Read Celebrations and Traditions of Africa and the African Diaspora text version

TDSB Africentric Inclusive Curriculum Unit ­ Elementary

Based on the Ontario Curriculum ­ Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6 History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8 Revised 2004

Grade 2 Literacy Through Social Studies

Heritage and Citizenship, Canada and World Connections Traditions and Celebrations, Features of Communities Around the World

Naming Traditions: The Importance of Names

Teacher Instructions and Student Booklet

Field-Test Edition 2009

This resource package was developed by Toronto District School Board teachers to enhance The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6, History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8, Revised 2004.

Acknowledgements

Project Sponsors: Toronto District School Board, The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat of Ontario, and The Africentric Advisory Committee (Yvonne Castello; Gerry Connelly, Director; Dr. George Dei; Icilda Elliston; Vernon Farrell, Co-Chair; Patricia Hayes; Dr. Carl James; Dr. Erica Lawson; Verna Lister, Superintendent; Lloyd McKell, Executive Officer; Ainsworth Morgan; Joesi Nelson; Stephnie Payne, Trustee and Co-Chair; Dr. Cheryl Prescod; Karl Subban; Lorna Wiggan)

Project Manager: Project Coordinator: Project Consultants:

Verna Lister

Lorna Wiggan Dr. Andrew Allen, Assistant Professor, University of Windsor Vernon Farrell, Co-Chair, The Africentric Advisory Committee Stanley Hallman-Chong, Instructional Leader, Social Studies Department Rogene Reid Troy Fraser, Yvonne Goulbourne, Donna Magee, Karen Murray Irene Brennan, Belinda Mondenge

Developer: Reviewers: Field Testers:

TDSB Africentric Inclusive Curriculum Project Grade 2 Literacy Through Social Studies Strand: Heritage and Citizenship Strand: Canada and World Connections Unit Name: Traditions and Celebrations Unit Name: Features of Communities Around the World

Title: Naming Traditions: The Importance of Names © 2009 Toronto District School Board ­ Field-Test Edition Reproduction of this document for use by schools within theToronto District School Board is encouraged. For any other purpose, permission must be requested and obtained in writing from: Library and Learning Resources 3 Tippett Road Toronto, ON M3H 2V1 Tel: Fax: Email: 416-397-2595 416-395-8357 [email protected]

Every reasonable precaution has been taken to trace the owners of copyrighted material included in this document and to make due acknowledgement. Any omission will be gladly rectified in future printings. This document has been reviewed for equity.

Table of Contents

Page Overview of the Unit The Grades 1 to 6 Social Studies and Grades 7 and 8 History and Geography Curriculum Anti-Discrimination Education in Social Studies, History, and Geography Africentric Inclusive Curriculum How Is This Unit Africentric? Description of Culminating Activity: My Personal Naming Celebration Curriculum-Related Expectations for Assessment Prior Knowledge and Skills Assessment and Evaluation A. Assessment B. Evaluation C. Rubrics Accommodations/Modifications Required Materials and Resources General Instructions Summary of Activities Teaching/Learning Strategies Activity #1: Christopher Changes His Name Activity #2: Gathering Information about Names Activity #3: Where in the World Is Africa? Activity #4: Ethiopian Naming Ceremony Activity #5: Yoruba Naming Ceremony, Nigeria Activity #6: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram Activity #7: What They Took from Us Culminating Activity: Creating My Personal Naming Celebration Additional Recommended Resources 1 2 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 11 11 12 13 14 16 16

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Rubric for Culminating Activity: Creating My Personal Naming Celebration Appendices Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist Appendix #2: Rubric--Where in the World Is Africa? Appendix #3: Peoples without Names Appendix #4: What They Took from Us (Poem) Student Booklet Activity Sheet #1: Gathering Information about My Name Activity Sheet #2: Map of Africa Activity Sheet #3: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram Activity Sheet #4: Self-Evaluation--Group Work

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Overview of the Unit

The unit focuses specifically on the Grade 2 Social Studies Heritage and Citizenship strand, Traditions and Celebrations unit; however, it also addresses many expectations in the Canada and World Connections Strand--Features of Communities Around the World. Selected expectations in Language Arts and other curricula are also addressed. Students will learn about naming traditions in different African cultures. Students will look specifically at two traditional African naming ceremonies: the Boran naming ceremony in Ethiopia and the Yoruba naming ceremony in Nigeria. Students are also asked to gather information on how they themselves were named, and whether there are cultural/family traditions associated with their names. Students then examine similarities and differences among traditional naming ceremonies in two African cultures.

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The Grades 1 to 6 Social Studies and Grades 7 and 8 History and Geography Curriculum

Social Studies seeks to build knowledge and understanding of the interrelationships between people and each other, people and the environment, and the environment and its many parts. Students are never too young to learn about valuing differences in their communities. When students understand how our actions affect everything and everyone around us, they can gain a sense of responsibility. Developing knowledge and an awareness of global citizenship is one of the ultimate goals of Social Studies. Global citizenship from an Africentric perspective is not about giving charity to have-not regions. Instead, it is about gaining a global perspective on complex relationships. It fosters deep understanding of the interrelationship between events of the past and their impact on events in the present. Furthermore, it offers perspectives that are often excluded in mainstream education. Not only do students learn about the contributions of Africans to Canadian colonial heritage, but also about the impact of colonialism on Africa. Students are exposed to the positive impact of foreign aid, as well as the devastation and corruption wrought by aid and business development. Moreover, keeping diversity in mind, students learn that interactions have affected different individuals and groups within the African communities in different ways. Critical literacy is a crucial part of Social Studies. Immersed in a variety of texts and contexts, students require tools to deconstruct hidden meanings. For example, a registry of enslaved peoples conveys a message that equates persons as commodities. Media that depict Africans as desperate suggests inferiority. Students can learn to deconstruct negative denotations through questioning: Who is the author? Who is the intended audience? Whose voices are missing? Furthermore, beyond identifying missing voices, students also attempt to reconstruct voices. In so doing, they transcend stereotyping people as victims and instead, respect them as persons, complete with hopes, intentions, and agency. Geography can facilitate Africentric education by incorporating the voices and perspectives of African peoples and by shedding light on their experiences, their Diaspora, and the lands on which they live. Students gain knowledge about countries and a continent with varied physical environments and varied human environments. Students evaluate how bias in media influences how we think about Africa, the Caribbean, and about immigrants. Students develop the critical literacy skills that help them to interpret images, data, and stories. They discover where people live and how they interact with the natural world. Ultimately, students will make connections about how their lives are intertwined with the lives of people in Africa and other continents. Finally, the constructivist nature of Social Studies provides an opportunity to rethink the teacher/student relationship. History is not the same as the past; rather, it is a compilation of interpretations of the past. These interpretations are based on traces of the past, including official and personal documents, statistics, artifacts, photos, and oral testimonies. These remnants are the evidence of bygone worlds and lives. Questioning their meaning and message encourages the researcher to reconstruct the social world in which they first appeared. This entails considering what such conditions, objects, and stories meant to the people who lived with them. In essence,

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students are asked to develop not only empathy, but also understanding by reconstructing a world of past meanings and connections. The reason why artifacts and facts about certain groups have not been preserved is that society has not devoted the resources to keep them. Minority histories in general require much more reconstruction and speculation. This is a good thing because it asks for students to be creative, but it is also fraught with difficulties. Part of this challenge is to resist teaching just facts. Instead of asking what do we know for certain about Nathaniel Dett and Mathieu Da Costa, we can ask what if anything do they mean to us? If we do not accept the challenges of speculation, we are left with Eurocentric history complete with convenient facts, resources, and museums. In that case, teachers will do what traditional educators have always done, which is to say that Africentric history does not exist or is impossible. It is generally agreed that literacy in Social Studies is messy because interpretations are tentative. After all, the past is gone forever, and our knowledge and understanding of previous eras are based on scanty fragments, often from a single perspective. Likewise, in Geography, we are faced with a multitude of social and environmental factors. Knowledge then becomes a hypothetical construction and its accuracy is subject to ongoing review by a community of researchers and through input provided by encounters with keepers of oral history and stories. Within this community, the interpretation of evidence is always open to debate. The community does not pronounce right and wrong. Instead the members gauge the viability and probability of the connection between evidence and conclusion while acknowledging different perspectives. No individual or group holds ultimate authority; the community represents a forum for dialogue. Ideally, Social Studies, Geography, and History classrooms should replicate not only the research community but also the authentic voices of students, parents/guardians/caregivers, families, and community members. The teacher should not preside as the one with authoritative information. Students should be taught how to investigate and choose a variety of evidence and build their own criteria for meaningful interpretation. They should also have opportunities to express the knowledge gained through experience and contact with family and members of their communities. Guidance should be offered through directing students to examine further evidence and to communicate their findings. Furthermore, students need to develop a respect for multiple interpretations from other members of the classroom community. Students are empowered when they are allowed to discover what is meaningful to them, and when they are taught how to create knowledge instead of just regurgitating the products of textbook researchers. Finally, it must be noted that Africentric curriculum is not an add-on. Rather, it replaces content and topics that are Eurocentric. That being the case, teachers will have to decide on their own what part of their familiar program they will replace. They must not teach from the textbook. That is, they must not judge importance by the volume of material in their textbook. If teachers are to adopt Africentrism, they must decide on the basis of their independent judgment what aspect of the familiar curriculum is excessively Eurocentric and needs to be given less significance. The curriculum must serve the needs of the students and not vice versa. --Prepared by Stanley Hallman-Chong, Instructional Leader: Social, Canadian and World and Native Studies, for the Africentric Inclusive Curriculum Project, July 2007.

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Anti-Discrimination Education in Social Studies, History, and Geography

The Social Studies, History, and Geography curricula are designed to help students acquire the "habits of mind" essential in a complex democratic society characterized by rapid technological, economic, political, and social change. Students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of citizenship, as well as willingness to show respect and understanding toward individuals, groups, and cultures in the global community, and respect and responsibility toward the environment. In Social Studies, History, and Geography, students learn about the past and present contributions of a variety of people to the development of Canada and the world. The critical-thinking and research skills taught in Social Studies, History, and Geography will strengthen students' ability to recognize bias and stereotypes in contemporary as well as historical portrayals, viewpoints, representations, and images. The learning activities used to teach the curriculum should be inclusive in nature, and should reflect diverse points of view and experiences to enable students to become more sensitive to, and more knowledgeable about, the experiences and perceptions of others. Students also learn that protecting human rights and taking a stand against racism and other expressions of hatred and discrimination are essential components of responsible citizenship. --The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6, History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8, Revised 2004, page 17. The learning activities described in this activity package are intended to reflect best practices with respect to the inclusion of the experiences, perspectives, and histories of peoples of African heritage. The inclusion of accurate, authentic Africentric content and perspectives has been written and reviewed by a team of educators who are of African heritage. These units are intended to provide teachers with teaching/learning activities and resources that can be used in classrooms so that students have opportunities to learn about the unique experiences and contributions of peoples of African heritage in Canada, their diverse cultures, and the contemporary issues they face.

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Africentric Inclusive Curriculum

Why an Africentric curriculum? Because many of the images and much of information about Africa and Africans today are either missing or incorrect, and many African-Canadian students continue to feel alienated, disconnected, and even disengaged from the curriculum. Furthermore, African perspectives are often absent in texts, learning materials, the curriculum, or much of recorded history. The Africentric curriculum document seeks to address these issues and to reframe and recast the curriculum into a more inclusive and pluralistic view. The goal is to teach students how to deconstruct and reconstruct curricular knowledge and ways of coming to know about themselves and the world in a different way. An Africentric perspective is important because it presents perhaps a great contrast to a Eurocentric perspective. In addition, we believe that the greatest critique of the present curriculum will come from those who are most likely to be marginalized by that curriculum. Therefore, the Africentric perspective will raise questions as a form of critical literacy, and provide multiple perspectives from which students can examine history and knowledge from different columns of knowledge on various phenomena and events in history. The Africentric curriculum is meant to be a critical approach to the curriculum and to thinking about the curriculum and the nature of curricular knowledge. All materials and subject areas can be adapted to an Africentric perspective. The Africentric curriculum is a living curriculum and, as such, it is a working document meant to become a major part of the way teachers will think about and interpret the curriculum, and it will influence their approach to teaching and learning. This document can and should be used by all teachers in all our classrooms with children from all backgrounds. It will help to form a more multicentric perspective and approach to our current curriculum. All students are miseducated when they are not provided with all the pieces that make up the complete picture of who we are as Canadian people. Our histories, knowledge systems, and understanding of ourselves are incomplete without an integrated or full knowledge of African-Canadian perspectives. What is the Africentric curriculum? Africentrism is short for African-centred. The Africentric curriculum is a curriculum centred on the continent of Africa and on Africans or all peoples of African descent and in the African Diaspora. It promotes and infuses African knowledge, worldviews, and perspectives or African ways of knowing and understanding our world into the mainstream curriculum of our schools. Africentrism is a response to Eurocentrism as it acknowledges questions and critically challenges the biases and misinformation in the current curriculum. The Africentric curriculum is a part of a broader inclusive or multicentric approach to education with particular benefits for students of African descent in our Canadian classrooms. It helps to affirm African-Canadian students in the histories, contribution, and value systems of African peoples. In that way, the Africentric curriculum centres or locates students within the context of their own cultural and social frames of reference so that they become more connected to and grounded in the learning process. It is important to emphasize that a "centric" approach to teaching and learning is pluralistic or non-hegemonic. The Africentric curriculum respects and is inclusive of a variety of cultures and perspectives, without valuing one culture over another, and it endeavours to centre all students in

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their own cultural frame of reference. All students, including African-Canadian students, learn about each other and the contributions of all cultures to world development as a way to knowledge about self and the world. African heritage activities serve as a context for learning and provide students with a fuller understanding of the histories and cultural heritage of African peoples. Students are actively engaged in a learning process that is attentive to their multiple intelligences. It is based on African values, principles, and traditions (e.g., pride, mutual respect, social and economic responsibility, community belonging, co-operation, and academic excellence). In the Africentric perspective, parent and community involvement is critical to students' success. As a form of critical inclusionary and emancipatory practice, the Africentric curriculum addresses issues of power and bias in the curriculum by challenging other forms of oppression such as racism, elitism, sexism, heterosexism, ageism, and ableism. Such a curriculum will prepare students to be critical thinkers and informed decision-makers. Students will understand their roles as Canadians and be able to make positive contributions to our diverse democratic society. --Prepared by Dr. Andrew Allen, Assistant Professor, University of Windsor, for the Africentric Advisory Committee, July 2007.

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How Is This Unit Africentric?

Students will acquire knowledge about a tradition in Africa. Names are important in the history and cultures of West and Central Africa (and also in other areas/countries of Africa), and the birth of a child is an event of great celebration and joy. Names may be related to an individual's identity and personality; they have meaning and significance, as well as strong ties to culture and to ancestors. They may even be given according to the day, date, or time of birth. In many African cultures, the naming ceremony is one of several initiations that children in a family experience at birth or as they grow into adulthood. This unit seeks to familiarize students with naming traditions in their own families, in the cultures of the Boran people of Ethiopia and the Yoruba nation in Nigeria, as well as with naming traditions in the cultures of their peers. The unit ensures that all students have opportunities to inquire about the naming traditions typical of their own families. This will permit student exploration, input, and dialogue--strategies that are essential components of an Africentric curriculum unit. Students will look at similarities and differences among the naming practices used by their own families, those used by the families of their classmates, and those described in the cultures studied. The expectation is that students will begin to identify and understand interconnections among the cultures of continental Africans, of Africans in the Diaspora, and of many diverse peoples and communities worldwide. Students will learn that naming ceremonies almost everywhere are festive occasions with many common elements, such as the involvement of family, special guests, and an official representative from the religion/faith/belief in question, if so desired. Rituals, baby gifts, food, music, singing, and dancing might also form part of the celebrations. And by placing emphasis on commonalities, the unit is, at the same time, emphasizing inclusion. As Africentric curriculum advocates inclusion and respect, the focus on names in this unit should provide teachers with opportunities for discussion and dialogue regarding the importance of treating everyone's name with respect. The unit offers the possibility of community input, another important principle of Africentric curriculum. Teachers might invite community members and other visitors to share their knowledge and personal experience of naming ceremonies in the cultures studied, as well as in general.

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Description of Culminating Activity: My Personal Naming Celebration

Students will create their own personal naming celebration and illustrate it on a cloth using colours and symbols that represent special parts of their celebration. They will write a one-page story called "My Personal Naming Celebration," and explain what the colours and symbols on their cloth mean. Students will tell the story of their cloth to the class, using one or more of the dolls provided by the teacher. They will also explain how the naming celebration is the same as or different from the way in which they were named. They will answer questions from their classmates.

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Curriculum-Related Expectations for Assessment

Grade 2 Social Studies Strand: Heritage and Citizenship Unit: Traditions and Celebrations Overall Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · demonstrate an understanding that Canada is a country of many cultures; · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions and celebrations; · explain how the various cultures of individuals and groups contribute to the local community. Strand: Canada and World Connections Unit: Features of Communities Around the World Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · demonstrate an understanding that the world is made up of countries, continents, and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country. Language Expectations Addressed ­ Based on The Ontario Curriculum: Language, Grades 1 to 8, 2006 (Revised) Grade 2 Language Overall Expectations Oral Communication By the end of Grade 2, students will: · use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Reading By the end of Grade 2, students will: · read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary, graphic, and informational texts, using a range of strategies to construct meaning. Writing By the end of Grade 2, students will: · generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for an intended purpose and audience. Other Expectations Being Addressed Note: Teachers should refer to the subject specific rubrics to evaluate expectations in other subjects.

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Prior Knowledge and Skills

It is essential that the prior knowledge and skills of students be taken into consideration when planning and delivering curriculum. The activities described in this package assume that students have acquired knowledge and skills appropriate for their particular grade level. Teachers may need to incorporate additional lessons that teach or review knowledge and skills that are prerequisites for the lessons contained in this activity package. Prior to beginning these activities, it is expected that students will have experience in or knowledge of: · a variety of traditions and celebrations within the local community · Venn diagrams · the difference between a country and a continent

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Assessment and Evaluation

A. Assessment

Assessment is the process of gathering information about a student's progress through a variety of strategies and tools. The purpose of assessment is to monitor students' progress as they work through the pre-tasks, and to provide ongoing feedback to students on how to improve their performances. Information gathered during the assessment process also assists teachers in making appropriate accommodations to meet the learning needs of individual students, and to plan for any additional instruction or practice that they may require. Formative assessment strategies suggested for with this activity package include: · checklists · response journals · self-assessments · graphic organizers · activity sheets For additional suggestions and more detailed descriptions of these strategies, teachers should refer to the Ontario Ministry of Education's Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner: Assessment Companion at <educ.queensu.ca/practicum/associate/assess2002.pdf>. B. Evaluation Evaluation involves the process of reviewing student performances and products, and making judgments about how well the student has performed in relation to the expectations and the criteria that are linked to the Achievement Chart categories. Teachers review their formative assessment observations as they prepare students for their evaluation tasks and make appropriate accommodations for students based on their needs. The following excerpt is found in the Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6, History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8, Revised 2004 policy document. All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on students' achievement of the overall expectations. The overall expectations are broad in nature, and the specific expectations define the particular content or scope of the knowledge and skills referred to in the overall expectations. A student's achievement of the overall expectations, as represented by his or her achievement of related specific expectations, must be evaluated. Teachers will use their professional judgment to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of the overall expectations, and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment (e.g., through direct observation) but not necessarily evaluated.

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C. Rubric The rubrics provided with this activity package are to be used to evaluate student performance based on the achievement levels outlined on pages 12­13 of The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6, History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8, Revised 2004. Evaluation information will be used to provide feedback to students on their performance, to plan next steps in programming, and to report to parents, guardians, or caregivers on student progress and achievement. As well, teachers may wish to assess expectations that are addressed in other subjects, such as Language and The Arts. Teachers will need to use additional subject-specific rubrics to evaluate student performance.

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Accommodations/Modifications

· Accommodations for students with Individual Education Plans (IEPs) should be provided as outlined in the IEP. Any additional accommodations needed should be recorded and submitted for discussion in any review of the student's IEP. Teachers should refer to The IEP: A Resource Guide, Ministry of Education, 2004, page 29 (available at <www.edu.gov.on.ca>). Accommodations needed for other learners with special needs should be as normally provided in the regular classroom program. Teachers should refer to The ECU Project: Implementation Support Document binder, pages 26­29 (available at <www.ocup.org/ units/phase1/ecu_project.pdf>). Accommodations for English Language Learners (ELLs) should be tied to the specific learning needs of individual students in relation to their stage of language development, as well as to the nature of the task and the kind of adaptation that is most appropriate. Teachers should refer to The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1­8: English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development: A Resource Guide, 2001 (available at <www.edu.gov.on.ca/ eng/document/curricul/esl18.pdf>), and to Many Roots Many Voices: Supporting English Language Learners in the Classroom, 2005 (available at <www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/ eng/document/manyroots/manyroots.pdf>.

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For additional suggestions and more detailed descriptions of these strategies, teachers should refer to the Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner: Teacher Companions (available at <educ.queensu.ca/resources/pages/companions.html>. Accommodations/Modifications for Use with This Activity Package · Structure groups so that ELLs have a peer buddy who can assist them. · Allow students to express their learning in different formats (e.g., pictures, music, drama, computer applications). · Scribe for students as needed. · Allow students to work with partners. · Read information text to students. Reread and paraphrase as needed. · Include visuals and accompanying words, phrases, and sentences. · Use first-language resources and strategies as appropriate.

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Required Materials and Resources

Materials and resources needed with this activity package include the following: For the Teacher: · Access to computers · Internet access · Chart paper · Appendices · The Naming Traditions Kit (Order #SS0058), available to Toronto District School Board (TDSB) teachers from Library Media Resources (www.tdsb.on.ca/medianet) and containing the following materials: - Four dolls (two male and two female) - Samples of African cloth - Wall map of Africa - Burns Knight, Margy, and Anne Sibley Obrien. Welcoming Babies. Gardiner, ME: Tilbury House Publishers, 2002. - Burns Knight, Margy, and Mark Melnecove. Africa Is Not a Country. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook Press, 2000. - Choi, Yangsook. The Name Jar. New York: Knopf, 2001. - Onyefulu, Ifeoma. Welcome Dede! An African Naming Ceremony. London: Frances Lincoln, 2003. - Ross, Mandy. Naming Ceremonies (Rites of Passage). Chicago: Heinemann, 2003. - Sadu, Itah. Christopher Changes His Name. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 1998. - 1998. - Photo Collection: #1 ­ Naming Ceremony of Boran People in Ethiopia #2 ­ Naming Ceremony of Yoruba People in Nigeria For the Student: · Student activities · Response journal Video Sadu, Itah. Christopher Changes His Name. Talespinners Collection. Dir. Cilia Sawadogo. Prod. Tamara Lynch. Prod. National Film Board of Canada. Narr. Itah Sadu. Videocassette. 2000. (Available to TDSB teachers from Library Media Resources: <www.tdsb.on.ca/medianet>, order #801614. Also available at Toronto Public Libraries.) (7 minutes)

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Websites "African Canadian Online." York University. <www.yorku.ca/aconline/literature/children.html>. "In Pictures: Ethiopian Naming Ceremony." BBC News. <news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/ picture_gallery/05/Africa_ethiopian_naming_ ceremony/html/1.stm>. "The People of Yoruba." Adele and Dale Young Education Technology Center and Utah State University. <www.teacherlink.usu.edu/tlresources/units/byrnes-africa/anijen/ background>. "Who's Who at Yoruba Naming Ceremony." African Immigrant Folklife Study Project. <www.folklife.si.edu/africa/photo2.htm>. Note: The URLs for websites were verified prior to publication. However, given the frequency with which these designations change, teachers should verify sites before assigning them for student use.

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General Instructions

1. Sequenced Activities: The sequenced activities preceding the culminating activity are intended to ensure that students have the skills, concepts, and knowledge required to complete the culminating activity. In order to consolidate learning, these activities may review knowledge and concepts or provide opportunities for practice on specific skills. Activities will also address new skills and knowledge essential to the performance of the culminating activity, and model effective strategies useful in completing the task. 2. Culminating Activity: The culminating activity provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate their learning in relation to a specific cluster of expectations. It is intended to engage students in a meaningful task that facilitates complex thinking skills and the application of knowledge, skills, and abilities. 3. Time Required: (Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6): Times as set out below are suggested time allotments only. Teachers may adjust times according to program and timetabling considerations or to accommodate individual students' learning needs. Social Studies should be timetabled, whenever possible, in more concentrated blocks over a number of weeks to take advantage of longer, more focused learning time that allows students to develop more sophisticated products of learning. Social Studies will involve discrete instructional time, as well as time where integration within other subject disciplines is appropriate.

Summary of Activities

· · · · · · · · Activity #1: Christopher Changes His Name (40­60 minutes) Activity #2: Gathering Information about Names (60 minutes) Activity #3: Where in the World Is Africa? (90­120 minutes) Activity #4: Ethiopian Naming Ceremony (60 minutes) Activity #5: Yoruba Naming Ceremony, Nigeria (40 minutes) Activity #6: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram (40 minutes) Activity #7: What They Took from Us (40­60 minutes) Culminating Activity: Creating My Personal Naming Celebration (120 minutes)

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Teaching/Learning Strategies Activity #1: Christopher Changes His Name

Time Required: 40­60 minutes This activity introduces students to the unit by highlighting the importance of names through the book Christopher Changes his Name. Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions and celebrations. Specific Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · identify ways in which heritage and traditions are passed on. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Sadu, Itah. Christopher Changes His Name. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 1998. · Sadu, Itah. (Audiotape). Christopher Changes His Name. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 1998. · Chart paper · Markers · Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist For the Student: · Response journals (to be used for assessment purposes) Teaching/Learning Strategies 1. Draw a big circle on the chart paper and write name inside the circle, or show students a class picture. Who are these people? How can we describe them? Why is it important to have a name? Where did names come from? Who decides what your name will be? 2. Have students, in pairs, share how they feel about their names, using guided questions such as: · Do you like your name? Why or why not? · If you could change your name, what would you want it to be? · How did you get your name? · Do you know what your name means? 3. Have students voluntarily share orally as a large group. It is important for students to understand that names are not to be laughed at, and that it is respectful to learn to pronounce other peoples' names accurately.

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4. Introduce the book or show the videotape Christopher Changes His Name by Itah Sadu. Ask the students to predict what they think the story will be about. Ask them to explain what makes them think that. 5. Read the story orally to students, or play the taped version. 6. Ask students to respond orally to questions such as: · Why do you think Christopher wanted to change his name? · Why do you think Christopher thought his name was not important? · What kind of names did Christopher choose for himself? · What did Christopher learn when he went to the bank? 7. Have students record the following in their response journals. · My name is __________________. · One thing I like about my name is _____________. · Something I don't like about my name is_________. · If I could change my name, I would change it to_____________. Accommodations/Modifications · Play the audiotape for students who have difficulty reading. · Place students who have difficulty listening close to the teacher. · Observe students as they are engaged in written responses to see if they are able to stay on task · Scribe for students as needed. Assessment Strategies · Appendix #1: Response Journal Checklist · Oral Participation: Teacher Observation ­ Anecdotal/Checklist Extension · Reread the book or replay the video Christopher Changes His Name. Have students role-play selected scenes (e.g., in the classroom interacting with the teacher, interacting with friends, interacting in the bank with his mother and the bank manager). Teacher's Notes

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Activity #2: Gathering Information about Names

Time Required: 60 minutes In this activity, students will learn, from the book Welcoming Babies, how families welcome babies into the world. Students will also gather information about their names and naming traditions in their families. Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions and celebrations. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · identify ways in which heritage and traditions are passed on (e.g., stories; community celebrations; special days such as music, crafts, dance, food, recreation, clothing); · ask questions to gain information and seek clarification (e.g., What are the similarities and differences in celebrations among cultures? How are they the same? How are they different?); · use primary and secondary sources to locate simple information about family history and traditions (e.g., primary sources: interviews, eyewitness visitors, class trips; secondary sources: maps, illustrations, print materials, videos); · use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., culture, celebrations, heritage, traditions) to communicate results of inquiries and observations about family traditions and celebrations. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Burns Knight, Margy, and Anne Sibley Obrien. Welcoming Babies. Gardiner, ME: Tilbury House Publishers, 2002. · Activity Sheet #1: Gathering Information about My Name (photocopies) · Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist For the Student: · Activity Sheet #1: Gathering Information about My Name Teaching/Learning Strategies Part A (30 minutes) 1. Ask students to recall orally what they have learned so far about names. 2. Introduce the book Welcoming Babies to the class by telling the students that families from diverse cultures all over the world are happy when a baby is born and welcome the baby into the family.

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Note: Welcoming Babies highlights the many ways in which diverse cultures welcome babies into the world, such as by singing to, kissing, greeting, announcing, holding, and playing with the baby. Notes at the back of the book provide additional information about the cultures. 3. Ask the students with babies in their family to share how they welcomed the baby into the family. 4. Tell the students that giving the baby a name is one of the ways families welcome a baby. Many families have a naming tradition and a naming ceremony, and names often have meanings. The teacher may wish to talk about his or her name and its significance (e.g., "My name is Ayana and I'm the first one in my family to have that name. My mother wanted to give me an African or an African-American name. Ayana means `beautiful blossom' and it makes me feel like a bud about to burst into full bloom."). 5. Encourage the students to share what they know about their names. Then explain to students that they will be gathering information (doing research) to find out more about their own names. 6. Provide students with Activity Sheet #1: Gathering Information about My Name to guide them in their research to understand traditions and/or celebrations around their own personal names. 7. Review the questions with the students, taking their answers, or use your own naming experience to model for the students how to complete the questions. Remind the students to ask someone in their family to help them with the questions. 8. Assign the research as homework. The teacher may wish to provide a letter to parents/ guardians/caregivers to explain the assignment, or include an explanation in the class monthly newsletter. Part B (30 minutes) Have students report orally on what they learned from the homework assignment (in pairs, then in a large-group setting). Where appropriate, question the students to determine if some of the following were a part of their ceremony: involvement of family, special guests, and an official representative from the religion/faith/belief in question; rituals; baby gifts; food; and music, singing, and dancing. Note: All families have a naming tradition, but they may not participate in a formal naming ceremony. Accommodations/Modifications · Where possible and appropriate, provide students with the questions in their first language. · Partner a stronger student with a student needing support.

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Assessment Strategies · Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist · Activity Sheet #4: Self-Evaluation ­ Group Work Extension · Have students gather additional information about any cross-cultural meanings or origins of their names through a mini research assignment. Teacher's Notes

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Activity #3: Where in the World Is Africa?

Time Required: 90­120 minutes This activity introduces students to the continent of Africa and many of its countries. Through the book Africa Is Not a Country, students will learn about the environmental, social, cultural, and ethnic diversity of Africa and the lifestyle of its peoples. They will also have the opportunity to discuss similarities and differences between living in Canada and living in African countries. Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · demonstrate an understanding that the world is made up of countries, continents, and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · recognize that the world is made up of countries, continents, and regions, including Canada in the continent of North America; · identify similarities and differences (e.g., in food, clothing, homes, recreation, land use, transportation, language) between their community and a community in another part of the world; · locate on a globe or map their local community in Ontario; Canada; and the various countries and continents studied; · demonstrate an understanding that the world is made up of countries, continents, and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country. Resources, Materials, and Preparation Needed for This Activity Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Burns Knight, Margy, and Mark Melnecove. Africa Is Not a Country. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook Press, 2000. · Wall world map/globe · Wall map of Africa · Activity Sheet #2: Map of Africa (photocopies) · Chart paper and markers · A collection of photos of Ethiopia and Nigeria, reflecting both urban and rural settings in contemporary times

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For the Student: · Crayons · Activity Sheet #2: Map of Africa · World atlas · Response journals · Paper to make notes or notebook. Teaching/Learning Strategies Part A (30­40 minutes) 1. Show students a globe, if possible, or a wall world map. Identify the continents and oceans. 2. Review the concept of country. Name the countries in North America. Have students locate them on the map or globe. Ask students to point out where they live in Canada. 3. Explain to students that there are many different countries and different cultures around the world with many different traditions. 4. Focus on the continent of Africa. Brainstorm the question, "What do we know about Africa?" 5. Examine a wall map of Africa. · What are some of the countries we can find in Africa? · What geographic regions are found in Africa (e.g., mountains, jungle, desert, grasslands)? 6. Provide students with Activity Sheet #2: Map of Africa. Part B (30­40 minutes) 1. Create a class KWL chart on chart paper to record what students KNOW, WANT to know, and later on, what they LEARNED about Africa.. 2. Ask students to brainstorm ways in which they might be able to find out more information about Africa (e.g., Internet research, library, interviewing adults). 3. Have students record five ways they can locate information. Part C (30­40 minutes) 1. Read aloud Africa Is Not a Country by Margi Burns. 2. Ask students to look carefully at the wall map of Africa to find Ethiopia and Nigeria. 3. Show students a collection of images (e.g., Internet and library-book images) of each country. You may wish to create a bulletin-board display so that the students can see the visual images daily, and to provide easy reference during lessons.

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4. Have students respond to these questions: · What is the most interesting thing that you see? · What surprises you the most? · What did you notice about the children in the book? · In what ways do you think Africa is like Canada? · In what ways do you think Africa is different from Canada? 5. Explain to students that they will be looking at naming traditions in two countries of Africa, Ethiopia, and Nigeria, to see if they are the same as or different from their own naming traditions. 6. Have students record in their response journals: · Three Things I Learned Today about Africa · Three Questions I Still Have about Africa Accommodations/Modifications · Provide extra time for students to complete their journals. · Reread the book Africa Is Not a Country with the students, emphasizing key points of the lesson. Assessment Strategy · Appendix #2: Rubric--Where in the World Is Africa? Extensions · Have students research or include an additional lesson on geographic regions found in Africa, and in Nigeria and Ethiopia in particular. · Have students identify another African country that may be of interest to them, and prepare a one-page report. Teacher's Notes

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Activity #4: Ethiopian Naming Ceremony

Time Required: 60 minutes In this activity, students will learn about the naming tradition of the Boran people, who live in southern Ethiopia, through beautiful pictures taken by a 17-year-old Ethiopian woman and through other materials. Overall Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · outline traditions of various cultures that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g., celebrations, names); · explain the significant traditions and celebrations of families from a variety of cultural traditions. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · ask questions to gain information and seek clarification (e.g. What are the similarities and differences in celebrations among cultures? How are they the same? How are they different?); · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions and celebrations; · explain the significant traditions and celebrations of families from a variety of cultural traditions; · interpret data and draw simple conclusions. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Computer · Electronic projector · Internet access · Ross, Mandy. Naming Ceremonies (Rites of Passage). Chicago: Heinemann, 2003, pages 4­5. · Photo Collection #1: Naming Ceremony of Boran People in Ethiopia, or visit the website: "In Pictures: Ethiopian Naming Ceremony." BBC News. <news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/ picture_gallery/05/Africa_ethiopian_naming_ceremony/html/1.stm>. For the Student: · Paper to record questions

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Teaching/Learning Strategies Note: If at all possible, invite in a member from the Ethiopian community to share experiences with the students and answer their questions. (See Additional Recommended Resources, Organizations/Resource Centres.) 1. Share a personal tradition and/or celebration with students. Explain to students that in some cultures, people have a naming ceremony for new babies. Do all cultures have naming ceremonies? 2. Read aloud page 4, "What's in a Name" from Rites of Passage: Naming Ceremonies. 3. Remind students that the class will be learning about the naming ceremonies of the Boran people of Ethiopia and the Yoruba people of Nigeria, but first, they will learn about the Boran people of Ethiopia. Show Photo Collection #1: Naming Ceremony of the Boran People in Ethiopia, or visit the website "In Pictures: Ethiopian Naming Ceremony," BBC News. Read and explain the text associated with the pictures. Give the students the opportunity to ask questions and share comments. Post key vocabulary. 4. Have students, in a large group, brainstorm captions for each picture. 5. Draw a T-chart on chart paper with the headings Boran (Ethiopia) and Yoruba (Nigeria). Summarize the lesson by asking students to tell you the features of the naming ceremony that they noticed (e.g., involvement of family, special guests, and an official representative from the religion/faith/belief in question; rituals; baby gifts; food; and music, singing, and dancing). List their responses on chart paper and leave it on display. 6. Ask students to create a list of questions they would like to ask one or more of the people who are depicted in the images they have seen. Accommodation/Modification · Leave up images from the Internet site. Assessment Strategy · Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist Teacher's Notes

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Activity #5: Yoruba Naming Ceremony, Nigeria

Time Required: 40 minutes In this activity, students will learn about naming traditions of the Yoruba people of Nigeria. Overall Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · outline traditions of various cultures that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g., celebrations, names); · explain the significant traditions and celebrations of families from a variety of cultural traditions. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · ask questions to gain information and seek clarification (e.g., What are the similarities and differences in celebrations among cultures? How are they the same? How are they different?); · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions and celebrations; · explain the significant traditions and celebrations of families from a variety of cultural traditions; · interpret data and draw simple conclusions. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Ross, Mandy. Naming Ceremonies (Rites of Passage). Chicago: Heinemann, 2003. (Read Yoruba traditions, pages 12­13.) · Computer · Internet access · Photo Collection #2: Naming Ceremony of Yoruba People in Nigeria, or visit the following websites: · "The People of Yoruba." Adele and Dale Young Education Technology Center and Utah State University. <www.teacherlink.usu.edu/tlresources/units/byrnes-africa/anijen/ background>. · "Who's Who at Yoruba Naming Ceremony." African Immigrant Folklife Study Project. <www.folklife.si.edu/africa/photo2.htm>. Description of a Yoruba naming ceremony in an African-American family. For the Student: · T-chart (provided for each student)

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Teaching/Learning Strategies Note: You may wish to read some background information from the website below before the lesson. · "The People of Yoruba." Adele and Dale Young Education Technology Center and Utah State University. <www.teacherlink.usu.edu/tlresources/units/byrnes-africa/anijen/ background>.

Note: If at all possible, invite a member from the Yoruba people of Nigeria to share experiences with the students and answer their questions. (See Additional Recommended Resources, Organizations/Resource Centres.) 1. Show students the picture of the Yoruba naming ceremony (see kit). Ask the students to point at and identify some of the things they see in the picture. 2. Read pages 12 and 13 from Rites of Passage. Follow with questions such as: · What are we reading about? · Where do the Yoruba people live? In what country? · What happens when a baby is born? · Whom do you see in the picture? Use prompts as needed (e.g., reread a page, refer to a photo/illustration). Note: Some readings on the Internet may refer to the Yoruba as a tribe. It is a controversial word. The word tribe has been misused in colonial situations and certain European contexts; however, in certain continental African contexts, the word "tribe" has maintained its dignity and accuracy of definition (i.e., "people sharing linguistic practices"). The word people is often used in preference to the word tribe. 3. Reread the pages again, asking students to listen for additional information. 4. Summarize what students have learned from the book by completing the T-chart on chart paper started in a previous lesson. Model for the students how to make jot notes. 5. Have students also record notes on the T-chart provided, and check frequently to see that students are on track. Accommodation/Modification · Provide extra time, if needed. Assessment Strategies · Observation · Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist

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Extension · Have students read Welcome Dede! An African Naming Ceremony by Ifeoma Onyefulu (London: Frances Lincoln, 2003), which highlights the naming tradition of the Ga people in Ghana. Teacher's Notes

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Activity #6: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram

Time Required: 40 minutes Students will begin to examine similarities and differences in naming traditions in Ethiopia, among the Yoruba people, and in their own families by completing a Venn diagram. Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions and celebrations. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · outline traditions of various cultures that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g.. celebrations, names); · use illustrations, keywords, and simple sentences (e.g., timeline of major family events, simple family tree) to sort, classify, and record basic information about family history and traditions; · use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., culture, celebrations, heritage, traditions) to communicate results of inquiries and observations about family traditions and celebrations; · construct and read a variety of graphs, charts, diagrams, maps, and models to clarify and display information; · sort and classify information using more than one criterion. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Activity Sheet #3: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram (photocopies) · Chart paper For the Student: · Activity Sheet #3: Similarities and Differences -- Venn Diagram Teaching/Learning Strategies 1. Draw a large Venn diagram on chart paper. 2. Review with the class how to use a Venn diagram. 3. Model for the class how the Venn diagram is to be completed by having students compare the Boran and Yoruba naming ceremonies using the T-Chart from previous classes. Record their answers on the Venn diagram. Have the completed T-chart in full view to help students recall the information to be used in the Venn diagram.

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4. Have students use Activity Sheet #3: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram to compare one African naming ceremony (Boran or Yoruba) with the way in which they got their own names. Accommodation/Modification · Have students look at pictures of the naming ceremonies to jog their memories. Assessment Strategies · Observation: - Were students able to stay on task? - Were students able to complete the Venn diagram accurately? Extension · Have students conduct interviews with five people in the school, family, and community to find out more about naming traditions, and report back to the class. Teacher's Notes

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Activity #7: What They Took from Us

Time Required: 40­60 minutes Students will learn how people of African descent lost their African names and how some people have tried to reclaim those names. Students will also learn that people from certain cultural groups have changed their names to fit in. Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · outline traditions of various cultures that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g., celebrations, names); · identify ways in which heritage and traditions are passed on; · use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., culture, celebrations, heritage, traditions) to communicate results of inquiries and observations about family traditions and celebrations. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Choi, Yangsook. The Name Jar. New York: Knopf, 2001. · Appendix #3: People without Names · Appendix #4: "What They Took from Us" (Poem) · Chart paper · Markers · Photocopied pictures of Malcolm X and Mohammed Ali · Sticky notes For the Student: · Response journals Teaching/Learning Strategies 1. Read Appendix #3: People without Names beforehand, and copy the poem in Appendix #4: "What They Took from Us" (Poem) on chart paper. 2. Have students recall orally some things they have learned about naming ceremonies in two African countries.

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3. Ask students if they know how people of African descent came to be in North America. Discuss the slave trade in simple terms that are appropriate to Grade 2 level students. 4. In a large-group setting, read the poem aloud. 5. Give students the opportunity to share their thoughts with the class. 6. Ask students if people of African descent today celebrate any naming traditions. Note: All families have a naming tradition, but they might not participate in a formal naming ceremony. Many families of African descent and other families take their babies to a place of worship for a christening/baptismal ceremony, which is considered a naming as well as a religious/faith ceremony. 7. Discuss with students reasons that traditions and celebrations get lost or change over time. 8. Post pictures of Malcolm X and Mohammed Ali on the board next to the poem printed on chart paper as examples of people of African descent who have changed their last names. The examples of Malcolm X and Mohammed Ali could be used as examples of people who decided to change their names because they felt that their names were not appropriate. They wanted their names to be more in keeping with their religious/faith beliefs. 9. Ask students questions such as: · Do you know anyone who has taken an African name? · Have you ever thought of changing your name? Why or why not? · Do you have a nickname or pet name? · Do you have a name from your culture and another name to help you "fit in"? How do you feel about this? Note: Nicknames or pet names are a part of the legacy of African naming practices that persist in certain families among Africans of the Diaspora. Children often have a given name, as well as a pet name that is used only in the family circle and among close friends. 10. Have students write in their response journals what they would like their name to be and why. Accommodations/Modifications · Brainstorm a few favourite names with the students, and discuss why they are favourites. · Provide more time, if necessary. Assessment Strategy · Appendix #1: Response Journal Checklist

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Extensions · Create name cards or placemats that celebrate each student's preferred name. · Read The Name Jar by Yangsook Choi. (This is a story of little Korean girl who considers changing her name to fit in with her classmates.) Teacher's Notes

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Culminating Activity: Creating My Personal Naming Celebration

Time Required: 120 minutes Students will create their own personal naming celebration and illustrate it on a cloth, using colours and symbols that represent special parts of their celebration. They will write a one-page story called "My Personal Naming Celebration," and explain the meaning of the colours and symbols on their cloth. Students will tell the story of their cloth to the class, using one or more of the dolls provided by the teacher. They will also explain how their naming celebration is the same as or different from the way in which they were named. They will answer questions from their classmates. Overall Expectation By the end of Grade 2, students will: · use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about similarities and differences among family traditions. Specific Expectations By the end of Grade 2, students will: · outline traditions of various cultures that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g., celebrations, names); · identify ways in which heritage and traditions are passed on; · use illustrations, keywords, and simple sentences to sort, classify, and record basic information about family history and to locate simple information about family history and traditions; · use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., culture, celebrations, heritage, traditions) to communicate results of inquiries and observations about family traditions and celebrations. Resources and Materials Needed For the Teacher: · Samples of African cloths or photos For the Student: · Fabric · Crayons and/or fabric markers · Lined paper for story · Dolls Websites · "Yoruba Adire Cloth." Adire African Textile. <www.adireafricantextiles.com/adireintro.htm>. · "Akan Adinkra Clothes." G. F. Kojo Arthur and Robert Rowe. <www.marshall.edu/akanart/adinkracloth.html>.

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Teaching/Learning Strategies 1. Show students samples of African cloths. Ask students what they notice about the colours in the cloths. Point out that designs on some African cloths have meanings (e.g., Adinkra, pronounced ah-DEEn-krah) cloth is a hand-printed fabric from Ghana, with symbols that have meaning. Show students photos of samples of Adire cloth from the website Adire African Textiles. Adire cloth is handmade by Yoruba women, using indigo dye. It has squares or rectangles with different designs. 2. Explain to students that they are going to create their own naming celebration, which they will illustrate on a cloth. 3. Have students review their journals and the charts with information to select key points they want to illustrate on the cloth. Encourage them to think creatively, since they will be putting together the celebration that they would like to have had. 4. Provide time for students to create their designs in draft and then on cloths, using fabric crayons and/or dye. 5. Have students, in pairs, give and receive feedback about their cloth. 6. Have students write "Creating My Personal Naming Celebration" (about one page summarizing key information about the naming ceremony they have chosen). 7. Have students present their cloths and read their stories aloud, using dolls as part of their presentation. Students should also respond orally to three to five questions about their story and cloth from the large group. Accommodation/Modification · Provide more time, if necessary. Assessment Strategies · Observe to ensure students understand the assignment and stay on task. · Review all assessment information gathered to date. · Use Rubric for Culminating Activity: Creating My Personal Naming Celebration to assess the story of the cloth, the description of the cloth, and the presentation. Evaluation Teachers review their formative assessment observations when making judgments about how well the student has performed in relation to the expectations and the criteria that are linked to the Achievement Chart categories. Refer to the rubric, the journal checklist, and other data collected in evaluating student performance.

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Additional Recommended Resources

For the Teacher: Print Non-Fiction and Informational Materials Laforet, Debra, Ron Mutton, and Shantell Morgan. African-Canadian Roads to Freedom. Windsor, ON: Greater Essex County District School Board, 2004. Picture Books Delaronde, Deborah L., and Keiron J. Flamand. A Name for a Métis. Winnipeg: Pemmican, 1999. Diane, Marsha. Arnold: Heart of a Tiger. New York: Penguin Putnam, 1995. Henkes, Kevin. Chrysanthemum. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1991. Hook, Sue, and Angela Royston. A First Atlas. London: Two-Can, 1995. Hudson, Wade. The Two Tyrones. New York: Scholastic, 2004. Johnston Ethel. My World: An Elementary Atlas. Toronto: Duval House Publishing, 2005. Audiovisual Resources Video How Wesakechak Got His Name. Stories from the Seventh Fire Series. Prod. Storytellers Productions, Inc. Narr. Gordon Tootoosis. Videocassette. Filmwest Associates, 2002. (Available from Library Media Resource: <www.tdsb.on.ca/medianet>, #106363) (13 minutes) Websites "African Canadian Online." York University. <www.yorku.ca/aconline/index.html>. "Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia Online." Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. <www.bccns.com>. Canadian Heritage. <www.pch.gc.ca/>. Note: The URLs for websites were verified prior to publication. However, given the frequency with which these designations change, teachers should verify these sites before assigning them for student use.

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Organizations/Resource Centres Black Pages Canada, Inc. 1390 Eglinton Avenue West Toronto, ON M6C 2E4 Tel 416-784-3002 Council on African Canadian Education Trade Mart Building 2021 Brunswick Street, 5th Floor P.O. Box 578 Halifax, NS B3J 2S9 Tel: 902-424-2678 Ethiopian Association in Toronto Inc. 2064 Danforth Avenue Toronto, ON M4C 1J6 Tel: 416-694-1522 The Fran Endicott Centre Central Technical School 725 Bathurst Street, Room 105B Toronto, ON M5S 2R5 Tel: 416-397-3795 Jamaican Canadian Association 995 Arrow Road Toronto, ON M9M 2Z5 Tel: 416-746-5772 Nigerian-Canadian Muslim Association 6855 Airport Rd., Building #6B Mississauga, ON L4W 1Y9 Tel: 905-657-0974 Somali-Canadian Association of Etobicoke Thistletown Multi-Services Centre 925 Albion Road, Unit 307 Etobicoke, ON M9V 1A6 Tel: 416-742-4601 Tropicana Community Services 670 Progress Avenue, Unit 14 Scarborough, ON M1H 3A4 Tel: 416-439-9009

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Yoruba Community Association 50 Airview Road Etobicoke, ON M9W 4P2 Tel: 416-979-8364 For the Student: Print Non-Fiction and Informational Materials Adams, Elizabeth. Africa: Read and Colour Learning Fun. Dana Point, CA: Edupress Inc., 1999. Winky, Adam. African Activity Book. New York: Dover, 1999. Picture Books El Dash, Khaled. Boushra's Day: From Dawn to Dusk in an Egyptian Town. London: Frances Lincoln, 2002. Mason, Paul. Rites of Passage: Birthdays. Chicago: Heinemann, 2004. Rotner, Shelly Many Ways: How Families Practise Their Beliefs and Religions. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook Press, 2005. Shah, Idries. The Boy Without a Name. Cambridge, MA: Hoopoe Books, 2000.

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Rubric for Culminating Activity: Creating My Personal Naming Celebration

Category

Knowledge and Understanding Outline traditions of various cultures that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g., celebrations, names) Thinking Identify ways in which heritage and traditions are passed on (e.g., stories; community celebrations; special days such as music, crafts, dance, food, recreation, clothing)

Criteria

· outline elements of naming traditions of cultures studied that are passed down from earlier generations (e.g., family presence) · express creativity and thought through the use of elements selected in the drawings and stories, as well as in the oral presentation of student's own personal naming celebration · use illustrations, appropriate vocabulary, and simple sentences to sort, classify, and record basic information about family naming traditions in the context of a personal naming celebration · use examples from naming traditions studied, own family traditions, and own ideas to create, illustrate, and explain own personal naming celebration

Level 1

· makes use of few elements (e.g., family presence) that suggest knowledge and understanding of naming traditions · has difficulty expressing creativity and thought through drawings and stories, as well as in the oral presentation of student's own personal naming celebration · has difficulty using illustrations, appropriate vocabulary, and simple sentences to apply basic information learned about naming traditions to a personal naming celebration · has difficulty using examples from naming traditions studied, own family traditions, and own ideas to create, illustrate, and explain a personal naming celebration

Level 2

· makes use of some elements (e.g., family presence) that suggest knowledge and understanding of naming traditions · expresses some creativity and thought through drawings and stories, as well as in the oral presentation of student's own personal naming celebration · uses some illustrations, appropriate vocabulary, and simple sentences to apply some of the basic information learned about naming traditions to a personal naming celebration · makes use of some examples from naming traditions studied, own family traditions, and own ideas to create, illustrate, and explain a personal naming celebration

Level 3

· makes use of several elements (e.g., family presence) that suggest knowledge and understanding of naming traditions · expresses considerable creativity and thought through drawings and stories, as well as in the oral presentation of student's own personal naming celebration · uses many illustrations, appropriate vocabulary, and simple sentences to apply the basic information learned about naming traditions to a personal naming celebration · uses many examples from naming traditions studied, own family traditions, and own ideas to create, illustrate, and explain a personal naming celebration

Level 4

· makes use of many elements (e.g., family presence) that suggest knowledge and understanding of naming traditions · expresses a high degree of creativity and thought through drawings and stories, as well as in the oral presentation of student's own personal naming celebration · makes creative use of original illustrations, appropriate vocabulary, and simple descriptive sentences to apply basic information learned about naming traditions to a personal naming celebration · makes effective and original use of examples from naming traditions studied, own family traditions, and own ideas to create, illustrate, and explain a personal naming celebration

Communication Use illustrations, keywords, and simple sentences (e.g., timeline of major family events, simple family tree) to sort, classify, and record basic information about family history and traditions

Application Identify community celebrations that reflect their own heritage and/or their Canadian identity (e.g., Remembrance Day, Canada Day, Victoria Day, Aboriginal Solidarity Day, Chinese New Year)

Note: "What constitutes effectiveness in any given performance task will vary with the particular criterion being considered. Assessment of effectiveness may therefore focus on a quality such as appropriateness, clarity, accuracy, precision, logic, relevance, significance, fluency, flexibility, depth, or breadth, as appropriate for a particular criterion. For example, in the Thinking category, assessment of effectiveness might focus on the degree of relevance or depth apparent in an analysis; in the Communication category, on clarity of expression or logical organization of information and ideas; or in the Application category, on appropriateness or breadth in the making of connections. Similarly, in the Knowledge and Understanding category, assessment of knowledge might focus on accuracy, assessment of understanding might focus on depth of an explanation." --The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6, History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8, Revised 2004, p. 11.

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Appendices

Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist Appendix #2: Rubric--Where in the World Is Africa? Appendix #3: People without Names Appendix #4: What They Took from Us (Poem)

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Appendix #1: Personal Journal Checklist

Personal Journal of Learning for Assessment Purposes

Name of Student Understanding Content Appropriate Vocabulary Clarity of Thought Expression of Ideas Personal Responses

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Appendix #2: Rubric--Where in the World Is Africa?

Category

Knowledge and Understanding Demonstrate an understanding that the world is made up of countries, continents, and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country Map, Globe and Graphic Skills Locate on a globe or map their local community in Ontario; Canada; and the various countries and continents studied Thinking Identify similarities and differences (e.g., in food clothing, homes recreation, land use, transportation, language) between their community and a community in another part of the world Communication Ask questions and use factual texts to obtain information about countries/communities around the world Application Present information about children around the world (e.g., country of origin, language, food, clothing, homes, games)

Criteria

· demonstrate an understanding that Africa is made up of countries and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country

Level 1

· has difficulty demonstrating an understanding that Africa is made up of countries and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country

Level 2

· demonstrates some understanding that Africa is made up of countries and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country

Level 3

· demonstrates considerable understanding that Africa is made up of countries and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country

Level 4

· demonstrates thorough understanding that Africa is made up of countries and regions, and that people's lifestyles may differ from country to country

· locate on a map of Africa the countries of Ethiopia and Nigeria

· identify similarities and differences observed between Canada and countries in Africa

· identifies similarities and differences observed between Canada and countries in Africa

· identifies similarities and differences observed between Canada and countries in Africa

· identifies similarities and differences observed between Canada and countries in Africa

· identifies similarities and differences observed between Canada and countries in Africa

· ask key, relevant questions about Africa in general or about countries/communities in Africa · present orally and/or in writing information about Africa and about children living in Africa countries

· asks few, if any, key, relevant questions about Africa in general or about countries/communities in Africa · has difficulty presenting orally and in writing little relevant and accurate information about Africa and about children living in African countries

· asks some relevant questions about Africa/countries in Africa

· asks many relevant questions about Africa/countries in Africa

· asks the most relevant questions about Africa in general, or the countries/communities in Africa

· presents orally and in writing some relevant and accurate information about Africa and about children living in African countries

· presents orally and in writing a considerable amount of relevant and accurate information about Africa and about children living in African countries

· presents orally and in writing a considerable amount of highly relevant and accurate information about Africa and about children living in African countries

Note: "What constitutes effectiveness in any given performance task will vary with the particular criterion being considered. Assessment of effectiveness may therefore focus on a quality such as appropriateness, clarity, accuracy, precision, logic, relevance, significance, fluency, flexibility, depth, or breadth, as appropriate for a particular criterion. For example, in the Thinking category, assessment of effectiveness might focus on the degree of relevance or depth apparent in an analysis; in the Communication category, on clarity of expression or logical organization of information and ideas; or in the Application category, on appropriateness or breadth in the making of connections. Similarly, in the Knowledge and Understanding category, assessment of knowledge might focus on accuracy, assessment of understanding might focus on depth of an explanation." --The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6, History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8, Revised 2004, p. 11.

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Appendix #3: Creating New Naming Practices

Africans who were brought to North America as slaves to work as cheap labour on plantations in the United States were stripped of their African names and were given new names on the boats or later on by their owners. This loss of their African birth names was the loss of a link with the past and with their heritage. It was a critical blow to their identity, since the naming of a child is an important cultural tradition in many African countries and is marked with much celebration. Furthermore, traditional African names are based on life situations and circumstances, such as day of birth, position in the family, name of ancestor, and family hopes for the life and success of the child. The new names given to the slaves were chosen in various ways: from the Bible, classical names such as Caesar or Pompey, nicknames such as Curly, surnames of American presidents such as Washington, and some slaves were given the names of their masters. After the Civil War, when slaves attained their freedom, African Americans sought to redefine themselves by changing their names. They differentiated their names from those of the white population by adding a variety of prefixes or suffixes or by modifying the name some way. For example, David became Davon and Clara became Clarinda. In the '60s, during the Civil Rights movement, activists sought to identify themselves more closely to their African heritage and to construct new identities by reclaiming African names. For example, Stokely Carmichael became Kwame Toure. Other African Americans such as Cassius Clay Jr. adopted the Muslim faith and assumed the Muslim name, Muhammad Ali. To this day, the modification of European names and the choosing of African names have become accepted naming practices among many peoples of the African Diaspora.

--Reference: "Finding Our History: African American Names." Family Education Network. <life.familyeducation.com/baby/baby-names/45480.html>.

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Appendix #4: What They Took from Us

They came in ships from across the sea The pale-faced strangers of a distant land They took us from our home but we didn't want to leave They shackled us, chained us, bound our feet and hands. They shipped us away to a new, different country We were separated from our family and friends To men called masters, they sold us as property And to plantations was where some of us were sent. We took care of the land that was owned by the masters And how we worked; how we sweat every day for no pay, And the thing that is worse, the act that is sadder ­ Is that we had our names replaced, as the masters' property claim.

--Zalika Reid-Benta

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Grade 2 Literacy Through Social Studies

Heritage and Citizenship, Canada and World Connections Traditions and Celebrations, Features of Communities Around the World

Naming Traditions: The Importance of Names

Student Booklet

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Student Activity Sheets

Activity Sheet #1: Gathering Information about My Name Activity Sheet #2: Map of Africa Activity Sheet #3: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram Activity Sheet #4: Self-Evaluation--Group Work

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Activity Sheet #1: Gathering Information about My Name

1. Who chose your name? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Were you named after someone? If you were, what is the relationship of this person to you? (Friend, grandparent, father, uncle, etc.) ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. Was there a cultural naming tradition followed in choosing your name? If so, describe it. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. Was there a special ceremony/gathering when you got your name? If so, describe what took place. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. Why is your name important to you and your family?

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 6. My name means _______________________________________________. 7. My name is __________________________________________________.

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Activity Sheet #2: Map of Africa

Name: ___________________________________

Use an atlas to help you locate Ethiopia and Nigeria. Colour them in.

Did you know that Africa is the third largest continent in the world? Africa contains the world's largest desert, the Sahara, and the world's longest river, the Nile. Africa has 54 countries.

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Activity Sheet #3: Similarities and Differences--Venn Diagram

Boran Naming Ceremony

Yoruba Naming Ceremony

Similarities

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Activity Sheet #4: Self-Evaluation--Group Work

Name: ______________________________________

CRITERIA

1

I really need to work at this. I can use some help.

2

Some effort. I think I can still do better.

3

A very good effort.

4

An amazing effort. Much more than expected.

1. Did I listen without interrupting when others were sharing? 2. Did I make my best effort? 3. Did I share ideas in the group? 4. Did I try to make sure that everyone in the group had a turn to speak? 5. Did I treat what others had to say with respect? 6. Did I share the time in a fair way? 7.

8.

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