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1231 Bookkeepers

Bookkeepers maintain complete sets of books, keep records of accounts, verify the procedures used for recording financial transactions, and provide personal bookkeeping services. The term bookkeeper refers to a person who can complete a full set of books up to and including a trial balance. Large and medium companies tend to employ bookkeepers on a full-time basis; small firms tend to employ freelancers or firms that provide bookkeeping services. Common Job Titles Accounting Bookkeeper Bookkeeper Typical Employers accounting and bookkeeping firms agricultural companies dentists food services law firms motor vehicle repair shops offices of physicians, surgeons and food stores residential building developers self-employed

Selected Main Duties

Bookkeepers perform some or all of the following duties: · · · · · · Keep financial records and establish, maintain and balance various accounts using manual and computerized bookkeeping systems; Post journal entries and reconcile accounts, prepare trial balance of books, maintain general ledgers and prepare financial statements; Calculate and prepare cheques for payrolls and for utility, tax and other bills; Complete and submit tax remittance forms, workers' compensation forms, pension contribution forms and other government documents; Prepare tax returns and perform other personal bookkeeping services; Prepare other statistical, financial and accounting reports.

Bookkeepers work in an office environment. During the tax season, bookkeepers may work long hours. © Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2009


Completion of a college program in accounting, bookkeeping or a related field; or completion of two years (first level) of a recognized professional accounting program (e.g., Chartered Accounting, Certified General Accounting) or courses in accounting or bookkeeping combined with several years of experience as a financial or accounting clerk are required. The Ontario government supports programs that can help newcomers get their license or certificate in their profession or trade so that they can work in Ontario. For more information, visit the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration website at

Employment Prospect

Over the next five years: Average Opportunities for employment in this occupation are expected to be average over the period from 2009 to 2013. However, due to the large size of this occupational group, the need to replace workers who retire or leave will produce thousands of additional job openings yearly. The use of accounting software packages and office automation are widespread, even in small offices, allowing more work to be done with fewer workers. This trend will continue to moderate future employment growth. In small offices, the bookkeeping function is increasingly being integrated with other clerical support duties. Most vacancies are filled by informal networks or direct application. Employers also recruit via newspaper ads, and private and public employment agencies. Bookkeepers with specialized computer skills and those working towards recognized accounting designations are expected to be more successful in the labour market.

Characteristics of Occupation

Estimated Employment in 2006 40,300

General Characteristics Male Female Full-Time Part-Time Self Employed Employees Unemployment Rate Main Industries of Employment

(%) 10 90 59 39 26 72 3 (%)

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Professional Business Services Retail Trade Construction Other Services Wholesale Trade All Other Industries Employment by Economic Region Ottawa Kingston - Pembroke Muskoka - Kawarthas Toronto Kitchener - Waterloo - Barrie Hamilton - Niagara Peninsula London Windsor - Sarnia Stratford - Bruce Peninsula Northeast Northwest

30 12 10 6 6 36 (%) This Occupation 8 4 4 39 11 12 5 6 3 5 2 (%) All Occupations 10 3 3 45 10 11 5 5 2 4 2

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Annual Average Employment Income of Persons Employed Full-Time Full-Year in 2005

$60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0 This Occupation All Occupations $36,268 $56,033

Additional Information Sources

Additional information about this occupation can be obtained from the following web sites: · · · Certified General Accountants Association of Canada ( Certified Management Accountants of Ontario ( The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Ontario (

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1231 Bookkeepers

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