Read Microsoft Word - 01MatthewsKTitle.doc text version

Use of Web-Based Instruction and an Interactive Whiteboard to Prepare Third-Grade Students for a High-Stakes, Standardized Mathematics Test

A Thesis submitted To the Graduate School Valdosta State University

in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

EDUCATION SPECIALIST

in Instructional Technology

in the Department of Curriculum, Leadership, and Technology of the College of Education

May 2007

Kate A. Matthews

MED, State University of West Georgia, 1994 BA, LaGrange College, 1991

© Copyright 2007 Kate A. Matthews All Rights Reserved

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to first acknowledge my family for their unconditional love and support during the past two years. To my wonderful husband, for his encouragement and devotion to my dream of obtaining this degree, and to my three beautiful daughters who have helped mommy truly appreciate and cherish every spare moment I have to spend with them. I also want to acknowledge the tremendous support and encouragement provided by my friend and colleague, Vicki Bruns. I simply couldn't have made it through this without her. Finally, I would like to recognize all of my outstanding professors within the Department of Curriculum, Leadership, and Technology. Especially, I would like to thank Dr. Schmertzing and Dr. Verilette Hinkle. Both of whom are heaven sent and incredible cheerleaders.

Abstract This specialist thesis is comprised of two primary sections, an action research proposal and a journal ready article. The action research proposal outlines the plans and tools needed for the action research. The journal ready article presents the findings of the study. I have found that when students use web-based instruction designed for high-stakes test preparation alone, students' practice test scores generally do not improve. Therefore, students' lack the motivation needed for additional practice of the content area being tested. Based on direct classroom observation and extensive review of the literature, I determined that unless students are involved with more interactive, motivating ways to review for the upcoming test using technology, the web-based test preparation site is not well utilized. The purpose of this action research study was to determine the influence of a web-based test preparation program, an interactive whiteboard, and online mathematics games on student mathematics academic achievement and student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. In addition, student experiences were examined when combining these instructional technology tools. As submitted in the action research proposal, a class of 15 third-grade students participated in the intervention for one hour per day during the three-week study. My journal-ready article describes the results of the study and shows the use of web-based instruction and an interactive whiteboard had a positive influence on student mathematics achievement and perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. Data were collected from student journals, field notes, surveys, interviews, and mathematics achievement tests. The results also implicate the use of this intervention as an effective means for end-of-year test preparation for my school. The findings of this study were presented to the learning community through a PowerPoint presentation and were received in a positive manner. Feedback indicated that many teachers plan to use the intervention in the future.

Use of Web-Based

1

Use of Web-Based Technology and an Interactive Whiteboard to Prepare Third-Grade Students for a High-Stakes, Standardized Mathematics Test Kate A. Matthews Valdosta State University

Use of Web-Based Introduction and Area of Focus

2

After 9 years of experience as a technology instructor, I have determined that when webbased technology is not utilized to actively engage and assess students, true knowledge acquisition via the use of technology is not achieved. Following extensive research and discussions with other elementary technology instructors within the county where I currently teach, I have found designing instruction for students' use of web-based programs should include immediate feedback, interactive, whole-group review, and computer-based programs or games that offer motivational opportunities for review. The purpose of my study is to portray the experiences of third-grade students as they utilize web-based games, and an interactive whiteboard to review mathematics content and skills in preparation for taking the CRCT test. In addition, I plan to examine the influence of those technologies on student mathematics achievement and student perceptions toward taking mathematics tests. The Georgia Department of Education and Riverside Publishing have developed a webbased, online assessment system (OAS) designed to generate practice tests resembling the kinds of questions students may find on the actual CRCT. The OAS also offers correct and incorrect answers through immediate feedback reports for individual and class assessment (Georgia Department of Education, 2006). Studies on the use of web-based practice tests to prepare for high-stakes testing emphasize the need for review of immediate feedback reports provided after each practice test is taken (Diefenbach & Sullivan, 2003; McDonald & Hannafin, 2003; Martindale, Person, Curda, & Pilcher, 2005). Research further indicates students who use motivational, engaging web-based games for review can change their overall perception of any academic subject area. Due to this type of computer-based instruction, students' personal perceptions of performance in a particular content area can improve. The use of web-based games influences student acquisition of

Use of Web-Based

3

knowledge, student confidence in completing academic tasks, and motivation in learning more so than traditional instructional methods such as paper and pencil review (McDonald & Hannafin, 2003). Additional studies support the use of a touch screen, interactive whiteboard (IWB) that is connected to a computer, for whole-group instruction. The board can be used for review of concepts, and is an effective, motivational learning tool (Higgins, Falzon, Hall, Moseley, Smith, Smith & Wall, 2005). Integrated Literature Review The Georgia CRCT Motivating students when preparing for a standardized, high-stakes test can be challenging and is a key component for success. It is important to understand what the test measures and exactly what is at stake for both students and teachers. Criterion-referenced tests, such as the Georgia CRCT, are a type of standardized test which is designed to measure how well students acquire, learn, and accomplish the knowledge and skills set forth in a specific curriculum or unit of instruction. The Georgia CRCT is the state's mandated test for students in first to eighth grades. The test is given annually and students in third, fifth and eighth grades must obtain grade-level proficiency in reading and mathematics. If a student does not meet expectations, remediation is offered and the test is retaken during the summer. If the student then does not pass the retest, he or she may not be promoted to the next grade (Georgia Department of Education, 2006). This consequence identifies the Georgia CRCT as a high-stakes test. Highstakes tests are described as assessments which can profoundly affect a student's life (Cushner, McClelland, & Safford, 2003). Harlen (2005) identifies two main goals associated with any type of standardized assessment. The goals are aiding learning and summarizing learning. Benson, (2003) further identifies assessment as the key component of any teaching and learning situation. Educators can

Use of Web-Based achieve an instructional balance to meet these goals through investigating traditional and computer-assisted instruction (Butzin, 2001; Cotton, 1991). Traditional Instruction

4

Traditional instruction is the most commonly used type of instruction in education today. Preparation for high-stakes or standardized testing generally involves paper and pencil review with perhaps the use of an overhead projector and handouts. In a study examining instruction for student preparation of standardized mathematics and reading tests, Butzin (2001) compared a school that used computer-based instruction, which included the use of academic web sites, to a school that had many computers, but did not integrate technology into the curriculum. The researcher described an important point for educators to remember: A technology-rich classroom is not determined by the number of computers you have in the classroom, but how you use them. The results of the study showed that students, who were from technology-rich classrooms, scored higher on all test comparisons (Butzin, 2001). Cotton (1991) emphasized a combination of traditional instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The suggestion to combine the two instructional methods is made in order to produce achievement results "superior to those obtained with traditional instruction alone" (p. 3). However, Cotton (1991) further explains students experience a faster rate of learning when using computer-assisted instruction. Computer-assisted instruction is defined as a narrow term most often referring to drill and practice computer instruction. Computer-based instruction is a broader term including virtually any type of computer use in education. Both terms can refer to webbased instruction (Cotton, 1991). Web-Based Instruction According to the Oregon Network for Education (2006), web-based instruction is a form of computer-based instruction using the World Wide Web as the delivery method of information.

Use of Web-Based Web-based instruction is suggested as a way to offer numerous opportunities for education to redesign itself (Alessi & Trollip, 2001). A research study by Martindale et al. (2005) focused on

5

the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and the web site developed to help students prepare for the test named the FCAT Explorer program. Researchers found the web site to be very promising, specifically for elementary school students. In addition, the researchers indicated that as a result of the web site, teachers felt more pressure to prepare students for high stake tests; thus, they were more likely to utilize test preparation resources for classroom instruction. Driscoll and Carliner (2005) believe web-based instruction is instructionally sound and based in many different philosophies and theories. Web-based learning has foundations in cognitive theory and is specifically related to knowledge acquisition. An earlier study of the FCAT Explorer program was conducted by Diefenbach and Sullivan (2003). One conclusion made by the researchers focused on the advantages of immediate feedback and its role in the process of knowledge acquisition. Most significantly, researchers found test practice of fifthgrade mathematics concepts followed by feedback and more practice opportunities enhanced learning and had a positive impact on student performance on the actual FCAT. Immediate Feedback By using immediate feedback from web-based interactive learning resources, student acquisition of knowledge can be determined (Ahmad, 2001; Moon, 2005). In a study measuring the contributions of various web-based tools, Ahmad (2001) found interactive practice tests to be one of the tools used most frequently by participants. The researcher further identified the importance of immediate feedback assessments following the practice tests as being an essential component of web-based instruction. This feedback can help teachers understand what strategies or tools work best for each student and what content areas need further review (Ahmad, 2001). The Georgia CRCT practice web site offers immediate feedback after each practice test is taken

Use of Web-Based allowing teachers to identify content areas in which additional instruction is needed (Georgia Department of Education, 2006). Feedback following the practice test can help teachers "coach their students in how to process information, helping them to make choices and validate their learning" (Van Dusen & Worthen, 1995, p. 32). Motivation and CRCT Math Content Review Another learning resource, which provides immediate feedback and motivation for student learning, is the web-based game for teaching academic content. Many web-based games are also known for increasing student motivation to learn content knowledge and skills (Borja,

6

2003). Teachers, who choose web-based games for review of mathematics for standardized tests, must first gain a proper understanding of what makes a web site motivational. In a study examining the motivational aspects of computer-assisted instruction, Song and Keller (1999) found attention-getting strategies such as animation, sound, and flash motivated students to learn. Boredom will result from a poorly designed Web site game, which would not be the intention of the designer, but would have a negative effect on motivation (Astleitner & Keller, 1995). Research conducted by Song and Keller (1999) supported Keller ARCS model of motivational design. The study examined each of the ARCS components, which included Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction; and the researchers concluded an important benefit of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction is its impact on achievement. In a study using web-based games as review for Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) test, researchers found the games were very motivational and students in the study processed the information more deeply (McDonald & Hannafin, 2003). The researchers concluded the use of web-based computer games designed for high-stakes testing preparation promoted higher-order learning outcomes and identified motivation as the most powerful implication of their research. The format of the games used in the study, which were interactive and immediately gave

Use of Web-Based

7

feedback for all questions, proved effective and helped students form a more positive perception of academic skills. Practice Test Review Using an Interactive Whiteboard Many educators believe student excitement over using computers and interactive teaching resources, such as interactive whiteboards, instill automatic motivation in students (Atkinson, 2004). Research concerning the use of interactive whiteboards (IWB) for collaborative, wholegroup instruction supports this belief (Edwards, Hartnell, & Martin, 2002; Smith et al., 2005). Giving students the opportunity to interact and communicate using IWB technology is a key aspect of ensuring knowledge transfer. Interactive whiteboards are large boards operated by touch screen technology. The board allows users to control a computer connected to a digital projector (Smith et al., 2005). Interactive whiteboards offer a much larger view of what is taking place on the computer than a conventional monitor and promotes student interactions with classmates and teachers (Burden, 2002; Smith et al., 2005). In a qualitative study by Edwards, Hartnell, and Martin (2002), teachers made important observations when a class played an interactive game as a whole-group on the IWB. While students were playing the game, teachers were able to monitor student progress and identify any content areas in need of further review. Higgins, Falzon, Hall, Moseley, Smith, Smith and Well (2005) found teachers and students to be enthusiastic about using the IWB and to have a preference for including the IWB in classroom instruction. Data to support those findings were based on 184 WB lesson observations and interviews with 68 teachers. Using an interactive whiteboard can provide opportunities for students to physically interact with lessons. Austin (2003) observed students using the IWB for a mathematics lesson.

Use of Web-Based

8

The students came up to the board and using the board's pen, counted forward and backwards on a number line. Related research suggests teachers are not fully utilizing the educational benefits of involving students in IWB lessons (Burden, 2002). By contrast, many teachers interviewed by Smith (2005) found IWBs offer opportunities for more interaction between teacher and student. Interaction that is associated with effective teaching can add depth to the lesson being covered and bring the class together (Higgins et al., 2005; Smith et al., 2005). In conclusion, web-based practice tests, instructional web-based games, and interactive whiteboards are becoming popular technology resources for instruction. The web-based practice tests benefit student learning by providing immediate feedback to students regarding appropriate answers to test questions. In the content area of mathematics, web-based games have been found to be an effective approach for reviewing content; and the games have had a positive influence on student retention of knowledge and motivation for learning. To further motivate students, use of an interactive whiteboard actively involves students in whole-group lessons (Smith et al., 2005). Research has shown that this interaction between students, teachers and classmates, improves understanding of concepts, especially in mathematics. Effectively implementing meaningful web-based instruction and actively engaging students with review of missed practice test concepts can provide a powerful vehicle for high-stakes test achievement. Description of the Setting and Participants Tyrone Elementary was originally built in 1931 in Fayette County, Georgia. The school was rebuilt in 1980 after fire destroyed much of the building. An addition to the building was constructed in 1995, which included new electrical wiring and an 18' by 14' computer lab. The school is located in the town of Tyrone, a residential community, situated in the northeast corner of the county and is approximately 25 miles south of Atlanta. According to the 2000 Census,

Use of Web-Based Tyrone's population was 3,916 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). It is estimated that the current population is 5,600 (Town of Tyrone, 2006). The school has 360 students and 43 certified teachers. The ethnic backgrounds of the students are: 78% White; 14% Black; 13% multi-racial; 8% Hispanic; and 8% Asian. The third-grade class involved in this study is made up of 9 boys and 6 girls. Two

9

students are black and 13 students are White. There are four students in the gifted program; three students, who receive Early Intervention Program (EIP) services in math; and three students, who receive EIP services in reading. The EIP teacher collaborates in the regular classroom and plans lessons with the classroom teacher. She has been teaching for 32 years and has 4 years of experience in EIP. The classroom teacher has taught third grade for 5 years; she has taught for a total of 10. She is currently working on her Master's degree in Reading. As an educator, she maintains consistency and structure in her classroom. She is well known for her classroom management techniques and the optimal learning opportunities which she provides for the students under her care. Her class comes to the computer lab at least once a week; and her classroom is located right across the hall. The school computer lab has 24 new Dell computers. These computers were purchased at the beginning of the current school year, 2006-2007, in order to replace the 4 year old computers which were no longer under warranty. All four school servers are Windows 2003 and have been purchased by the county within the last 2 years. Our school is slated to receive new T-2 wiring during the year; currently the school has T-1 data lines. Proposed Intervention This intervention is designed to actively involve third-grade students in the use of technology, specifically, online computer programs and an interactive whiteboard (IWB) in preparation for the mathematics section of the Georgia CRCT. The online computer programs

Use of Web-Based will include the use of CRCT mathematics practice tests and mathematics games. The

10

intervention will be implemented for a 3-week period during ten 1-hour sessions in the computer lab with a heterogeneously grouped third-grade class of 19 students. At the beginning of class, the classroom teacher will use the IWB to model how to complete the web-based mathematics practice tests and to provide examples of practice test items. After this introduction, students will go to a lab computer and take the 10-item mathematics practice test. Following the practice test, each student will print the diagnostic report and initially review how to identify the incorrect answers given on the report with one of two teachers in the lab. The teacher will provide guidance to the student in how to solve the mathematics problems, which had been completed incorrectly on the practice test. Each student will continue to practice solving similar mathematics problems though the use of related webbased games, which will be assigned to the student by the teacher. Time will be provided at the end of class so students can record in their daily journals those mathematics areas in which additional review is needed as indicated by the mathematics practice test report. Also, the student will record his perceptions of using the web-based games to review the mathematics concepts. At the conclusion of the technology session, all students will participate in a whole-group IWB activity for a final review of the concepts from the day's mathematics practice test. The 68" x 52" IWB in my classroom is connected to one computer and projected onto the screen via a digital projector, which I will use for whole-group instruction. Students will be encouraged to participate in the review of missed test items by approaching the board and working problems using the wireless pen feature of the IWB. Following the IWB review of the practice test items, students will be encouraged to ask questions if they still need more help. Additionally, the classroom teacher and I will determine which test questions need additional student practice, by reviewing a class test summary report generated by the online

Use of Web-Based

11

CRCT practice test program. The class report gives a break down of student results and identifies the questions most frequently missed by the entire class. These data will provide practice test items for future practice tests taken during the action research. Research Questions 1. How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard influence student mathematics achievement? 2. What are the experiences of third-grade students as they use online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard to review mathematics concepts for CRCT end-of-year testing? 3. How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard influence student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests? Definition of the Variables In this action research study, the main variables include online CRCT mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard. Additionally, the variables of student achievement, student experiences, and student perceptions toward solving mathematics problems on the practice tests are included in this study. Online mathematics practice tests is defined as the Georgia CRCT practice web-site offered by the Georgia Department of Education for test preparation. Web-based mathematics games refer to games available on the Internet that are engaging and academically relevant for mathematics instruction. An interactive whiteboard refers to the 68" x 52" board installed in my classroom which will be used for whole-group review and instruction. Student achievement is defined as the gains made by students from the teacher-made, practice tests to reflect the CRCT test content. It also refers to the knowledge and skills acquired by students as indicated by scores

Use of Web-Based from the teacher-made pretest/posttest, which will consist of test items, similar in content to CRCT mathematics items. The teacher-made test will be administered to the students at the

12

conclusion of the intervention. Student experiences are defined as student interactions with peers and teachers as well as the "ah-ha" moments in solving mathematics problems as recorded during observations and found in the student journals. Student perceptions toward solving mathematics problems on CRCT practice tests is defined as student attitudes toward solving problems on mathematics tests as indicated by the post-intervention Likert-type survey. Membership of the Action Research Group I will be working with one third-grade class at the elementary school where I currently teach technology classes. The results of this action research study will be valuable to all teachers at my school with the exception of kindergarten teachers, whose students do not take the CRCT. Administrators will also find the results valuable as our school improvement plan identifies mathematics as an area of concentration, when preparing for the CRCT this year. In addition, our county instructional technology specialist and my fellow classmate currently working to complete her degree in instructional technology, will find the results beneficial. Negotiations to be Undertaken My administrators support this action research study and see it as a means of improving instruction and preparing for the CRCT in a motivating, interactive way. The teacher of the thirdgrade class with whom I am working has proclaimed her complete flexibility and cooperation. She also sees great value in this study and has willingly agreed to participate. Each third-grade student will be given a Parental Permission Form that must be signed in order for the student to take part in the study. In addition, I will seek the approval of the Valdosta State University thesis committee chairperson along with approval from the entire thesis committee before beginning this research.

Use of Web-Based Timeline Month/Week October, 2006 Student Faculty

13

Get permission from Guidance and feedback for SARP administration and and DARP classroom teacher to conduct research Revise SARP and begin DARP Grade ARP, request revisions November, 2006 Begin training, set up and experimental use of OAS, the CRCT practice Web site Complete and submit ARP Design all data December, 2006 collection materials and forms Submit completed ARP Committee assignment notification January 8-12 to committee chair Discussion topic set up for 2007 Send home student exchange of ARPs. permission forms Revise ARP Approval of ARP, approved with January, 15-19 changes, or sends back for more 2007 to work January, 22-26 Re-submit ARP Chair forwards ARP to committee January 29for review. Chair gives final February 2 2007 approval on ARP

Specific Due Dates SARP Due: 10-3-06 DARP Due: 10-31-06 ARP Due: 11-21-06 Any and all final revisions are due: 11-28-06 Spring Semester begins: 1-8

ARP must be approved by Chair by end of week 4 (Feb. 2).

If not approved must take ITED 8999 again.

February 5-9 2007 February 12-16 2007 February 19-23 2007

Begin action research

Communication/guidance as needed

Complete action research 1st Draft of journalready article (JRA) Review JRA & give feedback

February 26March 2 2007 March 5-9 2007

MIDTERM: March 2

Last day to drop without penalty

Submit draft JRA

Negotiate with

Use of Web-Based

14

March 12-16 2007

March 19-23 2007

Share results with Learning Community in the TES Media Center Revise JRA Revise JRA

committee chair for due dates for draft submissions VSU Spring Break is March 12-16 Review JRA & give feedback JRA must be approved by Chair and submitted for committee review by March 30.

If JRA not approved, cannot complete thesis in Spring of 2007. Must register for ITED 8999

March 26-30 2007

Re-submit JRA

Chair approves JRA, approves with changes, or sends back for more work. Chair forwards JRA to committee for review. Chair gives final approval

Resources In order to conduct this action research study, the following resources will need to be utilized: 19 student computers with broadband internet access, an interactive white board and wireless pen, laser printer for printing students' diagnostic reports, individual student journal recording booklets and a digital camera to take pictures during the study. The Web site address for the CRCT practice tests is: https://www.georgiaoas.org/servlet/a2l; the Web sites I plan to use for the web-based mathematics games are: http://www.mathplayground.com/ and http://www.aaamath.com/. Service resources will include additional time planning with the classroom teacher after school on Monday of each week.

Use of Web-Based Data Collection

15

My data collection method will include data before, during and after the implementation of my proposed intervention. Before the intervention I will record the 2005-2006 second-grade CRCT mathematics test scores ("exceeds, "meets," and "needs improvement") for each student in the research study (Appendix A). Student scores will be identified for the overall test and for specific mathematics content strands (problem solving, computation and estimation, and patterns and relationships). Scores from the 9-weeks mathematics assessment, given by the classroom teacher at the end of the previous grading period, will also be recorded (Appendix A). Student scores from the CRCT mathematics test and the 9-weeks mathematics assessment will provide baseline data about the students' mathematics achievement. Also, a mathematics achievement pretest (Appendix B) and a survey pretest (Appendix C) will be given to all student participants by the teacher in the classroom prior to the intervention. During the intervention, students will use journals (Appendix D) to show changes in perceptions, specifically, motivation. The journals contain guiding questions and open-ended questions to foster reflective thought. Students will write about their experiences, and likes and dislikes during the last five minutes of each class. Also, I will record student and teacher interactions with the interactive whiteboard, CRCT practice tests, and the Web-based mathematics games. Data will be recorded on the observations and the field note forms (Appendix E). I plan to record field notes while watching the classroom teacher use the interactive whiteboard with the students for the first 10 minutes of the class. Notes will also be made in order to gather data on the experiences students have while using the interactive whiteboard and how they interact with one another and the teacher during this time of whole-group review. I will also observe groups of two students, seated side by side for 10 minutes and rotate among students for two to three rotations during each class. The

Use of Web-Based interactions between students and the teacher while working on the web-based games will be

16

noted and I will use a digital voice recorder to aid in data collection. Any problems with the Web sites, complaints about the game, or observations made by students about how exciting or boring a particular game is, will provide answers to research question two in my study. Following the intervention, students will complete the teacher-made posttest (Appendix B) and the student survey posttest (Appendix C), and a randomly selected sample of eight students will participate in interviews (Appendix F). The teacher-made posttest scores will be compared to those of the pretest. Ideally, this data will be used to show academic gains due to the intervention and answer research question one. Following the posttest, a random selection of students will be interviewed. The post-intervention survey results and interviews will show any changes in student perceptions of mathematics, specifically motivation and confidence when taking a mathematics tests, as a result of the intervention and therefore answer research question three. Research Question 1. How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games and an interactive whiteboard influence student mathematics achievement? Data Chart: Collection Methods Before During After Intervention Intervention Intervention a. Examination d. Teacher made of second-grade Posttest CRCT mathematics scores for each student. b. Examination of 9-Weeks Mathematics Assessment data for class and each student. c. Teacher made Pretest 2. What are the experiences of third-grade e. Student Journals Instrument Location a. 2005-2006 CRCT 2nd Grade Mathematics Performance Levels Data Collection Chart located in Appendix A b. Third Grade 9Weeks Assessment Mathematics Scores Data Collection Chart (test will be taken in January) located in Appendix A c. Student

Use of Web-Based students as they use an interactive whiteboard, online mathematics practice tests, and web-based mathematics games to review mathematics concepts for CRCT end-ofyear testing? 3. How will the use of an interactive whiteboard, online mathematics practice tests, and use of webbased mathematics games influence student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests? g. Student PreIntervention Survey f. Observations/field notes

17

Mathematics Pretest/Posttest located in Appendix B d. Student Mathematics Pretest/Posttest located in Appendix B e. Student Journal Guideline located in Appendix D h. Student PostIntervention Survey i. Randomly selected student interviews f. Observations/field note form located in Appendix E g. PreIntervention/PostIntervention Survey in located in Appendix C h. PreIntervention/PostIntervention Survey located in Appendix C i. Student Interview Questions located in Appendix F

Data Analysis and Interpretation For research question 1, baseline data on student achievement in mathematics will include second-grade CRCT mathematics scores and the 9-weeks examination assessment. Those data will be compared to see if students were identified in the same categories ("exceeds," "meets," or "needs improvement") by each test for the mathematics content strands (problem solving, computation, and estimation). A narrative description of the similarities and differences

Use of Web-Based in scores, as well as, a description of the overall class performance on those achievement tests will be provided. In addition for research question 1, data from student responses to a teacher-made achievement pretest and posttest (Appendix B) will be compared to determine the influence of

18

online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard on student mathematics achievement. Individual student raw scores will be calculated for the overall tests (pretest and posttest) and for the content strands of the achievement tests (problem solving, computation and estimation, and patterns and relationships). Those raw scores will be converted to percentages. Percentage differences between each student's overall achievement on the pretest and posttest, as well as, percentage differences between each student's achievement on the content strands of the pretest and posttest will be determined. In addition, percentage differences between the class' overall achievement on the pretest and posttest and percentage differences between the class' achievement on each of the content stands of the pretest and posttest will be calculated. For research question 2, data will be gathered from student journals (Appendix D) and teacher observation notes (Appendix E) in order to identify the experiences of third-grade students as they use an interactive whiteboard, online mathematics tests, and web-based mathematics games to review mathematics concepts. Data from the student journals will be gathered, culled, and categorized. Themes and sub-themes will emerge. Percentages for themes and sub-themes will be determined. Teacher observation data will be described according to the technical issues, teacher/student interactions, and student/student interactions for each of the technologies of the research intervention (interactive whiteboard, CRCT practice tests, and Webbased mathematics games). A narrative description of those observations will be provided.

Use of Web-Based Data to address student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests, as described in research question 3, will be gathered from the student pretest and posttest survey (Appendix C) and from student interviews (Appendix F). For data from the student pretest and posttest survey, a mean score for each student's response to each item on the survey will be

19

determined. Mean differences between the pretest and posttest will be calculated. In addition, the overall class mean scores for items on the pretest and posttest will be calculated, and mean differences will be determined. The student interview data (Appendix F) will be gathered, culled, and categorized. Themes will emerge. Percentages for those themes will be determined. Using all of the identified types of data collection techniques will provide triangulation of the data and therefore validate my study. The data will be analyzed in order to identify the interventions' influence on achievement, the experiences of the student participants during the intervention, and any changes in how the intervention influenced students' perceptions toward solving mathematics problems while taking the CRCT practice mathematics tests. Communication of Findings At the conclusion of the intervention for this study, the research data will be presented in the media center of the school in which I work. First- through fifth-grade teachers, administrators, the Fayette County instructional technologist, and Vicki Bruns, my VSU classmate and colleague, will be invited. Each guest will be provided with refreshments, a copy of the action research findings, and the evaluation of the data. An oral and visual presentation will be given of the research findings followed by a question and answer segment and opportunities for suggestions and comments. Before leaving, each participant will fill out a celebration evaluation survey form and leave them with me. These survey results, along with digital pictures taken of myself making the presentation, will be shared with the VSU committee.

Use of Web-Based

20

Use of Web-Based References Ahmad, A. (2001). Validating a theory-based design for online instruction: The integrated learning model. ProQuest Digital Dissertations Database, 63(07), 2453. Retrieved September 6, 2006, from UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (UMI No. 764682931)

21

Alessi, S. M., & Trollip, S. R. (2001). Multimedia for learning (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Atkinson, S. (2004). A comparison of pupil learning and achievement in computer aided learning and traditionally taught situations with special reference to cognitive style and gender issues. Educational Psychology, 24, 659-679. Retrieved September 8, 2006, from PsycINFO database. Austin, N. (2003, January 7). Mighty White. Education Guardian. Retrieved September 10, 2006, from http://education.guardian.o.uk/elearning/story/0,,869705,00.html Benson, A. D. (2003). Assessing participant learning in online environments. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, 100, 69-78. Retrieved June 29, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. Borja, R. R. (2003). Prepping for the big test: Students turn to the web to get ready for highstakes exams. Education Week, 22(35), 23-24, 26. Retrieved September 9, 2006, from ProQuest Research Library database. Butzin, S. (2001). Using Instructional Technology in Transformed Learning Environments: An Evaluation of Project CHILD. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(4), 367. Retrieved September 11, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. Burden, K. (2002, June). Learning from the bottom up--the contribution of school based practice and research in the effective use of interactive whiteboards for the FE/HE sector. Paper presented at the Making an Impact Regionally Conference, Doncaster, England.

Use of Web-Based Retrieved September 7, 2006, from http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/lsda/regions/8_Bio_KBurden.pdf

22

Cotton, K., (1991). Computer-assisted instruction. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL), Retrieved, September 15, 2006, from ERIC database. Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Stafford, P. (2003, September 13, 2006). Human diversity in education: An integrative approach, McGraw Hill Online Learning Center Site. Retrieved September 13, 2006, from http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072486694/student_view0/glossary.html Diefenbach, B., & Sullivan, C. (2003, November). Using the FCAT Explorer to Improve 5th Graders' Math FCAT Performance. Paper presented at the Florida Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Orlando, FL. Retrieved September 3, 2006, from http://www.imageresearch.com/documents/FCAT_Explorer_2001.pdf#search=%22Diefe nbach%20%2BFCAT%22 Driscoll, M., & Carliner, S. (2005). Advanced web-based training strategies: Unlocking instructionally sound online learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Edwards, J. A., Hartnell, M., & Martin, R., (2002). Interactive whiteboards: Some lessons from the classroom. Micromath, 18(2), 30-33. Retrieved September 6, 2006, from http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/41305/ Georgia Department of Education. Testing Division. (2006). Georgia's criterion-referenced competency tests (CRCT): Questions and answers for parents of georgia students [Data file]. (GAE300.T45). Atlanta: Georgia Department of Education. Testing Division. Harlen, W. (2005). Teachers' summative practices and assessment for learning ­ tensions and synergies. Curriculum Journal, 16, 207-223. Retrieved September 13, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database.

Use of Web-Based Higgins, S., Falzon, C., Hall, I., Moseley, D., Smith, F., Smith, H., & Wall, K. (2005).

23

Embedding ICT in the literacy and numeracy strategies (Final Report). Newcastle upon Tyne, England University of Newcastle, Centre for Learning and Teaching. Retrieved September 9, 2006, from www.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/univ_newcastle_evaluation_whiteboards.do c Martindale, T., Pearson, C., Curda, L. K., & Pilcher, J. (2005). Effects of an online instructional application on reading and mathematics standardized test scores. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 37, 349-360. Retrieved June 3, 2006, from http://teachable.org/papers/2005_jrte.pdf#search=%22Effects%20of%20an%20online%2 0instructional%20application%20on%20reading%20and%20mathematics%20standardize d%20test%20scores%22 McDonald, K. K., & Hannafin, R. D. (2003). Using web-based computer games to meet the demands of high-stakes testing: A mixed method inquiry. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35, 459-472. Retrieved June 24, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. Moon, T. (2005). The Role of Assessment in Differentiation. Theory Into Practice, 44(3), 226233. Retrieved September 11, 2006 from Academic Search Premier database. Oregon Network for Education. (2006, September 10). Glossary of Terms. Retrieved September 10, 2006, from http://www.oregonone.org/glossary.htm#w Smith, H., Higgins, S., Wall, K., & Miller, J. (2005). Interactive Whiteboards: Boon or Bandwagon? A Critical Review of the Literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 91-101. Retrieved September 08, 2006 from ERIC database. (ERIC No. EJ686115)

Use of Web-Based Song, S., & Keller, J. (1999). The ARCS model for developing motivationally-adaptive

24

computer-assisted instruction. Retrieved September 15, 2006 from ERIC database. (ERIC No. ED436181) Town of Tyrone home page introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2006 from http://www.tyrone.org/index.php?section=1 Van Dusen, L. M., & Worthen, B. R. (1995). Can integrated instructional technology transform the classroom? Educational Leadership, 53(2), 28-33. Retrieved July 6, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. U.S. Census Buereau, (2000). "Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000. Geographic area: Tyrone town, Georgia". Retrieved October 28, 2006 from http://censtats.census.gov/data/GA/1601378044.pdf

Use of Web-Based Appendix A 2005-2006 CRCT 2nd Grade Mathematics & the January 9-Weeks Assessment Performance Levels Data Collection Chart Student 1: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 1 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

25

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 2: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 2 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 3: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 3 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 4: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Problem Solving Computation Student 4 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Use of Web-Based Student 5: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 5 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

26

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 6: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 6 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 7: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 7 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 8: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 8 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 9: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 9 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Use of Web-Based Student 10: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 10 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

27

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 11: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 11 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 12: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 12 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 13: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 13 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Student 14: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 14 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

Use of Web-Based Student 15: E=Exceeds, M=Meets, NI=Needs Improvement Patterns and Computation Problem Solving Student 15 Relationships and Estimation Scores

Algebra

28

CRCT

9 Weeks Assessment

9-Weeks Assessment Class Results:

3rd 9-Weeks Strand Patterns & Relationships Computation & Estimation Problem Solving E (Exceeds) M (Meets) NI (Needs Improvement) Total Number of Students Tested

15 15 15 15

Use of Web-Based Appendix B Student Mathematics Pretest/Posttest Name: __________________________ Date: ___________

29

Please mark your answers on the CRCT Mathematics Pretest Bubble Form. Your score will be kept confidential and will not be taken as a math grade. Problem Solving 1. Paula had 12 pencils. She gave ½ of them to Rich. How many did she have left? A. 6 pencils B. 8 pencils C. 9 pencils D. 10 pencils 2. Iris is collecting ants for a science project. She had 37 ants. Then she caught 3, her brother gave her 5, and her friend gave her 4. How many ants does Iris have now? A. 39 ants B. 49 ants C. 50 ants D. 58 ants 3. Bill has two coins. How much money could he have? A. 50¢ B. 25¢ C. 12¢ D. 5¢ 4. Sue and Jaime are taking a survey to find out whether fourth graders would rather go to a museum, a factory, or a zoo on their field trip. Which group of people would be BEST to ask? A. all the students in the school B. all the fourth graders in the school C. all the teachers in the school D. all the parents of fourth grade students

Use of Web-Based 5. Bob baked 5 batches of cookies. If there are 24 cookies in each batch, how many cookies did Bob bake? A. 19 cookies B. 24 cookies C. 29 cookies D. 120 cookies Patterns and Relationships

30

6. Danny and Julie have new sticker books. Danny will put 4 stickers in his book every day and Julie will put 6 stickers in her book every day. How many stickers will Danny have when Julie has 30 in her book? (Hint: To find the answer, use this table.)

A. 20 B. 24 C. 30 D. 36 7. Use the pattern below to answer this question. 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, ___ Which number comes next? A. 30 B. 31 C. 32 D. 33 8. Which pattern is described by the following rule? Each number can be found by doubling the number before it. A. 5, 10, 15, 20, . . . B. 5, 10, 20, 40, . . . C. 5, 7, 9, 11, . . . D. 5, 9, 13, 17, . . .

Use of Web-Based 9. Which is the missing number? 18, 24, 30, ___, 42 A. 32 B. 34 C. 36 D. 38 10. Use the story problem in the box below to answer this question. Lori wants to buy 2 softballs and 1 bat. The bat costs $9.00. She has $15.00. Does she have enough money to buy what she wants? To answer this question, A. I also need to know how much each softball costs. B. I also need to know how much a bat costs. C. I also need to know how much a softball glove costs. D. I don't need any more information. 11. Which will give an answer greater than 100? A. 100 - 50 B. 125 - 75 C. 150 - 100 D. 200 - 75

31

Computation and Estimation 12. There are 31 students in Mrs. Kelsy's class. On Wednesday, 10 of those students were absent. How many students were in class on Wednesday? A. 20 B. 21 C. 30 D. 41 13. Which number sentence is NOT true? A. 243 × 1 = 243 B. 427 × 0 = 427 C. 687 × 1 = 687 D. 915 × 0 = 0

Use of Web-Based 14. Which number sentence has a product of 54? A. 6 × 3 = B. 7 × 8 = C. 6 × 9 = D. 4 × 8 = 15. Kenny wants to buy 3 packs of baseball cards. Each pack costs $2.89. About how much money does Kenny need? A. $3 B. $6 C. $9 D. $12 16. Which is the BEST estimate for the sum of 725 and 683? A. 1,300 B. 1,400 C. 1,500 D. 1,600 17. Which is the BEST estimate for 423 + 308? A. 500 B. 600 C. 700 D. 800

32

Use of Web-Based Appendix C Student Survey Questions Pre-Intervention/Post-Intervention Do not put your name on this paper. Your answers will be kept confidential. Please answer each question carefully. Please place a 1. I like math. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

33

in the box under the opinion that is your BEST answer to each question.

2. I feel comfortable solving math problems using paper and pencil. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

3. I feel comfortable solving math problems on the computer. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

4. If I can't solve a math problem quickly, I quit trying. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

5. If I watch a teacher work a math problem on the interactive whiteboard, it helps me understand. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

6. I would be comfortable working a math problem I understand on the interactive whiteboard. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

7. I would rather play a math game on the computer than work math problems out on paper. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

Use of Web-Based 8. When my teacher tells me that we are going to take a math test, sometimes I get nervous. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

34

9. I would enjoy taking a CRCT math practice test on the computer. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

10. Working out math problems on paper makes them easy for me to understand. Strongly Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree

Use of Web-Based Appendix D Student Journals (Please note: Each box represents one page in the journal) Please answer each question. Your answers will be kept confidential. Today my report showed that I need more practice in: (You can circle more than one) Computation Estimation Problem Solving (word problems) Patterns

35

1. The online game (or games) I used today to practice were: Name of Game 1:_____________________ Please list any technical problems that you had with the web site:

Did you play this game with a partner?____ Did working with a partner help you understand the math in the game? Please explain in the box:

Did you play 2 games? If so, answer below: Name of Game 2: _____________________ Please list any technical problems that you had with the web site:

Did you play this game with a partner?____ Did working with a partner help you understand the math in the game? Please explain in the box:

Use of Web-Based

36

2. a. Did the math game(s) help you understand the reason you missed the problems on the practice test? Did you have an "ah-ha" moment? If yes, explain how the game helped you. If no, why not?

b. Did you have to ask a teacher for help? Did she help you understand the problem? If yes, then explain how she helped you. If no, why not?

c. Did you have to ask a classmate for help? Did he/she help you understand the problem? If yes, then explain how she helped you. If no, why not?

Use of Web-Based

37

Appendix E Observations/Field Note Form (Front of Form) Date: _________________ Interactive whiteboard whole-group introduction to lesson/review of mathematics problems: 1. Technical issues: ______________________________________________________________________ 2. Teacher/Student interactions: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Student/Student interactions: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ How many students participated in the intro/review? __________

CRCT Practice Tests: 1. Technical issues: ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Teacher/Student interactions: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Use of Web-Based

38

(Back of field notes page) 3. Student/Student interactions: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Web-based Mathematics Games 1. Technical issues: ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Teacher/Student interactions: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Student/Student interactions if playing as team or giving assistance: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Any positive/negative comments made by students while playing the games: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Use of Web-Based Appendix F Student Interview Questions Post-Intervention

39

1. Do you like using the computer to practice for the CRCT? If so, why? 2. Do you like using handouts in the classroom to practice for the CRCT? If so, why? 3. Should computer math games, practice tests, and/or interactive whiteboards be used in the classroom for teaching math? Why or why not? 4. Describe your thoughts, when a teacher says: "Ok, boys and girls clear your desks. It's time to take a math test." Tell why you responded that way? 5. Do you think students would get better grades on math tests if teachers used more computer math games, practice tests, and/or interactive whiteboards during math class? Why or why not? 6. Do you think using the interactive whiteboard helped you get ready for the CRCT test that you will take in April? If yes, why? 7. Do you think using the online math games helped you get ready for the CRCT test that you will take in April? If yes, why? 8. Did the CRCT practice tests become easier for you because of this study? Why or why not?

Use of Web-Based Appendix G Action Research Project Approval Request Principal,

40

Kate Matthews, a graduate student in Action Research Methods and Planning (ITED 8970) class in the College of Education at Valdosta State University request that she be given permission to perform an action research study at your facility. The study would be undertaken during a period of about three weeks in February. The general purpose of the evaluation will be to determine the relationships between the use of a particular technology and learning/performance and attitudes in a small-scale program. More specifically, the researcher proposes to evaluate "The use of an interactive whiteboard and web-based mathematics games when preparing students for taking CRCT practice mathematics tests." One of the project goals is to provide a useful evaluation report to you and any other stakeholders at Tyrone Elementary who might benefit from this information. The director of the Institutional Review Board at VSU met with the instructor of this course and has determined that a human subjects research review is not required for this type of evaluation project. Nevertheless, the researcher will follow commonly accepted ethical procedures for human subjects research. The researcher (1) will not place any of the participants at physical or emotional risk, (2) will maintain confidentiality of all participants (names and other personal identifiers will be excluded from reports), and (3) will explain to participants that participation is voluntary, with no negative consequences for refusal to participate. A signed informed consent form will be required of each participant (as well as parents of any children/minors participating) before participant involvement. The form will provide a basic description of the evaluation project and the ethical procedures listed above. If you have any questions for the instructor, I can be contacted by telephone at (229) 333-5927. Thank you for your assistance. Dr. Verilette Hinkle Assistant Professor Curriculum and Instructional Technology Valdosta State University ____ Permission to conduct research is granted. ___________________________________ Signed ________________ Date

Use of Web-Based Appendix G Signed Action Research Project Approval Request

41

Use of Web-Based Appendix H Parent Consent Form CRCT Test Preparation and the Use of an Interactive Whiteboard and Web-Based Mathematics Games on Third-Grade Students Mathematics Perceptions Your child is being asked to participate in a project as a graduate class assignment under the direction of Dr. Verilette Hinkle and conducted through Valdosta State University. The University in accordance with its policy regarding the Protection of Human Research Subjects asks that you give your signed agreement to have your child participate in this project.

42

Please ask the student researcher, Kate Matthews, any questions you have to help you understand this research project. A basic explanation of the research is given below. During the first three weeks of February, your child will prepare for the mathematics section of the upcoming Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) by taking practice tests online in the computer lab. The Web site, designed by the Georgia Department of Education, includes the Online Assessment System (OAS) which provides practice test items for CRCT preparation. You can preview the site and find useful information by going to http://info.georgiaoas.org . Your child will also participate in review of any mathematics problems that require additional practice and use web-based mathematics games to reinforce the skill areas tested on the CRCT. The CRCT will be administered the week of April 16-20, 2007. I am conducting this research in order to find the best instructional method for preparing students for the CRCT while in the computer lab. Your child's name will remain confidential at all times. He/She will not be identified in the research report. Valdosta State University is an equal opportunity educational institution. It is not the intent of our institution to discriminate against any person based on sex, race, religion, color, national origin or handicap of the individual. Questions regarding the conduct of this research may be directed to me, Kate Matthews, at (770) 631-3265, or my instructor, Dr. Verilette Hinkle, at (229) 333-5927. Refusal to participate in this study will have no effect on any future services your child may be entitled to from the University. Should you and your child agree to your child's participation in this study and decide later that your child wishes to withdraw, he/she is free to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. If you agree that your child may participate at this time, please sign and date this statement and return it to your child's teacher. You may keep a copy of this consent form for your records. Thank you very much for your willingness to have your child participate in this research project. My Child's Name (printed): __________________________ Parent/Guardian Signature: __________________________ Date: _____________

Use of Web-Based Appendix I Student Assent Form CRCT Test Preparation and the Use of an Interactive Whiteboard and Web-Based Mathematics Games on Third-Grade Students Mathematics Perceptions

43

I, ___________________________________________, understand that my parent has given permission for me to take part in a project about taking CRCT math practice tests under the direction of Mrs. Matthews. I am taking part because I want to. I have been told that I can stop at any time I want to and nothing will happen to me if I want to stop. Signature of participant: ________________________________ Date: ___________

Use of Web-Based Appendix J Teacher Consent Form CRCT Test Preparation and the Use of an Interactive Whiteboard and Web-Based Mathematics Games on Third-Grade Students Mathematics Perceptions

44

You are being asked to participate in a project as a graduate class assignment under the direction of Dr. Verilette Hinkle and conducted through Valdosta State University. The University in accordance with its policy regarding the Protection of Human Research Subjects asks that you give your signed agreement to participate in this project. Please ask the student researcher, Kate Matthews, any questions you have to help you understand this research project. A basic explanation of the research is given below. During the first three weeks of February, your students will prepare for the mathematics section of the upcoming Georgia CRCT by taking practice tests online in the computer lab. The Online Assessment System (OAS) will be used in order to provide practice test items. You can find useful information and current updates to OAS by going to http://info.georgiaoas.org . Your students will also participate in review of any mathematics problems that require additional practice and use web-based mathematics games to reinforce the skill areas tested on the CRCT. I am conducting this research in order to find the best instructional method for preparing students for the CRCT while in the computer lab. Your name will remain confidential at all times. You will not be identified in the research report. Valdosta State University is an equal opportunity educational institution. It is not the intent of our institution to discriminate against any person based on sex, race, religion, color, national origin or handicap of the individual. Questions regarding the conduct of this research may be directed to me, Kate Matthews, at (770) 252-3104, or my instructor, Dr. Verilette Hinkle, at (229) 333-5927. Refusal to participate in this study will have no effect on any future services you may be entitled to from the University. Should you agree to participate in this study and decide later that you wish to withdraw, you will be free to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. If you agree to participate at this time, please sign and date this statement. You may keep a copy of this consent form for your records. Thank you very much for your willingness to participate in this research project. Name (printed): __________________________ Signature: __________________________ Date: ____________

Use of Web-Based

1

Use of Web-Based Instruction and an Interactive Whiteboard to Prepare Third-Grade Students for a High-Stakes, Standardized Mathematics Test Kate A. Matthews Valdosta State University

Use of Web-Based Abstract The purpose of the research study was to determine the influence of web-based instruction,

2

specifically, the use of online mathematics practice tests and web-based mathematics games, and the use of an interactive whiteboard on student mathematics achievement and student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. In addition, the experiences of students as they used online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard to review mathematics concepts for Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) end-of-year testing were examined. Participants of the study included one homeroom class of 15 third-grade students, the respective classroom teacher, and the teacher-researcher. The research study extended over a three-week period. Data were collected from student journals, field notes, surveys, interviews, and mathematics achievement tests. Results of the research study show the use of web-based instruction and an interactive whiteboard has a positive influence on student mathematics achievement and on student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. In regard to student experiences, students interact frequently with classmates and teachers, when using technology for reviewing or learning mathematics concepts. Even though technology appears to be helpful for student learning of mathematics, additional assistance from classmates and teachers is often sought.

Use of Web-Based Use of Web-Based Instruction and an Interactive Whiteboard to Prepare Third-Grade Students for a High-Stakes, Standardized Mathematics Test Introduction As a classroom teacher for the past 9 years, I have found many educators use technology

3

resources to prepare students for high-stakes, standardized testing. The use of technology for that purpose has not proven to be sufficient for improving student test scores in the school in which I work. In order for technology to assist students with the development of content knowledge or the review of knowledge for standardized tests, I believe the selection of appropriate technology resources and the use of effective instructional practices are important considerations. From my experiences as an educator, two technology resources, specifically, web-based instruction and the use of an Interactive Whiteboard (IWB), prepare students for testing, when those technologies are implemented appropriately in classrooms. According to the Oregon Network for Education (2006), web-based instruction has been identified as a form of computer-based instruction using the World Wide Web as the delivery method of information. One type of web-based instruction, which has been used for student preparation for taking standardized tests, is the use of online practice tests. A research study by Martindale, Pearson, Curda, and Pilcher (2005) examined elementary school student use of an online practice test, FCAT Explorer program, in preparation for taking the standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Researchers found student use of the Web site to be beneficial for review of academic content. In addition, the researchers indicated that the availability of the Web site increased pressures on teachers to prepare students for high stake tests; thus, the teachers were more likely to utilize test preparation resources for classroom instruction.

Use of Web-Based Another type of web-based instruction, which has been frequently used for teaching and reviewing academic content, is the use of web-based games. Many web-based games have been

4

found to increase student motivation to learn content knowledge and skills (Borja, 2003). Games, which have included attention-getting strategies, such as animation, sound, and flash, have motivated students to play the games and to learn the content (Song & Keller, 1999), whereas, poorly designed web-based games have resulted in student boredom and a lack of student learning (Astleitner & Keller, 1995). In a meta-analysis study conducted by McDonald and Hannafin (2003), student motivation to participate in web-based games was evidenced from students' continuous involvement in the games. According to data from the study, when students frequently played instructional games, a deep understanding of academic concepts was acquired. The most powerful outcome of the study was the recognition of how web-based games facilitated studentcentered learning, or the self-motivation of students for using the resource as a means of building their knowledge. In a study using web-based games as review for Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) test, researchers found the games to be very motivational, and students in the study appeared to process the information deeply (McDonald & Hannafin, 2003). The researchers concluded the use of web-based computer games, which were designed for high-stakes testing preparation, promoted higher-order learning outcomes. In addition, student motivation to learn the content was evident. The games in the study were interactive, and they provided immediate feedback for student responses to questions. Thus, the web-based games were effective resources for student learning of academic content; and the students in the study formed positive attitudes toward the academic content and skills.

Use of Web-Based According to Atkinson (2004), well designed, web-based games were often entertaining and fun ways for students to review concepts. When used in conjunction with an interactive whiteboard for review of academic content and skills, students were engaged and motivated to learn, which enhanced knowledge acquisition. The IWB is an interactive electronic board connected to a computer and LCD projector. When used for classroom instruction, the IWB has been found to influence student learning and student motivation to learn. According to Smith, Higgins, Wall, and Miller (2005), the IWB motivated students to engage in learning activities and provided teachers with an instructional

5

resource for developing learning activities, which promoted student independence and creativity. The teacher used the IWB not only for review of academic content and skills, but also for students to solve problems independently at the board by using a pen tool which accompanied the IWB. To further address the benefits of using the IWB, Austin (2003) found the IWB provided opportunities for students to become physically engaged in mathematics lessons. As students came up to the IWB and used the board's pen, they were able to count forward and backwards on a number line, which was provided on the board. Presently, I am a technology instructor at an elementary school. As the technology instructor, I provide technology-related instruction to students and teachers. The purpose of technology instruction is to assist learners with the development of technology skills and to help them to use those skills for acquiring content knowledge. In the school system in which I work, elementary school students are required to meet or exceed specific academic standards as set forth by the Georgia Department of Education on the Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT). If students do not meet or exceed those specific academic standards, as evidenced from scores on the CRCT during the third and fifth

Use of Web-Based grades, the students may not be promoted to the next grade (Georgia Department of Education, 2006). Because of that consequence, the Georgia CRCT has been recognized as a high-stakes test. High-stakes tests have been found to profoundly affect students' lives (Cushner, McClelland, & Safford, 2003). To address the need for third-grade students to review mathematics content and skills to

6

prepare for the CRCT, I decided to develop an instructional program by combining online CRCT practice tests with the use of an IWB. By using both of those two technology resources, students would focus on appropriate content for a high-stakes, standardized test through the use of the online practice tests, and they would be actively involved in the learning process through their interactions with the whiteboard. As the teacher-researcher, I worked collaboratively with a third-grade classroom teacher to implement the technology-based instructional program and to gather research data to determine the influence of the program on student achievement and student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. Three research questions guided the development and implementation of the study. The research questions were: 1. How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard influence student mathematics achievement? 2. What are the experiences of third-grade students as they use online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard to review mathematics concepts for CRCT end-of-year testing? 3. How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard influence student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests?

Use of Web-Based Methods Participants Fifteen third-grade students and the respective classroom teacher were selected as participants of the research study. The students and classroom teacher were selected primarily

7

because of the interest of the classroom teacher for involvement in the study and the proximity of the third-grade class to the computer lab. During the intervention two students withdrew from the study due to illness and schedule conflicts. In addition to the third-grade students and the classroom teacher, a teacher-researcher was also involved in the study. Student participants included 7 boys and 6 girls. The ethnic background of those students was: 8% African American, 85% Caucasian, and 8% Asian. Four of the students received special services, thus they attended special programs during the school day: 31% Gifted Program and 8% Early Intervention Program (EIP). The classroom teacher was a veteran teacher with 13 years of elementary school teaching experience; whereas, the teacher-researcher had taught in schools as a classroom teacher and as a technology instructor for a total of 9 years. Both teachers had taught the selected group of participating students prior to the research study. Setting The study was conducted in an elementary school, which was located in a small community approximately 25 miles south of Atlanta, Georgia. All intervention activities were conducted in the computer laboratory of the school. The lab contained 26 new Dell computers, which had broadband internet access, and an interactive whiteboard.

Use of Web-Based Intervention

8

The intervention was designed to actively involve third-grade students in the use of webbased instruction, specifically, online mathematics practice tests and web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard (IWB) in preparation for the Georgia mathematics CRCT. The technology-based instructional program was implemented in the computer lab through the collaborative efforts of the third-grade classroom teacher and the technology teacher, the teacherresearcher, during ten 1-hour sessions within a 3-week period. At the beginning of each class, the classroom teacher or the teacher-researcher used the IWB to model how to complete the web-based mathematics practice tests and provided examples of practice test items when needed. The teacher demonstration included the following skills: logging in, navigating the Web to located teacher-created tests, and reviewing mathematics concepts on the practice tests. Then, students moved to a lab computer and completed a 12-item online mathematics practice CRCT test. Following the practice test, students looked carefully at their diagnostic reports, which identified the correct and incorrect responses on the online test. Then, the students recorded in their journals the types of mathematics items (patterns and relationships, computation and estimation, or problem solving), which had been answered incorrectly. The teacher and teacher-researcher guided individual students in the selection of appropriate web-based mathematics games, which provided practice for solving mathematics problems, like the ones missed on the online practice tests. At the end of each session, students recorded their experiences in using the web-based games in their daily journals. They reflected on what worked and what did not work. Also, the students recorded their perceptions of using the web-based games to review the mathematics concepts.

Use of Web-Based At the conclusion of each technology lesson, the students participated in a whole-group IWB activity for a final review of the concepts from the day's mathematics practice test. Students were encouraged to participate in the review of missed test items by approaching the board and working problems using the wireless pen feature of the IWB. Following the IWB review of the practice test items, students were then encouraged to ask questions if they still needed more help. Additionally, the classroom teacher and the teacher-researcher reviewed the class test summary report generated by the online CRCT practice test program each day to determine which test questions needed additional student practice. That information was used to plan or to modify the following day's instructional activities. Data Gathering Techniques

9

Many different data gathering techniques were used during my study. The data gathering techniques included: field notes, student journals, mathematics achievement tests, and student interviews. Procedures The first day of the intervention required approximately 30 minutes more class time than the typical 60-minute class period. The teacher-researcher administered the mathematics achievement pre-test through the use of the Online Assessment System (OAS) site and the preintervention attitude surveys. After the students completed the instruments, the teacherresearcher explained to students how each class session would be conducted. Also, a description of the importance of the journal and the types of information to be included in the journal were shared.

Use of Web-Based

10

During each session, field notes were recorded by the teacher-researcher to describe the use of the IWB, online practice tests, and online games by the teacher and students during classroom instruction. Technical issues were noted, as well as student-to-student interactions and teacher-to-student interactions for each of the intervention tools (IWB, online practice tests, and online games). The IWB was used for the introduction of new concepts and for practice of mathematics concepts. When practice tests had mathematics problems, which included unfamiliar wording for students, the teacher used the IWB to help students understand the problems by working out similar problems and emphasizing the new wording. Students also used the IWB and the IWB pen feature to `write' on the interactive board in order to solve mathematics problems. After each CRCT practice test, students reviewed the diagnostic feedback reports from the tests and recorded within their student journals the mathematics areas (patterns and relationships, computation and estimation, or problem solving) in which test items had been completed incorrectly. Then, students played specific web-based games related to the mathematics areas, which needed remediation, as indicated from the diagnostic feedback reports. Approximately 15 minutes of web-based game playing time was provided each day. At the end of the day's lesson, students were involved in a whole class review of the mathematics problems, which were missed by the overall class most frequently. That information was provided as an item analysis report, which was generated by the OAS Web site. Following the review, students completed the journals entries to include technical problems in using the web-based resources, interactions with teachers and students for solving mathematic problems, and "ah-ha" type moments while learning mathematics concepts.

Use of Web-Based During the last class session students completed the post-intervention attitude surveys. After the surveys were turned in, students were instructed to complete the mathematics achievement posttest which was delivered through the use of the OAS site. Following the posttest, the teacher-researcher conducted interviews with eight randomly selected student participants. Results and Analysis Baseline Data

11

Baseline data were compiled from the 9-weeks mathematics assessment test, which was administered to third-grade students during the previous school semester. According to the test scores of the initial group of participating students in the research study (n = 15), three mathematics areas were identified as needing improvement. Those mathematics areas were Patterns and Relationships, Computation and Estimation, and Problem Solving. For the Patterns and Relationships category, 20% of students were identified as needs improvement; 20% of students met expectations; and 60% of students exceeded expectations. For the Computation and Estimation category, 14% of students were identified as needs improvement; 72% of students met expectations; and 14% of students exceeded expectations. For Problem Solving, 47% of students were identified as needs improvement; 47% of students met expectations; and 7% of students exceeded expectations. Student Mathematics Achievement In order to address the first research question, students were administered an online CRCT mathematics achievement at the beginning and end of the intervention. The achievement test questions were generated by using the OAS site, and there were four questions for each of

Use of Web-Based the three mathematics areas: Patterns and Relationships, Computation and Estimation, and Problem Solving. Both tests, the pretest and posttest, were identical in content and format. Percentages of individual student scores for each mathematics area on the pretest and

12

posttest are provided in Table 1. In addition, percentages of individual student overall scores for the pretest and posttest are given; and the percentage differences of the overall pretest scores and posttest scores are also provided on the table. Finally, overall mean scores for each math area, as well as, for the entire pretest and posttest are given. According to data in Table 1, nearly all students showed improvement in percentage scores from the pretest to the posttest for each mathematics area. For Patterns and Relationships, 10 out of 13 students had an increase in percentage scores from the pretest to the posttest, and 3 student scores remained the same. Eight out of 13 students had an increase in percentage scores from the pretest to the posttest for the mathematics area, Computation and Estimation; whereas, four students showed no change from the pretest scores to the posttest scores for that area. One student had a decrease in percentage scores from the pretest to the posttest for Computation and Estimation; a percentage difference of -25% was evident. For the category of Problem Solving, 8 students had an increase in percentage scores; 4 student scores remained the same; and 1 student score decreased from pretest to posttest. When comparing overall scores of individual students from the pretest and posttest, 12 out of 13 students had an increase in percentage scores as evidenced from the percentage differences. Only one student showed no improvement from pretest to posttest; a score of 83% was determined for the pretest and posttest. The range of overall percentage differences of individual students extended from 0% to 33%.

Use of Web-Based Finally, overall mean scores for the pretest and posttest for each mathematics area are provided in Table 1. The overall mean scores for the pretest and posttest for each mathematics

13

area are given: a pretest score of 58% and a posttest score of 81% for Patterns and Relationships; a pretest score of 69% and posttest score of 83% for Computation and Estimation; and a pretest score of 67% and posttest score of 87% for Problem Solving. An increase in overall mean percentage scores was evident for each mathematics area. In addition, an overall mean score for the class on the pretest was 62%; and the overall mean score for the class on the posttest was 81%. A mean percentage difference from the pretest to the posttest for the class was 19%.

Use of Web-Based Table 1

14

Individual Student Mathematics Achievement Results for Pretest and Posttest in Each Identified Content Area Patterns/ Relationships Pretest Posttest 50% 100% 75% 50% 50% 75% 50% 25% 75% 25% 75% 50% 50% 58% 75% 100% 100% 75% 75% 100% 75% 75% 75% 25% 100% 75% 100% 81% Computation/ Estimation Pretest Posttest 50% 75% 75% 100% 50% 75% 100% 75% 75% 50% 75% 50% 50% 69% 75% 100% 100% 100% 75% 100% 100% 50% 75% 75% 100% 75% 50% 83% Problem Solving Pretest Posttest 75% 100% 100% 100% 25% 75% 100% 25% 50% 75% 75% 25% 50% 67% 100% 100% 100% 100% 75% 100% 75% 25% 75% 100% 100% 75% 100% 87% Overall Score Pretest Posttest 58% 92% 83% 83% 42% 75% 83% 42% 50% 42% 75% 50% 33% 62% 83% 100% 100% 92% 75% 100% 83% 50% 67% 75% 100% 83% 50% 81% Percentage Difference Pretest to Posttest +25% +8% +17% +9% +33% +25% 0 +8% +17% +33% +25% +33% +17%

Student # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Overall Mean

+19%

Experiences Data regarding experiences of third-grade students, as they used online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard to review

Use of Web-Based mathematics concepts for CRCT end-of-year testing were gathered from student journals. According to the student journal entries, students provided help to each other during the intervention. Only 6 of the students indicated they worked with a partner while utilizing the technology resources; and 100% of those students reported that working with a partner helped them to understand the mathematics concepts better. One student wrote in her journal, "I got stuck and she helped me understand why I was making the mistake."

15

The online mathematics games often led to "ah-ha" experiences, whereby students began to understand mathematics concept, which they had previously not understood. Eleven of the 13 student participants indicated in the journals, that the online mathematics games helped them to understand why they had missed the problem on the practice test; whereas, 2 of the 13 students stated the online mathematics games did not help them. Some of the student experiences involved teacher interactions. According to the journal entries, 5 of the students asked for help from a teacher during the intervention. One student, who had difficulty in understanding the mathematics content stated in the journal, "We had to ask the teacher." One journal entry reflected a negative student experience as the result of missing a class due to a doctor's appointment. On the following school day, when the student returned to class, he turned to the previous day's journal entry and wrote in capital letters, "I DID NOT GET TO PLAY ANY [GAMES]!" Student Perceptions A student attitude survey, consisting of 10 questions, was given before and after the intervention. A Likert-type scale was used to obtain responses from students. The choice options were strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. Response values ranged from 1

Use of Web-Based

16

(strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Data in the strongly agree and agree categories were collapsed as were the data in the disagree and strongly disagree categories. Table 3 provides the percentage of agreement for student responses on the preintervention survey and post-intervention survey, and the table includes the percentage differences. Statements concerning student mathematics confidence levels included items #1, #3, #4, and #6. For item #3, "I feel comfortable solving math problems on the computer," the greatest overall increase in percentage difference was evident; a percentage difference of +15% from the pretest score to the posttest score was calculated. Item #8, "When my teacher tells me that we are going to take a math test, sometimes I get nervous", showed a decrease in the percentage differences of -7%. A decrease in the percentage difference from the pretest to the posttest was an indication, that after experiencing the intervention, the students were less nervous when taking mathematics tests. Items #2 and #10 indicated a decrease in student agreement from the pretest to the posttest, -7% and -10%, respectively. Both items referred to solving mathematics problems by using paper and pencil. At the end of the intervention, students were less comfortable in solving mathematics problems with the use of paper and pencil. Three survey items, #5, #7, and #9, focused on student interest in using online CRCT practice tests, web-based games, and the IWB for mathematics instruction. All three items showed an increase of +8% in the percentage differences between the pretest and posttest scores.

Use of Web-Based Table 2 Results of Student Pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention Survey Survey Question Percentage of Agreement Pre-Intervention Survey 85% 77% Post-Intervention Survey 92% 70% Percentage Difference +7% -7%

17

1. I like Math 2. I feel comfortable solving math problems using paper and pencil. 3. I feel comfortable solving math problems on the computer. 4. If I can't solve a math problem quickly, I quit trying. 5. If I watch a teacher work a math problem on the interactive whiteboard, it helps me understand. 6. I would be comfortable working a math problem I understand on the interactive whiteboard. 7. I would rather play a math game on the computer than work math problems out on paper. 8. When my teacher tells me that we are going to take a math test, sometimes I get nervous. 9. I would enjoy taking a CRCT math practice test on the computer. 10. Working out math problems on paper makes them easy for me to understand.

85%

100%

+15%

10%

8%

-2%

92%

100%

+8%

85%

92%

+7%

84%

92%

+8%

53%

46%

-7%

92%

100%

+8%

70%

60%

-10%

Use of Web-Based Student Interviews Following the intervention, the teacher-researcher randomly selected eight students for conducting interviews. Eight questions were posed to each student to determine how the use of an IWB, online mathematics practice tests, and web-based games influenced the students' perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. When students were asked if they liked using the computer to practice for the CRCT,

18

100% of the students (n = 8) responded, that they did. One student stated: "The tests were easy to take. The computer made them easy." Students were asked if they thought practice tests, online mathematics games, and/or an interactive whiteboard should be used to teach math. All of the students indicated, that those types of technology tools should be used. One student gave the following explanation: "This was fun. It was interesting because we could use the computer and the board. I had a lot of `ah-ha' moments because of the games." The following interview question was posed: "Do you think using the interactive whiteboard will help you to get ready for the CRCT test? Seventy-five percent of the students answered, that they thought it would help. Two students, who did not think it would help them, could not describe why they believed the IWB would not help. Those students did indicate they didn't get a turn using the IWB. The students were also asked: "Do you think using the online mathematics games will help you to get ready for the CRCT?" Eighty-eight percent of the students stated, that it would. When asked why, one student responded, "It was fun! I didn't know I was even learning anything!"

Use of Web-Based Another interview question was "Did the CRCT practice tests become easier for you

19

because of the use of the technology resources?" Seventy-five percent of the students stated yes, they did help them. One student said, "I hope everyone got better! I did. It was fun and I could see my grade getting better every time." Two of the students responded, that they were nervous about the CRCT test no matter what had been done during the study. Field Notes During the course of the intervention, the teacher-researcher recorded field notes of student experiences as the students used the interactive whiteboard, online mathematics practice tests, and web-based mathematics games to review mathematics concepts for CRCT end-of-year testing. A common observation was the eagerness of the students to participate in the online mathematics games. One student was frequently rushing through the CRCT practice tests, so that he could begin the online computer games. During one session, he was asked to retake the practice test. He was informed of the importance of taking his time, so that he could see which games needed to be practiced in order to improve his test scores. Technical problems in using the computer-based resources occurred once during the intervention. The CRCT OAS site went down one day, and so the students used the class time to review questions from the previous day's session. That provided more time for the students to use the IWB for review. Discussion The purpose of the research study was to determine the influence of web-based instruction, specifically, online mathematics practice tests and web-based mathematics games, and the use of an interactive whiteboard on student mathematics achievement and student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests. In addition, the experiences of

Use of Web-Based students as they used online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an

20

interactive whiteboard to review mathematics concepts for the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) were examined. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to address the research questions. The first research question was "How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard influence student mathematics achievement?" Student scores from the mathematics achievement pretest and posttest were analyzed to determine the influence of the aforementioned technology resources on student mathematics achievement. According to student test scores, improved student achievement was evident from the beginning to the end of the intervention as indicated by the percentage differences in individual student's overall scores from the pretest and posttest. For that evaluation, 92% of the individual students showed improvement in the overall mathematics tests. When data on the mathematics achievement pretest and posttest were disaggregated to show overall mean percentage scores for each of the three identified mathematics areas (Patterns and Relationships, Computation and Estimation, and Problem Solving), an increase in scores was evidenced for each mathematics area: 23%, 14%, and 20%, respectively. An overall mean percentage score of 62% was identified for the pretest and an overall mean score of 81% was calculated for the posttest; thus, an overall mean percentage difference between the pretest and posttest was 19%. Based on those scores, the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games and an interactive whiteboard appeared to have had a positive influence on student achievement. For the second research question, "What are the experiences of third-grade students as they use online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive

Use of Web-Based

21

whiteboard to review mathematics concepts for CRCT end-of-year testing?" the student journals provided much insight into the experiences of the third-graders throughout the course of the intervention. According to the journal entries, students typically worked with partners, when using technology resources; and they often found it necessary to ask peers for help. Also, students frequently sought teacher assistance, when using the technology resources. Even though, students utilized technology resources to learn and to review mathematics concepts, they often required the assistance of other students and of the teacher for the completion of mathematics tasks. The third research question was "How will the use of online mathematics practice tests, web-based mathematics games, and an interactive whiteboard influence student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests?" According to data from the attitude survey pretest and posttest, an improvement in student perceptions toward solving problems on mathematics tests was evident. The survey data indicated an overall increase in student attitudes' toward mathematics and toward solving problems on mathematics tests. At the end of the intervention, student responses on the survey indicated, the students enjoyed taking the CRCT mathematics practice test on the computer; they were less nervous during mathematics tests; and the students were more confident in solving mathematics problems and in taking mathematics tests. The change in student perceptions, when taking web-based practice tests was supported by research, which was conducted by Ahmad (2001). According to Ahmad, students who used interactive, online practice tests preferred them over other means of test preparation. He also found that immediate feedback, which was offered by this type of web-based instruction, provided valuable feedback to students and motivated student to learn.

Use of Web-Based

22

An interesting finding from the survey data was student attitude toward using paper and pencil to solve mathematics problems; a decrease in student attitude was evidenced from the pretest to the posttest. An explanation may lie within research conducted by Dalton (1988). That study examined the combination of traditional mathematics instruction and computer-assisted instruction. While participants in the study readily used paper and pencil, they preferred using the computer. Perhaps, the aforementioned survey data regarding the use of paper and pencil to solve mathematics problems was meant to suggest a student preference for using technology resources instead of paper and pencil to solve mathematics problems. Finally, survey data indicated, students believed the intervention was preparing them for the CRCT test. Almost all students believed they would get better math grades when using more computer mathematics games, CRCT practice tests, and the IWB for mathematics review. When asked if using the IWB helped to prepare them for the CRCT, all of students responded that it did. Two students stated that the IWB helped them to see how to work the mathematics problems through the use of example problems. The confidence levels of students for solving mathematics problems and student motivation for learning mathematics improved from the beginning to the end of the intervention. The survey data soundly supported the third research question. Limitations The primary limitation to the research study was the amount of available time for the implementation of the intervention. There simply wasn't enough of it. Most sessions took an hour to an hour and fifteen minutes, but additional time was needed for the review at the end of each session.

Use of Web-Based Another limitation was a technical issue, the connectivity of the computer laboratory to

23

the OAS site. Fortunately, the online site was only down for one day. For that one day, students participated in mathematics activities by using the IWB instead of the OAS site. Implications Combining the use of web-based instruction, specifically, online mathematics practice tests and web-based mathematics games, and an IWB to help students prepare for the mathematics CRCT test had positive results on student academic achievement and student perceptions toward solving mathematics problems. Using web-based instruction for high-stakes test preparation is a useful tool when implemented properly (Ahmad, 2001). Results of the study suggest that further research regarding the use of web-based instruction and IWB for preparing students for high-stakes, standardized mathematics test should be conducted. In addition, research studies to address the use of web-based instruction and IWB for student preparation of standardized tests in other academic content areas is also suggested. Action Research Celebration I presented information about my research project to the school's administration, firstthrough fifth-grade teachers, and the early intervention (EIP) teachers. A PowerPoint presentation, which included pertinent research literature, research questions, methods of the intervention, findings of the study, and implications, was shared. I recommended that this type of instruction be used while preparing students for the CRCT. At the conclusion of the presentation, a survey was completed by the celebration guests. Data from that survey indicated strong support for continued implementation of the research intervention. In addition, the guest comments on the survey indicated, the research intervention addressed important components of the school improvement goals.

Use of Web-Based References Ahmad, A. (2001). Validating a theory-based design for online instruction: The integrated learning model. ProQuest Digital Dissertations Database, 63(07), 2453. Retrieved September 6, 2006, from UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (UMI No. 764682931) Astleitner, H., & Keller, J. (1995). A model for motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 27(3), 270. Retrieved September 8, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database.

24

Atkinson, S. (2004). A comparison of pupil learning and achievement in computer aided learning and traditionally taught situations with special reference to cognitive style and gender issues. Educational Psychology, 24, 659-679. Retrieved September 8, 2006, from PsycINFO database. Austin, N. (2003, January 7). Mighty White. Education Guardian. Retrieved September 10, 2006, from http://education.guardian.o.uk/elearning/story/0,,869705,00.html Borja, R. R. (2003). Prepping for the big test: Students turn to the web to get ready for highstakes exams. Education Week, 22(35), 23-24, 26. Retrieved September 9, 2006, from ProQuest Research Library database. Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Stafford, P. (2003, September 13, 2006). Human diversity in education: An integrative approach, McGraw Hill Online Learning Center Site. Retrieved September 13, 2006, from http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072486694/student_view0/glossary.html

Use of Web-Based

25

Dalton, D., & Hannafin, M. (1988). The Effects of Computer-Assisted and Traditional Mastery Methods on Computation Accuracy and Attitudes. Journal of Educational Research, 82(1), 27-33. Georgia Department of Education Testing Division. (2006). Georgia's criterion-referenced competency tests (CRCT): Questions and answers for parents of Georgia students [Data file]. (GAE300.T45). Atlanta: Georgia Department of Education. Testing Division. Martindale, T., Pearson, C., Curda, L. K., & Pilcher, J. (2005). Effects of an online instructional application on reading and mathematics standardized test scores. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 37, 349-360. Retrieved June 3, 2006, from http://teachable.org/papers/2005_jrte.pdf#search=%22Effects%20of%20an%20online%2 0instructional%20application%20on%20reading%20and%20mathematics%20standardize d%20test%20scores%22 McDonald, K. K., & Hannafin, R. D. (2003). Using web-based computer games to meet the demands of high-stakes testing: A mixed method inquiry. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35, 459-472. Retrieved June 24, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. Oregon Network for Education. (2006, September 10). Glossary of Terms. Retrieved September 10, 2006, from http://www.oregonone.org/glossary.htm#w Smith, H., Higgins, S., Wall, K., & Miller, J. (2005). Interactive Whiteboards: Boon or Bandwagon? A Critical Review of the Literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 91-101. Retrieved September 08, 2006 from ERIC database. (ERIC No. EJ686115)

Use of Web-Based Song, S., & Keller, J. (1999). The ARCS model for developing motivationally-adaptive

26

computer-assisted instruction. Retrieved September 15, 2006 from ERIC database. (ERIC No. ED436181)

Information

Microsoft Word - 01MatthewsKTitle.doc

77 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

174450


You might also be interested in

BETA
Standards for Science Teacher Preparation
CKB4_Good_Citizens_In_Action.doc
Interest
Microsoft Word - 2-EDICT-2010-1103-CE.docx