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ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

Introduction: The purpose of this exercise is threefold: 1) to build on the themes and ideas you were introduced to in 9th grade. 2) To familiarize you with those themes and ideas that are critical for success in 10th grade. 3) Perhaps the most important, to give you a working model/story of world history from 1450 to the present. These exercises will be assigned throughout the year for homework and in-class assignments. Appropriate readings from district materials (textbook and document book) are woven into the program at appropriate and critical points. This exercise has been broken into the three final units of the program. These units were created by the College Board. They are: 1450-1750, 17501914, 1914- The Present. We hope this will be a meaningful and rewarding experience. Ms. Donohue Mr. Ferrante Mr. Sill

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES UNIT III (1450-1750)

Introduction: This unit will build on the ideas you were introduced to in your summer project ­ specifically the essay "The World in 1400". We will investigate, civilization by civilization, why some parts of the world began to dominate trade and military technology and others began to lose political influence. It is critical that you understand and can work with these themes. For it is this unit that sets up other important themes in the upcoming units such as: industrialization, nationalism and imperialism. Listed below are the vital themes and concepts for this unit, according to the College Board. We will then expand on these themes and concepts as well as give you "best examples". The Civilizations: The West ­ Western Europe (England to Germany) Russia & Eastern Europe (Slavic countries through the Russian Empire and the declining Mongol Empire) China ­ The Ming Dynasty and the decline of the Mongol Empire Japan ­ The Tokugawa Shogunate The Middle East/Southwest Asia ­ The Ottoman Empire Latin America ­ Aztecs, Mayans and Incas and the Iberian colonies that replace them. West Africa ­ Kongo, Benin, Oyo, Songhay, Asanti East Africa ­ The Swahili City-States South Asia ­ Mughal Empire

Major Themes, Concepts, Developments:

1. Questions of periodization. Continuities and breaks, cause of changes from the previous period and within this period. (In other words, how did the world change and remain the same from Unit II to Unit III (SPRITE).) 2. Change in global interactions, trade and technology: a) The change from regional trade circuits to a truly global trade that includes the Americas. b) Europeans injecting themselves into the Indian Ocean Trade. c) The development of the Atlantic Trade based on Sugar, Silver and Slaves. d) The creation of small coastal European enclaves on coastal Asia and Africa. e) The role of gunpowder, the compass and cartography. f) The role of cities in global trade. g) Switch from land trade to sea trade.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

h) The development of mercantilism, commercialism, and the putting out and cottage systems. i) Creation of the Plantation system. Who controls the means of production? 3. Knowledge of major empires and other political units and social systems. a) Different forms of absolute government systems around the world -how are they similar and different. b) The rise of the nation-state in the West. c) The importance of gunpowder and cannon on the battlefield. d) The role of nobility, bureaucracies and the military in absolute governments. e) The changing role of religion from dominating politics to supporting political systems. f) Differences between a land-based and a sea-based empire. g) Best examples of absolute monarchs: Louis XIV of France and the Ming emperor. h) The role of each civilization in global trade (products and motivations for trade) i) Gender and empire ­ how were women treated based on civilization and class. Best examples: Limiting women's rights ­ Ming China and Ottoman Empire. Giving women some rights ­ The West (merchant class). j) Slave systems and slave trade (coercive labor): Differences between slavery and serfdom Differences between West African and East African slave trade Reasons for the increase in slave trade activity 4. Demographic and environmental changes: diseases, animals, new crops and comparative population trends. a) The role of the Plague in the development of coercive labor systems and the rise of the merchant class. b) European diseases and the effects on Latin America ­ specifically the impact on Native Americans, the slave trade and coercive labor. c) The impact of new crops in Europe especially the potato. d) The impact of bring sugar to Latin America. e) The start of urbanization in Western Europe. 5. Cultural and intellectual developments. a. The impact of the Scientific Revolution ­ the West's view of the relationship between Humanity and Nature. Importance for military technology and future industrial technology. b. The Enlightenment- Especially in terms of political theory and human rights.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

c. Comparative global causes and impacts of cultural change. d. Neoconfucianism and other philosophical and religious reform movements ( Protestant Reformation, Sikhism). e. Major developments and exchanges in the arts ­ Best Example: Compare Mughal to Renaissance Art. 6. What are the debates about the timing and extent of European predominance in the world economy? a) Europeans inject themselves into an existing trade in the Indian Ocean. b) Able to redirect some of the trade ­ especially the West African slave trade. c) Limited to the coastline because the other civilizations were too strong and disease kept them from the interior. d) Reliance on American silver and sugar. Europeans produced nothing the rest of the world wanted.

Issues, Ideas and Themes you should be able to discuss at the end of Unit III (1450-1750)

1. Compare and contrast the European monarchy system with a monarch from Asia and Africa. 2. How does an absolute government work? (use several examples) 3. How did religion interact with the state in 1450-1750? 4. Why did coercive labor seem necessary from 1450-1750? 5. How did coercive labor take shape? 6. Compare and contrast a sea-based empire with a land-based empire. 7. Compare Russia's interaction with the West to: a. The Ottoman Empire b. The Ming Dynasty ­ Best Example c. Tokugawa Japan d. West Africa e. Mughal India f. Latin America 8. How trading systems in 1450-1750 differed from 600-1450? 9. Compare the role of women: a. according to class in the West b. in the West with Ming China ­ Best Example 10. The importance of sugar, silver and the plantation system. 11. Why were the Europeans limited to coastal Asia and Africa and why they could not be kicked out?

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

How to use district materials to aid understanding: Listed below are questions the student should use to facilitate the use of textbook. These questions will also be given as homework assignments.

Ming China and Tokugawa Japan

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations; Chapter 28: Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change (662-697) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. How did the Mongol Empire come to an end? What was the nature of absolutism in Ming China? Why, do you think, the Treasure Fleet voyages came to an end? Why was Ming China the most likely candidate to dominate world trade and politics? Using the "In Depth" section of your textbook compare and contrast the expansion of Ming China with the expansion of Western Europe? Describe the role and influence of the Neoconfucianists and the Civil Service. What was the role of women and the nature of the family in Ming China? How did the Shoguns achieve political unity in Japan? What were the attitudes of the Japanese towards outsiders in Unit III? How do you account for these attitudes?

Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record: Suggested and required reading 1. Continuity and Change in East and Southeast Asia; pg. 115-117 a. Describe how China interacted with its immediate neighbors and with the Europeans. b. Describe the basic beliefs of Confucianism and how Neoconfucianism altered those basic beliefs. 2. Document #28: Meritorious Deeds at No Cost; pg. 118-123 ***Unless otherwise noted do the "Questions For Analysis" for each document 3. Document #29: Common Sense Teachings For Japanese Children and Greater Learning For Women; pg. 123-126 4. Document #30: The Biographies of Zhu Jiefu and Gentleman Wang (Chinese Merchants in a Confucian World); pg. 127-130 5. Document #31: Zhang Hung, Landscape of Shixie Hill; pg. 130- 134 6. Political Decline and Recovery in China and Japan; pg. 134-135 a. According to the authors, what were the main reasons for decline in Japan and China? 7. Document #32: Yang Lien, Memorial to Emperor Ming Xizong; pg. 135-138

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

8. Document #33: Laws Governing the Military Households; pg. 139-141 9. Document #34: Closed Country Edict of 1635; pg. 142-144

The Ottoman and Mughal Empires

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 26: The Muslim Empires (pg. 608-635) 1. What was the nature of absolutism in the Ottoman and Mughal Empires? 2. Why did the Byzantine Empire fall? 3. How did the Ottoman Sultans keep control of the empire? 4. What was the role of the Janissaries? 5. What kind of trade did the Ottomans dominate? How would this affect the kingdoms of Western Europe? 6. Using the "In-Depth" section, explain how gunpowder empires shifted the global power structure. 7. What roles did the Islamic world play in global trade in Unit III? 8. How did the arrival of Islam in South Asia affect Hindu culture? 9. Compare and contrast artistic forms in the Mughal Empire with Renaissance Europe. 10. What was the role of the harem? What does it tell us about women's roles in the Islamic empires of South and Southeast Asia? 11. Explain how Sikhism tried to bridge the gap between Islamic and Hindu society? 12. What are the causes of imperial decline in the Islamic world? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. The Islamic Heartland and India; pg. 86-89 a. How did the three major Islamic empires differ in their religious views? b. How did the three major Islamic empires differ in their relations with Western Europe? c. How were the three Islamic empires similar? 2. Document #21: Turkish Letters; pg. 89- 93 3. Document #22: A Carmelite Friar's View of Shah Abbas I; pg. 94-98 4. Document #23: Jahangir, Memoirs; pg. 99-103 5. Religion and Society in South and Southwest Asia; pg. 103-104 a. What are the similarities and differences between Islam and Hinduism according to the authors? 6. Document #24: Sunni vs. Shi'ite in the Early Sixteenth Century; pg. 104-107 7. Document #25: A Muslim's Description of Hindu Beliefs and Practices; pg. 107-110 8. Document #26: Women in Ottoman Society; pg. 111-112

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

9. Document #27: The Beginnings of Sikhism in India; pg. 112-114

Western Europe (a.k.a. "The West")

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 22: The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750 (pg. 522-541) 1. How did the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution prepare Western Europe for a more active role in global affairs? 2. Why was the creation of the nation-state so important to the push in overseas trade? 3. How did Islamic control of land trade routes influence Western Europe's approach to global trade? 4. How did the European sea-based empires compare to the Asian landbased empires? 5. What was the nature of absolutism in Western Europe? 6. How did the Protestant Reformation alter the religious and political landscape of Europe? 7. How did Europe's low population lead to a reliance on technology on the battlefield? 8. How did the Plague and the Commercial Revolution alter the economic landscape of Europe? 9. Using the "In-Depth" section describe the differences between the Elites and the Masses of Western Europe? 10. How did the Enlightenment and parliamentary government alter Europe? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The World in the Era of European Expansion: 1500-1650; pg. 1-5 Document #1: Martin Luther, Table Talk; pg. 5-10 Women's Roles in Early Modern Europe; pg. 27-28 Document #6: John Mayer, "A Pattern For Women"; pg. 29-30 Document #7: Two Sixteenth-Century Images of Women; pg. 30-34 Document #8: Nuremberg Ordinances Concerning Midwives; pg. 34-37 7. An Expanding Intellectual Universe; pg. 37-38 8. Document #10: Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess; pg. 41-43 9. Document #43: The English Bill of Rights; pg. 183- 186

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 23: The West and the World; pg. 542- 563 1. What technologies led to Europe's "Age of Exploration"? 2. Why did Spain and Portugal have an early lead AND how did they lose it to the Dutch and the British? 3. Using the "In-Depth" section in the chapter, what were the causes of the West's expansion? 4. Describe the "Colombian Exchange"? 5. How "global" was the global economy? 6. What was the role of the coastal trading station? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Document #9: Michel de Montaigne, "On Cannibals"; pg. 38-41 2. Document #4: The Just Causes of War Against The Indians; pg. 20-23 3. Document #5: In Defense of The Indians; pg. 23-26

Latin America

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 25: Early Latin America; pg. 580- 607 1. How were such small European forces able to defeat the large Amerindian empires? 2. How did the Catholic Church view what was happening to the Native Americans? 3. What moral questions did the conquest of the Americas raise for the Europeans? 4. How did the European conquests affect the Native Americans? 5. Compare and contrast the different coercive labor systems used in Latin America by the Europeans? 6. What products were most valuable to the Europeans in Latin America? Why? 7. How was the development of the plantation system such a monumental change from all previous forms of production? 8. What was the relationship between the state and the church in Latin America? 9. Describe the Latin American economy under European rule? 10. How and why was the Latin American class systems created? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Encounters in the Americas; pg. 65

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

2. Document #16: "General History of The Things of New Spain"; pg. 65-70 3. Document #18: Encomienda Regulations; pg. 74-78 4. Document #19: The Mita System and the "Mountain of Silver"; Pg. 79-82

Sub-Saharan Africa: East and West

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 27: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade (pg. 636- 661) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Why did the Europeans need slaves from Africa? How did the slave trade differ in West Africa from East Africa? Why were the African empires willing to deal in slaves? Describe the Gun/Slave Cycle? How did the economy of East Africa differ from West Africa? What is Swahili? What was the nature of absolutism in West Africa? Describe the political make-up of one of the following empires: Benin, Oyo, Songhay or Asanti. 9. Why was Timbuktu such an important city? 10. Why was European penetration of Africa limited to the coastline? 11. Using the "In-Depth" section explain the historical role of slavery in human history.

Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Africa and the Americas; pg. 44-48 2. Document #11: History and Description of Africa; pg. 48-51 3. Document #12: An Account of the Countries Bordering the Indian Ocean; pg. 51-54 4. Document #13: Nzinga Mbemba, Letters To The King of Portugal; pg. 55-57 5. Document #14: Joao dos Santos, Eastern Ethiopia; pg. 57-61

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES Russia

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 23: The Rise of Russia 1. Describe the nature of absolutism in the Russian Empire. 2. Describe the relationship between the Russian government and the Orthodox Church. 3. Why were the Russians able to defeat the Mongols? 4. Define the term "westernization" and how was it implemented by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great? 5. Define and describe the coercive labor system used by the Russian Empire. How did it differ from slavery in Latin America? 6. How did the Russian Empire expand and at whose expense? 7. How did Russia's economy differ from Western Europe's? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Document #41: Peter the Great, Edicts and Decrees; pg. 175- 178 2. Document #42: Mikhail Shcherbatov, On the Corruption of Morals in Russia; pg. 178-182

Issues, Ideas and Themes you should be able to discuss at the end of Unit III (1450-1750)

1. Compare and contrast the European monarchy system with a monarch from Asia and Africa. 2. How does an absolute government work? (use several examples) 3. How did religion interact with the state in 1450-1750? 4. Why did coercive labor seem necessary from 1450-1750? 5. How did coercive labor take shape? 6. Compare and contrast a sea-based empire with a land-based empire. 7. Compare Russia's interaction with the West to: a. The Ottoman Empire b. The Ming Dynasty ­ Best Example c. Tokugawa Japan d. West Africa e. Mughal India f. Latin America 8. How trading systems in 1450-1750 differed from 600-1450?

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

9. Compare the role of women: a. according to class in the West b. in the West with Ming China ­ Best Example 10. The importance of sugar, silver and the plantation system. 11. Why were the Europeans limited to coastal Asia and Africa and why they could not be kicked out?

UNIT IV (1750-1914)

Introduction: This unit is dominated by two major themes: Industrialization and Imperialism. These events are what truly characterize the time period. There were a number of events that led to these two themes. Growing food supply (because of imported foods from the Americas) and a lower mortality rate gave Western Europe the excess population it needed to staff its factories. The factory based on another Latin American original ­ the plantation. The merchant class now owned the means of production and the stage was now set to change every aspect of human life. To keep their industrial revolutions going the West altered its relationship with the rest of the world. Going from a partner in trade to the dominate military and economic force. The Europeans took what they needed to maintain their lifestyle. The rest of the world would spend the time period reacting to the rise of the West. Most of the world fell under direct or indirect control of the Western nation-states. Two civilizations: Russia and Japan were able to keep the West at bay by following the West's example. The big question we need to answer is: How did the world react to the industrial and imperial policies of the West? The Civilizations: The West: Western Europe, but now also includes the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Latin America: Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and South America East Asia: Make the distinction between Qing China and Meiji Japan. Russia and Eastern Europe: Same as last unit. Russia industrializes. Middle East: Still dominated by the Ottomans South Asia: India is now a colony of Britain. Africa: Both West and East Africa are now European colonies.

Major Themes, Concepts and Developments:

1. Questions of periodization. Continuities and breaks, causes of changes from the previous period and within this period.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

2. Changes in global commerce, communications, and technology: Changes in patterns of world trade, Industrial Revolution (transformative effects on and differential timing indifferent societies; mutual relation of industrial and scientific developments; commonalities. a. How did the industrial revolution change every aspect of human life and why did it happen in some civilizations before others? b. Basically from an essentially equal trading pattern to an inherently unequal one.

3. Demographic and environmental changes (migrations, end of the Atlantic slave trade, new birthrate patterns; food supply) a. Industrialization and urbanization; Best Example - England b. lower mortality rates; c. impact of American crops; d. Impact industrialization on coercive labor. e. European migrations to the Americas and elsewhere. 4. Changes in social and gender structure (Industrial Revolution; commercial and demographic developments; emancipation of serfs/slaves; and tension between work patterns and ideas about gender). a. Role of Western women ­ both working and bourgeoisie classes. b. Role of Women: compare the West with China, India, Africa and Latin America. c. How did the Industrial Revolution change work habits and family life? d. How did the Industrial Revolution change where people live? e. Why did coercive labor end ­ humanitarian or economic reasons? 5. Political revolutions and independence movements; new political ideas: a. Latin American independence movements ­ where did they get their inspiration? b. Revolutions (United States, France, Haiti, Mexico, China): benefits only go to very small portions of the populations. c. Rise of nationalism, nation-states, and movements of political reform: nationalism as a WESTERN INVENTION. d. Overlaps between nations and empires: how did the European empires change from being empires to true nation-states with overseas holdings. e. Rise of democracy and its limitations: reform; women; racism ­ benefits did not reach the colonies, nor did most people in the mother countries enjoy the rights.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

6. Rise of Western dominance (economic, political, social, cultural and artistic, patterns of expansion; imperialism and colonialism) and different cultural and political reactions (reform; resistance; rebellion; racism; nationalism). a. How did the West justify imperialism? b. Impact of changing European ideologies on colonial administrations. c. Belief in cultural, political, religious and physical superiority. d. Rebellions within the colonies: Zulu Wars; Opium Wars; Sepoy Rebellion; Taiping and Boxer Rebellions. e. Start of nationalist movements in the colonies. 7. Diverse interpretations a. What are the debates over the utility of modernization theory as a framework for interpreting events in this period and the next? b. What are the debates about the causes of serf and slave emancipation in this period, and how do these debates fit into broader comparisons of labor systems? c. What are the debates over the nature of women's roles in this period, and how do these debates apply to industrialized areas, and how do they apply in colonial societies?

Issues, Ideas and Themes you should be able to discuss at the end of Unit IV (1750-1914)

1. Were coercive labor systems ended for humanitarian or economic reasons. 2. Why was the West able to industrialize before the rest of the world? 3. How and why did democratic and parliamentary forms of government spread? 4. How did industrialization lead to imperialism? 5. How was imperialism justified by the West? 6. Compare and contrast Japan and China's reactions to Western expansion. 7. How did industrialization change Western society? 8. Compare and contrast Russia's interaction with the West to that of the Ottoman Empire? 9. Explain why there was a rise in birth rates prior to the industrial revolution? 10. Compare and contrast the Haitian Revolution with the French. 11. How did Latin America's interaction with the West differ from India's? 12. Describe the nature of Western dominance during this time period.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

District Materials

The West and its Impact on South Asia and Southeast Asia

Note: India and Indonesia are both included here because they fell under direct control of the European powers during this time period. In other words, they became formal colonies. This issue will be brought up in chapter 30. Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 29: The Industrialization of the West, 1760-1914 1. What were the intellectual and economic forces that led to the democratic revolutions in the West? 2. How did the democratic revolution alter French society and power structures? 3. What economic sector was the first to industrialize? How did it spread to other sectors? 4. What economic system replaced mercantilism during the industrial period? 5. Why did Karl Marx believe there would be another revolution of a different sort? 6. How did industrialization alter traditional life in Europe? 7. Explain how the idea and the view of "class" changed during the time period. 8. How did industrialization alter the role of women? 9. How did industrialization affect family and marriage? 10. How did leisure activities change? 11. Why did the West spread to the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. From Mercantilism to Laissez Faire; pg. 165 2. Document #40: The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith; pg. 169-173 3. The World in the Age of Western Dominance:1800-1914; Pg. 265-269 4. Document #61: Testimony Before Parliament on Working Conditions; pg.270-274 5. Document #62: Samuel Smiles, Self-Help and Thrift; pg. 275-278 6. Document #63: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto; pg. 278-283 7. Middle Class Women and Document #64: The Wives of England; Pg. 283-288 8. Racism, Militarism, and the New Nationalism; Document #66: Heinrich von Treitschke; pg. 290- 295

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 30: Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order; pg. 726- 753 1. How did the Europeans annex land empires to their sea empires? 2. How did the East India Companies give the Dutch and the British an advantage over the Iberians? 3. Why was India so important to the British Empire? 4. Explain how the Europeans brought both social reform and chaos to the colonies. 5. Using the "In-Depth" section, describe the role that Western educated Asians and Africans had on their societies. 6. How did colonization lead to tensions between the European empires? 7. Why and how did the colonized peoples protest the European presence in their civilizations? 8. Describe the difference between a "tropical dependency" and a "settlement colony". (Give examples of each) 9. What is the difference between a "White Dominion" colony and a "Contested Settler" colony? (Give examples of each) 10. How did formal colonization alter the economies of Asia and Africa? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Document #67, A Defense of French Imperialism; pg. 295-298 2. Document #68, Advertisements and Illustrations From British Books; pg. 298-302

Latin America

**Note: Although not formally colonized during most of the time period, Latin America remained and "economic dependent" of the West. It relied on Western money and markets to stay economically viable. Latin America had democratic revolutions, and like their neighbor to the North, rights and political power remained in relatively few hands. Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 31: The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920; pg. 754-779 1. How did the democratic revolutions in the West inspire revolution in Latin America?

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

2. How did Brazilian independence differ from most of Latin America's other independence movements? 3. Why is the Haitian Revolution so notable for the time period? 4. What problems did the new nations of Latin America face in the early years after independence? 5. Describe the roles of the Caudillos and the Church in Latin American politics. 6. Compare and contrast the policies and ideas of the liberals and the conservatives in Latin America. 7. Compare and contrast the political and economic development of Mexico and Argentina during the time period 1750-1914. 8. Describe the role of women in Latin America during the time period 1750-1914. 9. How did independence affect the ideas of class and race in Latin America? 10. Using the "In-Depth" section explain how "underdevelopment" begins and why it still exists. Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record; 1. Document #47: Simon Bolivar, The Jamaica Letter; pg. 199-202

Qing China, and the Ottoman Empire

Note: These two civilizations are dealt with together because they were never formally colonized by the Western powers. Instead, they were turned into spheres of influence that kept their autonomy, but could rarely act independently of the West. They had more in common perhaps with Latin America than India concerning interaction with the West. Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 32: Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China 1. Using the "In-Depth" section, explain why the West came to dominate this time period and the other civilizations seemed powerless to stop it. 2. Explain why the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man of Europe". What problems was this land-based empire facing? 3. How did the Ottomans try to solve these problems? Were they successful? 4. How did the "Young Turk" movement differ from previous reforms? 5. Why was the defeat of the Mamluks by Napoleon such a blow to the Islamic world?

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

6. How did Muhammad Ali try to change Egypt? 7. At the end of the time period describe the political and economic state of the Islamic civilization. 8. What political problems were facing the Qing Dynasty? 9. How did the British change the economic relationship between China and the West? 10. What were the motivations of the Taiping and Boxer rebellions? Wh, do you think, they were not successful? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Southwest Asia under Siege; pg. 322-323 2. Document #74: Sultan Abdul Mejid, Imperial Rescript (Tanzimat Era); pg. 324-326 3. Document #75: Sayyid Jamal ad-Din; Persian Opposition to the Tobacco Concession; Pg. 326-330 4. Document #76: Proclamation of the Young Turks; pg. 330-332 5. Document #77: Announcement to the Arabs, Sons of Qathan (Arab Nationalism); pg. 332-336 6. East Asia Confronts the West; pg. 344-346 7. Document #80: Lin Zexu, Letter to Queen Victoria (The Curse of Opium); pg. 346-348 8. Document #81: Memorandum to Emperor Xianfeng; Problems Regarding the Regime During the Taiping Rebellion; pg. 349-352

Russia And Japan

Note: These two civilizations are placed together for three important reasons: 1. Both civilizations were not controlled by the West. 2. Both civilizations tried to adopt western culture and technology rather than fight it. 3. Both are the only civilizations outside the West to industrialize. Stearns, Peter; World Civilizations Chapter 33: Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West 1. How did the Napoleonic Wars and the Crimean War shape Russia's attitude towards the West? 2. Explain why Russia felt there was some need to reform the serf laws? 3. What role did the Russian government play in industrializing the Russian Empire? 4. Why were so many sectors of the Russian population unhappy with the effects of industry on Russian society?

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

5. Using the "In-Depth" explain why Japan and China went down separate political and economic paths? 6. How did the Opium Wars affect Japan's encounter with the West when Commodore Perry arrived in Japan? 7. How did the Meiji Restoration alter Japanese politics, economy and society? 8. Why did many Japanese see modernization as a threat to Japanese culture? Andrea & Overfield; The Human Record 1. Document #83: Reflections on My Errors; Sakuma Shozan (Eastern Ethics and Western Science); pg. 356- 360 2. Document #84: Letter To Mitsubishi Employees (Japanese Nationalism) pg. 361-363 3. Document #85: Images of the West in Late Tokugawa and Meiji Japan; pg. 363-369

Issues, Ideas and Themes you should be able to discuss at the end of Unit IV (1750-1914)

1. Were coercive labor systems ended for humanitarian or economic reasons. 2. Why was the West able to industrialize before the rest of the world? 3. How and why did democratic and parliamentary forms of government spread? 4. How did industrialization lead to imperialism? 5. How was imperialism justified by the West? 6. Compare and contrast Japan and China's reactions to Western expansion. 7. How did industrialization change Western society? 8. Compare and contrast Russia's interaction with the West to that of the Ottoman Empire? 9. Explain why there was a rise in birth rates prior to the industrial revolution? 10. Compare and contrast the Haitian Revolution with the French. 11. How did Latin America's interaction with the West differ from India's? 12. Describe the nature of Western dominance during this time period.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES UNIT V 1914- THE PRESENT

Introduction: There are two big themes that really organize this unit: World Conflict and Decolonization. There are three world conflicts you should pay attention to ­ World War I, World War II and the Cold War. These wars are important because they weaken the West so dramatically that the western empires can no longer hold on to their colonies. The Cold War distracts the US to such an extent that other civilizations are able to regain their political and economic strength. There are potentially two causes for decolonization ­ the weakness of the West and a growing sense of nationalism in the colonies. How one answers this question will greatly impact his or her view of the world. We will spend a good portion of this unit looking into this very issue. Other related topics will be: the role of educated urban elite in nationalist movements, the rise of international Marxism, the creation of a global consumer culture and its impact on societies and the environment.

Major Themes, Concepts, Developments:

1. Questions of periodization. Continuities and breaks, causes of changes from the previous period and within this period. a. why did the western empires lose their colonies? b. How did the former colonies build nation-states? 2. The World Wars, the Holocaust, the Cold War, nuclear weaponry, international organizations, and their impact on the global framework (globalization of diplomacy and conflict; global balance of power; reduction of European influence; the League of Nations, the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Nations, etc.) 3. New patterns of nationalism: a) the interwar years b) decolonization c) racism d) genocide e) new nationalism f) break up of the Soviet Union 4. Impact of major global developments: a) the Great Depression b) technology c) Pacific Rim d) Multinational corporations 5. New forces of revolution and other sources of political innovations.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT WORLD HISTORY 10 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS AND THEMES

6. Social reform and social revolution (changing gender roles; family structures; rise of feminism; peasant protest; international Marxism) 7. Globalization of science, technology, and culture a. Developments in global cultures and regional reactions, including science and consumer culture b. Interactions between elite and popular culture and art c. Patterns of resistance including religious responses (a.k.a. fundamentalism be it Christian, Islamic or Hindu). 8. Demographic and environmental changes: a. b. c. d. e. migrations changes in birthrates and death rates new forms of urbanization deforestation green/environmental movements

9. Diverse interpretations: a. Is cultural convergence or diversity the best model for understanding increased intercultural contact in the twentieth century? b. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using units of analysis in the twentieth century, such as the nation, the world, the West, and the Third World?

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