and acquaintances. He was a faithful member of the Amish Mennonite church, and a co-laborer in the vineyard of the Lord, leaving a deeply grieved wife and five children to mourn their loss. We hope that he is now resting from his labors in heaven, where he frequently desired to be. Funeral services were delivered by Jacob Naffziger, of Woodford Co., Ill., at the house, from 2 Cor., 15 and a very impressive exhortation at the graveyard; by Christian Schloegel at the church from Ps. 103, and by the writer from 1 Thess. 4:13-18." Anna King is found as 56-year-old widow Anna Augstin on the 1880 census of Nebraska, Livingston County, with children Daniel, 20; 'Pheby,'90 18; and Christian, 16. Valentine and Anna are buried in Waldo Cemetery at Flanagan. Cultivator Chrétien Augsti was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Feb. 7, 1788, and was living at Strasbourg in 1816. His marriage entry identifies him as a son of cultivator Christian Augsti and Elisabeth Eymann. On Jan. 3, 1816 he married Elisabeth Hürster at Strasbourg. She was born at Altenheim, Baden (13 miles southeast of Strasbourg) March 25, 1794. She was a daughter of miller David Hürster, who had died at Altenheim March 1, 1813, and

2.

88 Schulmeister lived under police surveillance until 1827. Some biographies say that in later years he reverted to smuggling or ran a tobacconist's stand at Strasbourg. It is only certain that he was not impoverished. On Sept. 27, 1827 at Strasbourg his youngest daughter Joséphine Adèle Schulmeister married Pierre Joseph Charles Louis Garat. He was the son of Baron Martin Garat, who had been the director general of Napoleon's Bank of France. Pierre established a branch of the commercial Bank of France at Strasbourg, and served as its director 1846-71. In 1848, Schulmeister received a visit from the president of the Second Republic (and later emperor) Louis Napoleon that helped to restore his reputation. He was buried in Saint Urbain Cemetery at Strasbourg in 1853. 89 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists Anna King and Valentine Augustine. 90 Phoebe 'Augstin' was born May 11, 1862, and died Jan. 14, 1902. She married William Egle (1860-1944) in Livingston County Feb. 1, 1883.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

4.

Elisabeth Schlagel, who had died at Altenheim April 3, 1815. Chrétien Augsti and Elisabeth Eymann were present at their wedding. Announcement bans had been posted two weeks before at Altenheim. The marriage entry acknowledged that the couple had a 3-month-old child, Elisabeth, born at Altenheim Sept. 18, 1815. It was signed 'Christian Augsti.' Their children born at Strasbourg include: a. Marie Augsti was born Aug. 4, 1823, and died Aug. 17, 1827. b. Barbe Augsti was born June 3, 1825. c. Louise Augsti was born April 26, 1837, and died Jan. 22, 1864. Jean Augster, also known as Augsti, lived at Bouxwiller, Lower Alsace (25 miles northwest of Strasbourg). He died at Guewenheim, Upper Alsace Dec. 15, 1825. He married Marie Sommer. She was born at Le Hohwald, Lower Alsace (25 miles southwest of Strasbourg) Dec. 7, 1788, and died at Menoncourt, Belfort April 26, 1843, a daughter of Jean Sommer and Elisabeth Zendner. Their children include: a. Madeleine Augster was born at Bouxwiller Aug. 11, 1810. On June 19, 1845 at Menoncourt she married Joseph Gerig. b. Marie Augster was born at Breitenbach, Lower Alsace (adjacent to Le Hohwald) Dec. 18, 1815, and died at Menoncourt Feb. 20, 1866. On March 10, 1836 at Menoncourt she became the second wife of Christian Klopfenstein. He was born in 1786, and died in 1863, a son of Jean Klopfenstein and Catherine Richard. In 1818 Nicolas Augster left Strasbourg and moved with others to Bavaria. The migration may have been related to the death of Joseph Augster's brother-in-law Christian Augspurger that year (a younger brother of Barbara/Barbe Augspurger). Christian's widow Catherine Stalter had eight children in Strasbourg, and took the entire family to Gern near Munich, where she died in 1824.

Forty-Eighters

In Bavaria Nicolas was known as Nicholas Augustin. He married Barbara Gascho about 1822. She was born in what later became Bavaria in 1799, and died at Macon, Bureau County Dec. 26, 1880. The couple lived at Pellheim, about three miles north of Dachau, in the northwestern suburbs of Munich. 91 Nicholas served as a minister for the Mennonite congregation there. 92 The weather throughout Europe was especially severe in the fall of 1847, causing the harvest to fail. Resulting food shortages sparked rioting. A chain of uprisings in Paris, Berlin, and Vienna culminated in the German Revolution of 1848-49. King Ludwig I of Bavaria was forced to abdicate. In September 1848 the army of Bavaria helped to suppress radical democrats. The revolution failed, and its reforms were reversed within a few years. Many Bavarians who had quietly hoped for the success of the German Revolution left for political reasons or departed to avoid conscription. They were called 'Forty-Eighters.'93 They joined famine immigrants on overcrowded ships leaving Bremen, Hamburg, and Le Havre. The Steerage Act of 1819 that required documentation of immigrants had also limited the number of passengers a ship could carry (two per five tons); this limitation was relaxed at the beginning of the year. 94 The children of Nicholas Augustin and Barbara Gascho started their lives with the surname Augustin. Several of those who came to America saw their names spelled 'Augstein' and 'Eigstein' on census records. A few died as 'Eigsti.' For the sake of simplicity, they are all given here as Eigsti. The children of Nicholas Augustin and Barbara Gascho born at Pellheim, Bavaria include:

1. Mary Eigsti was born Feb. 2, 1823, and died Jan. 17, 1904. She is buried in Willow Springs Mennonite Cemetery at Tiskilwa, Bureau County.

Pellheim was administratively incorporated into Dachau in 1972. According to Hermann Hage, Nicholas Augustin was listed as a minister of the Mennonite congregation of Munich in January 1836 in a letter from the 'evangelischen Dekanats München' to the 'evangelische Oberkonsistorium München.' 93 The most famous 'Forty-Eighter' in Illinois was Frederick Hecker (1811-1881). In Germany he was considered the leader of the Republican left. He fled from Baden into Switzerland after a failed uprising. He arrived at Cincinnati in 1848, where he established the first gymnastics club in America. He returned to Germany briefly in 1849, but within a year he was back in America, where he purchased a farm between Summerfield and Belleville, St. Clair County. In September 1862 he created the patchwork 82nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment at Springfield. The regiment began as a German-speaking unit in a German-speaking division of a German corps; it ended up with a company of Scandinavian immigrants, and another of Jewish soldiers from Chicago. The regiment fought at Gettysburg, Chancellorville, Chattanooga, and Lookout Mountain before joining Sherman's march to the sea, suffering over 65 percent casualties. Hecker was eventually disabled by wounds and resigned his commission March 4, 1864, retiring to his Illinois farm. 94 The overcrowding of famine immigrants and subsequent rapid spread of disease aboard ships peaked in November 1853, when 28 packet ships reached New York. 13,762 immigrants disembarked, but another 1,141 were listed as fatalities.

92

91

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

Kathryn/Catherine Eigsti was born circa 1825. She appears on the passenger list of the Daniel Kilby as "Augustine Cath., 21" arriving at New Orleans in October 1846 with her sister Barbara and brothers Joseph and Valentine of the 'Little Red Birkys.' Family notes say she married a John Burkey. An entry appears in the Putnam County, Illinois Marriage Index for the marriage of 'John Berke' and 'Catherine Eicksty' in 1847. Barbara Eigsti was born Jan. 23, 1827, and died at Milford, Nebraska Aug. 6, 1911. She is buried at East Fairview Church Cemetery near Woodriver (now part of Milford), Nebraska. 95 On Aug. 22, 1847 she married Joseph Birky/Birkey. He was born at Gern near Munich May 7, 1816, and died at Milford, Nebraska May 13, 1902, a son of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. From Roanoke Centennial History: "Joseph Birkey was born in Bavaria, Germany, in 1816. He came to the United States in 1844, and settled first in New Orleans, Louisiana. He then moved to Tazewell County for one year, then returned to Germany. He married Barbara Eikstein in Bavaria, then returned to the United States. Twenty years after returning from Germany, the Birkeys moved from Tazewell County and settled on a 260-acre farm in Roanoke Township and raised eight children." (See BIRKY/BIRKEY). Actually, 20-year-old Barbara was not yet married to Joseph when they sailed on the Daniel Kilby with her sister Catherine and his brother Valentine. Gospel Herald, August 1917: "Birkey. Barbara (Eigstein) Birkey was born Jan. 23, 1827; died Aug. 6, 1911; aged 84 y. 6 m. 12 d. She was united in marriage Aug. 22, 1847, with Joseph Birkey and lived in matrimony 55 y. 6 m. To this union were born 4 sons and 6 daughters. Her husband, 2 brothers, 5 sisters, 2 sons, 1 daughter, and 13 grandchildren preceded her to the spirit world. 2 sons, 5 daughters, 44 grandchildren, 40 greatgrandchildren, 2 brothers, 2 sisters and a host of relatives and friends mourn her departure. Sister Birkey was a faithful member in the A. M. Church from youth. She lost her eyesight 13 years ago. She suffered much in her last days, but bore all patiently to the end. She was laid to rest in the East Fairview Cemetery near Woodriver, Nebr. Services by the brethren, Christian Rediger and Jos. Whitaker." Joseph Eigsti was born April 19, 1830, and died at Washburn, Woodford County Dec. 16, 1899. On March 27, 1856 in Tazewell County he married Susan Nafziger. She was born in Illinois Oct. 19, 1837, and died at Morton July 27, 1877, a daughter of Daniel Nafziger and Elizabeth Summer. She is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery at Elm Grove. The family appears on the 1860 census of Morton, where Joseph is listed as 'Joseph Ickstine' (however, this was the same year that the Stakers and others purposely misspelled their surnames to avoid conscription later). He and wife Susan, ages 28 and 22, gave their birthplaces as Germany. Their children include Elizabeth, 4; Christian, 2; and Barbara, 1, all born in Illinois. They appear on the 1870 census of Morton as 'Joseph Eigstein,' 40, a farmer born at Berne'; Susan, 35, keeping house and born in Illinois; and nine children. The 1880 census of Morton shows Joseph as a 50-year-old widower named 'Eigstin' with seven children. Gospel Herald, April 1900: "Eigsti. - On the 16th of Dec. 1899, near Washburn, Woodford Co., Ill., Jos. Eigsti, aged 69 years, 7 months and 27 days. He died very suddenly. He had not been well however for several weeks and had expressed his willingness to depart whenever the messenger of death would come, having the living hope of a bright hereafter. . . On the day of his departure he had partaken of dinner as usual, after which he went to his room and sat down in his rocking chair. An hour afterwards his daughter, going to his room, found he was dead. He had evidently passed quietly away a few minutes before. He was the father of four sons and seven daughters. His wife and two daughters preceded him to the spirit world. The remains were laid to rest in the Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery." Christian Eigsti was born Feb. 15, 1832 according to his gravestone at Landes Mennonite Cemetery. He died at Morton March 5, 1903. Jacob Eigsti was born Aug. 15, 1833, and died at Middlebury, Indiana March 5, 1914. On Oct. 29, 1863 he married Veronica 'Fannie' Albrecht. She was born at Hennepin Sept. 9, 1844, and died Sept. 26, 1903, a daughter of Peter Albrecht and Catherine Burkey (see ENGEL). They farmed 160 acres at Macon, Ill. Gospel Herald, March 1914: "Jacob Eigsti was born Aug. 15, 1833, in Bavaria, Germany; passed away at the home of his son, John, near Middlebury, Ind., Mar. 5, 1914; aged 80y. 6m. 20d. At the age of 19 he came to this country. Oct. 29, 1863, he was married to Fannie Albrecht of Bureau Co., Ill. To this union there were born 3 children. The daughter who was married to John Gingerich died in 1908, two sons, William of Bureau Co., Ill., and John of Middlebury, Ind., are still living. His wife preceded him to the eternal world 11 years ago. He is also survived by 1 sister, and 1 brother; also 16 grandchildren, and 2 great-grandchildren. Bro. Eigsti accepted his Savior in his youth and united with the Mennonite Church of which he remained a faithful member until the end. Services at the home of his son near Middlebury, Ind., by the brethren, A.J. Hostetler and D.D. Miller, from II Cor.5:1, after which the body was shipped to his former home near Tiskilwa, Ill., where services were conducted at the Willow Springs A.M. Church by Jacob Ringenberg and C.A. Hartzler from Phil. 4:5, last clause. Gospel Herald, October 1903: "Eighsti - On the 26th of Sept. 1903, near Lombardville, of cancer, Veronica, wife of Jacob Eighsti, aged 59 Y., 17 D. She suffered for many months and bore all patiently till the Lord finally called her away from all sorrow and suffering. She leaves a sorrowing husband, two sons, one daughter, 13 grandchildren, a brother and sister to mourn her death. She was a devoted Christian and member of the Mennonite church. Funeral services were held in the Mennonite M.H. near Willow Springs on the 29th, Bish. Jacob Burkey of this place officiating in German, and Bish. Jonathan

In 1875 ministers from McLean County visited Amish Mennonites in Seward County, Nebraska to help them observe their first communion. The settlement drew many Alsatian latecomers from Central Illinois hoping to purchase inexpensive prairie land. At Milford they joined others from Iowa and Ontario to establish a church in 1878. Their migration dovetailed on the sale of railroad property and earlier settlement by Civil War veterans.

95

76

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

7.

8.

9.

10. 11.

Kurtz of Topeka, Ind., in English, from Heb. 9:27. "It is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment." Magdalena 'Lena' Eigsti was born Oct. 24, 1836, and died at Pekin May 13, 1906. On April 30, 1854 in Tazewell County she married Henry Birky. 96 He was born at Gern near Munich Feb. 2, 1831, and died at Groveland Aug. 4, 1918, a son of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. On the 1870 census of Morton they gave their birthplaces as 'Berne.' They can also be found on the same page of the 1880 census of Morton as brother Joseph Eigsti, where they listed their birthplaces as France (Henry) and Bavaria (Magdalena). On Sept. 3, 1883 their son Nicholas Birkey married Matilda 'Tilly' Staker, the youngest child of Joseph Staker and Frena Roth. Jacobina 'Phoebe' Eigsti was born Aug. 7, 1838, and died at Tiskilwa Nov. 25, 1913. On July 1, 1859 she married Christian Zehr/Sears. He was born at Mannried (27 miles northwest of Munich) Aug. 1, 1831, and died at Providence, Bureau County Oct. 4, 1891, a son of Daniel Zehr and his first wife Barbara Ingold. Veronica 'Fannie' Eigsti was born Oct. 11, 1839, and died at Milford, Nebraska Nov. 9, 1921. On Feb. 8, 1862 she married Andrew Hauter. He was born Oct. 27, 1837 and died at Milford, Nebraska Feb. 24, 1929. Gospel Herald, March 1929: "Hauter. - Andrew Hauter was born Oct. 27, 1837 in Claven, France; died Feb. 24, 1929, at the home of his adopted daughter, Mrs. John Sutter, Milford, Nebr.; aged 91 y. 3 m. 27 d. When a young man he came to America, first to the state of Ohio, later to Illinois and Kansas, and in 1902 he moved to Milford, Nebr., where he lived the remainder of his life. On Feb. 8 1862, he was married to Fannie Eigsti, who died Nov. 9, 1921. In his youth he accepted Christ as his Savior and united with the Amish Mennonite Church and remained faithful until death. Besides his adopted daughter and her husband, who tenderly cared for him the last seven years of his life, he leaves one brother, Joseph Hauter, Tiskilwa, Ill., 5 nephews, 6 nieces, besides many relatives and friends. Funeral services were held at the Milford A. M. Church on Feb. 27, 1929, conducted by L. O. Schlegel assisted by Warren Eicher. Burial in East Fairview Mennonite cemetery." Elizabeth Eigsti was born in 1842, and died in 1849. John Eigsti was born in 1845, and died June 8, 1925. On March 20, 1879 in Tazewell County he married Barbara Miller.97 She was born in 1854, and died in 1926, a daughter of Elizabeth Sutter and her first husband Joseph Miller. They are found on the 1880 census of Macon, Bureau County. They lter moved to Nebraska.

In 1849, Nicholas's son 17-year-old Christian Eigsti left Europe. His party included the widower Valentine Birky of Gern (now part of Munich) with the youngest five of his 13 children (see THE LITTLE RED BIRKYS in BIRKY/BIRKEY); Jacob Stalter (found as 'Stalder') and his new wife Barbara Birkey, a niece of Valentine Birky; 67-year-old Daniel Zehr of Hanfeld (located 18 miles southwest of Munich near Lake Starnberg) (see ZEHR); Daniel's nephew David Springer (born at Struth like the Zehrs) and his wife Elizabeth Guth of Solln (a suburb on the southern edge of Munich), who later settled at Hopedale; George Ritthaler (found on the passenger list as George 'Riedthaler,' 30), who became a member of the Dillon Creek Meeting;98 Andreas Oesch, 26, of Hanfeld (a son of Andreas Oesch and Catherine Augspurger/Katharina Augsburger); and Elizabeth Egli, 50, of Hanfeld. They sailed from Bremen to Liverpool to New York, where they arrived on the Minnesota June 21. From there many in the group traveled directly to Central Illinois. Their fares from New York to Chicago would have been about $9.50. This would have been equivalent to about $250 in modern buying power. 99 Nicholas Augustin died in Bavaria in 1850. The following year, widow Barbara Gascho followed the path of her son to America. She emigrated with the remaining children from Europe through New York and traveled directly to Illinois. The Augustin family was reunited at Morton. Barbara Gascho can be found as 80-year-old 'Barbaray' on the 1880 census of Macon, Bureau County living in this household of her son John and his wife Barbara Miller. She died at Macon Dec. 26, 1880, and was buried in Willow Springs Mennonite Cemetery at Tiskilwa. Herald of Truth, April 1881: "Eigsti. - December 26th, in Bureau Co., Ill., Sister Barbara Eigsti, at the advanced age of 81 years. She was a faithful sister in the Amish Mennonite church. Services by A. Oesch and Joseph Buerky."

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Henry Berkie and Magdelina Eigsti. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as John Eigstein. 98 George Ritthaler (1818-1908) is not included in Blendinger's lists of Munich-area emigrants from this time frame. A relative Michael Ritthaler came from 'Izenhausen' to Elm Grove in 1856. Taking this as a clue, George is likely to have come from the vicinity of Etzenhausen (next to Dachau above Munich) or Ichenhausen (32 miles west of Augsburg). In America he married Christina Liddeki (1825-1885). Their household is found on the 1870 census of Elm Grove as farmer George Ritthaler, 51, Bavaria; Christina, 45, Brunswick; and five children all born in Illinois: Frederick, 14; Elizabeth, 12; Henry, 8; Charles, 6; and Veronika [later called 'Fannie'], 4. In 1880 they are found as farmer Ritthallah, Geo., 61, Germany; Christiane, 54, Germany; Henry, 18, Illinois; and Fannie, 13, Illinois. They are buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery at Elm Grove. 99 Measured against the Consumer Price Index.

97

96

77

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Augustin to Eigstin to Eigsti

At Morton Christian Eigsti farmed with his two brothers, Jacob and Joseph. The 1860 federal census of Morton describes only the family of Joseph, described as farmer Joseph Ickstine, 28, from Germany; Susan, 22, from Germany; and children born in Illinois Elizabeth, 4; Christian, 2; and Barbara, 1. In 1863 the brothers divided their 240 acres (two miles south of Morton center) into three equal parts. Christian sold his third. The 1864 plat map shows only an 80-acre property remaining, owned by 'J. Eigston.' On March 1, 1865 Christian purchased 160 acres slightly closer to the center of Morton for $8,000. Christian's brothers Jacob and John later resettled at Macon, Bureau County. They can be found on the same page of the 1880 census as 48-year-old farmer Jacob 'Eighsti,' 48, born in Bavaria with both parents born in Bavaria; 'Franica' [Veronica Albrecht], 34; with three children born in Illinois; and 36-year-old farmer John 'Eighsti,' born in Bavaria with both parents born in Bavaria; 'Barbaray' [Barbara Miller], 26. John's houseguests included his 80-year old mother 'Barbaray' [Barbara Gascho], and 55-year-old sister Mary. Christian was probably born 'Augustin,' but chose the spelling 'Eigstin' throughout most of his life. He worshipped with the Dillon Creek Meeting, and in 1879 served on the committee that supervised construction of the Pleasant Grove Amish Mennonite Church. It is appropriate that he worshipped with the 'Ropp Church' - he had been a second cousin to Elisabeth Eymann, the wife of Andreas Ropp who had died in Ohio in 1834.100 In 1888 Christian was naturalized in Tazewell County as 'Christian Eigstin.' Although documentation can only be found for his first marriage, Christian Eigsti is known to have had three more marriages. On Jan. 5, 1863 at Eureka, Woodford County, Christian 'Eigstin' married Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Orendorff. She was born at Spring Bay, Woodford County July 21, 1844, and died of typhoid June 26, 1881, a daughter of Daniel Orendorff and Katharine Albrecht (see ENGEL). They are listed on the 1870 census of Morton as 'Christian Eigstein,' a 35-year-old farmer from Bern; Elizabeth, 26, born in Illinois; and four children. Elizabeth's 70-year-old father Daniel Orendorff of Hesse-Darmstadt and two younger brothers were living with them. They are listed on the 1880 census of Morton (at the same address) as 'Christ Eigstin,' 45, and Elizabeth, 36, with seven children. Elizabeth is buried at Landes Mennonite Cemetery, where her stone in the Eigsti grouping says, "Lizzie wife of C. died June 27, 1881 at 36 years, 11 months, nine days." Her father is buried nearby. The children of Christian Eigsti and Elizabeth Orendorff include:

1. 2. Christian Eigsti was born Jan. 15, 1864, and died July 26, 1873 (also found as July 27). He is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery. John Eigsti was born at Morton March 29, 1865, and died March 18, 1939. He is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. On Nov. 1, 1892 he married Lena Springer. She was born at Hopedale Nov. 21, 1869, and died at Shickley, Nebraska June 17, 1948, a daughter of John Springer and his wife Elizabeth. Gospel Herald, July 1948: "Eigsti. - Lena, daughter of John and Elizabeth Springer, was born on a farm near Hopedale, Ill., Nov. 21, 1869; passed away at the Proctor Hospital, Peoria, Ill., after a short illness, June 17, 1948; aged 78 y. 26 d. On Nov. 1, 1892, she was united in marriage to John Eigsti, of Morton, Ill., who passed away on March 24, 1939. They opened their home to two infant girls, rearing them as their own. In her youth she accepted Christ as her personal Saviour and united with the Mennonite Church... Surviving are 2 daughters (Mrs. Robert Yordy, Morton, Ill., with whom she made her home the last eight years; and Mrs. Carl Holloway, Hopedale, Ill.), 11 grandchildren, one sister (Mrs. Mary Nafziger, Foosland, Ill.), and one brother (David Springer, also of Foosland). Funeral services were conducted June 20 by N. N. Roeschley, Simon Litwiller, and L. A. Bachman. Burial was made in the Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Daniel Eigsti was born June 12, 1867, and died Nov. 16, 1898. He is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Catherine 'Katie' Eigsti was born April 5, 1869, and died Nov. 5, 1948. On Jan. 31, 1889 she married Jonas Litwiller. He was born June 13, 1865, and died May 7, 1944. Gospel Herald, November 1947: "Litwiller.- Katie, daughter of Christian and Elisabeth (Orendorff) Eigsti, was born near Morton, Ill., April 5, 1869; passed away Nov. 5, 1947; aged 78 y. 7 m. On Jan. 31, 1889, she was united in marriage to Jonas Litwiller, who predeceased her three years ago. Surviving are 5 children (Elmer, Tremont, Ill.; Luella Staker, Groveland, Ill.; Albert, Morton, Ill.; Lester, Wooster, Ohio; Raymond, Camp Kilmcr, N.J.), 14 grandchildren, 4 great-grandchildren, 2 brothers (Jacob and Joseph, of Morton), 2 stepbrothers (Christ Yordy, Morton, Ill.; and Alvin Smith, Tiskilwa, Ill.), one sister (Mrs. Joe Schrock, Flanagan, Ill.), and one half sister (Mrs. Alvin Bachman, Upland, Calif.), and one stepsister (Mrs. Andrew Bachman, Roanoke, Ill.). One sister and 2 brothers preceded her in death. In her youth she confessed Christ as her Saviour and joined the Pleasant Grove Mennonite Church. She was quiet and unassuming, exemplifying her beliefs. Funeral services were held at the Morton Church, in charge of Simon Litwiller, Noah N. Roeschley and Paul Rupp.

3. 4.

Christian Eigsti's paternal grandmother was Elisabeth Eymann (married to Christian Augsti), a younger sister to Johannes Eymann (married to Anna Goldschmidt), who was the father of Elisabeth Eymann (married to Andreas Ropp).

100

78

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5. 6. 7.

8.

Interment was made in the Pleasant Grove Cemetery, near Tremont, Ill." On Feb. 2, 1921 their daughter Luella Litwiller married Harvey Staker, the youngest child of Christian Staker and Magdalena Ropp. Barbara Eigsti was born Jan. 16, 1871, and died Aug. 15, 1927. She married Joseph Saltzman, who was born May 17, 1865, and died June 22, 1913. Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Eigsti was born Oct. 5, 1872, and died Oct. 26, 1963. She married Joseph Schrock, who was born Aug. 31, 1870, and died March 13, 1953, a son of Andrew Schrock and Catherine Kramer. Jacob Eigsti was born Feb. 15, 1876, and died July 23, 1949. He married Lydia Gerig. She was born March 2, 1873, and died Sept. 9, 1955. They are found living next to Jacob's father on the 1900 census of Morton. Jacob farmed the original Eigsti homestead until 1938, when he moved closer to the center of Morton. He served as vice president and director of the Morton State Bank, and on the Morton Township High School board of education. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery at Elm Grove. Joseph Eigsti was born April 24, 1879, and died Dec. 8, 1963. He married Lydia Kurtz. She was born Nov. 25, 1882, and died May 28, 1965. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery at Elm Grove.

Christian remarried to second wife Barbara Beller at Indiantown, Bureau County March 5, 1882. She was born at Bambois de Plaine (above Plaine) March 22, 1847, a daughter of Jacob Beller and Elizabeth Chérique/Shirch.101 The clearing of Bambois between Les Quelles and Plaine was the site of a lumber mill and Anabaptist cemetery, and was home to Ropps before they migrated down from the Vosges Mountains. Barbara is buried at Landes Mennonite Cemetery, where her stone in the Eigsti grouping says, "Barbara wife of C. died May 25, 1887 at 40 years, two months, three days." Christian Eigsti and Barbara Beller had only one child:

9. Mary Eigsti was born Sept. 12, 1886, and died Aug. 20, 1975. She married Alvin D. Bachman. He was born April 26, 1883, and died in November 1974.

Christian's third wife was Barbara Jordy/Yordy. She was born on the Grossprüfening estate (now a neighboorhood on the west side of Regensburg) Dec. 14, 1853, a daughter of Jacob Jordy and Magdalena Schantz (see YORDY). She sailed from Hamburg aboard the steamship Hammonia in late May of 1884. Following a stopover at Le Havre, the ship continued on to New York, where it arrived June 27, 1884. The arrival passenger list names wife 'Babette Jordy', 28, as a native of 'Bavary' (Bavaria) with son 'Christ', 4. 102 The pair disembarked at Castle Garden. The immigrant processing station was located on a small island off the southwest tip of Manhattan, and was active 1855-1890. It is now called the Castle Clinton National Monument. (Ellis Island took on its functions in 1892; most immigration documents of the period were lost when the original wooden structure there was destroyed by fire in 1897). In 1888, Christian Eigsti of Morton approached Barbara with an offer of marriage. Although he was many years her senior, his household held nine motherless children, ranging from 1 to 24 years of age. She agreed to become his third wife, provided that her son would be treated equally with the others and that he be given land in the future. They were married in the home of Peter Yordy at Roanoke, Woodford County Oct. 1, 1888 (see YORDY). Bishop Christian Ropp performed the ceremony. Gary L. Yordy located their marriage license at the Woodford County Registry. It states that Barbara Yordy was 37 at the time of marriage, that it was her first marriage and his third, that Barbara lived at Roanoke, and that Christian lived at Morton. Barbara's parents were identified as Jacob Yordy [Jordy] and Magdalena Shants [Schantz], and Christian's were identified as Nicolas Eigsti and Barbara Gascho. (Gary L. Yordy proposes that Peter Yordy may have been Barbara's uncle, and that Barbara was living with his family, since it is Amish custom to marry in the home of the bride). She lived only six more years, dying at Morton Sept. 20, 1894. She was buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Her headstone gives no birth date, but her age at death, 42. Barbara's only known child Christian 'Chris H.' Yordy was born Feb. 20, 1880, and died at Morton Feb. 27, 1958. He inherited 80 acres at Flanagan, Livingston County in 1903. On Feb. 16, 1904 at Tremont he married Magdalena 'Lena' Staker. She was born at Tremont April 19, 1883, and died at Morton Feb. 3, 1964, a daughter of Nicholas Staker Jr. and Jacobina 'Bena' Roth.

Jacob Beller was born at Plaine Aug. 23, 1803, and died there in 1876; Elizabeth Chérique/Shirch was born at BourgBruche June 9, 1815 and died at Plaine in 1871. 102 'Babette Jordy' appeared in a bracketed group of 11 passengers from Bavaria. All but one are known to have been Mennonites. The group includes Joseph Ackermann, 38, and his wife Anna, 33, with three children. The Ackermanns can be found on the 1900 census of Waldo, Livingston County, where his birth date is given as March 1848 (making his correct age 36 in 1884) and hers as 1851 (matching the passenger list); other names on the same census page include Stalter and Good [Guth]; the page before includes Albrecht, Augsburger, Ingold, and Zehr.

101

79

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Gospel Herald, March 1964: "Yordy, Lena, daughter of Nicholas and Bena (Roth) Staker, was born at Morton, Ill., April 19, 1883; passed away in her sleep at the home of her son, Russell, Morton, Feb. 3, 1964; aged 80 y. 9 m. 15 d. On Feb. 16, 1904, she was married to Chris H. Yordy, who died Feb. 27, 1958. Surviving are 3 sons (Clarence, Robert, and Russell), and 2 sisters (Viola - Mrs. Joe Kurtz and Mrs. Fannie Gerber). Three brothers and 3 sisters preceded her in death. She was a member of the First Mennonite Church, Morton, where funeral services were held Feb. 6, in charge of Clyde D. Fulmer; interment in Pleasant Grove Cemetery, Tremont, Ill." The children of Christian Yordy and Magdalena Staker include:

1) Gospel Herald, June 1983: "Yordy, Clarence Edward, son of Chris and Lena (Staker) Yordy, was born at Morton, Ill., June 28, 1907; died of a heart ailment at Carlisle, Pa., May 31, 1983; aged 75 y. On Dec. 14, 1927, he was married to Esther Ella Studer, who survives. Also surviving are 2 sons (Harold and James), one daughter (Marilyn, Mrs. Roger Harrington), 8 grandchildren, 6 great-grandchildren, and one brother (Russell). One brother preceded him in death. He was a member of First Mennonite Church, where funeral services were held on June 4, in charge of James Detweiler and Patrick Flaherty; interment in Pleasant Grove Cemetery." Esther Ella Studer was born at Roanoke Oct. 8, 1905, and died at Morton May 21, 1994. Robert Nicholas Yordy was born April 24, 1909, and died Jan. 29, 1982. On Feb. 18, 1931 he married Elsie Eigsti. She was born March 3, 1907 and adopted by the Eigsti family. She died Nov. 22, 1991. They farmed and raised turkeys. Russell Yordy was born June 30, 1927. On Aug. 17, 1947 he married Annalee Smucker. She was born April 12, 1929.

2)

3)

Gary L. Yordy provided many of the details of Christian Eigsti's fourth marriage. Veronika Catarina 'Fannie' Ringenberg was born in Bavaria in August 1841, a daughter of Christian Ringenberg (1799-1890) and Maria Burky (circa 1805-1871). Before emigrating she had three children: Peter Ringenberg, born 1857; Marie Ringenberg, born 1862; and Anna 'Nancy' Ringenberg, born 1864. Veronika, her three children, her parents, and her 11-month-old nephew Valentine Ringenberg (a son of her sister Katharina) sailed from Bremen on the Union, arriving at New York March 16, 1867. They settled at Wheatland, Bureau County where on Nov. 11, 1869 Veronika gave birth to her fourth child, Mary. The 1870 census of Wheatland shows Christian Ringbert, 65, France; Mary, 64, Bavaria; Frances Ringbert, 27, Bavaria; Peter, 12, Bavaria; Catherine, 9, Bavaria; Mary, 1, Illinois; and Jacob Ringberd, 21, Bavaria [Veronica's brother]. Mary was not listed. On March 12, 1877 at Wheatland, Veronika married Anton Smith. They had four children. Anton died in 1893, and was buried in Willow Springs Cemetery. On April 8, 1895 widow Veronika married three-time widower Christian Eigsti in her residence at Macon, Bureau County. The marriage certificate stated that her parents were Christian Ringenberger and Mary Burky, that she was born in Bavaria, was 53 years old, and this was her second marriage. She signed her name 'Veronika Eigsti.' Christian Eigsti is described on the 1900 census of Morton as a farmer born in Germany in February 1832 [Alsace was occupied by Germany in 1871]. 'Fannie' stated that she was born in August 1841, and that she had borne 8 children, 7 still living. Both Christian and Veronika stated that they had been married (not necessarily to each other) for 37 years, or since 1862. Their household included son and farm laborer Christian Yordy, born in Germany in February 1880; Emma Smith, born in Illinois in May 1880; Alvin Smith, born in Illinois in December 1885; and Lydia Smith, born in Illinois in August 1886. Christian Eigsti died at Morton March 5, 1863, and was buried next to his third wife Barbara Yordy in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. (His first two wives died before the newer cemetery was established in 1885). Following his death, Veronika lived at Tremont and Arispie. She died in the home of her daughter Lena Smith Ulrich and son-inlaw Peter M. Ulrich June 1, 1929. She was buried next to her first husband in Willow Springs Cemetery.

80

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Birky/Birkey: Variations of Bürki

Bürcki, Burchi, Burky, Burcky, Buercky, Birchi, Birki, Birky, Birkey, Berkey

A

ccording to Delbert Gratz, the Bernese surnames 'Bürgi' and 'Bürki' described someone who lived near a fortress castle. The Bürki families of Bern were extremely prolific. In the 1500s the surnames Bürki and Bürcki could be found in a number of communities surrounding Steffisburg, Diessbach bei Thun, and Oberdiessbach. A significant branch of the family could be found in the mid-1700s at Muri bei Bern, a community four miles southeast of the city of Bern that is also associated with the Joders and Stückers. It is thought that a number of families relocated there to find work during the construction of a cathedral. Genealogist Julius Billeter (1869-1957) spent decades in Bern collecting family information. He created dozens of monographs by transcribing original parish records. In 1944 he published Genealogy of the Bürki (Buerki) family of Trimstein, Konolfingen, Tagertschi, Häutligen, Niederhünigen, Kanton Bern, Switzerland, 15361938. The communities where Billeter found Bürki records were all located in Konolfingen District, which comprises the area along the 15-mile route between Steffisburg and Muri be Bern.

The Crooked Alsace Chain

The birth of Christian Bürki was registered in the Evangelical Reformed Church at Diessbach bei Thun June 18, 1648. His parents were listed as Melchior Bürki and Elsbeth Hara of Buchholterberg (there were several Bürki families in the area). Witnesses included Jacob Stücki, Hans Hara, and Vrena Anthoni. Some time after 1687 Christian settled on the Bärbelsteinerhof, the grounds of ruined Bewartstein Castle at Erlenbach bei Dahn. The site is located in the parish of Niederschlettenbach, only six miles north of the border between the Rhineland Palatinate and Lower Alsace. The Amish Mennonite connections to this location are too numerous and intricate to mention here; it was occupied by Swiss Anabaptists as early as 1687, and was a transition home for many families that migrated from Alsace into the Palatinate in the mid 1700s (see EHRESMAN for information on the families).103 The death of 'Christian Bourquit vom Diessbach,' 81, was noted on an entry at Niederschlettenbach in 1729. Only one son of Christian can be positively identified. It is probable that there were other sons born earlier, and they may have been the fathers or grandfathers of Bürkis who came to America in the mid-1700s. Christian's son or grandson Johannes 'Hans' Bürki was born circa 1695, and died on the Bärbelsteinerhof in 1741. His death entry was placed on a special Anabaptist list in the Niederschlettenbach parish book by minister Christian Holli/Holly of Oberdiessbach, who held the Bärbelsteinerhof lease 1718-1848. It described him as 'Johannes Bürcki, Anabaptist of Bärbelstein near Erlenbach.' Johannes 'Hans' Bürki had four known children. They include:

1. Barbara Bürki was born circa 1724, and died at Nehwiller [later called Nehwiller près Woerth, Ger. Nehweiler bei Wörth, and since 1972 Reichshoffen-Nehwiller in Lower Alsace] in 1793 at age 69. She may have had a descendant (perhaps two) who came to Tazewell County. She married George Holly, who was born on the Bärbelsteinerhof in 1742, and died at Nehwiller in 1795. He was a son of the Bärbelsteinerhof leaseholder Christian Holli/Holly. At the time of the marriage he lived at Mühlhofen. He and Barbara lived at Nehwiller as early as 1756. Their daughter Magdalena Holly married Jacob Schrag, a son of Ulrich Schrag and Marie Stalter. This couple farmed on the Freudenbergerhof estate near Zweibrücken. Their son Christian Schrag was born there Dec. 24, 1798. He married Elizabeth Bürki/Birkey (possibly his cousin). She was born in 1802. They farmed at Kösching, a suburb of Ingolstadt.104 Christian died near Munich in 1831. His parents, brothers, and sisters went to Canada in 1837. Elizabeth then brought her daughter Barbara to America. They lived in Butler County, where Barbara may have met and become engaged to Joseph Heiser. Heiser went to Dillon to work on railroad tracks in 1848. He labored on the rails to Peoria until 1850, but came away with little savings. Joseph and Barbara married Feb. 4, 1851, and lived at Elm Grove (see HEISER). Elizabeth lived to be 90, and died Jan. 24, 1892. She is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery as 'Elizabeth Schrag.' Herald of Truth, February 1892: "On the 24th of January, 1892, near Pekin, Ill., of the infirmities of old age, Elizabeth, widow of Christian Schrag, aged 90 years. She had been a widow for 31 years [61 years]. She leaves four children, 23 grandchildren and 54 great-grandchildren. Her last words were, 'Come, Lord Jesus.'

103 Other Bürkis may have traveled directly to the Palatinate from the Swiss confederation after 1671. Censuses taken in the early 1700s show Bürki families already established at Ibersheim (above Worms) and on the Froschauerhof near Marnheim. 104 Kösching is adjacent to Hellmannsberg, where the Sutters leased an estate in 1811.

81

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2. 3.

4.

Buried in the Pleasant Grove graveyard. Funeral services by D. Roth, P. Ropp, Em. and Joseph Litwiller, and Joseph Buercky, of Tiskilwa, Ill." Christian Bürki was born circa 1726. Johannes/Jean Bürki/Birkÿ was born circa 1732. On Dec. 5, 1798 he married Freni/Vreni/Véronique Leyenberger (presumably his second wife). They lived on the Neumatte estate at Diemeringen, Lower Alsace. His children include: a. André Birky was born in 1761, and died in 1811. He married Barbe Schantz. She was born circa 1768, and died before 1829. Their children include: 1) Jean Birky was born at Sarrebourg circa 1788, and died on the Schottenhof at Sarralbe May 14, 1825. On Oct. 29, 1807 at Lorentzen he married Magdalena/Madeleine Schertz. She was born at Sarrebourg circa 1790, and died at Gros-Réderching, Moselle June 21, 1836. Their son André/Andrew Birky (1813-1875) married Anna Kempf (1819-1866). Anna sailed with her children from Le Havre on the Empire State, arriving at New York Sept. 14. 1854. The passenger list gives Anna Birky, 34; Joseph, 17; Anna, 14; Jacob, 9; Madeline, 7; and Marie, 4. They settled at Tiskilwa, then moved on to Wellman, Iowa in 1861 where some took the surname became 'Birkey.' 2) André Birky was born at Diemeringen Aug. 24, 1789, and died at Dehlingen Aug. 15, 1841. On Dec. 23, 1813 at Diemeringen he married Barbe Rouvenacht. She was born at Rhodes July 4, 1792, and died at Chassey-Beaupré, Meuse Jan. 30, 1872, a daughter of Magdalena/Madeleine Engel and her second husband Jean Rouvenacht of Rhodes (see ENGEL). 3) Georges Birky was born at Diemeringen circa 1799. On Feb. 5, 1829 at Rimling, Moselle he married Madeleine Koch. 4) Catherine Birki was born at Diemeringen circa 1799. On Feb. 23, 1822 at Rimling, Moselle she married Christian Gerber. He was born on Wiesing farm at BliesÉbersing, Moselle, a son of Christian Guerber and Marie Guengerich. 5) Barbe Birky was born in 1803. On Feb. 5, 1829 at Rimling, Moselle she married Pierre Thomas. 6) Madeleine Birky was born at Diemeringen in 1808, and died before March 19, 1836. On March 9, 1830 at Rimling, Moselle she married Jean Gingerich. He was born at Bistroff, Moselle Jan. 17, 1804, a son of Christian Gingerich and Madeleine Marguerite Blanck. Following her death, Jean remarried to Madeleine Eymann at Custines, Meurthe-et-Moselle March 19, 1836. b. Marie Suzanne Birki was born at Diemeringen in 1768, and died at Rimling, Moselle March 30, 1802. Anna Bürki/Birki married Johannes/Jean Wagler. His parents were Christian Wagler and Susanne Gerig (also found as Chérique/Görig) from l'Abbateux farm in the Le Hang basin near Bourg-Bruche.105 By 1759 Johannes/Jean and Anna were leaseholders on the Neumatte estate at Diemeringen.

These three locations cluster around the castle estate Waderhof at Lorentzen (see ROGGY) in a 4-mile square. They are found in 'Crooked Alsace' (Ger. Krummes Elsass), a hilly projection of Lower Alsace that is tucked beneath Lorraine.106 This region was relatively isolated for many centuries, sandwiched between the Catholic Duchy of Lorraine and the forests of the Vosges Mountains. In 1793 'Crooked Alsace' was annexed into French territory; this was confirmed by the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801.

THE NEUMATTE ESTATE AT DIEMERINGEN Diemeringen is one mile south of Lorentzen. After the 1300s the lordship of Diemeringen became an isolated German-speaking enclave that fell under the administration of the Palatine Electors. This changed abruptly with the Thirty Years War (1618-48). In 1629, the Duchy

105

Christian and Susanne farmed on Rauschenbourg estate near Ingwiller, 15 miles southwest of Nehwiller-près-Worth. In addition to those that 'fit' into known relationships, there was another descendant family at Diemeringen. Valentine Birki was born circa 1750, and died before 1826. He married Catherine Ehrismann, who died before April 30, 1826. Their children include: 1) Madeleine Birki was born at Diemeringen in 1764, and died there May 15, 1820. 2) Catherine Birki was born at Rahling circa 1765, and died at Lorentzen May 27, 1845. She married Johannes/Jean Roggy (1758-1815). He was born at Lembach, Lower Alsace in 1758, and died on the Waderhof Dec. 31, 1815. See ROGGY. 3) Valentin Burky was born at Diemeringen circa 1768, and died at Ostheim, Upper Alsace May 9, 1803. On June 5, 1794 at Strasbourg he married Magdalena/Madeleine Roggy. She was born at Strasbourg in 1775, and died in 1817, a daughter of Christian Roggy and Sarah Dettweiler. 4) Anne Birki was born at Langatte in what became Moselle circa 1781. On March 31, 1813 at Diemeringen she married André Kohler. 5) André Burki was born at Diemeringen Nov. 25, 1784, and died there April 30, 1826. 106 Krummes Elsass is also taken to mean 'bent Alsace' or 'hilly Alsace.'

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

of Lorraine seized possession of Crooked Alsace. Brutal conditions caused many families to abandon their villages and move to higher elevations. The Lutheran religion favored by German-speaking residents was suppressed. By 1698 tensions had eased and the area had largely recovered from the Thirty Years War. The Lutheran religion was restored, and Crooked Alsace was recast as a religiously tolerant region. THE LUTTERBACHERHOF ESTATE AT VOELLERDINGEN Bürki descendants were also associated with the Lutterbacherhof estate at Voellerdingen, a property that was subordinate to the Neumatte estate. It is 1 mile northwest of Lorentzen. The Encyclopaedia Germanica says the Lutterbacherhof stands on the former site of the monastery Bürenthal, surrounded by the site of an ancient village called Heimeldingen. At present there is one manor house there, surrounded by the buried foundations of six smaller houses that probably date from the early 1700s. The first mention of a Bürki in connection with the Lutterbacherhof is found in the church book of Herbitzeim dated Feb. 18, 1731. The entry records the death of 20-year-old Daniel Burcki, whose father Christian Burcki of Switzerland was a farmer on the Lutterbacherhof living at Oermingen. In 1742 a lease agreement was signed by Johannes Birki; the names on the lease renewal included Adam Bach, Johann Burcky, and Mennonite Jans Burcki. In 1793 the lease was signed by Hans Burcki of Diemeringen. This 1793 leaseholder from Diemeringen may have been Johannes Bürki, who was mentioned earlier as born circa 1732 and married to Freni/Vreni/Véronique Leyenberger. THE VILLAGE OF DEHLINGEN The village of Dehlingen is 1 mile north of Lorentzen. The consequences of isolation and repression are recorded in the Catholic Parish Books of Diemeringen. On June 21, 1673, six women and one man from Dehlingen were condemned "to be burnt as witches and wizards after being beheaded by the sword." On Oct. 16, six women from Dehlingen were "beheaded by sword and burned for witchcraft near the gallows." These excesses continued until 1674, when the French troops of Vicomte de Turenne occupied the area. The transition of Crooked Alsace into a religiously tolerant region brought many Protestants to Dehlingen in the 1700s. It was seen as a refuge because its politics, geography, and customs set it apart from the mainstream. In 1776 the population was 400; of these residents, 22 were Jewish and only 3 were Catholic.

Oldest son Christian Bürki settled apart from his brother and sisters, on the Mechtersheimerhof estate near Speyer in the Palatinate (36 miles northeast of the Bärbelsteinerhof, and 55 miles northeast of his oldest sister's home at Nehwiller-Près-Woerth; see EHRESMAN for more on Mechtersheimerhof residents). He first appears on a census there in 1743. In 1768 'Christian Bürcki' and 'Johannes Ehrismann' [der junge Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrisman] of the Mechtersheimerhof appeared on a list of those who paid the six-guilder fee required from religious minorities for government protection. The 1773 census lists him as 'Christian Bürcki', a subtenant on the Mechtersheimerhof with a wife, one minor son, two minor daughters, seven farmhands, and three maids. Christian married one of Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger and Barbara Holly's daughters, whose name has been forgotten. In 1787 Christian and his wife moved 22 miles to the southeast, across the Rhine River to the Stift Odenheim estate (Stifterhof or 'convent estate') at Tiefenbach in Baden-Durlach. According to Hermann Guth in Amish Mennonites in Germany, there are Bürki and Holly entries in the municipal register at Königsbach, a village 23 miles south of Tiefenbach. Anabaptist meetings were held on the Katharinentaler Hof estate above Pforzheim. Amos Hoover translated this portion of a letter from Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger to Christian Schowalter in Pennsylvania, written in 1788 and now held by the Mifflin County Mennonite Historical Society: "...My son-in-law Christen Berckÿ also lived there [on the Mechtersheimerhof estate] about 18 years or more on the farm where Hans Höffly used to live; but last year he leased a farm from a clergyman from the cathedral at Speyer, three hours from Bruchsal. It is a large place; almost 1,000 head of sheep, but the Lord only knows how it will turn out for him. He now also has a son-in-law, the son of Jörg Holly from Nehwiller, living with him. Recently we have also ordained him as a minister of the book; he had to draw the lot with Jacob Friedauer and the lot fell on him." (The entirety of this letter can be found in Amish Mennonites in Germany). Christian was 93 when he signed the civil death entry of a son-in-law at Speyer in 1819. His three known children were probably all born on the Mechtersheimerhof estate. They include:

1. 2. Johannes Bürki or Burcky was born circa 1753. Magdalena Burky married Jörg/George Holly (Jr.) (1765-1819). They lived on the Täuferhof at Gumbrechtshoffen, now in Lower Alsace. When he died at Speyer in 1819, 93-year-old father-in-law Christian Burki signed the civil entry. An unidentified daughter born before 1773 married Christian Holly. He was born at Nehwiller, and may have been her cousin.

3.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Johannes Bürki/Burcky was born on the Mechtersheimerhof estate circa 1753, and died at Hennepin, Putnam County Aug. 23, 1838. He became a farmer and a physician. On March 6, 1790 he married Maria Schoenbeck of Hesse-Darmstadt. They joined other families with the familiar surnames Güngerich, Stähly, Brenneman, and Wagler on the Albacherhof estate. The estate was located at Albach, seven miles southeast of the university town of Giessen in Hesse-Darmstadt; it is still an active farm.107 It is probable that the families on the Albacherhof followed Daniel Holly (1761-1824) to the area. After his own exemplary estate at Mühlhofen was ruined by French troops in the French Revolution of 1789, he was hired by Count Degenfeld-Schönburg.108 The count's family held numerous properties in Hesse, and Daniel became estate manager at Langsdorf, the village adjacent to Lich. At least two of their children were born at Gelnhausen, Hesse. The circular city built over medieval foundations is located 28 miles east of Frankfurt am Main, Hesse and 40 miles southwest of the Albacherhof. Johannes may have practiced medicine there. The children of Johannes Bürki/Burcky and Maria Schoenbeck include:

1. Christian Burcky was born in 1796. He married Anna Schmidt, who was born in 1817, and died in Butler County in March 1896. She is buried in the Augspurger Memorial Cemetery at Trenton, Butler County, as 'Anna Smith Burchy.' 'Chritian Burky' appears on the 1840 census of Putnam County with a wife and one child. Their daughter Elizabeth 'Eliza' Burcky was born Jan. 28, 1842. On Feb. 13, 1862 she married Christian K. Augspurger; he was born at Trenton Jan. 9, 1839, and died Feb. 6, 1907. He was elected minister to the 'hook and eye' Augspurger congregation in 1867, and served until 1897. They are buried in the Augspurger Memorial Cemetery at Trenton. Their daughter Magdalena Ellen Burcky was born at Hennepin Nov. 28, 1847 and died in Butler County, Ohio March 7, 1889. On Oct. 31, 1867 she married John K. Augspurger. He was born at Trenton, Butler County Oct. 7, 1842 and died Jan. 6, 1914. The Augspurgers were sons of Joseph Augspurger and Magdalena Kennel, and grandsons of Christian Augspurger. They are also buried in the Augspurger Memorial Cemetery at Trenton. Their marriage ceremonies were performed by minister Nicholas Augspurger; both appear in History of the Mennonites of Butler County, Ohio with the spelling 'Berke.' Elizabeth Burcky was born Jan. 6, 1798, and died in Hesse in 1834. In 1818 she married Christian Fischer Hufschmidt. Johannes/John Burcky was born on the Albacherhof March 2, 1800. He married Anna Conrad in Butler County Feb. 28, 1837; the ceremony was performed by minister 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger (the civil entry was created May 8, 1837). `John Burky' appears on the 1840 census of Putnam County checked in the 40-50 age range, with a wife checked in the 30-40 age range, two sons, and six daughters. Anna Conrad appears as a 67-year-old widow on the1880 census of Ohio, Bureau County. Jacob Burcky was born at Gelnhausen March 9, 1804.109 He died March 3, 1856. Daniel Burcky was born Oct. 3, 1805, and died at Engelwood, Cook County Sept. 3, 1882. On July 24, 1838 in Butler County he married Elise Holly; the ceremony was performed by minister Benedict König/King.110 She was born at Bellersheim (next to Lich and Langsdorf) Feb. 18, 1814, and died at Chicago Aug. 7, 1901, a daughter of Johannes Holly and his first wife Marie Jutzi. Elise and her entire extended family arrived with the '100 Hessian Mennonites' in 1832.111 In 1836 Daniel opened a grocery store at Hennepin, Putnam County with his brother

2. 3.

4. 5.

107 Since 1866 Hesse-Darmstadt has been known simply as Hesse. It is easy to confuse the location with Albach in the state of Bavaria. 108 Mühlhofen is located in the Palatinate, 11 miles northeast of the Lower Alsace border village Wissembourg. 109 The Past and Present of Lasalle County, Illinois has notes for son John Burcky of Eden, LaSalle County: "Farmer; Tonica. Born Putnam Co., Ill. 1844. To La Salle Co. 1853. Father, Jacob, was born in Gillenhousen, near Hesse Cassel, Germany in 1801. To U. S., state of Ohio in 1834; to Putnam Co., Ill. in 1836. Married Magdalena Grabiel, in Ohio. She was born in Bavaria, Germany in 1805. Children: Mary; Elizabeth; John. Mr. Jacob Burcky was buried at Mt. Palatine Cemetery in 1856." John appears as 37-year-old farmer John Burckey on the 1880 census of Eden, where he stated that his father was born in Germany, his mother in Bavaria. 110 The county entry calls them Daniel Burkey and Eliza Holly. 111 The 1832 passenger list held the extended Johannes Holly family on two pages: Johann, 44, of Langsdorf; Daniel, 16 [a future minister]; Johannes, 11; Wilhelm, 8; Peter, 5; Helena [Jutzi], 36 [her sister Maria had been Johannes' first wife]; Christine, 20; Elise, 18; Maria, 14; Jacobine, 3; Catherine, 38; [top of next page]Peter Holly, 40, farmer; Christian, 12; Johannes, 12; Maria, 16; Jacobine, 10; Catherine, 7; Elise, 2; and Susanna, 7. Farther down the page, Daniel Holly, 28; Catherine, 26; Barbara, 4; Christine, 2; Maria, 1; Anna, 16. Several children of Johannes Holly and Marie Jutzi were brought to Granville by the presence of minister Jacob Burcky. The 1860 census of Granville shows his 1832 co-passengers Daniel Holly, 35; John [Johannes] Holly, 28; and William [Wilhelm] Holly, 24 on the same page as the Burckys and Albrechts. Daniel Holly was born at Neuhof farm near Hanau Aug. 3, 1816, and died in LaSalle County Nov. 18, 1886. According to Grubb "...he was one of the organizers of the Hessian congregation, and became one of its ministers in 1841." On April 2, 1839 in Butler County he married Helena Bender (1817-1902). Daniel and

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

6. 7. 8.

Freidrich. He returned to Butler County to marry, but 'Daniel Burky' is listed as the purchaser of 20 acres at Granville for $8.25 per acre Nov. 20, 1838. They had four children in Putnam County, and four at Chicago. 'Daniel Burkey' appears on the 1840 census of Putnam County with a wife and four children. He returned to Butler County again in 1846 to participate in the settlement of the estate of his father-in-law Johannes Holly. Daniel's family appears on the 1880 census of E.D. 198 Lake, Cook County as Daniel Burky, 74; Eliza Burky, 65; and six children ranging in age 25-34. History of Chicago: "Daniel Burcky was for many years identified with the business interests of Chicago, and was devoted to the establishment of German educational institutions in this city." Elise appears on the 1900 census of Chicago Ward 34 as an 86-year-old born in February 1814, in the household of son Christian born in March 1844. 112 Barbara Burcky was born Nov. 1, 1807, and died in 1842. Magdalena Burcky was born June 1, 1809, and died Sept. 7, 1882. Freidrich/Frederick Burcky was born at Gelnhausen June 9, 1814, and died at Chicago Oct. 25, 1902. He operated a grocery store at Hennepin, Putnam County with his older brother Daniel in 1836. History of Chicago, published in 1878: "Mr. Burcky was married, on October 27, 1849, to Miss Susan Berdel, of Fachbach, Germany; she died on March 6, 1858. They had five children, only one of whom ­ Mary, wife of John Sheldon ­ is now living." Frederick moved to Chicago in 1840 (and became a member of the Chicago Old Settlers' Society established in 1871). The Directory of the City of Chicago for August-December 1843 lists a baker Frederick Burcky. Frederick appears on a Chicago census as a 30-year-old baker in 1860. He appears as a 55-year-old confectioner on the 1870 census of Chicago Ward 1, stating that his birthplace was Frankfurt-on-Main [Frankfurt-am-Main is 35 miles south of the Albacherhof]. He appears on the 1880 census of Chicago as baker Fred Burcky, 66, born in Germany; with two sons William, 25, a restaurant worker born in Illinois; and Henry, 22, an artist born in Illinois. Both sons stated that their parents were born in Germany. Frederick's entry in History of Chicago provides a number of details about the family, but the story exaggerates the earliness of his arrival in America by about four years: "Frederick Burcky, one of the oldest bakers in Chicago, was born in Gelhausen, Germany, on June 9, 1814, the son of John Burcky, a physician. He became a pupil at the common school, and at the age of fourteen was apprenticed to learn the trade of a baker. His apprenticeship continued two years, and in 1830 he came to America, with his family, which consisted of the parents and eight children. They landed at New Orleans in the fall of 1830, and remained there during the winter, and in the spring of 1831 went to Cincinnati. In 1835, Jacob Burcky, a brother, bought a farm in Illinois midway between Hennepin and Peru, and one year later was followed by his two brothers, Daniel and Frederick, who opened a grocery store at Hennepin in 1836, continuing it two years. At the end of that time, Mr. Burcky's health failed, and for two years he was an invalid on the farm of his brother Jacob... In 1840, Frederick Burcky came to Chicago, and for three years worked for Winship & Howe, bakers. He then moved to Wells Street, where the Times Building now stands, and started a bakery and coffee house, the first of that kind in Chicago. He continued business there until the great fire, and, suffering heavy losses, established again at No. 93 Halstead Street, selling out his business in 1874."

Jacob Burcky came to America with the '100 Hessian Mennonites'; the story of the 1832 journey was told in STAKER. The passenger list describes him as 'Jacob Birty, 25.' He accompanied two families that came from Langsdorf. They belonged to Johannes Holly and his wife Helena Jutzi, and Katharina Holly and her cousinhusband Peter Holly of nearby Bellersheim. Johannes and Katharina were children of Langsdorf estate manager Daniel Holly. Jacob younger brother Daniel later married passenger Elise Holly, a daughter of Johannes Holly and an earlier wife (the first of two Jutzi sisters he married). Jacob found employment in Butler County, where in 1834 he was joined by other family members including his father, who had traveled via New Orleans. The Burckys were participants in the congregational vote that divided conservative 'hooks and eyes' from progressive 'buttons' in Butler County in 1835 (see STAKER). They chose to become part of the progressive Hessian congregation under elder 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger.

Helena had four children in Butler County, moved to Putnam County in 1848, and had three more children, leaving numerous descendants in the area. They are also listed on the 1870 census of Granville. 112 Their son Christian Burcky was born at Hennepin March 3, 1843, and died at Chicago June 21, 1908. The New York Times, June 22, 1908: "Christian Burcky Dead. Chicago Pioneer Restaurant Keeper 'Made His Pile and Quit.' Christian Burcky, one of the pioneer restaurant proprietors of Chicago, died yesterday at his residence. He attained something more than local prominence when he became known as 'the man who quit when his pile was made.' Previous to the big fire of 1871, he and Ed Milan opened a lunch room in an old box car in Madison Street. 'We won't quit until we get a million' was their motto. Within a couple of years they accumulated sufficient money to furnish a basement in Madison Street, near Clark. After the fire they moved to 154 and 156 Clark Street, and opened what is said to have been, 'the original first class restaurant in Chicago.' During the latter part of 1888 they began taking stock and counting cash. They discovered their joint riches totaled more than $1,000,000, and the next day the place was offered for sale. Burcky never again entered any business."

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

In Ohio, Jacob married Magdalena Grabiel [Krayenbühl, Ger. Krehbiel].113 She was born in Bavaria in 1805. The family soon moved to Central Illinois. Past and Present of Bureau County: "Mennonite Church of Indiantown: The first family of this sect came to Putnam County in 1835 or 1836, from Ohio. In the family, whose name was Burchey, were four boys, Daniel, Christian, Frederick, and Jacob, the latter being a minister of the gospel, and thus was a nucleus formed for the Mennonite church, which has been maintained up to the present time." It might be noted that the 'boys' would have been roughly ages 40, 32, 31, and 22 in 1836. Jacob Burcky became a minister and held meetings at Granville, Putnam County. Unfortunately, he was also known for his temper. His household appears on the 1850 census of Putnam County. A single page includes these families, as written:

Farmer John Burkey [Burcky] junior, 30, Germany; and Catharine, 19, Germany. Farmer Jacob Brenniman [Brenneman], 40, Germany; Christiana, 40, Germany; Jacob junior, 9, Illinois; Catharina, 7, Illinois; Mary, 3, Illinois; and Ellen, 1, Illinois. Farmer Peter Albright [Albrecht], 40, Germany; Catharine, 28, Germany; Farona, 5, Illinois; Catharine, 10 months, Illinois; and John Burkey senior, 73, France. (See ENGEL). Jacob Burkey, 45, Germany; Magdalene, 33, Germany; Mary, 13, Illinois; Eliza, 11, Illinois; and John, 6, Illinois [another son died young; the two are shown on the 1840 census]; and farmer George Raitz, 31, Germany. Farmer Daniel Holly, 35, Germany; Leanna [Helena Bender], 33, Germany; Mary, 12, Ohio; John, 10, Ohio; William, 8, Ohio; Theodor, 6, Ohio; Gustavus, 4, Ohio; Daniel Gingrich, 23, Germany; John Holly, 28, Germany; and William Holly, 24, Germany. (See the footnote on the Johannes Holly family).

Jacob is buried in Mount Palatine Cemetery at McNabb, Putnam County as 'Jacob Burky.' His headstone says he died March 3, 1856 at age 51 years, 10 months, 25 days (yielding his estimated birth date March 8, 1804). Magdalena can be found as a 75-year-old from Bavaria on the 1880 census of Eden, La Salle County, living in the household of her son John, 37, and his wife Mary, 26. She died April 11, 1886 at age 81, and shares a headstone with her husband.

The Little Red Birkys

Ancestors of the families that later came to Tazewell County purportedly left the Swiss confederation in the late 1700s and lived in Crooked Alsace before resettling in Bavaria. It is extremely likely that they are connected to the Crooked Alsace chain ­ two 'Little Red Birkys' and one 'Big Birkey,' all living at Tremont, married Hochstettlers whose grandparents had lived on the Bärbelsteinerhof. 114 One account says that the forbearer of many of the Bürki descendants in Central Illinois was Christian Birchi or Burchi, who was born circa 1760. Christian lived in Lower Alsace, then relocated to Bavaria. It is likely the move would have taken place around 1802, the year the Stalter family was awarded properties by elector Maximilian IV Joseph, the future king of Bavaria (see EIGSTI). Four Central Illinois settlers have been tentatively identified in family sources as sons of Christian Birchi/Burchi. They came to America in 1835 (Jean/John), 1835 (André/Andrew), 1849 (Valentine), and 1851 (Christian).

1. Jean/John Burkey was born about 1777. He is thought to have once lived on the Bouchert farm (Ger. Buscherhof) at Sarrewerden in Crooked Alsace.115 He married Solphonia; she was born circa 1779, and died before the 1850

It is possible that Jacob's wife came to America on the De Rham in 1830. 'Magalena Crepie, 24,' appears on the passenger list immediately after the family of Jacob Naffziger and Barbara Krehbiel. 114 A reasonable alternative theory would suggest that Christian Birchi/Burchi was not a Bürki descendant at all, but a member of the Swiss Bertschi family. The 'sch' sound might have hardened into a 'k' when the family moved north to Bavaria. Before Valentine Birky (1793-1860) came to America in 1849, land on Allentown Road was reserved for him by three of his children, who all appear there on the 1850 census (a later footnote). The lot was adjacent to that of Christian Bechler, whose mother was a Bertschi. 115 We found Buscherhof listed in the early 1700s as part of the parish that included Bouquenom, Harskirchen, Mittersheim, Neusarrewerden, Rimsdorf, Sarrewerden, Vibersviller, Willer, and Zollingen. This indicates that it was within 5 miles south or 11 miles west of the Lutterbacherhof. The Cassini map created in the late 1700s shows a Bouchert farm on the east side of Sarrewerden.

113

86

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

federal census.116 John and Solphonia arrived at Hennepin in 1835, and hosted the Albrechts over their first year 1836-37. John is found as John Burkey Sr., 73, born in France, in the Putnam household of Peter Albrecht on the 1850 federal census; he does not appear on the 1860 census. John and Solphonia's children include: a. Andrew Burkey was born Jan. 1, 1802, and died at Milford, Nebraska March 4, 1886, where he is buried in East Fairview Cemetery. In 1838 he married Magdalena 'Lena' Albrecht. She was born on the Büdenhof estate at Sesslach, Upper Franconia, Bavaria June 17, 1819, and died at Milford, Nebraska April 10, 1886, a daughter of Christian Albrecht and Elisabeth Engel. She is also buried in East Fairview Cemetery. Andrew is found as the purchaser of 20 acres of public land at Granville Feb. 12, 1839 for $5 an acre. 'Andrew Birky' on the 1840 federal census of Putnam County (living alongside Jacob, John, and Christian of the Crooked Alsace chain). They appear on the 1850 census of Eden, LaSalle County as farmer Andrew Burky, 48, Germany; Martellina, 30, Germany; Valentine, 10, Illinois; Florina, 7, Illinois; Andrew, 5, Illinois; and John, 1, Illinois. In 1880 they appear on the census of Crete, Saline County, Nebraska, where Andrew's and Lena's birthplaces were given as Bavaria. Herald of Truth, March 1886: "Burkey - On the 5th of March, near Milford, Seward County, Neb., of old age, Andrew Burky, aged 84 years, 2 months and 4 days. He was married forty-eight years and leaves five children. Services were held by Joseph Shlegel, Joseph Gascho and Pre. Shupp, from 2 Cor. 5:1-3." (See ENGEL for Magdalena's obituary). b. John Burkey Jr. was born June 24, 1812, and died in Bureau County Dec. 9, 1890. He married Catherine Zierlein. She was born July 30, 1830, and died in Bureau County March 1, 1854, a daughter of Casper Zierlein and Elizabeth Albrecht of Granville, Putnam County (see ENGEL). Following her death, he remarried to Catherine Rediger. She was born circa 1821, and died at Tiskilwa Feb. 11, 1894. Herald of Truth, January 1891: "Buerki. On the 9th of December, near Tiskilwa, Bureau Co., Ill, of the infirmities of old age, Bro. John Buerki, aged 78 years 5 months and 16 days. He was buried on the 11th in the Amish Mennonite graveyard in Indiantown. Funeral services by Jos. Buercky and Chr. Zehr, and Peter Ropp, of Tazewell Co. Bro. Buerki leaves his companion, one daughter and two grandchildren, and many warm friends to mourn his departure. He was a faithful follower of Christ. His place at meeting was never empty so long as he was able to go. He departed in peace." Herald of Truth, May 1894: "Buerky. On the 11th of February 1894, near Tiskilwa, Bureau Co., Ill., of heart disease, sister Catherine Rediger, relict of the late John Berky, aged 73 y. Buried on the 13th in Willow Spring graveyard. Funeral services by Jacob Ringenberg, Hy. V. Albrecht and A. Oesch of Nebraska and Pre. Kaufman of Tiskilwa. The deceased leaves a daughter and a step-daughter beside many friends to mourn their loss." c. Joseph Burkey was born April 26, 1816, and died at Flanagan Dec. 12, 1887. On Oct. 25, 1846 in Tazewell County he married Anne/Anna Ringenberg. She was born on Hingsange farm at Linstroff, Moselle Nov. 6, 1819, and died at Alvin, Vermillion County July 17, 1871, a daughter of Pierre Ringenberg/Peter Ringenberger and Anna Schrag/Schrock (see ENGEL). They can be found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer Joseph Burgie, 32; Anne, 30; Catherine, 9; Mary, 3; and Anne, 1. They can be found on the 1870 census of Nebraska, Livingston County as farmer Joseph Berkee, 52, Bavaria; Anne, 50, France; Anne, 20, Illinois; Barbara, 14, Illinois; Christian, 17, Illinois; Solomon, 12, Illinois; and Joseph, 10, Illinois; and on the 1880 census of Nebraska, Livingston County. d. Catherine Burkey was born in June 1819, and died at Macon, Bureau County March 4, 1895. She married Peter Albrecht. He was born Nov. 30, 1810, and died Jan. 23, 1888, a son of Christian Albrecht and Elizabeth Engel (see ENGEL). They can be found on the 1880 census of Macon, Bureau County. André/Andrew Burkey was born circa 1778. He married Catherine Ackerman circa 1801, and they had six children at Söcking, Bavaria (this location is often found as 'Secking'; it is now part of Hanfeld, about 12 miles below Munich, adjacent to Starnberg at the head of Lake Starnberg). They sailed from Le Havre on the William J. John, arriving at New York Aug. 6, 1835. The passenger list shows farmer Andrie Burky, 57; Catherine, 57; brewer Joseph Burky, 24; and Marie Burky, 22. They settled at Worth. Their children born at Söcking include: a. John Burcky was born April 28, 1804, and died Sept. 27, 1863; he is buried in Hickory Point Cemetery at Metamora. He sailed from Hamburg with his younger brother Joseph on the brig Montano, arriving at New York Sept. 5, 1833.117 The passenger list identified the brothers as distillers; gave his age as 29 years, 2 months; said they were coming from 'Seking' in Bavaria and were bound for Kentucky; and that John was already a citizen of the United States. Donna Schrock Birkey suggests that one or both brothers were part of what author Doris Page described as "the unmarried young men and women who

stopped there [Butler Co.] as early as 1831," and that they worked for or with the Augspurger distilleries. On May 31, 1841 John married the much younger Magdalena/Madeleine Roggy in Illinois.

She was born at Volmunster May 15, 1823, a daughter of Christian Roggy and Catherine Engel. ROGGY shows that she was a granddaughter of Johannes/Jean Roggy and Catherine Birki (1765-1845,

It is also possible that her name was the more common 'Sophronia.' The Montano is one of dozens of wooden ships buried beneath the streets of San Francisco. It was sunk in 1850-53 and covered with landfill.

117

116

87

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

b. c.

d.

also found as Birchÿ and Bircky). The 1850 census of District 56 (Woodford County) shows a combined household: John Berkey, 46; Madalene [Roggy], 27; Catharine, 8; Elizabeth, 6; John, 4; Barbary, six months; Christian Donner, 25; and Catharine [Roggy], 18. Magdalena is found on the 1880 census of Washington as 57-year-old widow Magdalena Burky, living in the household of her son John. She stated that she was born in France to parents from France. Magdalena/Madeleine Roggy is buried with the Taylor family in Glendale Cemetery at Washington, identified as 'Magdalena Burky, Grandmother.' Her headstone gives the dates May 13, 1823-Oct. 9, 1918. Her daughter Barbara married a Taylor. Barbara Burcky was born March 12, 1805. Catherine Burcky was born May 5, 1807, and died circa 1844. On May 1, 1836 in Tazewell County she married Charles Molitor. He was born at Metz Sept. 29, 1809, and died at Metamora June 2, 1891, a son of Charles Molitor and Verena Conrad. Past and Present of Woodford County lists him as an 1835 early settler of Worth (when it was still Germantown); in 1875 he was elected a vice president of the Old Settler's Association. "Chas. Molitor, though born in France, lived in Germany from the time he was six years old until he came to America, in 1835, and two years after settled in Worth Township, where he still lives. His father-in-law, Andrew Burcky, came the year before and settled near where Mr. Molitor now resides." Perhaps this is more reliable than the first events in an online history of Worth sponsored by St. Mary's of Lourdes Church saying he was "...born in Canada of German and French parents; sojourned in Russia as a young man; came to New York City, worked as a cabin maker, and then moved to Worth Township; fathered children by 2 wives; enlisted in the cavalry in the Civil War (wounded and taken prisoner); was a Justice of the Peace in Worth Town for 40 years and lived to the age of 81." They had a daughter Catherine (born circa 1840) and a son Peter (born circa 1842) in Woodford County. Following Catherine's death Charles remarried to Mary Ann Phillips in Woodford County Sept. 10, 1844. They appear on the 1850 census of Woodford County. During the Civil War he served as a sergeant in the 14th Regiment, Illinois Cavalry. They can be found on censuses of Worth in 1860, 1870 (as Charles 'Molodore'), and 1880, where they had six more children. Son Peter's household can be found on the 1870 census of Chatsworth, Livingston County as miller Peter Molitor, 28, born in Illinois; Elizabeth, 23, born in Germany; Charles, 3, born in Illinois; and Rudolph, 1, born in Illinois. Andrew Burcky was born Dec. 5, 1809, and died in Bureau County May 31, 1881. In 1830 in Bavaria he married Barbara Oyer (or Eyer), who was born circa 1808, and died at Tiskilwa Nov. 22, 1894. They sailed with Joseph Heiser and Peter Yordy from Le Havre on the packet ship Charles Carroll, arriving at New York Sept. 17, 1838. That passenger lists describes "A[illegible] Burkey, 29; Barbara Burkey, 29; and Joseph Burkey, 2" (son Joseph was born at Söcking May 29, 1836); Joseph 'Heser', 20 [Joseph Heiser]; and Peter 'Jodte', 23 [Peter Yordy], who would become their next door neighbors. The obituary of a son states that they arrived in America in 1839, spent a year in Butler County and five years in Woodford County, then relocated to Tazewell County. 118 They are found on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as farmer Andrew Bergy, 50, Bavaria; Barbara, 59 [should have been 51 or 52], Bavaria; Andrew, 21, Illinois; and laborer Christian 'Hastetter,' 19, Bavaria, all on the same page as Joseph Heiser and Peter Yordy. They are found on the 1880 census of Indiantown, where both give their birthplaces as Germany, but the birthplaces of their parents as Lorraine. In their household is one 39-year-old son, Andrew Burcky, whose birthplace is given as Illinois, and the birthplace of his parents as Bavaria. Herald of Truth, July 1881: "Burcky. May 31st, in Bureau Co., Ill., Andrew Burcky, aged 72 years, 5 months and 26 days. He leaves an aged widow, 2 children, 9 grand-children, and one great-grand-child. Words of comfort were spoken on the funeral occasion by Jacob Unzicker, Andrew Ropp, and Peter P.

Their son Joseph Burcky served as a minister and bishop at Willow Springs Mennonite Church at Tiskilwa, Bureau County; he spelled his surname 'Buercky.' Gospel Herald, August 1920: "Joseph Burcky, oldest son of Andrew and Barbara Burcky, was born in Seckking [Söcking], Bavaria, May 29, 1836. He came to America with his parents in 1839. They stopped in Butler Co., Ohio, one year, then came on to Woodford Co., Ill., where they lived for five years, after which they moved to Tazewell Co., where he grew to manhood. Here he confessed Christ as his Savior and was received into the Mennonite Church by baptism at the age of eighteen. Feb. 28, 1858, he was married to Jacobina Zimmerman, which union was blessed with eleven children. Three (Josephine, Jonathan, and Albert) died in their infancy. Two (John and Mary) grew to manhood but preceded their father in death. Six (Elizabeth, Simon, Benjamin, Edward, Amos, and Joseph) survive their father. He was ordained as a minister of the Gospel in 1863 and moved to Bureau Co., in 1869, from which time he has served the Willow Springs Church as minister, and as bishop since 1878, until old age and failing health made it necessary for him to lay down his charge. August 1, 1920, at the People's Hospital in Peru, Ill., he passed away at the ripe old age of 84 y. 2 m. 3 d. In his departure he leaves 6 children, 20 grandchildren and 5 great grandchildren, besides the many relatives and friends to whom he has endeared himself by the 50 years of service for the community of the Willow Springs Mennonite Church. Funeral services were conducted at him home by Eugene Augsburger and C. A. Hartzler of Tiskilwa, Ill., after which his body was laid away in the adjoining cemetery there to await the call of his Lord." A note on Joseph's wife Jacobina Zimmerman is given in ZIMMERMAN; she was a daughter of Michael Zimmerman and his second wife Magdalena Erb. ROPP notes that John Alexander Dowie addressed Tazewell County Mennonites in a meeting at the Railroad Schoolhouse May 14, 1897; the text, mentioning Peter W. Ropp and Joseph Buercky, can be found at zionhealingrooms.com/iwill.pdf

118

88

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

Stuckey." Herald of Truth, December 1894: "Buercky. On the 22d of November 1894, at Tiskilwa, Ill., of the infirmities of old age, sister Barbara, widow of Bro. Andrew Buercky, aged 86 y., 5 m. She leaves 2 sons, 8 grandchildren, 7 great-grandchildren and many friends to mourn her death. Her remains were laid to rest on the 24th in the Willow Spring graveyard Indiantown, Bureau Co., Ill. Funeral services by Jac. Ringenberg and Hy. V. Albrecht in German from Phil. 2:21 and Rev. 14:13, and Val. Strubhar of Washington, Ill., in English from 2 Tim. 4:7, 8. J. Buercky." e. Joseph Burcky was born in March of 1810. He sailed from Hamburg with his older brother John on the brig Montano, arriving at New York Sept. 5, 1833. The passenger list identified the brothers as distillers; gave his age as 23 years, 3 months, 29 years, 2 months; and said they were coming from 'Seking' in Bavaria and bound for Kentucky. He then returned to Europe, and sailed again with his parents and younger sister in 1835. In the same year Joseph married Catherine 'Katie' Schlegel, either in New York or Illinois. She was born Sept. 9, 1816, and died in 1894, a daughter of Christian Schlegel and Catherine Ernst (see SCHLEGEL). The household of Joseph and Katie appears on the 1850 census of District 56, Woodford County as farmer Joseph Berkey, 40, Germany; Catharine, 34, France; and Joseph, 13, Illinois. They appear on the 1870 census of Roanoke as farmer Joseph Burkie, 60; Catharine, 54; Theodor, 26; John, 19; Andrew, 16; and Peter, 12; all stated to be born in Bavaria. f. Marie Burcky was born Jan. 18, 1813. Christian Birki was born March 14, 1789, and died at Groveland Jan. 14, 1866. In Bavaria he lived at Odenstockach, a suburb southeast of Munich. His surname appears as 'Birky' on Bavarian records, but historical notes call him 'Birki' because that is how he signed it and how it appears on his headstone. However, 'C. Birkey' labels his farm on the 1864 plat map of Groveland, and that was the spelling chosen by most of his children. He married Mary, whose surname has not been identified. Her birthplace was given as 'France' when her children described her birthplace on American census reports. The children include: a. Mary Birkey was born April 8, 1816, and died at Roanoke, Woodford County May 13, 1903. She sailed from Le Havre to New York on the ship Baltimore, arriving June 17, 1844. Gary L. Yordy found the passenger list with a group traveling from Bavaria: Peter Zerr, 25; Joseph Burger, 26; Catharina Kunder, 27; Mary Burge, 28; and Johann Horn, 6.119 Johann Horn was Mary's son by a first marriage, later known as John. On Feb. 9, 1847 in Tazewell County she remarried to Peter Yordy. He was born in Upper Alsace June 12, 1815, and died at Roanoke July 2, 1897 (see YORDY). Mary can be found as an 84-year-old widow on the 1900 census of Roanoke, living with children Peter, 44, and Barbara, 39. The census stated that she was born in Germany of French parents, and that she came to America in 1847. They are buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. b. Joseph Birkey was born circa 1818. He has been omitted from traditional lists of children in this family; he was unknown to us until Gary L. Yordy uncovered him during research in Illinois in August 2007. He apparently sailed from Le Havre and arrived at New York on the ship Baltimore June 17, 1844, appearing on the passenger list as 'Joseph Burger.' He was listed as a son and heir to Christian's estate on a legal petition filed by Christian's second wife Elizabeth Stalter in 1866. Yordy has tentatively identified him as the Joseph Birkey who purchased 40 acres at Tremont Oct. 11, 1849. The household appears on the 1860 census of Tremont as Joseph Burkey, 35, Germany; Cordelia, 34, Germany; Emily, 7; Christopher, 6; and Joseph, 3 months; the children all born in Illinois. Yordy also found that on April 18, 1868, Joseph co-signed a guardianship bond with Elizabeth Stalter for his half-siblings Jacob, 'Hellen,' and John Birkey. c. Magdalena/Madeleine Birkey was born in 1821, and died before 1871. Because her date of death has been found as 1908 in most sources, erroneously, we provide some extra information here. Magdalena married Johann/ John Ackerman in Bavaria July 13, 1843. He was born near Regensburg May 24, 1817, and died at Groveland Oct. 28, 1891, where he is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery with his second wife. He was a son of Jakob Ackermann and Catherine Rediger. John and Magdaleans arrived at New York on the Emerald Sept. 23, 1845, accompanied by Magdalena's cousin Andreas/André/Andrew Birky of the 'Little Red Birkys' and George Eichelberger, a future Elm Grove resident. 120 The passenger

119 Gary L. Yordy has identified the Baltimore passengers as Peter Zehr, a son of Daniel Zehr II and Magdalena Unzicker (he married Elizabeth Oyer, see OYER); Joseph Birkey, the oldest son of Christian Birki and Mary; possibly Catharina Kettner, a daughter of George Kettner and Maria Birky; Mary Birkey, a daughter of Christian Birki and Mary; and her son later called 'John.' 120 George Eichelberger appears on the Emerald passenger list as a 29-year-old. He was presumably the brother of Jacob Eichelberger (1825-1897) who married Elizabeth Birkey of the 'Big Birkeys.' In 1848 he married Veronika Stalter, the youngest daughter of Heinrich Stalter (junior) and Jakobine Stalter, owners of the Gern estate. Their household appears on the 1870 census of Elm Grove as farmer George Eichelberger, 53, Bavaria; Veronika , 40, Bavaria; and eight children born in Illinois. Herald of Truth, August 1902: "'Eichelberger. - July 3rd, 1902, near Flanagan, Ill., George Eichelberger, aged 85 Y., 1 M., 16 D. He leaves four sons and five daughters to mourn his departure, yet not as those who leave no hope. Funeral services at the Amish Mennonite M. H., near Hopedale, by Jno. C. Birky, J. P. Smith, Daniel Slagel and Jos. Egli. Interment in the A. M. graveyard west of Hopedale." Headstones in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale describe the couple as "George Eichelberger, May 17,

89

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

d.

list shows them as George Eichelberger, 29; Jean Ackermann, 26; Madeleine, 22; Joseph, 1; and André Burki, 24. The 1850 census of Tazewell County shows their household as John Ackerman, 31, Germany; Madeline, 27, Germany; Joseph, 6, Germany; Mary, 4, Illinois; Nancy, 2, Illinois; and Catherine, 1, Illinois. The 1860 census of Groveland shows the birthplace of the parents and oldest son Joseph as Bavaria. Their children include: 1) Joseph Ackerman was born in Bavaria in 1844. He is found on the 1870 census of Ohio, Bureau County as a 25-year-old farmer with a 21-year-old wife named Mary, born in Illinois, and a son Jacob, 2. 2) Mary Ackerman was born in Bavaria June 20, 1846, and died June 16, 1910. On Feb. 4, 1867 in Tazewell County she married Peter F. Gerber. He was born in Butler County Aug. 1, 1845, and died June 16, 1910, a son of Christian Gerber and Anna Roth. They farmed at Tremont and are buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery at Elm Grove. 3) Anna 'Nancy' Ackerman was born in Tazewell County Dec. 2, 1847, and died July 12, 1915. She appears on the 1900 census of Tremont, as a 53-year-old sister-in-law in the household of Peter F. Gerber and Mary Ackerman. She is buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery. 4) Catherine Ackerman was born in 1849. 5) Magdalena Ackerman was born in 1854. On Aug. 25, 1879 in Tazewell County she married John Miller. 6) Henry Ackerman was born Jan. 3, 1859, and died Oct. 22, 1942. On Oct. 31, 1882 in Tazewell County he married Elizabeth Miller. She was born July 15, 1863, and died Jan. 3, 1938. They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. 7) Andrew Ackerman (twin) was born at Groveland in June 1860. He was four months old at the time of the census. 8) Daniel Ackerman (twin) was born at Groveland in June 1860, and died there Oct. 22, 1942. On June 28, 1885 at Groveland he married Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Gerber. She was born at Elm Grove July 15, 1856, and died at Morton Jan. 17, 1950, a daughter of Peter Gerber and Barbara Bechler (see GERBER AND GARBER for her obituary). They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. 9) Susan Ackerman, born at Groveland April 10, 1863, died at North Hollywood, Los Angeles May 27, 1956. On Oct. 2, 1888 in Tazewell County she married Joseph C. Rediger. He was born at Pekin March 15, 1865, and died at North Hollywood Jan. 23, 1936, a son of Jacob R. Rediger and Magdalena Rediger. Johann remarried to Elisabeth Sutter Miller in Tazewell County Feb. 9, 1871. Elisabeth was born on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau, Bavaria March 1, 1836, and died June 30, 1884, a daughter of Johannes Sutter and Barbara Oesch; she became the widow of Joseph Miller (she married him in Tazewell County Jan. 8, 1864, and he died Sept. 11, 1868). Johann and Elisabeth are found on the 1880 census of Groveland as farmer John Ackerman, 61, from 'Labiern'; Elizabeth Akerman, 45, from 'Albiern' [Altbayern or Oberbayern, the governmental district where Munich and Augsburg are located]; Daniel Akerman, 21; Katie Akerman, 29 [this was meant to be 19]; Susan Akerman, 17; Sara Akerman, 7; Abraham Akerman, 6; stepdaughter Elizabeth Miller, 17; and stepdaughter Mary Miller, 14; all children born in Illinois. Barbara Birky was born June 19, 1824, and died at Hopedale March 31, 1885. She is buried in Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. On April 30, 1849 she married Jacob Stalter. He was born at Hemerten Sept. 12, 1823, a son of Jacob Stalter of Hemerten and Katharina Stalter of Gern, and died in Livingston County June 8, 1898; he is buried in Waldo Cemetery. According to Hermann Guth, her emigration documentation described her as an unmarried resident of Kirchstockach (adjacent to Odenstockach) who would travel with an infant son, Jacob, whose father was named as Thomas Luiderer of Putzbrunn (also adjacent to Odenstockach). Following her marriage, she and her new husband sailed with her uncle Valentine Birky on the Minnesota (more information about the voyage is given in EIGSI). Because their emigration documents were prepared before their marriage, they appear separately on the passenger list. They are found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer Jacob Stalder, 27, Germany; Barbara, 26, Illinois [Bavaria]; Jacob, 6, Illinois; and Mary, 2 months, Illinois. They are found on the 1860 census of Tremont as farmer Jacob Stalter, 38; Barbara Stalter, 38; and six children including oldest son Jacob, 16. Herald of Truth, April 1885: "On the 31st of March, near Hopedale, Tazewell Co., Ill., of a lingering illness, Sister Barbara (Burkey), wife of Jacob N. Stalter, aged 61 years, 1 month and 12 days. The deceased was a faithful member of the Amish Mennonite Church. She died in the full assurance of faith and was buried on the 1st of April, leaving a sorrowing husband, nine children and twenty-nine grandchildren. Three of the children died before her. Funeral services by Noah Augspurger, Daniel Grieser and Joseph Springer. "Herald of Truth, July 1898: "On the 8th of June,

1817-July 3, 1902" and "Fanny Stalter, August 7, 1831-Sept. 16, 1880"; they are buried in the same Eichelberger family plot as Elizabeth Birkey, the wife of Jacob Eichelberger.

90

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

e.

f.

g.

h.

1898, in Livingston Co., Ill., of dropsy, Jacob Stalter, aged 74 years, 9 months and 20 days. Deceased was born in Bavaria, Germany, in 1823, was married to Barbara Birky on the 30th of April, 1849; lived in matrimony 35 years. To this union were born six sons and six daughters; his wife, three sons and one daughter preceded him. Buried on the 10th of June, when a large concourse assembled to pay their last respects to a loved one. Funeral services by Chr. Zimmerman at the house, and by Stephen Stahly, Chr. Zimmerman and John P. Schmitt at the meeting house. Text: Isa. 38 :1-3. Other ministers who were present also assisted, Joseph Kinsinger speaking from 1 Thess. 4 :13. Deceased was a member of the Amish Mennonite Cong., and was highly respected. Besides his eight children he leaves 50 grandchildren, three great-grandchildren, one brother and two sisters." Elizabeth Birkey was born Feb. 28, 1828, and died Feb. 26, 1889. On Sept. 18, 1853 in Tazewell County she married André/Andrew Oyer. 121 He was born at Niderhoff Feb. 27, 1826, and died at Sterling, Kansas June 27, 1913, a son of Joseph Oyer and his second wife Magdalena Litwiller. They are found on the 1880 census of Pike, Livingston County. Andrew is found as a widower living in the household of his son Andrew on the 1900 census of Huntsville, Kansas. Andreas/Andrew Birky was born March 3, 1830, and died at Fisher, Champaign County Sept. 11, 1895. On March 25, 1858 in Tazewell County he married Veronica 'Fannie' Sutter [found in Germany as Sutor].122 She was born on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau, Bavaria Nov. 11, 1838, and died at Fisher April 16, 1927, a daughter of Johannes Sutter and Barbara Oesch. They are found on the 1870 census of Morton. Donna Schrock Birkey: "Andrew [Birky], Barbara's brother, married Veronica Sutter, daughter of Johannes Sutter. Andrew and Veronica bought 80 acres of the Sutter land in Tazewell County in 1882 for $50 an acre. In 1891 they sold the land for $95 an acre and moved to Fisher. Andrew bought land in the same section where daughter Mary and her husband had purchased land and built a house. He donated one acre for cemetery purposes (the present East Bend Mennonite Cemetery) and it happened that he was the first to be buried there. Andrew was a devout Christian and a great disciplinarian according to his daughter Mary." Gospel Herald, May 1927: "Fannie S. Birkey was born Nov. 11, 1838; died April 16, 1927. She was the daughter of John Sutter of Berlin, Germany, who with his family came to the United States in 1848 [1851]. She became a member of the Mennonite Church in her youth. In 1858 she was married to Andrew Birkey, who preceded her in death in 1895. She was the mother of five sons and two daughters. She is survived by three sons, one daughter, twenty-six grandchildren, and thirty-nine great-grandchildren. The funeral service was held in the East Bend Mennonite Church near Fisher, Ill., by A. H. Lehman of Chicago, Ill." Anna Birky was born Jan. 20, 1832. On March 15, 1853 in Tazewell County she married Johannes/John Rediger. He was born in Baden Nov. 28, 1828, and died March 13, 1882, a son of Benjamin Rediger and Barbara Ehresman. They can be found on the 1880 census of Waldo, Livingston County as farmer John Rediger, 51, born in Baden to a father from France and a mother from Württemberg; Anna Rediger, 46, born in Bavaria to parents from France; and 10 children. Katharina/Catherine Burkey/Birkey was born in November 1834, and died Feb. 8, 1874. On Nov. 12, 1854 in Tazewell County she married Daniel Steinman. He was born in Bavaria in February 1830, and died at Nebraska, Livingston County March 17, 1916, a son or nephew of Jacob Steinman. They had eight children born at Flanagan, Livingston County On Aug. 17, 1876 he remarried to Catherine Staley Wyse. They are buried in Waldo Mennonite Cemetery. Gospel Herald, April 1874: " Feb. 8th, in Livingston co., Ill., of nerve fever, Catharine Steinman, wife of Pre. Daniel Steinman, in the 40th year of her age. She admonished her children to be obedient to their father. She leaves a bereaved husband and eight children to mourn their loss. Appropriate remarks were made by Christian Schlegel, from Rev. 21:1-7; and Joseph Gascho, from Heb. 12:1-8." Gospel Herald, March 1916: "Daniel Steinman was born in Germany in February, 1830; died Mar. 17, 1916; aged 86 y. 1 m. At the age of 10 he came to Ohio then on to Tazewell Co., Ill., with relatives; united with the Amish Mennonite Church in his youth and remained a faithful member to the end. Nov. 12, 1854, he was married to Catharine Birky. They made their home in Tazewell Co. for 11 years, then came to Livingston Co. near where the town of Flanagan now is. To this union were born 7 daughters and 1 son. His wife died Feb. 8, 1874. Aug. 17, 1876 he was married to Catharine Stahley (widow) who died Feb. 9, 1905. In the spring of 1870 he was ordained to the ministry and in 1885 he was ordained bishop. These places he filled to the best of his ability. As long as his health permitted he was at his post. For many years he suffered with severe headaches and of late with heart trouble. The last years of his life he has been making his home with his daughter, Barbara (Mrs. Dan Eigsti). On the evening of March 16 he ate a hearty supper and before retiring said he feels real well. The next morning he was found dead in his room. He leaves to mourn his sudden departure 6 daughters, 1 son, 1 stepdaughter, 45 grandchildren, and 45 great-grandchildren. One daughter and 6 grandchildren preceded him. Short services were held at the house by Bro. John Birky, Hopedale, Ill. The services at the church were held by Bros. Dan Orendorff, Andrew Schrock and D. W.

121 122

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists Andrew Oar. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists Andrew Birkey and Farona Suton.

91

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Slagel. Texts, II Cor. 4:17, 18; Matt. 25:21 (1st clause), Job 19:25 (1st clause). Buried in the Waldo graveyard." i. Veronika/Veronica/Fronika 'Fanny' Birkey was born Jan. 16, 1837, and died Feb. 12, 1916. On Aug. 10, 1854, Christian Birki petitioned to be named legal guardian of his 17-year-old daughter 'Fronica' until she reached the age of 18. Gary L. Yordy discovered the document signed by 'Christian Birki': "This suggests that Mary [Christian Birki's first wife] received a bequest (most likely from her father at the time of his death). Since she had apparently pre-deceased the benefactor, her bequest was divided among her natural children (Mary, Joseph, Magdalena, Barbara, Elizabeth, Andrew, Anna, Catharina, and Veronica). All save Veronica were of the age of majority in 1854. In order for her to collect her property, she needed a legal guardian, and that became her father. The person leaving the bequest may have been of some means since Mary's share was $1,602, and an equal amount may well have been left to any of Mary's siblings or their issue. The entire process suggests that Mary Birki's father may have died intestate in Illinois in 1853 or 1854, and it thus may be possible to identify him through probate or other guardian records." On Aug. 17, 1856 in Tazewell County Veronica married Peter Guth. He was born at Burgwalden near Augsburg, Bavaria March 25, 1832, and died Aug. 8, 1916, a son of Christian Guth and Barbara Christner. They are found on the 1880 census of Groveland as farmer Peter Goot, 48, born in Albirn [Altbayern or Oberbayern, the governmental district of Bavaria where Munich and Augsburg are located] to a father from France and a mother from Albirn; and Fronia, 43, born in Albirn to parents from France. (See GOOD). Christian remarried to the much younger Elizabeth Stalter in 1844. She was born April 18, 1813 (24 years younger than Christian), and died at Groveland Sept. 21 or 29, 1872. She was a daughter of Heinrich Stalter Jr. and Jacobine Stalter, the owners of the Gern estate. Farmer 'Christian Birky of Oedenstockach' applied to emigrate March 13, 1851. Mary and Magdalena were already in America. The names and ages of their accompanying children appear on their application to emigrate: Andreas, 29; Anna, 28; Elizabeth, 23; Katharina, 17; Veronika, 15; Jakobine, 5; Heinrich, 4; Jakob, 3; and Helena, 6 months. They took 10,000 florins; Friedrich Blendinger wrote in DieAuswanderung nach Nordamerika aus dem Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern in den Jahren 1846-1852 that of the 79 Mennonites who emigrated from the Munich area, he was by far the wealthiest.123 Gary L. Yordy found the passenger list of the bark Adhemar, which sailed from Le Havre and arrived at New York June 7, 1851: Christian Burki, 62; Elizabeth, 37; Elizabeth, 23; Andrew, 20; Anna, 19; Catharina, 18; Veronica, 15; Jacobina, 5; Heinrich, 4; Jacob, 3; Helena, 6 months. Christian's brother-in-law Georg Kettner also brought his family on this ship. Christian's household is found on the 1860 census of Groveland as farmer Christian Berky, 72; Elizabeth, 48; Henry, 13; Jacob, 11; John, 8; Hellen, 10; and Jacobina, 14; all born in Bavaria except John, who was born in Illinois. Christian and Elizabeth are buried in Birki Cemetery at Groveland, which was carved out of an 80-acre farm they owned just above the center of Groveland (this farm was sold out of the family in 1875, three years after Elizabeth's death). Several members of this family may be buried in unidentified graves in this cemetery. The county cemetery book notes a pile of loose flagstones that may once have held up markers. The 1870 census of Groveland describes the household as Elizabeth Burky, 54, Bavaria; Jacobine, 24, Bavaria; farmer Henry, 23, Bavaria; Jacob, 21, Bavaria; Helena, 20, Bavaria; and John, 18, Illinois; and carpenter John Gerber, 28, born in Canada. The children of Christian Birki and his second wife Elizabeth Stalter include: j. Jakobina/Jacobine 'Phoebe' Birkey was born in Bavaria circa 1846. k. Heinrich/Henry Birkey was born in Bavaria circa 1847. l. Jakob/Jacob Birkey was born in Bavaria circa 1848. m. Helena Birkey was born in Bavaria June 19, 1850 (headstone date; we would expect the end of the year from her father's emigration appliction), and died Oct. 2, 1878. On Feb. 8, 1874 in Tazewell County she married Christian Roggy. He was born at Granville, Putnam County Feb. 29, 1852, and died at Meadows, McLean County Nov. 21, 1919, a son of Pierre/Peter Roggy and Madeleine Roggy (see ROGGY). He remarried to Barbara Stalter Feb. 2, 1880. Gospel Herald, December 1919: "Christian Roggy was born near Granville, Ill., Feb. 29, 1852; died at his home in Meadows, Ill., Nov. 21, 1919: aged 67 y. 8 m. 22 d. Feb. 8, 1874, be was united in marriage to Helen Burkey of Tazewell Co., Ill., who died Oct. 2, 1878. One son (Joseph) and one daughter (Lydia) were born to them, who both preceded him in death. Feb. 2, 1880, he was married to Barbara Stalter. Two sons and two daughters were born to this union. One daughter (Ada L.) died at the age of 18 mo. He leaves his deeply bereaved wife, 2 sons (Edwin J. and Alvin P.) and one daughter (Katie King), 6 grandchildren, and many friends and relatives. He united with the A. M. Church at Tiskilwa, Ill., at the age of 23 years and remained faithful to the end. He loved to read God's Word and to have it read to him. In 1893 he with his family moved to Decatur Co., Kans., for his health where they resided until 1904, when they removed to [Camp Branch] Cass. Co., Mo., remaining there until 1914, when they came to Illinois where they have since resided. Funeral services at the house by Bro. G. H. Summer and at the church by Bro. Joe Kinsinger in the German and Bro. D. W. Slagel in the English language. Interment in the Waldo Cemetery."

123

Auswanderung also indicates that from 1848 to 1852, 67 persons left the administrative district of Munich to emigrate to

Illinois.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

5.

n. John Birkey was born at Groveland circa 1852. In August 2007 Gary L. Yordy located a petition filed after Christian Birki's death by his widow Elizabeth Stalter and oldest son Joseph. On March 5, 1866 they stated that Christian died intestate Feb. 14, 1866, and that he left property valued at $1,400. Joseph requested to be named administrator of the estate. The children of the family were listed in order of birth. The list above follows this list, given here with spellings as found: Mary Yorte [Yordy], Joseph Birkey, Magdalena Ackerman, Barbara Stalter, Elizabeth Eyer, Andrew Birkey, Anna Rekeker [Rediger], Catharine Steinman, Fronica Guth, Jacobina Birkey, Henry Birkey, Jacob Birkey, Helena Birkey, and John Birkey. Marie Birki, a husband, and children are found as emigrants from Gern in Friedrich Blendinger's Die Auswanderung nach Nordamerika aus dem Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern in den Jahren 1846-1852. However, Marie does not appear on the passenger list and may have died shortly before her family's emigration. Blendinger's account from Munich records says farmer/small landowner (Ger. Gütner) Georg Kettner emigrated from Gern with seven children, one illegitimate child, four illegitimate grandchildren, and 1,562 florins. Gary L. Yordy found the passenger list of the bark Adhemar, which sailed from Le Havre and arrived at New York June 7, 1851: George Kether, 63; Magdalena, 39; Susanna, 37; Elizabeth, 35; Georg, 34; Catharine, 33; Veronica Kettner, 31; Jacobina, 29; Elizabeth, 5; George, 9; Magdalena Lindeler, 6; and Jacob Lindeler, 5. Their children include: a. Magdalena Kettner was born circa 1812. b. Susanna Kettner was born circa 1814. 'Susannah Kitner' married Jacob Zitler in Tazewell County June 23, 1851. c. Elisabeth Kettner was born circa 1816. 'Elizabeth Kitner' married Casper Overmire in Tazewell County Dec. 27, 1851. d. Georg Kettner Jr. was born circa 1817. George Kettner was naturalized in Tazewell County Sept. 20, 1855. According to Gary L. Yordy, he stated that he was born in 'Byrone' [Bayern], Germany. He was living with Anna Elizabeth Haas at Pekin in 1860; the census describes the household of laborer George Kidner, 43, Bavaria; Anna, 37, Bavaria; John Bohn,4, Illinois; Frederic Smelzer, 24, Bavaria; and Cartroon, 23, Prussia. Anna had apparently brought a 2-year-old son John to her marriage with John Bohn Sr. in Tazewell County June 25, 1858, and John Sr. had died before 1860. 124 The 1870 census of Pekin's Third Ward describes laborer George Keltner, 54, Bavaria; Anna, 46, Bavaria; and John Bohn, 14, Illinois.125 e. Catharina Kettner was born circa 1818. f. Veronica Kettner was born circa 1820. 'Saphrona Kitner' married Joseph 'Kaughman' in Tazewell County Aug. 17, 1851. g. Jacobina 'Bena' Kettner was born circa 1822. 'Jackobina Kittner' married Christian 'Renkenburger' in Tazewell County March 14, 1852 (see RINGENBERGER). She is buried with Christian in Rinkenberger Cemetery at Fond du Lac as 'Bena Kiddner.' Valentine Birky was born in 1793, and died at Tremont Sept. 12, 1860. He is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery at Elm Grove, where the headstone spells his first name 'Valentin.'

Valentine Birky was the father of a family that came to be called the 'Little Red Birkys' of the Dillon Creek Meeting. He was born in 1793 on what was later French territory, presumably in Crooked Alsace. Valentine probably came to the Palatinate around the time that confiscated cloister properties were given to Amish Mennonite farmers, 1802-03. The Elector of the Palatinate had opposed the French Revolution and initially provided troops to fight against Napoleon. However, when war resumed in 1804, the elector changed allegiances and fought on the side of Napoleon and France. His troops helped Napoleon to defeat a numerically superior Austrian army at Austerlitz. He received the anticipated reward when the country of Bavaria was created from Wittelsbach family properties under the Treaty of Pressburg, and became King Maximilian I of Bavaria Dec. 26, 1805. When Austria challenged Napoleon again four years later, Bavaria once again fought as a French ally. However, in June of 1812 Napoleon marched his troops into Russia to head off a threat to Poland. The campaign was an unqualified disaster. During this time Bavarian troops were considered "unreliable at best" on the battlefield. The king of Bavaria was beginning to reconsider his options. Many Bavarian troops declined to take the field on behalf of the French on the eve of the 'battle of nations' at Leipzig, Oct. 16-19, 1813. Following the battle, Maximilian I made it openly known that he was going over to the allies. He met up with 13,000 Austrian units, and energetically moved his 17,000 troops to block the retreat path of the French at Hanau. Although the French succeeded in passing through his lines on Oct. 30, inflicting 9,000 casualties, the Bavarian king had made the point that he was prepared to sacrifice to aid the allies. Through such maneuvering, Maximilian I managed to preserve his kingdom and sovereignty in the bargaining at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

124 125

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as John Bohn and Ann E. Hons. John Bohn Jr. was married to Eliza Schwardt in Tazewell County Sept. 30, 1880.

93

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Valentine married Elizabeth Unzicker circa 1815, the year he turned 21 and their first child was born. It is probable that she was the daughter of Daniel Unzicker and his first wife Jakobea Holly, and a half-sister to Daniel Unzicker who married Magdalena Kahn (he was a son of Daniel Unzicker and his second wife Elisabeth Hauter ­ see UNZICKER, BUTLER COUNTY UNZICKERS). Valentine and Elizabeth raised cattle on an estate owned by Heinrich Stalter Jr. and his wife Jakobine Stalter. THE GERN ESTATE

Amish Mennonites in Germany tells the story of how the cloister of St. Theresa at Gern became the possession of an Amish Mennonite family.126 Initially, Heinrich Stalter (senior) (1725-1800) leased the Kirschbacherhof near Hornbach, Zweibrücken. The estate was owned by members of the Wittelsbach ducal family, and they continued to use the hunting grounds. This may have played a part in the family's favorable attitude toward Mennonites; they were especially tolerant, and often employed Mennonites on other properties. In 1789 anti-royal French troops burned the buildings of the Kirschbacherhof. The estate was nationalized, though it was later returned to private ownership. In 1795 a Wittelsbach named Maximilian Joseph became duke. He was born as the Count of Rappolstein in Lower Alsace, and had been educated by French tutors. He had also been a major general in the French army, and was stationed at Strasbourg 1782-89 with his Royal Alsace Regiment. However, he actually turned against the French during their revolution, fighting with Austria from 1789 until the Peace of Amiens in 1802. In February of 1799 Maximilian Joseph became Elector Maximilian IV Joseph. He was a progressive administrator who relaxed restrictions on agriculture and commerce, and made the tax code more equitable. His edict of religious tolerance offered Mennonites full rights of citizenship. Though not exempt from conscription, Mennonites could hire substitutes to serve their military commitments. The elector also confiscated a number of Catholic properties and used their revenues for public education. In 1802 Heinrich Stalter's widow, second wife Katharina Imhof, appealed to the elector, whose parents had often hunted on the Kirchbacherhof. She requested land for her sons, citing the role her deceased husband had played as host to the Wittelsbach family. The elector knew of several nationalized cloister properties. Katharina's sons received estates, and invited other Amish Mennonite families to join them. The property at Gern was given to Katharine's son Heinrich Stalter (junior). He was born on the Kirschbacherhof in 1776, assumed his property in 1802, and married Jakobine Stalter. Heinrich Stalter (junior) was an older brother to Maria Stalter, the wife of Wilmot settler Christian Nafziger (see ROPP, NORTH AMERICA AND WILMOT TOWNSHIP).127 On the opposite side of the center of Munich was Berg am Laim, a mountain and brickworks. Daniel Zehr and Magdalena Unzicker had children there in 1810 and 1812. Most of the Zehr family later came to Tazewell County. Gern also had connections to the Hemerten estate located near Ellgau, about 18 miles upriver from Augsburg, Bavaria. Owner Heinrich Stalter (junior) of Gern and owner Heinrich Stalter of Hemerten were cousins, and there were several intermarriages between the two locations. Widower Heinrich Stalter (junior) emigrated with his children in 1842 or 1843. He had five daughters and a son living in Tazewell County, and he appears on the 1845 'livestock tax' state census in the household of son-in-law Christian Yotty and daughter Katharina/Catherine Stalter; then again on the 1850 census of the county as 'Henry Stalder, 74' in their Washington household. It is thought that he is buried in Birki Cemetery at Groveland near daughter Elizabeth Stalter, the wife of Christian Birki.

The political landscape of Europe changed significantly after the Congress of Vienna. Maximilian I struck up an alliance with the Vatican. The Catholic Church was reinstated in Bavaria in October of 1817, but the monarch reserved the right to restrict activities and approve appointments. A Catholic priest was chosen to tutor the king's son.

126 The identification of the correct 'Gern' was initially confused by a typed transcription of a naturalization Declaration of Intent created at the Tremont Courthouse by 20-year-old Bavarian Johan Birky. He was better known as John Birky, 1835-1925, one of 13 children of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. The typewritten copy of his declaration states that he arrived in New York June 20, 1849, and that he had come from Maria Gern near Berchtesgaden. It is possible that the erroneous geography detail was added by the transcribing clerk; in August 2007 Gary L. Yordy located the original entry in Tazewell County Naturalization Book D-I, which stated, "...I arrived in the City of New York on the 20th day of June 1849. That I was born in Gern in Bavaria and am 20 years of age and that I reside in Tazewell County state of Illinois. Pekin, June 18, 1855," signed 'Johan Birky.' 127 Maria Stalter married Christian Nafziger (1776-1836) in 1810. According to an uncredited article in the Summer 1979 issue of the Nafzger Heritage News, Christian Nafziger "had gone after 1803 with the Stalter family to Bavaria, where he applied in vain to King Max I Josef, to whom the Stalters maintained good relations, for a tenement of a larger farm. Mr. [Hermann] Guth states that the letter can be found in the Staatsarchiv in Munich..." Christian Nafziger and Maria Stalter were managing the estate of Count von Gohren at Ebersberg east of Munich when he left for Canada (via Amsterdam and New Orleans) in 1821. He made the arrangement that procured the German Block of Wilmot Township, Ontario, and returned for Maria in 1823. She emigrated with him on the Nimrod in 1826, and died in 1832.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The political circumstances that might have prompted the 'Forty-Eighters' to emigrate from Bavaria were noted in EIGSTI. Friedrich Blendinger in Die Auswanderung nach Nordamerika aus dem Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern in den Jahren 1846-1852: "Emigration from the urban area of Munich peaked in the period 1846-1852, with 177 total emigrants, including 47 in 1846 and 45 in 1852. About one-quarter of these were Mennonite or Evangelical, among them...the Mennonite family Birki of Gern..." Elizabeth Unzicker died in 1848, leaving five younger children living with their father in Bavaria. Valentine elected to emigrate with the younger children in 1849, leaving only oldest son Jacob in Bavaria. According to his emigration application he carried 10,000 florins. His voyage from Le Havre to New York on the Minnesota was described in EIGSTI. The family appears on the passenger list filed June 21, 1849 as Valentin Burke, 56; Henri [Heinrich and later Henry]; Marie, 14; Johann, 12; Jacobina, 11; and Barbara, 9. After Heinrich's name his age is heavily overwritten 'infant' ­ although he was 18 years old. We can speculate that the trip saved him from military conscription. Upon arrival at New York, Valentine traveled directly to Tremont. Land on the north side of Allentown Road was jointly held by three of his sons, awaiting his arrival. 128 The 1860 census of Morton shows the household of Joseph Birky and Barbara Eigsti with Valentine Birky, 67. Son Jacob finally emigrated from Europe in 1860, arriving at New York only 27 days before the death of his father Valentine Sept. 12. Valentine is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery at Elm Grove. Presumably all the children of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker were born at Gern. They include:

1. Jakob/Jacob Birky was born circa 1815, and died in Woodford County March 1, 1887. In 1845 he married Veronica 'Fannie' Gingerich, who was born Aug. 10, 1819, and died at Milford, Nebraska Feb. 24, 1901; she is buried in East Fairview Cemetery as 'Veronika Birky.' Jacob/Jakob was the last of the children to leave Europe. They sailed from Bremen on the bark Tuisco, arriving at New York Aug. 15, 1860; the passenger list included Jacob Birki, 46; Monika [Veronika], 37; Jacob, 16; Joseph, 14; Magdalen, 12; Christian, 7 years 6 months; and Johnn, 4. They can be found on the 1870 census of Linn, where their household is described as farmer Jacob Burkie, 56, Bavaria; Frances, 51, Bavaria; Jacob, 25, Bavaria; Joseph, 24, Bavaria; Christian, 18, Bavaria; John, 15, Bavaria (the sons were all farm hands); Lena, 23, Bavaria; Mary, 12, Bavaria; and Annie, 7, Bavaria. The 1880 census of Linn describes Jacob Birkey, 66; Fannie, 55; Jacob, 35; Joseph, 34; and John, 26, all from Baden. Herald of Truth, April 1887: "Burky On the 1st of March, in Woodford county, Ill., of cancer in the stomach and lung fever, Bro. Jacob Burky, aged about 72 years. He was buried on the 3d. Services by Chr. Risser, John P. Schmidt and Peter Hockstetler, from 1 Cor. 15 and John 5:24. The deceased suffered much pain for several years, but he bore it all patiently." Herald of Truth, March 1901: "Veronica Berkey was born Aug. 10, 1819, died near Milford, Neb., Feb. 24, 1901, aged 81 years, 6 months and 14 days. She was the widow of Jacob Berkey and leaves three sons and one daughter, thirty grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren to mourn her departure. She was a beloved sister in the Amish Mennonite Church, and an affectionate mother. She lived with her youngest son, John, and was tenderly cared for during her illness of over four weeks. Buried in the Fairview cemetery. Funeral services by Joseph Schlegel in German, from 2 Cor. 5:1 and in English by N.E. Roth, from John 11:25. A large concourse of people gathered on this occasion, in token of the respect and esteem in which she was held. Peace to her ashes. D.B." Joseph Birky was born May 17, 1816, and died at Milford, Nebraska March 13, 1902 (where his East Fairview Cemetery headstone says 'Joseph Burkey'). He emigrated from Europe in 1844, but returned for Barbara Eigsti (see EIGSTI). From Roanoke Centennial History: "Joseph Birkey was born in Bavaria, Germany, in 1816. He came to the United States in 1844, and settled first in New Orleans, Louisiana. He then moved to Tazewell County for one year, then returned to Germany. He married Barbara Eikstein in Bavaria, then returned to the United States." Joseph, his bride-to-be Barbara Augustine (later 'Eigsti'), her sister Catherine, and his younger brother Valentine sailed on the Daniel Kilby, arriving at New Orleans in October 1846. The passenger list shows "Joseph Bircky 29; Augustine Cath. 21; Barbara, 20; and Birky Valentine 26." They married in America Aug. 22, 1847. She was born at Pellheim, Bavaria Jan. 23, 1827, died at Milford Aug. 6, 1911, and was buried near Joseph in East Fairview Cemetery at Woodriver (now part of Milford). Christian 'Harry' Burkey was born Sept. 4, 1819, and died at Milford, Nebraska Nov. 6, 1890, where he is buried in East Fairview Cemetery. The Past and Present of Woodford County, Illinois says he married Maria/Marie/Mary Stalter in 1839. She was born at Munich March 5, 1820, and died at Raymond, Lancaster County, Nebraska Jan. 3, 1916, a daughter of Gern estate owners Heinrich Stalter Jr. and Jakobine Stalter. She is also buried in East Fairview Cemetery as 'Mary Burkey.' The Past and Present of Woodford County, Illinois says that son Christian "...was raised a farmer, and came to this country in 1842, landing at New Orleans, and proceeding up the Mississippi and Illinois

2.

3.

128 The 1850 census shows three couples family clustered next to Christian Bechler's property on the north side of Allentown Road (just west of what is now Pleasant Grove Cemetery): Walter Burkie, 26, Germany, and Elizabeth, 20; Andrew Burkie, 22, and Catherine, 18; Joseph Burkie, 28, Barbara, 25, and laborer Christian Springer, 15. In retrospect they appear to be Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Springer; Andrew Birky and Catherine Litwiller; and Joseph Birky and Barbara Eigsti; their incorrect ages may have been taken from travel documents prepared before their immigration.

95

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

5.

6.

Rivers to Peoria, where he remained a couple of weeks and then came to Woodford County; at the end of one year, however, he removed to Tazewell County, and resided there until 1875, when he returned to Woodford County." They are found on the 1880 census of Metamora as farmer Christian Burkey, 60, born in Bavaria to a father from France and a mother from Bavaria; Maria, 59, born in Bavaria to Bavarian parents; and daughter Katharina, 22, born in Illinois to Bavarian parents. At Metamora they owned 80 acres of land valued at $4,800. Herald of Truth, December 1890: "On the 6th of Nov. 1890, near Milford, Seward Co., Neb., Christian Burkey, aged 71 Y., 2M., 2 D. He lived in matrimony 51 years and leaves a wife, 11 children, 46 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren to mourn their loss. He was a member of the A. Mennonite church. Services were conducted by Jos. Schlegel from John 11:25, 26, and Jos. Gasho from 2 Cor. 5:1." Gospel Herald, January 1916: " Mary Burkey (nee Stalter) was born Mar. 5, 1820, at Munich, Bavaria, Germany; died Jan. 3, 1916, at the home of her son at Raymond, Nebr.; aged 95 y. 9 m. 29 d. Married to Christian Burkey in 1838, came with him to America in 1843. To them were born 12 children, 1 died at birth, 1 in later years and 10 remain to mourn her departure. She also leaves 49 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren. She has always lived a beautiful Christian life and has enjoyed good health until the last 10 days when she was taken with lagrippe."129 Valentine Birky was born Oct. 12, 1821, and died at Tiskilwa, Bureau County June 28, 1901. In 1846 he was a Daniel Kilby passenger. On Feb. 4, 1850 in Tazewell County he married Elizabeth Springer. 130 The day before his daughter of David Springer and Elizabeth Guth. Her parents sailed with the Birkys on the Minnesota. Valentine is listed as 38-year-old farmer Valentine 'Buckey' on the 1860 census of Tremont. The 1880 census of Tremont lists their household as farmer Valentine Burkey, 59; Elisabeth Burkey, 48; and 7 children. Every member of the household is erroneously listed as a native of Berne with parents from Berne. Herald of Truth, July 1901: "Valentine Birky was born on Oct. 12, 1821, and died June 28, 1901, aged 79 years, 8 months and 16 days. He came to America in 1846 and settled in Tazewell Co., Ill. In 1850 he was married to Elizabeth Springer. To this union were born thirteen children, three of whom preceded him to the spirit world. The deceased leaves ten children, twenty-four grandchildren, one great grandchild, three brothers, and three sisters to mourn his death. The funeral services were conducted by Jacob Ringenberg from Tiskilwa, and Peter Hochsettler, Groveland, Ill." Andreas/André/Andrew Birky was born Oct. 10, 1822, and died at Morton Nov. 7, 1893. He is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland as 'A. L. Birky.' In Auswanderung German genealogist Hermann Hage found the date of his emigration application as March 8, 1845. He arrived at New York on the Emerald Sept. 23, 1845, listed as 'André Burki' and accompanied by his cousin Magdalena/Madeleine Birkey, her husband Johann/Jean/John Ackerman, and their son Joseph. On June 20, 1848 in Tazewell County he married Catherine Litwiller. She was born in Butler County July 28, 1832, and died Aug. 24, 1870, a daughter of Peter Litwiller and Marie Mosiman. On the 1850 census he is listed as 'Andrew Birkie'; he is also shown as 42-year-old farmer Andrew 'Buckey' on the 1860 census of Tremont, and the 1870 census of Morton as 'Andrew Burky.' In 1880 Andrew is found as a widower on the census of Morton. Magdalena Birky was born Nov. 12, 1824, and died Feb. 18, 1897. She appears on a Munich emigration list from 1848, which states that she carried 500 florins. In about 1850 she married Herman Simermacher, who was born in Hesse circa 1818. We found him completely elusive until Gary L. Yordy pointed out the correct spelling of his surname and provided a wealth of information. Herman arrived at New York on the Burgundy June 21, 1843, appearing on the passenger list as 'Herrman Simermacher,' 25. In 1850 they were living at Philadelphia, where Herman was employed as a lamp maker. They also lived in Missouri, and later at Peoria. Herman appears on the 1860 census of Peoria as a 42-year-old brass worker; Magdalena, 36; with fours sons Charles, John, Henry, and William. Herman enlisted at Peoria Sept. 26, 1862, served as a private with Company E of the 82nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment (some related sources call him 'Adam Simmenmacher'), and was discharged at

John W. Burkey, a son of Christian 'Harry' Burkey (son of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker) and Maria/Marie/Mary Stalter (daughter of Heinrich Stalter junior and Jakobine Stalter) may have been the only Bürki descendant from Central Illinois to serve in the Civil War. He was born Aug. 24, 1847. The Historical Encyclopaedia of Tazewell County says he enlisted May 4, 1864. Military records describe him as "John Burky, private, Tremont, enlisted June 1, 1864; mustered out Oct. 28, 1864; Company C, 139th Illinois Infantry." The 139th Illinois Infantry was composed of 100-day volunteers from Tazewell and Woodford Counties. It stood guard duty at Cairo. Just after the 100 days of enlistment had passed, before the soldiers could be mustered out, a Confederate force under Major Gen. Sterling Price began marching toward St. Louis. President Lincoln sent a dispatch directly to the regiment commanding officer, Col. Peter Davidson of Peoria, asking him to defend the city. The 139th used the railroad to reach the city first, and Major Gen. Price retreated. President Lincoln wrote a letter to the regiment expressing his gratitude. On Sept. 25, 1882 at Milford, Nebraska John married Veronica 'Fannie' Kuhns. She was born in Holmes County, Ohio Nov. 24, 1862, and died May 21, 1940, a daughter of Joseph Kuhns and Catherine 'Katie' Garber; their family had come to Seward County from Ohio in 1873. John is found on lists of veterans created in Nebraska in 1891 and 1893, while he was living at Ulysses, Butler County, Nebraska. He may have taken advantage of Nebraska homesteading requirement waivers awarded to federal veterans. He belonged to Post 73 of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Civil War veterans meeting at Ulysses. They appear on the 1930 census of Seward, Milford County as John W. Burkey, 75 [he was actually 82] , born in Illinois to German parents; and Fannie, 67, born in Ohio to parents from Ohio. One sources says he died as a centenarian Feb. 11, 1948. 130 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Valentine Burkey and Elizabeth Spring.

129

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Washington, D.C. for disabilities Jan. 9, 1863. The family is listed without Herman on the 1870 census of Peoria County's 7th Ward. On the 1880 census of Peoria Magdalena is listed as 'Mary Simermacher' in the household of son Theodore Herman Simermacher. [The standardized German spelling of this surname is 'Simmermacher']. Elizabeth Birky was born in 1826, and died in Tazewell County in October 1866. On Jan. 3, 1847 in Tazewell County she married Johannes/John Birkey ('Big Birkeys'). He was born Jan. 25, 1815, and died in Tazewell County Nov. 9, 1896. His household is found on the 1880 census of Elm Grove as retired farmer John Birkey, 65, born in Bavaria to a father from France and a mother from Hesse; and three children born in Illinois to a father from Bavaria and a mother from Hesse: Christian, 25; Elizabeth, 19; and Catherine, 17. Catherine Birky was born Jan. 29, 1829, and died March 18, 1870. She is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery. On Feb. 3, 1850 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Ropp. The next day her older brother Valentine married Elizabeth Springer. Joseph was born at Largitzen, Upper Alsace July 6, 1823, died March 3, 1885, and is buried in Glendale Cemetery at Washington, a son of Andreas Ropp and Elisabeth Eymann (see ROPP). Heinrich 'Henry' Birky was born Feb. 2, 1831, and died at Groveland Aug. 4, 1918. On April 30, 1854 he married Magdalena 'Lena' Eigsti.131 She was born Oct. 24, 1836, and died at Pekin May 13, 1906, a daughter of Nicholas Augstein and Barbara Gascho. They can be found on the same page of the 1880 census of Morton on the same page as her brother Joseph Eigsti, where they listed their birthplaces as France (Henry) and Bavaria (Magdalena), with 10 children. On Sept. 3, 1883 their son Nicholas Birkey married Matilda 'Tilly' Staker, the youngest child of Joseph Staker and Frena Roth. Henry is found as 80-year-old widower Henry Birkey on the 1910 census of Groveland, where he stated that he had immigrated in 1849. Henry and Magdalena are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Mary Birky was born March 19, 1833, and died at Schickley, Nebraska Oct. 28, 1908. 132 On Jan. 7, 1851 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Birkey ('Big Birkeys'). He was born March 19, 1828, and died at Schickley Dec. 6, 1906 (his obituary follows). Johann/John Birky was born Jan. 1, 1835, and died at Peoria March 28, 1925. On March 15, 1858 at Pekin he married Jacobina Hochstettler. She was born at Meringerau near Augsburg, Bavaria Nov. 7, 1835, and died at Tremont in 1896, a daughter of Joseph Hochstettler and Jacobina 'Phoebe' Gingerich (see HOCHSTETTLER). They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. On June 18, 1855 he applied for naturalization with the county clerk as 'Johann Birky.' He stated that he arrived at New York June 20, 1849 (the Minnesota passenger list was turned in June 21, 1849). Jacobene 'Phoebe' Birky was born Jan. 15, 1838, and died Sept. 15, 1914. On Nov. 17, 1857 in Tazewell County she married shoemaker and farmer Daniel Unzicker. He was born at Wilmot, Ontario Feb. 11, 1829, a son of Daniel Unzicker and Magdalena Kahn. (This Unzicker family relocated from Wilmot to Collinsville, Butler County at about the same time as the Ropp family).133 Perhaps she met Daniel Unzicker through his sister Magdalena, who married David Augspurger and moved from Butler County to live next door to the Birkys. Or perhaps Daniel Unzicker (senior) was a half-brother to Valentine's first wife, Elizabeth Unzicker. They appear on the 1870 census of Morton with four children born in Illinois. They can also be found on the 1910 census of Milford, Nebraska, and are buried there. Barbara Birky was born Jan. 9, 1840, and died July 28, 1934. On March 14, 1858 in Tazewell County she married future minister Peter Hochstettler. He was born Feb. 28, 1834, and died Jan. 20, 1824, a son of Joseph Hochstettler and Jacobine 'Phoebe' Gingerich (see HOCHSTETTLER).

The Big Birkeys

The early history of this family is simply a mix of family stories that may be impossible to verify. Christian Birki (senior) is thought to have been born in the Swiss confederation. His son Christian Birki (junior) was born circa 1783. His children later listed his birthplace as 'France.' He is thought to have been associated with the Lutterbacherhof, and was likely related to the families already mentioned. He is thought to have married in Alsace circa 1806. We found no information about the marriage, except that his wife from Hesse-Darmstadt survived him. According to A Brief Account of the History, Ancestry & Descendants of the John C. Birky Family, Christian (junior) left Alsace during the Napoleonic Wars and went north to avoid military conscription. The family settled in the vicinity of Augsburg, Bavaria. Augsburg is 42 miles northwest of Munich, and both cities are located in the administrative district of Oberbayern. This may explain the connections between the 'Big Birkeys' and the Hochstettlers, who lived at Meringerau (now a part of Augsburg). When his sons reached an eligible age, Christian (junior) considered emigration. His sons Christian (born in

131 132

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Henry Berkie and Magdelina Eigsti. The name of this community has only recently changed spelling to 'Shickley.' 133 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as David Unzicker and Phebe Birkey.

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1810) and Johannes/John (born in 1815) were sent ahead to scout the new country, sailing on the Burgundy from Le Havre to New York, arriving Oct. 12, 1839.134 The passenger list shows J. Burky, 24, and C. Burky, 31. "The two older sons, Christian and John, went to America alone first and settled in Butler County, Ohio." Unfortunately, Christian (junior) died around 1839-40. "About a year later the other four brothers joined Christian and John in Ohio, and in 1839 or 1840 all six went west and located along Dillon Creek in Tazewell County, Illinois. The sister Elizabeth, who had married Jacob Eichelberger, came to America with her family and settled in the vicinity of her brothers. The mother and older sister, who married a man by the name of Jacob Rogie, remained in Germany." The 1850 census of Tazewell County shows the households of Valentine, Andrew, John (with Jacob and Joseph), and Christian in consecutive order on one page. In Tazewell County the family worshipped with the Dillon Creek Meeting, where they were known as the 'Big Birkeys' for their physical stature. Two of them married children of Valentine Birky (whose children and grandchildren were called the 'Little Red Birkys'), who arrived in 1849. The children of Christian Birki (junior) include:

1. Christian Birkey was born Sept. 29, 1810, and died in Tazewell County Sept. 26, 1885. On Aug. 30, 1841 he married Catherine Mosiman, whose family was living in Butler County at the time. Catherine was born at Azoudange circa 1820, and died at Boynton Feb. 13, 1909, a daughter of Joseph Mosimann and Marie Madeleine Zwalter (see MOSIMAN). The Mosiman family were Superior passengers in 1830. Catherine was a cousin to bishop Michael Mosiman. Their household appears on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as Christian Burkie, 38, Germany; Christian, 27, Germany [marked as a female, almost certainly meant to be Catherine]; Catharine, 6, Illinois; Fanny, 4, Illinois; Christian, 2, Illinois; and John, 1 Illinois. They are described on the 1880 census of Little Mackinaw as Christon Birky, 70, farmer from Bavaria; Katherine, 60, from France; and four children ranging in ages 22-15. They are buried at Mennonite Cemetery in Hopedale. Katharina Birkey was born Aug. 12, 1812. She married Jakob Roggie/Roggy. He was born at Neidenfels (16 miles southeast of Kaiserslautern) in 1805, and died at Schaffhausen (37 miles above Augsburg, 75 miles northwest of Munich) in 1881, a son of Christian Roggy and Catherine Nafziger. Schaffhausen is next to Kaisheim, where an estate was managed by the Roggy family. Jakob's aunt Katharina Roggy married Heinrich Stalter, the owner of the Hemerten estate. Johannes/John Birkey was born Jan. 25, 1815, and died in Tazewell County Nov. 9, 1896. On Jan. 7, 1847 in Tazewell County he married Elizabeth Birky ('Little Red Birkys'). She was born in 1826 and died in Tazewell County in October 1866, a daughter of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. Their household appears on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer John Burkie, 35, Germany; Elizabeth, 25, Germany; Elizabeth, 2, Illinois; John, 1, Illinois; laborer Jacob, 25, Germany; and laborer Joseph, 22, Germany. John is found as a 65-year-old retired farmer on the 1880 census of Elm Grove, living with three children. He stated that his father was born in France, his mother in Hesse. Andreas/Andrew Birkey was born circa 1816, and died in Tazewell County Jan. 27, 1892. On Oct. 27, 1843 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Gerber. She was born Dec. 22, 1823, and died at Dewey June 12, 1912, a daughter of Christian Gerber and his wife Magdalena. The household appears on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer Andrew Burkie, 33, Germany; Madeline, 26, Germany; Caroline, 5, Illinois; Christian, 3, Illinois; and Andrew3, 6 months, Illinois. They are found on the 1860 census of Morton as farmer Andrew Birkey, 44, Bavaria; Madaline, 33, Bavaria; Christian, 13; Andrew, 10; John, 7; Valentin, 4; Magdeline, 1; and Pheobe, 12, all children born in Illinois. They appear on the 1880 census of Boynton as farmer Andrew Berky, 63, born in Bavaria to parent from France and Hesse; Magdalene, 54, born in France to French parents; and two children born in Illinois. On Jan. 25 and 28, 1856, Andrew applied for naturalization at the county clerk's office. He declared that he was born at Willbach, Bavaria (perhaps this was Wollbach, 18 miles west of Augsburg) and had entered the county at New York in 1846. Herald of Truth, February 1892: "Buerky - On the 27th of January, 1892, in Tazewell Co., Ill., Pre. Andrew Buerky, aged 75 years and 3 months. Funeral services were conducted by Pre. Egli and Noah Augspurger from 1 Cor. 15." Gospel Herald, July 1912: "Birkey. - Magdalena Birkey, nee Gerber, was born in Germany, Dec. 22, 1823; died at her home near Dewey, Ill., of infirmities of old age, June 12, 1912; aged 88 y. 5 m. 20 d. Mother Birkey united with the A. M. Church in her younger years and remained a faithful member to the end. She united in marriage with Andrew Birkey. This union was blessed with 6 children. She lived in matrimony with her husband 48 years and lived a widow about 20 years. She leaves 5 children, 30 grandchildren, 36 great-grandchildren and many friends to mourn her departure. Her husband and 1 daughter preceded her to the world beyond. Funeral services at the home by Peter Zehr in German and at the church by Daniel Greiser and J. C. Birkey in German and Peter Zehr in English. Texts, Psa. 90, Deut.31.14, II Cor. 5:1, and II Tim. 4:6-8. Buried in cemetery nearby." Their son Andrew James Burkey married Magdalena 'Lena' Staker, a daughter of Nicholas Stecker/Staker and Maria Magdalena Eimer.

2.

3.

4.

Coincidentally, the passenger list of the Burgundy as it arrived in New York June 3, 1840 included Daniel Burkey, 49; Maria Burkey, 51; Maria Burkey, 20; and Barbara, 17, of Bavaria. We could not identify them further.

134

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5.

6.

7.

8.

Valentine Birkey was born circa 1821, and died Nov. 30, 1856. On March 14, 1847 in Woodford County he married Magdalena Naffziger; elder Jean/John Nafziger performed the ceremony. Magdalena was born Aug. 24, 1827, and died April 2, 1908, a daughter of Jacob Naffziger and Barbara Krehbiel and niece of 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger. She came to America with her parents in 1833. Valentine was ordained as a minister of the Dillon Creek meeting in 1847. The 1850 census of Tazewell County shows his household as Valentine Burker, 29, Germany; Madeline, 24, Germany [she was born in 1827, and would have been 22]; Phoebe Burkie, 2, Illinois; and Barbara, 1, Illinois. In 1869 Magdalena remarried to bishop Christian Ropp, a son of Andreas Ropp and Elisabeth Eymann (see the ROPP genealogy). Jacob Birkey was born May 4, 1826, and died at Garden City, Mo. July 4, 1883. On Dec. 10, 1850 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Hochstettler, who was born at Meringerau, Bavaria Feb. 7, 1829, and died at Garden City May 28, 1888, a daughter of Joseph Hochstettler and Jacobina 'Phoebe' Gingerich (see HOCHSTETTLER). 135 Herald of Truth, July 1883: "Buercky.- On the 4th of July, in Cass Co., Mo., of typhoid fever, Bro. Jacob Buerky, aged 59 years. He leaves a wife and 6 children. But they need not mourn as those who have no hope. He was a faithful brother in the Amish Church. We trust he has entered the rest that remaineth for the children of God. Peace to his ashes. Funeral services by John Hertzler and Jacob C. Kenagy." Joseph Birkey was born March 19, 1828, and died at Schickley, Nebraska Dec. 6, 1906. According to Harry F. Weber in Centennial History of the Mennonites of Illinois, "Joseph was the youngest of the six sons and the smallest, and he was a man of over 6 feet in height and weighed over 200 pounds." On Jan. 7, 1851 in Tazewell County he married Mary Birky. She was born March 19, 1833, and died at Schickley Oct. 28, 1908, a daughter of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker ('Little Red Birkys'). They appear on the 1860 census of Morton as farmer Joseph Burket, 32, Bavaria; Mary, 27, Bavaria; Catharine, 8; Elizabeth, 6; Jacob, 4; Valentine, 2; and Mary, 3 months, all children born in Illinois. On Feb. 22, 1865, Joseph was naturalized with his older brother Valentine at the Tazewell County Clerk's Office, citing his birthplace as Bavaria. They are found on the 1880 census of Boynton as farmer Joseph Berky, 52, born in Bavaria to a father from France and a mother from Hesse-Darmstadt; Mary, 47, born in France to parents from France; and six children. They later lived in Kansas and Nebraska. Gospel Witness, December 1906: "Joseph Birkey was born in Germany, Mar. 19, 1828, and died near Shickley, Neb., Dec. 6, 1906; aged 78y. 8m. 17d. On January 7, 1851, he was married to Mary Birkey. They lived in this relation for over fiftyfive years. To this union were born nine children, three of whom have preceded him to the spirit world. Three sons, three daughters, fifty-three grandchildren, twenty great-grandchildren are left to mourn their loss, but they mourn not as those who have no hope. Bro. Birkey was deacon in the Mennonite church for twenty-nine years and was faithful to the trust placed upon him. He was laid to rest on the 8th of December in the Salem cemetery. Funeral services were conducted by Christian Beller of this place and Jacob Stauffer and Joseph Rediger, of Milford, Neb. A great many people assembled to show their love and esteem to one who had lived in their midst and also to show their sympathy to the bereaved ones. As his body now rests in the grave we believe his soul is sweetly resting on the shores of eternal deliverance. Peace to his ashes." They are buried in Salem Mennonite Cemetery at Schickley. Elizabeth Birkey was born Nov. 25, 1829, and died June 27, 1899. She is buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. In 1854 in Bavaria she married Jacob Eichelberger, who reported on the 1880 census that he was born at Ellwangen, Württemberg Dec. 25, 1825; he died at Pontiac, Livingston County July 10, 1897. They sailed from Le Havre and stopped over at Southampton before arriving at New York on the Vanderbilt July 16, 1860. They had three children. The 1880 census of Owego, Livingston County describes their household as farmer Jacob Eichelberger, 54, from Ellwangen with parents from France; Elizabeth, 50, from Oberbayern [the governmental district of Bavaria where Munich and Augsburg are located], with her father born in France and her mother born in Hesse; son George, 22, farming, born at Leuttershausen (source 1880 census) to parents from Ellwangen and Oberbayern; son Henry, 11, born in Illinois to parents from Ellwagen and Oberbayern; and farmhand Jacob Roth, 51, from Rheinbayern with parents from Rheinbayern. Son George's obituary says he was born at Bamberg, Bavaria. 136 Herald of Truth, April 1899: "Eichelberger. - Elizabeth Birky, widow of the late Jacob Eichelberger, departed this life on the 27th of January 1899, aged 72 years. She leaves three sons and 11 grandchildren to mourn their lose. She was a faithful sister in the Amish congregation, a true pattern of Christian patience. She greatly desired to depart and be with Christ. Buried on the 28th. Funeral services by Christian Nafziger and J. C. Birky. C."

_________ Donna Schrock Birkey's site: http://www.birkey.org/articles/Johannes-Schrock.php

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Jacob Burkey and Mary Hochstettler. Descendants have had little luck locating records of Jacob Eichelberger in either of the two communities called Ellwangen, Württemburg. It is possible that the locations 'Ellwangen' and 'Leutterrhausen' were misreported by the census taker in 1880. Erlangen (24 miles south of Bamberg), and Leutenbach (about halfway between the two) are located above Nuremberg; Leuterhausen is located 40 miles southwest of Nuremburg. These locations are in Bavaria.

136

135

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Sutter of Neuberg an der Donau

The information in quotations that runs throughout this portion was collected in 1963 by Robert E. Birkey of Bloomington. It can be found online in A Brief History of the John and Barbara Sutter Family.

A

Suter is a shoemaker. The early history of this family is fragmentary. In Die Soziale Herkunft der Schweizer Täufer in der Reformationszeit, Paul Peachey lists Suters among Anabaptists active at Zurich 1520-50. However, it is generally agreed that the Anabaptist Suter family came from the Aargau region. In 1712 Gaspar Sutter appears as a Mennonite emigré at Jebsheim (now in Upper Alsace). Hans Peter Sutter of Bern is reported at Altwiller and Sarrewerden (now in Lower Alsace) in 1735. Ingolstadt native Heinrich Suttor has written that this family likely came from the Swiss confederation into Alsace after 1653, to the Palatinate about 1790, and into Bavaria when Catholic properties were secularized by the ruling Wittelsbach family in 1802. Johannes Suttor was born circa 1764. A document written by a municipal clerk at Karlskron, seven miles south of Ingolstadt, stated that he was born on the 'Lindenbrunnerhof bei Annweiler.' This was the Lindelbrunnerhof farm between Darstein and Münchweiler am Klingbach, about four miles from Annweiler. An Ingold family that lived there also lived with them in other locations, intermarried with the Sutters, and now has descendants in Tazewell County.137 Annweiler is only 15 miles above the German-French border station at Wissembourg, Lower Alsace; it is five miles northeast of Bewartstein castle at Erlenbach bei Dahn. In the second half of the 18th century the Lindelbrunnerhof farm was part of an 'enclave' or island of land belonging to Darmstadt, centered on Pirmasens. Ludwig IX became the Landgrave of Darmstadt in 1768. While he was away training troops at Pirmasens, his wife Henriette Karoline ran his administration from the town of Darmstadt. According to Hermann Guth in Amish Mennonites in Germany, she issued a decree in 1771 that permitted Mennonites to lease their estates. Ludwig IX was a Wittelsbach, the family of Christian II of the house of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler-Pfalz-Zweibrücken (the administrator of St. Marie-aux-Mines who helped Anabaptists when they were expelled in 1712) and Maximilian Joseph, the elector of the Palatinate who became the first king of Bavaria (he leased or gave confiscated Catholic properties to Anabaptists). Johannes married Magdalena Stähli/Stahley of Fränkisch Crumbach, Hesse-Darmstadt. The Stähli/Stahley family of Fränkisch Crumbach was associated with the Nafziger family. 138 He managed a number of properties in the vicinity of Ingolstadt. After the occupation of the Palatinate by French troops, a number of Anabaptist families move eastward onto Bavarian soil. A migration from the Palatinate to Bavarian territory would certainly have described the family's relocation from the area of Pirmasens eastward toward Ingolstadt. Johannes may have been drawn to the area to minister to the new arrivals. The Sutters lived on an estate at Kaisheim from 1804 to 1811 (35 miles west of Ingolstadt). This estate had belonged to a Catholic abbey before it was secularized in 1803. During the time the Sutters lived there the grounds were used to grow food for the Bavarian army; after 1811 it was used to house displaced Franciscans, then converted into a prison. Around this time about 50 Mennonite families were given formerly Catholic properties in the 16 miles between Neuburg an der Donau and Ingolstadt, as the government encouraged cultivation of the Danube Marsh. (Neuburg an

137 The Ingold family of the Lindelbrunnerhof: Generation 1. Jakob Ingold (1755-1798) and Elisabeth Baumann (born 1760) lived on the Lindelbrunnerhof farm. Generation 2. Their daughter Magdalena Ingold (1795-1891) was born there. Magdalena married Joseph Gascho (1793-1882). Generation 3. Their older daughter Anna Gascho was born in 1824, married Joseph Wittrig, and died at Hopedale in 1912; a son Daniel Wittrig was born in 1856, married Elizabeth Sutter (1862-1937), and died at Hopedale in 1940; Elizabeth was a daughter of Johann/John Sutter and Magdalena Guth/Good. Their younger daughter Magdalena Gascho was born at Probfeld in 1826 (Sutters were born at Probfeld in 1825 and 1826), married Johannes/Jean/John Egli at Zurich, Ontario in 1850, and died at Minier in 1902; a son Joseph Egli (born 1853) married Barbara Sutter (1851-1885) at Hopedale in 1874; Barbara was a daughter of Christian Sutter and Magdalena Nafziger. Another Ingold from the Lindelbrunnerhof farm was Barbara Ingold. She was born there circa 1800, and died at Mannried Aug. 23, 1831, a daughter of Joseph Ingold and Elisabeth Gungerich. She was the first wife of Daniel Zehr. He was born at Struth June 8, 1803, and died of cholera at Farnisville, Woodford County Aug. 11, 1855, a son of Daniel Zehr and Magdalena Unzicker (see ZEHR). 138 The location Sankt Goarshausen has become vaguely associated with Sutter genealogy, though no source seems to be able to pinpoint exactly what meaning it had to the family. A Stähli/Stahley from Fränkisch Crumbach, a descendant of Magdalena, leased the Offental estate at Sankt Goarshausen in the 1860s.

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der Donau means 'New Town on the Danube River', though the Wittelsbach family built a castle there in the 12th century and the town's walls date from the 14th century). Some Anabaptist refugees established a village at Maxweiler just east of Neuburg an der Donau and set to work building small dikes and draining land.139 In 1811 Johannes signed a 12-year lease on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau with Friedrich Hage; several Sutter children were born there.140 In 1819 daughter Catharina married Christian Oesch, and the new son-in-law came to work on the Forsthof estate. This freed Johannes to take up another lease on the Hellmannsberg estate (nine miles northeast of Ingolstadt on drier ground) with his own son Christian in 1819. The grounds had belonged to a monastery before 1802. A year later he also leased the Oberhaunstadt Castle estate (now a neighborhood of Ingolstadt) in partnership with sonin-law Christian Ingold. The Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online states: "Of the Swiss Mennonites living in the Palatinate at the time of the Amish schism only a small number followed Amman, chiefly in the region of Kaiserslautern...The Amish did not expand in the Palatinate but did send out emigrants in three directions (largely supplemented by families from Alsace and Lorraine). The first of these was to middle Germany in the HesseCassel...All the European Hessian Amish congregations died out by 1900. The second Amish movement from the Palatinate (and from Alsace-Lorraine) was to Bavaria (Ingolstadt, Regensburg, and Munich). The Ingolstadt and Munich groups ultimately became extinct by emigration to Ontario and Illinois." Johannes died June 1, 1844 and was buried on the Hellmannsberg estate. His wife Magdalena is also buried there in a Mennonite cemetery. Their children include:

1. Christian Sutter was born at Münchweiler (probably Münchweiler an der Rodalbe) in 1788, and died at Hellmannsberg March 12, 1863. He married Elizabeth Nafziger. She was born in 1789 and lived at Runkel (near Limburg an der Lahn), Hesse-Nassau; she died on the Forsthof estate Jan. 30, 1869. Her parents are assumed to be Valentine Nafziger from the ruined castle estate Froensbourg/Frönsburg (near Lembach in what was later Lower Alsace) and his wife Elizabeth. Their Sutter and Suttor descendants can still be found in the area of Ingolstadt.141 Elizabeth Sutter was born circa 1791, and died at Niedershönenfeld (between Kaisheim and Neuburg an der Donau) July 25, 1861. In 1816 on the Forsthof estate she married Jakob Hage. He was born circa 1787, and died on the Forsthof estate Jan. 29, 1939. Katharina Sutter was born Aug. 24, 1794, and died on the Forsthof estate Nov. 27, 1872. In 1819 she married Christian Oesch. He was born at Sarre-Union, Lower Alsace Oct. 15, 1789, and died on the Forsthof estate June 23, 1844, a son of Christian Oesch and Katharina/Catherine Bürki. Johannes/John Sutter was born Dec. 26, 1796. He brought his family to Central Illinois.

2.

3.

4.

On Oct. 31, 1819, Johannes/John Sutter married Barbara Oesch at Hanfeld near Lake Starnberg, below Munich. She was born at Sarre-Union (Ger. Saarbrückenheim) in the part of Lower Alsace known as 'Crooked Alsace' June 23, 1799, a daughter of Christian Oesch and Katharina/Catherine Bürki. Her parents had come from 'Crooked Alsace' to live at Hanfeld. Hanfeld was home to Heisers and Zehrs who later came to Tazewell County. It was adjacent to Söcking, the home of a Birkey family. Johannes/John was a minister and estate manager. "The farm work was done by hired help. Daily, John Sutter inspected his estate from the back seat of a carriage, driven by one of the hired men, and drawn by a team of fine black horses." Oldest son Christian Sutter was inducted into the 1st Royal Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment [Ger. Feldartillerie-Regiment Prinz-Regent Luitpold] of the 1st Royal Bavarian Artiller Brigade of the Royal Bavarian Army March 26, 1845. The regiment was garrisoned at Munich. It is probable that his service was going to be extended because of the country's political turmoil when "...It was decided that he [Christian] should hire a replacement and should go to America." The discharge certificate of 'Christian Stor' from the Royal Bavarian Army signed March 12, 1848 is now in the Mennonite Heritage Center at Metamora. 142

At Maxweiler (halfway between Neuburg an der Donau and Karlskron), the Bavarian government granted 270 acres of wooded land per family. New arrivals stayed in the Wittelsbach's Grünau hunting lodge-castle until homes could be built. A church was constructed in 1832. The village dwindled to less than 80 residents by 1855. 140 Friedrich Hage was born at Bitche (now in the Department of Moselle) in 1739, and died on the Forthof estate Nov. 17, 1817. 141 Jakob Suter was a minister at Ingolstadt 1854-81. A letter of reconciliation sent from European Mennonite spokesmen to Pope John Paul II in April 2000 was signed by minister Gerhard Suttor, representing the Ingolstadt Mennonite congregation. 142 Christian Sutter's discharge certificate was signed by 'Prinz Luitpold.' Luitpold was a Wittelsbach, born at Würzburg, Bavaria March 12, 1821, the third son of King Louis I of Bavaria. He chose a military career with the 1st Royal Bavarian Army

139

101

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

'Christian Suter' signed a declaration of intent for naturalization in Tazewell County in 1848. "Landing in America, Christian Sutter came inland to Tazewell County, Illinois where he worked on a farm for about a year. He then [March 17, 1850] married Magdalena Nafziger and started farming for himself." "Being very poor and unaccustomed to such a crude mode of living, he became very homesick. Wishing to have the rest of the family join him in America, he wrote interesting letters back to Germany telling of the beautiful, progressive country that he was now living in. These letters, together with his disapproval of his younger son to enter the military service, were a great inducement to his father, John Sutter, to come to America." With the Bavarian government threatening compulsory military training, the Mennonites of the Danube Marsh began to disappear in 1851. Many migrated to Lee County, Iowa and Summerfield, St. Clair County, Illinois; the exodus was all but complete by 1855. In 1851 Johannes/John "...sold his estate and made the journey to America with the rest of his family, with the exception of one son Joseph, who was now in the service and was supposed to remain for one more year. Thus the father, John Sutter, and his wife Barbara; their three sons John, Jacob and Andrew; and five daughters Magdalena, Katherine, Barbara, Elizabeth, and Veronica secured their passes and made their way to a French port [Le Havre]." "While waiting there for their boat, they were joined by Joseph who had deserted the army and followed them. When the time came to embark, the shipmaster found one too many persons for the passes they had given him and would not let Joseph go without a pass. His father, John, asked if he could pay for it. John Sutter was not worried about a shortage of money and he said that if it were a question of money, he could fix it. The shipmaster secured a pass and John Sutter produced the money. It was a happy day for Joseph when the ship left the shore out of the reach of the army officials." The Samuel M. Fox sailed from Le Havre approximately Oct. 5, 1851, and arrived at New York Nov. 11, 1851. "It was a long, stormy, and weary voyage. Mrs. John Sutter became so ill that it was feared at one time that she would not live to see America. After thirty-six days at sea they reached New York." The passenger list describes the family as: Sutor Johann, 56, farmer, Bavaria; Barbara, 53; Johann, 25; Barbara, 22; Balthasar, 20 [an error; this should have been Catherine, 20]; Jacob, 18; Elisabeth, 15; Veronica, 13; Andreas, 11; Inquet [Ingold], Magdalena, 30; Jacob, 7; Johann, 3; August, 3/4 [9 months]; [separation of six lines for one family's entry before another Sutor entry] Sutor, Joseph, 21, shoemaker, Bavaria 143 From New York the family "...traveled to Buffalo, and via the Great Lakes to the little town called Chicago, Illinois; then by the Chicago and Illinois rivers to Peoria, Illinois. Upon their arrival at Christian's home, the family was sorely disappointed and wanted to turn back. Being very angry with Christian, the brothers went out into the woods and discussed the matter and it was decided to seek revenge on him by giving him a beating. When they returned to do so, Christian's wife locked the door and would not let them in, so they again went out into the woods and spent the night there." "John Sutter immediately bought a section of land in Morton for $2 per acre. In a few years it became quite settled around there. Forgetting their old home in Germany, the Sutters became contented to live here. Other Amish Mennonites settled near them in four districts ­ Morton, Roanoke, Peking, and Metamora. John Sutter preached in each district every fourth Sunday. As there were no church buildings, services were held in the homes." Their household can be found on the 1860 census of Morton as farmer John Sutter, 65, Germany; Barbara, 61; Andrew, 19; Andrew Buky [son-in-law Andrew Birkey], 29; Fanny [Veronica], 22; and Barbara, 1, born in Illinois. Barbara Oesch died at Morton Sept. 10, 1884. Her headstone in Landes Mennonite Cemetery says she was age 85-2-0. Johannes/John Sutter died at Morton Aug. 2, 1887, and was buried beside her. His headstone gives his age as 91-2-9. The birthdates of the first four children of Johannes/John Sutter and Barbara Oesch were found by Joe Springer in records kept at Karlskron. The children were born at Probfeld, where several Mennonite families lived, including Ingolds; Karlskron was a parish seat and administrative center. Their children include:

1. Magdalena Sutter was born on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau July 22, 1821. On Nov. 6, 1843 she married Jakob Ingold. He presumably died before she emigrated with three children in 1851. In America she married Joseph Kaufmann, perhaps as his second wife. They can be found on the 1870 census of Groveland as farmer Joseph Kaufmann, 48, France; Magdalena, 48, Bavaria; with 8 children ages 4-19, all born in Illinois; and a final child, Catherine, 20, born in Ohio. A headstone for Magdalena Kaufman in East Fairview Cemetery at Milford,

Corps. Luitpold became de facto ruler of Bavaria June 10, 1886, ruling in place of his incompetent nephews Louis II and Otto I. When he died at Munich Dec. 12, 1912, his son succeeded him as regent. 143 At least one genealogist looking at the passenger list has interpreted a squiggle after 'Sutor' as an 'n' and given Joseph the name 'Sutorn.' In this case, the extra flourish probably cleared the ink from a quill pen.

102

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Nebraska (where her younger brother Jacob Sutter and many Birkeys from Tazewell County are buried) gives the date Feb. 24, 1909, and age at death as 88-7-2. Christian Sutter was born on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau April 21, 1823, and died at Hopedale May 11, 1899. Johann/John Sutter was born at Probfeld (adjacent to Karlskron, below Ingolstadt) March 14, 1825, and died Dec. 11, 1904. Ordinarily a male in Baden registered for the draft at age 16, then had a pre-induction physical in December of January before his 21st birthday. The penalties for avoiding conscription included being stripped of nationality and fined 800 Gulden. In the absence of the fugitive the amount could be levied against the father. A 'Joh. Sutter' was listed as a wanted fugitive in the Herzoglich Badisches Anzeigeblatt in 1854. He was described as someone who had lived in the Oberrheinkreis, and had been called for military conscription, but had emigrated without permission. The year of emigration was not specified. Perhaps this is the same person, and he emigrated with his father et al after delaying as long as possible. Again, "These letters, together with his disapproval of his younger son to enter the military service, were a great inducement to his father, John Sutter, to come to America." Or it is possible that he was exempted from military service or hired a replacement, since family notes make no mention of compulsory military service at age 20. On March 27, 1855 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Guth/Good.144 She was born at Burgwalden (now part of Bobingen below Augsburg), Bavaria Feb. 14, 1835, and died Aug. 18, 1921, a daughter of Christian Guth and Barbara Christener; they are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. They are found on the 1860 census of Boynton as farmer John Suter, 35, Germany; Magdaline, 26, Germany; John, 3, Illinois; Barbara, 2, Illinois; and Magdaline, 1, Illinois. Herald of Truth, January 1905: "John Sutter died at his home near Hopedale, Ill., Dec. 11, 1904; aged 79 Y., 8 M., 27 D. He was born in Bavaria, Germany, March 14, 1825; was united in marriage to Magdalene Goot, March 27, 1855. To this union seven children were born; one preceded him to the home beyond. He was one of the first settlers of the A. M. congregation at this place. He leaves his widow, six children, 23 grandchildren and three great-grandchildren to mourn his departure. He united with the A. M. church in his youth and remained faithful to the end. He was buried Dec. 13th in the A. M. graveyard near Hopedale. Funeral services were conducted at the house by John C. Birky from Psa. 90 and at the church by Samuel Garber from 1 Thess. 5:9. "For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ. John C. Birky." See GOOD for her obituary. Barbara Sutter was born at Probfeld Feb. 1, 1827, and died at Fisher, Champaign County Jan. 10, 1903. On Nov. 4, 1855 in Tazewell County she married Johann/John Bachmann. 145 He was born in 1818, died Oct. 12, 1888, and is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. They are found on the 1870 census of Morton as farmer John Bachman, 52, France; Barbara, 43, Bern; and four children born in Illinois. (In this context 'Bern' may have been confused with Brunnen, a village four miles southwest of Probfeld). Joseph Sutter (also found as 'Suttor') was born Oct. 10, 1829. He married Magdalena Zehr. She was born July 27, 1834, and died at Goodfield, Woodford County May 19,1919, a daughter of Daniel Zehr and his second wife Magdalena Rocke. Joseph's status as a deserter from Bavarian military training may explain why they do not appear on the federal census. Catherine Sutter was born Aug. 23, 1831 (her headstone calls her Catherina Bachman and says 1833), and died in 1888. On April 20, 1857 in Tazewell County she married Andrew Bachman. He was born at Arnstadt, Thuringia (next to Hesse) June 2, 1820, and died at Roanoke, Woodford County Jan. 10, 1881.146 See BACHMAN, BACHMAN OF ARNSTADT. Jacob Sutter was born Nov. 27, 1833, and died at Milford, Nebraska Feb. 26, 1923. He is buried in East Fairview Cemetery at Milford, Nebraska. On Feb. 18, 1858 in Tazewell County he married Catherine Wagler. 147 She was born in Alsace March 23, 1838, and died at Milford, Nebraska July 30, 1908, a daughter of Jacob Wagler and Magdalena Reschly. They are found on the 1860 census of Morton as farmer Jacob Suter, 26, Germany; Catharine, 22, Germany; Jacob, 1, Illinois; and Barbara, 4 months, Illinois. On May 31, 1869 Jacob purchased 80 acres of public land for $1,200 in what is now Rook's Creek (adjacent to Waldo). The 1900 census of Milford, Nebraska shows them as farmer Jacob Sutter, 66, born in Germany in November 1833, immigrated in 1854; Catherine, 63, born in Germany in March 1837, immigrated in 1856 [her family appears on the 1855 census of Washington]; and three sons born in Illinois. See WAGLER for Catherine's obituary. Following her death he remarried Feb. 14, 1909 to Magdalena 'Martha' King Yordy. She was born at Sand Prairie Dec. 13, 1842, and died at Harper, Kansas Feb. 11, 1927, a daughter of Samuel King and his first wife Magdalena Kurtz; she was the widow of John Birkey Yordy (1838-1906), a son of Peter Yordy and Mary Birkey. Gospel Herald, March 1923: "Jacob Sutter was born Nov. 27, 1833, in Byron [Bayern, or Bavaria], Germany. From there he moved to Illinois where he was united in marriage to Kathrine Wagler. Later they came to Milford, Nebr., where he has lived for 46 years. He died February 26, 1923, in Milford at the age of 89 y. 2 m. 29 d. He united with the Amish Mennonite Church in his youth. He had 15 children (8 sons and seven daughters), 59 grandchildren and about 25 great-grandchildren. His wife died July 30, 1908, with whom he lived in matrimony over 50 years. Three sons, three daughters and eleven grandchildren preceded him in

144 145

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as John Suter and Madeline Guth. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Barbara Sutor and John Bachman. 146 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as John Bachman and Catharine Suter. 147 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Jacob Sutor and Catharine Wagler.

103

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

8.

9.

10.

death. He leaves to mourn his departure, 5 sons, 4 daughters and one sister, Fannie Birky, Fisher, Ill. On Feb. 14, 1909, he again united in marriage to Magdalena Yordy with whom he lived until death. The cause of his death was lagrippe. Buried near Milford in East Fairview Cemetery. Services by home ministers." After Jacob's death his widow remarried to John Plank. Elisabeth Sutter was born March 1, 1836, and died June 30, 1884. On Jan. 8, 1854 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Miller. He was born circa 1830, and died Sept. 11, 1868. Their household is found on the 1860 census of Tremont as farmer Joseph Miller, 30, Germany; Elizabeth, 24, Germany; Barbaray, 5, Illinois; John, 4, Illinois; Joseph, 2, Illinois; Catharine, 16, Ohio; and Elizabeth, 12, Ohio. On Feb. 9, 1871 in Tazewell County Elisabeth remarried to Johann Ackerman, the widower of Magdalena/Madeleine Birkey (see BIRKY/BIRKEY for more information). They are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Veronica 'Fannie' Sutter was born Nov. 11, 1838, and died at Fisher, Champaign County April 16, 1927. On March 25, 1858 at Morton she married Andreas/Andrew Birkey. He was born in Bavaria March 3, 1830, and died at Fisher Sept. 11, 1895, a son of Christian Birki and Mary (see BIRKY/BIRKEY for more information including her obituary). Andreas/Andrew Sutter was born May 14, 1841, and died at Phoenix, Ariz. Feb. 5, 1921. On Feb. 21, 1864 in Woodford County he married Mary Magdalena 'Maggie' Klopfenstein. She was born at Belfort, Franche-Comté March 30, 1846, and died at Phoenix Nov. 15, 1914, a daughter of Johannes/John Klopfenstein and Catherine Klopfenstein (Maggie's parents had migrated from Belfort to Slabtown).

On March 17, 1850 at Tremont, Christian Sutter married Magdalena Nafziger. 148 She was born in 1819, and died May 25, 1871, a daughter of Christian Nafziger and Veronica Burkey (see NAFZIGER). Their household is described on the 1860 census of Hittle as farmer Christian Suter, 37, Germany; Magdaline, 35, Germany; and four children born in Illinois. Magdalena died in Tazewell County May 25, 1871, and was buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. On April 15, 1873 in Tazewell County, Christian remarried to Barbara Steinman. 149 She was born in Bavaria June 16, 1829, a daughter of Jacob Steinman and a Gascho, and the widow of Jacob Augsburger (see AUGSBURGER). Their household can be found on the 1880 census of Little Mackinaw as farmer Christian Suter, 57, Bavaria; Barbara, 50, Bavaria; Annie Augsberger, 17, stepdaughter born in Illinois; Daniel, 13, stepson born in Illinois; and Fannie, 10, stepdaughter born in Illinois. Christian died at Hopedale May 11, 1899, and was buried next to his first wife in the Mennonite Cemetery there. Herald of Truth, August 1899: "On May 11, 1899, Christian Sutter, aged 76 years and 20 days. He leaves a widow, two children, twenty-seven grandchildren and four great-grandchildren. He was one of the first Amish Mennonites to settle in this neighborhood, and he could see how the small membership grew to a large congregation, and how many a one, who came after him, was called away before him. He was married twice. With his first wife, Magdalena Nafziger, he lived in matrimony twenty-one years; with his second wife, Barbara Augsburger, twenty-six years. He was a member of the Amish Mennonite Church since his youth, and died in Hopedale, Tazewell Co., Ill., trusting in the mercy of the Lord. Buried on the 14th. Funeral services by Samuel Gerber and J. C. Birky." Barbara died March 21, 1911, and was buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery with her first husband Jacob Augsburger, father Jacob Steinman, and Sutter in-laws.

148 149

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Christian Sutter and Madeleine Nafziger. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Christian Suter and Barbara Augsberger.

104

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Heiser of Hanfeld

T

he Heisers who came to Tazewell County were descendants of a family from Richterswil, Canton Zurich. Richterwil is a village on the southwestern shore of the Zürichsee. Other Anabaptist families from that congregation were Bachmann/Bachman, Bär (North America Behr and Bear), Egli [Fr. Egley], Goldschmid [Fr. Goldschmitt, Ger. Goldschmidt], Hiestand, and Landis (later Landes). We found Hüsser, Hsser, and Haser in older records, all describing the same family in one congregation. The spelling is now standardized in Canton Zurich as 'Heusser' and pronounced 'Hoyzer.' French and German records show Hauser, Hausser, Hüser, Hüsser, Husser, Hissert, Hisser, and Heisser.150 Illinois descendant families chose 'Heiser' and 'Hieser.' We have used 'Heiser' to describe almost all of the children of later generations, though some in the family might disagree. Drawing on the memories of Joseph Heiser's children, History of Illinois and Her People misidentified the father of the Central Illinois family as Nicholas Hieser. It described Nicholas "moving from Switzerland to Lorraine, France, and later to Bavaria where he died." The story has a basis in truth, but may have taken place over three generations. The family actually migrated from Richterswil to Mannheim to Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to Hanfeld, Bavaria before emigrating from Europe. Rudolf Hüsser (found as 'Hüßer') and Verena Billeter were the parents of Rudolf Hüsser. He was baptized at Richterswil Sept. 15, 1661. Sometime before 1691 the younger Rudolf migrated to Mannheim. In that time frame Mannheim was a city in the Palatinate (Ger. Kurpfalz or Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein). Mannheim became the capital of the Palatinate 17201778, and did not become a city of Baden-Württemberg until 1803. The decade of the 1690s was a period of high anxiety for Mennonites in the Palatinate. An elector who had extended their rights died in 1690. His successor Johann Wilhem was a strict Catholic. He delayed renewing their rights for eight years. On May 16, 1694 a fire destroyed numerous homes in the village of Rheydt in the Palatinate (now in North Rhine-Westphalia). Catholic residents blamed Mennonite residents and appealed to the elector. On July 16, 1694 the Mennonites were forcibly removed from their homes. The men were put into chains. In confinement they were given the choice of conversion or death. They were only permitted to buy their freedom for 8,000 talers after the intercession William of Orange. When they were released Aug. 29, many chose to emigrate to the Netherlands. In June of 1697 a substantial fire damaged homes at Mannheim. This was the subject of a letter sent Dec. 13, 1697 from the congregation at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to the Swiss Brethren/Reist faction congregation of Mennonites at Mannheim. It was addressed to Rudolph Husser, Hans Rudy Nagele (Rudolf Nägele was later in Lancaster County), Christian Pleam [Bliehm], Peter Leemann (later in Lancaster County as 'Leman'), and Christophel Dohltan. Apparently this letter was hand carried 127 miles northeast to Mannheim, because there was a reply from Peter Lemann and Rudy Husser dated Dec. 23, 1697. Rudolf Hüsser/Rudolph Husser was also the recipient of a letter dated Oct. 19, 1699. It was sent by Jakob Gut [Guth] on behalf of the congregation of the Upper Palatinate to Reist-faction Mennonites in the Lower Palatinate. Gut had been banished from Canton Bern (a part that is now Canton Aargau) in 1660 (see GOOD). In 1705 a petition was introduced before the Pennsylvania Assembly to permit German Palatines to be naturalized and to own land. It was finally approved Sept. 29, 1709. In the meantime the first log structure for indoor worship was constructed by Mennonites at Germantown, Pennsylvania. These events encouraged emigration from the area of Mannheim. The 'Pennsylvania Dutch' spoken today closely resembles the dialects spoken there. The loss of emigrating acquaintances and congregants may have prompted Rudolph 'Rudy' Husser to resettle at Fertrupt between 1708 and 1712.151 'Rudolf Hauser' is found as a head of household on a record created at Fertrupt Oct. 10, 1712. We can identify two probable children of Rudolf 'Rudy' Hüsser:

1. Barbara Hüser/Hauser was born circa 1691. She died at age 51 years 6 months, and was buried at Fertrupt Feb. 19, 1743. Circa 1732 she married Heinrich Goldschmidt. He was baptized at Richterswil Jan. 18, 1691, and died at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Feb. 17, 1755, a son of Jacob Goldschmid and Barbara Haab. He was a blacksmith 'in the

The Dordrecht Confession of Faith, a statement of religious beliefs, was created in the Netherlands April 21, 1632. It was accepted and signed by an assembly of ministers at Ohnenheim (20 miles east of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines) Feb. 4, 1660. They included representatives from Heidolsheim, Eisenheim, Mackenheim, Baldenheim, Kunheim, Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Jebsheim, and Dürrenentzen. Ulrich Husser signed as deacon from Ohnenheim 151 Jacob Amman had a companion from Richterswil. Minister Hans Bachmann attended the meeting of ministers at Ohnenheim (20 miles east of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines) in March 1693, and was living at Heidolsheim in 1712.

150

105

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

meadow' (Ger. auf der Matten) at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. He had married first wife Elizabeth Schmitt in 1717; she died before 1732. Heinrich and Elizabeth were the great-grandparents of minister Joseph Goldsmith, mentioned in ROPP and STAKER (see GOLDSMITH). Heinrich/Henry Hüsser/Hausser/Hyser.

Heinrich/Henri Hüsser /Hausser/ Hyser was married to Verena Blank. She was born circa 1693, and was buried at Fertrupt March 27, 1743. They lived on the Ziegelhof. Repeating a footnote from the ROPP Background: Ziegel means 'brick.' A Hof can be a farm or estate, but the literal translation is yard, describing an enclosed courtyard surrounded by house, barns, and stable on most estates. Thus Ziegelhof could be the name of an estate, or a brick yard. This address is also found as Ziegelhaus. Also recall from the ROPP Background the letter of recommendation [Fr. certificat de attestation] signed by a representative of Christian III and the mayor of Echery Nov. 8, 1715 for 'honest Niclaus Blank' [Fr. original honneste Nicola Blanc], his brothers Michel and Pierre, their brother-in-law Henry Hyser, brothers Christe and Anthony Kropf, David Chertzer [later Schertz], and Michel Mourer [Maurer]. He was still at Ste. Maire-aux-Mines in 1732, when his household had five members. Heinrich/Henri and Verena were the parents of three children we can identify:

1. 'Heinrich the younger' Hauser is mentioned on the 1761 death entry of a 2-year-old daughter Verena. He was described as a resident of the Ziegelhof. He was likely born in the decade 1714-24. His wife was named Staub, and was likely born at Richterwil to parents Rudolf/Rudolph Staub and Anna Walti.152 Nicholas Hüser/Hyser. He was likely born in the decade 1714-24. Michel Husser was born in 1728, and was buried at Fertrupt May 30, 1752. He did not marry.

2. 3.

Nicholas Hüser/Hyser was likely born in the decade 1714-24. Hemarried Anna Schmucker of Grindelwald. They had a son Nicolas Hyser who was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines circa 1745, and died there Dec. 22, 1805. He married his second cousin Anna Maria Goldschmidt. She was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines May 16, 1750, and died on the Streicherhof at Uffing, Bavaria (30 miles south of Hanfeld) Sept. 26, 1831, a daughter of Jean Henry Goldschmidt and Marie Neuhauser. Nicolas's civil death entry indicated that he was a 60-year-old native of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, and named his parents and widow (his mother Anna Schmucker was written as 'Schumacher'). It was witnessed by brother-in-law Henri Goldshmit, 55. In Oct. 24, 1807 at Strasbourg Anna Maria remarried to Noé/Noah Augspurger of Canardière. He was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Oct. 8, 1755, and died on the Pflegangerhof ('grazing meadow farm') at Hanfeld, Bavaria after 1831 (see EIGSTI), a son of Noah/Noé Augspurger and Julie Diebler. His first wife had been Anna Müller, who died on La Canardière estate at Strasbourg May 6, 1806; a daughter from that first marriage was married to an Oesch from Hanfeld, Bavaria, and this became the home of Noé/Noah and Anna Maria (see AUGSBURGER). Other families at Hanfeld included Egli, Rupp (from Baden), Schott, and possibly Jordy. Widower Daniel Zehr (1782-1856) lived on the Mang estate at Hanfeld from 1828 to 1849 before leaving for Woodford County (see ZEHR). Hanfeld is located 18 miles southwest of Munich, adjacent to Söcking, a village already mentioned as the home of André/Andrew Burchi/Burkey before he came to America. The two villages fall in the administrative district of Starnberg on Lake Starnberg. The Mennonites at Hanfeld and Söcking may have lived on properties belonging to the royal Wittelsbach family. Starnberg on Lake Starnberg was the site of the Wittelsbach's Castle Berg.153 At this point there is a minor mystery. The next figure in our chain may have been either a son or grandson of Nicolas Hyser and Anna Maria Goldschmidt. He also lived at Hanfeld. Medical assistant (Ger. arbeiten beim Pfleger) Jacob Heisser married Katharina Oesch. We can speculate that they were married in Lorraine circa 1813, or she came from Lorraine, accounting for the mention in the family story.

152 Rudolf/Rudolph Staub was baptized at Richterswil April 4, 1681, and Anna Walti was baptized there April 26, 1693. Anna was buried at Fertrupt Sept. 8, 1759. Rudolf/Rudolph died in the home of 'Heinrich the younger' Hauser and was buried at Fertrupt April 27, 1761. 153 King Ludwig Wittelsbach II was also known as 'Mad King Ludwig.' He sponsored Wagner and built fairytale castles. His administrative duties were removed June 10, 1886. After being declared insane by a government-appointed doctor, he was confined to Castle Berg on Lake Starnberg June 12, 1886. The following evening he and the doctor were both found drowned. The murders were probably political conveniences arranged by cabinet ministers to curb spending. His successor was Prince Luitpold, the same man who signed the Royal Bavarian Army discharge papers of Christian Sutter in 1845.

106

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The children of Jacob Heisser and Katharina Oesch include:

1. Katharina/Catherine Heiser was born at Hanfeld Jan. 6, 1814, and died at Madison, Butler County Oct. 31, 1891. She had a child Maria at the close of 1834. Maria was one year old when her mother took her to America. a. Maria/Mary A. Heiser was born at Meininger, Bavaria (now a neighborhood of Munich) Dec. 23, 1834, and died at Danvers April 12, 1811. On May 23, 1856 at Trenton she married Peter G. Schertz in a ceremony conducted by minister Nicholas Augspurger. He was born March 25, 1826, and died at Danvers Aug. 15, 1892. They can be found on the 1860 census of Madison (listed on the same page as Maria's mother) as farmer Peter Schertz, 34, France; Mary, 25, Germany; and Joseph, 1, Ohio. They moved from Butler County to Danvers in 1869, where they are buried in Imhoff Cemetery. Herald of Truth, May 1891: "On the 6th of March 1891, near Congerville, Woodford Co., Ill., of grippe and lung fever Peter G. Schertz, aged 59 years. His wife and 8 children mourn their loss. Buried on the 18th in the Imhoff graveyard. Services in the Congerville church by Peter Schantz and Solomon Yoder." On July 29, 1838 in Butler County Katharina/Catherine married Jacob J. Augspurger. He was born June 13, 1813, and died Nov. 2, 1867, a son of elder Jacob Augspurger and his second wife Maria Schlabach. The 1850 census of Madison shows farmer Jacob Augsberger, 34, Germany; Catherine, 34, Germany; Mary, 15; Catherine, 11; Jacob, 7; Magdalena, 9; Nancy, 6; Jena [Josephine], 4; and Joseph, 2; all children including Mary (who was actually born in Germany) described as born in Ohio. They can be found on the 1860 census of Madison on the same page as Katharina/Catherine's daughter Maria as farmer Jacob Augsberger, 47, Germany; Catharine, 46, Germany; and seven children. The 1870 census of Madison shows Catharine [Heiser] Augsparger, 56, born in Prussia; Anna, 24; Phebe, 23; Joseph, 21; Christian, 18; and Henry, 17; all children born in Ohio. Herald of Truth, December 1891: "On the 31st of October, 1891, near Trenton, Butler Co., Ohio, Catharine J. Augspurger, maiden name Hieser, widow of Jacob Augspurger, aged 71 years, 9 months and 25 days. She had not been able to leave her room for 2 years, having lost the use of her limbs. She was a member of the Mennonite church for about 63 years, and during the time she adorned her profession with her quiet, pious life, by which she won the esteem of all who were about her. She was the mother of nine children, of which two preceded her. Seven children, 16 grand children, and 5 great grandchildren and one brother remain to mourn her departure. Buried on the 3d of November. Funeral services by J. Augspurger and B. Zelner in German from 2 Cor. 5: 1." The children of Katharine/Catherine Heiser and Jacob J. Augspurger born at Madison, Butler County, Ohio include: b. Catherine Augspurger was born July 21, 1839, and died at Madison Oct. 2, 1856. She is buried next to her father in the Mennonite Cemetery at Trenton. c. Jacob C. Augspurger was born April 4, 1843, and died at Danvers Oct. 13, 1890. On Nov. 2, 1865 in Butler County he married Veronica 'Fannie' Bachman, born about 1842; she was a daughter of John Bachman and Anna Stecker/Staker. For more including his obituary see STAKER. d. Magdalena Augspurger was born March 20, 1844, and died at Seven Mile, Butler County Nov. 6, 1911. On July 3, 1864 in Butler County she married Peter Young. He was born in Ohio Dec. 28, 1840, and died at Trenton, Butler County Dec. 21, 1923. They can be found on the 1880 census of Madison, then on the 1900 census of Trenton, Butler County as farmer Peter Young, 59, born in Ohio in December 1840 to German parents; Magdalena, 59, born in Ohio in March 1841 to German parents; and one daughter born in Ohio. They are buried in Miltonville Cemetery. e. Anna/Nancy Augspurger was born Feb. 25, 1845. We could not follow her after the 1870 census of Madison. f. Josephine 'Phebe' Augspurger was born Aug. 4, 1846. She is found on the 1900 census of Trenton, Butler County as a 46-year-old born in Ohio in August 1853, living with her brother Joseph. They were still living together at Madison in 1910. g. Joseph Augspurger was born May 1, 1848, and died April 9, 1930. He is found on the 1900 census of Trenton, Butler County as a 52-year-old born in Ohio in May 1848, living with his sister Josephine. h. Christian/Christopher C. Augspurger was born Oct. 25, 1850, and died at Trenton, Butler County May 13, 1923. Circa 1871 he married Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Emhart. They are found on the 1900 census of Trenton, Butler County next door to Peter Young and Magdalena Augspurger as Christian Augspurger, born in Ohio in October 1851; Lizzie, born in Ohio in September 1851; and four children born in Ohio. His death entry described him as a retired carpenter. i. Heinrich/Henry C. Augspurger was born April 5, 1853, and died in Butler County March 17, 1931. On March 2, 1880 he married Ida D. Law. She was born at St. Clair, Butler County July 11, 1860, and died at Trenton, Butler County Sept. 8, 1939, a daughter of John Law and Sarah Trine. They appear on the 1900 census of St. Clair, Butler County as farmer Henry Augspurger, 47, born in Ohio in April 1853 to a father from France and a mother from Germany; Ida, 39, born in Ohio in July 1860 to parents from Ohio; and a son born in Ohio. They are buried in Miltonville Cemetery. Barbara Heiser (found in Hanfeld records as 'Heisser') was born at Hanfeld Dec. 17, 1814, and died Jan. 10, 1815.

2.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

Jacob Heiser was born Feb. 15, 1817. Genealogist Gertrud Guth has identified his birthplace as the Streicherhof at Uffing, 30 miles south of Hanfeld.154 Jacob departed from Le Havre on the Rhone, and arrived at New York July 2, 1842. He appears on the passenger list as Jacob 'Heisser,' a 27-year-old from Bavaria, accompanied by 26-year-old Margaretha, who has not been identified and may have been a hitherto unknown first wife. The 1850 census of Tazewell County shows Jacob as a 34-year-old farmer, living with his stepmother 'Madaline' [Eyer], 62, in the home of his younger stepbrother 'Joseph Hiser,' 30. Despite a 17-year discrepancy in their ages, 33-year-old Jacob married 16-year-old Catherine Wagler in Tazewell County Oct. 8, 1850.155 She was born June 8, 1834, a daughter of Christian Wagler and Catherine Ulrich. The family of Jacob `Heisor' can be found on the 1855 Illinois State Census. It described them as one male, 40-50 years old; one male, 20-30 years old; one male, under 10; one female, 20-30 years old; and one female, under 10 years of age. Their family can also be found on the 1860 census of Dillon as 'Jacob Hiser', 40; Catherine, 26; Christian, 7; Catherine, 6; Jacob, 4; Barbara, 3; and Joseph, eight months. Jacob was naturalized at Pekin Nov. 6, 1876. He died Dec. 24, 1877, and is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery. His headstone says 'Hieser,' the way he spelled it. This spelling was also passed on to some of his descendants. Catherine is buried in Buckeye Cemetery at Morton. Gospel Herald obituary, Oct. 20, 1910: "Mother Catherine Heiser, nee Wagler, was born in Butler Co., O., June 8, 1834; passed to her reward near Morton, Ill., Sept. 2, 1910; aged 76 y. 2 m. 24 d. Her death was caused by the infirmities of old age. Mother Heiser united with the A. M. Church in her younger years and remained a faithful member to her blessed end. She was united in matrimony with Jacob Heiser in 1850. This union was blessed with 13 children. Father Jacob Heiser, her husband, 4 children, 5 grandchildren, 1 great-grandchild, preceded her to the spirit world. She leaves 9 children, 48 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren, 2 brothers and many friends to mourn her departure. Funeral services were conducted by Christ King at the house in German, text 90th Psalm; and at the church near Morton, Ill., by Andrew Schrock in German and Val. Strubar in English; text, Heb. 9:27, 28. Burial in cemetery nearby." Children of Jacob Heiser and Catherine Wagler include: a. Christian W. Heiser was born at Allentown, Tazewell County April 30 or May 5, 1853, died at Goodfield Dec. 12, 1938, and is buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. On Feb. 25, 1877 at Goodfield he married Elizabeth Zehr (see ZEHR). She was born at Mackinaw Feb. 2, 1855, and died at Goodfield Jan. 29, 1933, a daughter of Peter Zehr and Elizabeth Oyer. They had six children. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery. b. Katharina Heiser was born at Pekin May 1, 1854, and died at Deer Creek May 15, 1911. On Jan. 13, 1874 she married minister Daniel Zehr. He was born at East Peoria March 9, 1849, and died at Morton June 5, 1942, a son of Peter Zehr and Elisabeth Oyer. For his obituary, see ZEHR. They had seven children. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery. Gospel Herald, June 1911: "Sister Catharine Zehr (nee Heiser) was born near Pekin, Ill., May 1, 1854; died of heart failure, at Deer Creek, Ill., May 15, 1911; aged 17 y. 14 d. She was united in marriage to David Zehr, Jan. 13, 1874. This union was blessed with 7 children. She leaves a sorrowing husband, 7 children, 22 grandchildren, 6 brothers, 2 sisters d many friends to mourn her departure. Her father, mother, 1 brother and 3 sisters preceded her to the spirit world. Sister Zehr united with the A. M. Church in her youth and remained a faithful member until death. Funeral services were held by Christ King at the home in German (text, Psa.90), and at the church by Dan Nafziger and John C. Birkey in German and A. A. Schrock in English. Texts, I Cor. 15:1-23; John 5:28, 29. Buried at Mount Zion Cemetery." c. Jacob Heiser was born April 22, 1856, and died at Fisher Feb. 19, 1923. On Feb. 20, 1883 he married Elizabeth Bachman. She was born at Groveland June 15, 1862, and died at Jacksonville, Ill. Dec. 26, 1923, a daughter of John Bachman and Barbara Sutter of Elm Grove. They had 12 children. Gospel Herald, March 1923: "Jacob Heiser, son of Jacob and Kathrine Heiser, was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., on April 22, 1856; died at his home in Fisher, Ill., on Feb. 19, 1923; aged 66 y. 10 m. 28 d. He was married to Elizabeth Bachman on Feb. 20, 1883. To this union were born 12 children, of whom the following survive: Manuel, Alvin, Samuel, Katie, Jake, Mrs. Alvin L. Burkey, Roy, Jesse, and Esther. Barbara preceded him in death about 6 years ago, and two died in infancy. He leaves to mourn his departure his beloved wife, 9 children, 12 grandchildren, 5 brothers, and 2 sisters. He was a member of the Amish Mennonite Church since his youth, and was one of the first Mennonite settlers in the East Bend congregation and worked faithfully unto the end. He expressed his readiness to go home and called the family to his bedside. He bade farewell leaving words of warning and comfort which will long be remembered. It was indeed hard to say goodbye to one we all loved so well, one who meant all a father could mean to us. But we feel assured that our loss is his eternal gain. Therefore we humbly say, "Lord, thy will be done." Funeral services were conducted on Feb. 21 by Samuel Zehr from Psalm 39 and Samuel Gerber of Pekin, Ill., from Col. 2:8-10." d. Barbara Heiser was born Nov. 1, 1857, and died at Foosland Nov. 16, 1934. On June 8, 1876 she married bishop Peter Zehr (see ZEHR for his obituary). He was born in Tazewell County Aug. 24, 1851,

154 Uffing is better known as the place where Adolph Hitler fled after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch of 1923. He was arrested while nursing a broken collarbone in the home of Harvard-educated publicist Ernst 'Putzi' Hanfstaengl. 155 Their names were transcribed into the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index as Jacob Hiser and Catharine Wauble.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

e.

f. g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

and died at Foosland March 14, 1922, a younger brother of Daniel Zehr. They had five children. Gospel Herald, December 1934: "Barbara, daughter of Jacob and Katherine Heiser, and wife of Bishop Peter Zehr, was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., Nov. 1, 1857; died Nov. 16, 1934, at the home of her daughter (Mrs. Alvin R. Birkey of Foosland, Ill.); aged 77 y. 15 d. She united with the Mennonite Church in her youth and remained a faithful member until death. She was united in marriage with Peter Zehr, June 8, 1876. To this union were born 5 children, 3 of whom are now living... Her husband also preceded her in death, having died March 14, 1922. She leaves 19 grandchildren, and 8 great-grandchildren. Two grandchildren have gone on before her. She also leaves 1 sister (Mrs. Fanny King of Fisher, Ill.) and 5 brothers (Christian of Goodfield, Ill.; Peter of Foosland, Ill.; Isaac of Fisher, Ill.; Samuel and Daniel of Morton, Ill.). Four sisters and two brothers preceded her in death. She leaves a large host of relatives and friends. Funeral services were held at the East Bend Mennonite Church with Bro. Harold Zehr of Fisher, Ill., and Bro. Ezra Yordy of Eureka, Ill., in charge. Text, Job 5:26. Interment in East Bend Cemetery." Joseph A. Heiser was born Nov. 14, 1859, and died at Fisher March 27, 1889. On Dec. 11, 1881 in Tazewell County he married Barbara Bachman. She was born June 15, 1862, and died at Fisher March 24, 1926, the older sister of Elizabeth Bachman. They had three children. Mary Heiser was born Oct. 19, 1860, and died in 1862. Peter Heiser was born at Morton April 21, 1863, and died at Foosland, Champaign County May 11, 1940. On Jan. 31, 1888 in Tazewell County he married Adina King. She was born at Elm Grove May 23, 1868, and died at Fisher/Foosland Jan. 30, 1930, a daughter of Samuel King and his second wife Mary Garber. Fannie Heiser was born April 6, 1866, and died at Fisher Jan. 12, 1950. On Dec. 19, 1893 at Deer Creek she married minister Joseph King. He was born in Tazewell County Nov. 22, 1871, and died at Fisher Oct. 17, 1951, a son of minister Christian King and his first wife Phoebe Zehr. Phoebe 'Bena' Heiser was born Nov. 12, 1867, and died at Fisher May 16, 1908. On Feb. 26, 1889 in Tazewell County she married Samuel Studer. He was born Aug. 14, 1864 in Berne, Switzerland, and died June 11, 1944 in Champaign County. They had three children. Gospel Herald, May 1908: "Bena Studer, (nee Heiser) was born Nov. 12, 1867; died of consumption near Fisher, Ill., May 16, 1906; aged 40 y. 6 m. 14 d." Gospel Herald, August 1944: "Samuel Studer was born in Berne, Switzerland, Aug. 14, 1864; died at the Burnham City Hospital, Champaign, Ill., June 11, 1944; aged 79 y. 9 m. 27 d. His health failed him about a year and half ago, and on Oct. 27, 1943, he entered the Burnham City Hospital where he was a patient until departure. At the age of 19 he emigrated to America, locating near Olney, Ill. Later he moved to Morton, and then to Fisher, where he lived the remainder of his life. Early in life he accepted Christ as his Saviour and united with the Mennonite Church. In February 1889, he was united in marriage with Phoebe Heiser. To this union 3 children were born. His wife passed away May 16, 1908. On Sept. 9, 1909, he was married to Anna Sommer, who preceded him in death Nov. 7, 1943..." Isaac Heiser was born at Morton Feb. 23, 1869, and died at Fisher June 15, 1953. On March 22, 1892 in Tazewell County he married Mary A. King. She was born at Deer Creek Oct. 9, 1869, and died May 29, 1962, an older sister of Joseph King. They had six children. Samuel Heiser was born at Morton Oct. 22, 1872, and died there Aug. 30, 1957. On Dec. 20, 1897 at Fisher he married Ida D. Birkey. On Dec. 5, 1922 at Washington, Tazewell County he remarried to Lydia Birkey. She was born Dec. 22, 1882, and died Feb. 25, 1940. Daniel Heiser was born at Morton Nov. 16, 1874, and died at Peoria April 11, 1958. On Nov. 23, 1899 at Deer Creek he married Phoebe King, another daughter of Christian King and his first wife Phoebe Zehr. She was born Oct. 5, 1879, and died Aug. 10, 1929. They had three children.

Katharina Oesch died after son Jacob's birth, and father Jacob Heisser remarried to Magdalena Eyer. She was born circa 1788, a daughter of Jakob Eyer. According to Amish Mennonites in Germany, Jakob was a farmer from Zweibrücken, and leased the Prullhof of the cloister Scheiern in Bavaria, then the Stillerhof near Landsberg. He was also elder of a congregation at Mergenthau near Augsburg. Magdalena brought one child to the marriage, Barbara Eyer (described in the next portion of text), and they had one son.

4. Joseph Heiser was born in Bavaria March 1, 1818. His headstone at Pleasant Grove Cemetery says he died Nov. 9, 1892 at 71 years, 8 months, 8 days.

Joseph Heiser departed from Le Havre on the packet ship Charles Carroll, and arrived at New York Sept. 17, 1838. The passenger list shows a Joseph 'Heser,' 20. One name removed from his entry are three entries for A[illegible] Burkey, 29; Barbara Burkey, 29; and Joseph, 2. The father was Andrew Burcky, the son of Andrew Burkey and Catherine Ackerman. He was born Dec. 5, 1809; his wife Barbara Oyer (or Eyer) was born circa 1808;

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

and their son Joseph was born May 29, 1836. Joseph had lived at Hanfeld, and Andrew had lived at Söcking; the two villages are adjacent and the town squares only two miles apart. Immediately after Joseph's is a name on a crease appearing to be 'Peter Jodte', 23; Peter Yordy was born in 1815, and is known to have immigrated that year. (Andrew Burcky, Joseph Heiser, and Peter Yordy are all listed on the same page of the 1860 census of Elm Grove). The Charles Carroll passengers all had France listed as "The country to which they severally belong." This suggests that Joseph used French travel documents obtained at Le Havre, though he would have been a citizen of Bavaria. History of Illinois and Her People says that "...Joseph Hieser, born in Germany...came to the United States at an early day, and after stopping in Ohio, where he was in the employ of a Butler County farmer, he came to Illinois and located in Elm Grove Township." In Butler County Joseph may have met and become engaged to Barbara Schrag/Schrock. Joseph went to Dillon in 1848 to work laying railroad tracks. He labored on the rails to Peoria until 1850, but came away with little savings.156 In 1850 Joseph was joined by his widowed mother Magdalena Eyer and stepbrother Jacob. Their household can be found on the 1850 census of Dillon as 'Joseph Hiser', 30; 'Madaline', 62, and Jacob, 34. History of Illinois and her People: "Until his marriage the home of Joseph Hieser was cared for by his mother, who had subsequently joined her son. She is now deceased and lies in the cemetery of Elm Grove Township." Magdalena died Oct. 19, 1851. She is thought to be buried in one of the unmarked graves at Railroad Cemetery or Landes Mennonite Cemetery. Joseph married Barbara Schrag/Schrock Feb. 4, 1851. She was born at Kösching, a suburb of Ingolstadt Aug. 17, 1828. Her father Christian Schrag had died in Bavaria in 1831, and she had traveled to Butler County with her mother Elizabeth Bürki/Birkey (see BIRKY/BIRKEY). 'Joseph Hizer' and Barbara purchased 40 acres at Elm Grove Sept. 6, 1852. They worshipped with the Dillon Creek Meeting (after 1876 the Pleasant Grove Amish Mennonite Church), and their children were educated at Railroad Schoolhouse. At first it seems odd that the Heisers should come to Elm Grove relatively late, when land prices had already risen. But an odd coincidence may also have been a factor. Magdalena Eyer's sister Veronika lived at Wilmot, Ontario, where she was married to baker Christian Steinmann. The Steinmanns had purchased Adreas Ropp's improved lot before his move to Butler County, Ohio. Were the Ropps assisting the Heisers in the same way that the Steinmanns had assisted them? The arrival of the Heisers in turn brought the Oesches and others. Their Allentown Road household appears on the 1860 census of Elm Grove sandwiched between Peter Yordy and Joseph Ropp; it is described as farmer Joseph Hoser, 40, Bavaria; Barbara, 30, Bavaria; Christian, 9; Joseph, 6; Andrew, 3; Barbara, 3; Madalene, one month (all the children born in Illinois); and laborer Jonas B., 32, from Hesse-Darmstadt. They appear on the 1870 census of Elm Grove as Joseph Heiser, 50, farmer; Barbara, 40; Christian, 19, farm laborer; Joseph, 17; Andrew, 14; Barbara, 14; Magdalena, 10, Elizabeth, 8; and Maria, 5. The 1880 census of Elm Grove shows 'Jos. Hiser', 62, farmer; Barbara, 52, keeping house; Andrew, 23; Barbara, 23; Mary, 15; and Elisabeth [Barbara's mother], 67. Joseph stated that he was born in Germany, his father was born in Switzerland, and his mother in France; Barbara stated that she was born in Germany, but both parents were born in France. History of Illinois and Her People on Joseph Heiser: "He was one of the most highly respected men of his locality, a very conscientious member of the Amish congregation, and a close attendant on church services." Joseph Heiser died Nov. 9, 1892 at 74 years, 8 months, 8 days. Herald of Truth obituary, Jan. 1, 1893: "On the 8th of November, 1892, near Pekin, Tazewell Co., Ill., of the infirmities of old age and other complaints, Bro. Joseph Hieser, aged 74 years, 8 months and 8 days. He leaves an aged widow, three sons and four daughters to mourn his death. He begged his family not to weep for him, for he said he was going home to Jesus. His remains were laid to rest at Pleasant Grove on the 10th. Funeral services by David Augsburger of Washington, Pre. King of Mackinaw, P. Ropp of Pekin, and J. Burckey of Tiskilwa." Barbara Schrag/Schrock died at Elm Grove Oct. 30, 1911. She and Joseph are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery with several of their children. The children of Joseph Heiser and Barbara Schrag/Schrock include:

a. Christian Heiser was born Oct. 19, 1851, and died at Minier Feb. 17, 1938. At 24, he moved to Little Mackinaw. On Feb. 9, 1876 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Sutter. She was born Oct. 7,

156

The first Peoria and Bureau Valley Railroad passenger train did not enter Peoria until Nov. 9, 1854.

110

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

b.

c.

d. e.

f. g. h.

1858, and died at Minier June 18, 1948, a daughter of Christian Sutter and Magdalena Nafziger. They later lived in Kansas for a year, but returned to Illinois to live in Minier in 1896. A biography of Christian published in George Smith's History of Illinois and HerPeople in 1927 yielded much of the information on his father. Gospel Herald, August 1948: "Hieser. ­ Magdalena, daughter of the late Christian and Magdalena (Nafziger) Sutter, was born Oct. 7, 1858; passed away at her home at Minier, Ill., June 18, 1948; aged 89 y. 8 m. 11 d. On Feb. 6, 1876, she was married to Christian Hieser, who preceded her in death Feb. 17, 1938. They were the first couple to be married in the church at Hopedale, then known as the Amish Church, but now the Hopedale Mennonite Church. She was a member of this church until death. Surviving are 11 children (John and Mary - Mrs. Chris Birky, Hopedale, Ill.; Clara Mrs. Ben Springer, William, Alma - Mrs. E. R. Holmes, Estella - Mrs. William Glaser, all of Minier, Ill.; Harry and Roy, Bloomington, Ill.; Anna - Mrs. J. B. Quigg, Ocean Park, Calif.; Emma - Mrs. J. B. Lippitt, and Mena, Denver, Colo.), 23 grandchildren, 15 great-grandchildren, and 2 great-greatgrandchildren. Two daughters (Leah and Barbara - Mrs. David P. Springer) preceded her in death. Funeral services were held at the Hopedale Mennonite Church June 21 in charge of Simon Litwiller and A. H. Leaman. Text: Luke 11:2. Interment was made in the Hopedale Mennonite Cemetery." Joseph S. Hieser was born Jan. 4, 1854, and died at Elm Grove Aug. 8, 1932. On Jan. 28, 1877 in Tazewell County he married Veronica 'Fannie' Roth. She was born at Morton Feb. 14, 1856, and died at Tremont Dec. 17, 1946, a daughter of Daniel Roth and Catherine Ropp. They lived in Tremont and Pekin and had five children. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Gospel Herald, January 1947: "Hieser ­ Fannie, daughter of the late Daniel and Catherine (Ropp) Roth, was born north of Morton, Ill., Feb. 14, 1856; passed away Dec. 17, 1946; aged 90 y. 10 m. 3 d. On Jan. 28, 1877, she was united in marriage to Joseph S. Hieser. They lived on a farm at Elm Grove and later retired and moved to Tremont, Ill. Her husband, 2 daughters (Bena and Ella), 2 granddaughters, one great-granddaughter, 3 sisters (Bena Staker, Louisa Rich, and Kate Rediger), and 2 brothers (Jacob and Amos) preceded her in death. Surviving are 3 children (Albert, Pekin, Ill.; Louisa, of Tremont; and Edward, also of Pekin), 3 brothers (Joseph, of Morton; Daniel, Gibson City, Ill.; and Samuel, also of Morton), 2 sisters (Mary Teuscher, Fisher, Ill.; and Amelia, of Morton), 8 grandchildren, and 10 great-grandchildren. In early youth she accepted Christ as her personal Saviour and united with the Mennonite Church, remaining faithful until death. She was active in church work, being the president of the first organized sewing circle in the Pleasant Grove community. Funeral services were held at the home and at the Morton Mennonite Church, Dec. 20, in charge of J. W. Davis and Leland Bachman. Texts: II Cor. 5:1, Heb. 13:14. Interment was made in the Pleasant Grove Cemetery." Andrew Hieser (twin) was born Oct. 27, 1856, and died at Elm Grove May 16, 1916. On Jan. 14, 1886 in Tazewell County he married Emma C. Naffziger. She was born Jan. 5, 1862, and died Feb. 28, 1929. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Barbara Hieser (twin) was born Oct. 27, 1856, and died at Elm Grove March 29, 1916. She is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Magdalena Heiser was born May 22, 1860, and died at Tremont Dec. 28, 1938. On Feb. 15, 1881 in Tazewell County she married Jacob Andrew Naffziger. He was born at El Paso Feb. 16, 1856, and died at Tremont Jan. 1, 1939, a son of Peter J. Naffziger and Magdalena Nafziger. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Gospel Herald, January 1939: "Naffziger.- Jacob A., son of Peter and Magdalena Naffziger, was born Feb. 16, 1856, at El Paso, Ill.; died at his home at Tremont, Ill., Jan. 1, 1939; aged 82 y. 10 m. 14 d. "just four days following the passing of his wife. On Feb. 15, 1881, he was united in marriage with Magdalena Heiser, to which union were born 5 children. Joseph, the eldest, preceded him in death. Those surviving are: Oscar, of Ithaca, Mich.; William E. of Pekin; Mrs. Carl Oswald, Morton; and Mrs. Oliver Miller, Barrington, Ill. Three brothers (John of Foosland, Ill., and Henry and Thomas of Ithaca, Mich.), and 2 sisters (Mrs. Katie Kaufman and Mrs. Amos Litwiler of Hopesdale) also survive him, together with 17 grandchildren and 3 great-grandchildren. At the time of his passing he was a faithful member of the Pleasant Grove Mennonite Church, although he had not been able to attend for a number of years because of the infirmities of old age. Funeral services were in charge of Leland A. Bachman, Jonas Litwiler, and Simon Litwiler. Text, Heb.11:16. Interment in the cemetery near the church." Elizabeth Heiser was born Dec. 15, 1862, and died June 20, 1911. Maria/Mary Heiser was born Feb. 24, 1865, and died April 20, 1941. She is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Veronica Heiser was born Dec. 17, 1872, and died Nov. 11, 1876.

Barbara Eyer Heiser Ramige

Barbara was the daughter that Magdalena Eyer brought to her marriage with widower Jacob Heisser. She was born at Gaissach, Oberbayern (30 miles southeast of Hanfeld) Feb. 24 or Dec. 12, 1813 (her headstone says simply

111

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

1813). Her natural father may have been a Schrag. A Heiser family note says that Jacob Heisser "...married a Schrock lady." However, she was called an Eyer, became the stepchild of Jacob Heisser, and finally became a Ramige (also found as Ramigé) upon her marriage. Jean/John Eyer may have been Barbara's uncle. 157 In 1830 he traveled from Hatten, Lower Alsace to Le Havre to New York City to Lyons, N.Y. on the Erie Canal. His travel group included Heidt/Heit and Müller/Miller families. He signed a naturalization declaration of intent at Lyons Sept. 28, 1830, stating that he was born at Hatten and was 38 years old, and became an American citizen at Lyons Sept. 27, 1836. Barbara either accompanied him in 1830, or traveled to him a short while later. 158 The Erie Canal was begun at Rome, N.Y. in 1817. The banks were paved, 50 locks were constructed, and a stone tow path for harnessed draft horses ran along its 360-mile length. This provided work for thousands of unskilled laborers and stone masons. Many immigrants simply labored until they earned savings, then abandoned their employers to settle on inexpensive land farther west. The canal reached Lyons in 1821, and opened in 1825-26, connecting the Hudson River at Albany to Lake Erie. In 1834 work began to expand its width from 40 to 70 feet. Lyons was one of only two locations with dry docks to repair damaged flatboats. On Feb. 22, 1834, Barbara married George Ramige at Lyons. He was born Aug. 29, 1812 (his headstone shows Oct. 22, 1811), a son of George Henry Ramige and Salomé Kuntz. George Ramige and Barbara were members of the congregation when the Lyons Evangelical Church was established in 1835. 159 In 1848 Ramige, Espenschied, Eller, Lux, and Wagner families departed Lyons traveled 775 miles west to Groveland. In 1848 there was still less than 100 miles of railroad track in Illinois. The household of George Henry Ramige is found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer John H. Ramige, 62, Germany; Salome, 52, Germany; and laborer Fredk., 17, New York. Their next door neighbors were farmer Nicolas Eller, 25, Germany; Barbara [Ramige], 22, Germany; and Peter, 1, Illinois. 160 The household is found again on the 1860 census of Groveland as gentleman George N. Rumage, 71; and Mary, 71. They possessed $10,000 of real estate and $200 in personal property, a considerable sum. Their next door neighbors were still the Ellers, now with five children.161

The marriage entry for Jean Eÿer and Marie Eve Strohm at Hatten Jan. 9, 1812 says he was born there Feb. 12, 1791 to carpenter Jean Eÿer and Barbe Friedel, and that his parents were present at the ceremony. Both father and son signed the page, along with witness Michel Eyer, a 57-year-old weaver described as an uncle of the groom. Jean's son George Eyer was born at Hatten Dec. 18, 1815, and died at Lyons Sept. 14, 1894. On Nov. 27, 1838 he married Magdalena Stell at Lyons. She was born at Hermerswiller, a village 4 miles east of Hatten (Kutzenhausen, associated with the Gerber family, is only 2 miles east). They had 10 children at Lyons, leaving many Eyer descendants in the area 158 The Heidt/Müller/Eyer group may have come to America in response to correspondence from the Ramige family. George's father weaver George Henry Ramige was also born at Hatten, Lower Alsace Jan. 6, 1788. He married Marie Salomé 'Sally' Kuntz there Dec. 26, 1809. They departed from Le Havre on the Sully, arriving at New York July 15, 1829, no doubt attracted by a community that was receptive to Alsatian and German immigrants. The Sully passenger list includes George Ramage, 40; Salomie, 40; George Jr., 18; Madelina, 15; Salomie Jr., 13; Mary, 10; Dorothy, 8; Justina, 3; and Barbara, 1. Some Hatten records show 'Ramigé.' 159 The ebullient personality of Philip Dorsheimer played a part in the growth of Lyons. He was born at Wöllstein (now in the Rhineland Palatinate) April 15, 1797. He emigrated to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1815, and married there in 1821. He moved to Lyons in 1825-26 to work as a flour miller. He later purchased hotels within sight of the flatboats. There he interpreted English for new German arrivals and attracted German businessmen to buy farms. Dorsheimer left Lyons in 1836 and moved to Buffalo with his son William, where he died in 1861. His son later became lieutenant governor of New York. (See Lloyd Espenschied's Early Wayne County Settlers and their Rhineland Origins online for more on this family and Lyons). Two of the German settlers attracted by Dorsheimer were John Espenschied Sr. and John Espenschied Jr. On Aug. 22, 1834 they arrived at New York from Le Havre on the Normandie, traveling from Siefersheim, Hesse-Darmstadt (a village adjacent to Donsheim's birthplace). Also on the passenger list were Philip Dorsheimer's 68-year-old father Wilhelm, as well as several more families that settled at Lyons. The surname Espenschied originates from a village located 13 miles east of Sankt Goarshausen. A Mennonite branch of this family emigrated to Lancaster County in the 1780s. A number of spelling variations are found in that area. 160 Nicholas Eller was born at Wonsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt Aug. 25, 1825, and died at Groveland Dec. 30, 1911. Wonsheim is located next to Wöllstein and Siefersheim, the hometowns of the Dorsheimers and Espenschieds. He arrived at New York on the Argo Nov. 6, 1846; made his way to Lyons; then moved with relatives to Groveland in 1848. On July 30, 1848 in Peoria County he married Barbara Ramige. She was born in Hatten, Lower Alsace Aug. 11, 1827, and died at Groveland Dec. 5, 1872. They are buried in Zion Evangelical Cemetery at Groveland. 161 Three-month-old Salome 'Sally' Eller later married Benjamin F. Ropp (see ROPP), a son of Jacob Ropp and Elizabeth Schlegel.

157

112

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The 1860 census of Groveland shows the household of their son George Ramige as farmer George Rumagy, 57, Württemberg; Barbary, 46, Württemberg; George, 23, New York; Henry, 21, New York; William, 19, New York; Christian, 15, New York; Frederick, 11, Illinois; Emeline, 6, Illinois; and Sarah, 3, Illinois. Their son George lived next door. Barbara's relative John was living with them in 1870. That household is described as farmer George Ramige, 59, France; Barbara, 54, France; school teacher Frederick, 21, Illinois; Emma, 16, Illinois; farmer William [son of George and Barbara], 29, New York; Mary, 26, Missouri [William's wife]; Alice, 4 months, Illinois; and John Eier, 79 [closer to 68], France. They also appear on the 1880 census of Groveland as farmer Geo. Ramige, 69; wife Barbary, 66; and daughter Emma, 26, born in Illinois to parents from Germany. The farm of 'G. Ramage' is located below Wesley City on the 1864 plat map of Groveland. George Henry Ramige died at Groveland Dec. 6, 1867 (his headstone gives the age 79 years, 11 months, 21 days). Maria Salome 'Sally' Kuntz died there July 28, 1861 (her headstone gives the age 72 years, 3 months, 13 days). They are buried in Zion Evangelical Cemetery at Groveland. Their son George Ramige and Barbara moved to Rockwell City, Iowa in 1883, where Barbara died May 13, 1892. George died there March 21, 1892. They are buried in Lake Creek Cemetery in Rockwell City.

113

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Augsburger: Bavarian Branch of the Augspurgers

T

HE THIRD WAVE OF IMMIGRATION in ROPP told the story of the German '48ers. A failed harvest in 1847 led to food shortages, rioting, and eventually a failed revolution. At about this time Augsburgers arrived in America. The spelling is a German adaptation of the Swiss Augspurger (just as Augsbourger is found in France) and represents a family with origins in Munsingen, Bern and Ste. Marie-aux-Mines. Bendicht Augspurger and Verena Gfeller were the parents of Niclaus Augspurger. He was born at Konolfingen, Bern; baptized at Munsingen, Bern Feb. 25, 1644; and died at Saales after 1713. He married Margreth Luginbühl. She was born at Aeschi bei Spiez, and baptized at Reichenbach im Kandertal April 18, 1652, a daughter of Hans Luginbühl and Anna Spieler. In 1692-93 Jacob Amman made a tour of Bernese villages to evaluate support for his advocacy of strict practices. He was accompanied by Niklaus Augspurger, his brother Uli Amman acting as scribe, and Christen Blank. After 1713 Niclaus briefly practiced medicine on humans and animals from the home of his daughter Magdalena and her husband Anthon Bächer at Saales (12 miles northwest of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines). His son Jacob Augspurger was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines circa 1688. Circa 1708 he married Elisabeth Ummel. She was a daughter of David Ummel and Barbara Stauffer. They were the parents of Noah/Noé Augspurger/Augsbourger. He was born in 1730, and died after 1796. He married Julie Diebler. They went from the area of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to the Canardière estate at Strasbourg in 1786 (see EIGSTI for more on this estate), and died there before 1796. Noah had a brother Nicolas, who was the forebearer of the Butler County, Ohio family. Their son Noé Augspurger/Augsbourger (later called Noah Augsburger) was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Oct. 8, 1755, and died on the Pflegangerhof ('grazing meadow farm') at Hanfeld, Bavaria after 1831. Noé was employed on the Canardière estate. Circa 1785 he married Anna Müller there. She was born at Sexau, Baden, and died on the Canardière estate at Strasbourg May 6 , 1806, a daughter of Jacques Müller and Anne Litwiller. Her civil death entry was witnessed by cultivator Jean Rothacker, 36. The children of Noé Augspurger/Augsbourger and his first wife Anna Müller born on the Canardière estate at Strasbourg include:

1. 2. 3. Barbe Augspurger/Augsbourger was born circa 1785, and died at Strasbourg May 22, 1832. She married Joseph Augster. He was born at Raon sur Plaine (later in the department of Vosges) in 1784, and died there June 11, 1832. Noé Augsbourger/Noah Augsburger was born circa 1792. Katharina Augsburger/Augsbourger was born Jan. 4, 1793, and died at Hanfeld Oct. 15, 1850. She married minister Andreas Oesch/Esch. He was born at Sarre-Union, Lower Alsace in 1791, and died at Hanfeld April 30, 1869, a son of Christian Oesch and Katharina/Catherine Bürki. Their son Christian came to Tazewell County (see ÖSCH). Anna Augspurger/Augsbourger was born Sept. 20, 1795, and died on the Canardière estate May 9, 1799.

4.

On Oct. 24, 1807 at Strasbourg Noé remarried to widow Marie Goldschmitt. The civil marriage entry described the groom as cultivator Noé Augsburger, 52, born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Oct. 8, 1755, a son of Noé Augsburger and Julie Diebler. It described the bride as Marie Goldschmitt, 57, born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines May 16, 1750, a daughter of Jean Henry Goldschmit [Goldschmid] and Marie Neuhousser [Anna Maria Neuhauser]. It stated that he was the widower of Anna Müller, who had died on the Canardière estate at Strasbourg May 6, 1806, and she was the widow of cultivator Nicolas Hyser, who had died at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Dec. 22, 1800 (see HEISER). Witnesses included cultivator Jean Rothacker, 26, brother-in-law of the groom; and Michel Müller, 45, brother-in-law of the groom. Noé's Swiss-style writing made his script signature look like 'non agsbrgnr.' Noé's daughter Katharina was living with her husband at Hanfeld, Bavaria, and this became the home of Noé and Marie. Marie died on the Streicherhof at Uffing, Bavaria (30 miles south of Hanfeld) Sept. 26, 1831. We know very little about Noé's son Noé Augsbourger/Noah Augsburger because most relevant records were destroyed during World War II.162 He was born on the Canardière estate at Strasbourg circa 1792, and may have held a lease at Hanfeld from June 5, 1810 to Jan. 11, 1820, when he lived on the Pflegangerhof. There is a sales document for a parcel of land dated Sept. 30, 1818. He married Elisabeth Eyer.

162

Hanfeld was the location of a major communications station during the war.

114

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Four sons and two daughters lived to adulthood.163 Two daughters remained in Bavaria; sons Christian and Hans cannot be pinned down; and Noah and Jacob came to America.

Older brother Noé/Noah Augsburger

Noé/Noah Augsburger was born at Hanfeld, Bavaria Nov. 30, 1819. The 1880 census gave his age as 60, and he self-reported a birth date of November 1819 on the 1900 census. He died at Boynton July 17, 1903. He sailed from Le Havre on the Gallia, and arrived at New York Sept. 4, 1851. He appears on the passenger list as Noh Augsburger, 31; the name before him is Jacob Hochstatter, 45. He passed through Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Galena, Ill.; and Fremont, Ill. before settling at Hopedale in 1852. Circa 1852 he married Magdalena Schrag/Schrock. She was born March 24, 1824, and died at Boynton Nov. 9, 1914. The 1860 census of Hopedale shows Neal Auxberger, 40, Germany; Magdaline Auxberger, 35, Germany; Christian, 7; Jacob, 4; and Jos. Auxberger, 2; all children born in Illinois. They appear on the 1880 census of Boynton as 'Noe Augsberger,' 60, a farmer born in Baden, with a father from France and a mother from Bavaria; and Magdalena, 55, born in Baden, with both parents from Baden; Joseph, 21; Barbaray, 18; and John, 14. The 1900 census of Boynton shows them as Noah Augsburger, 80, born in Germany in November 1819 to a French father and a German mother, immigrated 1851; Lena, 76, born in Germany in March 1824 to German parents; immigrated 1853.\ Noah served as a minister and then elder of the Hopedale Amish Mennonite Church 1862-76, while running a 160-acre farm in Section 23 at Boynton. Herald of Truth, August 1903: "Pre. Noah Augsburger was born in Bavaria, Germany, Nov. 30, 1817; died near Hopedale, Tazewell Co., Ill., July 17 1903, aged 85 Y., 8 M., 17 D. He was afflicted for some time with kidney trouble and other complications, incidental, in part, to old age. He labored in the ministry for many years, and after a well-spent life the Master called him to rest. He leaves his aged companion, three sons and one daughter to mourn their loss. Funeral services on the 19th at the Hopedale Amish Mennonite M.H. by Daniel Grieser and Daniel Roth in German and by Samuel Gerber in English. May God comfort the bereaved family and congregation in the loss they have sustained." Gospel Herald, December 1914: "Magdalena (Schrock) Augsburger was born in Germany, Mar. 24, 1824; died at her home near Hopedale, Ill., Nov. 9, 1914; aged 90 y. 7 m. 15 d. She was married to Noah Augsburger, who preceded her in death July 17, 1903. She leaves to mourn her departure 2 sons, 1 daughter, 17 grandchildren, 16 great-grandchildren, and 1 brother. Funeral services were conducted at the Hopedale A. M. Church of which she was a member, by Bros. John Birkey of that place, E. S. Hallman, Goshen, Ind., and Samuel Gerber, Tremont, Ill." They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. The children of Noé/Noah Augsburger and Magdalena Schrag include:

1. Christian Augsburger was born July 15, 1853, and died July 26, 1910. On Feb. 3, 1878 in Tazewell County he married Barbara Sutter. She was born Sept. 31, 1858, and died Sept. 1, 1886. He is found on the 1900 census of Boynton as Christian Augsburger, 46, born in Illinois in July 1853 to German parents; with children and a grandchild. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Jacob Augsburger was born April 25, 1856, and died Jan. 17, 1886. He is buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Joseph Augsburger was born at Hopedale Aug. 3, 1858, and died at Bloomington, McLean County Aug. 17, 1941. On Feb. 12, 1900 at Bloomington, McLean County he married to Ella B. Naffziger. She was born at Delavan Dec. 30, 1867, and died April 7, 1941, a daughter of Valentine Naffziger and Elizabeth Steiger. Joseph was a hardware merchant at Hopedale. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Barbara Augsburger was born in Hopedale Oct. 17, 1861, and died at Morton Feb. 6, 1917. She married Amos Roth. He was born at Morton Sept. 11, 1860, and died Jan. 5, 1945, a son of Daniel Roth and Catherine Ropp. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. John Augsburger was born Jan. 1, 1866, and died at Boynton March 25, 1917, a victim of the influenza pandemic of that year. On Dec. 13, 1893 in Tazewell County he married Lizzie Litwiller. She was born Jan. 13, 1867, and died Feb. 11, 1899, a daughter of Joseph Litwiller and Mary Ropp. She is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. On Nov. 27, 1904 at Wayland, Iowa he remarried to Fannie Wyse. She was born in 1870, a daughter of Christian Wyse and Fanny Roth. He is buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale.

2. 3.

4.

5.

Fragments tell us that they had a son Noé who was born Feb. 24, 1817, and died July 5, 1817. A son Christian was born April 29, 1818.

163

115

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Younger brother Jacob Augsburger

Jacob Augsburger was born at Hanfeld July 25, 1824, and died at Elm Grove Feb. 21, 1869. He immigrated in 1848. Circa 1848 he married Barbara Steinman; one source gives the location as Baltimore. She was born in Bavaria June 16, 1829, and died March 21, 1911, a daughter or niece of Jacob Steinman.164 The 1900 census said that she had immigrated in 1847. They are found on the 1850 census of Paradise, Lancaster County as laborer Jacob Augusburges, 27, Germany; Barbara, 21, Germany; Magdaline, 1, Pennsylvania; and Noah, 6 months, Pennsylvania. The 1860 census of Groveland shows them as Jacob Oxenberg, 35, Bavaria; Barbara, 30; Madaline, 12; Noah, 10; Christian, 8; Elizabeth, 6; Catharine, 4; and Archie [Andrew], 1. Widow Barbara and her children are found on the 1870 census of Elm Grove. On April 15, 1873 in Tazewell County widow Barbara remarried to widower Christian Sutter (see SUTTER). He was born on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau April 21, 1823, and died at Hopedale May 11, 1899. His first wife Magdalena Nafziger had died May 25, 1871. That household can be found on the 1880 census of Little Mackinaw as farmer Christian Suter, 57, Bavaria; Barbara, 50, Bavaria; Annie Augsberger, 17, stepdaughter born in Illinois; Daniel, 13, stepson born in Illinois; and Fannie, 10, stepdaughter born in Illinois. Christian Sutter died at Hopedale May 11, 1899, and was buried next to his first wife in the Mennonite Cemetery there. Widow Barbara is found on the 1900 census of Hopedale as Barbara Sutter, 71, born in Germany in June 1829; mother of 9 children, 7 still living. Barbara died March 21, 1911, and was buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery with her first husband Jacob Augsburger, father Jacob Steinman (he died in 1865, age 62), and Sutter in-laws. The children of Jacob Augsburger and Barbara Steinman include:

1. Magdalena/Madeleine Augsburger was born at Paradise, Lancaster County Oct. 2, 1848, and died Jan. 5, 1925. On Nov. 6, 1864 in Tazewell County she married Christian W. Zook. He was born in Lancaster County Aug. 28, 1835, and died at Groveland May 19, 1911, a son of Bartholomew Zook Sr. and his second wife Barbara Neuhauser. He is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Noah Augsburger was born at Paradise Feb. 18, 1850, died in Tazewell County Nov. 27, 1892, and is buried in Railroad Cemetery. On Oct. 27, 1889 he became the second husband of Catherine 'Katie' Ringenberger. She was born at Elm Grove Dec. 29, 1851, and died at Limestone, Peoria County Jan. 6, 1836, a daughter of Peter Ringenberger and Sybilla Garber. For an account of her three marriages see RINGENBERG. Christian Augsburger was born in Maryland Feb. 20, 1852, died March 31, 1872, and is buried with his parents in Landes Mennonite Cemetery. He appears on the 1870 census of Elm Grove as a farmhand for Christian Gerber. Elizabeth Augsburger was born at Minier May 20, 1854, and died at Gridley, McLean County Jan. 4, 1936. On March 7, 1871 in Tazewell County she married Christian Rinkenberger. He was born at Mackinaw Dells Sept. 28, 1846, and died at Gridley, McLean County March 28, 1924, a son of John Rinkenberger and Anna Garber. He enlisted March 31, 1864 at Henry, Marshall County, and served as a private in Company C of the 65th Illinois Infantry. They are buried in Gridley Cemetery. Catherine Augsburger was born at Minier in September 1857. On Nov. 23, 1885 in Tazewell County 'Katie Augsberger' (Illinois Statewide Marriage Index) married Peter J. Ropp. He was born at Elm Grove July 31, 1854, and died Jan. 25, 1926, a son of Peter Ropp and Mary Ruh. They are found on the 1900 census of Tremont as Peter Ropp, 45, born in Illinois to German parents in July 1844; and Catherine, 42, born in Illinois to German parents in September 1857. In 1910 they were living at Pekin Ward 5. Andrew Augsburger was born at Minier July 28, 1859, and died at Tremont Sept. 3, 1929. On Aug. 17, 1879 in Tazewell County he married Susanna Wittrig. She was born at Noble, Iowa circa 1862, and died in 1947, a daughter of Joseph Wittrig and Anna Gascho. They are buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery. Anna Maria/Anna Mary Augsburger was born at Tremont in 1863, and died at Deer Creek May 21, 1928. On Oct. 12, 1877 in Tazewell County she married Christian Zehr. He was born at Hopedale June 16, 1857, and died at Deer Creek Aug. 10, 1922. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. His first wife was Anna Kauffman. They married Oct. 3, 1876, and she died Dec. 14, 1879. Gospel Herald, July 1928: " Zehr. - Anna Maria Augsberger was born at Tremont, Ill., Feb. 23, 1863; died at her home in Deer Creek, Ill., May 21, 1928; aged 65 y. 2 m. 28 d. Her husband, Christian Zehr, preceded her in death six years ago. One daughter (Alta) her only child survives. Besides her daughter she leaves 2 brothers, 3 sisters, and a host of relatives and friends. She was a faithful member of the Mennonite Church near Goodfield, Ill., and was greatly respected by all who knew her. She was

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

164 Jacob Steinman married a Gascho. He is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery, where his headstone says he died March 19, 1865, at 63 years of age. Jacob was also the father or uncle of Waldo Mennonite Church minister and elder Daniel Steinman (see BIRKY/BIRKEY).

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

8.

9.

afflicted for over three years, being confined to her home most of the time. She bore all her sickness patiently, always looking on the bright side, trusting in her Savior. Funeral services were conducted by J. A. Heiser, Jacob Zehr, and H. C. Smith. Texts, John 14:1-3; Psa. 116:15. Interment in Hopedale Cemetery." Daniel Jacob Augsburger was born at Tremont in 1866, and died at Bloomington, McLean County April 25, 1947. On Dec. 6, 1888 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Guth. She was born at Little Mackinaw Aug. 16, 1867, and died July 18, 1945, a daughter of Christian Guth/Good and Jacobine Ehresman. They lived at Waldo in 1910 and 1920. Gospel Herald, May 1947: "Augsburger. - Daniel Jacob, son of Jacob and Barbara (Steinman) Augsburger, was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., Nov. 9, 1866; died at the St. Joseph's Hospital, Bloomington, Ill., April 25, 1947; aged 80 y. 5 m. 16 d. He moved to the community of Flanagan, Ill., as a young man. His wife (Magdalena Good) preceded him in death on July 18, 1945. He was a member of the Waldo Mennonite Church. Surviving are 4 children (Elmer, and Mrs. Ida King, of Flanagan; Arthur, Middlebury, Ind.; and Mrs. George Cumrine, Morton, Ill), 21 grandchildren, 6 great-grandchildren, one sister (Mrs. Fannie Egli, Kouts, Ind.), and a large number of other relatives and friends. Funeral services were held at the Waldo Church, in charge of A. H. Leaman and J. D. Hartzler." Veronica 'Fannie' Augsburger was born at Tremont in 1869, and died in 1947. On Feb. 19, 1888 in McLean County she married Christian Egli. He was born at Zurich, Ontario March 3, 1860, and died at Kouts, Indiana Aug. 22, 1944, a son of Johannes/Jean/John Egli and Magdalena Gascho. His parents brought him to Minier, Boynton in 1867. Christian and Fannie are found on the 1900 census of Hittle as farmer Chris Egli, born in Canada in January 1860 to German parents, immigrated in 1870; Fannie B., born in Illinois in October 1869 to German parents; and two children born in Illinois. The 1920 census of Porter County, Indiana shows them as Chris Egli, 59, Canada; Fannie Egli, 50; and Andrew Egli, 63. They are buried in Hopewell Mennonite Cemetery at Kouts, Indiana as 'Chris Egli' and 'Fannie Egli.'

117

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Zehr of Struth

The Bavarian Branch of the Zehr Family

N

1.

iederstocken is located about six miles west of Lake Thun, in the parish of Reutigen at the foot of the 6,570foot Stockhorn. It adjoins Erlenbach im Simmental, the birthplace of Jacob Amman. Anabaptist Peter Zer married Barbara Schultz, and had a son Christian Zer at Niederstocken circa 1700. Circa 1712 the family migrated down the Rhine River to Struth in 'Crooked Alsace' to work as cultivators. Several brothers or Zehr families made the trip in the same time frame. Christian married Elizabeth Koch at Struth circa 1732. Their son Daniel Zehr was born there circa 1734. In 1777 Daniel married Catherine Zehr. She was born at Struth circa 1750, and died there Dec. 24, 1805, a daughter of Jacob/Jacques Zehr. Daniel died in the home of his son-in-law Johannes/Jean Springer at Struth May 21, 1819. The names of the children of Daniel Zehr and Catherine Zehr born at Struth were kept in a 1780 edition of Martyrs' Mirror that has been passed down in the Ingold family:

Katharina/Catherine Zehr was born April 15, 1778. On Jan. 27, 1798 she married Johannes/Jean Springer. He was born circa 1776, a son of Daniel Springer and Marie Kohler. They migrated to Bavaria in 1819. Among their children was David Springer, who lived at Solln (a southwestern Munich suburb) and sailed with his wife Elizabeth Guth on the Minnesota in 1849. He was born at Struth Oct. 14, 1806, died at Hopedale April 16, 1884, and is buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. See SPRINGER. Daniel Zehr was born Feb. 8, 1782, and died at Deer Creek in 1856. Joseph Zehr was born in May 1784, and died at Metamora, Woodford County April 17, 1872. On January or June 7, 1806 at Cirey-sur-Vezouze, Meurthe-et-Moselle he married Anne Verly. She was born circa 1782, and died at Metamora, Woodford County after 1870, a daughter of Ulrich Verly and Magdalena Steiner. Joseph was a miller. They arrived at New York on the Vision Jan. 2, 1857. They are found on the 1860 census of Metamora as Joseph Zehr, 80; Anne, 82; and one daughter; and on the 1880 census of Waldo, Livingston County. Joseph Zehr and Anne Verly are buried in Hickory Point Cemetery at Metamora. David Zehr was born circa 1789 and died Jan. 9, 1799. Barbe Zehr was born May 17, 1791, and died at Rozières-sur-Mouzon, Vosges Dec. 7, 1857. On Aug. 29, 1811 at Struth she married Johannes/Jean Zehr/Zerre. He was born at Nehwiller Sept. 3, 1783, and died at Goncourt, HauteMarne Feb. 3, 1865. Elisabeth Zehr was born July 23, 1794, and died at Struth in January 1795.

2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

Daniel Zehr was born at Struth Feb. 8, 1782, and died at Deer Creek in 1856. On June 3, 1802 at Windstein, Lower Alsace (28 miles east of Struth) he married Magdalena Unzicker. The German-language marriage entry registered at Windstein calls them 'Daniel Zähr' and 'Magdalena Hntzicker.' Witnesses included Joseph Zähr, 47; Christian Zähr of Sultzthal, 51; and Christian Bäch of Windstein, 35. Magdalena was born at Windstein May 8, 1785, and died at Hanfeld, Bavaria Dec. 16, 1838, a daughter of Johannes/Jean Unzicker and Barbara Ullman. 165 (She was a second cousin to Elizabeth Unzicker, the wife of Valentine Birky, and Daniel Unzicker, the husband of Magdalena Kahn). In October 1803 the family entered a two-year lease on the dairy farm Abtsried of the Wessobrunn cloister, about 34 miles southwest of Munich. 166 They lived at Berg am Laim 1810-17. This was a small mountain known for its brickworks, which is now a district on the east side of Munich. On Dec. 2, 1818, they purchased property at Mannried (27 miles northwest of Munich), which was sold Dec. 15, 1827. From 1828 they lived on the Mang estate at Hanfeld (18 miles south of Munich), where Magdalena died in 1838. Five of the children emigrated to Slabtown (now Congerville in Montgomery Township) in the spring of 1848. In 1849 Daniel emigrated from Hanfeld as a 67year-old widower with the family of his nephew David Springer. Daniel and David joined a group departing from Bremen on the Minnesota (his traveling companions are listed in EIGSTI). They sailed via Liverpool to New York, arriving June 21, 1849. Many in the group traveled directly to Central Illinois.

The Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois and History of Tazewell County stated that Daniel Zehr's wife was Catherine Ringburk. However, many errors of fact connected with this family were also given; we could not identify their source. 166 The dairy farm Abtsried was later leased by Daniel Unzicker and his second wife Elisabeth Hauter (see UNZICKER, BUTLER COUNTY UNZICKERS).

165

118

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Daniel reunited in Tazewell and Woodford Counties with his sons George, Christian, Peter, and Jakob/Jacob; oldest son Daniel followed in 1853, and only son Joseph remained in Bavaria. Daniel died at the Deer Creek home of son Christian in 1856, and is thought to be buried in Slabtown Cemetery. The children of Daniel Zehr and Magdalena Unzicker include:

1. Daniel Zehr was born at Struth June 8, 1803. On May 12, 1827 at Hilgertshausen-Tandern (adjacent to Mannried) he married Barbara Ingold. She was born on the Lindelbrunnerhof farm between Darstein and Münchweiler am Klingbach (about four miles from Annweiler) in Nassau-Weilburg circa 1800, and died at Mannried Aug. 23, 1831, a daughter of Joseph Ingold and Elisabethe Gungerich. She brought one child to the marriage, Joseph Ingold, born Jan. 24, 1826; they had two more sons named Daniel and Christian.167 On Nov. 6, 1832 at Pettenbrunn (adjacent to Freising, 22 miles above Munich) Daniel remarried to Magdalena Rocke (also found as Magdalena Miller). Daniel became an elder in Bavaria. Daniel and Magdalena sold their Pettenbrunn property Sept. 1, 1853. Gary L. Yordy found the passenger list of the Germania out of Bremen, which arrived at New York Nov. 19. It gives the family as Daniel Zehr, 50, farmer; Mary, 45; Christian, 22, farmer; Magdalena, 18; James [Jacob], 16; and Mary, 14, and their place of origin as Pettenbrunn. The Illinois Public Domain Land Tract Sales Database shows that Daniel Zehr of Woodford County purchased 45.6 acres at what is now Congerville for 25 cents per acre (total $11.41) Dec. 15, 1854. Daniel's status within the Mackinaw Meetings is uncertain, given the presence of Christian Farny and other senior ministers, but he was regarded highly in deference to his status as an elder in Bavaria. Details of Daniel's death from cholera Aug. 11, 1855 are given in SMITH. He was buried in Slabtown Cemetery with many other cholera victims. Magdalena died Feb. 27, 1899, and is also buried in Slabtown Cemetery. George Zehr was born on the dairy farm Abtsried Jan. 23, 1806, and died in Livingston County Feb. 3, 1886; he is buried in Guth Cemetery at Washington. George arrived in America May 26, 1835 and settled near Slabtown. On Oct. 11, 1846 in Woodford County he married Catherine Gundy. She was born May 5, 1817, and died at Flanagan, Livingston County Sept. 12, 1872. They are found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County next door to brother Peter Zehr as brewer George Seers, 44, Germany; Catharine, 34, Germany; and Madeline, 1, Illinois. George is found on the 1880 census of Gridley, McLean County as a 74-year-old father-in-law from Anhalt living with farmer Jacob Augspurger, 32; his daughter Lena, 32; and a grandson Albert Augspurger, 2. Joseph Zehr was born at Bogenhausen (now a district on the east side of Munich, next to Berg am Laim) Nov. 29, 1807, and died there Dec. 9, 1807. Joseph Zehr was born at Berg am Laim Nov. 18, 1810, and died after a logging accident at Beigarten, Bavaria (12 miles east of Hanfeld) April 30, 1871. On May 14, 1837 he married Katharina Oesch. She was born at Hanfeld May 8, 1814, and died at Walchstadt, Bavaria (eight miles southeast of Hanfeld) Oct. 25, 1856, a daughter of Andreas Oesch (son of Christian Oesch and Katharina/Catherine Bürki) and Katharina Augspurger/Augsburger. On March 13, 1857 at Berg am Laim he remarried to Jakobina Miller. She was born at Wellenburg (a suburb of Augsburg) March 12, 1818, and died at Beigarten Jan. 13, 1890, a daughter of Christian Miller and Magdalena Oesch. Joseph was the only son who did not emigrate from Europe. Christian Zehr was born at Berg am Laim Nov. 12, 1812, and died at Deer Creek Sept. 19, 1893. See SIBLING #5. Magdalena Zehr was born at Berg am Laim March 12, 1816. She may have been the first wife of Christian Oesch of Elm Grove; if so, she died before May 1860 (see ESCH/OESCH). Peter Zehr was born at Mannried, Bavaria Dec. 30, 1818, died at Slabtown April 6, 1886, and is buried in Slabtown Cemetery. See SIBLING #7. Jakob/Jacob Zehr was born at Mannried, Bavaria Sept. 17 or 18, 1825, and died at Goodfield Feb. 22, 1898. According to Auswanderung, Jakob Zehr, a serving farmhand at Hanfeld, emigrated from Bavaria in 1848 bound for Illinois with 400 florins in hand. On April 21, 1850 in Woodford County he married Elizabeth Ehresman. 168 She was born in Germany Sept. 11, 1830, and died at Deer Creek Nov. 27, 1902, a daughter of Christian Ehresman and Elizabeth Barnett. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. They are found on the 1850 census of Woodford County living next to older brother Christian: Jacob Sears, 25, Germany; and Eliza, 20, Germany. Jacob was ordained by the Mackinaw meeting in 1859, which later became Roanoke Mennonite Church and Goodfield Mennonite Church. They are found on the 1880 census of Montgomery as farmer Jacob Zehr, 42, Bavaria; R. Annie Zehr, 36, Ohio; with six children born in Illinois, and Magdalena Zehr, 75, Bavaria (possibly Magdalena Miller, the widow of Daniel Zehr). Herald of Truth, March 1898: "Montgomery Township, Woodford County, Ill., lost one of its oldest and most respected citizens on Tuesday morning of Feb. 22nd, 1898 by the death of Pre. Jacob Zehr, at his home in Mackinaw valley, near Zimmerman's Ford. Deceased was born in Bavaria, Germany, Sept. 17, 1825 and emigrated to America in the spring of 1848. On April 21st, 1850, he was married to Elizabeth Ehresman and settled on the farm upon which he died. This farm he entered from the government and by hard labor succeeded in making it a comfortable home, leaving his family well provided for. His family consisted of four sons and five daughters of

2.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Joseph Ingold married Barbara Unzicker (1844-1871) in Tazewell County Nov. 8, 1863 (her name is found recorded as 'Unsinger'), and remarried to Barbara Ernst (circa 1833-1888) in Tazewell County Jan. 14, 1872 (his name is found recorded as 'Seegold'). See SCHLEGEL for his obituary. 168 The marriage entry lists Elizabeth Ehresman as 'Eliza Anersman.'

167

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

whom one son and two daughters preceded him to the grave; his wife, six children and eighteen grandchildren survive him. Bro. Zehr united with the Amish Mennonite Church in early youth and remained a faithful member to the time of his death. On the 12th of June 1859, he was chosen by the above named church as minister of the Gospel, and on May 17th, 1863 ordained as bishop. It was ever his highest aim to fill this charge according to God's ordinances as long as He gave him power and health to do so. He was a sufferer from nervousness or sick-headache more or less for nearly forty years, which wore on him so that for the last four or five years his health has been so poor that he was unable to preach. This seemed to be his greatest sorrow in his declining years; yet by his patience in his sufferings and his trust in his Master he was ever setting a good example to others who visited him, and to his family. About four months ago he was partly paralyzed and from that time was confined to his bed and as helpless as a child, patiently awaiting his Master's call to come up higher. His life on earth was an exemplary, upright, humble one, highly respected by all who knew him. While the sorrow of his death is general, yet it is mitigated by the knowledge that after a long and useful life a good man has gone to the home he so longed for."

A little more on sons Christian and Peter follows. Sibling #5: Christian Zehr was born at Berg am Laim, Bavaria Nov. 12, 1812, and died at Deer Creek Sept. 19, 1893. He sailed from Le Havre on the Rhone, arriving at New York June 17, 1939. The passenger list shows Christ Zear, 26, Bavaria. His name appears three lines below that of Jacob Imhof, 24; and Peter Imhof, 23. Peter Imhof or Imhoff later became elder/bishop of the conservative Augspurger congregation in Butler County (see EHRESMAN). Andrew F. Zimmerman and Anna Müller also brought their family on that voyage (see ZIMMERMAN).. In 1842 Christian married Magdalena 'Lena' Landis. She was born circa 1816, and died in 1843, shortly after giving birth to a daughter, Magdalena/Madeleine. On Aug. 12, 1844 in Tazewell County he remarried to Marie/Mary Oyer. She was born at Niderhoff, Moselle April 16, 1823, and died at Deer Creek Nov. 21, 1893, a daughter of Joseph Oyer and his first wife Catherine Schrag (see OYER). The 1850 census of Woodford County shows farmer Christian Sears, 38, Germany; Mary, 28, France; Matlan [Magdalena/Madeleine], 8, Illinois; Joseph, 5, Illinois; Josephine, 2, Illinois; and Mattan [Magdalena/Madeleine] Stine, 14, Germany. They resettled at Deer Creek in 1852. Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois and History of Tazewell County: "The family has been known in this section since the spring of 1852, when the father...Christian Zehr...settled on Section 25, Deer Creek Township, where he engaged in the general farming and stock-raising business on a scale exceeding that of his neighbors, and raising expectations in the popular mind which were more than realized...and in time became the owner of 900 acres of land, the greater part being valuable and productive. As his children became of age he apportioned farms to them, thus giving them a start in life to which his own youth had been a stranger." The 1860 census of Mackinaw shows them living next door to brother Peter Zehr as farmer Christian Zears, 48, Germany; Mary, 37, Germany; and six children born in Illinois. They are also found on the 1870 census of Deer Creek as farmer Christian Zehr, 57, Bavaria; Mary, 47, France; Elizabeth, 16, Illinois; Christian, 14, Illinois; Liddy, 8, Illinois; and Samuel, 6, Illinois (son Joseph Zehr, 24, lived next door; brother Peter Zehr, 52, is found on the same page). They are found on the 1880 census of Deer Creek as farmer Christian Zehr, 68, Bavaria; Mary, 58, France; with two children 17 and 13 still living at home, both born in Illinois. Herald of Truth, October 1893: "On the 19th of Sept. 1893, in Tazewell Co., Ill., of general debility, Bro. Christian Zehr, aged 81 y., 7 m. He leaves his wife and 6 children. Funeral services by Joseph King and Joseph Stuckey in German and English from Psa.90." See OYER for Marie/Mary Oyer's obituary. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. The recollections of Christian's daughter Elizabeth, written in the 1930s:

"I was born in 1854 in a log cabin which contained only two rooms and no floors. The roof was made of clapboards. This cabin was situated along the Mackinaw River which was only two jumps wide. It is now about 80 feet wide. There were fourteen log cabins in the community where I was born. I was the last one born in the long [sic] house, for soon after that my father made his own bricks out of clay and built a brick house. My father's wagon was made out of logs with broad axe and saw and not one pound of iron in it. I saw him work in the field with that wagon and three yoke of oxen a great number of times. He also built a log barn - 70 ft. by 40 ft. My father made his own plow out of wood. This was a one-horse plow and it took one row for one round. We always went to church in the wagon. The church was twenty-five miles away. In those days church services were held in houses, while now it is held in buildings used for that purpose only. In years after, we rode in spring wagons. Now automobiles are used almost entirely, and if it rains we can't get there. My father put the wheat and grain on the barn floor and threshed it out with clubs. Now all farmers have threshing machines. He put the corn on the barn floor and stamped it out with horses, fanned it, put it in sacks, and took it to market.

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Now corn shellers are used. He cut his grain with a cradle and one of us had to follow with the garden rake and make bundles, another to bind it. They now have a machine which does both cutting and threshing. It always seemed that my father was blessed, for he was never too tired or busy for family worship. God blessed him with six children. My father was born in 1812 and was always a hard working man. He died when he was 82 years of age.... I think the old days were a blessing and a comfort. The times now are so different that they are hard to get used to. I think the automobiles and high ways of living spoil things. Then the neighbors helped each other without pay; now it is pay for every quarter of an hour. During the years 1861, '62, and '63, the Civil War was fought. Two of my uncles were drafted but my father bought substitutes for them. The Civil War and also the World War are sad memories. I was married in 1873 to Mr. Andrew Ulrich. We lived with my folks for two years and then moved in 1875 to Harlen farm, a mile and a half east of Deer Creek. From the Harlen place, we moved to Deer Creek. We raised four children. I have fourteen grandchildren and one great-granddaughter. My husband died February 13, 1919. Since then I have lived alone. Up to this time I have made 168 quilts. God blessed me and still does, for he keeps me well. My wish is that God may bless the whole relationship."

The child of Christian Zehr and his first wife Magdalena 'Lena' Landis was:

1. Magdalena/Madeleine Zehr was born in Illinois March 21, 1843, and died at Manson, Iowa July 28, 1914. On July 28, 1863 in Woodford County she married Andrew Zehr, who had immigrated in 1858. He was born at Struth June 9, 1839, and died at Manson June 10, 1915, a son of Joseph Zehr and Catherine Kohler. Magdalena/Madeleine and Andrew were given a farm by Christian. They are found on the 1870 census of Waldo, Livingston County as farmer Andrew Zehr, 32, France; Magdalene, 29, Illinois; and four children born in Illinois. The 1880 census of Waldo also lists her birthplace as Illinois. The 1900 census of Lincoln, Iowa lists her place and date of birth as Illinois in March 1843, while Andrew was born in France in June 1839. Gospel Herald, February 1914: "Magdalena Zehr was born in Woodford Co., Ill., March 21, 1843; died Feb. 17, 1914, in Calhoun Co., Ia; aged 70y. 10m. 27d. She was united in marriage to Andrew Zehr, July 28, 1863. To this union were born 11 children. Two children and 1 grandchild preceded her to the spirit world. She leaves to mourn her departure husband, 9 children, 36 grandchildren, and 3 great-grandchildren. She united with the A.M. Church in her youth, and remained faithful until her death. She endured many trials and much suffering through her life. The last 8 months of her life she was confined to her bed the greater part of the time. Her last illness was dropsy. She had a great longing to go home and be at rest. Funeral services at the home Feb. 19, and at the Cedar Creek Church at Manson. Opening by Bro. Jos. Egli. Text, by Bro. A.H. Leaman of Chicago, Gen. 5:24. Interment in the Rose Hill Cemetery."

The children of Christian Zehr and his second wife Marie/Mary Oyer include:

2. Joseph Zehr was born in Woodford County Jan. 22, 1846, and died at Aurora, Nebraska March 19, 1920. On Sept. 8, 1867 in McLean County he married Elizabeth Yoder. She was born at Pleasant, Ohio Dec. 11, 1847, and died at Aurora May 12, 1916, a daughter of Joel Yoder and Lydia Yoder. Josephine 'Phoebe' Zehr was born in Woodford County Feb. 11, 1849, and died at Deer Creek April 16, 1897.169 On Aug. 20, 1874 in Tazewell County she married Christian King. He was born at Liberty, Butler County, Ohio Oct. 13, 1840, and died at Deer Creek Nov. 23, 1924, a son of Michael King and Elizabeth Barnett. They are buried in Stumbaugh Cemetery at Goodfield, Woodford County. See KING for details of his three marriages. Elizabeth Zehr was born at Deer Creek Sept. 28, 1854, and died Aug. 1, 1948. On March 6, 1873 in McLean County she married Andrew Ulrich. He was born at Peoria June 5, 1848, and died Feb. 18, 1919, a son of Peter Ulrich and Anna Oyer. They are buried in Stumbaugh Cemetery at Goodfield, Woodford County. Christian Zehr was born at Deer Creek March 12, 1857, and died at Olio, Woodford County Oct. 12, 1926. On Feb. 5, 1878 at Roanoke, Woodford County he married Magdalena 'Malinda' Roeschley. She was born at Washington March 29, 1858, and died in McLean County April 17, 1899, a daughter of Johannes/Jean Roeschley and Elizabeth Salzman. Christian and Malinda are found next door to his parents on the 1880 census of Deer Creek as Christian Zehr, 23, Bavaria; and Malinda, 22, Alsace. On April 29, 1900 in McLean County he remarried to Mary Almeda Imhoff Miller. She was born at Washburn, Woodford County Oct. 17, 1874, and died at Peoria Oct. 10, 1940, a daughter of Joseph Imhoff and Emma Jane Webber. She is buried in Parkview Cemetery at Peoria. Barbara Zehr was born at Deer Creek in 1859. She does not appear on the 1870 census. Lydia 'Liddy' A. Zehr was born at Deer Creek March 29, 1863, and died there Oct. 9, 1935.170 She is found as a 17year-old living with her parents on the 1880 census of Deer Creek. On July 22, 1880 in Tazewell County she married Jacob D. Roeschley. He was born at Washington circa 1857, and died in 1909, a son of Johannes/Jean Roeschley and Elizabeth Salzman. They are found on the 1900 census of Montgomery as Jacob Roeschley, 42, born in Illinois

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

169 170

The 1860 census erroneously switched 'Phoebe' (found as a 5-year-old) and Elizabeth (found as an 11-year-old). Erroneous attribution of a son Teddy born in 1862 is a misreading of 'Liddy' on the 1870 census.

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8.

in March 1859 to French parents; Lydia, 38, born in Illinois in March 1862 to parents from Germany and France; and six children born in Illinois. They are buried in Mount Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. Samuel Zehr was born at Deer Creek Jan. 8, 1867, and died at Chenoa, McLean County June 30, 1940. He is found as a 13-year-old living with his parents on the 1880 census of Deer Creek. On June 16, 1887 in McLean County he married Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Lehman. Their household appears on the 1900 census of Waldo, Livingston County as Samuel Zehr, 33, born in Illinois in January 1867 to German and French parents; Lizzie, born in Illinois in April 1869 to French and German parents; and three children born in Illinois. They are buried in Waldo Cemetery at Flanagan, Livingston County.

Sibling #7: Peter Zehr was born at Hilgerthausen-Tandern (adjacent to Mannreid) Dec. 30, 1818. He died at Slabtown April 6, 1886, and is buried in Slabtown Cemetery. Peter sailed from Le Havre on the Baltimore, arriving at New York June 17, 1844 (other Baltimore passengers are identified in BIRKY/BIRKEY). On Aug. 12, 1845 at Farmdale he married Elizabeth 'Lise' 'Eliza' Oyer. She was born at Niderhoff, Moselle April 23, 1828, died at Foosland, Champaign County March 21, 1896, and is buried in East Bend Mennonite Cemetery. She was a daughter of Joseph Oyer and his second wife Magdalena Litwiller (see OYER). In Illinois Peter and his brother George became brewers. They are found as next door neighbors on the 1850 census of Tazewell County. Peter's household appears as Peter Seers, 32, Germany; Elizabeth, 21, France; and Daniel, 1, Illinois. In 1856 Peter and Elizabeth moved to the Rocky Ford area of the Mackinaw River. By 1860 they were farther southwest on the river, nearer to Mackinaw. They appear on the 1860 census of Mackinaw next door to brother Christian Zehr as farmer Peter Zears, 40, Germany; Elizabeth, 32, Germany; Daniel, 11; Peter, 8; Elisabeth, 5; and John, 1. The Illinois Public Domain Land Tract Sales Database shows Peter Zehr purchasing 40 acres between Deer Creek and Mackinaw at $10 per acre on April 30, 1867. They are found on the 1870 census of Deer Creek as farmer Peter Zehr, 52, Bavaria; Elizabeth, 42, France; with seven children born in Illinois. They are also found on the 1880 census of Deer Creek as farmer Peter Zehr, 62, Bavaria; Lizzie, 53, France; Mary, 17; David, 15; Phoeba, 13; and Samuel, 11; all children born in Illinois. The children of Peter Zehr and Elizabeth 'Lise' 'Eliza' Oyer include:

1. 2. 3. Magdalena Zehr was born at East Peoria Sept. 15, 1846, and died as an infant. Joseph Zehr was born at East Peoria Oct. 28, 1847, and died Sept. 30, 1848. Daniel Zehr was born in East Peoria March 9, 1849, and died at Morton June 5, 1942. On Jan. 13, 1874 he married Katharina Heiser. She was born at Pekin May 1, 1854, and died at Deer Creek May 15, 1911, a daughter of Jacob Heiser and Catherine Wagler. For her obituary, see HEISER. Gospel Herald, June 1942: " Daniel, son of Peter and Elizabeth (Oyer) Zehr, was born March 9, 1849, at East Peoria, Ill.; died June 5, 1942, at the home of his son (Peter Zehr, near Morton, Ill.); aged 93 y. 2 m. 26 d. His illness was of short duration, caused by a paralytic stroke, which occurred about 12 hours before his death. His passing was just as he lived. Calmly and quietly he passed into his eternal rest. He was united in marriage to Katherine Heiser Jan. 13, 1874. She preceded him in death May 15, 1911. His oldest son (Jacob) also preceded him in death. He is survived by the following children: Mrs. Elizabeth Oyer, Peter, Amos, and Matilda, all of near Morton; Mrs. Ida Birkey and Daniel, both of Fisher. He is also survived by 43 grandchildren and 33 great-grand-children, 1 brother, Samuel of Fisher, Ill., 1 sister, Mrs. Phebe Zehr of Manson, Iowa, and a host of other relatives and friends. In his youth he confessed Christ as his Saviour, was baptized and became a member of the Mennonite Church of which he has been a faithful member until death. He was ordained to the ministry in 1895 at the Goodfield Mennonite Church, in which capacity he served until recent years when he retired from active service. Though not able to preach any longer he has always attended church up to the last Sunday he lived and taken a great interest in his Master's service. The greatest part of his time during recent years was spent in reading the Bible which seemed to be his greatest treasure. He had a meek and quiet spirit and always showed great interest and love for his family and for his fellow men, manifesting a friendly spirit to every one he met. Funeral services were held June 8 at the Morton Mennonite Church in Morton, Ill., in charge of Bros. J. D. Hartzler of Gridley, Ill., and Simon Litwiller, Minier, Ill. Interment in Mt. Zion Cemetery near Deer Creek, Ill." Peter Zehr (Jr.) was born in Tazewell County Aug. 24, 1851, and died at Foosland, Champaign County March 14, 1922. On June 8, 1876 in Tazewell County he married Barbara Heiser. She was born Nov. 1, 1857, and died at Foosland Nov. 16, 1934, a daughter of Jacob Heiser and Catherine Wagler. Gospel Herald, March 1922: "Bishop Peter Zehr was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., Aug. 24, 1851; died at his home near Fisher, Ill., Mar. 14, 1922; aged 70 y. 6 m. 18 d. He suffered from a complication of diseases. He bore it very patiently. He was married to Barbara Heiser of Morton, Ill., June 8, 1876. To this union were born five children (Mrs. Catharine Cender, Dan P. Zehr, Mrs. Lizzie Cender, Mrs. Amelia Birky, and Joseph A., who preceded his father in his infancy). He leaves 15 grandchildren, three brothers, and three sisters. Five brothers and 1 sister preceded him to eternity. He united with the Mennonite Church in his youth. June 10, 1883, he was ordained to the ministry in Deer Creek, Ill. In 1893 he

4.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11

12.

13.

was ordained bishop in charge of the East Bend congregation near Fisher. He was known for his heart concern for the flock. His last prayers were for her welfare. The funeral was held Mar. 17, 1922, conducted by Bros. Samuel Gerber, C. F. Derstine, and Bros. Ezra B. Yordy. Text, I Thes. 4:14; II Cor. 5:1." They are buried in the East Bend Memorial Gardens at Fisher. Christian Zehr was born in Tazewell County Nov. 1, 1853, and died there Jan. 3, 1854. Elizabeth Zehr was born in Tazewell County Feb. 2, 1855, and died at Goodfield Jan. 29, 1933. On Feb. 25, 1877 at Goodfield she married Christian W. Heiser. He was born at Allentown, Tazewell Countyin 1854 (per his headstone), and died at Goodfield Dec. 12, 1938, a son of Jacob Heiser and Catherine Wagler. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. Jacob Zehr was born at Mackinaw July 15, 1857, and died there Nov. 16, 1857. John Zehr was born at Mackinaw Nov. 22, 1858, and died there Nov. 21, 1860. Andrew Zehr was born at Mackinaw Aug. 15, 1860, and died five days later. Mary Zehr was born at Mackinaw Aug. 6, 1861, and died Jan. 18, 1937. In 1886 she married Joseph Baecher. He was born March 31, 1853, and died at Fisher, Champaign County June 30, 1931, a son of John Baecher and Barbara Ulrich. They are buried in East Bend Memorial Gardens at Fisher. David Zehr was born at Mackinaw April 21, 1864, and died at Manson, Iowa Feb. 7, 1924. On Dec. 28, 1886 he married Elizabeth M. Zehr. She was born in Woodford County April 12, 1866, and died at Manson, Iowa April 12, 1924, a daughter of Andrew Zehr and Magdalena Zehr. Gospel Herald, February 1924: "Bro. David D. Zehr was born at Deer Creek, Ill., April 4, 1864; died Feb. 7, 1924; aged 59 y. 9 m. 16 d. He died of injuries sustained in a railroad accident. He lived in the neighborhood of his birthplace until manhood. On Dec. 28, 1886, he was married to Lizzie, daughter of Andrew and Magdalena Zehr. He lived in Fisher, Ill., 2 years and at Flanagan, Ill., 6 years. In the spring of 1897 he moved with his family to Manson, Iowa, where he resided until God called him. Those who remain of his family are his wife and five children as follows: Martha E., Mrs. Rosa Roth, Silas P. Zehr, Alvin W. Zehr (who is suffering from the effects of the accident, but is doing nicely at present), and Anna L., wife of Clyde Garber, all residing in this vicinity. The following brothers and sisters survive: Elizabeth, wife of C. W. Heisey, Mary, wife of Joseph Baecher, Phoebe, wife of Christian Zehr, Daniel Zehr, and Samuel Zehr. He united with the Mennonite Church in his early youth and in his early manhood was much interested in Sunday school and church work. He was of the number who helped to organize the Sunday School at Fisher, Ill., and served as superintendent while living there. He was among the first ones to move to this neighborhood and was active in the organization of this congregation. He was the second ordained minister in this congregation and was ordained May 19, 1902, and ordained to the office of bishop May 16, 1909, serving as minister 22 years and as bishop 15 years. The last few weeks of his earthly life he would say about every night, "I wish Jesus would come." Just before he left his home on the night of the accident he was reading in our church paper, and said, "I wish I were well so I could go and do more or could get the young people together so they could do more." Funeral services were held at the Manson Mennonite Church in charge of Bro. J. W. Hess. Text, II Cor. 5:1. There were about 500 people present who had come to pay their last tribute of respect to our departed brother. Interment in Rose Hill Cemetery." Phoebe Zehr was born at Mackinaw Dec. 3, 1866, and died at Manson, Iowa Sept. 25, 1949. On March 30, 1886 in Tazewell County she married Christian S. Zehr. He was born May 18, 1864, and died at Manson May 17, 1938, a son of Andrew Zehr and Magdalena Zehr. Gospel Herald, October 1949: "Phebe, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth Zehr, was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., Dec. 3, 1866; passed away at her home in Manson, Iowa, Sept. 25, 1949; aged 82 y. 9 m. 22 d. She was the last surviving member of a family of thirteen children. Even though she carried the heavy responsibility of raising a large family, she was always in relatively good health until the last two years, when she was bedfast most of the time. On March 30, 1886, she was united in marriage to Christian Zehr, who preceded her in death eleven years ago. They lived in Illinois the first twelve years of their married life, after which they moved to Manson, Iowa. One son (Emanuel) passed away five years ago. Surviving are 9 children (Bertha - Mrs. Will Birkey, Arthur, Ben, Ada - Mrs. Ray Sutter, John, Lena - Mrs. Aaron Sutter, Clarence, Elmer, and Cora, all of Manson, Iowa), 22 grandchildren, 8 great-grandchildren, and a large number of other relatives and friends. In her youth she accepted Christ as her Saviour and united with the Mennonite Church, of which she was a faithful and consistent member until death. As a mother in the home she was devoted to her task. During her illness she was patient and appreciative of the care given by her daughter (Cora) and other members of her family. Funeral services were held Sept. 27 at the Manson Mennonite Church, with Nick Stoltzfus in charge, assisted by Ed Birkey. Interment was made in the Rose Hill Cemetery." Samuel Zehr was born at Deer Creek Feb. 24, 1870, and died at Fisher, Champaign County March 31, 1943. On Sept. 27, 1892 in Champaign County he married Lena Unzicker. She was born in 1870 and died March 1, 1939, a daughter of Christian Unzicker and Maria Gingerich. Gospel Herald, April 1943: " Samuel S., son of Peter and Elizabeth (Oyer) Zehr, was born near Goodfield, Ill., Feb. 24, 1870; departed this life March 31, 1943, at the home of his son, Sam M., near Fisher; aged 73 y. 1 m. 7 d. He had been in failing health for the past 18 months and for the last 10 months has been bedfast. He lived in this vicinity for the past 53 years. In his early youth he accepted Christ as his personal Saviour and united with the Mennonite church, of which he was a faithful and consistent member until the time of his death. He was united in marriage to Lena Unzicker Sept. 27, 1892, who preceded him in death March 1, 1939. He was the youngest of a family of thirteen, one sister Pheobe Zehr, Manson, Iowa, surviving him; also three sons (Aaron E., Foosland; Sam M., Fisher; and Albert R., Foosland) and six grandchildren. He was

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ordained to the office of deacon June 1906 at the East Bend Mennonite Church in which capacity he served in the Church, also assisting in the ministry until his health failed and he asked to be relieved from this responsibility. Funeral services were conducted at the home of his son by Bro. Harold Zehr, and at the East Bend Mennonite Church by Bro. J.A. Heiser. Text, Job 14:15. Burial in the East Bend Cemetery. The room is quiet, all is still; the place is vacant, 'tis God's will. Soon long you have waited for your rest, our blessed Lord knows what is best."

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Yordy: Jordi of Windstein

The information in this portion leans heavily on the research of Gary L. Yordy and Carol Yotty Heilman. In December 2007 Gary found the key to the puzzle when he discovered the family connection to Jaegerthal.

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aint Theodorus was an Italian missionary-monk who established the abbey of Saint Maurice d'Agaune in the Valais region of what is now southern Switzerland. Theodorus evolved into Joder. Joders lived at Steffisburg in Bern for approximately 11 generations before the Anabaptist movement. A German-language diminutive indicating affection or familiarity is created when an 'i' is added to the root of a proper name. At some point a 'Joder' became a 'Jordi.' This splintered into Jordy in the German states, and Yordy in Alsace-Lorraine. Johannes 'Hans' Jordy and Verena Lang are known to us from the civil marriage entries of their children. Their family appears on at least two Palatine census lists. In 1752 a census shows Johannes Jordi, wife, two children, and a farmhand living on property of the treasury office of the administrative district of Hohenecken, four miles southwest of Kaiserslautern. It was noted that Johannes had been a resident there for 18 years. In 1759 the same family appeared on a census of Kaiserslautern that described them as Hans Jordi, temporary tenant with Franz Dellmuth on the Bremerhof estate, wife, two sons (8.5 and 2.5 years old), and two daughters (15 and 5). In Amish Mennonites in Germany, Hermann Guth states that in 1765 the family was living on the Eselsfürth estate, now a district on the north side of Kaiserlautern. They relocated before a census there in 1773. The economy of Trippstadt depended on the oak forests surrounding it and a foundry established by the von Hacke family in 1727. Oak burning to make charcoal for smelting supported about 50 families. The foundry was purchased by the industrial Gienanth family in 1803. The children of Johannes 'Hans' Jordy and Verena Lang include:

1. Anna Jordy was born circa 1744. She married Jakob Müller of the Münsterhof estate at Dreisen, Kirchheimbolanden. His first two wives had been Elisabeth Schenk and Anna Brenneman. He was one of the original three Anabaptist leasers of the Münsterhof in 1764, and they lived the remainder of their lives there. Jean Jordy was born circa 1750. Verena Jordy was born circa 1754. In 1785 she married Christian Eyer. He was born in 1757, and died on the Johannistalerhof estate at Königsbach, Baden-Württemberg in 1812, a son of Rudolf Eyer and Veronica Kurtz. Their children born on the Johannistalerhof estate at Königsbach include: a. Elisabeth Eyer was born in 1783, and died Jan. 29, 1812. She married Christian Wolber. b. Daniel Eyer was born in 1792, and died Feb. 7, 1812. c. Jakobine Eyer was born Sept. 9, 1793. In 1818 she married Jakob Egli. d. Jean Eyer was born in 1802. He married Jacobine Rediger. She was born circa 1775, a daughter of Sebastian Reutiger and his second wife Anne Lederer. Jakob Jordy was born at Eselsfürth circa 1755, and died on the Wilensteinerhof at Trippstadt (eight miles south of Kaiserslautern) in 1794.171 In 1781 he married Magdalena Imhoff. She was born on the Langensohlerhof at Trippstadt circa 1760-63 and died Sept. 17, 1787, less than two months after giving birth to her son Jakob. She was a daughter of Peter Imhoff and and his first wife Veronika Roggy. Their children born on the Wilensteinerhof at Trippstadt include: a. Johannes/Johann/Jean Jordy was born Dec. 23, 1784, and died at Trippstadt in 1807. In 1805 at Trippstadt he married Veronika Habecker. She was born at Höfstatten Sept. 19, 1786, and died at Fleckenstein 1827, a daughter of Jacob/Jacques Habecker and Anne Eichelberger of Höfstatten. In 1809 at Trippstadt she remarried to Johannes Roggy (found on the civil entry as 'Jean Rocke'), a son of Johannes Roggy and his first wife Barbara Jutzi of the Lauberhof below Trippstadt. b. Elisabeth Jordy was born in 1785. On Dec. 26, 1806 at Trippstadt she married Jakob Unzicker. He was born at Graveneck in 1781, a son of Peter Unzicker and Katharina Holly. This couple leased the Offental estate at Sankt Goarshausen after 1813. See UNZICKER for a list of their children including Peter Unzicker of Morton.

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The Wilensteinhof Castle has been rebuilt on the same elevation at Trippstadt a number of times since the 12th century. The most recent stone ramparts was severely damaged during the Thirty Years War. The estate surrounding it was leased by Anabaptist as early as 1688 (four years before the Amish Division), when Christian Zug and Michael Müller rented 17 acres. Their agreement gave very liberal terms in return for the construction of a dwelling and outbuildings on the estate. Zugs and Guths emigrated to America from there in the 1740s. Other surnames found there in the 18th century include Imhoff, Schenk, Müller, and Habecker (Habecker intermarried from nearby Höfstatten). In 1792, during the French Revolution, the area was pillaged again by French troops and more damage was done. The region became the French Department of Mont-Tonnere from 1803-1815, then returned to Bavaria.

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Jakob Jordy was born July 22, 1787. On July 29, 1806 at Windstein, Lower Alsace he married Katharina/Catherine Zehr. She was born in 1787, a daughter of Joseph Zehr and Catherine Bäch/Beck of the Sulzthalerhof estate near Windstein. They had nine children born at Windstein. About 1790 Jakob Jordy remarried to Veronika Habecker. She was born at Höfstatten in November 1765, a daughter of Johannes Habecker and his first wife Veronica Imhof (the second was Katharina Schantz).172 Their child: d. Christian Jordy was born in 1792, and died on the Fleckensteinherhof estate at Lembach, Lower Alsace in 1833. In 1812 he married Magdalena Zehr, another daughter of Joseph Zehr and Catherine Bäch/Beck. Magdalena Jordy was born at Eselsfürth in 1765, and died on the Wahlerhof at Mittelbach-Hengstbach near Zweibrücken July 24, 1814. She married Johannes Imhoff. He was born on the Aschbacherhof (now a community four miles south of Kaiserslautern) circa 1760-63, and died on the Wahlerhof March 30, 1812, a son of Peter Imhoff and Katharina Roggy. They had one known child: a. Elisabeth Imhoff was born on the Wahlerhof circa 1791, and died there Oct. 13, 1857. On June 18, 1809 at Trippstadt she married Jean Güngerich. He was born at Höffstaten circa 1779, and died on the Wahlerhof Oct. 13, 1857 (note the same date), a son of Michael Güngerich and Barbara Habecker.

c.

Jean Jordy was born in the Palatinate circa 1750. He married Barbara/Barbe Esch. Their daughter Madeleine was born in Germany according to her French death entry, and died at Windstein, Lower Alsace in 1816, age 37 (thus born circa 1779). Descendant Gary L. Yordy has suggested that this couple may have been the parents of Jacob/Jacques Jordi (also found as Jordy). This seems like a probable match, because Jacob was born circa 1778 and lived at Jaegerthal adjacent to Windstein. From 1602 to 1885 the Jaegerthal valley below Windstein was the site of an iron foundry. Industrialist Jean Dietrich (1719-1795) purchased the foundry in 1685. It is now a ruined brick shell, and Jaegerthal is part of Windstein. 173 Jacob/Jacques Jordi married Catherine Schantz, and became a cultivator. Their children born at Jaegerthal include:

1. 2. Pierre Jordi was born July 26, 1815. Jaquée Jordi was born June 28, 1818. She was also known as Phillipine/Pena/Jacobina Yordy. Her headstone calls her Phillipine Yordy, and says she was born at Munich June 24, 1819. Her name seems to have evolved into 'Pena' or the more fashionable 'Jacobina.' In the case of her daughter Jacobina, 'Bina' evolved into the even more fashionable American equivalent 'Phoebe.' With Johan George Yeackley [Jäckle], a Catholic, she sailed from Le Havre on the Governor Davis, arriving at New Orleans Jan. 5, 1842. The passenger list describes John Jeckle, 28, and Jacobina Jeckle, 24. This suggests that their travel documents were obtained as a married couple. Jacobina delivered her first child 12 days later. They were married (presumably for the second time) in a civil court in Woodford County April 26, 1842. The ceremony was performed by Justice of the Peace Thornton Parker. Marriage documents list them as 'Geo. Yeckley' and 'Jacobina Yerkey.' Their household can be found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer George 'Ackerly,' 35, Germany; Pena, 30, Germany; Catharine, 7, Illinois; Elizabeth, 5, Illinois; Joseph, 4, Illinois; and Pena, 3 months, Illinois. The Yeackley children were raised as Catholics. When George died Feb. 28, 1854, Jacobina's older brother Peter Yordy was appointed administrator of the estate and legal guardian of the children. The children of Phillipine Yordy and her first husband Johan George Yeackley include: a. Catherine 'Kate' Yeackley was born at New Orleans Jan. 17, 1842, and died Dec. 16, 1883. She married Adam Hoffman. He was born in 1836 and died in 1897.

172 After the death of Jakob, his widow and second wife Katharina Schantz remarried to become the second wife of Peter Nafziger of the Fleckensteinerhof estate (his first was Magdalena Ziegler). He was born there circa 1764, and died there in 1826. Stepson Christian Jordy signed her civil death entry there in 1827. 173 After purchasing the foundry Jean Dietrich obtained contracts to provide weapons for the French army, gaining favor with the Catholic king. This provided a modest start to the family's later fortune. They helped finance the War of Austrian Succession (1741-48) and the Seven Years War (1756-63). In 1761 the family became nobility, changing their surname to 'de Dietrich.' Much of the land around the Jaegerthal foundry was owned by a competing family, and eventually the de Dietrichs established foundries in other locations that could ensure plentiful supplies of wood. By 1789 they directly or indirectly supported 3,000 workers, and owned more land than any other family in Alsace. Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, a son of Jean, became the Royal Commissioner of Mines and the first mayor of Strasbourg before meeting the guillotine in 1793. Despite that reversal, family fortunes revived under Napoleon. They later expanded into railroad construction, automobiles, manufacturing, and chemicals as the conglomerate De Dietrich & Cie.

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Henry Yeackley. Descendant Elaine Wampler has found a baptismal certificate for this hitherto unknown child. c. Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Yeackley was born March 7, 1845, and died June 30, 1931. She married Louis Winkel. He was born in 1834, and died after 1900. They appear on the 1870 census of Second Ward, Pekin as butcher Louis Winkel, 36, Saxony; Elizabeth, 24, Illinois; and Frederick, 4, Illinois. d. Joseph Yeackley was born Feb. 15, 1848, and died at Milford, Nebraska Jan. 18, 1940. He can be found on the 1880 census of Pekin as farmer Joseph Yackley, 32. On Sept. 7, 1884 in Tazewell County he married Fannie Yordy. She was born April 5, 1863, and died at Milford, Nebraska Oct. 31, 1955, a daughter of John Birkey Yordy and Magdalena King. They can be found on the 1910 census of Precinct O, Seward County, Nebraska (now Milford, Grover/East Milford, West Mill, and Camden) as farmer Joseph Yeackley, 63, born in Illinois to parents from Germany; Fanny, 47, born in Illinois to parents from Germany and Illinois; and six children. e. Emma Yeackley was born in 1850, and died in 1851. f. Jacobina 'Phoebe' Yeackley was born June 3, 1852, and died Dec. 14, 1933. She married Joseph C. Bishop. He was born in 1850, and died Sept. 20, 1896. Their household can be found on the 1880 census of Groveland as farmer Joseph Bishop, 29, born in Illinois to parents from Bavaria and Ohio; Phebe, 27, born in Illinois to parents from Illinois; Ella E., 6, born in Illinois to parents from Illinois; and William H., 1, born in Illinois to parents from Illinois. Jacobina and Joseph are buried in Craft Cemetery at Groveland. g. Peter Yeackley was born in 1853, and died in 1854. On July 12, 1854 in Tazewell County Phillipine remarried to Henry Raab.175 Henry bought the land that had been owned by George Yeackley for $8.50 per acre. When he died unexpectedly in early 1860, Phillipine was left with an unpaid mortgage. Peter Yordy purchased the property for the price of the mortgage ($620). He then sold the farm to August Knoll for $2,000, and purchased a home on the corner of Sixth and Ann Eliza Streets in Pekin from Knoll for $700.176 Phillipine and her children moved into this house. The child of Phillipine Yordy and her second husband Henry Raab: h. Henry Raab Jr. was born in 1855, died Dec. 10, 1933, and is buried in Craft Cemetery at Groveland as 'Henry Rapp, 1933.' Phillipine married a third time to Christian Krug Aug. 14, 1862. He was born at Hanseldorf, Bavaria Aug. 1, 1825 (the location appears on his headstone), and died at Groveland Oct. 31, 1890. The 1870 census of Pekin describes their household as farmer Christian Krug, 44, Bavaria; Philippine, 40, Bavaria; Joseph Jeckel, 22, Illinois; Jacobine, 15, Illinois; Henry Krug, 13, Illinois; and Louis, 3, Illinois. They also appear on the 1880 census of Groveland as farmer Chr. Krug, 55, Albiren [Altbayern, the administrative district surrounding Munich]; Bena, 55, Albiren; Louis, 12, Illinois; and stepson Henry 'Rabb,' 21, born in Illinois to Prussian parents. Jacobina died at Groveland Dec. 16, 1883, and was buried in Craft Cemetery as 'Phillippine.' Christian Krug died at Groveland Oct. 31, 1890, and is buried beside her. The child of Phillipine Yordy and her third husband Christian Krug: i. Louis Krug was born at Pekin Aug. 30, 1868, and died at Groveland Nov. 13, 1943. On Oct. 5, 1893 at Pekin he married Anna J. Hagney. She was born in October 1877, and died March 5, 1902. On Nov. 24, 1904 at Pekin Louis remarried to Anna Maria Dully. She was born at Groveland March 13, 1870, and died there April 18, 1948. She was the widow of Carl B. Wubben, who she had married at Pekin March 3, 1890; he died Oct. 22, 1902. She was also a daughter of Michael Dully and Magdalena Wageman. Louis and his second wife are buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland.

b.

Pierre Jordi/Peter Jordy/Peter Yordy was born at Jaegerthal July 26, 1815 (his headstone gives the date June 12, 1815), though the civil birth entry was recorded at nearby Windstein. He died in Woodford County July 2, 1897, and is buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Peter accompanied Andrew Burcky and Joseph Heiser on the packet ship Charles Carroll from Le Havre to New York, arriving Sept. 17, 1838. The two came from Söcking and Hanfeld ­ adjacent villages about 18 miles south of Munich. On the passenger list, the name immediately after that of 'Joseph Heser' falls on a crease. The National Archives and FHL reproduction microfilms appear to say 'Peter Jodte,' age 23. A family story says that Peter worked on the Mississippi River before coming to Illinois. According to Harry Weber in Centennial History of the Mennonites in Illinois, he arrived on Partridge Creek in 1839.

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Henry Raab and Paulina Geackley. August Knoll was a passenger on the Minnesota in 1949, on a voyage from Liverpool to New York. His group included Valentine Birky, Daniel Zehr Sr., George Ritthaler, David Springer, Christian Eigsti and others. He was born in Bavaria circa 1819 (the passenger list says he was 30, and the 1870 census of Pekin says 1820), married Barbara Ehrlicher, and died at Tripp, South Dakota in 1908. His son August Louis Knoll was born June 9, 1853 in Tazewell County and died at Crete, Nebraska July 3, 1942.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

On Feb. 9, 1847 in Tazewell County Peter married Mary Birkey in the Dillon Creek Meeting. She was born in Bavaria April 8, 1816, a daughter of Christian Birki and his wife Mary. She arrived at New York on the ship Baltimore June 14, 1844, with her son from a previous relationship, Johann Horn (later known as John Birkey Yordy).177 She died May 13, 1903, and is also buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery.

1. Johann Horn/John Birkey Yordy was born in Bavaria Oct. 23, 1839, and died at Milford, Nebraska. Dec. 31, 1906. On Jan. 5, 1862 he married Magdalena King. She was born at Salem, Marion County in December 1843 and died Feb. 11, 1927, a daughter of Samuel King and his first wife Magdalena Kurtz. In 1863 Peter Yordy purchased John's exemption from Civil War military service for $100. They moved to Seward County, Nebraska in 1885, to Colorado in 1889, to Kansas in 1896, and then returned to Seward County in 1898. Gospel Herald, January 1907: "Yordy. After an illness of about eight months, Bro. John Yordy passed away at his home in Milford, Neb., Dec. 31, 1906; aged 68 y. 2 m. 17 d. Funeral services were held at the home and concluded at the Amish Church where he was laid to rest in the Fairview Cemetery on Thursday afternoon. Bro. Yordy was born in Germany, Oct. 23, 1839, and came to America with his parents who settled in Illinois when he was six years old. He united with the Amish Mennonite church in his early years, to which be remained faithful to his death. He was married to Magdalene King, Jan. 5, 1863. To this union were born thirteen children, four of whom preceded him to the spirit world. He leaves a sorrowing wife and nine children, but they need not mourn as those who have no hope. His disease was ulcers and gall stones. He suffered greatly at times but bore it all patiently to the end."

The family was is found on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer Peter Yatty, 45, Germany; Mary, 34, Germany; John, 12, Germany; Christian, 2, Illinois; and Mary, 1, Illinois. The proximity of neighbor Uriah Crosby suggests their first homestead was in the northern half of Morton. Peter paid $1,400 for 154 acres of land Jan. 30, 1852. The land came in three parcels: two totaling 85 acres in south-central Groveland, and another 70 acres in north-central Elm Grove.178 The household of Peter and Mary can be found on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as farmer Peter 'Yarty,' 54 [he was actually 45], born in France; Mary, 49 [she was actually 44], born in Bavaria; John, 21, born in Bavaria; Christian, 11, Illinois; Mary, 10, Illinois; Jacob, 7, Illinois; Elizabeth, 4, Illinois; Philip [Peter Jr.], 3, Illinois; and Joseph, 2, Illinois. Their neighbors (Joseph Heiser, Joseph Ropp, Samuel King, Peter and Christian Gerber) indicate that they probably lived on the north side of Allentown Road, across from Joseph Heiser. The property must have been sold before 1864; the plat map published in that year does not show a Yordy property. On Feb. 10, 1865, Peter purchased 80 acres of land at Nebraska (later Flanagan), Livingston County. The farm was cultivated by John Birkey Yordy 1865-71, then occupied by daughter Mary and her husband Daniel Orendorff, while John moved to Lombardville, Stark County. In 1867 the family moved onto a 200-acre farm on Panther Creek at Roanoke, Woodford County. It was located about 3.5 miles north of Christian's farm. The household is found on the 1870 census of Roanoke as farmer Peter 'Yottey,' 54, Bavaria; Mary, 53, Bavaria; Christian, 22, Bavaria [Illinois]; Mary, 20, Bavaria [Illinois]; Jacob, 17, Ohio; Elizabeth, 16, Ohio; Peter, 14, Ohio; Joseph, 12, Illinois; and Barbara, 7, Illinois. Peter joined the Roanoke Mennonite Church, but also attended services at the nearby Panther Creek Church of the Brethren. The 1880 census of Roanoke shows them as 'Peter Yordie,' a 65-year-old farmer born in France, of parents born in France; and Mary, 64, born in Bavaria, of parents born in France. Children living with them include Elisabeth, 25; Peter, 24; Joseph, 23; and Barbara, 19. Mary can be found as an 84-year-old widow on the 1900 census of Roanoke, living with children Peter, 44, and Barbara, 39. On that form Mary (or someone in her stead) stated that she was born in Germany of French parents, and that she came to America in 1847. In about 1883, Peter and Mary's Roanoke farm house was also occupied by their son Christian and his family. They temporarily moved to the home of their daughter Mary and her husband Daniel Orendorff at Flanagan, then returned to Roanoke the following year when a new, smaller house was built on the farm to accommodate them. They were shortly joined at Roanoke by their [presumed] niece, Barbara Jordy, and her son Christian H. Yordy, recently arrived from Bavaria. The children of Peter Yordy and Mary Birkey include:

1. Christian Yordy was born at Elm Grove July 29, 1848, and died at Roanoke July 10, 1922, and is buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. On Oct. 4, 1874 in Livingston County he married Salome 'Sally' Slagel, who was born near Pekin Sept. 6, 1855, died at Roanoke Feb. 21, 1938, and is also buried at Roanoke; she was a daughter of Christian

According to Gary L. Yordy, the father of Johann Horn/John Birkey Yordy was a German army officer. "It is possible that John B. Yordy's relationship to Peter Yordy as a foster son would have remained a family secret, were it not for the fact that John's daughter, Fannie Yordy, decided to marry Peter Yordy's nephew, Joseph Yeackley." 178 Peter sold 25 acres of the land in Groveland to John Ackerman for $300 April 17, 1854.

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Slagel and Salomé Sommer.179 They can be found on the 1900 census of Roanoke living next door to his mother Mary. Gospel Herald, October 1922: "Christian Yordy, son of Peter and Mary Yordy was born near Pekin, Ill., July 29, 1848; died at his home near Roanoke, Ill., July 10, 1922; aged 73 y. 11 m. 11 d. Oct. 4, 1874, he was joined in the holy bonds of matrimony to Salomé Slagel of Livingston Co., Ill. Ten children were born to them, of whom 4 died in infancy. He leaves his sorrowing companion, 2 sons, and 4 daughters (Amos, Joel, Salome Woodward, Leah Armstrong, Laura Bryant, and Lizzie). All were present at his death except Salome. He also leaves 18 grandchildren, 2 brothers, 3 sisters and many nieces and nephews. At the age of 19 he united with the A. M. Church and remained faithful to the end. In his younger years he was active in church work. Funeral services were held at the home by Bro. Peter Garber and at the Roanoke Church by Bros. C. S. Shertz and A. A. Schrock. Interment in the cemetery nearby." Gospel Herald, March 1938: "Yordy. Salome, daughter of Christian and Solome (Sommer) Slagel, was born Sept. 6, 1855, near Pekin, Ill.; died at her home east of Roanoke, Ill., Feb. 21, 1938; aged 82 y. 5 m. 16 d. In her girlhood her parents moved to north of Chenoa, Ill. She united with the Mennonite Church in October, 1870, in which faith she remained until death. Oct. 4, 1874, she was married to Christian Yordy. To this union were born 10 children, 4 dying in infancy and Laura Bryant on June 1, 1929. Those living are Salome Burchey, Tiskilwa; Leah Armstrong, Secor; Joel of Heyworth; Amos of Roanoke; and Lizzie at home. There are 24 grandchildren, 5 great-grandchildren, 1 brother (D. W. Slagel, Flanagan, Ill.), 1 sister (Lydia Smith, Goshen, Ind.), many nephews and nieces and friends to mourn her death. Funeral services were held at the home and at the Roanoke Mennonite Church, conducted by John L. Harnish and Ezra B. Yordy. Text, Job 14:14. Interment in the adjoining cemetery." Mary Yordy was born at Elm Grove Oct. 19, 1849, and died at Flanagan Feb. 8, 1923. She married Daniel Orendorff, who was born at Spring Bay, Woodford County Jan. 11, 1848, and died at Flanagan Jan. 14, 1916, a son of Katharina Albrecht and her second husband Daniel Orendorff. They can be found on the 1880 census of Nebraska, Livingston County, where he listed his birthplace as Illinois and those of his parents as Hanover. They re buried at Gridley. Magdalene Yordy was born at Elm Grove in 1851, and died there in 1854. Jacob K. Yordy was born at Elm Grove March 8, 1853, and died at Flanagan Nov. 29, 1930. On Feb. 3, 1878 in Livingston County he married Catherine 'Katie' King. She was born Oct. 19, 1858,and died Feb. 2, 1918.180 They are found on the 1910 and 1920 censuses of Nebraska, Livingston County. Gospel Herald, December 1930: "Yordy. ­ Jacob K., son of Peter and Mary Yordy, was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., March 8, 1853; died at the home of his son Amsa near Flanagan, Ill., Nov. 29, 1930; aged 77 y. 8 m. 21 d. He spent his entire life in Tazewell, Woodford and Livingston counties. On Feb. 3, 1878, he was united in marriage to Kathryn King of Livingston Co., Ill. To this union were born 5 sons and 9 daughters. The surviving children are Edward, Noah, William, Raymond, Amsa, Mrs. S. A. Albrecht, Mrs. Simon Beller, Mrs. Albert Durre, Mrs. Elmer Augsburger, Mrs. Ray Slagell, Mrs. William Stalter, and Mrs. Arthur Guth. The children are all residents of this community with the exception of Mrs. Beller of Wesloco, Tex., and Raymond, of Iowa City, Ia. He also leaves 58 grandchildren and one sister (Barbara Yordy). Those of the family who have preceded him in death are his companion (who died Feb. 2, 1918), also two daughters and four grandchildren. He accepted Christ as his personal Savior in his youth and remained faithful until death. Funeral services were held Dec. 1 at the Waldo Church, conducted by the home ministers, D. W. Slagel and J. D. Hartzler. Burial in Waldo Cemetery." Gospel Herald, February 1918: "Yordy. - Catherine King was born Oct. 19, 1858; died suddenly at her late home at Eureka, Ill., Feb. 2, 1918; aged 59y. 2m. 14 d. At the age of 17 she united with the A.M. Church and remained faithful to the end. She was united in marriage with Jacob K. Yordy Feb. 3, 1878. To this union were born 5 sons and 9 daughters. Two daughters and 2 grandsons preceded her to the spirit world. She leaves to mourn her sudden departure a deeply bereaved husband, 7 daughters, 5 sons, 21 grandchildren, an aged mother, 7 brothers, 2 sisters and many relatives and friends. Funeral services at the house of her son-in-law, S.A. Albrecht, near Flanagan, Ill., by D.W. Slagel and at the Waldo A.M. Church by C.F. Derstine. Text, "Man goeth to his long home" (Eccl.12:5). Burial in Waldo Cemetery. Sister Yordy was one of the committee that looked after the sewing circle ever since it has been in existence until they moved to Eureka about 4 months ago. May the bereaved ones look to Him who alone can comfort." Elizabeth Yordy was born at Elm Grove Dec. 6, 1854, died at Cazenovia Jan. 28, 1928, and is buried in Steward Harmony Cemetery at Metamora. On Jan. 16, 1881 at Roanoke she married Christian Bachman. He was born at Cazenovia March 7, 1857, died at Cazenovia Sept. 19, 1934, and is buried in Steward Harmony Cemetery, a son of Jacob Baughman and Jacobina Zook. Peter Yordy (Jr.) was born at Elm Grove Feb. 29, 1856, and died in Woodford County June 4, 1909. He is buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Peter Jr. and his younger sister Barbara had learning disabilities. In 1901 Peter Jr. became the ward of his brother-in-law Christian Bachman. Court documents described him as 'distracted.' Gospel Herald, June 1909: " Peter Yordy was born in Tazewell Co., Ill., Feb. 29, 1856. He came to his death near his home in Woodford Co., Ill., by a stroke of lightning, June 4, 1909. He united with the A. M. Church in his youth. He was never married. He leaves three brothers and three sisters. Services were held at the house by Peter D. Schertz from

179 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Christopher Yorty and Sally Slagel. Salome 'Sally' Slagel was a granddaughter of Christian Schlegel (1792-circa 1863) of Belfort and Catharina Ernst (1794-before 1860). See SCHLEGEL. 180 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Jacob Yordy and Kate King.

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7.

8.

Matt. 24:44, and at the church by Peter Zimmerman from Luke12:40 in German, and John Switzer in English. Surely life is uncertain, and it behooves us to heed Christ's warning recorded in Matt.24:44." Joseph Yordy was born at Elm Grove Nov. 7, 1857, and died at Eureka Feb. 19, 1925. On Jan. 1, 1882 at Roanoke he married Elizabeth Roeschley. She was born at Spring Bay July 20, 1862, and died at Eureka Feb. 3, 1953, a daughter of John Roeschley and Elizabeth Salzman. They are buried at Roanoke. Gospel Herald, March 1925: "Yordy. Joseph, son of Peter and Mary Yordy, was born near Pekin, Ill., Nov. 7, 1857; died at his home in Eureka, Ill., Feb. 19, 1925; aged 67 y. 3 m. 12 d. In boyhood he moved with his parents to Roanoke, Ill. On Jan 1, 1882, he was married to Elizabeth Roeschley. To this union were born three daughters (Ella, Anna, and Mrs. Josephine Schrock), and six sons (Aaron, Ezra, Walter, Jonas, Alvin, and Lewis). After his marriage he lived one year near Roanoke, fifteen years near Flanagan, twelve years near Fisher, and the remaining years in Woodford county. In his early manhood he united with the Mennonite Church and had a ringing Christian testimony to the end. He served the Church as a faithful deacon since 1920. Singing always found a great place in his life, and he always took an active part in worshiping God in song. Although never very strong physically, yet he had a strong faith in the living God and lived a stable consistent Christian life. Since Christmas he suffered much. Often during the last few months he longed for eternal rest. He was conscious to the last, although unable to speak, and showed great calmness the last hours of his life on earth. His desire is fulfilled now, for he has gone where "there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, not crying, neither shall there be any more pain." He leaves his wife, nine children, nine grandchildren, one brother (Jacob, of Flanagan), two sisters (Barbara, of Eureka, and Mrs. Chris. Bachman of Cazenovia), many relatives and friends. Funeral services at the Roanoke Mennonite Church Feb 22, 1925, conducted by Brothers A.A. Schrock and H.R. Schertz. Text John 11:25. Interment in cemetery nearby." Gospel Herald, March 1953: "Yordy. ­ Elizabeth, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Saltzman) Roeschley, was born near Spring Bay, Ill., July 20, 1862; passed away Feb.3, 1953; aged 90 y. 6 m. 14 d. On Jan. 1, 1882, at the Roanoke Mennonite Church, she was united in marriage to Joseph Yordy, who preceded her in death in 1925. Surviving are 3 daughters (Ella, Anna, and Mrs. Josephine Schrock, Eureka, Ill.), 5 sons (Aaron, Peoria, Ill.; Ezra, Eureka, Ill.; Walter, Chicago, Ill.; Jonas, Eureka, Ill.; and Alvin, Denver, Colo.), 15 grandchildren, and 22 great-grandchildren. One son (Lewis) also preceded her in death. In her youth she united with the Mennonite Church and for many years taught a German Sunday-school class. Funeral services were in charge of John L. Harnish and J. D. Hartzler, with burial in the church cemetery." Barbara Yordy was born at Elm Grove Dec. 18, 1860, and died in Woodford County Sept. 20, 1943. She was mildly autistic, and was cared for by her brother Christian. She is also buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Metamora Herald, October 1943: "Barbara Yordy was born in Tazewell County, Illinois, December 18, 1860 and died about midnight September 20, 1943, at the age of 82 years, six months, three days, at the Mennonite Home at Eureka. She was a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Yordy. She was also the last member of a family of eight, all of whom preceded her in death a number of years ago. She leaves a number of nieces and nephews in different states to mourn her departure. Barbara Yordy entered the Old People's home August 17, 1922, being one of the first members to enter the Home. She is the last one of the early members to pass away. Her life was spent mostly at the Yordy home east of Roanoke, Illinois, with the exception of a few years at the Brethren Home at Girard, Illinois, just previous to entering the home at Eureka. She became a member of the Mennonite church in her early years. Services were held at the Roanoke Mennonite Church in charge of Rev. John Harnish at 2 p.m., Thursday, Sept. 23. Burial was in the Church cemetery."

Christian Yotty

Chrétien Jordi or Christian Yotty was born circa 1810. He died at Olio, Woodford County Nov. 7, 1870. He sailed from Le Havre on the Granville in the autumn of 1839, but arrived at New Orleans on the Alexandre Toussin Dec. 26. Gary L. Yordy: "The passengers on the Granville are also listed as passengers on the ship Alexandre Toussin, which arrived in New Orleans two days earlier. In order to clear up the mystery, I went to the Maritime Museum at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. The following information was obtained from varied documents found there. Both the Granville and Toussin embarked from Le Havre, heading for New Orleans in the fall of 1839. The Granville (primarily a passenger ship) was to sail directly to New Orleans. The Toussin (carrying a few passengers and cargo) was scheduled to stop in Havana on its way to New Orleans. For unknown reasons, the Granville made an unscheduled stop at Havana on or about December 19, 1839. The steerage passengers on the Granville were then transferred to the Toussin to make the crossing of the Gulf of Mexico, arriving in New Orleans on Dec. 26. The Granville did not arrive until Dec. 28. The passenger manifest from the Granville had been copied in Havana and given to the captain of the Toussin. Thus both ship's lists show the same steerage passengers." The Granville passenger list actually shows Bavarians Christ Jady, 28; Catharina Staller, 30; Johann, 5; Maria, 3; Jacob Staller, 34; and Magdalena, 24.

'Christ Jady' was later known as Christian Yotty.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

'Catharina Staller' was a very pregnant Katharina/Catherine Stalter. She was born circa 1809, and died at Olio Oct. 11, 1894. She was a daughter of Heinrich Stalter and Jakobine Stalter, the owners of an estate at Gern, Bavaria (see BIRKY/BIRKEY). Johann and Maria were her children. 'Jacob Staller' was her brother born at Gern July 22, 1807; after this voyage he returned to Europe, marrying Catholic Anna Bächer at Munich April 23, 1841. 'Magdalena Staller' was Magdalena/Madeleine Stalter, her sister. She was born in 1815, and died at New Orleans Oct. 27, 1893. She remained there while her sister went with Christian Yotty to Illinois. In 1840 she married gardener Christian Rupp, becoming his second wife. He was born in Germany in 1811 (passenger list) or 1813 (death entry age 52), and died at New Orleans June 29, 1865. He arrived in New Orleans on the Platina from Le Havre April 7, 1838; the passenger list shows Christian, 27; Barbara, 27; and Magdalena, 3 months. First wife Barbara died in 1840.

Katharina/Catherine Stalter gave birth to a son Henry at New Orleans Dec. 29. Thus she brought three children north to Illinois:

1. Johann/John Yotty (also known as John B. Yotty) was born in Bavaria May 2, 1834, and died at Eureka Aug. 26, 1916. On Nov. 28, 1871 in Tazewell County he married Josephine Phillip. She was born in 1846, and died in 1894. Josephine was admitted to the Woodford County almshouse in 1889, according to the Woodford County Almshouse Registers.181 Peoria Journal, August 29, 1916: "The death of John Yotty, one of Eureka's respected German residents, occurred at his home in this city Saturday evening, after a short illness with something like blood poison. He was born in Bavaria, Germany May 2, 1834, but since he was 4 years of age Woodford County has been his home. Mrs. Yotty died many years ago....One sister and brothers also are left ­ Mrs. Mary Klopfenstein and Joseph Yotty of Eureka and Jacob Yotty of Iowa. Funeral services will be held from the residence at 9 o'clock Tuesday morning and from the Mennonite church, near Roanoke, at 1 o'clock." Maria/Mary Yotty was born in Bavaria April 3, 1836, and died at Eureka Jan. 24, 1926. On Feb. 26, 1856 she married butcher and hotel keeper Joseph Klopfenstein. He was born at Belfort, Franche-Comté July 31, 1829, and died at Eureka Nov. 12, 1909, a son of John Klopfenstein and Catherine Klopfenstein. They are buried in Olio Cemetery at Eureka. They can be found on the 1880 census of Eureka as hotel keeper Jos. Klopfenstein, 50, born in France to French parents; Mary, 44, born in Bavaria to Bavarian parents; and four children, all born in Illinois. Woodford County Journal, Jan. 28, 1926: "Another one of the earliest pioneer women, and, though born in a foreign land, was probably the oldest person in point of time spent in Woodford county at the time of her death, was called to her reward last Sunday morning about two o'clock ­ Mrs. Mary Yotty Klopfenstein, being at the time of her death almost ninety years of age. Mary, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Christian Yotty, was born in Bavaria, Germany, April 3, 1836. When she was two years of age with her parent, one sister and four brothers, she came to the United States [wrong - in 1838 she had only one older brother] and they settled on a farm in Germantown, west of Metamora in 1838, known then as Black Partridge. There the subject of this sketch grew to young womanhood, and was married to Joseph Klopfenstein in 1856, in a little brick church west of Metamora, long since torn down. Soon after their marriage Mr. Klopfenstein opened a butcher shop in Farneysville, known to later generations as Slabtown [actually Farnisville was on the south bank, Slabtown was the north bank of the Mackinaw River], on the Mackinaw river near the present home of Senator Lantz..."Grandma" says the timber lands along the Mackinaw abounded with wolves at that time and one morning when she went to the horse stable to get some cobs there was a large wolf lying in the horse manger. Not many years later they moved to Eureka, which has since been her home, with exception of two years (1885-6-7) spent in Peoria....At the age of twelve Mrs. Klopfenstein joined the Mennonite church and has remained a faithful member. She was always a very active and happy woman, and one to whom people gave their trust and confidence. She was always willing to help and could be relied upon ­ a real friend in time of need or distress. Her many kind and thoughtful acts will long be remembered. In the early days the calling of a physician was of the simple stepping to a telephone that it is today, and to many families Grandma Klopfenstein was assistant physician, nurse, helper and friend. Of late years she has not been able to go out so much, but her heart was always with the afflicted. About two years ago she suffered an attack of heart trouble, from which she never fully recovered, although in her last illness she was bedfast only about two weeks. Realizing that her earthly career was fast drawing to a close, she made her own funeral arrangements, choosing the minister, the pallbearers and the songs to be used. The funeral service was held at the M.E. church in Eureka on Tuesday afternoon, conducted by Rev. Ezra Yordy of the Mennonite church assisted by Rev. Andrew Schrock and Rev. W.L. Barnes. A quartet composed of Mesers Lester Smith, Ed Smith, Walter Yordy and Walter Zook, rendered the hymns she had chosen. The pallbearers were Henry Sauder, David Ulrich, Jacob Garber, Chris Garber, Joseph Waggoner and John R. Resser. Burial was in Olio Cemetery, where her loved ones gone on before are awaiting the resurrection." Henry Yotty was born at New Orleans Dec. 28, 1839, and died at Kearney, Nebraska Feb. 9, 1886. He enlisted in Company K (his name appears as Henry 'Yoty' with the Peoria and Tazewell County company) Aug. 28, 1862,

2.

3.

181

The registers are presently located at the Illinois Regional Archives Depository at Illinois State University, Normal,

Illinois.

131

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

then was transferred to Company E (a Woodford County company) of the 108th Illinois Infantry Regiment. He mustered out as a private Aug. 5, 1865. The regiment participated in the siege of Vicksburg and the capture of Fort Hindman. On March 18, 1869 in Champaign County he married Mary Alice Hoover. She was born in Fairfield, Indiana Sept. 17, 1848, and died at Kearney, Nebraska May 22, 1914, a daughter of Levi Hoover and Lydia Nicewander (she appears as Mary A. Hoover, 1, on the 1850 census of Fairfield). They appear on the 1870 census of Urbana, Champaign County as farmer Henry Yotty, 29, born in Louisiana; and Mary A., 22, born in Illinois [an error]. They also appear on the 1880 census of Somer, Champaign County as farmer Henry Yotty, 40, born in Indiana to parents from Indiana [an obvious error]; Mary Yotty, 30, born in Ohio to parents from Ohio [another error]; and five children all born in Illinois. Mary is found as a widow on the 1900 census of Kearney City, Nebraska. The detailed census shows that she was born in Indiana in September 1847, to parents from Ohio; she lived with daughters Emma, born in Illinois in September 1872 to a father from Louisiana and a mother from Indiana; and Bessie, born in Nebraska in June 1889 to a father from Louisiana and a mother from Indiana. However, Bessie's birth date June 20, 1889 indicates that she was not a natural daughter of Henry Yotty.

They arrived on Black Partridge Creek (later Germantown Hills) west of Metamora in 1840, and became members of the Partridge Creek congregation. At the time the area was still considered part of District 56, Tazewell County. 'Christian Yorty' appears on the 1845 'livestock tax' census of Tazewell County. The household appears again on the 1850 census of Tazewell County as farmer Christian 'Yeatty,' 40, Germany; Catharine, 41, Germany; John, 16, Germany; Mary, 15, Germany; Henry, 10, 'Louisanna'; Joseph, 4, Illinois; Catheraine, 1, Illinois; and [father-inlaw] Henry Stalder [Heinrich Stalter], 74, Germany. Before 1860, Christian purchased 163 acres at Olio. The family appears on the 1860 census there as farmer Christian Yottea, 57, Baden; Catherine, 52, Baden; John, 25, Baden; Henry, 20, Baden; Joseph, 15, Baden; Jacob, 7, Illinois; Catherine, 10, Illinois; farm laborer Christian Christner, 35, Bavaria; and farm laborer Augustus Smith, 16, Bavaria. The value of their real estate was listed as $200, and their personal property as $400. These were extremely low figures for the county. Within a few years Christian fell into financial difficulty. On March 15, 1867, younger brother Peter Yordy co-signed on a note borrowing money from Worth farm laborer Jacob Gangloff. The note promised to repay $800 principal plus 10 percent interest. Christian Yotty's household was presumably listed on 3-4 pages that are known to be missing from the original 1870 census of Olio. Christian died on the Olio farm Nov. 7, 1870. His estate documents show that the $800 note was still unpaid with accrued interest. Christian and Katharina/Catherine are buried in unmarked graves in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery, near their youngest child Jacob C. Yotty. Their children include:

1. 2. Joseph Yotty was born in Woodford County Nov. 27, 1847, died at Eureka April 11, 1932, and is buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. He appears on the 1830 census of Olio as an 83-year-old born in Illinois to German parents. Catherine Yotty was born in Woodford County in February 1850, and died in Iowa in 1912. In 1870 she married Christian Ehrisman. He was born in Baden in 1844, and died at Manson, Iowa Aug. 21, 1920, a son of Daniel Ehresman and Catherine/Katharina. They are found on the 1880 census of Danvers as farmer Christian Ehrisman, 35, born in Baden to a father from Württemberg and a mother from Baden; Catharine, 31, born in Illinois to a father from France and a mother from Bavaria; with four children born in Illinois and Christian's younger brother Daniel Ehrisman, 17, born in Illinois. Jacob C. Yotty was born in Woodford County April 27, 1853 and died at Kalona, Iowa Aug. 23, 1920. On Jan. 26, 1882 at Cazenovia he married Anna 'Annie M.' Bachman. She was born at Cazenovia Dec. 3, 1858, and died at Kalona, Iowa Dec. 18, 1933, a daughter of Jacob Bachman and Jacobina Zook. They are buried in Roanoke Mennonite Cemetery. Peoria Journal: ".... Funeral services were held at the residence at one o'clock Friday afternoon and the body was then taken to the Roanoke A.M. church where final services were held. Bishop Sam Garber was in charge of the services. There was a large attendance of former neighbors and friends at the services. The body was laid to rest in the cemetery near the church. Jacob Yotty was born in Woodford County, Ill., April 27, 1853, and died at his home west of Kalona, Iowa, Aug. 23, 1920 aged 67 years, 3 months and 26 days...Early in life he united with the Mennonite church, of which he was a member until death. On Jan. 26, 1882, he was united in marriage with Annie Bachman. To them were born four children; two sons, Chris H. and Bartholomew J., and two daughters, Elizabeth A. wife of John Speas and Jacobina C. wife of Jake Speas. All are living and with their mother, were present at the bedside at the time of death. Beside these he is survived by one brother and one sister, both of Illinois, and five grandchildren, who with a host of friends mourn his departure. Father, and mother, two brothers and two sisters preceded him to the great beyond. Funeral services were held at the East Union Mennonite church north of Kalona, Iowa, conducted by Bishop S.C. Yoder, after which remains were taken to Iowa City, and shipped to the old home of deceased at Cazenovia, which he left six years ago last March to make a new

3.

132

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

home for himself and family in Iowa. His body was laid to rest beside the graves of his father and mother in the cemetery near Roanoke."

JACOB JORDI or Jordy (1810/1814-1874) Jacob Jordy is presumed to be connected to Christian. As Gary L. Yordy discovered, 'Jacob Jordy' and 'Magdalena Shants' were named as the parents of Barbara Yordy in Book 1 of the Woodford County Marriage Registry. Her 1888 marriage ceremony took place in the Roanoke, Woodford County home of Peter Yordy, who was thought to be Barbara's uncle. German genealogist Hermann Hage further identified this couple and provided much of what we know about them. Jacob Jordy was born sometime between 1810 and 1815, and died on the Pentlhof estate at Zeitlarn, Bavaria sometime after Aug. 18, 1874 (on that day Jacob reported the birthdates of his children to inquiring municipal officials). In 1841at Grossprüfening he married Magdalena Schantz.182 Magdalena Schantz was born at Rimling, Moselle Aug. 16, 1813, and died in 1856. She was a daughter of Christian Schantz, born at Nehwiller in 1762, and his second wife Anna Imhoff. She was also a half-sister to Grossprüfening leaseholder Caspar Josef Schantz (whose mother was Marie Bürki); and a granddaughter of Jean Georges/Johann George Schantz and Catherine/Katharina Bürki of Nehwiller (the location has also been found as nearby Niederbronn-lès-Bains). From 1841 to 1853 they lived as tenants of the Neuffert family on the Eichenhofen estate at Nittendorf, a village seven miles west of Regensburg, Bavaria. From 1856 until 1874 widower Jacob lived on the Pentlhof estate at Zeitlarn (five miles north of Regensburg). The children of Jacob Jordy and Magdalena Schantz born on the Eichenhofen estate at Nittendorf include:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Maria Jordy was born Jan. 8, 1842. Elisabetha Jordy was born Sept. 15, 1844, and lived at Karlstein (15 miles north of Regensburg). She married a Gascho. Magdalena Jordy was born Sept. 29, 1845, and died Oct. 16, 1918. On March 9, 1873 at Grünthal she married Josef Unsicker. Anna Jordy was born Feb. 16, 1849. She lived at Karlstein. Jakob/Jacob Jordy was born Nov. 5, 1852. He embarked at Bremen on the maiden voyage of the steamship Ems, arriving at Castle Garden, N.Y. July 14, 1884.183 As Gary L. Yordy discovered, he appears on the 1900 census of Cincinnati, Tazewell County as Jacob Yordy, a boarder in the home of Charles Bailey. He is described as a 45-yearold farm laborer born in Germany in September 1854, whose parents were born in Germany, and who immigrated in 1884. Barbara Jordy/Yordy was born Dec. 14, 1853, and died at Morton Sept. 20, 1894. Her headstone gives no birth date, but only her age at death, 42. She became the third wife of Christian Eigsti. For more on this couple, see EIGSTI.

6.

Grossprüfening became part of Prüfening district. During World War II a Prüfening factory produced the Messerschmidt Bf-109 aircraft, and the entire area was heavily bombed from high altitude. 183 The Ems was launched Feb. 27, 1884. It was listed with the same company as his sister Barbara's immigration ship, Norddeutscher Lloyd.

182

133

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Esch/Oesch: Ösch Variations

I

n Bern an Ösch is an ash tree, and the word occurs relatively frequently in place names. Surname variations include Oesch, Esch (found most often in France), Eash (found most often in Pennsylvania), Asche, and Ash. Two Ösch descendants became prominent in Tazewell and Woodford Counties. One came to America in 1837 and became a Mennonite bishop at Partridge, the area around Partridge Creek west of Metamora. The other immigrated with Bavarian Forty-Eighters and became a farmer at Elm Grove.

Christian Esch (Worth)

Daniel Ösch was born at Oberlangenegg, Bern (below Schwarzenegg and Eriz) circa 1705-10, and died at Altviller, Moselle. He married Barbara Leyenberger. Daniel and his brother-in-law Andreas Leyenberger were leaseholders on the Kirschbacherhof estate in Zweibrücken in 1742. They later settled on the grounds of the castle estate Bonne Fontaine (Ger. Schlossgut Gutenbrunnen) at Altviller (seven miles above Bistroff). Their children and grandchildren saw their surname spelled 'Esch' in most French documentation. It is not clear whether this was their conscious decision; the result of their own illiteracy or the whim of municipal clerks; or an attempt by municipal clerks to help them assimilate by 'Gallicizing' their surname. Many generations later Napoleon's Decree of Bayonne would require every resident of the French Empire to accept one permanent family surname. A son Josef Esch was born circa 1740, and died on the Wahlerhof at Mittelbach-Hengstbach near Zweibrücken June 30, 1813. He married Magdalena Schertz, a daughter of Nikolaus/Nicolas Schertz and Barbara Birki of the copper mill at Hambach, Moselle. They lived at Lorentzen, then in 1779 relocated onto a farm property attached to Château Gentersberg (Ger. Gendersbergerhof) at Hanviller, Moselle. Magdalena died there. After 1788 Josef lived on the Dorst farm (Ger. Dorsterhof) at Walschbronn. Walschbronn is a border station across from Vinningen, in the Rhineland Palatinate. In the early 1800s it was in the most remote, wooded corner of Moselle. 184 The children of Josef Esch and Magdalena Schertz include:

1. Barbara Esch was born in 1761, and died on the Horterhof near Otterberg (above Kaiserslautern) in 1839 or 1849. She married Georg Unzicker of Wörth, Lower Alsace, who also died on the Horterhof in 1849, a son of Joseph Unzicker and Maria Stauffer. They lived on the Château Gentersberg property until 1804, when they purchased the Horterhof. Josef Esch was born at Lorentzen circa 1771, and died on the Wahlerhof March 2, 1846. In 1797 he married Magdalena Nafziger. She was born circa 1774 and died on the Wahlerhof March 28, 1838, a daughter of Peter Nafziger and Barbara Leyenberger. Nikolaus/Nicolas Esch was born at Lorentzen Sept. 28, 1779, and died at Walschbronn in September 1867. On Nov. 10, 1801 at Walschbronn he married Katharina Hauter. She was born on the Peltzmühle (later called the Blumenauermühle) at Brenschelbach, Zweibrücken July 22, 1786, and died at Walschbronn March 5, 1860, a daughter of Jakob Hauter and Magdalena Ulmann. They lived on the Dorst farm after 1788. Magdalena/Madeleine Esch was born on the Château Gentersberg property at Hanviller Jan. 7, 1784. On April 19, 1802 at Walschbronn she married Josef Hauter. He was born April 7, 1782, and died at Walschbronn June 11, 1812, a son of Nicolas Hauter and Suzanne Oesch. On March 25, 1813 at Walschbronn she remarried to Johannes/Jean Nafziger. He was born at Niederbronn-les-Bains (now in Lower Alsace) circa 1783, and died at Hanviller Dec. 23, 1859, a son of Valentin Nafziger and Anna Esch of Gentersberg. Christian Esch was born on the Château Gentersberg property at Hanviller in 1788, and died on the Dorst farm at Walschbronn July 15, 1824.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Christian Esch was born on the Château Gentersberg property at Hanviller in 1788, and died on the Dorst farm at Walschbronn July 15, 1824. On Sept. 13, 1813 at Waltembourg, Moselle he married Magdalena/Madeleine Nafziger. She was born at Waltembourg in 1792, and died at Walschbronn Sept. 19, 1824, a daughter of Christian Nafziger and Katharina/Catherine Sommer. Thus their children were orphaned in 1824:

184 Nearby Eschviller [Ger. Eschweiler], now a farm and museum at Volmunster, has no connection to the Esch family. A complex of buildings grew around a grain mill and saw mill where, presumably, ash wood boards were manufactured. Christian Roggy (see ROGGY) worked at the Eschviller sawmill for the Creutzer family 1821-30.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

1.

2 3. 4.

Magdalena Esch was born Feb. 3, 1814, and died April 21, 1900. On Jan. 28, 1835 at Rolbing (five miles northwest of Walschbronn) she became the second wife of Jakob Kinzinger. He was born on the Blumenauermühle at Brenschelbach, Zweibrücken Nov. 2, 1805, and died at Bebelsheim, Saarland in 1873, a son of Peter Kinzinger and Magdalena Hauter. He first married in 1832 to Magdalena's cousin Barbara Oesch, a daughter of Joseph Oesch and Magdalena Nafziger of the Wahlerhof. Katharina Esch was born Aug. 19, 1816, and died Aug. 27, 1861. She married Johannes Schmitt. Christian Esch was born Aug. 26, 1819, and died at Worth, Woodford County May 25, 1888. Josef/Joseph Esch was born June 10, 1822, and died on the Wilensteinerhof estate at Trippstadt Dec. 25, 1893. In October 1846 at Trippstadt he married Elisabeth Güngrich. She was born on the Wilensteinerhof Oct. 1, 1818, and died there Oct. 15, 1892, a daughter of Johannes Güngrich and Elisabeth Imhof.

Son Christian Esch was born on the Dorst farm at Walschbronn Aug. 26, 1819. He died at Worth, Woodford County May 25, 1888, and is buried in Hickory Point Cemetery. He was orphaned as a 5-year-old, and may have been raised by Nafzigers or Guengerichs at Bourscheid, Moselle. He sailed from Le Havre on the Marengo, arriving at New Orleans Nov. 25, 1837. The Marengo was the same ship that had brought elder Christian Engel's son Joseph to New Orleans in 1836. He traveled with the family of elder Jean/John Nafziger and Anna Marie Gerber. The customs list includes these passengers from steerage: Jean Nafziger, 35; Anna [Gerber], 29; Pierre, 4; Catherine, 2; Catherine Murer, 57 (Catherine Maurer, mother of Jean Nafziger); Madelaine Nafziger, 25; Catherine, 19; and Christian Esch, 18. (See NAFZIGER, THE NAFZIGERS OF WASHINGTON). Family notes say that Christian's first stop in Woodford County was the farm of elder Christian Engel. Before purchasing his own farm at Worth, he lived on the Metamora farm of Johannes Güngerich/Gingerich and Barbara Gerber. On Aug. 20 or 30, 1846 in Woodford County he married Anne Gerber, also known as Anna Garber. 185 The ceremony was performed by minister Andrew Baughman. Her name appears on the marriage license as Nancy Garber. She was born in the hamlet Gensbourg at Oberhaslach, Lower Alsace Aug. 10, 1827, and died at Worth May 17, 1898, a daughter of Peter/Pierre Gerber and Magdalena Gingerich. She was a granddaughter of Nicholas Gerber and Magdalena/Madeléne Bechler, who had died of Yellow Fever on their way to Tazewell County in 1840 (see GERBER AND GARBER, THE GERBERS OF METAMORA AND WASHINGTON for more on her grandparents ). She is also buried at Hickory Point Cemetery. For several winters Christian worked at a flour mill near Pekin, returning to his home on weekends; he cultivated his own crops in summer. His household appears on the 1850 census of Woodford County as farmer Christian Ash, 30, France; Ann, 24, France; and Peter, 2, Illinois. Christian was ordained as a minister of the Partridge Mennonite congregation in 1852. The congregation had been established by elder Christian Engel, and was later called Metamora Mennonite Church. The 1860 census of Worth shows farmer Christian Esch, 41, France; Ann, 36, France; Peter, 12, Illinois; and Joseph, 8, Illinois. In 1867 Christian was ordained bishop of the Partridge congregation. His bound ledger of sermons from 184982 is now in the archives of Goshen College. The 1870 census of Worth shows farmer Christian Ash, 44, France; Annie, 43, France; Peter, 25, France [Illinois]; Joseph, 19, France [Illinois]; and Meary, 9, Illinois. The 1880 census of Worth shows farmer Christian Esch, 62, Bavaria; Annie, 56, Bavaria; and Lena, 18, Illinois. Christian Esch and Anne Gerber (as 'Anna') are buried in Hickory Point Cemetery at Metamora. Their children include:

1. Peter Esch was born at Worth Dec. 29, 1847, and died at Washington Dec. 31, 1912. On Feb. 6, 1872 in Woodford County he married Catherine Schertz. She was born at Peoria Oct. 29, 1848, and died at MetamoraApril 7, 1924. They are found on the 1910 census of Worth as farmer Peter Esch, 62, born in Illinois; Katina, 61, born in Illinois; and Benjamin, 22, born in Illinois. Gospel Herald, June 1913: "Peter, son of Christian and Anna Esch, was born in Woodford Co., Ill., Dec. 29, 1847. Thirty-two years ago he moved with his family to the home from which he passed away, two miles north of Washington, Ill. On Dec. 12, 1912, he was taken down with and attack of la grippe and rheumatism which ended in his death on the last day of the year. At the time of his death he was sixtyfive years and two days of age. He leaves to mourn his departure his wife, 4 children ­ Mrs. Peter Springer, Mrs. Henry Schertz, Solomon Esch, and Benjamin Esch ­ 9 grandchildren, a brother, Joseph Esch, and a sister, Mrs. Peter Schertz. He was for many years a member of the Amish Mennonite Church at Metamora, Ill. Funeral services were conducted by the brethren, Geo. J. Lapp of India, and Valentine Strubhar of Washington. Text, Rev. 7:9-17." See SCHERTZ, SCHERTZ OF BISTROFF for Catherine's obituary.

185

The papers may have been drawn Aug. 20, a date given by the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index.

135

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

3.

Joseph Esch was born at Worth July 16, 1851, and died there Aug. 28, 1927. On March 3, 1874 in Woodford County he married Elizabeth Bachman, who died Sept. 26, 1889. On Feb. 25, 1891 he remarried to Lizzie Stauffer. She died in October of that year. On Sept. 26, 1893 he married a third time to Hattie Schertz. Hattie Schertz was born July 11, 1855, and died Nov. 1, 1934; she and Joseph are buried in Glendale Cemetery at Washington. Gospel Herald, September 1927: "Joseph, son of Christian and Anna Esch was born July 16, 1851 in the township where he resided through life. Last winter he passed through a severe sickness from which he never fully recovered, although he was able to be about until a few days before his death on Sunday, Aug. 28, 1927; aged 76 y., 1 m., 12 d. He accepted Christ as his Savior in early life and remained faithful to his Christian vows until the end. His church membership was with the Partridge Mennonite Church, near Metamora, Ill. He was united in marriage to Elizabeth Bachman on March 3, 1874. To this union six children were born; (Henry, Samuel, Christian, Martha, Joseph J., and Peter D.). On Dec. 29, 1889, his wife was called by the angel of death. He was again united in marriage Feb. 25, 1891, to Lizzie Stauffer of Tiskilwa, Ill. In October of the same year this second union was broken by the death angel. On September 26, 1893, he was married to Hattie Schertz. To this union two children were born; (Frieda and Raymond). Brother Esch was a successful farmer. He met with many discouragements and bitter experiences. All these he bore patiently, exemplifying a true Christian spirit. The ruggedness of his life journey developed in him worthy characteristics. He was always sympathetic towards others, especially toward those in need. He was a faithful husband and a devoted father. He leaves his devoted wife, four children. (Samuel, Joseph, Peter, and Mrs. Frieda Grove), one sister (Mrs. Peter Schertz), six children, and other relatives. He was preceded in death by one brother (Peter Esch). Dec. 1912, and by four of his children. Funeral services at the Calvary Mennonite Church conducted by Valentine Stubhar and Ezra B. Yordy." Magdalena Esch was born at Worth Sept. 6, 1861, and died at Metamora July 16, 1946. On Jan. 20, 1881 in Woodford County she married Peter Schertz, who became a minister in 1888. He was born at Washington Jan. 16, 1857, and died April 3, 1932, a son of Christian Schertz and Katharina/Catherine Engel. Gospel Herald, August 1946: "Magdalena, daughter of Christian and Anna Esch, was born in Woodford County, Ill., Sept. 6, 1861; died at her home south of Metamora, Ill., July 16, 1946; aged 84 y. 10 m. 10 d. Early in life she accepted Christ as her Saviour and united with the Mennonite Church, remaining true to the end. On Jan. 20, 1881, she was united in marriage to Peter Schertz, who preceded her in death on April 3, 1932. One daughter (Edna Lucile) also preceded her in death as an infant. Surviving are 7 children (Manuel D. and Mrs. Edwin R. Schertz, both of Washington, Ill.; Henry R., of Metamora; Mrs. Peter R. Schertz, Roanoke, Ill., William J. and Mrs. Walter Smith, Eureka, Ill,; and Mrs. Walter Yoder, Goshen, Ind.), 24 grandchildren, 14 great-grandchildren, and other relatives and friends. She was a quiet, unassuming, gentle woman, interested in the welfare of her family and the church. Funeral services were conducted by A. C. Good, assisted by Ezra Yordy and Ben Esch." They are buried in Hickory Point Cemetery. See SCHERTZ, SCHERTZ OF BISTROFF for Peter's obituary.

Christian Oesch (Elm Grove)

Abraham Oesch was descended from the family at Oberlangenegg, though his connection has not been identified. He was born circa 1730, and died circa 1836. He married Anna Koch, who died before 1836, a daughter of Nicholas Koch. Abraham was a minister on the Rauschenbourg estate at Ingwiller (in the 'Crooked Alsace' part of Lower Alsace); his father-in-law Nicholas Koch was elder there. Their children born on the Rauschenbourg estate at Ingwiller include:

1. 2. Christian Oesch was born circa 1755. Madeleine Oesch was born in 1756, and died at Bourscheid, Moselle Jan. 18, 1807. In 1779 she married Christian Bächler. He was born on the Rauschenbourg estate in 1753, and died at Bourscheid Sept. 14, 1809 (see GERBER AND GARBER, PETER GERBER'S WIFE BARBARA BECHLER for a list of their children). Barbara Oesch died at Gilchenbach, Bavaria Sept. 7, 1821. She married Johannes/Jean Hauter. He was born at Lembach, Lower Alsace Oct. 25, 1771, and died on the Bruchhof estate (now a village) near Homburg in the Saarland March 20, 1846, a son of Nicolaus Hauter and Susanne Oesch [also found in a French variation as Nicolas Hauter and Suzanne Oesch]. They leased an estate at Asswiller and the prosperous horse-breeding farm Le Haras at Sarralbe, and bought the Königreicherhof estate at St. Wendel in what is now the Saarland. Barbara had eight children and died in 1821; the following year Johannes/Jean remarried to Magdalena Stalter, a daughter of Johannes Stalter and Magdalena Hauter. They had eight more children. Johannes/Jean and his brother Christian (married to Catherine Oesch) were perhaps the wealthiest individuals mentioned in this text. Their story is told in Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany. Catherine Oesch married Christian Hauter. He was born in 1774, and died on the Neuhof estate at Herschweiler-Pettersheim in the Rhineland-Palatinate Jan. 5, 1841, a son of Nicolaus Hauter and Susanne Oesch. Nicolas Oesch was born circa 1762, and died at Bourscheid Dec. 17, 1813. He married Madeleine Bächler. She was born on the Rauschenbourg estate in 1769, and died at Bourscheid April 12, 1805 (see GERBER/GARBER, PETER GERBER'S WIFE BARBARA BECHLER),

3.

4. 5.

136

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

6.

Anna Oesch [also found in the French variation Esch] was born in 1763, and died on the farm property attached to Château Gentersberg (Ger. Gendersbergerhof) at Hanviller, Moselle Aug. 14, 1836. She married Valentin Nafziger. He was born at Steinseltz, Lower Alsace in 1757, and died at Epping, Moselle Sept. 25, 1857, a son of Johannes Nafziger and his first wife Magdalena/Madeleine Güngerich.

Christian Oesch was born circa 1755, and died at Hanfeld, Bavaria March 29, 1834. Christian married Katharina/Catherine Bürki. She was born on the Waderhof estate at Lorentzen in 'Crooked Alsace' in 1764. We could not identify her parents; it this were possible, it might help to identify the lineage of figures found in THE LITTLE RED BIRKYS. The couple and seven children relocated from Sarre-Union to Hanfeld near Lake Starnberg, Bavaria in 1803 (Söcking, where Andrew Burkey lived, is now part of Hanfeld). Katharina/Catherine died at Hanfeld March 6, 1829. The property where they lived has been identified as the 'zum Streicher' estate (this sounds remarkably similar to the Streicherhof at Uffing, 30 miles to the south, associated with the Heiser family). According to Rudolf Ingold and Hermann Guth, the Mennonite tenants at Hanfeld fell into a disagreement with local Catholic clerics, and were obliged to bury their dead in a meadow. 186 When Katharina/Catherine Bürki died in 1829, one priest asked for a death fee. Christian and his son Andreas refused, and the priest complained to the local administration. He was told that he could take the matter to court, but no action was taken. Their children include:

1. 2. 3. Jean/Johann Oesch was born on the Waderhof at Lorentzen in 1783. On May 7, 1809 he married Barbara Oesch. She was born at Erbes-Büdesheim in the Palatinate, a daughter of Christian Oesch and Jacobine Güngerich. Magdalena/Madeleine Oesch was born at Sarre-Union in 1786, and died at Beigarten, Bavaria (six miles east of Hanfeld and Starnberg) Jan. 27, 1859. She married Christian Miller. He was born in 1774, and died in 1853. Christian Oesch was born at Sarre-Union Oct. 15, 1789, and died on the Forsthof estate at Neuburg an der Donau, Bavaria June 23, 1844. In 1819 he married Katharina Sutter, and became a laborer and farm manager on the Forsthof estate (see SUTTER). Andreas Oesch was born at Sarre-Union in 1791, and died at Hanfeld April 30, 1869. Joseph Oesch was born in 1794, and died Nov. 30, 1866. Barbara Oesch was born at Sarre-Union June 23, 1799, died at Morton Sept. 10, 1884, and is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery. On Oct. 31, 1819 at Hanfeld she married Johannes/John Sutter (see SUTTER). Marie Oesch was born at Sarre-Union Feb. 5, 1802, and died Jan. 30, 1870. On Sept. 6, 1820 she married Christian Ingold. He was born on the Lindelbrunnerhof farm between Darstein and Münchweiler am Klingbach in Nassau-Weilburg April 22, 1794, and died at Klingenhof, Bavaria Oct. 10, 1870, a son of Joseph Ingold and Elizabeth Güngerich. After marriage they were tenants on the Oberhaunstadt castle estate (now a neighborhood of Ingolstadt). Veronica/Véronique/Veronika Oesch was born in 1804, and died at Hanfeld, Bavaria in 1829. She married Daniel Springer. He was born at Struth, Lower Alsace in 1801. Anna Oesch was born in 1806, and died Dec. 8, 1869.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

Minister Andreas Oesch was born at Sarre-Union, Lower Alsace in 1791, and died at Hanfeld April 30, 1869. He married Katharina Augspurger [also found erroneously as 'Huesburger']. She was born on the Canardière estate at Strasbourg Jan. 4, 1793, and died Oct. 15, 1850, a daughter of Noé Augspurger/Noah Augsburger and his first wife Anna Müller. See AUGSBURGER for more on her family. Andreas became a 'minister of the book' in 1835 or 1836. He remained on the estate until his death. Their children born at Hanfeld include:

1. Katharina Oesch was born Aug. 7, 1814, and died at Walchstadt (five miles southeast of Starnberg and Hanfeld) Oct. 25, 1856. On May 14, 1837 she married Josef Zehr, a son of Daniel Zehr and Magdalena Unzicker. He was born at Berg am Laim (now a district of Munich) near Munich May 18, 1810, and died after a logging accident at Beigarten April 30, 1871, the only member of his family who did not go to Butler County. Andreas Oesch was born Sept. 19, 1816, and died at Hanfeld Jan. 18, 1817. Barbara 'Babette' Oesch was born Jan. 24, 1818. She emigrated in 1848 with her younger brother Christian. Christian Oesch was born Dec. 4, 1819. Andreas Oesch was born Dec. 26, 1821. In 1849 he emigrated from Europe on the Minnesota with Christian Eigsti, Valentine Birky, George Ritthaler, Daniel Zehr, David Springer, and others (see EIGSTI). Magdalena Oesch was born Oct. 22, 1823. On Dec. 14, 1845 she married Andreas Eichelberger. He was born at Kleinöbach circa 1821. Maria Oesch was born Sept. 20, 1828. Their article The Oeschs of Hanfeld and Forsthof can be found in Mennonite Family History, July 1999.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

186

137

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Josef Oesch was born Aug. 2, 1830. Elisabeth Oesch was born June 17, 1832. Jakob Oesch was born May 24, 1835. Jakobine Oesch was born May 24, 1835 and died Feb. 24, 1846. Johann Oesch was born May 2, 1840, and died on the Bartelstock farm near Ingolstadt May 27, 1886. In 1863 he married Babette Ringenberg. Johann was a minister of the Ingolstadt congregation.

Christian Oesch was born at Hanfeld, Bavaria Dec. 4, 1819.187 His obituary and headstone birth date was given as Dec. 19, 1818. This conflicts with the Hanfeld birthdate, which has been confirmed by German genealogist Hermann Hage. Since Christian died at almost 90 years of age, 24 years after the death of his second wife, it is possible to question the validity of the headstone/obituary date and to assume that Hage's date is correct. Christian is mentioned in Friedrich Blendinger's profile of Munich-area emigrés Die Auswanderung nach Nordamerika aus dem Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern in den Jahren 1846-1852. Blendinger's book describes Christian Oesch as a 'serving farmhand' who emigrated from Starnberg, Bavaria bound for New York in 1848. He sailed with Babette [Barbara] Oesch, a serving maid who departed at the same time. This was presumably Christian's sister Barbara Oesch, who was born Jan. 24, 1818. They each carried 1,000 florins. The Bavaria sailed from Le Havre and arrived at New York Oct. 6, 1848; its passenger list names farmer Christian Osh, 26, Bavaria; and Barbara Osh, 27, Bavaria.188 On June 17, 1851 in Tazewell County Christian married Magdalena Zehr. 189 She may have been the daughter of Daniel Zehr and Magdalena Unzicker who was born at Berg am Laim, Bavaria March 12, 1816 (see ZEHR). She died before 1860. Their children include:

1. Magdalena/Madelaine Oesch was born at Dillon Oct. 7, 1852, and died Dec. 31, 1939. On Oct. 5, 1873 she married Michael Maurer, who was born in Canton Argau Aug. 28, 1842, and died Jan. 12, 1928. They lived at Pekin. He had been a barber in St. Louis, and a farmer at Pekin. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. Christian Oesch was born at Pekin May 30, 1854, and died at Dillon Jan. 15, 1890. He is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. On the 1880 census of Dillon he is found as a 26-year-old laborer living in the household of his brotherin-law Christian Oberlander. On Feb. 2, 1882 at Pekin he married Katharina 'Katie' Kinsinger. She was born at Elm Grove Dec. 27, 1862, and died at Deer Creek Oct. 7, 1903, a daughter of Johannes/John Kinzinger and Barbara Wagler. The New York Times, Oct. 5, 1886: "(Pekin, Ill.) ­ A disease resembling hog cholera has killed eight cattle out of a fine herd owned by Christian Oesch, in this county. When an animal is taken sick matter discharges from the nose, the head swells badly, and death ensues very quickly. The neighbors of Oesch will appeal to the Livestock Commission for aid." In 1901 Katharina remarried to Christian King (see the KING GENEDALOGY, KÖNIG OF NIMBURG). John Oesch was born circa 1856, and is only found on the 1870 census.

2.

3.

On May 8, 1860 in Woodford County, Christian remarried to Mary Aversoll. 190 She was born at Nancy Nov. 17, 1839, and died at Elm Grove April 29, 1884. She is buried in Railroad Cemetery as 'Maria, wife of Christian.' The headstone says she died April 29, 1884 at 44 years, 6 months, 18 days of age (calculating many years different from the date thought to be her birthdate).191 Obvious misreports are readily apparent on the census of 1860. Gary L. Yordy pointed out the coincidences in a census entry from Dillon in 1860 that may or may not show this family: farmer Christian Arsk, 35, Bavaria; Mary, 21, France; Madalene, 8, Illinois; Christian, 7, Illinois; and Martin, 30, Hanover. The family purchased their Elm Grove farm before 1864; it appears clearly labeled on the plat map published that year. They are listed on the 1870 census of Elm Grove as farmer Christian Oesch, 43, Bavaria; Mary, 30, France; Madelaine, 18; Christian, 16; John, 14; Catharine, 11; Joseph, 7; Barbara, 3; and Mary, 1 (all children born in Illinois). The final entry of the 1880 census of Elm Grove is marked with a phrase that looks like, "found on early Thursday." This entry is so full of errors that it is obvious the clerk did not visit the family. It describes them as

187 The 1850 census of Tazewell County shows an entry for farmer Christian Ish, 40, Germany; and S(blank), 38, male farmer, Germany. The entry was discontinued without explanation. 188 Passenger list ages were often transcribed from travel documents, which may have been obtained years in advance. 189 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Christian Oesch and Madalina Zoer. 190 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists her as Mary Aversoll. 191 Mary Aversoll may have been a sister or cousin to Andrew Aversoll, who can be found on the 1860 census of Partridge, Woodford County as a 33-year-old from France, married to Ann, 29, born in Ohio; they had four children ranging from 10 years to 18 months, all born in Illinois. The surname is found in France as Abersole or Abersold.

138

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

farmer Christ Oesch, 56, born in Germany to German parents; Mary, 49, born in Germany to German parents; Christian, 19, 'working farm'; Joseph, 18; Mary, 16; Henry, 14; Lena, 12; Kate, 10; and Barbra, 8. Christian last appears on a federal census in an error-ridden report for Elm Grove in 1900. The household of son-in-law Frederick Rowell and daughter Leah Oesch: Frederick Roll, 33, born in Iowa in June 1866 [1867]; Leah, 37 [29], born in Illinois in February 1873 [1871] to German parents; Frank, 7, born in Illinois in August 1892; Edward, 5, born in Illinois in July 1894; Elmer, 2 [3], born in Illinois in August 1896; Frederick, 1, born in Illinois in December 1898; and father-in-law Christian Oesch, 79, born in Germany in December 1820 [1819]. Christian's year of immigration is given as 1848. Christian died Oct. 12, 1908, and is buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Gospel Herald, November 1908: "Christian Oesch was born in Germany, Dec. 19, 1818; died Oct. 12, 1908; aged 89 y. 9 m. 24 d. He was married twice, first to Magdalena Zehr; to this union were born 3 children; then to Mary Ebersole; to this union were born 10 children. He leaves to mourn his departure, three daughters [Magdalena, Maria, and Leah], 1 brother, 36 grandchildren and 14 great grandchildren. Funeral services were conducted by Andrew Schrock; text, I Cor. 15: 21,22, and Samuel Gerber, text, Phil. 1:21." The children of Christian Oesch and his second wife Mary Aversoll:

4. Catharine 'Katie' Oesch was born March 15, 1861, and died March 26, 1886; she is buried in the Old Apostolic Cemetery at Tremont. On Feb. 24, 1880 in Tazewell County she married Christian Ludwig Oberlander. He was born in 1850, and died June 15, 1905. They are found on the 1880 census of Dillon as farmer Chris Oberlander, 30, from Württemberg; Catharine, 19, born in Illinois to parents from Berne and France; Ephraim, 2, born in Illinois; and laborer Christian Oesch, 26, born in Illinois to a father from Berne and a mother from France. After Catharine's death Christian remarried. On the 1900 census of Morton: Christian Oberlander, 50, factory worker born February 1850, immigrated in 1860 from Germany; wife Emilie, 45, born June 1854, born in Switzerland. immigrated in 1884; Theophile, 19, born December 1880 in Illinois to a father from Germany and a mother from Illinois; David, 11, born May 1889 in Illinois to a father from Germany and a mother from Switzerland. Emilie Oberlander is buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery, June 9, 1854-Feb. 25, 1947, with her second husband Peter Habeger 1840-Sept. 4, 1917. Joseph Oesch was born Oct. 21, 1863 (calculation from headstone) and died Feb. 18, 1886, at 22 years, 3 months, 27 days. He is buried in Railroad Cemetery. Daniel Oesch was born Oct. 7, 1864 and died within a year. Barbara Oesch was born Aug. 2, 1867, and died in 1907. On Oct. 5, 1886 in Tazewell County she married Fred Graf. He was born in 1858 and died in 1928. Maria/Mary Oesch was born at Tremont July 16, 1869, and died at Foosland, Champaign County Dec. 21, 1928. On May 3, 1887 in TC she married Julius K. Unzicker. He was born at Morton July 1, 1864, and died March 21, 1961, a son of Peter Unzicker and Katharina Kennel. Gospel Herald, January 1929: "Maria (Oesch) Unzicker, wife of Julius Unzicker and daughter of Christian and Mary Oesch, was born July 16, 1869, near Tremont, Ill.; died Dec. 1928, at her home near Foosland, Ill.; aged 59 y. 5 m. 5 d. On May 21 [3], 1887, she was united in marriage to Julius Unzicker of near Pekin, Ill. This union was blessed with 5 sons, all living at and near her home. At the age of 17 years she accepted Christ as her personal Savior and united with the East Washington Mennonite Church, and during her last sickness again renewed her covenant with her Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and united with the East Bend Mennonite Church near Fisher, Ill. She gave every evidence, and her own testimony that she was at peace with God and her fellowman, ready to depart to be with her Christ. She leaves a sorrowing husband, 5 sons, 9 grandchildren, 2 sisters besides many relatives and friends. Six brothers and 4 sisters have preceded her in death. Funeral services were held at the East Bend Church Dec. 24, with Bros. Joseph Heiser of Fisher, Ill., and Allen H. Miller of Pekin, Ill. in charge." Leah Oesch was born Feb. 12, 1871, and died March 14, 1947. On Feb. 21, 1891 in Tazewell County she married Frederick Rowell. He was born in Iowa June 20, 1867 and died June 2, 1934. They are found on the 1910 census of Elm Grove as farmer Fred Rowell, 48, born in Illinois to parents from Iowa; Leah, 38, born in Illinois to German parents; and six children born in Illinois. They are buried in the Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Tremont. Bena Oesch was born July 16, 1873, and died April 19, 1901. On Sept. 19, 1893 in Tazewell County she married Henry Stamm.192 They are found on the 1900 census of Hopedale as farmer Henry Stamm, born in Illinois in September 1871 to German parents; Bena, born in Illinois in June 1874 to German parents; and four children born in Illinois. She is buried as 'Benia Oesch, wife of Henry' in the Old Apostolic Cemetery at Tremont. 39-year-old Henry is found on the 1910 census of Hopedale with a new wife Lydia, 25, and seven children. Aaron Oesch was born Feb. 16, 1876, and died June 7, 1894. He is buried in Railroad Cemetery.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

192

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists her as Bennie Oesch.

139

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Christian Ehresman

T

he oldest Swiss record of the surname Ehrismann comes from Schlossrued and Gontenschwil in the area west of the lake Hallwilersee in Canton Aargau, where it is found in the early 1500s. In 1844 Christian Ehresman settled on a farm at Montgomery, Woodford County. His doorstep was about 50 yards over the boundary line with Deer Creek, Tazewell County. Though everyone knew of him, he is better known by his 15 children who grew to adulthood (four did not). They raised families and left hundreds of descendants throughout the area. Some Ehresman descendants may even be surprised to find a connection with Ayersman neighbors. In addition, Christian had an older sister Barbara and a younger brother Daniel who settled in Tazewell County. A nephew Rudolph arrived later and also established a considerable family in Woodford County. For all this, the Ehresman record lapsed until descendant Viola Zurlinden made an attempt to re-create it for a family reunion in 1968. Zurlinden's mimeographed handout is dotted with question marks and blank spaces, and tells us almost nothing about the family in Europe. Yet it was an invaluable aid.

The Bärbelsteinerhof

Der alte [the older] Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann was likely born before 1676. In 1711 or shortly after he entered into a shared lease with Ulrich Nafziger, who may have been his brother-inlaw (see NAFZIGER). They farmed the grounds below the ruins of Berwartstein Castle at Erlenbach bei Dahn in the Palatinate, about six miles north of the border with Alsace. These grounds were known as the Bärbelsteinerhof. The foundations of Berwartstein Castle were carved into a sandstone hilltop in the 12th century. The rubble was then shaped into blocks to form the castle walls. Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa awarded it as a gift to the prince-bishop of Speyer in 1152. In the 1400s the castle and adjoining estate became the home of Hans von Trodt and his 'robber knights.' They feuded with the abbot of Wissembourg, about six miles away.193 Von Trodt was the model for Hans Trapp, a German folklore figure who roams through villages with the Christ Child on Christmas Day. Hans Trapp threatens children with a stick before they receive their presents. The castle was struck by lightning in 1591, causing damage that made it uninhabitable. This probably allowed it to avoid destruction during the Thirty Years War of 1618-48. The Treaty of Westphalia that concluded the Thirty Years War held a number of provisions parceling out fiefs to noble families. In Article XXVII the Holy Roman Emperor assigned properties including Berwartstein Castle to the Baron Gerrard of Waldenburg, also known as 'Schenck-heeren.' Amish Mennonite leaseholders negotiated with a local administrator representing the Schenck family. 194 After 1712 Johannes 'Hans der Alte' Güngerich lived between Niedersteinbach and Lembach on the AlsacePalatinate border, about eight miles from Berwartstein Castle (see GINGERICH). He leased grounds near le Château de Froensburg, a ruined sandstone castle that had been used for artillery practice by French troops in 1677. The land was exempt from Alsatian expulsion orders because it belonged to Zweibrücken Wittelsbachs. Thus there was a direct line of influence from Jacob and Ulrich Amman, to Hans der Alte, to those on the Bärbelsteinerhof. In 1715 Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann and Ulrich Nafziger negotiated an early termination of their lease arrangement. However, even after leaving the Bärbelsteinerhof, both families continued to be associated with the location. Christian Feischert held the lease for the next three years until his death. Minister Christian Holli/Holly of Kurzenburg, Bern picked it up in 1718.195 A list of the marriages he performed there was maintained with Catholic parish records at Niedershlettenbach (two miles below Erlenbach bei Dahn, and two miles above the border with Lower Alsace). It includes a marriage in 1728: "Nicholas Cünzli [Küntzi?], son of Ulrich Cünzli, Anabaptist, married Barbara Ehrismann, daughter of Joannis [Johannes] Ehrismann, Anabaptist." Christian Holli/Holly also

193 194

Coincidentally, there was a Catholic Ehrismann family at Seebach, about 6 miles below Wissembourg. In this account the noble Schenck family can be easily confused with the Bernese Schenk families. Genealogist Julius Billeter published one detailed genealogy of the Schenk family of Langnau, Bern, and another on the Schenk family of Signau and Röthenbach, Bern. Ulrich Nafziger's daughter Barbara married Jacob Schenk (Sr.). They became co-leasors of the Dalberg estate at Essingen with Ulrich's oldest son Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger. Jacob Schenk (Jr.) married a daughter of Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger, Katharina Nafziger, who was also his cousin. He was later ordained as an Amish Mennonite minister. He lived on the Dalberg estate with his father-in-law Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger as late as 1788. 195 Christian actually spelled his surname 'Holli,' but Bernese records spell it 'Hohli.' It is probably derived from 'Höhlen,' or cave.

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created an entry for the marriage of his daughter Barbara to Ulrich Nafziger's son Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger in 1729. Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger acted as guarantor for Amish Mennonite leasers of the Bärbelsteinerhof as late as 1783.196 Further background information on the Bärbelsteinerhof will be given in HOCHSTETTLER. On March 5, 1715, der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann and Ulrich Nafziger leased the Rodenhof at Rodenbach, 15 miles north of Erlenbach bei Dahn, a property of the Cistercian Eusserthal Abbey. 197 It may seem odd for an Amish Mennonite to rent from a Catholic order, but church properties were actually administered from an 'administration of ecclesiastical estates' organized by the Elector of the Palatinate at Heidelberg. Nafziger negotiated with a local representative of this office. The agreement identified them both as Wiedertäufer [Anabaptists]. "Today...appears the aforementioned tenant Nicklas Jung to announce that he intends after agreement with the administrator to cede his lease, just renewed for nine years, against forfeit money to Ulrich Naffzier and Hans Jakob Erismann, both Anabaptists residing at B. This transfer has been agreed to by the administrator under the condition that if both of the Anabaptists should be expelled because of their religion before the expiration of the nine-year lease, the following tenants shall compensate the forfeit money as well as those things which they have ameliorated in buildings and/or cultivation. Signed at Eusserthal, the 5th of March, 1715." Nafziger left Rodenbach in 1728 to go to the Obergut at Essingen, another property of the Eusserthal Abbey. A 1743 census of Palatine Mennonite heads of households lists 'Jacob Christmann' ­ der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann ­ among the dozen Mennoniten individuals in the category Oberampt Germersheim Pflege Eusserthal, properties of the Eusserthal Abbey. He was living on the Laubertal at Lauberwald, near Eusserthal. This was the last time he was mentioned on a census, either because he died or just gave up his lease before 1783.

The Mechtersheimerhof

The older son of der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann became a leaseholder on the Mechtersheimerhof farm below the city of Speyer. The site would now be described as part of a neighborhood in the village of Mechtersheim in the municipality of Römerberg. Mechtersheim is about four miles from the city of Speyer. The 'early settlers' who came there from Erlenbach bei Dahn are commemorated by a street aptly named Berwartsteinstrasse; a few of the original houses still exist. The nearby city of Speyer has a unique place in Anabaptist history that was certainly known to all of the residents of Mechtersheim.

SPEYER In 1521 the princes of the Holy Roman Empire held an assembly called the Diet of Worms. They summoned Martin Luther and listened to a partial apology for his writings. After leaving the diet Luther had to be abducted by a friendly prince and hidden in a castle for his own protection from the wrath of the Holy Roman Emperor. However, in the next few years the German states began to feel threatened from both sides: the French on the west, and the Turks of the Ottoman Empire on the east. A more conciliatory diet met at Speyer in 1526. When many of the princes confessed more sympathy for Lutheranism than Catholicism, the Lutheran minority were labeled 'Protestants' (the origin of the term). The Catholic majority grudgingly conceded that they could be tolerant for the sake of political unity. However, many felt that they had endorsed heresy and harbored bitter feelings. Catholic clergy expressed their frustration to Emperor Charles V. On Jan. 4, 1528 he published a mandate recommending a death sentence for the crime of Anabaptism, which was considered to be Protestantism carried to its extreme. The Elector of the Palatinate Louis V published his own mandate of condemnation March 5, 1528. At a third diet at Speyer in 1529, both Catholics and Lutherans fell in line behind their emperor. Together they passed an ecclesiastical mandate that said, "...Every Anabaptist and rebaptized person of either sex should be put to death by fire or

196 We notice an unusual convergence of surnames at Gossau, Canton Zurich prior to 1800: Egli, Ehrismann, Fischer, Künzli, and Maurer. Gossau is 4 miles west of Hinwil, in the district of Hinwil. This does not suggest early Zurich connections for the families on the Bärbelsteinerhof. However, it may imply that family members who remained in Switzerland took an interest in this location which is strongly identified with events in early Anabaptist history. 197 The Rodenhof at Rodenbach is now called the Rothenhof at Gräfenhausen. Gräfenhausen is midway between Eusserthal and Annweiler. The red sandstone Eusserthal Abbey was established in 1130 A.D. as the home of a Cistercian order. In present day about 980 monks and nuns live in poverty and lead an extremely simple, self-sufficient life. The inside of the abbey has unadorned columns, few statues or paintings, and no stained glass windows. The inhabitants do not hold services for the surrounding community. Cistercian abbeys served a number of purposes during the Middle Ages. Because they were unadorned, they were less likely to be looted, and thus would serve as a haven for Catholic clergy during military conflicts. Their relative cleanliness also provided a healthier environment than the outside world.

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sword, or some other way." This resulted in the execution of 350 local residents. As a result many citizens of Speyer grew more sympathetic to the victims and their families.

Anabaptist farmers did not settle on the Mechtersheimerhof until shortly after the War of Palatine Succession (1688-97). A village that stood on the spot had been completely destroyed, and the land was owned by the Eusserthal Abbey. They were pleased to find any tenants who might reclaim the land for agriculture. Land records preserved at the state archives at Karlsruhe name the leaseholders. In 1738 they were Johannes 'Hans' Höffli, Jakob Kurtz, Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger, and Christian Stauffer. In 1743 Christian Bürki, Abraham Kurtz, Christian Nafziger, and Christian Schowalder/Schowalter were added as co-leaseholders. In 1753 Höffli is the sole leaseholder (found as 'Johannes Hoff') with a wife and four children. In 1759 he is still there, sharing the lease with Jakob Müller.

JOHANNES 'HANS' HÖFFLI (1738). The spelling of this surname has a number of variations. He may be the Hans Hoff who was later a miller at Mörlheim, a property about 14 miles southwest of Mechtersheim. He was listed there as a tenant on a property owned by the Eusserthal Abbey. A document dated March 12, 1759 found with Mennonite census lists stated his intention to lease the Drehentalerhof at Otterberg (six miles above Kaiserslautern, 12 miles below Dörrmoschel). This property belonged to the Cistercian abbey-church at Otterberg, which came under the Bishop of Speyer and was affiliated with the Eusserthal Abbey. "Oberamt Kaiserslautern: Johannes Hoffle of Hochstetten [Höfstatten], born at Heddesheim on the Counts of Leiningen's territory, requests along with his married son the temporary tenancy of the Heydtweiler glassworks at Drehental for six years, and for a protection certificate." He was almost certainly 'Hans Hofli,' who represented the Höfstatten/Trippstadt congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779. The 1759 census shows him as 'Johannes Hoefli' on the Drehentalerhof with wife Magdalena, son Christian, and daughters Barbara and Magdalena; he is also found there in 1768 as 'Johann Hoefli.' In 1773 he is found in two census reports: on the Drehentalerhof as 'Johannes Hoefli,' with a wife, one son, and four daughters; and as the father in the home of son Christian Höffli at Eselsfürth (now a neighborhood on the northeast corner of Kaiserslautern). In a letter written in 1790 Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger noted that minister 'Hans Höfflÿ' once lived on the Mechtersheimerhof. JAKOB KURTZ (1738). See KING. JOHANNES 'HANS' NAFZIGER (1738). Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger was a son of Ulrich Nafziger and Maria Magdalena Güngerich. He was likely born on the Bärbelsteinerhof circa 1713.198 In 1715 his family and the Ehrismanns relocated on the Rodenhof at Rodenbach. In 1728 his father Ulrich leased the Obergut at Essingen. He married Barbara Holly at Erlenbach bei Dahn in 1729 (the record was kept at Niederschlettenbach). Barbara was a daughter of leaseholder Christian Holli/Holly. Nafziger was ordained as a minister in 1731. A civil record of Anabaptists mentions 'Joann Noffzieger' on the Mechtersheimerhof in 1738, 1739, and 1740. They next lived at Rüppurr below Karlsruhe. In 1754 they lived briefly on the Katharinentaler Hof before leasing part of the Dalberg estate at Essingen from Baron Gottlob Amandus von DalbergDalberg. Nafziger became the leading elder of the Essingen congregation, and the leading elder of his day. He helped to establish the Amish Mennonite rules of faith by organizing the ministers assemblies at Essingen in 1759 and 1779. In 1779 he and Christian Ehrismann were two of the four ministers representing the Essingen congregation. He traveled to Holland for nine weeks in 1765 and seven weeks in 1770 to mend disputes and ordain new ministers, and sponsored a reprinting of the Pennsylvania version of the Dutch text The Martyrs' Mirror in 1780.199 On March 16, 1781 he wrote a letter to ministers in the Netherlands describing his understanding and practices of marriage, baptism, and ordination of ministers and deacons. The letter was widely copied and served as a ministers' manual. Barbara Holly died at Essingen Dec. 15, 1789. Johannes 'Hans' died there before 1792. As mentioned in a later footnote, his younger brother Peter likely married an Ehrismann. For more on Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger including the complete translated texts of two of his letters to Christian Schowalder/Schowalter in America, see Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany. CHRISTIAN STAUFFER (1738). Because Christian Stauffer had a name that was very common among Swiss émigrés, it is difficult to separate his information from others. It is likely that he was the person who married Katharina Schantz at Erlenbach bei Dahn Feb. 20, 1727, in a ceremony performed by minister Christian Holly. It is also likely that he was the Christian Stauffer who sailed from Rotterdam on the Phoenix with Abraham Kurtz and Christian Schowalder/Schowalter, arriving at Philadelphia Sept. 15, 1749. He was naturalized with Christian Schowalder/Schowalter the same day at the Philadelphia courthouse. He died at Lebanon (now Annville), Lancaster County May 27, 1782.

198 In a letter to Christian Schowalder/Schowalter written circa 1788, Nafziger wrote, "Although I am old and thinking my days will be short, 75 years are past, yet I have reason to thank the Lord: I have not needed eye glasses." 199 The Pennsylvania version of Martyrs' Mirror was published by German Brethren who had originally settled in the Conestoga Creek area. It took 15 men three years to translate the Dutch text into German, construct presses, and print the 1,400page book at Ephrata, Lancaster County. It was published in 1748.

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CHRISTIAN BRKI (1743). Christian was born at Erlenbach bei Dahn circa 1726, a son of Johannes 'Hans' Bürki. He married one of the daughters of Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger and Barbara Holly, whose name has been forgotten. In 1768 'Christian Bürcki' and der jünge Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann appeared on a list of those who paid the six-guilder fee required from religious minorities for government protection. The 1773 census lists him as 'Christian Bürcki', a subtenant on the Mechtersheimerhof with a wife, one minor son, two minor daughters, seven farmhands, and three maids. In 1787 they moved 22 miles to the southeast, across the Rhine River to the Stift Odenheim estate (Stifterhof or 'convent estate'), at Tiefenbach in Baden-Durlach. (See BIRKY/BIRKEY). ABRAHAM KURTZ (1743). See KING. CHRISTIAN NAFZIGER (1743). This was likely a younger brother of Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger. He was born circa 1717, and married Elisabeth Linder from Windstein. He and his brother Peter represented the Darmstadt congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779. Several of his great-grandchildren are buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery at Danvers. CHRISTIAN SCHOWALDER/SCHOWALTER (1743). Christian Schowalter's surname was derived from Schonwalder or 'beautiful forest.' His great-grandfather Johan Schonwalder was baptized at Strengelbach near Zofingen in what is now Canton Aargau June 25, 1620. His grandfather Jakob was born at Strengelbach June 18, 1648, and died at Schafbush near Wissembourg, Lower Alsace in April 1731. His father was either Jakob or Ulrich Schowalter. Christian was born at Hanachusheim in the Palatinate circa 1709.200 Hanachusheim is located about five miles east of Mannheim and the Rhine River, and about three miles north of the university town Heidelberg, which was then the capital of the Palatinate. Christian married Katharina Anna Lehman circa 1735. Land records preserved at the state archives at Karlsruhe name the leaseholders on the Mechtersheimerhof farm below the city of Speyer. In 1738 they were Johannes 'Hans' Höffli, Jakob Kurtz, Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger, and Christian Stauffer. In 1743 Christian Bürki, Abraham Kurtz, Christian Nafziger, and Christian Schowalder/Schowalter were added as co-leaseholders. Schowalter sailed from Rotterdam on the Phoenix with his wife and children, and arrived at Philadelphia Sept. 15, 1749. A list from the Oath of Abjuration at the Philadelphia courthouse names him as 'Chrisian Showalter.' Other names on the list include Abraham Kurtz and Christian Stauffer. Schowalter and Kurtz have been called "the first Amish church leaders in Lancaster County." Like so many similar claims, it is doubtful that this is true or would even be provable considering that at the time services were simple meetings in private homes. On Nov. 12, 1750 Christian purchased land on Conestoga Creek, Earl Township, Lancaster County. He remarried to Anna circa 1751. By 1771 they owned 274 acres at Earl Township. Christian kept up a Transatlantic correspondence with influential elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger that lasted from his arrival in 1749 until 1788. It is thought that they were the organizers providing information to would-be emigrants. Christian's will was written at Earl Township June 15, 1796, and proven March 16, 1799. His male children were noted as John and Jacob; Jacob was appointed executor of his estate. Some sources say he was buried in a family cemetery at Martindale, Earl Township; others that he was buried at Whitehall Township, Northampton County by his brother Jacob. His original home made from river stone is still standing in Earl Township. (See DELLENBACH for a footnote on his brother Jacob Mathias Schowalter). JAKOB MÜLLER was a co-leaseholder with Johannes 'Hans' Höffli in 1759, but did not extend in 1768.201 He was born circa 1720. We had placed him as a son of Nikolaus Müller, who is found as a tenant at Mühlhofen as early as 1714. However, in Both Sides of the Ocean J. Virgil Miller places him as a son of Johannes Müller, a brother to Nikolaus. The Müller family at Mühlhofen came from Munsingen, Bern. In 1753 Jakob appeared on a Mennonite census of Mörzheim (three miles north of Mühlhofen) with a wife (Elisabeth Schenk) and three sons ages 7, 4, and 2. A note to the report said, "Jakob Müller moved here eight years ago from the Palatine-Zweibrücken village of Mühlhofen on Velten Petermann's orphans' estate. He will be leaving soon, because the Petermann children wish to farm." From Mörzheim Jakob traveled 16 miles northeast to Mechtersheim. In 1767 he became a co-leaseholder of the Münsterhof at Dreisen (40 miles northwest of Mechtersheim) with Hans Kennel (a stepson of Niklaus Brenneman) and David Holly (a son of minister Christian Holli/Holly of the Bärbelsteinerhof, he married Susannah Fischer, who was a daughter of Benedict Fischer and niece to Ulrich Fischer). At Dreisen Jakob remarried to Anna Brenneman and Anna Jordy. There were multiple marriage connections between families on the Münsterhof, Mechtersheimerhof, and Pfalzhof. (There is no known connection between this family and the Hochburg family in MILLER).

It has already been noted that der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann had a daughter. Barbara Ehrismann married Nicholas Cünzli [Künzli] at Erlenbach bei Dahn in 1728. The ceremony was performed by ministerleaseholder Christian Holli/Holly, and the marriage was recorded in the parish register at Niederschlettenbach. Nicholas was described as a son of Ulrich Cünzli, Anabaptist.

Sources that say Christian was born at Schafbush near Wissembourg, Lower Alsace are simply guessing from the known location of some relatives. Hanachusheim is noted in his family Bible. 201 He is easy to confuse with another Jakob Müller who leased at nearby Hilsbach (also a property of the Eusserthal Abbey) in 1759 and is also found there in 1768.

200

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The older of his two sons was der jünge [the younger] Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann. He may be found listed as 'Hans Christmann,' steward at 'Rodenbach,' on the 1743 census of the of the Eusserthal land trusteeship (Ger. Oberampt Germersheim Pflege Eusserthal). While his father had moved over to the Lauberthal, he had assumed the Rodenhof lease and become head of household there. The census of 1753 again shows him on the Rodenhof at Rodenbach as 'Hans Christmann,' with an annotation that he had a wife and five children, and had been in residence there since before 1744 (indicating that he was in a second nine-year lease, which would have accorded him greater privileges). A list in 1759 shows him only as a tenant of Eusserthal trusteeship property, presumably still the Rodenhof (since Höffli and Müller are mentioned specifically as Mechtersheimerhof tenants). In 1768 'Johannes Ehrismann' and 'Christian Bürcki' are found as co-leaseholders on the Mechtersheimerhof (see BIRKY/BIRKEY). In the same year they appear on a list of those who paid the six-guilder fee required from religious minorities for government protection. On a census in 1773, the Mechtersheimerhof is described not as property of the Eusserthal Abbey but as Kellerei Speyer, a municipal property of the nearby city of Speyer. The household is described as subtenant and widower Johannes Ehrismann; two sons; one daughter; five farmhands; and three maids.202 The nearby cathedral at Speyer was in a ruined state. French soldiers had burned out most of its furnishings in 1689. Restoration was begun in 1758 and mostly completed by 1778. 203 Perhaps we can assume that the two sons of der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann were given generous lease terms by the municipality. It was in its interest to bring new farmers into the area to provide foodstuffs for the many workmen who were drawn to Speyer. The tolerant bishop-prince of Speyer once sided with the Amish Mennonites on the Mechtersheimerhof over the interests of a wealthy landowner.204 The case revolved around the issue of rebaptism.

DALBERG versus NAFZIGER A Mennoniten father was expelled from his congregation for excessive drinking. On his deathbed he converted to Catholicism. In about 1772 authorities took his young son and two daughters from their mother and placed them in an orphanage at Mannheim, where they were supposed to be raised as Catholics. The son died, and the two daughters were released. They soon returned to their mother, who eventually came to rest on the Mechtersheimerhof. The three lived there with the mother's brother, leaseholder and minister Jakob Ullmann.205 Eventually the clergy at Mannheim realized that the two daughters had been rebaptized. In 1780 they requested that Baron von Dalberg of Essingen arrest his tenant, elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger. It was alleged that he had rebaptized the two girls, which he did not deny. The clergy recommended that the girls be put to death, and that Nafziger be prosecuted. Nafziger was held in the baron's castle until the case could be resolved. Adjudicators appointed by the baron decided that Nafziger should be fined 500 florins and exiled from the Palatinate. Their decision was taken to the bishop-prince of Speyer. He refused to act against the Ullmanns, who were his own tenants on the Mechtersheimerhof, or against Nafziger, a former tenant there. The bishop-prince may have feared that banishing Nafziger would result in the loss of all his Mennoniten tenants. The government fell in line behind the bishop-prince and reprimanded the baron from Essingen. Because of the poor reputation of Baron Gottlob Amandus von Dalberg-Dalberg (1739-1794), the bishop-prince would have risked his own good name by supporting the charges. In 1774 the 'libertine of Essingen' outspent or overgambled the tax revenue that was accorded to him under feudal law. He arranged a marriage for a dowry that might have reduced his debts. At the last minute someone informed the prospective bride that the prospective groom was in fact

We can speculate that two of his daughters had married the same man. Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger's younger brother Peter Nafziger (circa 1720-1803) had a first wfie who died young; he then remarried to Elisabeth Ehrismann (children in 1766 and 1769); and then to Barbara Ehrismann (a child in 1779). Nafziger farmed at Lachen-Speyerdorf, about 4 miles southeast of Neusdtadt an der Weinstrasse in the Palatinate. 203 The Romanesque cathedral at Speyer was constructed 1030-1061 A.D. Eight emperors and kings and four queens were buried under its center aisle. French soldiers damaged it a second time in 1794, but in 1846-53 it was restored again. 204 The bishop-prince of Speyer from 1770 to 1800 was Damian August Philipp Karl, count of Limburg-Vehlen-Stirum. His bishopric encompassed 28 square miles on both sides of the Rhine River. The left bank was taken from him by occupying French troops in 1792, and a French administration held jurisdiction until 1814. The right bank was occupied by imperial troops of Baden in 1792. It became a permanent part of Baden when national boundaries were redrawn at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Congress gave Speyer to the Kingdom of Bavaria as compensation after Salzburg was given to the Austrian government. 205 Before coming to the Mechtersheimerhof Jakob Ullmann lived on the Pfalzhof estate at Dernbach (above Eusserthal, 12 miles west of Essingen). There he lived with the Christian Güngerich family. Christian Güngerich was a son of Johannes 'Hans der Alte' Güngerich, who in 1726 signed a lease for this property giving his son hereditary tenancy. Christian's oldest son Christian became elder at Steinseltz (near Wissembourg, Lower Alsace); daughter Magdalena married Stefan Nafziger, a son of Ulrich Nafziger; son Valentin married Anna Nafziger, a daughter of Ulrich Nafziger; and daughter Vreni or Freneli married Jakob Ullmann. She died, and Jakob remarried to her half-sister Anna Güngerich. He was one of four representatives of the Essingen congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779.

202

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already married; moreover, he had promised marriage to a third woman as well. It was widely suspected that he coerced the priest who would have performed the ceremony. When the true picture became known to civil authorities, the baron was imprisoned in the fortress of Königstein near Dresden. He managed to obtain a pardon by promising to mend his ways, but eventually spent all of his allowance from civil funds. In 1789 he was reincarcerated at Königstein. He spent the last five years of his life shuffling between prisons to escape the reach of anti-royalist French troops.

In 1780 documents pertaining to this legal case listed the two sons of der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob living on the Mechtersheimerhof. It was stated that they were members of Nafziger's congregation at Essingen (11 miles west of Mechtersheim).206 Circa 1788 Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger wrote a letter to Christian Schowalter in Pennsylvania saying [Guth's translation], "Further also to report a little about your old home Mettersheimer Hoff, there are now mostly Reformed people living on it. Jacob Ehresman, our cousin, lived there on Herr Sander's farm for a while, recently though, he died, and his widow is now still on it but we don't know for how long, as reports are that the owners of the land want to make a town out of it." The younger brother of der junge Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann was Christian Ehrismann. He was one of four deacons or ministers who represented the host congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779 (with elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger, his brother Christian, and Jakob Ullmann). It was traditional for a deacon or minister to be a married man, but his wife has not been identified. In 1787 the Dutch Naamlijst shows minister Christian Ehresman serving the congregations of Weisenheim am Berg, 28 miles northwest of the Mechtersheimerhof; Eisenberg, 39 miles northwest; and 'Minster,' which may have been the Münsterhof at Dreisen, 43 miles northwest. He died before 1790. It is easy to discern that parents and children from prosperous families tended to head up Amish Mennonite congregations. The position was only viable for those who could take time away from planting and harvesting. New ministers also tended to be the sons of ministers because they were literate ­ a rare commodity in their culture.207 With only the evidence of surviving documents, we can tell something about the personalities of the early Ehrismanns. They chose to be in two unique locations: the first, the Bärbelsteinherhof, where literate individuals with strong religious convictions came together. The second, the Mechtersheimerhof, could be thought of as a staging ground for those who would minister not only in Europe but in America as well.

Württemberg and North America

At this point there is uncertainty. The family that has been definitely linked to Central Illinois descendants was found in Württemberg. Thus they are most likely to be the generations that followed der jünge Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann (since his brother Christian seemed to be moving to the northwest). The first confirmed link is Christian Ehrismann, who was likely born before 1754. He married Barbara Jotter. A reliable entry shows that they were the grandparents of Christian Ehresman (1799-1874) of Woodford County. Their children include:

1. 2. Johannes Ehrismann was born July 12, 1774, and died on the Gutes Obermönsheim at Wimsheim, Württemberg Nov. 17, 1838. He was buried on the farm two days later. Jakobina Ehrismann was born March 12, 1780. On Jan. 10, 1807 she married Heinrich Egli, who succeeded his father as leaseholder on the Lärchenhof farm at Wimsheim. He was born May 10, 1786, and died on the Lärchenhof Sept. 20, 1841, a son of Jakob Egli and Magdalena Eyer. According to the Wimsheim Familien Register, they had eight children on the Lärchenhof.

The most famous native of Essingen was Johann Georg Nicolay, who became John George Nicolay in Illinois. He was born Feb. 26, 1832, and immigrated with his father in 1837 or 1838. He attended school at Cincinatti, then went to Pike County, Illinois. After editing a newspaper in Pittsfield he became assistant to the secretary of state of Illinois. In 1861 President Abraham Lincoln appointed him as his private secretary. He served throughout the Civil War, then took a post as ambassador to France. From 1872 to 1877 he was marshal of the Supreme Court. He published The Outbreak of Rebellion in 1881. From 1886 to 1900 he co-authored a series of biographical pieces on Lincoln; these were later published as ten volumes. He died Sept. 26, 1901. 207 Those who could read generally kept no more than Bibles, hymnals, almanacs, bookkeeping sheets, and journals for farm notes and home remedies.

206

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

On Aug. 10, 1796 Johannes Ehrismann married Veronika Egli. She was born on the Gutes Obermönsheim at Wimsheim, Württemberg (50 miles southeast of the Mechtersheimerhof) in October 1776, and died there March 2, 1829, a daughter of Martin Egli and Elisabetha. Wimsheim is in the Heckengäu, a region characterized by small farms tucked between rolling hills, with orchards and hedges as natural boundaries. In medieval times the village was protected by the barons PhullRüppurr, who lived in their castle Schloss Obermönsheim, adjacent to the Lärchenhof farm. The castle was constructed before 1340 A.D., and expanded in 1650. The property surrounding the castle was called the Gutes [estate] Obermönsheim. Although some of the grounds are still farmed, a portion has returned to forest, and another portion has become the home of the Stuttgarter Golf Club. The castle burned after artillery bombardment in 1918, but still appears on the city flag of Mönsheim. After the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, Württemberg became a kingdom with Stuttgart as its capital. Stuttgart is about 20 miles southeast of Wimsheim. Although close to the capital, Wimsheim was also within walking distance of Württemberg's border with Baden (the nearby city of Pforzheim, seven miles to the west, was actually in Baden). In 1809 the village became part of the administrative district of Leonburg, Württemberg. 208 The kingdom joined the Germanic Confederation in 1815. Before a civil system of recordkeeping was established in Württemberg, village churches often recorded the life events of Wiedertäufer or Mennoniten on behalf of local administrators. Ehrismann births, deaths, and marriage entries are found in the Familienbuch Register kept at the Evangelische Kirche at Wimsheim. The register also indicates that oldest daughter Barbara and oldest son Christian were not baptized until 15 years of age. In the column 'Confirmation oder Einste Communion, ' Barbara 'wurde getauft Marz 1812' while Christian 'wurde getauft im Jahr 1814.' 209 Presumably this demonstrated that legal obligations were met and the family was indeed Mennonit (as noted elsewhere on the page), and no notations were entered for later children. The children of Johannes Ehrismann and Veronika Egli born at Wimsheim include:

1. Barbara Ehrismann was born Aug. 27, 1797, and died in Tazewell County Aug. 31, 1861. On July 20, 1820 she married Benjamin Rediger. He died Feb. 3, 1848 according to the Wimsheim Familien Register, a son of Jakob Rediger and Jakobine Güngerich of the Scheibenhardt estate at Karlsruhe (26 miles northwest of Wimsheim). The Familien Register notes that the family went to America in 1849. See REDIGER for the passenger list and a list of their children. Christian Ehrismann (later Ehresman) was born March 16, 1799, according to the Wimsheim Familien Register. However, when he died Aug. 11, 1874, his obituary said he was "aged 74 years, 4 months and 25 days." His headstone in Slabtown Cemetery also says, "Christian Ehresman died Aug. 11, 1874 aged 74 Y. 4 M. & 25 D." This erroneous calculation would yield a birth date of March 16, 1800.210 Elizabeth Ehrismann was born June 6, 1802, and died Dec. 21, 1804. Magdalena Ehrismann was born Feb. 22, 1804, and died at Wimsheim Dec. 22, 1837. Jakob Ehrismann was born May 20, 1806, and died on the Johannistalerhof estate at Königsbach May 23, 1853. He married Katharina Eyer in Baden. Their son Rudolph Ehrisman and his wife Veronika/Veronica Rediger brought their family to Linn, Woodford County in 1869 (more on this later). Johannes/John Ehrismann was born May 5, 1808. Heinrich Ehrismann was born April 19, 1810, and died at Wimsheim March 4, 1816. The death entry identifies his father as a Wiedertäufer leaseholder at Obermönsheim. Peter Ehrismann was born Feb. 14, 1812. On Feb. 25, 1840 at Wimsheim he married Magdalena Müller. She was born in 1809, a daughter of Peter Müller and Barbara Krehbiel. Peter became leaseholder on the Gutes Obermönsheim. Elizabetha Ehrismann was born Oct. 10, 1814, and died at Wimsheim Jan. 20, 1835. Daniel Ehrismann (later Ehresman) was born June 29, 1818, and died in Illinois before 1870. On July 26, 1840 he married Catherine Wolber on the Johannistalerhof estate at Königsbach. She was born there Jan. 13, 1820, a daughter of Christian Wolber and Katharina Eyer. 211 The details of the marriage were also recorded at Wimsheim.

2.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

208 In present day Wimsheim lies in the district of Enz, in the region of Heckengäu, in the German state of BadenWürttemberg. It is on the southwest side of Mönsheim, and is easy to confuse with Wiernsheim, a village only 4 miles to the north that touches Mönsheim's north side. 209 'Getauft' can also mean 'christened,' since baptism and christening were one event performed upon a newborn in the Catholic and Evangelische churches. But in this event it clearly refers to an adult baptism. 210 Headstone calculations were usually not literal but figurative; they assumed each month to be 30 days. 211 Conjecture from incomplete evidence: Josef Wolber (#1) worked as a miller at Eusserthal. With Christian Rinkenberg he was a witness to a document created at Essingen in March 1760, where the deceased Ulrich Nafziger's European children relinquished claim to his estate in Pennsylvania.

146

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Daniel brought his family to America from Königsbach circa 1852-58. His household is shown on the 1860 census of Montgomery, on the census page before his older brother Christian: farmer Daniel Ayrsman, 42, Baden; Catherine [Wolber], 40, Baden; Elizabeth, 18, Baden; Christian, 15, Baden; Susan, 12, Baden; Magdalene, 12, Baden; Veronica, 10, Baden; Jacob H. [Jacobina], 8, Baden; and Barbara, 1, Illinois. We suspect that father Daniel died before 1870, when the same family appears on the census of Deer Creek: farmer Christian Ehrisman [the oldest son], 25, Baden; Fany, 20, Baden; Phoeby, 18, Baden; Barbaray, 12, Illinois; Daniel, 7, Illinois; and Catherine Ehrisman [the mother Catherine Wolber], 50, Baden, 'insane.'212 Ten years later sons Christian and Daniel appear on the census of Danvers: Christian Ehrisman, 35, born in Baden to parents from Württemberg and Baden; Catharine, 31, born in Illinois to parents from France and Bavaria; John H., 8, Illinois; Albert J., 5, Illinois; Mary E., 3, Illinois, and William D., 7 months, Illinois; and Daniel, brother, 17, works on farm, born in Illinois to parents from Württemberg and Baden. The children of Daniel Ehresman and Catherine Wolber used the spelling 'Ehrisman' in adulthood. They include: a. Elisabeth/Elizabeth Ehrisman was born on the Johannistalerhof estate Jan. 21, 1842, and died in McLean County June 13, 1903. On Nov. 9, 1862 she married Jonathan J. Lantz. 213 He was born in Wayne County, Ohio Aug. 5, 1839, and died Dec. 23, 1918, a son of Jonathan Lantz and Anna Yoder. Jonathan became a farmer and lawyer at Smithfield, Nebraska. They are buried in North Danvers Mennonite Cemetery. b. Katharina Ehrismann was born on the Johannistalerhof estate Nov. 21, 1843. c. Christian Ehrismann (later known as Christian D. Ehrisman) was born on the Johannistalerhof estate Dec. 19, 1844, and died at Manson, Iowa Aug. 21, 1920. In 1870 in Woodford County he married Catherine Yotty. She was born in Woodford County in February 1850, and died in Iowa in 1912, a daughter of Christian Yotty and Katharina/Catherine Stalter. They are found on censuses at Danvers in 1880 (see above), and Concord, Nebraska in 1910. Christian is found on the Manson census in 1920. They are buried in Rose Hill Cemetery at Manson. d. Jakobina Ehrismann (#1) was born on the Johannistalerhof estate May 9, 1846, and died there March 6, 1848. e. Susanna/Susan Ehrisman (twin) was born on the Johannistalerhof estate Feb. 3, 1848. She is found living with her twin sister Magdalena on the 1880 census of Dry Grove. f. Magdalena Ehrisman (twin) was born on the Johannistalerhof estate Feb. 3, 1848, and died in McLean County April 13, 1916. On Nov. 29, 1869 in Woodford County she married Joseph E. Gerber. He was born Sept. 28, 1844, and died in McLean County Aug. 14, 1897, a son of Joseph Gerber and Magdalena Sommer. They are found on the 1880 census of Dry Grove as farmer Joseph Gerber, 35, born in Illinois to parents from France and Switzerland; Magdalene, 32, born in Prussia to parents from Prussia; four children born in Illinois; Susan Ayersman [Ehresman], 33, housekeeper born in Prussia to parents from Prussia [Magdalena's sister]; and farmhand Fred Burkey, 21, born in Illinois to parents from Illinois. They are buried in North Danvers Mennonite Cemetery. g. Veronika/Veronica 'Fanny' Ehrisman was born on the Johannistalerhof estate July 28, 1849, and died in McLean March 9, 1872. She is buried in Imhof Cemetery at Danvers. h. Jakobina/Jacobine (#2) 'Phoebe' Ehrisman was born on the Johannistalerhof estate July 13, 1851, and died in McLean County April 9, 1875. She is buried in Imhof Cemetery at Danvers. i. Barbara Ehrisman was born in Illinois circa 1858-59.

His son Christian Wolber (#1) lived on the Rodenhof at Rodenbach after the departure of Ulrich Nafziger and der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann. Nafziger left in 1728, while Ehrismann passed the lease over to his oldest son and moved to the Lauberthalerhof before 1743 (the son moved to Mechtersheim between 1753 and 1759). When Christian died on the Rodenhof at Rodenbach in June 1762, he left his five children in the guardianship of elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger. One of Christian's five children, Josef Wolber (#2), married Katharina Oesch. They had a son Christian Wolber (#2) born at Eusserthal Oct. 21, 1790. He married Katharina Eyer. They had a daughter Catherine Wolber born on the Johannistalerhof at Königsbach Jan. 13, 1820. On July 26, 1840 she married Daniel Ehresman, the younger brother of Christian Ehresman (1799-1874); all three later lived in Woodford County. A Wolber whose family connections have not yet been determined: Jacob Wolber was born at Königsbach Feb. 13, 1849, and died Oct. 17, 1931. He immigrated in 1868. On Oct. 28, 1875 in McLean County he married Magdalena Zehr. She was born Nov. 26, 1855, and died April 4, 1890, a daughter of bishop Jacob Zehr and Elizabeth Ehresman. They appear on the 1880 census of Deer Creek as farmer Jacob Wolber, 31, born in Baden to parents from Baden; Magdalen, 24, born in Illinois to parents from Bavaria; Elizabeth, 3, Illinois; Susan, 1, Illinois; and Christian Zehr [Magdalena's brother], 20, born in Illinois to parents from Bavaria. On Jan. 1, 1891 Jacob remarried to Magdalena's younger sister Phoebe. She was born June 9, 1864, and died at Deer Creek Oct. 21, 1939. Each of the sisters had four children. 212 We speculate that Catherine Wolber was the same person as Catharine Ehrisman, a patient admitted from Tazewell County, who died at the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane at Jacksonville July 25, 1870. She was likely buried without a headstone on former hospital grounds that now hold the Prairieland Heritage Museum. 213 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Jonathan J. Yoder and Elizabeth Erisman.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

j.

Daniel Ehrisman was born in Illinois June 18, 1862, and died in McLean County March 10, 1942. On March 28, 1899 at Danvers he married Magdalena Augspurger. The ceremony was conducted by bishop Joseph Stuckey. She was born Oct. 3, 1864, and died Oct. 15, 1948, a daughter of Christian Augspurger and Anna Mosiman. They are found on the 1930 census of Normal, McLean County as Daniel Ehrisman, 67, born in Illinois to parents from Germany; and Magdalena, 65, born in Illinois to a father born in the United States and a mother born in Ohio. They are buried in Imhof Cemetery at Danvers.

Christian Ehresman probably left Wimsheim as a young, single farm laborer. The Ehrismann and Egli families on the Obermönsheimerhof and Lärchenhof already accounted for 25 children in his generation; the acreage would not have sustained another. Young males generally found employment in their immediate community, or a community where their family may have lived earlier. They sought brides in well-to-do families, so that they could start married life with a dowry (often given in the form of land) and raise their family sharing the maternal family's assets. They also found matches in the families of new arrivals to their community (they had a general sense of the problems of intermarriage), or looked for brides at distant locations where the congregations had ties to their own. Christian married three times, each time to a sister from the same family. They were daughters of Johannes/John Barnett and Katharina Güngerich. The Barnetts came from the Rhein-Neckar 'Kreis' or county of the District of Karlsruhe, Baden via Butler County, Ohio.214 First wife Magdalena Barnett had five children in Germany, and died there in 1834.

1. 2. Jacob 'Jake' Ehresman (#1) was born July 30, 1825, and died at Drummer, Ford County March 12, 1899; he is buried in Drummer Township Cemetery as 'Jacob Ayresman.' Johann/John Ehresman was born May 26, 1828, and died at Gridley Dec. 13, 1891. On Nov. 16, 1858 he married Catherine 'Katie' Sommer. She was born at Montgomery in 1838, and died Jan. 26, 1913, a daughter of Peter Sommer and Catherine Schertz. The Sommers were neighbors to the Ehresmans at Montgomery. They are found on the 1870 census of Waldo as farmer John Ehrsman, Baden; Catherine, 31, Illinois; Peter, 10, Illinois; Barbara, 8, Illinois; and Joseph, 4, Illinois. They are listed on the same page as John's cousins Joseph and John Rediger. Their household can be found on the 1880 census of Waldo as farmer John Ehreesman, 52, born in Baden to a father from Württemberg and a mother from Baden; Katherine, 43, born in Illinois to parents from Alsace; and five children born in Illinois. In 1875 John and Katie donated land that was used for a meeting house. On July 23, 1898, Katie and her children provided the land that was used for the Salem Defenseless Christian Church (later the Salem Evangelical Mennonite Church) at Gridley. Elisabeth 'Lizzie' Ehresman was born Sept. 11, 1830, and died at Deer Creek Nov. 27, 1902. On April 21, 1850 she married Jakob/Jacob Zehr, who became minister and bishop of the Mackinaw Meeting. He was born at Mannried, Bavaria Sept. 17, 1825, and died at Deer Creek Feb. 22, 1898, a son of Daniel Zehr and Magdalena Unzicker. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. (See ZEHR). Christian Ehresman (#2) was born Oct. 18, 1832, and died Feb. 14, 1893.215 On Aug. 30, 1857 in Tazewell County he married Magdalena Wagler.216 She was born in Alsace Jan. 13, 1831, and died at Pike, Livingston County Dec. 7, 1870, a daughter of Jacob Wagler and Magdalena Röschli (found as Reschly and Roeschley). For her obituary see WAGLER. The 1880 census of Pike shows farm laborer Christian Ehresman, 47, in the household of August Bauman; he was born in Württemberg to parents from Württemberg. In about 1888 Christian (#2) remarried to Mary Oyer. She was born at Farmdale Feb. 27, 1859 (and thus was younger by 27 years), and died Feb. 22, 1890, a daughter of John Oyer and Anna Farney. This may be the marriage entry recorded in Livingston County Aug. 4,

3.

4.

Very little is known about this couple. Johannes/John came to Butler County, Ohio, then ministered briefly to the Mackinaw meeting before his death in 1846. His daughters Magdalena, Anna, and Veronica Bernett married Christian Ehresman. Phoebe Barnett married Christian König/King (they settled in Dry Grove), and Elizabeth Barnett married his brother Michael König/King (they settled in Dry Grove and Montgomery). See KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG. The surname Barnett may have been derived from the Bernese 'Bernert'; it is also found as 'Barnhardt.' 215 He is easy to confuse with another Christian Ehresman, a 'German school' teacher who had only one arm. His classroom was located on the farm of Peter Yordy, east of Roanoke. A 'German school' taught the language and traditions, but also taught English to young immigrants. Children typically attended for a few hours a day, supplementing public school. He was a member of the Hessian Amish congregation (later called the South Danvers Mennonite Church). Gospel Witness, December 1905: "Bro. Christian Erisman was born April 27, 1835. Died on Tuesday evening, Dec. 5, 1905, at the Mennonite Old People's Home, Rittman, Ohio, aged 70 y., 7 m., 8 d. By profession Bro. Erisman had been a German school teacher, having formerly come from the old country. For some time he lived in Illinois and taught school. He made his temporary abode at the Home as early as Dec., 1902, but in June, 1904, he came here to stay the remainder of his life. He expressed a readiness and a desire to depart from this life. Funeral was held at the Home on Friday, Dec. 8, the brethren, D. C. Amstutz and C. Z. Yoder officiating. Text, Psalms 17:15. Burial in Crown Hill Cemetery." 216 The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Christian Ayrsmann and Madeline Wagner.

214

148

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5.

1888 for 'Christian Ehrsman' and 'Marg Oyer.' Her headstone in West Fairview Mennonite Cemetery at Beaver Crossing, Nebraska says, "Mary Ehresman, wife of Christian Ehresman, died Feb. 22, 1890 aged 31 years," while the Herald of Truth, March 1890 issue published this obituary: "On the 24th of February, near Milford, Seward county, Nebraska, of consumption, wife of Christian Erisman, aged 31 years, 3 months and 9 days. She was a member of the Egli church. She was buried in John Stehley's grave yard. Services by Chris. Yeckley and Joseph Rediger. Text 2 Tim. 1:7-10." Jacobine 'Phoebe' Ehresman was born March 19, 1834, and died May 2, 1902 (headstone date). At Little Mackinaw in 1858 she married Christian Guth/Good. He was born at Burgwalden, Bavaria Feb. 4, 1833, and died Sept. 26, 1889 (headstone date), a son of Christian Guth and Barbara Christner. Their household appears on the 1880 census of Little Mackinaw as farmer Christian Gutt, 47, Bavaria; Phoebe, 46, born in Württemberg to parents from Württemberg; and seven children born in Illinois. They are buried in Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Herald of Truth, May 1903: "On May 4, 1903, at her home near Milner [Minier], Ill., of diabetes, Jacobina Good, nee Erisman, aged 69 Y., 1M., 15D. The last few weeks of her life she suffered greatly. She leaves seven children and 38 grandchildren to mourn her loss, but not as those who have no hope. She was loved by all who knew her and was a true pattern of Christianity. Her life companion preceded her to the spirit world fourteen years ago. Funeral services on the 6th at the A.M. meeting house, where a large concourse of friends assembled to pay a last tribute of respect. Services by Bish J.C. Berky, Pre. Dan Zehr in German, and Pre. Samuel Gerber in English."

Magdalena died shortly after giving birth to Jacobina. Her sister Anna Barnett may have married Christian within a few months. One of their first decisions of married life must have involved the question of emigration. The mid-1800s saw a rush of emigrants departing Germany to go to North America. This was part of an overall trend, as the entire lower-middle class of farmers were being squeezed out of the economy and social structure. Overpopulation was reaching a level where it was difficult for sons to find the generous lease terms on out-ofthe-way estates that their parents and grandparents had found. It was also much less likely that they would find forest that could be cleared, swamps that could be irrigated, or spent land that could be reclaimed over a few years by fertilization. However, they could use their savings to emigrate, then purchase uncultivated land in America for as little as $1.25 (the standard price for public land in Central Illinois in the 1830s). Land on the American prairies kept this price as late as the late 1850s, when the self-cleaning plow invented by John Deere made it practical to till through the sun-hardened crust. Industrialization accelerated the waves of emigration. Once young men and women realized that others were leaving their family farms to go to the cities, it was easier to take the alternative step and emigrate. They often journeyed with extended families and formed new American congregations with others from their region. The ship Troy sailed from Le Havre and arrived at New York City Nov. 10, 1836. The Ehresmans are found on the passenger list in a group of travelers from Baden: Christian Ehresman, 36; Anna, 22; Jacob, 10; Johann, 7; Elisabeth, 4; Christina [Christian], 3; Jacobina, 2; and Daniel, 1. According to the Troy passenger list, Daniel died at sea Oct. 26, 1836. The Troy passenger list also included Johann Bernett, 67, Christian's father-in-law; and Veronia [Veronica Barnett], 12, who would later become Christian's third wife. A portion of the list is given in KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG. The Ehresman family settled in Ohio. It is thought that they lived in Butler County, but this has not been documented. No entry has been identified on the 1840 census, which lists only heads of households; perhaps the family did not own land, or the surname was misspelled. Anna died in Ohio before March 1843. Her four remaining four children were all born there. Her children include:

6. 7. Daniel Ehresman was born in Germany in 1836. According to the Troy passenger list he died at sea Oct. 26, 1836. Peter Ehresman was born in Ohio circa 1837, and died at El Paso, Woodford County Dec. 2, 1893.217 On May 31, 1863 at Slabtown he married Barbara Sommer. She was born at Slabtown March 2 or 4, 1844, and died at Gridley Jan. 29, 1914, a daughter of Peter Sommer and Catherine Schertz. The Illinois Public Domain Land Sales Database shows Peter Ehresman as the purchaser of 39.64 acres at Gridley May 31, 1869, at $14 per acre. They are found on the 1880 census of Gridley as farmer Peter Ehresman, 42, born in Ohio to parents from Württemberg; Barbara, 33, born in Illinois to parents from France; and nine children born in Illinois. They had 12 children. The family worshipped at the Salem Defenseless Mennonite Church, where Peter became a deacon in 1883. While transporting lumber for a new barn, a train startled his horse team, and Peter was thrown from his buggy. Complications from the

According to Zurlinden and othe sources, Peter Ehresman was born in Ohio March 5, 1836. However, this conflicts with the Troy passenger list, which was not known to her. It is probable that he was born the following spring.

217

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

8.

9.

10

injuries caused him to develop pneumonia, and he died in the Clifton House at El Paso. He was buried in Waldo Cemetery at Gridley. Fanny Ehresman was born in Ohio in 1838, and died in 1862 or 1863. On Feb. 7, 1860 in Woodford County she married Johannes König, also known as John R. King. He was born in Baden Sept. 16, 1825, and died April 25, 1895, a son of Johannes König and Jacobea Rediger (see the suppplemental genealogy, KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG). Maria/Mary Ehresman was born in Ohio Nov. 30, 1839, and died at Washington May 8, 1894. On March 5, 1861 in Woodford County she married John Guth. He was born at Washington May 10, 1840, and died there Oct. 8, 1896, a son of Peter Guth and Susanna/Susan Oyer. They appear on the 1880 census of Washington as John Guth, 40, born in Illinois to a father from Bavaria and a mother from France; Mary, 40, born in Ohio to a father from Bavaria and a mother from France; and nine children born in Illinois. Gospel Herald, June 1894: "On the 8th of May 1874 near Washington, Tazewell Co., Ill., sister Maria Ehresman, wife of John Good. Buried on the 10th in the Washington cemetery. Sister Maria was married on the 5th of March 1861. The union was blessed with 10 children. There are also 14 grandchildren. She was a beloved mother and wife and a faithful follower of Christ in our denomination. Funeral services by the writer and Pre. Koenig of the Deer Creek Cong. and Emanuel Hartman from Isa. 18 and 38:12, 13. A large concourse of friends followed her remains to the grave. Michael Kinsinger." John Guth remarried Oct. 15, 1895 to Catherine Schlegel, widow of John Gascho (see SCHLEGEL), but John is buried in Glendale Cemtery with Maria/Mary. Anna 'Nancy' Ehresman was born in Ohio Feb. 22, 1841, and died at Hopedale April 11, 1909. On March 8, 1864 in Tazewell County she married Peter Litwiller.218 He was born at Milford, Butler County Sept. 9, 1839, and died at Hopedale June 28, 1900, a son of Joseph Litwiller and Barbe/Barbara Ulrich. They are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Gospel Herald, May 1909: "Died near Hopedale, Ill., on April 11, 1909, Sister Anna Litwiller, maiden name Erisman, after an illness of about two months from dropsy; aged 68 y. She leaves to mourn her departure one son, two daughters and 12 grandchildren. Sister Litwiller was an exemplary Christian. She had many trials and sorrows in her life but remained patient and faithful to the end. We feel assured that all is well with her. Funeral April 14, conducted by Andrew Schrock and Sam Garber."

Third sister Veronica 'Fannie' Barnett was born in Baden July 20, 1824, and died at Goodfield, Woodford County Nov. 24, 1895. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index indicates that 'Christian Aresman' and 'Franey Barnett' were married in McLean County March 18, 1844. Zurlinden wrote, "The story is commonly told that when he [Christian] married his first wife, he was carrying his third wife in his arms." According to Steve Estes in A Goodly Heritage: A History of the North Danvers Mennonite Church, the Ehresman family resettled in Illinois in 1844. They purchased a farm on the Woodford County side of the Deer Creek-Montgomery line. The household appears on the 1850 census of District 56 (or Woodford County) as farmer Christian Aysman, 50, Germany; Fany, 26, Germany; John, 22, Germany; Christian, 15, Germany; Phebe, 16, Germany; Peter, 13, Germany; Fany, 12, Ohio; Mary, 11, Illinois; Nancy, 8, Illinois; Madalene, 5, Illinois; Barbary, 4, Illinois; and Catharina, 2, Illinois. According to the obituary of son Joseph, his childhood recollections included seeing lawyer Abraham Lincoln stopping at their home to water his horse. Lincoln was traveling between the 8th Circuit courts on his way from Bloomington to Metamora. They can be found on the 1860 census of Montgomery, Woodford County living next door to Christian Oyer: Christian Ayresman, 60, farmer, Stuttgart; Frana, 35, Baden; Peter, 23, farm laborer, Ohio; Mary, 20, Ohio; Nancy, 17, Illinois (all remaining children born in Illinois); Magdalene, 16; Barbara, 13; Catherine, 11; Susan, 7; Joseph, 9; Lydia, 3; and Samuel, 4 months. The Ehresman family also appears on a federal list of excise tax collected in Division 6, District 8 in 1865. On Feb. 16 Christian Ehresman of Farnisville (Farnisville was at the center of Montgomery Township) paid 5% tax on $303.50 amounting to $15.15. The family is not found on the 1870 census of Montgomery. We can speculate that this was inadvertent; they lived only yards from the county line. The 1873 plat map of Montgomery shows the 200-acre property of 'C. Ehrismann.' Christian died at Montgomery Aug. 11, 1874. Gospel Herald, September 1874: "Aug. 11th, in Woodford Co., Ill., of dropsy of the heart, Christian Erisman, aged 74 years, 4 months and 25 days. He leaves a bereaved wife and 15 children, who were all present before his death. Remarks suitable to the occasion were made by Joseph Stuckey, from 1 Peter 1:24. - Peace to his ashes." He is buried in Slabtown Cemetery. Widow Veronica's household appears on the 1880 census of Montgomery as Fannie Ehresman, 53, born in July in Germany to German parents; Katie, 29, born in April in Illinois to parents from Germany; Samuel, 20, born in December in Illinois to parents from Germany; and Jacob, 18, born in Illinois in August to parents from Germany.

218

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Peter Letweiler and Anna Ehreaman.

150

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Veronica died at Goodfield Nov. 24, 1895, and was buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. Her headstone says she was the wife of 'C. Ehresmann.' Herald of Truth, December 1895: "Veronica Ehresman was born on the 20th of July, 1824, in Baden, Germany. She came with her father to America in 1837 [1836], and was married to Christian Ehresman in 1843. This union was blessed with 9 children. Eight children and 24 grandchildren survive. Sister Ehresman died of heart disease on the 24th of November, 1895, at her home near Goodfield, Woodford Co., Ill. Although suffering of heart disease for some time her sudden death was unexpected by the family. Her remains were laid to rest on the 27th in Mt. Zion graveyard. Funeral services by Michael Kinsinger from 2 Cor. 5, Peter Shantz and others from 2 Kings 20:1 and 1 Cor. 15. Sister Ehresman was a faithful member in the Amish Mennonite church. Michael Kinsinger." Veronica's children were all born in Illinois.

11. Benjamin Ehresman was born circa 1844, and lived only nine months. This would strongly suggest that Veronica was pregnant at the time of her marriage to Christian in McLean County. It may explain why her obituary moves the marriage date from 1844 back to 1843, and might further suggest motivation for the move from Ohio. Magdalena Ehresman was born circa 1845, and died Feb. 25, 1925 (the Illinois Statewide Death Index says Lena Ehresman died in McLean County Aug. 7, 1924). On Feb. 20, 1866 at Danvers she married Christian Strubhar.219 Bishop Joseph Stuckey conducted the ceremony. Christian was born at Danvers June 13, 1844, and died April 19, 1919, a son of Rock Creek Meeting deacon John Strubhar and Anna Schertz. They are found on the 1880 census of Danvers as farmer Christian Strubhar, 36, born in Illinois to parents from France; Magdalena, 35, born in Illinois to parents from Württemberg; Lydia, 13, born in Illinois; and Samuel, 12, born in Illinois. Barbara Ehresman was born in 1846, and died in McLean County Nov. 2, 1939. On Oct. 12, 1875 at Danvers she became the second wife of Christian Imhof Jr. Bishop Joseph Stuckey conducted the ceremony. Christian was born in Butler County, Ohio Oct. 31, 1838, and died at Danvers May 31, 1881, a son of Christian Imhof and Barbe/Barbara Schertz (see STAKER). Imhof had married his first wife Mary Strubhar on March 26, 1861. She was born Oct. 11, 1842, and died Feb. 17, 1875, a daughter of John Strubhar. They were members of the Rock Creek Amish Church. In 1865 Christian and Mary adopted the orphan Peter Schantz (1853-1924), who became a bishop and leader in the Central Mennonite Conference (see his footnote in KINSINGER). In 1868 bishop Joseph Stuckey ordained Imhof as a deacon. After 1872 he also served as treasurer of North Danvers Mennonite Church. Barbara, Christian, and Mary are buried in Imhof Cemetery at Danvers. Herald of Truth, July 1881: "May 31st, in McLean Co., Ill., of lung fever, Pre. Chr. Imhof, aged 42 years and 7 months. He bore his affliction with Christian resignation. He leaves a wife and eight children to mourn his death. Fourteen years he served the church in the ministry earnestly and faithfully. Buried the 2nd of June in the presence of a large number, who met to pay the last tribute of respect to one whom they loved. Funeral sermon by C. Rupp from 1 Cor. 15. Further remarks by Pre. Longly in English, and by J. Zehr and M. Kinsinger." Catherine 'Katie' Ehresman was born April 30, 1848, died at Olio Oct. 30, 1928, and is buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek. She is found living with her younger brother Samuel on the 1900 census of Montgomery and the 1910 census of Mackinaw. She spent the last five years of her life in the Eureka Home for the Aged. Joseph Ehresman was born in April 9, 1851, died at Gibson City Feb. 18, 1943, and is buried in Gibson City Cemetery. On Sept. 7, 1876 in McLean County he married Anna Salzman. She was born in Butler County, Ohio in 1847, and died in McLean County Jan. 19, 1938, a daughter of Christian Salzman and Marie Imhof. Their household appears on the 1880 census of Montgomery, next to that of his mother Veronica, as farmer Joseph Ehresman, 28, born in Illinois in April to German parents; Anne, 29, born in Ohio in June to German parents; and Charles O., 2, born in Illinois. They appear on the 1900 census of Anchor, McLean County as farmer Joseph Ehresman, 49, born in Illinois in April 1847 [1852] to German parents; Annie, 52, born in Ohio in June 1847 to a father from France and a mother from Germany; and a son Walter L. born in Illinois in July 1880. Married son Charles lived next door. Gibson City Courier, 1943: "Ehresman, Joseph - 91, died at 5:30 a.m. Monday, 2-18-1943 at Mrs. Belle Williams' nursing home in Gibson City where he had been ill for several months. Funeral services will be held at 2 p.m. Wednesday at the Lamb Funeral Home in Gibson City with the Rev. A.H. Flagge officiating. Burial will be in the Gibson City Cemetery. He was born 4-9-1851 near Goodfield, Ill., and he married Miss Anna Saltzman in 1876, who preceded him in death in 1938. He had lived around Gibson City for the last 35 years. He was a retired farmer. He sold his home 10 years ago and made his home with his sons in Gibson City. Surviving are two sons; Walter and Charles of Gibson City; two brothers, Jacob of Piper City and Sam of Washington; seven grandchildren and seven great grandchildren." Susan or Susanna (the spelling found on her headstone) Ehresman was born May 9, 1855, and died in Tazewell County March 26, 1937. On Jan. 14, 1875 at Danvers she married Joseph B. Garber, in a ceremony conducted by bishop Joseph Stuckey. He was born Nov. 17, 1847, and died Nov. 25, 1910. Their household appears on the 1880 census of Washington as farmer Joseph B. Garber, 32, born in Illinois to parents from France; Susan, 25, born in Illinois to parents from Bavaria; and three children born in Illinois. They are buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery at Deer Creek.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

219

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists her as Lena Erisman.

151

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

17.

18.

19.

Lydia Ehresman was born in 1857, and died at Washington Feb. 14, 1925. On March 21, 1878 in Woodford County she married William Mason Small. He was born at Deer Creek Oct. 22, 1854 (headstone date), and died at Washington Oct. 19, 1934, a son of John Small and Nancy Ramsey. On the 1870 census of Deer Creek he can be found as a 16-year-old in the household of John Small, 51, farmer from Kentucky, and Nancy, 43, from Ohio. Their household can be found on the 1900 census of Deer Creek as William Small, 46, born in November 1853; Lydia, 42, born in March 1856; and four children born in Illinois. They are buried in Glendale Cemetery. Samuel Ehresman was born in December 1859, and died at Limestone, Peoria Sept. 25, 1943. In adulthood he dropped 4-6 years from his age on census reports. The 1900 census of Montgomery shows farmer Samuel Ehresman, born in Illinois in December 1864 to German parents; and sister Catherine, born in Illinois in April 1848 to German parents. His household is found on the 1910 census of Mackinaw as farmer Samuel Ehresman, 45, born in Illinois to German parents; and sister Kate, 62, born in Illinois to German parents. According to Zurlinden, Samuel "married late in life and subsequently divorced." The 1920 census of Medina, Peoria shows Samuel Ehresman, 56, born in Illinois to German parents; Martha, 43, born in New York to English parents; and Lorene E., 9, born in Illinois. They are also found on the 1930 census of Peoria. After his divorce Samuel lived at Washington. Jacob Ehresman (#2) was born Oct. 12, 1862 (though the 1880 census of Montgomery gives his birth month as August), and died at Piper City, Ford County Dec. 14, 1947. On Dec. 20, 1885 at Danvers he married Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Strubhar. She was born at Danvers May 6, 1866, and died at Piper City Dec. 21, 1946, a daughter of Valentine Strubhar and Barbara Guingrich. Their household is found on the 1900 census of Brenton, Ford County as farmer Jacob Ehresman, born in Illinois in October of 1862 to parents from Germany and Switzerland; Elizabeth A., born in Illinois in May 1867 to parents from France; and six children born in Illinois. Jacob appears in the 1917 Ford County Business Directory as a commissioner of highways.

Oldest son Jacob 'Jake' Ehresman (#1) was born July 30, 1825, and died at Drummer March 12, 1899. He is buried in Drummer Township Cemetery as 'Jacob Ayresman.' Jacob is found as a 10-year-old on the 1836 passenger list. Yet his later life has been a minor mystery. There was no Ehresman family memory of his birth date, death date, or spouse when Viola Zurlinden collected information in 1968. She gave him a 'question mark' on first reference. On second reference she attributed two children, Steve and Will. We can speculate that a family dispute led to his estrangement. Perhaps he grew weary of helping to support his father's large brood. Perhaps he was too progressive for the restrictions of an Amish Mennonite environment; this is suggested by the names he gave his children. And it must have been awkward to see his former playmate become his stepmother. She was only one year older. Jacob consistently appeared on federal censuses as 'Jacob Ayersman' (some of his children later modified this spelling to 'Ayresman'). He married Juliana/Julia Ann Mack at Danvers Sept. 19, 1853. She was born in Indiana March 22, 1836, and died at the age of 91 at Gibson City, Ford County April 16, 1927. They appear on the 1860 census of Mackinaw as farmer Jacob Ayersman, 34, Germany; Julia, 23, Indiana; Wm., 6, born in Illinois; Emma, 4, born in Illinois; and Stephen, 1, born in Illinois. They are shown on the 1870 census of Danvers on the same page as the Schoenbecks and Jacob Naffziger, brother of 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger: teamster Jacob Ayersman, 45, Baden; Julia A., 34, Indiana; Wm. H., 15, Illinois; Emma E., 14, Illinois; Stephen A. D., 12, Illinois; Albert P., 10, Illinois; Alanson C., 8, Illinois; Thomas R., 6, Illinois; Jacob L., 4, Illinois; and Julia's brother Asa H. Mack, 45, born in Indiana. In 1880 they were living at Holland, Shelby County: farmer Jacob Ayersman, 54, born in Baden to parents from Baden; Julia A., 44, born in Indiana to parents from Ohio; Albert P., 19; Alarison [Alason] C., 16; Thomas R., 14; and Franklin E., 7, all children born in Illinois. The children of Jacob Ehresman and Julia Ann Mack are found as 'Ayersmans' and 'Ayresmans.' Several worshipped with Methodist congregations. The misplaced branch of the Ehresman family includes:

1. William H. Ayersman was born circa 1854, and died at Gibson City Jan. 11, 1934. On March 4, 1880 he married Nancy J. Fawver. She was born in Ohio circa 1857, a daughter of Solomon Fawver and Sarah Smith. They appear on the 1910 census of Drummer as W. H. Ayresman, 56, born in Illinois to a father from Germany and a mother from Indiana; Nancy, 54, born in Ohio to a father from Virginia and a mother from Ohio; and three children born in Illinois. Emma E. Ayersman was born circa 1856. Stephen A. D. Ayresman. Although he was known as 'Steve,' the full name appears on his headstone. It is likely he was named after Illinois presidential aspirant Stephen A. Douglas. He was born in 1859, died at Drummer April 1, 1935, and is buried in Drummer Township Cemetery. The 1880 census of Drummer shows him as a 21-year-old farm laborer, born in Illinois to parents from Germany and Indiana. He lived in the household of Wesley Hammen. On Dec. 29, 1886 in McLean County he married Emma Fawver.220 She was born in Ohio in 1858, and died at The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as Stephen A. D. Ayresman.

2. 3.

220

152

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

4.

5.

6.

7.

Drummer Oct. 10, 1935, a daughter of Solomon Fawver and Sarah Smith. She is also buried in Drummer Township Cemetery as 'Emma F. Ayrsman.' On the 1910 census of Drummer they have two children at home; in 1930 they appear as Steve Ayresman, 70, born in Illinois to parents from Germany; and Emma, 71, born in Ohio to parents from Virginia. Albert P. Ayersman was born in April 1861, died at Coal City, Grundy County Sept. 9 or 13, 1937, and is buried in Drummer Township Cemetery as 'Albert Ayresman.' On Dec. 12, 1886 at Gibson City, Ford County he married Kathryn P. 'Katie' Simon.221 She was born in Ohio in July 1862, and died at Coal City Feb. 13, 1935. They appear on the 1900 census of Braceville, Coal County, Gundy County as railroad switchman A.P. Ayrsman, born in Illinois in April 1861 to German parents; his unnamed wife, born in Ohio in July 1862 to Irish parents; and five children born in Illinois. They are shown on the 1920 census of Coal City as Albert Ayersman, 58, born in Illinois to a father from Germany and a mother from Indiana; Katherine, 57, born in Ohio to a father from Indiana and a mother from Ireland; and four children born in Illinois. They also appear on the 1930 census of Braceville. Alason C. Ayrsman (the spelling on his headstone) was born in 1864, died in 1909, and is buried in Drummer Township Cemetery. On Dec. 29, 1886 in McLean County he married Rossaline 'Rossy' Garrett.222 She was born circa 1856 at Kiddville, Kentucky, and died at Gibson City Oct. 15, 1924, a daughter of Lewis L. Garrett and Nancy M. Elkin. Thomas R. Ayersman was born circa 1866. He may be the Thomas Ayesman who died at Evanston July 1, 1928. He appears on the 1920 census of Ogden, Champaign County as Thomas R. Ayresman, born in Illinois to German parents. Franklin 'Frank' E. Ayersman was born circa 1873. He appears on the 1900 census of Drummer as a 27-year-old barber living with his mother. On July 1, 1900 at Gibson City he married Maude M. Rhodes. She was born in Illinois, a daughter of Newton Rhodes and Maggie Castile.

Nephew Rudolph Ehrisman

Königsbach is a village above Pforzheim and 17 miles northwest of Wimsheim. Nearby Anabaptist meeting places included the Johannistalerhof, Remchingen, and the Katharinentaler Hof estate. The Global Anabaptist Encyclopedia Online: "After the Thirty Years' War, Swiss Mennonites settled in Königsbach. On Aug. 24, 1661 these Mennonites requested that the margrave of Baden confirm their former 'privileges.' A congregation was organized; a church book has been preserved, giving information dated 1766, besides entries on births, weddings, and funerals for the period 1815-1869. Of frequent occurrence are the names Ehrismann, Kempf, Täuscher, Wagner, and Wolber; there are references to families by the name of Egli, Eyer, Funk, Katz, and Oesterle." Fortunately, the village church maintained a special book for the marriage, birth, and death entries called Familien Register der Wiedertäufer auf dem Johannisthalerhof. It has been preserved by the Church of Latter Day Saints on FHL microfilm. The book indicates that Christian Ehresman's two younger brothers Jakob (married to Katharina Eyer) and Daniel (married to Catherine Wolber) farmed the Johannistalerhof estate. 223 The entries also answer a longstanding Woodford County genealogy question: how was Linn farmer Rudolph Ehrisman related to the Ehresmans? We now know that Rudolph was born Nov. 21, 1842, a son of Christian Ehresman's younger brother Jakob Ehrismann and Katharina Eyer. Rudolph's wife Veronika/Veronica Rediger was born on the Ottenweierhof estate at Ichenheim, Baden Jan. 10, 1842 (the date given on her marriage entry; her obituary says Feb. 7). She was a daughter of Jakob Rediger and Magdalena Schanz; Jakob was living on the Johannistalerhof at the time of her marriage. Rudolph and Veronika/Veronica were married at Königsbach by minister Christian Egly of Mönsheim Nov. 12, 1865. Two more entries found at Königsbach document the death of a son and the birth of a daughter. Emil Ehrismann (born at another community) died Sept. 23, 1867. Eliza (later found as Elise) was born on the Johannistalerhof estate Oct. 7, 1867; she married William Ropp in Tazewell County. 224

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as A. P. Ayrsman and Katie Sinen. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as Larson Ayresman. 223 The Johannistalerhof has kept its name, but is now a golf course. 224 Eliza (later found as Elise) Ehrisman married William Ropp in Tazewell County Feb. 13, 1890. He was born Dec. 30, 1866, and died at Tremont April 18, 1935, a son of Joseph W. Ropp and Catherine 'Kate' Ropp Gerber (see ROPP). Elise died at Tremont March 8, 1939. They are buried in Pleasant Grove Cemetery. Gospel Herald, March 1939: " Ropp. - Elise, daughter of Rudolph and Veronica Rediger Ehrisman, was born Oct. 7, 1867, in Baden, Germany; died at her home near Tremont, Ill., March 8, 1939; aged 71 y. 5 m. 1 d. On Feb. 13, 1890, she was united in marriage with William Ropp, who preceded her in death almost four years ago. One daughter (Mrs. Etta Roth, Morton, Ill.) and 1 son (William, Jr., Tremont), survive her, together with 3 grandchildren and 2 sisters (Mrs. Joseph Zimmerman, San Diego, Calif., and Mrs. Simon Litwiller, Minier, Ill.), and a host of relatives and friends. She accepted Christ in her youth uniting with the Mennonite Church of which she remained a faithful member until her end. She was always a kind mother, exercising a Christian spirit to all. Services were held from the home in

222 221

153

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

According to the Baden Emigration Index, Rudolph Ehrisman of Königsbach applied to emigrate in 1869 with his wife and daughter. They farmed at Linn, Woodford County, where Rudolph died Nov. 19, 1895. Veronika/Veronica died at Hopedale Dec. 4, 1922, and is buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Hopedale. Gospel Herald, December 1922: "Veronica (Rediger) Ehrisman was born in Baden, Germany, Feb. 7, 1842, and died Dec. 4, 1922, at the home of her daughter Mrs. Simon Litwiller near Hopedale, Ill., where she had made her home. She with her husband Rudolph Ehrisman, who preceded her in death Nov. 19, 1895, came to America 54 [26] years ago, locating in Woodford Co., Ill. To this union were born 9 children - 5 sons and 4 daughters. Five sons and 1 daughter preceded her in death. She leaves 3 daughters, 19 grandchildren, 5 great-grandchildren, 4 brothers, and 2 sisters. She united with the Amish Mennonite Church in her youth and remained in that faith. Funeral services were held Dec. 6 near Hopedale, Ill., conducted by Samuel Gerber assisted by home ministers. Text, Heb. 4:9." There is one more note of significance to the Ehresman connection with the Johannistalerhof estate at Königsbach. By the time the Ehresman brothers arrived there, the estate was populated by the grandchildren and great-grandchildren of Benedikt 'Benz' Eyer (see OYER). The sixth child of Benedikt was Hans Jakob Eyer, also known as 'Hans Oyer der Alte,' or as we put it Johannes 'Hans' Oyer (#1). There were to be many marriage connections between Ehresmans and Oyers in Central Illinois.

The Ehresmans of Neuhausen

At first it seemed odd to find Ohio and Indiana families that also chose to spell their Ehrismann surname as 'Ehresman.' On closer look we found definite connections with the Ehresman family of Central Illinois. Circa 1800-05 Jakob Johannes Ehresman married Barbara Fischer, a daughter of Jakob Fischer and Anna Maria Oesch of Hochheim. When one of their sons married, his supporting documentation said he was from Neuhausen, the village next to Hochheim. Both communities are suburbs of the city of Worms, 30 miles north of Mechtersheim. These communities are all within Rheinhessen, a region made up of grain fields and vineyards that grow grapes to make white wines such as Riesling and Liebfraumilch. Before 1806 the area was part of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, a state of the Holy Roman Empire. It was occupied by French troops in 1792 and again in 1801 until the end of the Napoleonic wars. On July 12, 1816 the Treaty of Vienna made it part of Canton Pfeddersheim in the region of Rheinhessen in the Grand Duchy of Hesse.225 In 1898 Neuhausen (north of the city center) and Hochheim (northwest of the city center) were incorporated into Worms; since then their administrative independence has been restored. In 1947 the area became part of a new German state, the Rhineland Palatinate. The three children we have identified all came to America: 1. JOHANN JAKOB EHRESMAN The first brother Johann Jakob Ehresman was born April 7, 1806, and died at Ross, Clinton County, Indiana Aug. 7, 1894.226 In October 1829 he married Katharina Ehresmann at Dörrmoschel. She was born Aug. 8, 1807, and died at Ross Feb. 28, 1868. In April 1838 at Neuhausen the family completed an application requesting emigration. They applied again in January 1840. The civil entry includes Jacob E. Ehresman, linen weaver, 32 and 33; Catharina Ehresmann, 32 in 1840; Jacobina, 7 and 8; Christian, 5 and 6; and Catharine, 3 and 4. The brig Traub sailed from Rotterdam, and arrived at Boston Aug. 10, 1840. The passenger list includes Jacob E. Ehresman, 33, weaver, Dukedom Hesse; Catherine Ehresman, 30; Jacob [Jacobina] Ehresman, 8; and C. Ehresman, 6. They appear on the 1850 census of Ross as farmer Jacob Ayreson, 45, Germany; Catherine, 42, Germany; Christopher, 18, Germany; Catherine, 16, Germany; Mary, 10, Ohio; and Fanny, 5, Ohio. They are found on the 1860 census of Ross as farmer Jacob Ehresman, 43, Germany; Catherine, 52, Germany; Mary, 19; Fanny, 15; and Nicholas [Corwin], 6 (Susan Clawson suggests that Corwin may have come off one of the orphan trains that occasionally passed through). The 1870 census shows them as farmer J. Ayersman, 64, Darmstadt; Fannie, 24,

charge of Bro. Jonas Litwiler, and from the Pleasant Grove Mennonite church in charge of the brethren, H. R. Schertz and Leland A. Bachman. Burial in church cemetery." 225 The Grand Duchy of Hesse lasted from 1806 to 1918. 226 His headstone in Mennonite Cemetery at Edna Mills says, "Jacob Ehresman died Aug. 7, 1894, aged 88 ys. & 4 ms." Many of the references to Ross Township are given here as they were found. Ross Township was established in the northwest corner of Clinton County, Indiana in 1830; Rosseville was incorporated as a town within that township in 1870. For practical purposes the two are identical.

154

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Ohio; and farmhand Nick Corwin, 15, New York. At some point Jacob joined the Defenseless Mennonite Church (Egly Amish). The 1880 census of Ross shows widower and retired farmer Jacob Ehresman, 74, born in Germany to parents from Hesse-Darmstadt; and daughter Fanny Ehresman, 35, born in Ohio to parents from Hesse. Jacob and Katharina are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Edna Mills. The children of Johann Jakob/Jacob Ehresman and Katharina Ehresmann include:

a. Jacobina Ehresman was born Sept. 19, 1830, and died at Gridley, McLean County Jan. 12, 1900. On June 10, 1850 in Tazewell County she married Pierre/Peter Oyer.227 He was born at Niderhoff, Moselle Oct. 15, 1818, and died June 14, 1890, a son of Joseph Oyer and Catherine Schrag (Catherine died when Peter was 5 years old, and Joseph remarried to Magdalena Litwiller; they immigrated in 1830 and resettled at Farmdale, Tazewell County in 1838; see OYER). Peter and Jacobina appear on the 1860 census of Ross with four children; then on the 1870 and 1880 censuses of Pike, Livingston County. Christian Ehresman (also found as Christopher) was born Oct. 15, 1832, and died in Tippecanoe County, Indiana Feb. 1, 1908. On Dec. 10, 1857 at Perry, Tippecanoe County he married Marie/Mary Salzman. She was born in Butler County, Ohio Oct. 15, 1840, and died at Woodburn, Indiana Oct. 10, 1923, a daughter of Christian Salzman and Marie Imhof. They are found on the 1880 census of Perry as farmer Christian Ehresman, 47, born in Hesse-Darmstadt to parents from Hesse-Darmstadt; Mary, 40, born in Ohio to a father from France and a mother from Hesse-Darmstadt; and eight children born in Indiana. They are buried in Mennonite Cemetery at Edna Mills. Catherine 'Katie' Ehresman was born at Neuhausen Nov. 16, 1834 (according to her family Bible), and died in Carroll County, Indiana May 21, 1903. On Feb. 10, 1858 at Trenton, Butler County she married her third cousin Johannes Güngerich, who was known in America as 'John Gingrich.' They obtained a marriage license in Clinton County Dec. 22, 1857; the ceremony was performed in Butler County, Ohio by minister Nicholas Augspurger. 228 John was born at Sippersfeld (12 miles southeast of Dörrmoschel) March 1, 1824, and died in Carroll County Feb. 28, 1898, a son of Johannes Güngrich and Catherina Ehresman (each in a second marriage). It is likely that he was illiterate, contributing to confusion over his name and difficulty identifying the passenger list. He worked in Cincinnati for several years before settling in Butler County. His Declaration of Intent to become a citizen was submitted in Butler County Oct. 9, 1852. His naturalization March 12, 1856 was signed 'John Ginerich.' Following their marriage the couple lived at Monitor, a small town in Perry Township, Tippecanoe County for eight years. They appear on the 1850 census of Perry as farmer John Gingery, 36, Germany; Catherine, 25, Hesse; and Jacob, 1, Indiana. They resettled at Rosseville in Ross Township, then Prince William, Carroll County (the deed there was signed in 1873 by 'John Ginery'). They moved to Pettit in Tippecanoe County, then relocated one last time less than a mile over the line into Carroll County. They are buried in Edna Mills Mennonite Cemetery. John's obituary was found in a family Bible: "During all these pleasant surprises, the busy and unpleasant exchanging of houses, the inclemency of the weather and the impassable roads, that grim monster, death, was wielding his destructive scythe, this time taking from our midst an old and respected citizen, who has contended with the storms for nearly 73 years and eleven months. John Gingrich was born in Germany in 1824, and came to this country with his mother when seventeen years of age, and settled in Ohio with his half brother, who had preceded him a few years. He came to Indiana fortyone years ago and was married the next year to Miss Katie Ehresman. A widow and nine children survive: Mrs. Lydia Irich [sic], Mrs. Josephine Wentz [sic], John, Gus, Otto and Theodore Gingrich, all live around here. Henry and Christian Gingrich living at Flanagan, Ill. This funeral will take place from the house tomorrow morning at 9:30 o'clock, arriving at the church at 10 o'clock. Mr. Gingrich belonged to the Amish church and was a lifelong Christian." Mary Ehresman was born in Butler County, Ohio Nov. 21, 1840, and died at Edna Mills Dec. 20, 1891. On Nov. 8, 1863 in Clinton County she married Joseph Neyhouser/Neuhauser/Newhouser. He was born at Bourg-Bruche, Lower Alsace June 8, 1836, and died at Edna Mills Nov. 22, 1881, a son of Pierre/Peter Neyhouser/Neuhauser and his first wife Elisabeth Gerig. The 1870 census of Ross shows them as farmer Jos. Newhouse, 33, France; Mary, 27, Ohio; and four children born in Indiana. They are buried in Edna Mills Mennonite Cemetery, on land that they had donated Sept. 20, 1876. Fanny Ehresman was born in Butler County, Ohio March 6, 1845, and died at Meadows, McLean County (the location of a Mennonite retirement home) April 29, 1942. She is buried in Waldo Cemetery at Flanagan. On May 19, 1903 in Adams County, Indiana she became the second wife of John Schoenbeck (also found as 'Schenbeck'). He was born Jan. 22, 1837, and died Feb. 19, 1916. His first wife had been Barbara Huser; she was born in Adams County, Indiana Nov. 1, 1846, they were married Jan. 24, 1865, and she died March 24, 1899, a daughter of Philip Huser and Verena Moser.

b.

c.

d.

e.

2. MARIA MAGDALENA EHRESMAN Maria Magdalena Ehresman is thought to have been born at Pfiffligheim (adjacent to Neuhausen) circa 1809.

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Peter Oyer and Jacobiny Ayresman. Augspurgers's list of ceremonies in Grubb's History of the Mennonites of Butler County, Ohio mentions 'John Gingrich and Katie Ehresman.'

228 227

155

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

She had a son born Jan. 16, 1835. The son may have been illegitimate. Family tradition holds that she was widowed by a man named Johnson, but he has not been identified. In 1835 she brought this child to her marriage with Heinrich Stähli. He was born at Enkenbach near Kaiserslautern (28 miles west of Neuhausen) in February 1810, a son of Heinrich Stähli. What might have brought someone from Enkenbach to the area of Neuhausen? As noted in NAFZIGER, Heinrich's uncle Jakob Stähly of Enkenbach (a younger brother to the older Heinrich) was a step-grandfather to Naffziger children at Hochheim. These included the young Peter Naffziger, who later became an elder called 'Apostle Peter.' Peter lived on Klostergasse ('monastery lane') at Hochheim from 1798, when he was 11 years old, until his emigration in 1826. His family farmed with the Fischers on the Liebenauerhof, a leased farm belonging to the Kloster [monastery] Liebenau. This was the family of Christian Fischer, who was a son of Benedict Fischer and a nephew of Ulrich Fischer of the Mechtersheimerhof. One of Heinrich Stähli 's brothers had emigrated in 1830. Heinrich and Maria made the same decision soon after marrying. Their traveling group left Kaiserslautern in August 1835 to begin the journey to North America. They sailed from Le Havre on the ship France, arriving at New York Oct. 27, 1835. The passenger list names Christian Egele [Egli], 32; Catharine [maiden name Catherine Stahli, Heinrich's sister], 25; Barbara, 4; Henry Staehle [Heinrich Stähli], 25; Magdalena, 26; John, 6 months; Jacob Staele [Heinrich's brother], 26; Christian, 15; and Barbara Staehle, 57 [their widowed mother].229 It was indicated that the Eglis came from France, and the Stähli family from Bavaria (often this only meant that the most recent travel documents were obtained in those places). They spent the first winter in Stark County, Ohio. In the spring they continued to Milton, Wayne County, Ohio, where Henry found work as a weaver. The 1840 census shows head of household 'Henry Staley' with a wife, two male children 5 or under (John and Christian), and two female children 5 or under (Barbara and May 'Polly'). In Ohio Heinrich became 'Henry Stahly.' Maria's first son ('John' on the passenger list) took the name 'John Johnson.' 230 In 1846 Henry and Maria resettled in Elkhart County, Indiana, where Henry became a farmer. The 1850 census of Union shows them as farmer Henry Staly,38, Germany; Martha [Magdalena], 35, Germany; John, 15, Ohio [Germany]; Barbaray, 14, Ohio; Polly [Mary], 12, Ohio; Christian, 10, Ohio; Martha [Magdalena], 8, Ohio; Henry, 5, Ohio; and Peter, 4, Indiana. They lived next door to Henry's brothers Jacob and Christian. On the 1860 census of Union they appear as farmer Henry Staley, 50, Germany; Madalena, 50, Hesse-Darmstadt; farm laborer Christian, 20, Ohio; Madalena, 18, Ohio; Henry, 15, Ohio; Peter, 13, Indiana; Simon, 13, Indiana; and Daniel, 4, Indiana. They still lived next door to brother 'Christian Staley.' On Dec. 6, 1874 a train from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ran through Union on newly-laid tracks. On Dec. 12, Henry and two other farmers combined their land to plat a town around the site where a platform called Locke Station would be constructed. The surveyed area had only seven homes. When railroad officials objected to the name Locke, someone suggested the Indian name Napanee. This was later used for the post office, a second 'p' was added, and the town received its present name. Locke is now the next town to the north. Until this time Amish Mennonites in the area had met in homes every second Sunday. They finally moved into an expanded schoolhouse in 1878. Maria Magdalena Ehresman Stahly died at Nappanee Dec. 1, 1879. Herald of Truth, January 1880: "Dec. 1st, near Nappanee, Elkhart Co., Ind., Sister Magdalena Stahly, wife of Henry Stahly, at the age of 70 years. She was a faithful sister in the Lord. A husband and six children are left to mourn her death. She was sick only two days. Funeral services by Jonathan Smucker." In 1880 Henry was living with his youngest son at Locke. He died at Nappanee Dec. 14, 1894. Herald of Truth, January 1895: "Near Nappanee, Ind., of dropsy, Henry Stahly, died Dec. 14, 1894, aged 84 years, 10 months. He was united in marriage to Magdelena Erisman in 1834, lived in matrimony 45 years. His wife preceded him to

229 Christian Egli was born at Dörrmoschel March 24, 1803 according to some sources, but no birth entry is found there. He died at Marion, Indiana July 3, 1879. Gospel Herald, August 1789: "July 3rd, at the residence of Jonas Stineman in Miami Co., Ind., of injuries received from a fall from the cars, at Marion, Ind., on the 26th of June, Christian Egly, aged 76 years, 3 months and 9 days. He was buried in the burying ground on the farm of Benjamin Hershberger, on the 4th of July. Services by Daniel C. Miller. He was a member of the Amish Church, and was on his way to visit his grand-daughter. Peace to his ashes." Catherine Stahli/Stahly was born at Enkenbach Nov. 10, 1808, and died at Clinton Township July 5, 1893. Herald of Truth, August 1893: On the 5th of July, 1893, in Clinton Twp., Elkhart Co., Ind., of the infirmities of old age, Catharine Egli, aged 84 years, 7 months and 25 days. She united with the Amish Mennonite denomination in her youth and remained faithful to the end. Services in German by P.Y. Lehman, from Rev. 14:13, and in English by D.J. Johns, from Rev. 20:12-15." Their family can be found on the 1850 and 1870 censuses of Clinton Township, Elkhart County (under 'Christian Eagle' and 'Christian Egeley'). 230 The household of John Johnson can be found on the 1880 census of Dry Point, Shelby County, Illinois: farmer John Johnson, 45, Ohio; Matilda, 38, born in Ohio to parents from Virginia; and six children born in Illinois.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

the spirit world 15 years ago, the first of this month. He was born in Kaisers Lautern, Germany, Feb. 1810. Emigrated to America in 1835 and settled in Wayne Co., Ohio; came to Elkhart Co., Ind. in 1846. He has resided here 48 years, has seen his children and grandchildren grow to manhood and womanhood, and the dense forest that once covered this beautiful country fall before the pioneer's axe. He was a consistent brother in the Amish Mennonite denomination, and while we pay the last tribute to him we realize that his seat will be vacant in church and at home. The surviving members are one brother, five sons, one daughter, 36 grandchildren and 12 great grandchildren. Buried at the Brick church on the 16th. Funeral services by Jas. H. McGowen in English and David Burkholder in German, from Job. 14: 14." The children of Henry Stahly and Maria Magdalena Ehresman include:

1. Barbara Stahly was born at Milton, Wayne County, Ohio Jan. 28, 1836, and died after a horse riding accident at Union (the same location became Nappanee) Feb. 13, 1869. Circa 1855 she married minister John Ringenberg. He was born in February 1827, and at Locke June 27, 1871. After her death, their six children were raised by her siblings. Herald of Truth, July 1871: "On the 27th of June, near Locke, Ind., of rheumatism and dropsy, Pre. John Ringenberg, aged 44 years and 4 months. The deceased was a minister of the gospel in the Omish Mennonite Church, of a meek and quiet spirit, and sought to promote the interest of the kingdom of Christ by his christian walk and conversation, as well as by the discharge of his ministerial duties. May our loss be his eternal gain. His wife died over two years since. Thus are left six orphan children. May the God of the fatherless bless, and protect them through the wilderness of this world. Funeral services by D. Hochstetler, J.M. Christophel, Jonas Troyer and D. Brenneman, from John 5:24-28, Luke 2:29." Mary 'Polly' Stahly was born at Milton, Wayne County Feb. 1, 1838, and died at Nappanee June 8, 1925. On May 24, 1857 in Elkhart County she married Tobias Yoder. He was born in Holmes County, Ohio June 29, 1832, and died in Elkhart County Jan. 20, 1892, a son of Elias Yoder and Rachel Troyer. They can be found on the 1880 census of Jefferson, Kosciusko County (just below Elkhart County) as farmer Tobias Yoder, 48, born in Ohio to parents from Pennsylvania and Canada; Mary, 43, born in Ohio to parents from Germany; and five nieces and nephews born in Indiana. She remarried to Christian Lantz. He was born in Wayne County, Ohio Oct. 1, 1834, and died in Howard County, Indiana Nov. 6, 1919, a son of Stephen Lantz and Anna Kauffman. He was buried in the Schrock Cemetery at Plevna, Indiana. His first two wives were Barbara Eash and Anna Schrock. Gospel Herald, June 1925: "Polly Lantz, daughter of Henry and Magdalena Stahley, was born in Wayne Co., Ohio, Feb. 1, 1838; died at her home near Nappanee, Ind., June 8, 1925; aged 87 y 4 m. 7 d. In April, 1857, she was married to Tobias Yoder, with whom she lived until 1892, when this union was severed by the death of her husband. In November, 1897 [his obituary says October 1891], she was united in marriage to Christian Lantz of Howard Co., Ind., and this union was again severed by the death of her husband on Nov. 4, 1919. During her second marriage she lived with her husband in Howard Co., but after his death she returned to her home near Nappanee, Ind., where she remained until her death. Sister Lantz had no children of her own, but she was foster mother of six, all of whom she took to raise. They were May Ellen Reed, Mrs. Ed Pinninger, Henry Ringenberg, Mrs. Levi Schrock, Ezra Bleile, and Mrs. S. G. Moyer. She also leaves two brothers (Simon Stahley and Daniel Stahley). She united with the Mennonite Church when a young woman and remained faithful until death. Funeral was held June 10 at the North Mennonite Church in Nappanee, conducted by Ezra Mullet and Silas Yoder. Burial at the Union Cemetery near Nappanee." Christian Stahly was born at Milton, Wayne County April 9, 1840, and died at Nappanee Nov. 24, 1921. On Dec. 27, 1864 at Goshen, Indiana he married Mary Souder. She was born in Fulton County, Ohio Jan. 14, 1845, and died at Nappanee April 12, 1926. They are buried at Union Center Cemetery at Nappanee. Gospel Herald, December 1921: "Christian H. Stahly was born in Wayne Co., O., Apr. 9, 1840; died in Nappanee, Ind., Nov. 24, 1921; aged 81 y. 7 m. 15 d. He united with the A. M. Church in 1863, was baptized by Bishop Jonas Troyer at the Clinton Church near Goshen, Ind., and has since lived a faithful and consistent Christian life, always longing and praying for peace to reign supreme. He was united in marriage to Mary Souder of Archbold, O., Dec. 27, 1864. To this union were born 11 children... Funeral services were held Nov. 27 at Nappanee West Market Street Church by Everet Pippin (devotional), J. H. McGowen (Text, Rev. 14:13), and (closing) Daniel Wysong..." Magdalena 'Martha' Stahly was born at Milton, Wayne County Aug. 28, 1843, and died at Nappanee Aug. 5, 1876. On June 20, 18689 in Elkhart County she married Andrew Bliele. He was born in December 1846. After her death her child was raised by her siblings. Bliele later remarried and lived at Jefferson, Iowa. Henry H. Stahly was born in Milton, Wayne County May 1, 1845, and died at Nappanee Oct. 21, 1921. In 1866 he married Mary Wickey. She died in 1872. On Oct. 25, 1874 he remarried to Barbara Weber. Gospel Herald, November 1921: "Henry H. Stahly, aged 76 y. 5 m. 20 d., passed away at his home east of Nappanee, Ind., on Friday noon, Oct. 21, from a sudden attack of heart disease. He was apparently enjoying usual good health and his sudden demise is a severe shock to his family and the entire community. Bro. Stahly was born in Wayne Co., Ohio, May 1, 1845. His parents moved to Elkhart Co., Ind., when he was but one year old and has resided here all his life. In 1866 he was united in marriage to Mary Wickey. Three children were born to this union (Emanuel, Lavina Slaybaugh, and Malinda Wysong). This union was severed by the death of Sister Stahly in 1872. Bro. Stahly was again united in marriage to Barbara Weber on Oct. 25, 1874. To this union four children were born (Charles, Vernon, Mabel, who preceded him in death, and another daughter who died in infancy)...Two daughters, two brothers, and two sisters

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

6.

7.

8.

preceded him in death. Bro. Stahly was a faithful member of the W. Market St. Mennonite Church. Funeral services were held on Tuesday, Oct. 25, from the W. Market St. Church, conducted by E. S. Mullett and Silas Yoder. Interment in the Union Center Cemetery." Peter H. Stahly was born at Union Nov. 24, 1847, and died at Nappanee (the same location renamed) Nov. 26, 1915. On Nov. 12, 1872 he married Catherine Yoder. She was born at Smithville, Wayne County Aug. 29, 1846, and died in Elkhart County June 16, 1877, a daughter of Joseph Yoder and Mariah Farmvald [Vordemwald]. On Nov. 3, 1878 he remarried to Veronica 'Fannie' Yoder, a sister to his first wife. She was born Feb. 5, 1849, and died at Nappanee. They are buried in Union Center Cemetery. Gospel Herald, December 1915: "Peter H. Stahley was born Nov. 24, 1847; died Nov. 26, 1915; aged 68 y. 2 d. Born and reared on his father's farm on what is now the Northeast quarter of Nappanee, Ind. ... He united with the A. M. Church while a young man and continued as an active and consistent member until death. He will be remembered by many as an efficient visiting brother for a number of years... Nov. 12, 1872, he married Kathryn Yoder of Wayne Co., Ohio. To this union were born 2 children, Franklin and Ida May, wife of Geo. Hartman. This wife and both children preceded him to the spirit world. Nov. 3, 1878, he married Fannie Yoder, sister to his first wife. To this union were born 4 children...He located on his farm 1 mile north of town in the year 1876 and lived there until 6 years ago when he retired from active farm work and moved to his present home. Funeral was held Nov. 29 at the Nappanee West Church where Bro. J. E. Hartzler preached from Job 14:14 to a large and attentive audience." Simon H. Stahly was born at Union Sept. 13, 1850, and died at Nappanee (the same location renamed) Sept. 18, 1937. In 1873 he married Jane Pearman. She was born Jan. 19, 1850, and died Jan. 1, 1880. On Feb. 27, 1881 he remarried to Elizabeth Miller. She was born in Holmes County, Ohio, Jan. 29, 1851, and died at Nappanee Aug. 17, 1946, a daughter of Eli S. Miller and Mary Kaufman. They are buried in Union Center Cemetery. Simon is found on the 1880 census of Locke as farmer Simon Stahley, 29, born in Indiana to parents from Bavaria, in the household of Jacob Mann, 29, who worked in a saw mill. Gospel Herald, November 1937: "Simon, son of Henry Stahly, was born in Nappanee, Ind., Sept. 13, 1850; died Sept. 18, 1937; aged 87 y. 5 d. The Stahly family originally came from Germany, and settled as pioneers in Nappanee. The northeastern part of Nappanee was the old Stahly farm, and the house where Simon was born is still standing in a remodeled condition. In 1873 he was married to Jane Pearman. To this union were born 2 children (Dan I. Stahly of Nappanee and Mrs. Simon Albrecht of Sycamore, Ill.). His companion passed away at the birth of the last-named child in 1879. On Feb. 27, 1881, he was married to Elizabeth Miller, who with the 2 children, 6 grandchildren, and many relatives remain to mourn the loss of a kind husband, father, and friend. He was the last surviving member of a family of nine children. In early life he united with the Mennonite Church and remained faithful to the cause until the Lord celled him home. Funeral services were held Sept. 20 at the North Main St. Mennonite Church in Nappanee, conducted by Homer F. North. Burial in the Union Center Cemetery." Daniel H. Stahly was born at Union March 26, 1856, and died at Nappanee (the same location renamed) April 30, 1936. He married Sarah Schmucker. They are found on the 1880 census of Locke as farmer Daniel Stahley, 23, born in Indiana to parents from Bavaria; Sara, 23, born in Indiana to parents from Indiana and Ohio; retired farmer Henry Stahley, 69, born in Bavaria to parents from Bavaria; and Noah Ringenberg, 12, born in Indiana to parents from Bavaria and Indiana.

3. JOHANNES/JOHN EHRESMAN Johannes/John Ehresman was born April 12, 1812, and died at Ross Dec. 5 or 15, 1903. He married Veronika/Veronica 'Fanny' Ehresmann of Dörrmoschel, who was a younger sister to Jakob/Jacob's wife. She was born Sept. 14, 1821, and died at Edna Mills, Indiana April 9, 1880. 231 They had their first child in Ohio in November 1840. `John Aresman' signed a Declaration of Intent for naturalization at Hamilton, Butler County in September 1840. It described him as a 28-year-old native of Darmstadt. They appear on the 1850 census of Ross as farmer John Ayresman, 38, Germany; Fanny, 29, Germany; Christopher, 10, Ohio; John, 8, Ohio; Jacob, 6, Ohio; and Augustus, 3, Ohio. They are found on the 1860 census of Ross as farmer John Ehresman, 49, Germany; Fanny, 39, Germany; Christian, 18, Ohio; Jacob, 16, Ohio; Augustus, 13, Ohio; Catharine, 7, Indiana; and Henry, one month, Indiana. In 1870: farmer Jno. Ayersman, 58, Darmstadt; Fannie, 48; Catherine, 17; and Henry, 9. In 1880 widower John Ehresman is at Ross in the house next to his brother as an 86-year-old father-in-law [he was 68] in the household of farmer Christian Garver [Gerber], 31, born in Ohio to parents from Germany; Catherine, 27, born in Indiana to parents from Hesse, and Jesse, 1, born in Indiana. Johannes/John Ehresman and Veronika/Veronica 'Fanny' Ehresmann are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Edna Mills. They had eight children; three died before 1913.

Fanny's headstone at Edna Mills Mennonite Cemetery identifies her as the "frau von Johannes Ehresman" who died "9 Apr 1880 58y 6m 25d."

231

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

a.

b. c.

d.

e.

f.

Christian E. Ehresman was born in Ohio Nov. 21, 1840, and died Aug. 29, 1911. He married Mary Imhof. She was born at Madison, Butler County Jan. 27, 1845, and died at Edna Mills Nov. 21, 1922, a daughter of bishop Peter Imhof and Catherine Augspurger. The 1870 census of Madison shows farmer Christian Ehersman, 29, Ohio; Mary, 25, Ohio; Catharine, 2, Ohio; Peter, 1, Ohio; and farm laborer Augustus Ehersman, 21, Ohio [his younger brother]. The two also appear as next door neighbors on the 1880 census of Lemon, Butler County: Chris. Ehresman, 38, born in Ohio to parents from Hesse-Darmstadt; Mary, 34, born in Ohio to a father from Hesse- Darmstadt and a mother from Ohio; Catherine, 12, Ohio; Emma, 9, Ohio; and Fanny, 3, Ohio. They are buried in Mennonite Cemetery at Edna Mills. John Ehresman was born in Ohio circa 1842. Jacob B. Ehresman was born in Ohio April 27, 1844, and died at San Dimas, California June 9, 1927. On Aug. 27, 1864 in Clinton County he married Elizabeth Blickenstaff. She was born in Indiana Sept. 5, 1844, and died at San Dimas May 17, 1813, a daughter of Joseph Blickenstaff and Hannah Ulrey. The 1880 census of Ross shows his household as farmer Jacob B. Ehresman, 35, born in Ohio to parents from Germany; Elizabeth, 35, born in Indiana to parents from Ohio; and five children born in Indiana. In 1901 they relocated to Lordsburg (now LaVerne) and San Dimas, California, where they worshipped at the Church of the Brethren at Lordsburg and owned San Dimas Livery. They are buried in Laverne Cemetery. Augustus Ehresman was born in Ohio 1847, and died in 1929. He married Catherine 'Katie' Imhof, who was born at Madison, Butler County in 1851, and died in 1928, a daughter of bishop Peter Imhof and Catherine Augspurger. They farmed at 6331 Sycamore Road, Trenton and at Lemon, Butler County. The 1880 census of Lemon shows them next door to Christian/Christopher Ehresman and Mary Imhof: August Ehresman, 32, born in Ohio to parents from Hesse; Catherine, 29, born in Ohio to a father from Hesse and a mother from Ohio; Theo, 6, Ohio; and Simon, 3, Ohio.232 They retired to a home at 107 North Second Street, Trenton. That address was only a few doors from the address of his cousins Bertha and Emelie, and only a street removed from cousin Otto (more on them a little later). Catherine 'Katie' Ehresman was born at Ross Aug. 4, 1853, and died Jan. 26, 1892. On Feb. 18, 1873 in Clinton County she married minister-farmer Christian Gerber. He was born in Butler County, Ohio April 21, 1847, and died at Edna Mills March 10, 1931, a son of Christian Gerber and Ann Roth (see GERBER AND GARBER). Christian grew up at Elm Grove. He became a minister in the Defenseless Mennonite Church, and was likely the Defenseless Mennonite 'Christian Gerber of Illinois' mentioned by Delbert Gratz in The Bernese Anabaptists as a minister in the Rossville-Buck Creek area of Indiana, where services were "altogether in German." On July 23, 1893 in Tippecanoe County he remarried to Josephine Zimmerman. She was born in Germany in September 1853, and died at Edna Mills March 9, 1931, a daughter of John Zimmerman and May Slegel. The 1900 census of Ross shows Christian Gerber, born in Ohio in April 1847; Josephine, born in Germany in September 1853; and two children born in Indiana. Susan Yost Clawson found the circumstances of their coincidental deaths: their obituaries say that within 13 hours she died of "an attack of heart trouble," and he died of pneumonia. They are buried in Edna Mills Mennonite Cemetery. Henry Ehresman was born at Ross in 1860, and died in Butler County, Ohio Sept. 28, 1878.

The Ehresmanns of Dörrmoschel

Dörrmoschel is a tiny village about 40 miles northwest of the Mechtersheimerhof. Before the French Revolution Dörrmoschel and its adjacent sister village Teschenmoschel were properties of the von Hunolststein family. It was once considered part of Hesse-Darmstadt, but is now in the Rhineland Palatinate. The village was occupied by French troops after the Battle of Kaiserslautern Nov. 28-30, 1793. Before the occupation, Mennoniten had been barred from the nearby city of Kaiserslautern. Now even non-citizens were treated as equals. (French tolerance for Anabaptists had been heartily encouraged since the Directory of Robespierre, who saw it as a slap at Catholic interests). In 1798 the area was incorporated as canton Kaiserslautern, one of four cantons in the arrondisement du Mont Tonnere in the départmement du Mont Tonnere [Ger. Donnersberg]. The troops remained there until 1814, a period when the Mennoniten enjoyed unprecedented freedoms under the Code Napoléon. After 1814 the entire Palatinate became part of Bavaria. The period of French occupation was also a period of relative prosperity. The area provided soldiers for the French army, and the local economy was boosted by employment on the construction of the Kaiserstrasse, a wide paved highway from Kaiserlautern to Frankfurt.233

Other near-neighbors at Lemon included minister Peter Schrock, 70, and his second wife Magdalena Zimmerman, 50; and Christian A. Augspurger, 43, his wife Catherine Schertz, 40, and his mother-in-law Catherine Schertz, 76. 233 Elector Maximilian IV Joseph became Maximilian I of Bavaria Dec. 26, 1805. His troops fought as allies of France until 1813. See BIRKY/BIRKEY.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Christian Ehresmann was born in 1780, and died at Dörrmoschel Feb. 16, 1837. He married Elisabeth Egle [Egli], who died at Dörrmoschel March 8, 1824. 234 They were the parents of the two daughters who married Ehresman brothers from Neuhausen. The family may have relocated to Dörrmoschel after 1821 to join relatives, or simply lived between villages. Only one of the children has a birth entry created at Dörrmoschel, though Ehresmann entries are found in the Reformed church register as early as 1797.235 The single exception, Magdalena, obtained a statement from the civil administration saying she was born there when she married 20 years later. The children of Christian Ehresmann and Elisabeth Egle include: 1. KATHARINA EHRESMANN was born Aug. 8, 1807. She married Johann Jakob/Jacob Ehresman of Neuhausen. 2. MAGDALENA EHRESMANN was born Dec. 2, 1812. When she married the Dörrmoschel civil administration provided a document certifying her birth there as 'Madelaine Ehrensmann.' In 1832 at Dörrmoschel she married Jakob Nafziger. He was born on the Ludwigsburgerhof at Selbach, Nassau-Weilburg Sept. 10, 1802, and after 1818 lived on the Obergladbacherhof at Runkel (68 miles north of Neuhausen). Jakob Nafziger was the youngest son of Peter Nafziger and his first wife Katharina Nafziger (they married at Hochheim in 1771). Katharina Nafziger was a younger sister to Valentine Nafziger. Valentine Nafziger and Magdalena Spring were the parents the family in NAFZIGER. Magdalena Spring's mother's second husband was Jacob Stähli of Enkenbach. This chain of relationships suggests that the Nafziger/Naffziger of Hochheim and Fränkisch Crumbach, Ehresmann of Dörrmoschel, Ehresman of Neuhausen, and Stähli of Enkenbach families were all represented in the Amish Mennonite congregation at Hochheim. At Dörrmoschel on Feb. 21, 1860 widow 'Magdalena Ehresmann Nafziger' obtained a document to emigrate to Rogersville, Ohio (now called Ragersville, Tuscawaras County, it is located just below the large Mennonite community at Sugar Creek). She later visited or relocated to Butler County. 3. JACOBINA EHRESMANN was born circa 1820. In 1854 at Dörrmoschel she married Christian Amman, 31, a son of Christian Amman and Charlotte Fink of Schulhofen. The entry described her as a 34-year-old daughter of Christian Ehresmann and Elisabeth Egle and a resident of Dörrmoschel. 4. VERONIKA/VERONICA 'FANNY' EHRESMANN was born Sept. 14, 1821, and died at Edna Mills April 9, 1880. She married Johannes/John Ehresman of Neuhausen. 5. CHRISTIAN EHRESMANN was a twin to Veronika/Veronica 'Fanny' Ehresmann, born Sept. 14, 1821. It is possible that Christian sailed from Le Havre on the newly-christened ship Ville de Lyon, arriving at New York Sept. 16, 1837.236 He settled at Trenton in Butler County. Trenton is a village bordered on north, east, and south by Madison, and on the west by St. Clair and Wayne; it was often counted in the Madison census. On June 14, 1852 he married Maria Iutzi. She was born at Felsberg, Hesse circa 1827, and died in Butler County in 1906, a daughter of Christian Iutzi and Maria Sommer. Christian Iutzi will be recalled from STAKER as the wealthiest passenger on the 1832 voyage of the '100 Hessian Mennonites' (daughter Maria appears as a 5-year-old on the passenger list). He scouted land in Illinois, but returned to Butler County to

It is likely that her father was Christian Egle who died at Dörrmoschel July 4, 1822 at age 73. We found a death entry for Johannes Ehresmann, son of Jakob Ehresmann, dated March 20, 1797; and a birth entry for Jakobina Ehresmann, daughter of Jakob Ehresmann, dated Jan. 19, 1819. Jakob may have been a brother to the Christian who married Elisabeth Egle. 236 The passenger list of the hapless Old Line sailing packet ship Ville de Lyon contains entries for Christ Ehresmann, 16, and Noh Erasmann, 24 [possibly meant to be Joh. or Johannes]. She was christened at New York in 1837. On her maiden voyage she was struck twice by lightning. Two years later, she lost her masts in mid-Atlantic and put into Bermuda for three months before delivering Le Havre immigrants to New York. She was struck by lightning again in 1841. In 1845 she ran aground on rocks one day out of Le Havre and never sailed again. It is also possible that Christian was a passenger on the brig Venus. That ship sailed from Bremen and arrived at New York Oct. 31, 1838. The passenger list has entries for Christian Ehresmann, 18, and Joh. Ehresmann, 45. Their destination was stated to be Hamilton (the county seat of Butler County, Ohio?).

235 234

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

purchase 195 improved acres of Madison for $25 per acre. He then built a substantial home, calling it the 'Mittelhof' after the European home he had left behind. After the marriage Christian and Maria Iutzi continued to live at Trenton. As their family grew, they decided to build a bigger house in 1867. Christian died during construction of the new house. The first house was torn down in the 1980s; the second house is still standing. Gospel Herald, November 1867: "On the 27th of September, near Trenton, Butler Co., Ohio, Christian Ehrisman, aged 46 years and 14 days. Funeral sermon was preached by Jos. Augspurger from 1 Thess. 4:1314, in the German language and by West from Acts 8:2 in English. J. A. S." The household is found on the 1870 census of Madison as Maria Eheresman, 48, Hesse-Darmstadt; Otto, 16, Ohio; Jacobina, 14, Ohio; Bertha, 12, Ohio; Maria, 10, Ohio; Louisa, 4, Ohio; Maria's sister Elizabeth Iutzi, 44, Hesse-Darmstadt; and farm laborer Christian Iutzi, 63, Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1880 they appear at the same location as Mary Ehresman, 52, Hesse; Otto, 26, Ohio; Bertha, 22, Ohio; Maria, 20, Ohio; Louisa, 14, Ohio; Elizabeth Iutzi, 54, Hesse; and Jos. Saltzman, 18, Ohio. The children of Christian Ehresmann and Maria Iutzi born at Madison include:

a. Otto Iutzi Ehresman was born on the Iutzi farm Feb. 4, 1854, and died in 1933. He was only 13 at the time of his father's death, but farmed the acreage behind the Trenton house with the help of his Mennonite neighbors. On Jan. 20, 1885 in Butler County he married Mary Ann Deuscher, a daughter of Henry P. Deuscher and Ella Ball.237 Mary Ann was born Feb. 9, 1855, and died Nov. 26, 1938; she is buried in Miltonville Cemetery. They farmed at Gratis in adjacent Preble County for five years, then returned to Butler County, where Otto become manager of his wealthy father-in-law's five-acre foundry at Hamilton. Otto also operated the O.I. Ehresman General Store at 130 East State Street in Trenton for 13 years, while he lived at 119 North First Street. After their deaths, both Henry P. Deuscher and Otto Iutzi Ehresman were held up as 'rags to riches' stories because of their modest beginnings and strong work ethics. Deuscher's house and Ehresman's farm are on the National Register of Historic Places. Jacobina 'Bina' Ehresman was born Aug. 16, 1855, and died in 1941; she is buried in Mound Cemetery at Monroe as 'Bina Ehresman.' On May 30, 1878 at Monroe she married William Bender Jotter. He was born in Butler County Aug. 8, 1847, and died in 1924, a son of Peter Jotter and Marie Bender. He and his parents are also buried in Mound Cemetery. Bina and William can be found on the 1880 census of Monroe as wagon maker William B. Jotter, 32, born in Ohio to a father from Bavaria and a mother from Hesse; Jacobina, 24, born in Ohio to a father from Württemberg and a mother from Hesse; and Ernst, 1, born in Ohio. Their farmstead in the northeast corner of Section 17, Monroe still exists. Bertha Ehresman was born in 1857, and died in 1947. She lived at 103 North Second Street, Trenton with her sister Amelia. They worked together as designer-seamstresses. Maria/Marie Ehresman was born March 6, 1860, and died Aug. 6, 1947. She married William Hebel. He was born Aug. 16, 1862, and died Dec. 5, 1944. They appear on the 1900 census of Hyde Park, Chicago as railroad clerk William Hebel, born in Ohio in August 1861 to parents from Germany and Ohio; Marie, born in Ohio in March 1862 to parents from Germany; and two children born in Illinois. Emelie/Amelia Ehresman was born in 1863, and died in 1937. Louisa/Louise Ehresman was born in 1865, and died in 1883.

b.

c. d.

e. f.

In addition, one relative is known to have lived his entire life at Dörrmoschel. He does not appear on a birth entry, his age is unknown, and he cannot be linked to Christian Ehresman and Elizabeth Egli by documentation. He may have been a brother or son to Christian. JAKOB EHRESMANN Jakob Ehresmann married Jakobina Eyer. We found death entries for their young children at Dörrmoschel from 1842 (4-year-old Daniel), 1845 (8-year-old Barbara), and possibly 1865 (6-year-old Otto). In the 1840s Jakob Ehresmann of Dörrmoschel and Daniel Schönbeck of the nearby Ingweilerhof estate were ministers serving a wide area. They rented a hall at Eselsfürth (a suburb on the northeast corner of Kaiserslautern) where services were held every three weeks. When elder Johannes Maurer of Mehlingen became infirm in 1849, Jakob assumed his

The surnames Deuscher and Teuscher are both found in Bern. Henry P. Deuscher was born in 1829, and died in 1903. He was a native of Wessingen, Baden. His parents Michael Deuscher and Christiana Scheurer brought their four children to New York in 1832. Memoirs of the Miami Valley says they spent a year there, and another in Lancaster County, before resettling in Butler County in 1834, while A History and Biographical Cyclopedia of Butler County says they spent four years in Lancaster Couty, and arrived in Butler County in 1836. Henry recruited Company G, 83rd Ohio Volunteer Infanty and served as a captain for eight months during the Civil War. He went from being a butcher to owning a malthouse and two distilleries, then purchased a foundry to produce farm equipment. It was destroyed by fire in 1910, but was rebuilt and remained active until 1990.

237

161

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

duties, serving all the scattered farms north of Kaiserslautern until 1859.238 By then his entire congregation was reduced to approximately 50 heads of family.

Catherine Ehresmann

Catherine Ehresmann was born circa 1788, and died in Butler County, Ohio Sept. 4, 1870. It is likely that she was a sister to Christian Ehresmann who married Elisabeth Egle. On Nov. 24, 1811 at Dörrmoschel Catherine married widower Josef Imhof. He was born on the Aschbacherhof farm (20 miles south of Dörrmoschel, and four miles south of Kaiserslautern) circa 1768, a son of Peter Imhof and his second wife Katharina Rocke/Roggy. At the time of their marriage Josef was living on the Espensteigerhof farm adjacent to the Aschbacherhof. His first wife and a newborn son had recently died, leaving him with two young daughters and a son. 239 Catherine Ehresmann and Josef Imhof had three known children:

1. 2. 3. Joseph Imhof was born on the Espensteigerhof Dec. 23, 1812.240 Jacob Imhof was born on the Espensteigerhof Jan. 16, 1814. Peter Imhof was born at Dörrmoschel Sept. 16, 1819, according to his obituary, though no entry is found there. He is often found as 'Peter Imhoff,' reflecting Hessian spelling rules ­ by doubling the consonant, the vowel sound is shortened.

Josef Imhof died, and Catherine remarried to widower Johannes Güngrich. He was born circa 1789. He had a daughter Barbara Güngerich born circa 1810 who became Catherine's step daughter. Catherine Ehresmann and her second husband Johannes Güngrich had one child:

4. Johannes Güngrich (later known as John Gingrich) was born at Sippersfeld (near Breunigweiler) March 1, 1824. He married his fourth cousin Catherine 'Katie' Ehresman (1834-1903), as noted earlier.

Elder Johannes Maurer's nephew Jacob Maurer immigrated in 1855. He was born at Neukirchen (now a neighborhood of Kaiserslautern) Nov. 1, 1834. He worked as a farm laborer in Pennsylvania and Butler County, Ohio for four years before resettling at Dry Grove, McLean County in 1859. On June 30, 1859 in McLean County he married Catherine Maurer. She was born in Woodford County in 1841, a daughter of Peter Maurer (born at Bertrambois in what became Meurthe-et-Moselle March 24, 1787) and Marie/Mary Sommer (born at Bertrambois Dec. 23, 1797, died at Bloomington Aug. 16, 1880); they immigrated in 1830 and lived in Butler County before settling in Illinois. They appear on the 1860 census of Montgomery Township, Woodford County next door to Jacob's in-laws: Peter Maurer, 73, born in France to French parents; Mary [Sommer], 63, born in France to French parents; John, 21, born in Illinois to parents from France; Jacob Maurer, 25, born in Germany to German parents; Catherine, 18, born in Illinois to French parents; and Alena [Magdalena], one month, born in Illinois. Jacob was naturalized in McLean County Jan. 18, 1868. They appear again on the 1880 census of Montgomery Township with five children, where Jacob's nationality was given as Bavaria; his widowed mother-in-law was listed with them as Mary, 82, born in France to French parents. Jacob's father was Johannes's younger brother Samuel Maurer, who was born at Merxheim March 5, 1795, and died at Danvers June 22, 1863; he is buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery at Danvers. On April or Sept. 27, 1825 at Mehlingen Samuel married Magdalena Schwartzentruber/Schwartzentraub. She was born at Freinsheim Aug. 18, 1800, and died at Danvers Nov. 3, 1884; she is buried in Park Lawn Cemetery at Danvers. They immigrated in 1860, following their son Jacob who had immigrated five years earlier. They owned 85 acres at Danvers. 239 Joseph Imhof's first wife Magdalena Kinsinger was born at Weisenheim am Berg after 1770, a daughter of Johannes Kinsinger and Maria Magdalena Schwarzentruber. They had four known children: 1) Johannes Imhoff is only known as a beneficiary on the will of his grandparents probated at Weisenheim am Berg in 1818. 2) Katharina Imhof was born circa 1800, and died on the Wilensteinerhof in 1824; her cousin Jost Engel signed the death entry. 3) Susannah Imhof was born circa 1803. In 1825 she was living on the Wilensteinerhof where she married Christian Rocke/Roggy, 29, born at Hofstätten, living on the Antonihof farm at Trippstadt, a son of Kaspar Roke/Roggy, 55, and Veronika Habecker. 4) Joseph Imhof was born on the Espensteigerhof farm Oct. 28 or 29, 1810, and died before 1818. 240 The Espensteigerhof farm is now the village of Espensteig. The birth entries were created at Hoheneck, the village adjacent to the Espensteigerhof. Because both locations were within the administrative district of Kaiserslautern, copies of the entries can be found on FHL microfilms for that city. The Aschbacherhof is still a working farm. It was leased in 1765, after the Imhofs were already living on the nearby Wilensteinerhof at Trippstadt. The Wilensteinerhof was made up from 17 acres of the grounds of a ruined castle that has now been partially restored. It had been continuously occupied by Anabaptists since 1688, and is now a horse farm. The smaller Trippstadt farms Antonihof and Langensohl were also tenanted by Imhofs and are also still active.

238

162

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Sons Jacob and Peter sailed from Le Havre on the Rhone and arrived at New York June 17, 1839. The passenger list shows Jacob Imhof, 24, and Peter Imhof, 23. The passenger list also shows Christ Zear [Zehr], 26, Bavaria (see ZEHR); and Andrew F. Zimmerman and Anna Müller with their family (see ZIMMERMAN). Johannes the father presumably died before 1841. In that year Catherine, her stepdaughter Barbara, and son Johannes (later 'John Gingrich') followed the two sons to America. Peter Imhof arrived in Butler County with a number of family connections that his half-brother John Gingrich did not share. His father Josef Imhof's first wife had been Magdalena Kinsinger of Weisenheim am Berg. The older sister of Josef ­ Veronika Imhof ­ and the older brother of Magdalena Kinsinger ­ Johannes Kinsinger ­ were also married. Their children, who were Peter's cousins, made a number of marriages with the Augspurger family in Butler County. Jacob Kinsinger (born in 1792) married a sister of Christian Augspurger. Samuel Kinsinger (born in 1799) and Joseph Kinsinger (born in 1801) married his daughters. Peter became a member of the conservative Augspurger congregation. On July 12, 1842 he married Catherine Augspurger (1821-1901). She was a daughter of elder Jacob Augspurger and his second wife Maria Schlabach. They lived next door to Catherine's older brother, minister Nicholas Augspurger. 241 Their household is found on the 1850 census of Madison as laborer Peter Emhoff, 31, Germany; Catharine, 29, Ohio; Jacob, 6, Ohio; Mary, 5, Ohio; Peter, 2, Ohio; Barbara Emhoff [Peter's step sister], 33, Germany; and Catharine Emhoff, 53, Germany [note that her age is off by a decade]. Next door in the household of Nicholas Augspurger was 'John Kingery,' 26, Germany, who may have been Johannes Güngrich/John Gingrich. In 1860 the Madison census shows them as farmer Peter Imhof, 42, Germany; Catharina [Augspurger], 40, Ohio; six children born in Ohio; Barbara Gingrich [Peter's step sister], 50, Germany; and Catherine Imhof, 72, Germany. Peter was ordained as a minister in 1861, then chosen as elder/bishop in 1870. According to W. H. Grubb, "He was a strong preacher, and a man with liberal views. It was one of his fond hopes that the two congregations [Hessian/liberal and Augspurger/conservative divided since 1835] be united as one, which occurred in less than a year after his death."242 On the 1870 census of Madison, Peter Imhof still lived next door to minister Nicholas Augspurger: farmer Peter Imhof, 50, Prussia; Catharin, 48, Ohio; eight children born in Ohio; and Catharine, 82, France. In 1880 Peter's birthplace is given as Bavaria, and his next door neighbor is Maria [Iutzi] Ehresman, the widow of Christian Ehresman (1821-1867). Peter and Catherine are buried in the Mennonite Cemetery at Trenton. Herald of Truth, April 1897: "Pre. Peter Imhoff was born on the 16th of September 1819 in Darmuschel, Palatine, Germany. In 1840 [1839] he came to America, settling in Butler Co., Ohio, where he has since resided a period of 57 years. On the 12th of July 1842 he was united in wedlock to Sister Catharine Augspurger. Of their nine children all but one survive and these were present at their father's bedside, to receive his last words of advice and blessing. As he felt the end drawing near he asked for his bible that he might once more read with his beloved ones the 8th chapter of Romans. But his eyes were already becoming fixed in death, so that he could no longer see to read, so, giving the book to one of his sons, he said, "Read to us this beautiful chapter." Bro. Imhoff was ordained to the ministry in 1861, and ten years later to the office of an elder or bishop. He was a faithful, conscientious worker, and served his fellow-men as God gave him grace and strength. He preached his last sermon on Feb. 28th, when he was already failing in health. During his pastorate he united 14 couples in wedlock, and received 53 persons into church membership by baptism. His last illness was of short duration, and he calmly fell asleep in Jesus at the age of 77 years and 6 months. The funeral occurred on the 18th, and was very largely attended. Pre. Helle of the Lutheran church, M. Kinsinger of Washington, Ill., who was an intimate friend of the family, J. Mehl of Goshen, Ind., and H.J. Krehbiel of Trenton, Ohio conducted the services. Text 1 John 2:25--28, the parting words of the deceased to his family and congregation. An infidel who knew the deceased for many years gave this testimony of him, 'He is a good Christian. He will live long in the memory.''

Nicholas Augspurger was born at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Aug. 11, 1811, and died April 8, 1872. He was the son of elder Jacob Augspurger (1786-1846) and his second wife Maria Schlabach (1800-1856). Jacob was a second cousin to Christian Augspurger. Nicholas came to America with Christian Augspurger's extended group in 1819. On March 6, 1835 he married Magdalena 'Lena' Gautsche, who was born March 6, 1817, came to America in 1817, and died Oct. 19, 1884. Nicholas was ordained to the ministry in 1847. They are buried in the Augspurger Cemetery in Trenton. 242 The story of the 'button' and 'hook-and-eye' division of 1835 is told in STAKER.

241

163

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

A Speculative Family Tree

The father of the Neuhausen family was Jakob Johannes Ehresman. He married Barbara Fischer, a daughter of Jakob Fischer and Anna Maria Oesch of Hochheim. In Both Sides of the Ocean, J. Virgil Miller further identifies his parents as Jakob Ehresman, born on the Mechtersheimerhof circa 1760, and Barbara Höffli. We can speculate that Jakob (husband of Barbara Höffli) was a son of minister Christian Ehrismann of the Mechtersheimerhof, the brother who was moving to the northwest to serve numerous congregations. Because we know that the children at Neuhausen and the children at Dörrmoschel were second cousins, we can also assume that the grandfather of Christian Ehresmann at Dörrmoschel was the minister Christian Ehrismann. BÄRBELSTEINERHOF AT ERLENBACH BEI DAHN Der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann, born before 1676 243

MECHTERSHEIMERHOF Der jünge Johannes 'Hans' Jakob (b. before 1722244) Christian (b. before 1754245 Barbara Jotter WIMSHEIM Johannes (b. 1774) Veronika Egli ILLINOIS Christian (b. 1799) Magdalena Barnett Anna Barnett Veronica 'Fanny' Barnett MECHTERSHEIMERHOF Christian Jakob (b. circa 1760) Barbara Höffli NEUHAUSEN Jakob Johannes (b. circa 1785) Barbara Fischer INDIANA Johann Jakob (b. 1806) -- Johannes/John (b. 1812) --

? DÖRRMOSCHEL Christian Elisabeth Egle [Egli] INDIANA Katharina (b. 1807) Veronica 'Fanny' (b. 1821) OHIO Christian (b. 1821)

The locations are not necessarily places of birth, but places associated with the individuals. Christian Ehresman of Montgomery, Woodford County had a different great-grandfather than his contemporaries in the Ohio and Indiana families (minister Christian's brother der Jünge Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann), but shared the same great-great-grandfather, der alte Johannes 'Hans' Jakob Ehrismann. He was a third cousin to the contemporary children of the Neuhausen and Dörrmoschel families. However, the Illinois and Indiana families crossed again in later generations. The families have even connected as in-laws. Christian Salzman was born in 1811, and Marie Imhof in 1806. They married in Butler County, Ohio in 1837, and settled on a farm in Tippecanoe County, Indiana.

Son John H. Salzman married Magdalena Strubhar, a daughter of Valentine Strubhar and Barbara Guingrich of Montgomery, becoming an in-law to the Illinois Ehresmans (youngest son Jacob Ehresman was married to Magdalena's sister Elizabeth Strubhar). Daughter Mary Salzman married Christian Ehresman of the Indiana family. Daughter Anna Salzman married Joseph Ehresman of the Illinois family.

Erismann in Bureau County

As we noted earlier, the genealogy of the Ehresman family of Montgomery, Woodford County was largely neglected over the years. It would certainly have been difficult to track the later lives of Christian's many children, when the spelling of their surname took so many forms.

243

The estimated birth date assumes that he would have assumed a lease at age 21 or older, and the standard length was 9 He is found as a leaseholder in 1743. He would have been at least 21 at the time. Assuming he was 21 years or older at the birth of his son.

years.

244 245

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

In some instances we found their information entangled with two nearby families that had Amish Mennonite backgrounds. Our research on these families was limited. Mennonite records for Hesse and Waldeck are rare. We could not identify a connection with our speculative family tree leading back to the Bärbelsteinerhof, though one may exist. There is an obvious connection (via the Stähli family) between the family in Bureau County and that family at Neuhausen. It is also likely that the Bureau County Erismanns and McLean County Erismans came from the same location and possibly the same family. The hamlet of Gershäusen was located below Braunau in Waldeck, Germany; it is now part of that community. They are situated in the Edertal, a valley surrounding the Edersee reservoir.246 According to Hermann Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany, Johannes Ehrismann (#1) died at the hamlet Gershäusen Jan. 6, 1810.247 He had been the leaseholder on the Gershäuser Hof. His widow died there in 1814. Other families at Gershäusen included Schwarzentrubers, Jüngerichs [Güngerich], Schlabachs, and Kempfs. Johannes and his widow were the probable parents of Johannes Ehrismann (#2).248 He married Marie Jüngerich. She was a daughter of Peter Jüngerich and Katharina Schwarzentruber, who became co-leaseholders of the Gershäuser Hof after 1810. Johannes and Marie lived at the Gershäuser Mühle (mill). Johannes's father-in-law Peter Jüngerich and Peter Schlabach both filed for bankruptcy from the Gershäuser Hof in 1821. This may have played a part in the Ehrismanns' move to Schrecksbach at about this time. Schrecksbach is 22 miles southeast of the Gershäuser Hof, and adjacent to Ottrau, where Güngerich and Schlabach families leased an estate. The river Schwalm runs alongside the tiny village, and Johannes may have continued to work as a miller there. Peter Ehrismann was born at the Gershäuser Mühle Jan. 21, 1804, and moved with his parents to Schrecksbach. Peter marred Magdalena Stähly. She was born on the Obertraisa estate at Fränkisch Crumbach, Hesse Sept. 7, 1806. She was a daughter of Jakob Stähly (born at Enkenbach, the same person who was involved with the Naffziger family of Hochheim) and his second wife Elisabeth Brenneman. She was also a cousin to Heinrich Stähly/Henry Stahly, who married Maria Magdalena Ehresman of the Neuhausen family.

STÄHLI/STÄHLY/STAHLY The earliest mention we found of the surname 'Stähli' was at Hilterfingen on Lake Thun in Bern, where several families lived in the early 1500s. Kasper Stehli and Anabaptist Magdalena Schedeberger sold their farm at Sigriswil (three miles down shore from Hilterfingen) in 1713. By 1718 they were farming with Imhofs at Aschbacherhof, a village four miles south of Kaiserslautern in the Palatinate. In Both Sides of the Ocean, J. Virgil Miller draws a direct line of descent from Kasper and Magdalena to the Stähli family at Enkenbach. Magdalena's father Jakob Stähly [Stähli] was born at Enkenbach in the Palatinate July 25, 1752, and died on the Obertraisa estate in Fränkisch-Crumbach July 26, 1822. He first married Elisabeth, the widow of Johannes Spring. This made him step-grandfather to the children described in NAFZIGER. He later remarried to the much younger Elisabeth Brenneman, who was born Dec. 9, 1776, and died on the Albacherhof May 3, 1851, a daughter of Nikolaus Brenneman and his second wife Magdalena Unzicker (see BRENNEMAN). They may have assumed the lease at Obertraisa, where they had five children 1805-1815. Magdalena's older sister Barbara was born in 1805, and died in 1898. She married Johann Christian Nafziger. He was born at Uberau, Hesse in 1803, and died at Danvers March 8, 1893, a son of Peter Nafziger and Jakobina Fischer (a daughter of Christian Fischer of the Liebenauerhof at Hochheim). They sailed from Le Havre on the Empire and arrived at New York Nov. 19, 1853. The passenger list shows them as Christian Nafziger, 50, Barbara, 48, and eight children traveling from Hesse to New York. The 1880 census has them as Christian Naffziger, 76, Hesse-Damstadt; and Barbara, 74, Hesse-Darmstadt. Herald of Truth, April 1893: "On the 8th of March, 1893, near Danvers, Ill., Christian Naffziger, aged 90 years, 1 month and 19 days. He was born in Hesse Darmstadt, where he grew up and was married to Barbara Staehly. They settled in America in 1853. He was a minister in the Mennonite church and labored as long as his bodily A dam constructed 1908-14 blocks the Eder River. The Edersee reservoir raised the water level over several villages where Amish Mennonites once leased farms, such as Berich. The dam was bombed May 17, 1943, releasing a 20-foot wave through the Edertal (inspiration for the movie The Dam Busters). It was rebuilt within months. 247 The Gershäuser Hof below Braunau, and the one-time hamlet of Gershäusen, are easy to confuse with Gershausen below Kirchheim, which is about 35 miles to the southeast. According to Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany, there are entries for the Gershäuser Hof kept in parish records at Braunau. The parish records are not found in the FHL microfilm system, so we could not verify them. It is possible that additional information would be found in the Ortsippenbuch (family lineage book) of Braunau, held by the Family History Library at Salt Lake City (943 B4do ser. Av. 219). 248 Guth identifies another son of this couple as Jakob Ehrismann, born at the mill at Gershäusen Sept. 14, 1811, who later went to Schrecksbach and is thought to have gone to America.

246

165

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

strength permitted. Of his 12 children seven - and a number of grandchildren and great grandchildren - survive him. Appropriate remarks were made at the funeral by John Kinsinger, Chr. Gingerich and John Gingerich from Psa. 90 and 1 Cor. 15:45-56." Magdalena's younger brother Peter was born circa 1812. He married Catherine Gingerich. She was born Feb. 12, 1813, and died in December 1892, a daughter of John P. Gingerich (as he was known in Iowa) and Fredricka Schlabach.

Peter and Magdalena sailed from Bremen on the Janet Ridston and arrived at New York June 24, 1852.249 The passenger lists describes them as Peter Erizman, 48; Magdalena, 46; Catrin [Katharina], 17; Jacob, 16; Elisabeth, 14; Anna, 14 [we cannot account for her after this voyage]; Frederick [Fredricka], 12 [mistakenly indicated to be a male]; Elen [Helen], 9; Christiana, 7 [mistakely indicated to be a female]; Wm. Erisman, 5; and Maria, 3. Magdalena's younger brother and his family sailed with them: Peter Stahli, 38; Cath., 37; Elisabeth, 10; Mglin, 7; and Wm., 5. Both families settled in Bureau County. Peter Erismann and Magdalena Stähly lived in Bureau. Bureau Township was also known as 'Bureau Junction,' because it held a railroad switching yard. From this point forward Peter's surname is usually found as 'Erismann' but occasionally 'Erisman.' Their household appears on the 1860 census of Bureau as farmer Peter Erisman, 56, Germany; Helena [Hessian immigrants saw this as a short form of Magdalena], 54, Germany; Jacob, 24, Germany; Frederica, 20, Germany; Christian, 16, Germany; and William, 13, Germany. 'Peter Erismann' of 'Bureau Princeton' appears on an excise tax list in 1865, owing $5 on income of $825. The 1870 census of Bureau shows Peter, 54, and Hellen, 61, living in the household of son and farmer Wm. Erisman, 23, Germany. Others in the household include Fredrica Naffziger, 39, Germany [daughter Fredricka]; Ellen Erisman, age illegible, Germany [daughter Helen]; C., 25 [Christian Nafziger, Frederick'a husband?]; Marie Naffziger, 5, Illinois; Bertha, 3, Illinois; and Edmund or Edward, 1, Illinois. The household of Magdalena's younger brother can be found on the 1860 census of Dover, Bureau County: farmer Peter Staley, 48, Darmstadt; Catharine, 48, Darmstadt; Helena, 15, Darmstadt; and William, 13, Darmstadt. Peter Erismann died before 1880. As a widow, Magdalena is found on the 1880 census of Bureau: Magdalena Erismann, 73, born in Hesse-Darmstadt to German parents; Kate, 45, born in Germany to German parents; William, 33, born in Kurhessen to a father from Kurhessen and a mother from Hesse-Darmstadt; Mary, 31, born in Kurhessen to a father from Kurhessen and a mother from Hesse-Damstadt; and farm laborer Thomas Grubb, 20, born in Pennsylvania to parents form Pennsylvania. Their next door neighbors included John Schwarzentraub, 59, born in Hesse-Darmstadt and his family; J.E. Schwarzentraub, 26, and his wife Emma; John Naffziger, 54, and his family; Nicholas P. Roggy, 30, and his family; and Joseph Engle [Engel], 75, and his wife Kate. 250 The children of Peter and Magdalena were all born in Germany. The second child, Elisabeth/Elise/Eliza, is known to have been born at Schrecksbach, Hesse. Several census reports gave their birth place as the state of Kurhessen, which would be consistent with Schrecksbach. They include:

'Jacob Erissman' appears on the Janet Ridston passenger list. However, his family appears apart from Peter's, His age, 29, was obviously altered with a superimposed number to become 24. He traveled with Barbara, 29, and Wm., 9. Katharina 'Kate' appears on the Janet Ridston passenger list and the 1880 census of Bureau as someone born circa 1835. She was living at Princeton in 1911, when she was mentioned in Fredricka's will as a sister. Jacob Erismann was born March 31, 1836. On June 23, 1869 in Tazewell County he married Anna Elizabeth Jantzi.251 She was born June 25, 1844, and died at Hickman, Nebraska Dc. 28, 1928, a daughter of Michael Jantzi and his second wife Catherine Nafziger. In 1867 Jacob was listed as a qualified voter in Brownsville District, Nemaha County, Nebraska. In 1900 and 1911 he was living at Hickman. Elisabeth/Elise/Eliza Erismann was born at Schrecksbach January or June 23, 1838, and died before 1911. On June 5, 1858 in McLean County she married Joseph Brenneman. He was born at Turtle Creek, Ohio May 7, 1833, and

1. 2.

3.

The same voyage brought Daniel Schwarzentraub who later lived at Morton (see SCHWARZENTRAUB). Another name on the list is Daniel Gingerich, age 20. This may be the individual who appears on the 1880 census of El Paso, Woodford County as saloon keeper Dan Gingrich, 48, born in Hesse-Darmstadt to parents from Hesse-Darmstadt. 250 This was the Johannes/John Schwarzentraub born in Hesse-Darmstadt in 1820, who lived at Turtle Creek, Ohio for many years. He is mentioned in SCHWARZENTRAUB. Joseph Engel and his wife Catherine 'Kate' Roggy can be found in ENGEL; Nicholas P. Roggy was Catherine's nephew. John Naffziger, 54, was Johannes Nafziger, who was born on the Illbach estate at Reinheim March 25, 1826, and died in 1899, a son of Valentin Nafziger and Elisabeth Imnof. He immigrated in 1849. John's wife Eliza, 53, was Elise Bender. She was born on the Schmitthof in Hesse-Darmstadt Sept. 26, 1826, came to America with the '100 Hessian Mennonite' voyage of 1832, and died Nov. 9, 1908, a daughter of Johannes Bender and Marie Brenneman (see BRENNEMAN). 251 She is listed as Anna Jensen in the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index.

249

166

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

died July 9, 1914, a son of Daniel Brenneman and Elizabeth Jutzi (see BRENNEMAN). They can be found on the 1860 census of Boynton living next door to his parents: Jos. Brenneman, 26, Ohio; Eliza, 22, Germany; and Adelia, 1, Illinois. They sold their farm in Tazewell County in 1883, and then farmed at Lincoln, Nebraska; Hubbell, Nebraska; and finally Republic County, Kansas. Anna Erisman appears as a 14-year-old (like her sister Elisabeth) on the Janet Ridston passenger list. Fredricka/Fredericka Erismann was born circa 1840, and died at Princeton, Bureau County in March 1911. On Feb. 7, 1864 in McLean County she married Christian Naffziger. Her household is found on the 1880 census of Princeton as Fredricka Naffziger, 40, born in Prussia to Prussian parents; and daughter Minnie, 15, born in Illinois to Prussian parents. Her will said that all three of her children had died before 1911. At the time of her death she owned land in Livingston and McLean Counties as well as her home at Princeton. Helen Erismann was born circa 1843. She married August Nafziger, who was born circa 1838. The 1880 census of Mackinaw shows their household as August Nafziger, 42, Prussia; Helen, 37, Hesse-Cassel; Alvin, 7, Illinois; Herbert, 5, Illlinois; Augusta, 19, Illinois, and father Jacob Nafziger, 83, born in Prussia to parents from Prussia and Hesse-Cassel. They appear on the 1910 census of Albion, Republic County, Kansas as August Nafziger, 73, Germany; Helen, 67, Germany; and three grown children born in Illinois. August reported that he had come to America in 1853, and Helen in 1852. Fredricka's 1911 will said that her sister Helen was living at Narka, Republic County, Kansas. Christian August Erismann was born Aug. 16, 1844, and died before 1911. In 1877 he was listed in The Voters and Taxpayers of Bureau County, Illinois as the renter of 240 acres in Section 10, Princeton. He married Helen Shettler [Schöttler]. They are found on the 1880 census of Saltillo, Lancaster County, Nebraska as C.A. Erisman, 35, Germany; Helen, 21, Illinois; and Wm. Stailey, 32, boarder-farmer from Germany. C.A. Erisman appears in the 1890 Nebraska State Gazeteer business directory as a farmer-resident of Hickman (six miles below Saltillo). Wilhelm/William Erismann was born circa 1847. In 1877 he was listed as a co-renter with his brother Christian August in The Voters and Taxpayers of Bureau County, Illinois. Marie/Mary Erismann was born circa 1849.

Ehrisman in McLean County

Christian Erisman was born at Edertal (the valley that now surrounds eastern end of the Edersee reservoir), Waldeck Nov. 14, 1819, and died at Allin, McLean County March 14, 1870. He may have been a younger brother to Peter of Bureau County. On Oct. 21, 1855 at Danvers he married Barbara Donner. 252 She was born in Butler County, Ohio March 13, 1833, and died June 3, 1912. She was a daughter of Peter Donner and Barbara Naffziger (sister to minister 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger). Peter Donner and Barbara Naffziger may be recalled from Part One as passengers on the Nimrod. That ship sailed from Amsterdam to New York in 1826. Their party was coordinated by second cousin Christian Nafziger, who brought them to settle at Wilmot, Ontario. The 1870 census of Allin shows his widow Barbary Ayersman, 35, Illinois; Rinehart, 14, at school, Illinois; John, 13, at school, Illinois; Henry, 11, Illinois; Elizabeth, 6, Illinois; Kate, 4, Illinois; Christian, 2, Illinois; and Barbary Donner, 67, "lives at Ayersmans" [Barbara Naffziger Donner]. (In 1867 Mosquito Grove became Allin. Stanford was a railroad stop at Allin. One would now say that Stanford is a town within Allin Township, on the west side of McLean County bordering Tazewell County). On Aug. 30, 1872 at Stanford Barbara remarried to Jacob Erisman. 253 He was born at Wetzlar, Hesse (10 miles west of Giessen, 50 miles below Edertal) May 26, 1828, and died Sept. 14, 1898. Their household appears on the 1880 census of Allin as farmer Jacob Erisman, 52, born in Germany to German parents; Barbra, 43, born in Ohio to German parents; stepson Henry, 19, Illinois; stepdaughter Elizabeth, 16, Illinois; stepdaughter Catharine, 14, Illinois; and stepson Christian, 12, Illinois. Barbara is found as a 67-year-old landlord living with her son Henry on the 1900 census of Allin. Barbara Donner, her first husband Christian Erisman, and her second husband Jacob Erisman are all buried in Brooks Grove Cemetery at Stanford. The children of Christian Erisman and Barbara Donner born at Stanford include:

1. Rhinehart Erisman was born in January 1857, and died at Delhi, Indiana Dec. 5, 1921. He appears on the 1880 census of Allin as Rineheart Erisman, a 22-year-old laborer on the farm of Christian Leitfritz. On Dec. 28, 1892 at Dawson, Nebraska he maried Marcella May Bennett. She was born at Delhi, Iowa Oct. 3, 1874, and died there Dec.

252 253

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists him as Christian Erissman. The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as Jacob Earsman and Barbara Earsman.

167

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

7, 1921. Rhinehart was one of the initial organizers of Delhi Lodge No. 94, Modern Brotherhood of America (Odd Fellows), established at Delhi Oct. 13, 1897. John Erisman was born Dec. 29, 1958, and died at Stanford Oct. 14, 1932. On Oct. 12, 1887 at Stanford he married Elise/Eliza Christine Bauer.254 She was born at Danvers Aug. 24, 1866, and died at Stanford March 20, 1936. Henry Erisman was born July 6, 1860, and died at Bloomington, McLean County Jan. 24, 1948. He was living with his mother on the 1900 census of Allin, which states that he was born in Illinois in July 1860. His household appears on the 1930 census of Bloomington as Henry Erisman, 69, born in Illinois, described as a janitor in a bakery; and his wife Ida Mae, 60, born in Illinois to parents from Virginia and Indiana. Barbara Erisman was born in 1863, and died at Stanford the same year. She is buried in Brooks Grove Cemetery at Stanford. Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Erisman was born Jan. 11, 1864, and died at Stanford Oct. 17, 1949. On Feb. 12, 1885 at Stanford she married August Nafziger. He was born at Stanford Aug. 1, 1859, and died at Bloomington Dec. 17, 1951, a son of Christian P. Nafziger and Catherine Nafziger. Katharina 'Katie' Erisman was born Nov. 22, 1865, and died at Gothenburg, Nebraska Jan. 28, 1934. On Jan. 27, 1887 at Stanford she married Daniel Gingerich. He was born at Danvers Dec. 27, 1862, and died at Gothenburg April 26, 1922. He was a son of Maria Katharina Güngerich/Mary Gingerich and an unidentified father. After Daniel's mother married Jacob Nafziger at Danvers in 1868, Daniel became his stepson but kept the surname Gingerich. Daniel ran a harness shop at Gothenburg after 1890. Christian Erisman was born Dec. 19, 1867, and died at Stanford Oct. 16, 1898. He is buried in Brooks Grove Cemetery.

254

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index lists them as John Errismann and Eliza Christiane Bauer.

168

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Hochstettler of Winterkraut

Hostetler, Hostettler, Hochstettler, Hochstättler. There are two viable explanations of the origins of this name. The first is that Hostetler is the original Swiss form, though it is now more commonly found there as 'Hostettler.' Those who favor this explanation also infer that the spelling 'Hochstettler' was associated with descendants who lived in Germany. The second explanation, offered by genealogist Delbert Gratz, is that 'Hochstettler' describes a 'high town' in the Bernese dialect, and was associated with the village of Hochstetten. A number of variations appear in 18th and 19th century records.

P

eter Hochstettler was a member of the Dillon Creek Meeting until he left Pleasant Grove to become a minister and elder/bishop of the Egly Amish Church. The Egly Amish Church became the Defenseless Mennonite Church of Groveland, and later the Evangelical Mennonite Church of Groveland. Historically, he bridged the immigrant generations and the generation that has just passed away (our great-aunt Ethel Marie Staker, born in 1913, recalled Peter as the retired elder of her church). Peter's great-great-great grandfather, Anabaptist minister Jakob/Jacob Hochstedtler, was born at Winterkraut near Guggisberg, Bern (21 miles west of Steffisburg) about 1666. He fled from prison in 1698. In 1709 he was living in Echery. In 1711 he purchased a farm next to Jacob Amman at La Petite Lièpvre (according to a census found by Erwin Hochstättler). A Thun court document from 1720 describes how 'Jacob Hoofstetter' of Winterkraut had secretly returned from Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to assist the emigration of several women who had been left behind. He was arrested and exiled again. Jakob's wife could not be identified. Their children include: 255

1. Elisabeth Hostetler was born near Ste. Marie-aux-Mines about 1706. She married Michael/Michel Blank, who was baptized at Steffisburg July 31, 1687, and died near Ste. Marie-aux-Mines May 24, 1755, a son of Niclaus Blank and Barbara Im Hoof. He came to Ste. Marie-aux-Mines before 1697. (See PLANK). Jacob Hochstetler was born near Ste. Marie-aux-Mines circa 1712 (the date indicated by his immigration passenger list), and died at Bernville, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania in February 1776. Johannes Hostetler, Hochstättler or Hochstettler was born in 1710 or 1714, presumably at La Petite Lièpvre, and died before 1769. Verena Hostetler was born circa 1716, and died single at the age of 25 at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines Nov. 20, 1741, after an illness of 14 weeks. Her death entry identifies her as 'Vrena Hochstettlerin,' and mentions that she had been living with brother-in-law Michel Blank. She was buried at Fertrupt [Ger. Forbach] near Ste. Marie-aux-Mines.

2. 3. 4.

Brothers Jacob and Johannes:

JACOB HOSTETLER

The details in the following information should be taken with a grain of salt. Jacob Hochstetler resources disagree on almost every biographical point. Only the general story of the Pennsylvania pioneer is consistent. Jacob Hochstetler was born near Ste. Marie-aux-Mines circa 1712 (the date indicated by his immigration passenger list), and died at Bernville, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania in February 1776. He married an Anna. A number of genealogists looking at land entries and other indirect evidence have concluded that she was a Bürki/Berkey. They emigrated from Europe on the Charming Nancy, traveling from Rotterdam to Cowes to Philadelphia and arriving there Nov. 9, 1738.256 In 1739 they obtained a warrant for 58 acres in Upper Bern, Berks County (now about two miles northwest of Shartlesville near Reading). At that time it was still an unsettled part of the frontier.

Peter/Pierre Hostetler migrated from Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to Breisach am Rhein, Baden in 1730. A list of the possessions he took with him was included in a tax report. He may belong in this family. 256 This Jacob is often confused with another who arrived two years earlier. When The Descendants of Jacob Hochstetler, the immigrant of 1736 was published by descendant Harvey Hochstetler in 1912, he believed that the Amish Mennonite Jacob had arrived at Philadelphia on the Harle Sept. 1, 1836. A number of false assumptions sprang from this. Genealogists looked at the Harle passenger list, and concluded that he was married to a Miss Lorenz. There was also confusion over land warrants and ages. The Jacob Hochstedtler/Hochstadtler/Hofstedler who arrived on the Harle was not Amish Mennonite. He was born July 25, 1701, and died in Lancaster County circa 1750. He married Maria Eva Trautmann. They belonged to the Muddy Creek Church, a Lutheran and Reformed congregation at Cocalico Township.

255

169

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Grown children John and Barbara had married and lived nearby when Jacob and Anna's home was surrounded by 10 Delaware Indians and three French scouts Sept. 19, 1757. Son Jacob answered a knock at the door, and was shot in the leg before slamming it shut. They waited out the attack overnight in the root cellar, though guns and ammunition were on hand. But in the early morning the cabin was set afire. Son John, who lived nearby, witnessed events from a distance. Anna and two of her children were killed and scalped (possibly as retribution; apparently Anna had denied them food earlier). Father Jacob and two of his sons were taken prisoner. Jacob escaped in the spring. A military report of his return is dated May 29, 1758. He petitioned the governor for the return of his sons Aug. 13, 1762. Joseph came home on his own in 1763 or 1764. Christian returned in the summer of 1765. Depending on who was telling the story of the 'Hochstetler Massacre,' it became either a note of admonition or one of inspiration to those who practiced nonresistance. Jacob's descendants are documented in two immense volumes called Descendants of Jacob Hochstetler and The Descendants of Barbara Hochstedler andChristian Stutzman. Jacob and Anna's children include:

a. John Hochstetler was born in 1730, and died April 11, 1805. He married Catherine Hertzler. She was born in 1731, and died in 1800, a daughter of elder Jacob Hertzler and his second wife Catherine Roggy. They moved to Summit Mills, Somerset County, Pennsylvania in 1784. After her death John remarried to Anna Christner, the widow of Ulrich 'Uli' Schrock, who was born in Canton Bern circa 1740 an died in Somerset County in 1795. She was born in Canton Bern in 1745, and died April 7, 1824, a daughter of Christian Christner and Barbara Burckhardt. John, Catherine, and Anna are buried in the Old Joel Hershberger Farm Cemetery at Elk Lick, Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Barbara Hochstedler was born in 1732, and died at Shartlesville, Berks County in 1787. In December 1753 she married Christian Stutzman. He was born in Berks County in 1732, and died at Shartlesville Nov. 17, 1770, a son of Johann Jakob Stutzman and Magdalena Steck. Jacob Hochstetler was born in 1734, and died in the 'Hochstetler Massacre' of 1757. An unidentified daughter died with older brother Jacob in 1757. Joseph Hochstetler was born in the Northkill settlement (now Upper Bern, Berks County) in August 1742, and died at Mifflinville, Columbia County Aug. 24, 1812. Circa 1767 he married Anna Blank at Upper Bern. She was born circa 1744, and died at Mifflinville in 1812, a daughter of physician Hans Blank and Magdalena (one source says Magdalena was a Joder)(see BLANK). They settled in Heidelberg. In 1806 they relocated to Mifflinville, where they are buried in Mifflinville Cemetery. Christian Hochstetler was also born in the Northkill settlement Feb. 13, 1746, and died near Dayton, Ohio April 2, 1814. He is buried in Union Cemetery at Somerset, Somerset County, Pennsylvania. In 1769 he married orphan Barbara Rupp. She was born circa 1746, and died at Dayton, Ohio in 1814. She is buried near her daugher Elizabeth and son-in-law Christian Leatherman in an unmarked grave in Trowbridge Cemetery at Hillsdale, Indiana. Christian and Barbara settled in Somerset County, Pennsylvania in 1784, where Christian became a Dunker preacher. They later lived near Dayton, Ohio.

b.

c. d. e.

f.

JOHANNES HOSTETLER, HOCHSTÄTTLER OR HOCHSTETTLER

Johannes Hostetler, Hochstättler or Hochstettler was born in 1710 or 1714, presumably at La Petite Lièpvre, and died before 1769. He married Anna Wagler from Muesbach near Ribeauvillé, who was born circa 1710. . In 1746 they were living on the slopes of Climont, a peak near Weinbourg in the Val de Villé.257 We cannot explain a death entry created at Villé Jan. 15, 1747. It stated that a child had died at Weinburg: "...Mortua est Maria anna Joanny Hochstettler et Anna Waglere Annabaptistarum in Weinberg filia et infans..." It was witnessed by "...Christiani Eber [Ebele?] anabaptists in Weinberg et Jacobo Lorscher [Jacob Lörtscher] Anabaptista ibidem..." Though the entry may have been a simple error (Maria Anna did not die) it fortunately provides a record of the family's location.

257 To this best of our knowledge, the location Climont peak near Weinbourg in connection with the Hochstettlers was first proposed by German genealogist Erwin Hochstättler about 20 years ago. Our first check of Protestant records at Weinbourg found four Hofstatter or Hochstatter events: the birth of son Johann Oct. 27, 1743' the birth (March 2, 1744) and death (1744) of Maria, and the birth of Anna Barbara (Aug. 28, 1847). A closer look at these entries found the name 'Juliana Diessen' buried in the German text. The same records showed that on Jan. 8, 1743 Johannes Hofstätter, son of Johannes Hofstätter, married Juliana Deissen, daughter of Johann Diessen. So this was a 'soundalike' miss.

170

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Circa 1748 they relocated the the area of Asswiller, about 60 miles north of Villé. This area was purchased by religious benefactor Sebastien de Fouquerolles in 1703, and served as a tolerant haven for Catholic, Jewish, Lutheran, Reformed, and Anabaptist refugees. Daughter Maria Anna later stated that she was baptized there as a 13year-old in 1757. It is likely that they actually resided on the Neumatte estate at adjacent Diemeringen. The lease was held by Anna Wagler's nephew Johannes/Jean Wagler and Anna Bürki. (For more on the family of Johannes/Jean Wagler and Anna Bürki and their descendants in Illinois, see BIRKY/BIRKEY, THE CROOKED ALSACE CHAIN). Daughter Elisabeth Hochstettler and her husband Christian Kempf had a child there in 1766 (see below). The children of Johannes Hochstettler and Anna Wagler include:

1. Johannes/Jean Hochstettler. He married Christina Wittmer. He served as a minister and worked in Katzenwangen Mill (Ger. Katzenwangenbrückmühle) at Bennwihr, then relocated to Ostheim, Upper Alsace (Bennwihr and Ostheim are only three miles below Ribeauvillé, the birth place of Anna Wagler). It is possible that his mentor was minister Jean/ Johannes Roggy. Roggy represented the Strasboug congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1759; his sons Christian and Johannes (who married a daughter of Johannes/Jean and Christina) were operators of Katzenwangen Mill. The children of Johannes/Jean Hochstettler and Christina Wittmer include: a. Johannes/Jean Hochstettler was born in 1760, and died at Ostheim March 19, 1789. His death entry called him 'Joannes Hochstettler annabaptista'; witnesses were Melchior Reiss and Johannes Reiss. He married Elisabeth Lidviller. She was born at Schupfholz, Baden circa 1762, and died at Ostheim Dec. 18, 1818, a daughter of Christian Leutweiler and Elisabeth Wagner (see LITWILLER). On April 10, 1793 at Ostheim she remarried to Conrad Schweitzer. He was born at Bad Bergzabern in the Palatinate Aug. 2, 1767, and died at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines, Upper Alsace May 24, 1827, a son of Conrad Schweitzer and Madeleine Eyer. b. Barbara Hochstettler was born circa 1761, and died at Katzenwangen Mill April 18, 1794. c. Christian Hochstettler was born at Katzenwangen Mill in 1763, and died at Pfaffenheim Mill at Ostheim Oct. 11, 1841. He married Barbe Rogi/Roggy. She was born at Pfaffenheim, a daughter of Christian/Chrétien Rogi/Roggy and Sara Dettweiler. Christian and Barbe were farming near Katzenwangen Mill in 1788. Christian lived with a son at Eckbolsheim near Strasbourg in 1809. They were known to have 10 children, six dying at an early age, and three married. Their children include: 1) Jean Hochstettler was born at Bennwihr March 8, 1788 (the entry was signed by his father). 2) Christian Hochstettler's birth was recorded at Bennwihr July 29, 1790. 3) Barbe Hochstettler was born at Ostheim Jan. 24, 1796. On Jan. 18, 1820 at Ostheim she married Jean Roggy. He was born on the Waderhof between Lorentzen and Diemeringen, Moselle April 7, 1797 and died at Pfaffenheim Mill April 3, 1861, a son of Valentin Roggy and Barbara Schertz (see ROGGY). c. Anna Maria Hochstettler was born circa 1766, and died at Katzenwangen Mill April 18, 1794. She married operator Johannes Rogi/Roggy of Katzenwangen Mill; he was born circa 1759. Chrétien/Christian Hochstettler was born circa 1738, and died on the Ingelshof also called the Engelshof or Höllenhof] at Gumbrechtshoffen, Lower Alsace Feb. 4, 1811. His civil death entry created at Gumbrechtshoffen described him as Chrétien Hoffstettler, a 73-year-old cultivator who was born at "Markirch thal dit Wingart." It was witnessed by his son-in-law Chrétien Naffziger, 44. This may have described a Wingart farm at Ste. Marie-auxMines, or simply be a garbled interpretation of Weinberg. He married Barbara/Barbe Nafziger in 1766. Very little is known about her, but it is possible that she was the sister of his second wife. When she died on the Lauterbacherhof, Christian remarried to Magdalena/Madeleine Nafziger, who was born in 1738. She was a daughter of Christian Nafziger, the leaseholder of the nearby Steinbacherhof farm at Durstel. This made Christian Hochstettler the brother-in-law of elder Christian Engel (Christian Engel's first wife had been Katharina/Catherine Nafziger, a sister to Magdalena/Madeleine; see ENGEL). Christian Hochstettler held leases on the Ingelshof and the Lauterbacherhof at various times. His children include: a. Christian Hochstettler was born on the Ingelshof Dec. 15, 1775 to Barbe Nafziger. He first married Katharina Habecker, who died on the Herfingerhof near Dreisen Feb. 12, 1812. On May 17, 1814 at Nehwiller he remarried to Barbara Unzicker, born June 27, 1787, a daughter of Nehwiller mayor Joseph Unzicker and Barbara Holly (the entry calls him 'Chrétien Hochstaedter'). In 1814 they lived at Stepperg, Bavaria. Their only known child: b. Jakob Hochstettler, born at Stepperg Aug. 2, 1814. c. Katharina Hochstettler married Christian Nafziger. He was born at Steineltz in 1763, a son of miller Johannes Nafziger and his second wife Madeleine Schantz of the Katzenthalerhof at Lembach. His family moved onto the Katzenthalerhof when he was two years old. Christian and Katharina lived on the Lauterbacherhof; at Gros-Réderching, Moselle; and after 1814 at Biburg, Bavaria (a suburb west of Augsburg). d. Magdalena Hochstettler was born in 1778. She married Johannes/Jean Ringenberg at Reichshoffen Feb. 14, 1796. He was the son of Jean Ringenberg and Marie Engel of LaForge Mill below Imling, Moselle.

2.

171

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3. 4.

5.

6.

Elder Christian Engel attended this wedding as a cousin of the groom and uncle of the bride (see ENGEL). The couple later lived at Bébing, Moselle. Isaak/Isaac Hochstettler was born circa Jan. 21, 1740, and died on the Neuhof near Niederlauterbach, Oberbronn, Lower Alsace Oct. 29, 1817. Maria Anna Hochstettler was born circa 1744. She was baptized as an Anabaptist at Asswiller in 1757. In 1769 at Niederschlettenbach in the Palatinate she married Josef Stettelman. He was employed on the Bärbelsteinerhof as one of her brother Isaac's laborers. Elisabeth Hochstettler was born circa 1746, and died at Neuenkirch-lès- Sarreguemines, Moselle March 6, 1800. According to J. Virgil Miller in Both Sides of the Ocean, the parish book of Königsbach, Baden-Durlach holds an entry for the baptism of a child Johannes to Christian Kempf, Anabaptist, and 'Elisabeth Hochstädlerin' dated Jan. 16, 1766. The entry stated that the father was farming at Johannisthal, and the child had been born on the Neumatte estate at Diemeringen. A census of the farm Olberting at Bitche (now in Moselle) taken in 1780 shows Christian Kempf, 52; Elisabeth Hochstetler, 44; Christian Kempf, 24; and other children. Christian Kempf died at Willerwald, Moselle (near Sarralbe) Jan. 28, 1811. Barbara/Barbe Hochstettler was the wife of minister Hans Rupp, also known as 'Jean Ropp.' They were the parents of Andreas Ropp, the patriarch of the Illinois family (see ROPP). We could not follow Barbe after the birth of a child at Falkwiller (now in Upper Alsace) circa 1785. Hans was living in the flour mill Mattenmühle at Sigolsheim about 15 miles southeast of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines when he died Nov. 26, 1788; Barbe is not mentioned on his death entry. Barbe's older brother Johannes/Jean performed Jean Ropp's burial service at Bennwihr.

Isaak/Isaac Hochstettler was born circa Jan. 21, 1740. He died on the Neuhof near Niederlauterbach, Oberbronn, Lower Alsace Oct. 29, 1817. Circa 1764 Isaac moved onto the Lauterbacherhof farm, located west of the triangle between the crossroads villages of Gumbrechtshoffen, Reichshoffen, and Gundershoffen, in the area below Froensbourg. This area is 60 miles north of Climont peak and closer to the border with the Palatinate. The Protestant de Dietrich family not only owned the Lauterbacherhof, but owned a foundry at Reichshoffen until the French Revolution of 1789. The farm probably provided wood for the foundry before it was completely cleared for cultivation. 258 Isaac may have married Maria Siegel at about the same time he moved onto the Lauterbacherhof. She is thought to have been a daughter of Ulrich Siegel and Anna Lehmann of Elschbacherhof, Saar. 259 They had a son Jacob. Maria may have died in childbirth or left the congregation, because she is not mentioned after this date. At this point the Bärbelsteinerhof communal farm at Berwartstein castle (mentioned in EHRESMAN) becomes relevant again. Isaac would become leaseholder through a series of fortuitous events. In 1743 Hans/Jean Ringenberg of Ketzing (near Gondrexange in what is now Moselle) married Barbara, a daughter of leaseholder-minister Christian Holli/Holly. Christian died in 1748, followed by his daughter the following year. This left Ringenberg as sole leaseholder. Ringenberg remarried to Anna Rupp. When he died circa 1763, she continued on the estate with Tobias Kiefer as her co-leaseholder.260 Kiefer had been a co-leaseholder of the Steinbacherhof estate near Asswiller, with his brother Jacob Kiefer and Christian Nafziger (a nephew to Ulrich Nafziger). Perhaps he introduced widower Isaac Hochstettler of Asswiller to widow Anna; Isaac and Anna married in 1766. Anna is thought to have had three children from her first marriage, though they have not been identified. In 1770 Isaac was ordained as a minister serving the Wissembourg-Froensbourg congregation with members on both sides of the poorly defined Alsace-Palatinate border.261 In 1772 he signed a full 12-year lease on the Bärbelsteinerhof, with elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger of Essingen as guarantor. Working the stone and root-strewn

258 The Lauterbacherhof dates from the 15th century. It was originally within the town limits of Gundershoffen, and is now in Reichshoffen. In present day it is called the Millemann Farm. The Lauterbacherhof is easy to confuse with the Lutterbacherhof, the home of Birkys whose descendants came to Tazewell County. The Lutterbacherhof is located at Voellerdingen, and many entries (with a number of spelling variations) appear in Diemeringen records. For more on the de Dietrich family, see JORDI. 259 Maria Siegel is only known through the death record of her son Jakob Hochstettler, created at Dreisen in 1857. It names Isaak Hochstettler and Maria Siegel as his parents. 260 A marriage entry created at Folschviller, Moselle Dec. 18, 1797 lists 'Tobic Kieffer' and Suzanne Hirchy [Hirschi] as parents of the groom. Suzanne Hirchy was born circa 1723, and died at Faulquemont, Moselle Feb. 28, 1810. The groom was son Jean Joseph Kieffer, born circa 1772 (who was likely a son of an earlier wife). He married Madeleine Hirchy/Hirschi, who was born at Faulquemont and died at Amelecourt, Moselle March 23, 1825. Their son Jean Kieffer was born at Folschviller Sept. 39, 1798. He was the land agent recruiter that brought Amish Mennonite families from Moselle to Lewis County, New York in the early 1830s. 261 A letter survives where elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger mentions the Wissembourg congregation; most authors have chosen to call it the Froensbourg congregation.

172

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

farmland must have been discouraging, because he made at least one request to shorten the term. During this time Isaac continued to travel to and from the Lauterbacherhof to visit relatives. Isaac represented the Wissembourg-Froensbourg congregation at the Essingen assembly of ministers in 1779 with elder Michael Schantz of Katzenthal and minister Christian Joder of Salzwoog (see ROPP) In 1783 he finished out the lease on the Bärbelsteinerhof and returned to the Lauterbacherhof. (In present day Berwartstein Castle has become a popular tourist attra t is the only castle in the region that has been rebuilt and is inhabited the Bärbelsteinerhof has reverted to forest). Anna Rupp died in 1784, and Isaac remarried to Katharina/Catherine Schantz. A Kanagy and Hoover translation of Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger's circa 1788 letter says, "In the Weissenburg congregation Isaac Hochstettler of Lauterbach is ordained as a full minister of the book and Christen Eösch at the Fleckstein is also confirned as a deacon." Descendants of Jacob Hochstetler tells the story of Issac's declining fortunes, tied to the disastrous devaluation of the French assignat. Contributor Peter Hochstettler of Groveland was unaware that his great-grandfather's first wife was Maria Siegel when he provided the information for the book.

"The first wife of Isaac Hochstettler, maiden name Rupp, was from Canton Bern, and at one time had notice of an inheritance there, but Isaac would not claim it as at that time he thought he had money enough. He was able to have bought the land on which he lived, but as the family in Switzerland had been driven from their lands, he thought it safer to have his possessions in money. Later the government took his money, giving him paper in exchange which afterwards proved worthless. In his poverty he wished to secure the money from Switzerland which was offered through his first wife, but that [sum] had [already] been given to her heirs. He gave his older children good sums of money to start in life, but the younger ones had to share his poverty...This note and practically all that is given of the family is furnished by Peter Hochstettler, Groveland or Pekin, Ill."262

Some genealogists have assumed that Katharina/Catherine Schantz died, and Isaac married a fourth time. The evidence is confusing:

Anna Holly was the daughter of elder Jacob Holly and Marie Kurtz of Mühlhofen, and the widow of elder Christian Güngerich of Steinseltz (a grandson of elder Johannes 'Hans der Alte' Güngerich). She remarried to someone at Steinseltz July 18, 1799. The civil entry is a minor mystery. Its text names the bride as 'Anna Hollin,' 47, and the groom as 'Jean Hochstatttler' of Reichshoffen, 56. Isaac would have been 59. There is no signature or 'x' for Johannes, but instead Isaac's full signature. The Steinseltz municipal clerk and his assistant both signed as witnesses, along with Chrétien Roggy, 37, of Riedseltz, described as a friend of the groom. Descendant Erwin Hochstättler of Cologne has written that he believes the name and age in the text are simply mistakes, and Isaac was married that day. This seems like a long reach. It is more likely that the two clerks knew what they were creating and signing. Perhaps the groom/husband was not available to sign, and relative Isaac took his place. For an Anabaptist, the état civil entry was a legal requirement tied to inheritance and citizenship issues; they were occasionally arranged months or even years after couples were married within the church. A tentative guess: Issac aranged the legal marriage of his widowed brother Johannes or another relative to widow Anna Holly. This would have given her legal rights not accorded to single women in 1799, allowing her to retain the lease or title on her home. 263

In 1809 Isaac relocated to live with his son Peter on the Neuhof at Niederlauterbach. This location is nine miles southeast of Wissembourg, in the northwest corner of Alsace near the borders with the Palatinate and Württemberg, four miles west of the Rhine Ruiver On June 19, 1808 twenty-two ministers from nine congregations met on the Bildhäuserhof at Rosheim, Lower Alsace to discuss a plea for exemption from military service. The delegates sent representatives Christian Engel and Christian Güngerich to Paris to request Amish Mennonite service in the transportation corps (see ENGEL). 264 Isaac

In 1789 the revolutionary government issued promissory notes called assignats. They were supposed to be backed by the value of properties seized from the clergy and royalty. The new notes lost the confidence of the public, and within a year the government offered to convert them into livres. In 1796 the assignat was withdrawn from circulation, and by the following year they were worth only 1/17th of original face value. 263 The flaw in this hypothesis is that evidence is lacking that might substantiate it. It is difficult to find French death records before the establishment of the état civil system of record keeping in 1792. Entries for Katharina/Catherine Schantz and Christina Wittmer might clarify the issue. 264 The details of Christian Engel's efforts can be found in Love God and Your Neighbor, The Life and Ministry of Christian Engel by Steven Estes.

262

173

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

represented the Wissembourg-Froensbourg congregation when the assembly reconvened at the same location June 1, 1811. Fifteen ministers from six departments signed a petition and chose another set of delegates to Paris, once again including Christian Engel. Their efforts were fruitless; over the next few years French soldiers assigned to engineering and artillery transport were required to bear arms. Isaac died on the Neuhof Oct. 29, 1817. His civil death entry created at Niederlauterbach called him Isack Hochstaettler, said that he was born there (unlikely), and gave his age as 77 years, 2 months, and 8 days. The three Ringenberger children that Anna Rupp brought to her second marriage have not been identified. The eight Güngerich children that Anna Holly brought to her second marriage are listed in Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany. Isaac's children include:

1. Jakob Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof circa 1765 to Maria Siegel. In 1792 he married Barbara Holly on the Münsterhof at Dreisen in the Palatinate, and took up permanent residence there. Barbara was born at Mühlhofen in 1776, and died April 4, 1841, a daughter of David Holly and Susanne Fischer (David Holly was one of the three ­ with Hans Kennel and Jakob Müller ­ who first leased the Münsterhof at Dreisen in 1767; Susanna Fischer was a niece of Ulrich Fischer, mentioned as a tenant on the Mechtersheimerhof in EHRESMAN). 265 Jakob served as a minister at Dreisen 1798-1815, then as elder until his death. He died Dec. 12, 1857. Their children born on the Münsterhof include: a. Daniel Hochstettler was born in 1793, and died on the Münsterhof in 1866. On March 2, 1824 he married Elizabeth Hirschberger, a daughter of Johannes Hirschberger and Magdalena Nafziger. b. Jakob Hochstettler was born in 1796, and died on the Münsterhof in 1885. He married Barbara Spring of the Neuhof near Hattenheim, a daughter of Peter Spring and Katharina Nafziger of the Rosenthalerhof at Kerzenheim in the Lower Palatinate. c. Peter Hochstettler was born in 1798. In 1821 at Weisenheim am Berg he married Veronika Kinsinger, a daughter of Jakob Kinzinger and Elisabeth Roggy. d. Johannes Hochstettler was born in 1799, and died on the Münsterhof in 1846. e. Elisabeth Hochstettler was born in 1801. She married Johannes Spring, a son of Peter Spring and Katharina Nafziger of the Rosenthalerhof estate. f. Christian Hochstettler was born in 1803, and died on the Münsterhof in 1813. g. Susanne Hochstettler was born in 1806. She married Andreas Kinzinger, son of Peter Kinzinger of the Blumenauermühle. They lived at Eisenberg. Anna Hochstettler was born circa 1767 to Anna Rupp. In 1787 at Niederflörsheim in the Palatinate (eight miles west of Worms) she married Christian Holly. He was born about 1760 and died at Niederflörsheim March 8, 1814, a son of David Holly and Susanna Fischer of the Münsterhof at Dreisen. Christian Holly and Anna Hochstettler had a son Peter Holly who was among the '100 Hessian Mennonites' traveling to Butler County in 1832. Peter Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof circa 1771 to Anna Rupp, and died at Meringau near Augsburg, Bavaria Dec. 12, 1822. Johannes Hochstettler was born Sept. 20, 1793 to Catherine Schantz. Descendants of Jacob Hochstetler says he later "died in old age at Augsburg, Bavaria leaving a son and four daughters." Magdalena Hochstettler was born Feb. 9, 1796 to Catherine Schantz. Descendants of Jacob Hochstetler says that she married Johan Fritz at Neiderlauterbach in 1813; he was born at Hüttenhausen near Ingolstadt. George Hochstettler was born June 30, 1798 to Catherine Schantz. He died single in Bavaria.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

In addition, Decendants of Jacob Hochstetler attributes these two children to Catherine Schantz, without identifying birth years. They would likely have fallen between 1784 and 1792: Elizabeth Hochstettler married Nikolaus Augspurger of Ste. Marie-aux-Mines in 1809. He was born at Ste. Marieaux-Mines July 6, 1768, and died there Oct. 8, 1809, a son of Nicolas Augspurger and Barbe Fongond. Elizabeth gave birth to a son Isaak after Nikolaus's death; Isaak Augsburger later lived at Wellenburg near Augsburg. Barbara Hochstettler married Christian Habecker and lived on the Katzenthalerhof at Lembach, Lower Alsace.

265 The Hollys who married into the Hochstettler family are outlined in Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany, pp. 187-189, and mentioned in EHRESMAN. The family stems from minister Christian Holli/Holly, who came from Kurzenburg to the Bärbelsteinerhof in 1718 and held the lease until his death in 1748. He had four children: Jacob, David, Georg, and Barbara. Jacob was the father of Anna, who married Christian Güngerich and Isaac Hochstettler; David was the father of both Barbara, who married Jacob Hochstettler, and Christian, who married Anna Hochstettler; and George was the father of Barbara, who married Josef Unzicker, the mayor of Nehweiler. The fourth child, Barbara, married future elder Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger on the Bärbelsteinerhof in 1729. Holly descendants accounted for many of the immigrants known as the '100 Hessian Mennonites' who arrived in Butler County in 1832.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Peter Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof circa 1771 to Anna Rupp, and died at Meringau near Augsburg, Bavaria Dec. 12, 1822. He married Magdalena Unzicker. She was born at Reichshoffen March 9, 1778, and died in 1839, a daughter of Nehwiller mayor Joseph Unzicker and Barbara Holly. We could not identify the year when Peter and Magdalena left the Lauterbacherhof. They went 28 miles east to the Neuhof, a 250-acre farm that had belonged to the noble Riessenbach family until it was confiscated by French troops in the French Revolution of 1789. The Neuhof was located at Niederlauterbach, a village on the Alsatian border with the Palatinate.266 It is probable that they made the move to avoid military conscription. They remained there until the death of Peter's father Isaac in 1817. In 1817 the family moved 166 miles east-southeast to north to avoid the stagnating economy of Lower Alsace. They resettled at Meringerau, Bavaria, an open area below the city of Augsburg. 'Meringer Au' was a meadow surrounding the village of Meringer. The village was torn down to protect the water supply of the nearby city. In 1910 the entire area was incorporated into the city of Augsburg and divided into two parts: Haunstetten, a populated strip, and Siebenbrunn, a strip of open fields (also called 'Siebenbrunnenfeld,' or 'seven spring field'). It is now the city district of Haunstetten-Siebenbrunn. Peter died at Meringerau Dec. 12, 1822. The children of Peter Hochstettler and Magdalena Unzicker include:

1. 2. 3. 4. Katharina Hochstettler (#1) was born on the Lauterbacherhof Dec. 24, 1796, and died as an infant. Joseph Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof Dec. 3, 1798, died at Pekin April 29, 1854, and is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery at Elm Grove. Barbe/Barbara Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof, May 3, 1800, and died at Regensburg, Bavaria. She married Joseph Schantz. Elizabeth/Elise Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof May 10, 1802, and died on the Stillerhof at Wessobrunn, Bavaria in 1854. In 1822 she married Andreas/André Schantz. He was born at Rimling, Moselle in 1800, and died at Triftlfing (a suburb southeast of Regensburg, Bavaria) in 1857, a son of Christian Schantz and his first wife Marie Birki. Katharina Hochstettler (#2) was born on the Lauterbacherhof Dec. 11, 1803. She married Caspar Joseph Schantz. He was born at Rimling, Moselle March 9, 1798, and died in 1872, a son of Christian Schantz and his first wife Marie Birki. They lived on the Hölzhof at Regenstauf (above Regensburg, Bavaria) and at Grossprüfening (now a neighborhood on the west side of Regensburg) until her death at Dechbetten (west of Regensburg) in 1826. Schantz later remarried to Marie Unzicker and Magdalena Unzicker. Jacob/Jacques Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof June 12, 1806, and died at Meringau in January 1826 following a wagon accident. Magdalena Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof May 9, 1809, and died at Sarching (east of Regensburg) in January 1860. She married Christian Nafziger. He was born on the Lauterbacherhof in January 1796, and died at Burgwalden (southwest of Augsburg) Jan. 15, 1850, a son of Christian Nafziger and Katharina Hochstettler (Katharina's parents were Christian Hochstettler and Barbara/Barbe Nafziger; thus Magdalena and Christian had a shared great-grandfather and were second cousins). Maria Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof in January 1810. She married Peter/Pierre Schantz. He was born at Rimling, Moselle Sept. 16, 1811, a son of Christian Schantz and his second wife Anna Imhof. Anna Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof in January 1812, and died at Thierlstein (34 miles northeast of Regensburg) Sept. 1, 1880. In 1844 on the Neuhof at Niederlauterbach she married Jakob Güngerich. He was born at Wellenburg (southwest of Augsburg) in 1812, and died at Thierlstein July 24, 1879, a son of Jakob Güngerich and Magdalena König. According to Guth they are buried at Untertraubenbach (adjacent to Thierlstein). Peter Hochstettler was born at Nehwiller July 20, 1814, and died at Wolferding June 12, 1884. On Feb. 8, 1842 at Hardt (below Neuberg west of Ingolstadt) he married Maria Hage. She was born at Josephenburg (below Ingolstadt) Dec. 8, 1817, and died Jan. 5, 1897, a daughter of Josef Hage and Maria Ackerman of Kaisheim (15 miles west of Neuberg). Susanna Hochstettler was born at Meringerau March 22, 1822, and died at Burgweinting (southeast of Regensburg) May 31, 1908. She married a Griesser.

5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

10.

11.

Joseph Hochstettler was born on the Lauterbacherhof Dec. 3, 1798, died at Pekin April 29, 1854, and is buried in Landes Mennonite Cemetery at Elm Grove. After 1817 he moved from the Lauterbacherhof to Meringerau with his father. In about 1823 he married Jacobina 'Phoebe' Gingerich, who was born circa June 15, 1803 (her marker at Landes Mennonite Cemetery gives her date of death and her age as 52 years, 5 months, 22 days), and died Dec. 7, 1856. She was a daughter of Jakob Güngerich and Magdalena König of Wellenburg, Bavaria.

266

Neuhof's homes and farm buildings were torn down in 1932.

175

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

They departed from Le Havre aboard the Peter Marcy and arrived at New York Aug. 11, 1849 (the passenger list described them as 'Hochstaedtler').

Descendants of Jacob Hochstedler: "About the year 1850, Mrs. Susan Zook of near Bloomington, Illinois, heard of a Hochstetler family living near Groveland, Illinois. As she was a granddaughter of Joseph Hochstetler, the captive, she concluded to learn whether the new family was akin to her. So she paid a visit to the family of Joseph Hochstetler, and learned that the family had but recently come from Germany and of course were not any kin-folk, as she had expected to find. But in the course of conversation she told the story of the Indian attack on the farm of her great-grandfather, and of her grandfather being made captive by the Indians. This narrative instantly captured the attention of Joseph Hochstetler, who inquired closely as to the number of the family killed and the number made prisoners. Then he told of having seen in his boyhood, in the home of his mother and father, a carefully cherished letter written from America, telling of the attack of the Indians upon the family of his grandfather's uncle. The names and number in the family of our ancestor at the time of the massacre corresponded to the recollection of Joseph Hochstetler, as he recalled the letter in the possession of his mother, from his grandfather, Isaac Hochstetler. These two immediately recognized the relationship between them. The Indian massacre established very clearly the relationship betwen our family and that of Isaac Hochstetler. The conversation above noted was communicated in several letters by Peter Hochstettler, Pekin, Illinois, a son of Joseph Hochstetler." (Did Peter Hochstettler know that a sister of Isaac Hochstettler, Barbara Hochstettler, was the mother of Andreas Ropp? Apparently not. Descendants of Jacob Hochstedler added, "He says also that Isaac had one brother at least and possibly other brothers and sisters.")

The 1870 census of Elm Grove shows the Hochstettlers on the same page as Joseph Ropp, Peter Gerber, and Joseph Heiser, indicating they lived along Allentown Road. Their children include:

1. Jacob Hochstettler was born at Meringerau Jan. 3, 1825, and died at Elm Grove March 8, 1884. In 1854 at Pekin he married Elizabeth Ropp (1837-1881), a daughter of Andrew Ropp and Jacobina Vercler. The 1860 census of Elm Grove describes him as 'Jacob Hostetler,' a 30-year-old Bavarian farmer. His household included Elizabeth, 22; Jacobine, 2; and Daniel, seven months. They are buried in Railroad Cemetery at Elm Grove. 'Mary' Magdalena Hochstettler (twin) was born at Meringerau Feb. 7, 1829, and died at Garden City, Missouri May 28, 1888. On December 10, 1850 at Pekin she married Jacob Birkey.267 He was born May 4, 1826, and died at Garden City July 4, 1883, a son of Christian Birki (the 'Big Birkeys'). Jacobina Hochstettler (#1) was born at Meringerau Feb. 7, 1829, and died there in 1830. Peter Hochstettler was born at Meringerau Feb. 2, 1834. Jacobina (#2) 'Phoebe' Hochstettler was born at Meringerau Nov. 7, 1835, and died at Tremont in 1896. On March 15, 1858 at Pekin she married John Birkey. He was born at Gern near Munich Jan. 1, 1835, and died at Peoria March 28, 1925, a son of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker. Joseph Hochstettler was born at Meringerau Feb. 3, 1836, and died at Washington July 4, 1896. On July 6, 1862 he married Elizabeth Unzicker. She was born Aug. 28, 1839, and died Aug. 10, 1920, a daughter of Jacob Unzicker and Marie Krehbiel. Joseph and Elizabeth are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. They are found on the 1880 census of Morton as farmer Joseph Hoxhstettler,44, born in Bavaria to Bavarian parents; Elizabeth, 40, born in Illinois to parents from Nassau; with eight children born in Illinois. Mary Hochstettler (#1) was born at Meringerau Feb. 28, 1837, and died before 1842. Christian Hochstettler was born at Meringerau March 8, 1840, and died at Aurora, Nebraska. Jan. 2, 1896. He married Mary Unzicker at Pekin Feb. 9, 1868. She was born Nov. 26, 1844, and died Feb. 24, 1940, a daughter of Jacob Unzicker and Maria Krehbiel. He can be found on the 1860 census of Elm Grove as 19-year-old 'Christian Hostetler,' a Bavarian laborer in the household of 50-year-old farmer 'Andrew Birgy.' Mary Hochstettler (#2) was born at Meringerau May 29, 1842, and died there in November 1844. George Hochstettler was born at Meringerau Jan. 7, 1844, and died there Jan. 28, 1844.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

Peter Hochstettler was born at Meringerau near Augsburg, Bavaria Feb. 2, 1834. He was 15 years old when his family sailed from Le Havre on the Peter Marcy, arriving at New York Aug. 11, 1849. The passenger list shows a 'Hochstaedler' family: Joseph, 51; Jacobin, 45; Jacob, 19; Magdalen, 17; Peter, 15; Joseph, 13; Jacobin, 9; and

267

The Illinois Statewide Marriage Index calls them Jacob Burkey and Mary Hochstetler.

176

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Christien, 7.268 Centennial History of the Mennonites of Illinois 1829-1929 places "Christian Hostetler and his brothers Peter, Jacob, Joe, Christ and two sisters" at Dillon Creek in 1849. On March 14, 1858, Peter married Barbara Birky of the 'Little Red Birkys,' who had also come to America in 1849. Barbara was born at Gern near Munich Jan. 9, 1840, one of 13 children of Valentine Birky and Elizabeth Unzicker (see BIRKY/BIRKEY). Their household can be found on the 1870 census of Morton as farmer Pete Hastettler, 36, Bavaria; Barbara, 30, Bavaria; Elizabeth, 11, Illinois; Lydia, 9, Illinois; Catharin, 7, Illinois; and farm laborer Frederick Delabaugh, 19, Switzerland. The 1880 census of Morton shows them as Peter Hochstettler, 46; Barbara, 40; and seven children born in Illinois. In 1883 Peter attended the first annual conference of what became the Defenseless Mennonite (later Evangelical Mennonite) Church with Joseph Rediger. The conference was organized and led by bishop Henry Egly. About this time Peter and Barbara purchased a farm in Groveland, which can be located on the 1890 plat map approximately one mile north of the town center. The 1910 census of Groveland lists Peter's occupations as farmer and preacher. Peter was 76, and Barbara 70; their children living with them included Lydia, 49; Susanna, 36; and Mary A., 28. Son Joseph, 39, lived nearby. They last appear on the 1920 census of Groveland, when Peter was 85, and Barbara 79. Their children living with them include Elizabeth, 58; Susan, 46; Amos, 41; and Mary, 38. Peter died at Groveland Jan. 20, 1924, and Barbara died July 28, 1924. They are buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Their children born at Morton include:

1. Elizabeth Hochstettler was born Feb. 17, 1859, and died July 4, 1931. On Aug. 2, 1896 in Tazewell County she married Joseph Stucky. He was born Aug. 20, 1865, and died March 7, 1958, a son of Christian Stucky and Magdalena Zehr. They are buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Lydia Hochstettler was born Jan. 11, 1861, and died March 6, 1948. She is buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Katharine 'Katie' Hochstettler was born March 28, 1863, and died March 4, 1942. On March 18, 1894 in Tazewell County she married Samuel Wagler. He was born Sept. 30, 1859, and died March 19, 1951. They are buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. John William Hochstettler was born Oct. 27, 1866, and died May 9, 1869. Joseph B. Hochstettler was born March 31, 1871, and died April 25, 1955. In 1902 he married Emma Springer. She was born March 20, 1876, and died May 27, 1910. They are buried in Groveland Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery. Susan/Susanna Hochstettler was born April 22, 1873, and died April 30, 1962. She is buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Edward F. Hochstettler was born June 7, 1876, and died March 6, 1900. He is buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland. Amos Hochstettler was born Dec. 28, 1878, and died June 25, 1962. He is buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

Mary Ann Hochstettler was born June 20, 1881, and died Dec. 22, 1949. She is buried in Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Groveland.

268 The 'adjustment' of some ages downward by five years may have been intentional. However, these lists are typically full of errors ­ youngest son Christian, 9, was actually listed as Christien, 7, female. Other passengers included Jacobine Gingerich, 21, and Elisabeth Jordi, 45.

177

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Schwarzentraub: Schwarzentruber of Königsberg

S

chwarz Trub farm located at Trub, Bern is the source of all variations of this surname. In Amish Mennonites in Germany, Hermann Guth states that the correct spelling would be 'Schwarzentruber,' denoting someone from Schwarz Trub. After a number of generations of separation from Switzerland, some descendants perceived the name as 'Schwarz Traub,' or 'black grapes.' While the Brennemans were living at Turtle Creek in Warren County, Ohio, the surname Schwarzentraub could also be found there (see BRENNEMAN for Turtle Creek's connection to the Shaker movement). A Schwarzentraub family had emigrated from Hesse-Darmstadt in 1836, and farmed at Turtle Creek before moving on to Tazewell and Bureau Counties in 1852. Christian Schwarzentruber appears on a census of Mennonites at Schmalenberg (below Kaiserslautern in the Palatinate) in 1738. His name appears with others who had paid a religious protection fee (Ger. Schutzgeld). Christian and Vinzenz Schwarzentruber migrated from the Palatinate to the Principality of Waldeck in 1741.

VINZENZ SCHWARZENTRUBER - Father or uncle to Christian? Christian would have been at least 21 years of age when he appeared on the 1738 census of Schmalenberg. Vinzenz was married in 1719. For this reason, it is difficult to say that Vinzenz was the father of Christian, though it cannot be ruled out; Vinzenz' bride in 1719 may have been a second wife. Vinzenz married Anna Zimmerman, presumably on the grounds of the Bärbelsteinerhof, the grounds of Berwarstein Castle at Erlenbach be Dahn (see EHRESMAN). The event was registered at nearby Niederschlettenbach by minister Christian Holli/Holly. Vinzenz and Anna had at least one child in the Grafschaft Falkenstein (see STAKER for location background) before coming to Waldeck. In 1745 Vinzenz leased an estate at Schaaken, at the west end of the Edersee valley in Waldeck. JOHANNES 'HANS' SCHWARZENTRUBER - Brother to Christian? Hans lived at Weisenheim am Berg (southeast of Kaiserslautern in the Palatinate) as early as 1734, then at nearby Herxheim. He attended the assembly of ministers at Essingen with a son in 1759. EHRESMAN notes that many of the ministers who met at Essingen had received earlier training on the Bärbelsteinerhof. Thus it seems likely that there was a family connection between Hans in the Palatinate and Christian and Vinzenz in Waldeck. Some genealogists assume that Hans and Christian were brothers. The descendants of Hans can be found in Chapter 30 of Hermann Guth's Amish Mennonites in Germany.

A royal marriage on Aug. 19, 1741 had opened the way for Amish Mennonites to resettle in Waldeck. Christiane Henriette, Palatine Countess of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler-Pfalz-Zweibrücken, married Prince Karl August of Waldeck and Pyrmont. She was born at Ribeauvillé in Alsace Nov. 16, 1725. Her grandfather, Christian II, was the Wittlesbach count who had helped Anabaptists at Ste. Marie-aux-Mines to find new homes in 1712-13. The House of Waldeck was connected through multiple marriages to the Dutch House of Orange. Prince Karl August served as commander of all Dutch forces in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48). One of the odd consequences of this relationship was that many newborn daughters of Amish Mennonite tenants in Waldeck were given Christian names that had originated in the House of Orange, e.g. Frederica, Augusta, Helena, Wilhelmina, Henriette, and Caroline. Much of the prince's income came from the troops he provided to fight Dutch battles. This arrangement drained the labor force needed to work the land. The farsighted new princess invited Amish Mennonite families to follow her and settle on estates near Arolsen on generous terms. Her patronship continued until her death Feb. 11, 1816.269 In 1741 Christian Schwarzentruber and Johannes Schönbeck were co-leaseholders of the Selbach estate at Netze in Waldeck. (Netze is next to the community of Waldeck, above the Edersee reservoir; Selbach is now a village between Netze and Freinhagen). According to Guth, their lease described them as "two Swiss people from Kaiserlautern." Christian died there Jan. 5, 1764. From 1775 to 1787 Christian's son Peter Schwarzentruber/Schwarzentraub/Schwartztraub relocated to lease the Freienfelserhof, a portion of the grounds of ruined Castle Freienfels (between Weinbach and Weilburg in Nassau-Weilburg). At this point it is helpful to recall some text from UNZICKER: "Nassau-Weilburg (south of

269 1816 must have been a year of high anxiety for the Amish Mennonites in the Principality of Waldeck. The death of their initial patron coincided with the return of two companies of troops from the Napoleonic Wars, as well as the onset of the 'Little Ice Age' cold weather phenomenon across Europe.

178

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Waldeck) was a princely domain... In 1775 the chancellor for Prince Carl Christian of Nassau-Weilburg visited the Amish Mennonite-leased Münsterhof estate at Dreisen in the Palatinate (he had a home at Kircheimbolanden, and actually died on the Münsterhof in 1778). He was so impressed by the progressive methods used there that he commissioned farm manager David Holly to find families willing to come to Nassau-Weilburg. His proposal offered generous 12-year leases on princely estates, on the condition that the leasors cultivate underdeveloped acreage and share their knowledge with neighboring landowners. Four family heads accepted the arrangement: Peter Unzicker of Wörth, Johannes Nafziger of Alsace, Peter Schantz of Alsace, and 'Peter Schwartztraub.' Peter Unzicker brought several brothers who also claimed properties. According to Hermann Guth, Holly received a 200 gulden reward from the chancellor." The Hesse State Archives holds a document that mentions the arrangement in Nassau-Weilburg. The leaseholder on the Freienfelserhof is 'Peter Schwartztraub.' When Peter left the lease arrangement, he gave his next address as the Sonnenberg estate at Wiesbaden. He never resided there, and could be found on a farm at Freienhagen (just above the communities of Waldeck and Netze, and the Edersee reservoir) after 1787. He married Barbara Schönbeck. In his old age Peter lived on the Bubenrod estate at Königsberg, where he died. Peter and Barbara had at least two sons. Older son Peter married Wilhelmine Ösch and remained at Freienhagen. Younger son Johannes Schwarzentruber/Schwarzentraub became the father of the family that lived in Turtle Creek and Tazewell County. Shettler family notes say that 'John Schwarzentraub' was born June 6, 1774. If so, the location was likely the Selbach estate at Netze in Waldeck. He later lived on the Bubenrod estate, where his cousin Christian Schwarztraub was leaseholder. He died Feb. 2, 1832. Christian married Magdalena Schwarzentruber. Family notes say that she was born Aug. 27, 1796, and died in Illinois Jan. 28, 1854. She came from Buchenberg at the west end of the Edersee valley. Presumably she was a grandddaughter of Vinzenz Schwarzentruber. An emigration file in the Hesse State Archives labeled 'Johannes Schwarzentruber' states that in April 1836 his widow and six children applied for permission to go to America. Their home is noted as 'Hof Strubbach bei Königsberg' ­ Strupbach farm at Königberg. Four years after the death of her husband, Magdalena brought her children to America. The family boarded the Isabella at Bremen, and arrived at New York Sept. 7, 1836. The Isabella's passenger list names them: Mag. Schwarzentrauba, 40, Hessia; Christ, 19, laborer; Jacob, 17; Johannes, 15; Marie, 13; Magdalena, 9; Joseph, 6; and Jacobine, 11. In 1850 son Christian's household at Turtle Creek appears as farmer Christian Swarcentroup, 32; Magdelin, 53 [mother]; laborer Conrad Supt, 30; Meary Kinrish, 45; and farmer [and younger brother] Joseph Swascentroup, 20. Son Jacob's household appears as farmer Jacob Swatzentroup, 31; John, 29; Helen, 23 [Jacob's wife]; laborer John Banten, 42; and laborer Charles Wolb, 25. Johannes and Magdalena's children were all born in Hesse-Darmstadt according to their own census reports. Some are found at Königsberg. The records there are deceptive. Often the same person can be found as a Schwartztraub, Schwarzentruber, Schwarzentraub, or what appears to be Schwarzendruber (when the 't' is not crossed). A closer look reveals that many signatures match the handwriting of the text above, indicating that they were written by the clerk for someone who was probably illiterate. They include:

1. Christian Schwarzentraub was born Nov. 27, 1817, and died Nov. 25, 1888. On the 1870 census of Morton he appears as a 53-year-old farmer in the household of his brother Jacob. On Nov. 10, 1878 at the age of 61 Christian married widow Helene Gingerich. She was born circa April 22, 1833, and died Feb. 5, 1891; her headstone does not give a birth date, but the age 57 years, 9 months, 15 days. In 1880 they were living at Washington, where they appeared on the federal census as farmer Christ Swartzentraub, 62, born in Hesse-Darmstadt to a father from Prussia and a mother from Hesse; Helen, 46, born in Hesse to Hessian parents; and stepson Christian Unsicker, 22, born in Hesse to a father from Hesse-Darmstadt and a mother from Hesse.270 Helene's Christlicher Bundesbote obituary, Feb. 26, 1891: "On February 5 at Washington, Tazewell County, Helena Schwartzentraub, born Gingrich, at the age of 57 years, 9 months, and 13 days. Her funeral took place on the 8th in Hirstein's cemetery. Remarks were delivered by bishop M. Kiesinger [Kinsinger], David Augspurger, Peter Schantz, and S. Schmitt. The deceased sister

Christian Unsicker was born Sept. 6, 1857, and died April 18, 1914. He married Marie Lammle, who was born June 3, 1876, and died Oct. 17, 1944, a daughter of Adam Lammle. They appear on the 1910 census of Deer Creek as Christ Unsicker, 52, Germany (year of immigration 1877); Mary, 49; and 7 children born in Illinois. Christian and Marie are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton.

270

179

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

was born in Alterau Province in Hesse. In the year 1855 she married Daniel Unsicker of Rhinehesse. But in the first year of the marriage he died. In the year 1878 Helena followed her son Christian to America, and she remarried to Christian Schwarzentraub of Tazewell County on November 10, 1878. This marriage was only of a brief duration, since its husband went into eternity first on Nov. 25, 1888. They leave one son and two grandchildren. Their most ardent desire was expressed in Phillippians 1.23: "I have desire to separate and be with Christ." They are buried in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. Jakob/Jacob Schwarzentraub was born in 1819, died in 1887, and is also buried in Hirstein Cemetery. His first wife was Catharine Nafziger, who was born Nov. 6, 1824, and died Jan. 22, 1861. He remarried to Caroline Schertz. She was born in France Feb. 16, 1839, and died at Morton June 18, 1922. According to her death certificate she was a daughter of Joseph Schertz. Both wives are buried near Jakob/Jacob in Hirstein Cemetery at Morton. On the 1870 census of Morton his household appears as farmer Jacob Shuencentraub, 51, Hesse-Darmstadt; Carolin, 31, France; John, 11, Illinois; Theodore, 5, Illinois; farm laborer John Melfers, 25, Hanover; farm laborer Daniel Ausburger, 28, France; and farmer Christian Schuenemtraub, 53, Hesse-Darmstadt. On the 1880 census of Morton they appear next door to Jacob Kennel: farmer Jacob Schwazentraub, 61, Hesse-Cassel; Caroline, 41, Lorraine; John, 21; Theodore, 14; and Eamil, 8; all children born in Illinois. Johannes/John Schwarzentraub, who lived with older brother Jacob at Turtle Creek, was born on the Bubenrod estate at Königsberg Dec. 27, 1820. He married Barbara Kiefer. She was born in France in November 1826. A biography of one of their sons says John relocated from Ohio to Illinois at the age of 31 (1852). Their household appears on the 1860 census of Concord, Bureau County as farmer John Schwartzentaub, 39, Germany; Barbara, 33, France; John E., 6, Illinois; Julius A., 3, Illinois; and Mary C., 2, Illinois. In 1870 they appear at Bureau, Bureau County as farmer John Schwartzentraub, 47, Germany; Barbara, 43, France; John E., 16; Julius A., 14; Mary C., 11; Joseph, 9; Phebe, 7; all children born in Illinois. They also appear on the 1880 census of Bureau. Barbara Kiefer appears on the 1900 census of Bureau as the 73-year-old mother in the household of son Joseph Schwarzentraub, who was born in 1861. The census gives her birth date as November 1826 and says she immigrated in 1828. Maria/Mary Schwarzentraub was born on the Bubenrod estate at Königsberg Feb. 8, 1823, and died at Buda, Bureau County Jan. 10, 1879. On May 7, 1843 in Butler County she married Friederich/Frederick Schöttler/Schoettler. He was born at Sichelbach (west of Kassel) Aug. 22, 1814, and died at Buda July 30, 1879, a son of Christian Schöttler and his second wife Elisabeth Sommer. Voters and Taxpayer of Bureau County, 1877, describes Frederick as someone who had immigrated in 1835, came to Bureau County in 1844, now owned 307 acres, and served as school director. Magdalena 'Helena' Schwarzentraub was born on the Bubenrod estate at Königsberg May 21, 1827 (birth entry, though her headstone says May 31), and died Jan. 26, 1899. She became the wife of second cousin Daniel Schwarzentraub (more on him follows). They are buried in Buckeye Cemetery at Morton. Jacobie Schwarzentraub was born on the Bubenrod estate at Königsberg April 28, 1825. She may have been the person who appeared on the Isabella passenger list as 19-year-old Jacobine, though she would have been only 11 in 1836. Joseph Schwarzentraub, who lived with older brother Christian at Turtle Creek, was born circa 1830, and died in Woodford County May 26, 1876 (his headstone says he was 46 years old). On Dec. 29, 1856 in Woodford County he married Barbara Vercler (her family spelled the name 'Verkler'). 271 She was born Jan. 17, 1834; the exact location cannot be indentified, but in 1834 her parents Joseph Vercler and Jacobina Engel lived on Kickapoo Creek west of Peoria and then nearer to Metamora. She died Aug. 5, 1910. Their household is found on the 1860 census of Metamora as farm renter Joseph Swarzentraub, 30, Bavaria; Barbary, 27, Illinois; and Louisa, 2, Illinois. They are found on the 1870 census of Pleasant Ridge, Livingston County as 'Joseph Schwarzentrout' and Barbara. They are buried in the North Apostolic Christian Cemetery at Forrest, Livingston County.

Daniel Schwarzentraub

We looked through church records on FHL microfilm to sort out the Schwarzentruber/Schwarzentraub tangle at Königsberg. We found four heads of family there:

Christian was leaseholder.272 He married Katharina Esch and Anna Bachmann. His father was Jakob, a brother of Peter of Freinhagen.273

The marriage record held at Eureka lists them as 'Barbara Verkler' and 'Joseph Swartzentraub.' Christian was born at Selbach Dec. 25, 1770. Before 1793 he married Katharina Esch of Bad Wildungen (now adjacent to the Edersee reservoir). They leased the Bubenrod estate in 1793. Katharina died there May 28, 1808. On Jan. 7, 1810 at Königsberg Christian remarried to Anna Bachmann. In 1819 Christian and Anna made the final payment to assume possession of the estate. It remains in the family. Christian died at Königsberg Jan. 23, 1855. In his book Amish Mennonites in Germany, Hermann Guth reprinted part of a eulogy delivered by the Protestant minister at Königsberg. It mentioned that Christian's two wives had delivered 19 children. Only a handful of the children have been identified. Some died young, others apparently went off to live with relatives at locations such as the Albacherhof estate.

272

271

180

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Joseph was a son of Christian and his first wife Katharina Esch. He married Magdalena Schlabach. Daniel Schwarztraub was a brother to Christian. He married Katharina Bachmann. Johannes was a cousin to Christian and Daniel. He was the father whose family emigrated after his death.

Daniel Schwarztraub, the brother of Christian and cousin to Johannes, married Katharina Bachmann at Königsberg Sept. or Dec. 25, 1811. The entry states that Daniel was a Mennonit on Bubenrod estate. Katharina came from the Ringweilerhof estate at Hornbach, six miles south of Zweibrücken. Their son Daniel Schwarzentraub was born at Leihgestern, Hesse July 29, 1820. Leihgestern is located four miles below Giessen, and 18 miles southeast of Königsberg.274 At age 31 Daniel sailed from Bremen on the Janet Ridson, arriving at New York June 24, 1852. This was the same voyage that brought Peter Erismann and his wife Magdalena Stähly (they settled in Bureau County; see EHRESMAN, ERISMANNS OF BUREAU COUNTY), as well as Magdalena's younger brother Peter Stähly. (Peter Erismann and Magdalena Stähly were later next door neighbors to Johannes/John Schwarzentraub from the Turtle Creek family and his wife Barbara Kiefer). Shortly after arrival Daniel married his second cousin Magdalena 'Helena' Schwarzentraub. On the 1870 census of Pleasant Ridge, Livingston County: farmer Dan. Schwarzentraub, 50, Prussia; Hellen, 43, Prussia; Joseph, 15; Albert, 11; and Louis, 7; all children born in Illinois. Magdalena 'Helena' died Jan. 26, 1899. She is buried in Buckeye Cemetery at Morton. In 1900 Daniel was living at Morton with his oldest son. That household appears as farmer Joe Schwarzentraub, 45, born in Illinois in February 1855 to German parents; Johanna, wife, 29, born February 1871 in Illinois to parents from Germany and Ohio; Albert, 1, born in April 1899 to parents from Illinois; boarder Daniel Schwarzentraub, 79, born in Germany in July 1820 to German parents (married 45 years); and Lizzie Kennel, housekeeper, 26, born in Illinois in June 1873 to parents from Germany and Ohio. Daniel died at Morton April 12, 1906. He was buried in Buckeye Cemetery.

Jakob was leaseholder of a dairy at Berich, Waldeck in 1774. Berich was one of the communities that was flooded when the Edersee dam was completed in 1914 (see EHRESMAN, EHRISMANNS OF BUREAU COUNTY). He is found as a leaseholder at Höringhausen, Waldeck in 1795. 274 Giessen was the location of the Schauferts estate leased by Daniel Brenneman (1814-1870). He was a son of Jakob Unzicker and Elisabeth Jordy, and a brother to Peter Unzicker (the Morton resident described in UNZICKER) and Elise Unzicker (she married Joseph Brenneman of Wohra and lived at Granville, Putnam County). Brennemans also farmed on the Albacherhof estate between Albach and Lich, 7 miles southeast of the city.

273

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Miller: Müller of Hochburg

While this portion does not address a Tazewell County family, it does help to fill in some of the background of those who came there. Jacob Müller was elder of the progressive Hessian congregation in Butler County, Ohio that ultimately fed into the South Danvers Hessian congregation. A number of families moved west to Central Illinois in the footsteps of the three Hessian congregation ministers Naffziger, Kistler, and Müller ­ including the Stecker/Staker families of Morton, Groveland, and Tremont.

T

he Müller or Miller family completes the circle of Amish Mennonites from the Hochburg congregation of Baden that had strong ministerial traditions. Others we have already mentioned include König, Leutweiler/Litwiller, Roth, Rupp, and Zimmerman. In 1713 Michel Müller held the lease on the fields of the Weier castle estate [Ger. Weierschlossgut] at Schupfholz . In that year he acted as guarantor for a lease on the Hochburg estate taken by Christian Rupp of Kunheim, Alsace. Müller assumed the Hochburg lease after Rupp's death in 1746. In 1755 the names of Michel Iseli and Michel Müller's son Christian were added as co-leaseholders. In 1772 a second son who had been farming at Rohrburg bei Altenheim, Jakob Müller (#1), returned to the Hochburg estate to share the lease with his brother Christian Müller and Jakob Zimmerman. Jakob Müller (#1) represented the Hochburg congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1779.

Deacon Michel Müller/Michael Miller

Jakob Müller (#1) had a son Jakob Müller (#2) born at Hochburg in 1767. Circa 1798 he married Anna Rupp. She was a daughter of Christian/Chretién Rupp and Barbara/Barbe Litwiller, and a granddaughter to Jakob Rupp who had represented their congregation at the assembly of ministers at Essingen in 1759, and a great-granddaughter to Christian Rupp of Kunheim. They took a nine-year lease on the Baldenwegerhof estate above Zarten, Baden in 1798.275 Jakob Müller (#2) died at Hochburg in 1837. The children of Jakob Müller (#2) and Anna Rupp include:

1. 2. Michel Müller/Michael Miller was born July 28,1795, died Aug. 23, 1873, and is buried in Lantz Cemetery at Carlock. Jakob Müller (#3). On Aug. 10, 1832 he married Maria Eymann of Strasbourg. She was a daughter of Joseph Eymann and Katharina Roess or Rees. They were leaseholders on the Sohn estate at Heiligenzell near Lahr, then at Munzingen. Johann Müller was a miller at Kollmarsreuth, and then on the Hasenhof at Tiengen. Anna 'Fanny' Müller was born at Auggen Aug. 7, 1797, and died Jan. 2, 1850. On May 15 (also found as Aug. 7), 1815 she married Andreas/Andrew F. Zimmerman (he was a brother of Verena Zimmerman, the matriarch of the Tazewell County Roth family). They sailed from Le Havre aboard the Rhone, arriving at New York June 17, 1839, and appear on the 1840 census of Liberty, Butler County, Ohio. See ZIMMERMAN. Magdalena Müller. On May 12, 1846 she married Michael Grieser of Öhningen. He was a son of Heinrich Grieser and Barbara Bart. Verena Müller lived unmarried at Hochburg. Katharina Müller married Christian Lauber. Christian Müller was born in 1807. He died unmarried at Hochburg in 1840.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Michel Müller/Michael Miller was born July 28, 1795, died at Danvers Aug. 23, 1873, and is buried in Lantz Cemetery at Carlock. On July 24, 1825 he married Magdalena König. She was born Sept. 6, 1800, and died in McLean County Nov. 22, 1882. She was a daughter of Christian König and Maria Zimmerman; they were leaseholders at Bamlach, an estate about 30 miles southwest of Hochburg on the Rhine River (see KING, THE KÖNIGS OF NIMBURG).276

275 Baldenwegerhof is still a thriving estate inviting tourists with its own website. The community around Baldenwegerhof seceded from Zarten to become Wittental in 1970; all are within the Freiburg district. 276 There is some question about where the couple lived before emigrating from Europe. J. Virgil Miller identifies the location as Schöpfheim, but locates it on a map and describes it as if it were Niederschopfheim (7 miles southeast of Altenheim and 44 miles north of Munzingen). Niedershopfheim was within walking distance of the Ottenweierhof, leased by Reidigers.

182

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

They sailed from Le Havre on the Salem, and arrived at New Orleans Nov. 13, 1835. The passenger list shows Muller Michel, 40, Baden; Madelena, 35; Christian, 9; Madelena, 7; Jacob, 5; Michel, 4; Johann, 3; and Frena, 6 months. The family rented a farm at Oxford, Butler County, Ohio, where they remained until 1851. They appear on the 1850 census of Oxford as farmer Michael Miller, 54, Germany; Magdalina, 45, Germany; Christian, 24, Germany; Jacob, 19, Germany; Michael, 16, Germany; John, 15, Germany; Elizabeth, 9, Ohio; Joseph, 6, Ohio; and Magdalena, 18, Germany. In 1851 they resettled on 50 acres at Dry Grove, and soon purchased 120 more. Michael became a deacon of the Rock Creek Amish Church with his younger cousin Jacob Müller. The 1860 census of Dry Grove shows the household as farmer Michael Miller, 59, Baden; Mather, 60, Baden; farm laborer Crist Bergamer [Christian Birckelbaw], 25, Hesse; domestic Elizabet B Miller, 18, Ohio [daughter Elizabeth later married farm hand Christian Birckelbaw]; and farmer [son] Joseph, 15, Ohio. In 1870 they appear as retired farmer Michael Miller, 75, Baden; Magdalena, 70, Baden; farmer Joseph, 22, Ohio; and servant Liddia Gaber, 16, France. The 1880 census of Dry Grove has widow Magdal. Miller, 79, born in Baden to parents from Baden; and son and farm hand John Miller, 35 [should have been 45 or older], born in Baden to parents from Baden. They lived next door to the household of youngest son Joseph. Their children include:

a. Christian K. Miller was born in Baden May 29, 1826, and died Feb. 18, 1904. He married Elizabeth Bircklebaw. She was born Nov. 3, 1833, and died Nov. 3, 1913, a daughter of Marie/Mary Schwartzentruber and her first husband Christian Birckelbach277 They are found on the 1880 census of Hudson, McLean County as farmer Christian Miller, 54, born in Baden to parents from Baden; Elizabeth, 47, born in Ohio to parents from Hesse-Darmstadt; and seven children born in Illinois. They are buried in North Danvers Mennonite Cemetery. Magdalena Miller was born in Baden Sept. 18, 1827, and died at Danvers Aug. 25, 1911. On Oct. 27, 1850 in Butler County she married Christian Stuckey. He was born in Butler County June 17, 1831, died at Eureka Springs, Arkansas Aug. 30 or Sept. 3, 1885, and is buried in Park Lawn Cemetery at Danvers, a son of Peter Stuckey and Elizabeth Sommer. He was a younger brother to bishop Joseph Stuckey. They are found on the 1880 census of Danvers as farmer Christian Stuckey, 48, born in Ohio to parents from Switzerland and France; Magdalena, 52, born in Baden to parents from Baden; and four children born in Illinois. Their immediate neighbors included the families of Michael Rupp, 35; Christian Strubhar, 36; and Christian Ehrisman [Ehresman], 35. Jacob Miller was born in Baden Aug. 23, 1830, and died April 16, 1912. On Aug. 8, 1858 he married Mary Bircklebaw. She was born in Butler County Sept. 28, 1835, and died Feb. 6, 1905, a daughter of Marie/Mary Schwartzentruber and Christian Bircklebach. They are found on the 1880 census of Montgomery, Woodford County as farmer Jacob Miller, 52, born in Baden to parents from Baden; Mary, 36, born in Ohio to parents from Germany; and four children born in Illinois. They are buried in North Danvers Mennonite Cemetery. John K. Miller was born in Baden July 27, 1833 (according to his headstone at Lantz Cemetery), and died Aug. 2, 1885. However, the 1850 census age and birth order would indicate that he was born after Michael, circa 1835. He is found living with his mother as a 35-year-old (he would actually have been 45 or older) born in Baden, occupation farm hand, on the 1880 census of Dry Grove Michael Miller was born in Baden circa 1834, according to the 1850 census. The 1870 census of Dry Grove shows his household as farmer Michael Miller, 33, Baden; Anna, 26, Ohio; Peter, 6, Illinois; Magdaline, 4, Illinois; servant Elizabeth Burky, 18, Illinois; and 'farming' Daniel Swartz, 26, Iowa [he may have been a Schwartzentruber, the family next door with one child born in Iowa]. The 1880 census of Rantoul, Champaign County shows them as farmer Michael C. Miller, 45, born in Baden to parents from Baden; Anna, 36, born in Ohio to parents from Darmstadt; Peter, 17, born in Illinois to parents from Baden and Ohio; and Maggie, 15, born in Illinois to parents from Baden and Ohio. Fannie Miller was born in Butler County in 1836, and died the same year. Kate Miller was born in Butler County in 1837, and died the same year.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f. g.

However, there is a Schöpfheim: it is above Rheinfelden, 15 miles southeast of Bamlach, near the border of Baden and Switzerland. 277 Christian Birckelbach was born circa 1798. He married Marie/Mary Schwartzentruber. She was born in HesseDarmstadt Oct. 11, 1804, and died at Dry Grove May 5, 1892. Christian died circa 1838, leaving her with four children. On Aug. 20, 1843 at Trenton, Butler County she remarried to Johannes von Gunde (1791-after 1860) of La Broque, Salm, known in America as John Gundy (see ROTH for his European origin). His first wife Anna König had died in childbirth circa 1831. His children from the first marriage were Barbara, Anna, and John; a fourth child Joseph died before the second marriage. Her children were Catherine (1830), Elizabeth (1833), Mary (1835), and Christian (1838). They had three more children together: Fannie (1844), Jacob (1847), and Jacobina 'Phoebe' (1850). The family appears on the 1860 census of Charleston, Lee County, Iowa as John Gundy, 68, Germany; Mary, 52, Hesse-Darmstadt; Fanny, 15, Ohio; Jacob, 13, Ohio; and Phoebe, 9, Ohio.

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

h.

i.

Elizabeth Miller was born at Oxford May 7, 1841, and died July 7, 1873. On Feb. 14, 1864 at Dry Grove she married Christian Birckelbaw, a son of Christian Bircklebach and Marie/Mary Schwartzentruber. He was born in Butler County Aug. 25, 1838, and died at Danvers March 19, 1905. At the time of their marriage he was working as a farm laborer for her father for $8 per month. Gospel Herald, August 1873: "July 7th, in McLean Co., Ill., of consumption, Elisabeth Birgelbach, aged 32 years, and 2 months. She leaves a bereaved husband, and 4 children to mourn their loss. Remarks appropriate to the occasion were made by Joseph Stuckey from John 5." Herald of Truth, April 1905: "On March 19, 1905, in Danvers, Ill., Christian Birckelbough; aged 66 Y., 6 M., 24 D. Bro. Birckelbough was born in Butler Co., Ohio, and was a faithful member of the Amish Mennonite church at North Danvers. He leaves a wife, two sons and two daughters to mourn his departure. Funeral services were conducted by J. H. King and Pre. Wilson." They are buried in Lantz Cemetery at Carlock. Joseph K. Miller was born at Oxford Sept. 29, 1844, and died Jan. 1, 1904 (headstone date). On June 20, 1872 in McLean County he married Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Mast.278 She was born at Berlin Township, Holmes County, Ohio Oct. 2, 1854, and died on a visit to Peoria Feb. 9, 1918, a daughter of Daniel Mast and Elizabeth Troyer. 279 They farmed 198 acres at Dry Grove, McLean County. Their household is found on the 1880 census of Dry Grove as farmer Joseph Miller, 34, born in Ohio to parents from Baden; Elizabeth, 25, born in Ohio to parents from Pennsylvania and Ohio; William O., 6, Illinois; Burtha, 4, Illinois; Josie V., 11 months, Illinois; and housekeeper Amelia Mast, 19, born in Ohio to parents from Pennsylvania and Ohio. Elizabeth's obituary from the Winterset Madisonian (Winterset, Iowa) said that she came to Jackson Township, Iowa circa 1896 and specifically to the town of Pitzer in 1908. She also lived for a short time in North Dakota. Elizabeth was an invalid for several years before her death.280 She was survived by only one of their seven children. They are buried in Penn Center Cemetery at Pitzer.

Elder Jacob Müller/Jacob Miller

Michel/Michael's cousin

Jakob Muller (#1) had a second son, Johannes Müller. He was born at Hochburg or Munzingen approximately June 12, 1783.281 In 1806 Johannes married Magdalena Eyer. She was born circa 1787, and died before 1850, a daughter of elder Daniel Eyer and an unidentified Dettweiler, who lived on the estate Remchingen. She was a granddaughter of Rudolf Eyer and Veronika Kurtz, and a great-granddaughter of Benedikt Eyer (see OYER). Johannes was a co-leaseholder at Hochburg until 1844.282 He emigrated with his son and two daughters in 1845. The Hochburg estate closed in 1846, and its grounds became the property of a government agricultural school. Johannes became 'Reverend John Miller' in America, and followed 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger as elder of the Hessian congregation in Butler County. A History and Biographical Cyclopaedia of Butler County, Ohio says that the division between conservatives and progressives "...created a division of the members into two parties, and the other party [the Hessian-oriented 'button' congregation], which may be termed the liberal party, obtained another elder or bishop from Germany, by the name of John Miller, and Joseph Augspurger, Christian Holly, and Peter Kennel were elected assistant ministers, and the two parties held their meetings separately in their dwellings." His household appears next door to Christian Holly on the 1850 census of Liberty as minister John Miller [widower Johannes Müller], 64; Susan, 22 [his daughter]; Elizabeth, 20 [his daughter]; Jacob, 33 [his son]; and Magdaln [Magdalena Moser, Jacob's wife], 40, all born in Germany. Johannes/John may have joined his grown children in Illinois as early as 1851 (his son moved there between 1851 and 1855), or as late at 1859. He was buried in Miller Cemetery at Montgomery, Woodford County Oct. 3, 1859. The children of Johannes Müller/John Miller and Magdalena Eyer include:

1. 2. Jacob Müller was born at Munzingen, Baden June 18, 1811, and died at Montgomery Aug. 22, 1893. Elizabeth Müller was born July 27, 1824, and died at Stanford, McLean County Sept. 5, 1865; she is buried in Stout's Grove Cemetery at Danvers. On March 4, 1854 in Butler County she married Christian Gingerich. He was born at Andernach, Hesse Oct. 5 (local histories) or 28 (headstone date), 1820, and died at Stanford June 20, 1908, a son of

Per the Illinois Statewide Marriage Index; The History of McLean County gives their marriage date as June 24, 1872. Per The History of McLean County. Her headstone gives the erroneous date Oct. 1, 1858, which is incompatible with her marriage date. The 1860 census of Berlin Township gave her age as 6; her Feb. 9, 1918 death entry from Peoria estimated her age as 65. 280 The obituary said that Joseph had died 'two years ago,' which conflicts with his headstone date. 281 Johannes's birthdate was calculated from the year-month-day total found on his headstone. 282 Johannes shared the lease with Anna Rupp, his brother Christian's widow; Michael/Michel Zimmerman (born 1780), a son of the Jakob Zimmerman who had shared the lease in 1772; and Jakob Zimmerman (born 1810), Michael/Michel's son.

279

278

184

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

3.

Michael Gingerich and Barbara Heinemann. He sailed to America in the spring of 1850, landing at New Orleans. From there he made his way to Butler County, then to McLean County in 1852. He returned to Butler County to marry Elizabeth. In 1862 he was ordained as a minister by John Michael Kistler. In 1863 he was chosen as an elder by elder Jean/John Nafziger of the Bureau Creek and Wesley City congregations. On Sept. 7, 1866 Christian remarried to Catherine Gingerich, a daughter of Jacob Gingerich (of Butler County and Dry Grove) and his first wife Catherine. He served as minister and elder for the South Danvers Mennonite Church. Susan Müller was born Sept. 7, 1826, and died at Montgomery Jan. 16, 1861; she is buried in Miller Cemetery at Montgomery. On Oct. 25, 1854 she married Christian Engel. He was born at Frankenstein July 16, 1818, and died at Bloomington Jan. 17, 1912, a son of Johann Jakob Engel and Elisabetha Jotter (see ENGEL, ENGEL OF DIEMERSTEIN). In 1862 he remarried to Magdalena Ehrisman of 'near Morton.' We have not been able to identify her family.

Jacob Müller was born at Munzingen, Baden June 18, 1811, and died at Montgomery Aug. 22, 1893. He married Magdalena Moser. She was born May 20, 1805, and died at Montgomery July 18, 1889. In History of the Mennonites of Butler County, Ohio, Grubb wrote that, "Jacob Mueller, an ordained minister, came from Germany to Butler County in 1845, with his wife and two daughters. While here, he lived in a house on the farm of Christian Holly and had oversight of the Hessian congregation. In 1855 they moved to Illinois, where he died." Jacob may have had two daughters who have not been identified; however, it is more likely that Grubb meant to describe Jacob's two younger sisters Susan and Elizabeth who lived with him and his father. Grubb's booklet, published in 1916, also fails to mention the father. Between 1851 and 1855 Jacob followed the two earlier leaders of the Hessian congregation (elder 'Apostle Peter' Naffziger and minister John Michael Kistler) to McLean County. There he served with his older cousin Michel Müller/Michael Miller as a deacon for elder Jonathan 'Yony' Yoder. In the spring of 1853 his influence helped to raise $500 needed to build the Rock Creek Amish Church (the 'Yoder Church') north of Danvers. This church provided only German-language services until the North Danvers Mennonite Church was constructed in 1872. Their household is shown on the 1860 census of Montgomery, Woodford County as farmer Jacob Miller, 48, France; Madeleine, 55, France; and day laborer John Detweiler, 21, France. They lived next door to minister Christian Reeser and Barbara Zimmerman (see REESER). Joseph Stuckey replaced Yoder as elder/bishop at Danvers after Yoder's death in 1869. The story is told in STAKER. On the 1880 census of Montgomery they appear as Jacob Miller, 69, born in France; Madeleine Miller, 57, born in France; Louis Craig, 20, born in Illinois to parents from Ohio and Indiana; and James Fry, 17, born in Illinois to parents from Illinois. Herald of Truth, August 1889: "On the 18th of July, near Congerville, Woodford County, Ill., of dropsy, Magdalena, wife of Jacob Mueller, aged 84 years, 1 month and 15 days. She was buried on the 20th. Services by John Stahly, M. Kinsinger and others, from Ps. 90 and I Cor. 15:37, 38. The deceased was a member of the Amish Mennonite church and leaves an aged husband in poor health to mourn her departure." Müller served as deacon and counsel to bishop Joseph Stuckey until his death at age 82 on Aug. 22, 1893. Father Johannes Müller, son Jacob Müller, and Jacob's wife Magdalena Moser are all buried in Miller Cemetery at Montgomery.

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Schlegel of Grandvillars

A

'Schlegel' is a blacksmith. The surname Schlegel originates from several locations in Switzerland, notably Riggisberg, Guggisberg, and Grindelwald. 283 We found only one mention of an Anabaptist Schlegel in Canton Bern. Paul Hostettler's About the Anabaptists in the Land of Schwarzenburg 1580-1750 was published at Bern in 1996. It contains a list of residents at Winterkraut, Bern in 1715. They include Lisbeth Schlegel, the widow of Anabaptist preacher Peter Hostettler. Winterkraut is a hamlet just above Rüschegg-Graben, and west of Riggisberg in the parish of Muhlethurnen. According to family lore (we could not identify the original source) Niglaus 'Nigi' Schlegel was born at Bretten April 2, 1750. The village of Bretten is located in Dannemarie parish of the eastern Sundgau Region, at the southern end of Upper Alsace bordering Switzerland. He signed his name 'Niglaus' (pronounced Niklows), but 'Nicolas' describes him on French documents. Among friends he would have been known as 'Nigi' (pronounced Nikky), a diminutive form of Niglaus or Nicolaus. (The German and English form 'Nicholas' only appears in this family after descendants migrated from Europe to North America). In the area of Nigi's birth, Anabaptist meetings were led by Niglaus Engel of Montreux (Ger. Münsterol, about seven miles south of Bretten) and Michel Müller of Chavanatte (about 10 miles south). 284 Gratz: "Meetings of the Anabaptists of this region were first held in the Montreux community as far as is known...About 1750 the Montreux church divided into two groups because of the great distance that many had to travel to go to meetings. The northern group formed what was known as the La Maie church [Ger. Lamaenergemeinde; see LA MAIE FARM AT MENONCOURT], named after the main farm where they met near Belfort, and the other called the Florimont church, or in German Blumbergerwald. 285 Meetings of the latter group were most frequently held at the farms of Chalembert [in the commune of Grandvillars] and Beuchat in the commune of Boron, some four kilometers away from the Normanvillars settlement." On May 24, 1768 Nigi Schlegel married Madeleine Ummel on Chalembert farm. 286 The bride and groom were both 18 years of age. Her birthday had taken place only four days earlier. Madeleine was born at Reppe, a village on the route between Bretten and Montreux, on May 20, 1750. She was a daughter of Christ Ummel. Her mother's name is found on Madeleine's death entry as 'Elisabethe Hoescheleikler,' but was likely Hochstettler/Hostetler.287 \

MADELEINE UMMEL'S RELATIONS Jost Yoder and Anna Trachsel were married at Steffisburg, Bern Oct. 14, 1642. Jost served on the Steffisburg Reformed Church Chorgericht, a court that tried morals cases. In 1690 he asked to be excused from his position when it became known that four of his offspring were baptized as adults. Their youngest daughter was Cathrin Joder, who married `Hans Rpp der Jng' (see ROPP).

283 The surname Schlegel is generally associated with the village of Guggisberg. Rüschegg-Graben was once part of Guggisberg. We could not dtermine whether or not Winterkraut was part of Guggisberg or its parish as well, but it is usually associated with nearby Schwarzenburg. The surname Schlegel appears once in the early Ropp generations. Christian/Chrétien Ropp was likely a great-grand-uncle to Andreas Ropp. He married Anna/Anne Schlegel (found as 'Schlaigle'). See ROPP. Grindelwald is also a Heimat for the surname Schlegel. It is located about 11 miles southeast of Lake Thun, and 3,390 feet above sea level, at the foot of the Eiger in the Alps. Gratz associates it with the families Aeschlimann, Gfeller, Ösch, Rubi, Schlunegger, Stoller [later Stoll], and Wyss. We found a number of Schlegel immigrants to North America from Grindelwald in the 1700s. 284 Montreux is now Montreux-Château [castle], Montreux-Vieux [old], and Montreux-Jeune [young]. We found one mention of 'Glaus Engel' specifically from 'Montreux aux Gouttes' ­ from the drop, cliff, or waterfall at Montreux. The Cassini map shows 'La Grand Goutte' just south of Montreux-Château. 285 The notion that the meetings on Chalembert and Beuchat farms formed a 'Florimont Church' is misleading. The Amish Mennonite families Kauffman and Luginbühl did live in Florimont, and did travel to these meetings to keep their ties intact. However, most of the Anabaptist families at Florimont were from the Reist (Mennonite) faction. These included the Amstutz, Bösiger/Basinger, Hilti, Steiner, and Thüler families. 286 Some confusion has been caused by a typed transcript of Montbéliard records that mistakenly says Niklaus married Madeleine Kennel rather than Madeleine Ummel (FHL microfilm 1809847). This was a misreading of very difficult handwriting. 287 Reppe was a village of less than 400 people in 1800. Reppe was also known by the German name 'Riesbach,' or its variant 'Riespach'; this made it easy to confuse with the Alsatian village Riespach (about 20 miles southeast of Reppe). It is also easily confused with Roppe, a village that is only 3 miles northeast of the town of Belfort.

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The oldest son of Jost and Anna was Hans Joder. He was baptized at Steffisburg Reformed Church April 21, 1644. In 1671 he married Catarina/Kathrin Rüsser, who was born at Steffisburg Dec. 7, 1645. Their son Jost Joder was baptized at Steffisburg Reformed Church Sept. 19, 1675. He married Magdalena Gerber, a daughter of Hans Gerber and Salome Joder.288 Before 1715 Jost and his family resettled at Vernoy (nine miles west of Frédéric-Fontaine/Clairegoutte/Etobon, and 22 miles west of the town of Belfort). This village was called Le Magny Vernoy by the mid-1700s, and is now Magny-Vernois. Jost had three sons who appear in church records at Montbéliard: 1. Christian Jodter was born in 1707, and died in 1795. He married Anna Hochstetler. They lived at Brognard (between Montbéliard and Grandvillars). 2. Johannes/Hans/Jean Jodter was born circa 1714. 3. Jost Jodter was born in 1717, and died at Etobon April 14, 1793. He married Anneli Kropf. Jost was selected as a deacon at Montbéliard Oct. 19, 1766, and was ordained as a minister at Montbéliard April 11, 1787. Johannes/Hans/Jean Jodter was born circa 1714. He may have had an unidentified first wife. In 1759 his wife was Frena Zimmerman. She brought one child named Christ Ummel to the marriage, presumably from an earlier marriage. They lived at Grand Charmont (on the north side of Montbéliard).289 Johannes/Hans/Jean Jodter died there Nov. 11, 1762. Frena Zimmerman died at Grandvillars Nov. 13, 1770. Their children include: Christ Ummel, brought to the marriage by Frena Zimmerman. He may have been born as early as 1729 (assuming he was at least 21 years old at the birth of his daughter Magdalena circa 1751). Christ Ummel and Elisabeth Hoeschelicker [as found, but likely Hochstettler/Hostetler] lived at Reppe, and were the parents of Madeleine Ummel. 1. Jacob Jodter was given adult baptism at Grand Charmont March 20, 1768, and died unmarried on Matten farm at Grandvillars June 26, 1778. A Montbéliard church record noted his death and listed his heirs by age: his half-brother Christ Ummel (Magdalena's father), his brother Joseph Jodter, and his sister Freni, wife of Peter Klopfenstein. 2. Joseph Jodter was born circa 1750, and died at Hirtzbach, Upper Alsace April 1, 1825. On July 12, 1778 he married Marie Stucki. She was born circa 1758, a daughter of Christ Stucki and Anna Roth living on Schetzen farm at Grandvillars. 3. Johannes/Hans/Jean Joder was born circa 1752. The Montbéliard church record notes that 'Hans fils de Hans' died Jan. 26, 1767. 4. Freni Jodter was born at Grand Charmont circa 1759, and died at Grandvillars Feb. 23, 1813. On Jan. 4, 1778 at Montbéliard she married Peter Klopfenstein. He was born in 1755, and died at Grandvillars Feb. 7, 1819, a son of elder Peter Klopfenstein and Marie Engel. Freni's death entry described her husband as a laborer at Grand Charmont.

Before the French Revolution of 1789, foreign nationals or stateless persons could not purchase French land. A family had to prove two previous generations on French soil to begin the naturalization process. Anabaptists generally felt that this was unnecessary and undesirable, because citizenship came with an obligation for military service. They leased properties, often for many decades. Nigi and Madeleine may have had numerous addresses over the years. However, their activities seem to have revolved around Chalembert farm, where Madeleine had relatives (see MADELEINE UMMEL'S RELATIONS). 290 Grandvillars is 10 miles south of Reppe. Both communities are in the Territoire de Belfort (this translates to 'district of Belfort'). The Territoire de Belfort centers on the fortified town of Belfort at the Belfort Gap. The gap is a passage between the French Vosges Mountains on the north and the Swiss Jura Mountains on the south. The Territoire de Belfort became a possession of France under the Treaty of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). It is now the smallest département in France, located in the Franche-Comté Region, with the town of Belfort as its capital. A 1779 census of Grandvillars shows 559 residents, including 22 Anabaptists from five families living on Chalembert farm. By 1804 there were 40 Anabaptists there. Families included Ernst, Joder, Klopfenstein, Luginbühl, Schad, Stucki, and Wyse/Weiss.

288 Some genealogy notes maintain that Jost has a second wife named Madeleine Reiss. This may be so, or simply confusion over the surnames of his mother and wife. 289 They are found in Montbéliard church records as 'Hans Iodter' and 'Freni Jumena.' Entries clarify that this is the same couple that lived at Grand Charmont. 290 Grandvillars has also been spelled 'Grandvilart' by French speakers, and 'Grandweiler' by German speakers. This has been a point of confusion for family genealogists who could not locate a modern day Grandweiler. They have often settled for 'Belfort,' the district, and further confused that with the town. In present day a hiker can leave Grandvillars and walk only 3 miles south across fields to reach the Swiss border.

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Some time in the 1780s the tolerant congregations east of Belfort fell into disagreement with their parent congregation at Montbéliard. This has been seen as a natural rivalry between two families from the same Bernese village ­ the Richen and Klopfenstein families of Frutigen. Montbéliard elder and prosperous farmer Hans Richen (1730-1798) had been ordained as a minister in 1760. He may have felt that his authority was being challenged by prosperous farmer Peter Klopfenstein (1733-1801), who was ordained as a minister at Montbéliard in 1777.291

THE KLOPFENSTEIN FAMILY Pierre Klopfenstein was born at Frutigen, Bern Jan. 11, 1703, and died on the farm/hamlet St. Nicolas at Rougemont Aug. 14, 1766. He married Anna Luginbühl at Belverne (10 miles west of Belfort) in 1727. She was born in 1701, and died at St. Nicholas Feb. 25, 1756. Three of the Klopfensteins mentioned in this genealogy were sons of this couple. They were born at Bourbach-leHaut (seven miles northeast of Rougemont). They include Jean (1729-1796) who married Anna Graber and came to La Maie farm at Menoncourt; Peter (1733-1801) who married Marie Engel and became an elder with meetings at Montreux; and Michel (born 1740-1817), who married Anne Richard and was the first elder at La Maie farm. 292 Michel attested to the birth of future Illinois settler Christian Schlegel for administrative purposes related to his marriage.

Johannes 'Hans' Nafziger of Essingen, Germany was the leading elder of his day (see EHRESMAN). He visited many of the European congregations, traveling as far as Holland to advise on doctrine and participate in the ordination of new ministers and deacons. In 1787 or 1788 he wrote a letter to his friend Christian Schowalter of Earl, Pennsylvania describing recent events: "...In southern Alsace they have had great unrest for years; the ministers of Montbéliard and Belfort have come into great disunity with each other, so much so that they called for help, and when we had made several trips to them and could not bring them to peace, we also came into disunity with them because both parties had a following, so much so that for a while we feared a division. The congregations in the Basel district and in Weltschneuberg [Neuchâtel] also got involved in it. Finally the ministers from Markirch interceded and sought to settle the matter but with distress of mind and much deliberation." He later recollected, "...I went often to southern Alsace to Hans Rychen [Montbéliard] and Peter Klopfenstein [Territoire de Belfort] because of their disunity, yet we hope for improvement..." An entry in the congregational record of Montbéliard created Jan. 6, 1788 mentions events "in der Blumbärger Gemeindt." Montbéliard minister Hans Richen had baptized three persons at the Stauffer residence on Chalembert farm. An additional note on the visit says that "Nicolas Schlegel a été réadmis par Hans Roth" ­ Nigi Schlegel was readmitted by Montbéliard minister Hans Roth. Apparently Nigi had been placed under the ban, then retracted or corrected his transgression to the satisfaction of the ministers. The next note in the register may pertain to Nigi's transgression. As it appears in Pierre Widmer's typewritten transcript: "So hat man such den Beschluss mit samt Dienner und der versammelten Bruderschaft gemacht von wägen denen Bartschärer, wann sie das nit wollen untersägen lassen und der Bart lassen wachsen wie uns Gott erschaffen hat nach seinem äbenbilt so sollen sie mit dem Bann gestaft wärdten als ungehorsame widter steinige mönschten nach lutt Gottes Wordt unde seiner heiligen Ordnung ohme alsächten der Persohn ich Hans Richen bezügen." "Thus, the decision has been made with the agreement of the servants/servers [the ministers] and the assembled brotherhood [congregation] concerning those who cut their beards, because they [the congregation] want to forbid this and let their beards grow the way God created us, after His image. They [those who trim their beards] should be punished with the ban as disobedient or obstinate persons according to the word of God and his holy order, regardless of the person involved. I, Hans Richen, witness in agreement." Three political changes between 1789 and 1792 meant that Anabaptists in the Territoire de Belfort would not avoid the effects of the Napoleonic wars:

Montbéliard was taken from Württemberg and absorbed into France. General uncertainty over this event led 36 families to leave Montbéliard and the Territoire de Belfort and migrate to what is now Poland. Those that remained petitioned the new government over the issue of military training. They obtained a temporary exemption from

291 The Rychen/Richen family left Frutigen in 1711. Hans Richen/Jean Rieche was born at Aux Gouttes, Montbéliard May 30, 1730, and died at Villars-sous-Écot, Montbéliard Feb. 20, 1798, a son of Daniel Rychen and Anneli Roth. On Oct. 28, 1760 he married Barbara Kauffman. Hans was ordained as a minister in 1760 and became elder in 1765. He traveled to the Netherlands to settle congregational disputes in 1766; an uncle and cousins who were church leaders there. He represented the Montbéliard congregation at the assemblies of ministers at Essingen May 1, 1759 (with Hans Roth) and Nov. 2, 1779 (alone). Peter Klopfenstein and Michel Müller represented the Münsterol/Blumbergerwald congregation at both assemblies. 292 Marie Engel was a daughter of minister Niglaus Engel and Barbe Balsiger. This Niglaus was the minister who held meetings at Montreux.

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service in the French National Guard that was superceded in 1798 by the Jourdan Law. This law mandated universal conscription but conceded that Anabaptists could serve in noncombatant roles. The Territoire de Belfort became part of Upper Alsace (Fr. Haut Rhin). It would remain in Upper Alsace until the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), when the older portion of the department was annexed by Germany. A third change took away a place of political refuge. In 1792 the principality/bishopric of Basel became part of the Republic of France as Département Mont Terrible. An Anabaptist petition requesting exemption from military training was denied there.

After Napoleon became emperor in 1804, he reformed the tax system. The welfare of the average farmer gradually improved. But the Schlegel family may not have shared in this relative prosperity. Nigi and Madeleine had 10 children between 1769 and 1792. Their son Joseph was born in 1782. A civil judgment at Belfort Nov. 22, 1805 cited Joseph for being a 'conscrit réfractaire' ­ a military conscript who refused to perform service. He was in violation of the Jourdan Law of 1798, which made every single and childless male on French property between the ages 20-25 liable for military service. The 2,000-10,000 franc cost of a substitute was out of reach for anyone but the upper classes. Joseph was subject to arrest. His name and those of his parents, 'Nicolas Schlegel et Magdaleine Homel,' were placed on a public list with draft evaders and deserters. It was posted in the communities of the Territoire de Belfort throughout the war years.293 A typical annual income for a servant, laborer, or farmer was 1,000 francs. A conscrit réfractaire and his parents were obligated to share a fine of up to 1,500 francs. Administrators also punished relatives of insubordinates and deserters with the garnisaire system. The relatives became responsible for the expenses of one soldier. In some cases on the frontiers they were required to actually billet a soldier in their home. We do not know how the situation was ultimately resolved. Joseph may have served a term of imprisonment before his death at Reppe in 1829. Nigi did not survive a siege of the fortress of Belfort in 1814. The hardship and ill feelings from these events may explain the dispersal of the next generation into neighboring areas and abroad. Most of the communities already mentioned were to the east or southeast of the town and fortress of Belfort. The fortress was built to protect the main road leading west. Thus the Schlegels' living places were in the path of armies allied against France as they approached the fortress.

THE FIRST SIEGE OF BELFORT, 1813-14 On Dec. 23, 1813, an infantry column, 600 cavalrymen, and 16 cannon from the 1st Bavarian Division reached Belfort. The fortress protected the only road that was passable for heavy supply wagons and artillery caissons. The following morning the commandant of the fortress was offered surrender terms. He declined. The French not only held back the initial attack, but sent out sortees to harass small detachments that had bypassed them. A prolonged artillery bombardment took place on the night of Dec. 29. However, on the following day an allied commander heard rumors that the French were about to receive relief troops. A number of Bavarian troops were diverted to patrol lines of approach. As weeks went by, Bavarian soldiers outside the gate gave way to Austrian soldiers, and they gave way to Russian soldiers and snow. The French defense tied up Allied resources until an armistice finally came March 24. The French commandant refused to open the gates until the last Russian soldier had withdrawn. Finally, on April 12, he yielded to the requests of hungry troops and villagers and re-opened the city.

We do not know if the family was permitted to take refuge in the fortress, and suffered from the intermittent bombardments, or if they remained outside and died from typhus, starvation, or harassment. Typhus was carried by the flea and lice-infested uniforms of troops. Farmers who chose to flee south into the Jura Mountains abandoned their property to hungry looters, both friend and foe. The contents of root cellars were confiscated in mid-winter.

A copy of the list was found by Philippe Tovena of Belfort in Dossier 2 R 39 at the departmental archives of the Territoire de Belfort. He was also kind enough to direct us to information on the French system of military conscription. Another conscrit réfractaire was Joseph Schad of Grandvillars. On Dec. 29, 1814 an Extract Mortuaire report stated that 'Joseph Schaadt' had been brought to a military hospital from Montaigne prison in Paris, where he had been incarcerated as a deserter. He entered the hospital July 5, 1813, and died there July 19. He was 21 at the time of his death. We believe but cannot prove that he was a son of Christ Schad who was born circa 1758 and died at Grandvillars Feb. 13, 1814 (during the siege of the fortress at Belfort) and Elizabeth/Barbe Joder, who was born at Morvillars circa 1756 and died at Grandvillars May 27, 1820, a daughter of Christe Joder and Anne Gerig. Elizabeth/Barbe was a sister to Jost Joder, husband of Barbe Ernst, who appears as the witness on many Ernst family État Civil entries.

293

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Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

Some sources say that Nigi Schlegel died March 14, 1814, age 63. At the time the area was occupied by Russian troops attempting to storm the fortress. Records of the Montbéliard congregation signed by minister Hans Lugbüll [Luginbühl] say that 'Nigi Slngnl' was buried in the Burgerwald forest at Montbéliard March 23, 1814. 294 The armistice came the following day.

THE SECOND SIEGE OF BELFORT, 1815 In the 1790s Claude Jacques Lecourbe led a French division in the occupation of the Swiss cantons. He attained the rank of general, but in 1805 he resigned his commission over a political argument. When Napoleon abdicated, the restored royal family rewarded Lecourbe by making him a count and restoring his commission. Napoleon returned from exile on Elba March 15, 1815. Surprisingly, General Lecourbe offered his services and took command of the Army of the Jura. Perhaps he knew he was approaching the end of his life. Lecourbe took a different view of the fortress at Belfort than his predecessors. They had simply withdrawn to the fortress and returned artillery fire. Instead of waiting for an enemy to set up cannons below the walls of the fortress, Lecourbe prepared for their return by arranging mobile batteries of cannons outside the fortress walls. His placements overlooked approach roads. The idea was to use the walled area as an 'entrenched encampment,' providing support to an outer ring. On June 18 Napoleon was forced to retreat from the battlefield at Waterloo. About a week later 40,000 Austrian troops arrived in the Territoire de Belfort to press an attack on the fortress. Lecourbe's 8,000 troops put up a stiff resistance. The allies were naturally reluctant to march down a main road into a funnel of crossfire, and moved forward cautiously. The effects of occupation were felt by local farm families. On July 1, Austrian soldiers pillaged the area around La Maie farm, burning two homes at Menoncourt, 60 of 64 homes at Phaffans, 94 of 114 homes at Bessoncourt, and 39 of 53 homes at Denney. On July 8 King Louis XVIII arrived in Paris to usher in the Second Restoration. Napoleon's return has lasted just 111 days. On July 11 Lecourbe and Von Colloredo-Mansfeld agreed to a ceasefire, after 15 days of fighting. Lecourbe retired from the Army. He remained at Belfort and died only a few months later, on Oct. 22, 1815.

A formal peace came with the second Treaty of Paris Nov. 20, 1815. The French National Guard at Belfort was released to return home in July 1816, and the cavalry dispersed in November 1816. Widow Madeleine Ummel died at Reppe Feb. 16, 1827, age 76.295 The death entry names her deceased husband as 'Nicolas Schegel,' and her parents as the deceased Christ Ummel and 'Elisabethe Hoescheleikler.' The children of Niglaus 'Nigi' Schlegel and Madeleine Ummel include:

1. Elisabeth/Lisbeth/Lisi Schlegel was born at Grand Charmont (eight miles west of Grandvillars, above Montbéliard) April 10, 1769, and died in the Territoire de Belfort July 9, 1807. On April 8, 1792 she married Isaac Conrad. He was born near the town of Belfort circa 1765. Their marriage was entered in records of the Montbéliard congregation April 17, 1792, where he was described as Isaac Kunradt, the son of the deceased Rudy Kunradt. Isaac was accidentally killed when a wall of stacked bricks fell at a brick kiln at Belfort July 29, 1798. The same accident killed his brother-in-law Pierre Schlegel. The death entries gave their residences as Faubourg des Barres at Belfort.296

294 When Anabaptists were expelled from Alsace in 1712, Duke Leopold-Eberhard invited numerous families to settle on his properties near Montbéliard, located 7 miles west of Grandvillars. They joined others who had resettled from the Jura Mountains or the Bishopric of Basel. From 1397 to 1796 the city was not French, but was the capital of the gravure of Montbéliard, a political island/enclave possessed by Württemberg. It was once a principality, but passed into the hands of descendants who did not bear that title, becoming a gravure. Amish Mennonites in Montbéliard began to keep a congregational register in 1750. This may have been the first place in Europe where Anabaptists felt safe to keep written records. Anabaptists were buried in the Burgerwald forest after 1760, in an area that is now the Mont Chevis Cemetery. The Rue du Mont Chevis is on the northwest outskirts of the city. After 1796 the congregations had the same language disputes as those in America, as the older generations struggled to maintain the German language against the wishes of the younger, more assimilated French-speaking generations. Montbéliard is now best known as the home of the Peugeot Motor Company.

Magdalena Ummel's nearly illegible death entry appears to say that she was 72 years old in 1827, giving the impression that she was born in 1755 and was only 14 when she had her first child Elizabeth in 1769. In fact Magdalena was born at Reppe May 20, 1750, and was 77 at her death. 296 This was a street on an elevation at the edge of town. It was reconstructed as Les Barres Fort 1865-70.

295

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2.

3.

4.

Barbe Conrad was born at Belfort circa 1793, and died there Aug. 25, 1804. Her death entry gave her age as ten-and-one-half years, and described her parents as the deceased Isaac Conrad, who in life had been a cultivator at Belfort, and Elisabeth Schlégel, 36, living at Belfort. The death was reported by Elisabeth. b. Freni/Véronique Conrad was born at Belfort March 5, 1794. Her birth entry named her parents as Isaac Conrad and 23-year-old 'Lisi Schelagre.' She is thought to have married her cousin Michel Schlegel at Largitzen Nov. 4, 1827, though no civil entry is found. c. Jean Conrad was born at Belfort Jan. 3, 1795. On March 12 or 15, 1821 at Pfastatt (a suburb of Mulhouse) he married Véronique Kauffman. She was born at Ferrette in 1795, a daughter of Nicholas Kauffman and Barbe Kauffman. They lived at Pfastatt. d. Catherine Conrad was born in the Territoire de Belfort Feb. 2, 1797, and died at Wellesley, Ontario Oct. 3, 1869. On Feb. 6, 1823 at Luemschwiller she married Joseph Boshart. He was born circa 1790, and died at Wellesley Nov. 6, 1866, a son of Jean Boshart and Anne Marie Muller of Wittenheim (above Mulhouse, which is above Altkirch). His older brother was Christian Boshart (1786-1850), who married Catherine Litwiller (daughter of Jacob/Jacques Litwiller and Anne Marie/Anna Maria Maurer) and migrated to Ontario. The two brothers were close friends of the Ropps of Luemschwiller (the uncle, aunt and cousins of Andreas Ropp; see ROPP). Christian Boshart and Catherine Litwiller went to Wilmot, Ontario in 1826, the same year that Andreas Ropp went there. Joseph Boshart and Catherine Conrad followed in 1838 or 1839. e. Marie Conrad was born at Belfort Feb. 7, 1799. On the birth entry her parent was described as Elisabeth Schlegue, 30, wife of the deceased Isaac Conrad. Witnesses included Elisabeth's aunt Barbe Schlegel (mistakenly described as Elisabeth Schlegue, 26) and Barbe's husband Christian Wagner (described as Christian Vagler, 36). On June 27, 1822 at Pfastatt Marie married Johannes/Jean Joder. He was born at Steinbach (12 miles northwest of Mulhouse) March 11, 1795, and died at Hartford, Indiana April 28, 1878, a son of Joseph Joder and Marie Stucky. They lived on the communal farm Barthel Hutte (the March 26, 1828 birth entry of their son Jacob calls it 'Barthlyhütten') at Largitzen, a location described in ROPP. Marie died on their Transatlantic crossing June 1, 1845. He became a Defenseless Mennonite in America, and is buried in the Evangelical Mennonite Cemetery at Hartford. Barbe Schlegel was born at Grandvillars Nov. 12, 1773 (also found as Jan. 13, 1772). She died at Reppe Sept. 5, 1845. On April 27, 1792 at Hericourt (five miles southwest of the town of Belfort) she married Jacob Bocler. The marriage entry described her as a 20-year-old resident of Grandvillars and a daughter of 'Nicolas Schlegel' and 'Madeleine Hummel.' The groom was born at Diessbach, Bern Dec. 12, 1749, and living at Belfort, a son of Jean Bocler and Laeticia Schwartz. The bride and groom were illiterate. Barbe likely remarried to Christian Wagner before 1798, the year their first child was born. Christian was born circa 1762, and died at Reppe Feb. 17, 1827, a son of Jean Wagner and Elisabeth Murry. Christian died one day after his mother-in-law, Madeleine Ummel. a. Barbara Wagner was born at Belfort Sept. 13, 1798. On Sept. 26, 1826 at Reppe she married George Bairet. He was born at Reppe July 26, 1802, a son of Joseph Bairet and Marie Cousin. This legitimized a son Pierre born at Reppe March 1, 1824, and his birth entry was amended. b. Joseph Wagner was born at Belfort Oct. 29, 1800, and died there May 26, 1801. c. Joseph Wagner was born at Belfort March 26, 1802. On May 23, 1830 at Reppe he married Elisabeth Roeschli. She was born at Mussig circa 1807, a daughter of Jean Röschli and Elisabeth Wagler. At the time of the marriage she was a cultivator at Marckolsheim. The ceremony was witnessed by brother-ofthe-groom Jean Wagler, 26; Jacques Wagler of Marckolsheim, 23, brother-in-law of the bride (he was later a neighbor of Barbe's younger brother Christian Schlegel at Washington, Tazewell County; see WAGLER); and the groom's brother-in-law George Bairet. d. Jean Wagner was born at Belfort April 11, 1804, and died at Reppe May 29, 1868. e. Pierre Wagner was born at Belfort April 18, 1806. On Aug. 12, 1834 at Reppe he married coutourier Marie Rose Nidelisse. She was born at Reppe Sept. 6, 1806, a daughter of day laborers Jacques Nidelisse and Jeanne Marie Petit. f. Christ Wagner was born at Belfort Sept. 2, 1808. g. Jacob/Jacques Wagner was born at Belfort April l 6, 1811, and died at Bourogne Oct. 4, 1855. Circa 1837 he married Barbe Eicher. She was born at Aspach, Upper Alsace March 14, 1814, and died at Cedar Valley, Wayne County, Ohio Nov. 14, 1904, a daughter of Jacob/Jacques Eicher and Catherine Klopfenstein. She is buried in Oak Grove Cemetery there. h. Nicolas Wagner was born at Belfort Jan. 13, 1813. Peter/Pierre Schlegel was born in the Territoire de Belfort circa 1774. He was accidentally killed by falling bricks with his brother-in-law Isaac Conrad at Belfort July 29, 1798. The death entry called him 'Pierre Schligue,' son of 'Nicolas Schlegue.' Johannes/Hans/Jean Schlegel was born in the Territoire de Belfort June 8, 1776. He married Anne Marie Müller. On Sept. 6, 1823 at Luemschwiller Joseph Boshart married Catherine Conrad, Hans's niece. Hans Schlegel appears on the marriage entry as witness Jean Schlägel, 50. The ceremony was almost certainly attended by the Ropps of

a.

191

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

5.

6.

7.

Luemschwiller.297 Unfortunately, it is difficult to discern the later lives of this generation. The father Hans was literate enough to sign his name on many entries ­ not always the same, and often 'Johannes Chellegue.' a. Michel Schlegel was born at Walheim, Upper Alsace (next to Altkirch) in 1795, and died at Reiningue, Upper Alsace (five miles above Froeningen) June 1, 1860. He is thought to have married his cousin Freni/Véronique Conrad at Largitzen Nov. 4, 1827, though no civil entry is found. b. Jean Schlegel was born at Vézelois (seven miles northwest of Grandvillars) Sept. 24, 1798 as 'Jean Schelegue.' c. Elisabeth Schlegel was born at Vézelois April 5, 1801 as 'Elizabeth Schelegue,' and died there Aug. 13, 1801. A death entry created at Belfort described the father as a domestic living at Belfort. It was signed by grandfather 'Niklaus Schlegel,' age 53. d. Christian Schlegel was born at Belfort Feb. 8, 1805. The birth entry described his father as a 36-year-old domestic servant living at Belfort. One witness was cultivator Christ Wagner, 29. e. Maria Schlegel was born at Belfort Oct. 26, 1807. f. Anne Marie Schlegel was born in the Territoire de Belfort in 1809, and died at Reiningue Feb. 11, 1860. g. Nicolas Schlegel was born at Froeningen, Upper Alsace (a suburb of Mulhouse) June 13, 1810. h. Jacques Schlegel was born at Froeningen July 22, 1811. i. Barbara Schlegel was born at Burg, Canton Aargau May 15, 1814, and died Oct. 9, 1856. On March 16, 1838 at Lutterbach, Upper Alsace (six miles below Froeningen) she married Michel Kaufmann. Joseph Schlegel was born on Chalembert farm at Grandvillars circa 1779 (the location and age 50 are indicated on his death entry), and died at Reppe April 23, 1829. He was considered to be a disobedient or resistant military conscript in a civil judgment in 1806. Maria/Marie Schlegel was born in the town of Belfort Jan. 8, 1780. On Oct. 28, 1807 at Couthenans (10 miles northwest of the town of Belfort) she married Jean/Johannes Drösch/Trasch. He was born at Frédéric-Fontaine in 1777, and died Nov. 15, 1840, a son of Hans Jacob Trosht and Catherine Hochstetler. 298 The marriage entry described Marie as a 28-year-old. Her parents were 'present and consenting,' and were named in the entry as Nicolas Schlegel, 57, and 'Catherine Humler,' 56, of Belfort. The groom 'Jean Trech' was described as a native of Frédéric-Fontaine who was living at Couthenans. Witnesses included cousin-of-the-groom Pierre Graber, 56, of Couthenans; cousin-of-the-bride Jean Stauffer (found as 'Jean Chetaoufre'), a 38-year-old resident of Belfort (his relationship will be explained later); and brother-of-the-bride Michel Schlegel, 23. a. 'Magdeleine Treusche' (triplet) was born at Belfort July 6, 1814. One source says she died there Dec. 24, 1814 (during a siege of the fortress). We did not find a civil death entry. b. 'Joseph Treusche' (triplet) was born at Belfort July 6, 1814. One source says he died there Dec. 26, 1814 (during a siege of the fortress). We did not find a civil death entry. c. 'Christophe Treusche' (triplet) was born at Belfort July 6, 1814. d. 'MarieTreusche' was born at Belfort Nov. 19, 1816. a. 'Catherine Treusch' was born at Belfort March 20, 1820. Magdalena/Madlena/Madeleine Schlegel was born in the town of Belfort March 2, 1783 according to her marriage entry (the date is also found as April 16, 1781). On April 24, 1803 at Couthenans she married Daniel Drösch/Trasch.299 He was born at Frédéric-Fontaine April 30, 1773, a son of Hans Jacob Troscht and Catherine Hochstetler. The marriage entry described 'Daniel Teuch' as a laborer living at Couthenans but native to FrédéricFontaine. Witnesses included cousin-of-the-groom Jean Fluckinger, 36, a cultivator; brother-of-the-bride Nicolas Schlegel, 22; and brother-of-the-bride Michel Schlegel. The parents of the 20-year-old bride were described as 'consenting but absent.'300

Joseph Boshart's older sister Catherine Boshart had remarried to Christ Joder at Luemschwiller April 19, 1824. Christ Joder was born at Belfort and was a son of Jacob/Jacques Joder and the deceased Anna/Anne Graber. Witnesses on that occasion included Jean Ropp and Joseph Ropp of Luemschwiller, sons of Joseph Ropp and Elisabeth Maurer and cousins to Andreas Ropp. 298 Catherine Hochstetler was descended from Christ Hochstetler and Elisabeth Ulrich who came to Clairegoutte before 1723. 299 Montbéliard records say that Jacob Troscht and Catherine Hochstetler were married im Schwabhof Nov. 29, 1762. The death of the father Hans Jacob Troscht of Neudorf is noted in Montbéliard congregation records. He died at Magny d'Anignon (now called Magny-Danigon) adjacent to Frédéric-Fontaine and Clairegoutte Dec. 18, 1779, and the register noted that he left three sons. All three sons were members of this congregation and their marriages were recorded. The Troxell family came to Bern during the Reformation. Circa 1100 a village near Sumiswald (16 miles south of Thunstetten) was called Trachselwald. The castle-prison Trachselwald (Ger. Schloss Trachselwald) which was used to confine Anabaptists still stands there. The form Trachsel was found in Frutigen and Steffisburg, Bern in the 1600s. It is also found as Traschl and Trascht. Since the 1500s the form 'Trösch' has also been found at Thunstetten, Bern. It may be derived from Dreschler or 'wood turner.' Variations include Drösch and Trasch. 300 The entry described the absent father of the bride as Nicolas Schlegel, 'Suisse,' and the mother mistakenly as Elisabeth Stauffer, 54, of Belfort.

297

192

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

8.

'Christophe Trasch' was born March 26, 1804 and died at Belfort April 14, 1804. The death entry created at Belfort described his father as Daniel Tresch, day laborer at Montbéliard, and his mother as Madelaine Schlégel. It was signed by grandfather-of-the-deceased Niglaus Schlegel, age 54, day laborer at Belfort. b. 'Elisabeth Treusch' was born at Belfort April 10, 1805. The birth entry was witnessed by Jacques Joder, 47. c. 'Christophe Treusch' was born at Belfort Sept. 12, 1807. d. 'Anne Treuche' was born at Belfort April 16, 1814. e. 'Pierre Treuche' was born at Belfort March 6, 1816. His birth entry was witnessed by his uncle, cultivator Christ Wagner, 54. f. 'Nicolas Treusch' was born at Belfort March 20, 1820. Nicolas Schlegel (#2) was born April 20, 1783. When he married at Pfastatt (near Mulhouse) April 24, 1803, the entry described him as 22-year-old 'Nicolas Schlegel, domestique,' born at Rougemont April 20, 1783 to Nicolas Schlegel and Madleine Aumler [Ummel] living at Belfort.301 The bride was 22-year-old Madeleine Amel [Ummel], born at Grandvillars [other sources say she was born at Florimont] Oct. 19, 1783, a resident of Pfastatt and daughter of the deceased Chrétien Homel [Ummel] and Madeleine Stuky [Stucki] of Pologne [Poland]. Witnesses were cultivator Chrétien Ummel, 29, brother of the bride; farmer Daniel Frutiger, brother-in-law of the bride and employer of the groom; Christian Brechbuhl, 47, cousin of the bride; and Jacques Hochstetler, 38, proprietaire and uncle of the bride.302 Nicolas died at Mulhouse, Upper Alsace April 4, 1842, and Magdalena died there Aug. 17, 1849. a. Madeleine Schlegel was born at Froeningen Jan. 22, 1807, and died the following day. b. Nicolaus Schlegel (#3) was born at Froeningen Jan. 17, 1808, and died at East Zorra, Ontario June 10, 1877. In 1828 in the vicinity of Mulhouse, Upper Alsace he married Barbara Roth. She was born at Dornach Nov. 7, 1804, and died at East Zorra, Ontario Dec. 5, 1877, a daughter of Nicolas Roth and Anna Schantz. They became early members of the East Zorra Amish Mennonite Church. Nicolaus purchased 128 acres Aug. 5, 1843. The farm is still held by Schlegel descendants (see Mennonite Family History, July 1994, The Amish Schlegel Immigrants). c. Joseph Schlegel was born at Froeningen April 30, 1809, and died in Davis County, Iowa. On Nov. 26, 1830 at Ste. Croix-en-Plaine, Upper Alsace he married Madeleine Peter Schmitt. She was born at Ste. Croix-en-Plaine May 17, 1814, and died in Davis County, a daughter of François Joseph Peter Schmitt and Magdalena Bächer. They settled in Ontario, then Iowa. One of their children became an elder/bishop with responsibilities in the states of Iowa, Nebraska, Oregon, and Colorado.303

a.

It is a tossup whether or not Nicolas was actually born at Rougemont. It seems more likely that he was born at Grandvillars. Because Nicolas was born before the establishment of the État Civil system of record keeping, a statement from a reliable source was required to prove where and when he was born. Note the later case of his younger brother Christian Schlegel (born in 1792, married 1816) where Michel Klopfenstein of Rougemont provided a statement to his village mayor, which was then sent to the official at the site of the marriage. The statement said only that Christian was born in Belfort (town or district). In 1893 Rougemont and some smaller localities were merged to become Rougemont-le-Château. 302 Christian Brechbühl was born May 28, 1759, a son of Martin Brechbühl and Anna Bachman. He married Elizabeth Roup, becoming an uncle to Andreas Ropp. Christian and Elizabeth lived at Soultz, 12 miles north of Pfastatt. See ROPP. Daniel Frutiger is mentioned in EYMANN. 303 Joseph Schlegel was born at Mulhouse, Upper Alsace Nov. 11, 1837, and died at Milford, Nebraska on Christmas Day 1913. According to his obituary, "While a youth he moved with his parents to Ontario, Canada, lived there a few years, then with his parents moved to Davis Co., Iowa." On Aug. 25, 1864 at Davis, Iowa he married Marie/Mary Miller. She was born at New Hamburg, Ontario Feb. 14, 1847, and died at Milford, Nebraska April 25, 1923, a daughter of Peter Miller and Margaret 'Annie' Mason. Joseph was ordained a minister at Wayland, Iowa in 1867. In 1868 he was asked to take on the duties of elder/bishop Joseph Goldschmidt/Goldsmith (see STAKER). They moved to Milford, Nebraska in 1879. They are found on the 1880 census of Precinct O, Seward County, Nebraska (now Milford, Grover/East Milford, West Mill, and Camden) as farmer Joseph Schlagle, 42, born in Prussia to Prussian parents (Alsace was occupied after the Franco-Prussian War); Mary 33, born in Canada to Prussian parents; seven children born in Iowa, and one 4-month-old born in Nebraska. Joseph traveled widely by train. He was moderator or assistant moderator of the Western District Amish Mennonite Conference 10 times between 1890 and 1904. The recollections of Christian E. Martin of Hopedale, from the August 1974 issue of Mennonite Heritage: "In the afternoon the old moderator [Joseph Schlegel] of the Conference had M.S. Steiner give a report of the mission work in Chicago which was something very new in the Mennonite church. I don't think the Mission had been going over three or four years. He started giving the report in English. The moderator, old Joe Schlegel from Nebraska, had a voice like a bear, and he says, 'Swiss Deutsch!.' It means speak German. M.S. Steiner got a big smile on his face. He said, 'Brother Schlegel has got the gift to bestow the gift of tongues on me," and then he started talking German... ...Joe Schlegel was an outstanding leader in his day. Now he wouldn't rate very high. He was a big man with a big voice and a dominating personality and he was a good administrator. Then the other one was Sebastian Gerig of Nebraska. They took turn about. They were the two men in the Western AM [Conference] as far as administration were concerned."

301

193

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

9. 10.

Michael/Michel Schlegel was born in the town of Belfort Sept. 12, 1785. He was a witness at the weddings of his sisters Magdalena (Couthenans1803) and Maria (Couthenans 1807). Christian Schlegel was born in the town of Belfort Aug. 9, 1792. He died in Tazewell County in 1863 or later.

Christian Schlegel was born in the town of Belfort Aug. 9, 1792. His birth was not recorded in the État Civil system of record keeping because the system was not instituted until Sept. 20. This created a problem when Christian requested the civil marriage required by law after 1792. In 1816 Christian was farming at Chavanatte. A ban posted at Froidefontaine and Chavanatte June 22, 1816 announced that he had visited the mayor's office at Chavanatte to request marriage to Catherine Ernst. The ceremony would take place at Froidefontaine July 3, 1816. He had no record of his birth, which was required by marriage laws. Fortunately, a document from the mayor of Rougemont dated June 14, 1816 was sent to the officials who would preside. The Rougemont mayor attested that Michel Klopfenstein (1740-1817), an 'anna á Baptiste,' was born at Rougemont and still living there. Michel was the elder who led the congregation at Lamaie farm. He vouched that 'Christ Sleglere,' son of 'Nicolas Sleglere' and 'Madelene Hommele,' was born at Belfort in 1792 in the presence of David Stholle [Stoll] and Jacques Joder, residents of Belfort.304 The marriage entry created at Froidefontaine stated that 'Christ Schelegue' was born at Belfort Aug. 9, 1792. His father was 'Nicolas Schelegue.' The entry did not mention that Nigi had died two years earlier ­ that would have required a copy of a civil death record (we could not find one in local civil records, perhaps because the family was still at odds with civil authorities). His mother was 'Magdalena Ommelet' [Ummel], described as a day laborer at Chavanatte. The bride was 'Catherine Erneste' [Ernst] born at Boron Sept. 8, 1794, daughter of 44-year-old weaver 'Simon Erneste' and 'Cathrine Rode' [Catherine Roth] living at Froidefontaine (see ERNST). Witnesses included Jean Joder, 53, a weaver from Froidefontaine. He was a half-brother to Christian Schlegel's maternal grandfather Christ Ummel. The entry was signed 'Hans Joder,' and it was indicated that the groom, bride, and bride's father were illiterate. At the time of the marriage Catherine Ernst was seven months pregnant with their first child. The first few years of their married lives must have been extremely arduous. While the farmers of the region tried to recover and amend damage caused by the occupations of the Napoleonic wars, they suffered from an extended natural disaster that affected all of Europe. ROPP told the story of European weather changes resulting from the explosion of Mt. Tambora in Indonesia and other atmospheric disturbances. They caused three successive extended winters in 1816, 1817, and 1819, later called a 'Little Ice Age.' Although the weather changes slowed travel throughout Europe, and emigration as well, the seed was created that led to later emigration. Anabaptists in the Territoire de Belfort were encouraged to emigrate. Many followed the example of an Anabaptist exodus from the Münstertertal valley in the Jura Mountains to Wayne County, Ohio.

A VOYAGE OF 1817: Bendicht Schrag

Gospel Herald, January 1914: "Bish. Joseph Schlegel was born Nov. 11, 1837, near Mulhausen, Alsace, Germany; died of cirrhosis of the liver and arterial sclerosis, near Milford, Neb., Dec. 25, 1913; aged 76 y. 1 m. 14 d. While a youth he moved with his parents to Ontario, Canada, lived there a few years, then with his parents moved to Davis Co., Iowa. He was married to Mary Miller, Aug. 25, 1863, lived in matrimony 50 y. 4 m. To this union were born 13 children, 8 sons and 5 daughters. Two daughters, 13 grandchildren, 1 great-grandchild preceded him to the spirit-world. He leaves to mourn his departure his beloved companion, 8 sons, 3 daughters, 34 grandchildren, and many friends and neighbors, brothers and sisters in Christ. ... He could say with Paul, "I have fought a good fight; I have finished my course; I have kept the faith; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness which the Lord, the righteous judge shall give me at the day." Funeral services were held on the 28th at the East Fairview Church, conducted by the bishop and ministers, Peter Kennel, Jake and Joseph Birkey, Fred Gingerich, Christian Rediger, Joseph Zimmerman. Texts. II Tim. 4:6-8; John 5: 28,29; Heb.9:27." Gospel Herald, May 1923: "Mary Miller was born Feb. 14, 1847, near New Hamburg, Ont.; died April 25, 1923, at the home of her daughter, Lena Kremer, Milford, Nebr.; aged 76 y. 2 m. 11 d. At the age of 9 years she with her parents immigrated to Davis County, Iowa, at which place she accepted Christ. She joined the Amish Mennonite Church and remained a loyal and faithful member until she peacefully fell asleep in Jesus. On Aug. 25, 1863, she was married to the late Bishop Joseph Schlegel. To this union of 50 years, were born 13 children, 8 sons and 5 daughters. Her husband and 2 daughters preceded her in death. She is survived by 8 sons, 3 daughters, 37 grandchildren, 48 great-grandchildren, one brother, Mike Miller of Pulaski, Iowa, and a host of other relatives and friends." 304 Jacob/Jacques Joder was born at Brevilliers Sept. 16, 1761, and died at St. Ulrich Oct. 21, 1838, a son of Christ Joder and Anne Hochstettler. He married Anneli Graber and Marie Ann Guemann. David Stoll was born in 1746, and died at Grandvillars Oct. 6, 1820, a son of Jacques Stoll and Marie Schad. On Jan. 24, 1779 he married Jacob/Jacques Joder's sister Barbara 'Babi' Joder. She was born in 1753, and died at Danjoutin April 22, 1822.

194

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

On July 14, 1817, four families from the Münstertal valley arrived at Strasbourg to board a boat on the Rhine River. Heads of household included Bendicht Schrag, Hans Nussbaum, Christian Brand, and Johannes Augspurger. The boat followed the Rhine River to Amsterdam, where the families boarded the Francis. Among their traveling companions was Christian Augspurger, embarking to scout land at Butler County, Ohio (the first of his two trips described in STAKER). The ship sailed on July 25, and arrived at Philadelphia Oct. 10. 'B. Schragg' appears immediately below 'C. Augsburger et famille' on the passenger list turned in to the Philadelphia Customs Office. Schrag and Nussbaum went to Ohio and purchased land at Smithville, Wayne County. According to The History of the Sonnenberg Church, they both wrote long letters home that detailed their journeys. These became models for later letters providing more travel information. One letter from Nussbaum survives and is quoted extensively in Gratz's Bernese Anabaptists.

When Christian and Catherine chose to emigrate in 1825, they followed the path of Catherine's aunt Anna Ernst, whose husband had once lived in the Münstertal valley.

A VOYAGE OF 1823: Michel Neuenschwander and Anna Ernst Michel Neuenschwander was born at Boron March 9, 1778. When he was six weeks old his family relocated to the Münstertal valley. However, in 1798 Michel returned to French territory to work as a cooper. On July 17, 1809 at Florimont in the Territoire de Belfort Michel Neuenschwander married Anna Ernst. In 1823 the couple decided to emigrate. On May 15 a pregnant Anna, Michel, and three children left their home at Faverois. They passed through Montbéliard, and spent the night in Paris May 30. The following morning they headed north to the port of Le Havre. The family arrived at the port June 5. They purchased passage on the ship Aeolus, and moved aboard to prepare for the journey. On June 11 Anna gave birth to a son onboard the Aeolus. The Aeolus departed Le Havre June 12, and arrived at New London, Connecticut July 25. After replenishing water and supplies it sailed south. It passed New York City July 28, and arrived at Perth Amboy, New Jersey July 29. The Neuenschwanders disembarked at Perth Amboy and traveled 18 miles overland to New York City. From there they began the trip west journey. A 6-year-old son contracted dysentery and died at Pittsburgh Sept. 16. On Oct. 4 they arrived at Green, Wayne County, Ohio. On March 29, 1823, less than six months after arriving in Wayne County, the Neuenschwander family spent $90.55 to purchase 74.75 acres in Green. The seller was Jacob Schrag, a son of Bendicht Schrag. In 1833 they resettled near Bluffton, Allen County, Ohio, becoming the 'pioneer family' there. Anna died there in 1846. Michel, now known as Michael, died there in 1852.

Christian Schlegel and Catherine Ernst boarded the Superior at Le Havre in the spring of 1825.305 Their traveling companions included Johannes Neuenschwander, a cousin to Michel Neuenschwander. 306 Their collective luggage consisted of "1bag bed & bedding." 307 From the passenger list:

Passenger number 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Christian Slaigle Catherine Slaigle Catherine Slaigle Christian Slaigle Barbara Slaigle Elisabeth Slaigle Pierre Slaigle Age 33 32 7 6 4 3 1

The Superior arrived at New York City June 18. While Johannes Neuenschwander traveled directly to Ohio, the Schlegels remained in New York City. Why did the family 'drop out' of the westward migration?

305 This was the same ship that would take Oyers and Mosimans to New Orleans in 1830 under the same master, Benjamin F. Harrod (see OYER). 306 Johannes Neuenschwander (found on the passenger list as 'Jean Neuschander' origin Langnau) was born at Souboz in the Münstertal valley of the Jura Mountains April 7 or 8, 1776, a son of Benedikt Neuenschwander and Elisabeth Lehmann. On Dec. 2, 1806 he married Katharine Furimann of Rohrbach. They went to Holmes County and then Wayne County, Ohio. In 1836 they resettled near Bluffton to live near Anna Ernst and Michel Neuenschwander. 307 "One bag, bed, and bedding." A family bed often meant an 8-by-16 foot sheet of canvas. Half was covered with straw. The other half was then folded over it, to give a relatively flea-free surface that was insulated from the cold deck. A bag was a sea bag full of clothing and personal items. The bedding consisted of linens and quilts. Metal cooking utensils were not considered things that could be sold, and thus were not inventoried.

195

Amish Mennonites in Tazewell County, Illinois

The Schlegels were certainly aware that Michel Neuenschwander and Anna Ernst had lost a child on the arduous overland journey from New York to Wayne County, Ohio. And in the summer of 1825 handbills advertised the impending opening of a water route to Ohio ­ the Erie Canal from Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie. A formal opening would took place Oct. 26. We can only speculate that the Schlegel family chose to wait out winter ice. They may have remained in the city because of the poor health of a child or the relative prosperity they found there. In 1825 the most famous Frenchman in America was the Marquis de Lafayette. The 67-year-old Revolutionary War hero had been invited by President James Monroe to tour all 21 states as a celebration of the approaching 50th anniversary of the founding of the country. The Marquis left France on a merchant vessel and arrived at New York City in August 1824. By the time of the Schlegel arrival he had completed his tour and was back in New York State, anticipating a September departure. Christian Schlegel would later describe seeing the Marquis in the city. For nine years the Schlegels lived on the Lower East Side of the borough of Manhattan. 'Christian Slagell' can be found in the Manhattan New York City Directory of 1829-30. He was described as a milkman living at 81 Sheriff Street.308 Later, in Illinois, the Schlegels would recall seeing the top-hatted mayor of New York City traveling to work each day in his carriage. It is probable that they were describing Cornelius Van Wyck Lawrence, who was in office at the time of their departure. In the summer of 1835 the Schlegels resettled at Ten Mile Creek in Tazewell County. They may have made the trip with André/Andrew Burkey and Catherine Ackerman, who arrived at New York that year, and whose son Joseph Burcky married their daughter Catherine 'Katie' Schlegel that year. Lydia Slagel Smith wrote:

"They had a long tiresome journey partly by boat and partly by wagon pulled with oxen. They were in peril of robbers and had to keep a close watch over their possessions. They came through Fort Dearborn (Chicago) when there were only five houses there. A grandson thought they came to Illinois after a "stopover in Canada," so it is probable that they spent some time in Waterloo County, Ontario, where they had relatives. They may have intended to locate there, deciding later to go on to Illinois as many others did."

In retrospect their move was fortunately timed. On Dec. 16-17, 1835, during two nights of below-zero temperatures, the Great New York Fire destroyed 600 buildings on 17 blocks of the Lower East Side. On Nov. 26, 1840 'Christian Slagle' purchased 40 acres of public land on Ten Mile Creek at $1.25 per acre. 309 In Early History of Washington, Ill. and Vicinity, resident Simon Thomas recalled, "The Slagle family lived on the bluff west of Washington. He [Christian] used to say he settled in the timber there because the prairie land east of Washington was full of sloughs, and the green head flies were so bad the stock could not stand it." In Illinois the Schlegels worshipped with the Partridge Creek congregation. This congregation was created around elder Christian Engel in 1833 (see ENGEL). It met in homes until 1854, and later evolved into the Metamora Mennonite Church. 'Christopher Slagel' appears on the 1845 census of Tazewell County. The entry shows one adult male, one adult female, and two sons. The family can be found on the 1850 census of unincorporated Tazewell County as Christian Slagel, 59, born in France; Catharina, 60, born in France; Nicolas, 21, born in New York; and Benjamin, 19, born in New York. Head of household Christian Schlegel is listed at Washington on a state census of 1855. The place and date of Catherine Ernst's death is entirely unknown. It is often cited as Ten Mile Creek/Washington circa 1855 (that is, at her known home after the 1850 census and before the 1860 census). The 1860 census of Washington shows a household containing Christian Slagle, 67, France; his son Benjamin, 29, New York; and daughter-in-law Ann, 29 [Marie Anne Klopfenstein]. Christian transferred the title on his farm to son Benjamin in 1863 and died shortly afterward. The children of Christian Schlegel and Catherine Ernst include:

Sheriff Street ran between Columbia and Pitt Streets, and extended from Houston to Grand Streets. Within a decade its cottages gave way to large brick buildings. In the mid-1800s the area was known as Little Germany, or Kleindeutschland. A book cal