Read Narne: text version

Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

PACKET # 8: WEATHER, CLIMATE, OCEAN CURRENTS Reading Guide 25.1: Read and Study text pages 499-501

Students know the effects on climate of latitude, elevation, topography, and proximity to large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean currents.

1. air mass 2. Coriolis effect : What is it? 3. TYPES OF AIR MASSES : Describe each term. a. maritime= b. tropical =

Air masses are classified by their _________________ ___________________. This determines their __________________ & _________________________. How does it affect the air masses? 4a. maritime polar ( )

4b. maritime tropical ( __ ) 4c. continental polar ( c. polar = 4d. continental tropical ( __ ) d. continental= 5. Summary Questions: Identify the air mass that could cause the weather conditions below: 1. Snow falling on the Pacific Coast area. ___________________ symbols ____ 2. Clear, dry and very hot weather in San Diego. ___________________ symbols ____ 3. Heavy winter rains with thunderstorms in San Diego. ___________________ symbols ____ 4. Mild, cloudy winter weather and hot humid summer weather in the East Coast. ___________________ symbols ____ __ )

Reading Guide 25.2: Fronts - Read and Study text pages 502- 508

1a. Describe Front: 1b. Describe the air masses that meet to form a front & what keeps them separate: 2. Describe the 4 different types of fronts: a. cold front: b. warm front: 1c. How large is a typical front system: 1d. At what latitude do fronts typically occur? _______________________ 1e. How come fronts do not exist in the tropics? ________________________ _______________________________ c. stationary front:

d. occluded front:

7a. Describe Hurricane:

7b. Describe Typhoon:

8. Describe Thunderstorm:

9. Describe Tornado:

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Reading Guide: Chapter 26.2a (Read and Study text pages 529-532): Climate Zones Three Major Climate Zones 1. 2. 3. Temperature Ranges 1. 2. 3. Climate Zone-TROPICAL

Describe the following climates (T, rain, vegetation, places).

Influencing Air Masses 1. 2. 3.

Climate Zone-MID-LATITUDE

Describe the following climates (T, rain, vegetation, places).

Marine West Coast (lt green) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Mediterranean (yellow) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places:

Climate Zone-POLAR

Describe the following climates (T, rain, vegetation, places).

Tropical Rainforest (green) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Tropical Desert (red) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Tropical Savanna (orange) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places:

SubArctic (blue) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Tundra (purple) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Ice Caps (not in blue book) (white) Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places:

Mid Lat Desert and Steppe Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Humid Continental Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places: Humid Subtropical Latitudes: Temp: Rainfall: Vegetation: Examples of Places:

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Reading Guide: Chapter 23.3 (Read and Study text pages 469-473) Winds

5f* Students know the interaction of wind patterns, ocean currents, and mountain ranges results in the global pattern of latitudinal bands of rain forests and deserts

1. It is (hotter / colder) at the equator. Air at the equator is (rising / sinking). This causes a (high / low) pressure belt in the equatorial regions. 2. It is (hotter / colder) at the poles. Air at the poles is (rising / sinking). This causes a (high / low) pressure belt in the polar regions. 3. Hot air creates regions of ____________ atmospheric pressure while cold air creates regions of ___________ atmospheric pressure. 4. The sun heats the Earth (evenly / unevenly) creating pressure differences across the globe. 5. Air moves from ____________________________ toward _________________________________.

6. coriolis effect: the deflection of the Earth's winds Surface winds in the N. Hemisphere are deflected to and waters due to the _________________________ the (right / left), while surface winds in the S. Hemisphere are deflected to the (right / left). of the Earth. 7. Fill in air rises or sinks and low or high pressure for the following global locations Equator: ___air rises__/__low pressure___ 30° latitude: _____________/______________ 60° latitude: _____________/_______________ 90° latitude: _____________/_______________

Wind Name Trade Winds Westerlies Polar Easterlies Latitudes N. Hemisphere Flow direction

8. Convection cells:

N. Hemisphere deflection

S. Hemisphere Flow direction

S. Hemisphere deflection

9a. Which latitudes have low pressure belts (0° / 30° / 60° / 90°) 9b. Which latitudes have high pressure belts (0° / 30° / 60° / 90°) 10. Jet streams

What are two major effects of the Jet stream :

11. Land and Sea Breezes come about due to the differences in how the land & ocean heat and cool. Which changes the most in terms of temperature from night to day (ocean or land)? ____________ . Land and Sea Breezes Mountain & Valley Breezes: (fig.23-14,p 473)

DAY NIGHT DAY NIGHT

The major principle governing flow of air can be summarized the warm air (rises or sinks) & cold air (rises or sinks).

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Reading Guide: Chapter 26.1 (Read and Study text pages 523-528) Factors that Affect Climate

·5g* Students know features of the ENSO cycle in terms of sea-surface and air temperature variations across the Pacific and some climatic results of this cycle. ·5f * Students know the interaction of wind patterns, ocean currents, and mountain ranges results in the global pattern of latitudinal bands of rainforests and deserts. ·6a Students know weather (in the short run) and climate (in the long run) involve the transfer of energy into and out of the atmosphere. ·6b Students know the effects on climate of latitude, elevation, topography, and proximity to large bodies of ocean water and cold or warm ocean currents. ·6c Students know how Earth's climate has changed over time, corresponding to changes in Earth's geography, atmospheric

Climate = Described in terms of 1. 1. LATITUDE determines a. b. Latitudinal Region Equatorial 45° N/S Poles

Direct Radiation =_______________ (hotter or colder temps) Indirect Radiation =_______________ (hotter or colder temps)

What 3 major factors influence climate? 1._________________________________ 2._________________________________ 2. 3. _________________________________ 1a. The amount of solar energy received at a particular location depends on: 1) 2) Day/Night Length Average Temps Temp Range (Hot, Medium, Cold) (High or Low) (Same or Variable)

Sun's Rays (Direct or Angled)

Equal Days/Nights=_______________(high or low) temp range Unequal Days/Nights=_____________(high or low) temp range

1b. WIND AND PRESSURE PATTERNS Winds affect ______________, __________________, _________________ and ___________________ ____________. Global Pressure Patterns

Pressure (Hi or Lo) Equator 20 - 30° N/S 45 - 60° N/S Polar Regions Rising or Sinking Air Heats or Cools Adiabatically Becomes more or less Humid Cloudy or Clear Precipitation (High or Low)

2. HEAT ABSORBTION AND RELEASE (ie. Land vs. Water) How does the heating of land compare to water? What ocean movements tend to keep ocean 1) temperature = temperatures more constant than land temperatures? 2) relative speed = How does the temperature range (highs and lows) of a coastal community compare to the temperature range for a community that is inland? Coastal Community (high / low) temperature range Inland Community (high / low) temperature range 3. CLIMATE & OCEAN CURRENTS Ocean temperatures can determine the temperature of the air above them. Why is Europe more affect by the Gulf Stream than Air crossing a cold ocean current will be (warmed or cooled) the United States is?

Air crossing a warm ocean current will be (warmed or cooled)

4. TOPOGRAPHY & CLIMATE Topography=

How does topography affect the temperature & humidity of a region?

a. Air rising over a mountain will (warm or cool) and the humidity will become (more humid or drv) b. If the rising air cools to its dew point, ___________ will form and __________may occur. c. Air decending the mountain will (warm or cool) and become (more humid or dry) because moisture has been lost on the other side of the mountain.

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Diagram a typical coastal mountain range (fig. 26-3), p 528. Label & show arrows that depict the changes in temperature and precipitation. Also label the windward side, leeward side, rain shadow desert.

APPLICATION: Describe the differences in climate at points A, B & C.

A. B. C.

Reading Guide: Chapter 22.1 (Read and study diagrams on Pages 427-432) Ocean Currents

5b Students know the relationship between the rotation of the Earth and the circular motions of the ocean currents and air in pressure centers 5d Students know the properties of ocean water, such as temperature and salinity, can be used to explain the layered structure of the oceans, the generation of horizontal and vertical ocean currents, and the geographic distribution of marine organisms.

1. Name the 2 types of currents and describe each. a. ________________: b. ________________:

What causes each type of current? a. b.

2. List the 3 factors that control ocean currents: a. ___________________________ b. ____________________________ c. ______________________________ 3. Explain how the coriolis effect affects surface currents? 4. What is a gyre? 5. What are the 2 major ocean currents that affect the United States (see Fig. 22-2)? a. _________________________________ b. ____________________________________

6a. 6b. 6c. 6d. 6e. Surface currents flow in __________________ paths. This is because of the ____________ __________. The currents on the east side of continents are ( warm / cold ). The currents on the west side of continents are ( warm / cold ). The Gulf stream flows ( north / south ) from the ( equator / poles ) along the ( west / east ) side of the United States. The California Current flows (north / south) from the (equator / poles) along the (west / east) side of the U.S.

7a. What type of effect do you think the Gulf Stream will have on the east coast of the U.S.?

7b. What type of effect do you think the California Current will have on the west coast of the U.S.?

9. Current Comparison a. Deep Water Currents b. Surface Currents

Caused by Winds or Density Differences

Temp.

Location: Top or Bottom

Speed: Fast or Slow

Flow Type: Horizontal or Vertical

10. Diagram and label the deep water currents (see Fig 22-3):

11. Describe a Turbidity Current.

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

CLIMATIC FACTORS: MOUNTAINS AND RAINFALL

Purpose: To compare the rainfall on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range. Background: Two cities in the state of Washington, Seattle and Spokane, are located at almost exactly the same latitude (about 48° North), in the prevailing southwesterly wind belt. Seattle, nearer the Pacific Ocean, is about 200 miles west of Spokane. Separating these two cities are the Cascade Mountains (a north-south running mountain range along the west coast of the U.S.). Seattle is on the western or windward side of the mountain range. Spokane is on the eastern or leeward side. Procedure: 1) Plot the rainfall of both Seattle and Spokane as bar graphs on the graph paper below. 2) Estimate tenths of inches of rain as closely as possible. Each box represents 0.5 of an inch of rain.

Average Monthly Rainfall (in Inches) Seattle Spokane, Name , WA WA 48°N, 48°N, Location 122°W 118°W

January February March April May June July August September October November December Total for the Yr.

4.5 3.7 3.1

1.9 1.6 1.2 0.5 0.9 1.6 3.1 4.5 5.3

1.7 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.9 2.2

Questions

1. Use the table & add up the monthly rainfall for the year for Spokane________ & Seattle_______. Enter the totals in the table & the graph. 2. Which side of the mountain, windward or leeward receives greater rainfall? 3. Why should more rain fall on the windward side of a mountain than on the leeward side? 4. a) Which six months are rainiest in Seattle? b) What seasons do these include? c) Why are these seasons rainier than the other two? (compare temperatures of land and sea) 5. Though Spokane's rainfall is much less than that of Seattle, its distribution through the year parallels Seattle's. Why should this be? 6. What factor, other than the Cascade Mountains, might be cited to explain why Spokane gets less rain than Seattle?

Activity modified from Earth Science-Prentice-Hall Inc.

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Climatic Factors: Warm & Cold Ocean Currents

Purpose: To see how warm and cold ocean currents affect the temperatures of sea coasts. Background: Hebron, 58o N latitude, is a small cit on the northeast coast of Labrador. Westmanna, even farther north at 63o N latitude, is a small island just off the southern coast of Iceland. Both places are at about the same altitude--nearly at sea level, and both are on the Atlantic Ocean. The prevailing winds are from the west. With conditions so nearly alike, it might be expected that Hebron and Westmanna would have similar temperatures throughout the year, with Westmanna a little colder because of its higher latitude. In one important respect, however, conditions are different. Hebron's coast is washed by the cold Labrador Current. Westmanna is washed by the warm Gulf Stream. Let us see how this difference affects their temperatures though the year.

Average Monthly Temperatures (oF) Hebron, Westmanna, Name Labrador Iceland o o Location 58 N, 63 W 63o N, 20o W Ocean Labrador Gulf Stream Current Current -6 -5 6 18 32 40 47 48 41 31 19 4 -6 23 35 35 36 40 45 50 53 52 47 42 37 35 35 42

January February March April May June July August September October November December January

Avg. for the Yr. Range for the Yr.

Questions 1) How much higher is the years average temperature in Westmanna than in Hebron? 2) Why would Westmanna normally be expected to be colder rather than warmer than Hebron?

3) How do you explain this great difference in the average temperature of two cities so much alike in latitude, altitude, and location? 4) Calculate the year's temperature range (difference between warmest and coldest month) for both cities. Enter these figures in the table. How does the graph show a large range? A small range? 5) Compare the winter temperatures at Hebron December, January, February with those of Westmanna.

6) How do you explain Hebron's low Winter temperatures? 7) Why is Westmanna so much warmer than Hebron in winter? 9

Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Read the following portions of your textbook.

Deep Sea Diving

Using the data table provided, graph the temperature (red), salinity (pink), oxygen (blue), and density (green)

1. Temperature of Ocean Water (Surface Tº and The Thermocline) ­ pg 410 2. Density of Ocean Water ­ pg 411 3. Sunlight and Marine Life (paragraph 1) ­ pg 414-415

Discussion Questions (Graph Interpretation) 1. What 4 variables were plotted against depth? Describe the relative trend for each as depth increased. 2. Define thermocline. Label this feature on your graph. Why does temperature decrease? 3. At what depth does the oxygen level decrease? Why does this happen? 4. As salinity increases, what happens to density? As temperature increases what happens to density? 5. Where is the most dense ocean water found? What are the salinity and temperature characteristics of this water?

6. List 4 factors that will affect the salinity of ocean water. 11

Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Climate tells you what to expect, but weather is what you get. BACKGROUND INFO: Read the blue sheet and answer the following questions. 1. What is climate? 2. Climate is commonly expressed in terms of _______________ and ______________. 3. What drives the climatic system? 4. Climates can be ____________, _____________, ____________, or ___________. 5. Climate types tend to follow bands along __________________________________. The earth (globe) is characterized by the movement of air. Air moves vertically at 90, 60, 30 & 0 degrees latitude. In between, air flows horizontally. Because of this phenomenon each latitude has very distinct climate characteristics.

PROCEDURE:

An Introduction to Climate

Latitudes

1. Label the following latitudes on your globe (0, 30N, 30S, 60N, 60S, 90N, 90S).

Temperatures

2. Label your latitudes the appropriate temperature: Hot, Warm, Cool, Cold

Global Air Convection

Air moves in a circular pattern called a convection cell. Warm (less dense) air rises and cooler (more dense) air sinks. 3. Draw the global convections cells for both hemispheres. Make sure that you draw the convection patterns in the correct direction. Warm air rises so use a red colored pencil. Cool air sinks so use a blue colored pencil.

4. Draw clouds and rain where air is rising indicating that those areas receive lots of moisture. Air Pressure (HIGH OR LOW)

Air rising produces LOW pressure and air sinking produces HIGH pressure. 5. Label low pressure zones (LOW) & high pressure zones (HIGH). Label these on the correct latitude lines.

Humidity (MOIST OR DRY)

6. Label where you think the following areas might exist: dry conditions (Dry) & moist conditions (Moist). HINT: clouds can only form where air is rising. 12

Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

Use both diagrams to help you answer the following questions.

1. What latitudes have high pressures? ______,_____ Low pressures? _____,_____ 2. What latitudes have lots of rain? ______,_____ No rain (dry)? _____,_____

3. Is there a connection between air pressure and the amount of rain an area receives? 4. At what latitude might a tropical rainforest exist on the earth? 5. At what latitude(s) would you possibly have a warm desert? _____ Cold desert? _____ 6. What type of pressure zone (high/low) gets the most rain? 7. What type of pressure zone do you find dry climates (high/low)? 8. Describe the pressure, temperature, and moisture conditions for latitude 30. 9. Describe the pressure, temperature, and moisture conditions for latitude 0. 10. What latitude would you find a cool, moist climate with low air pressure? ________

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________

DIRECTIONS 1. Color the sea surface temperature map of Monterey Bay according to the colors listed below: Red- 15 oC Red/Orange- 13oC Light Green- 11oC Navy Blue- 10 oC Pink- 14oC Yellow- 12oC Light Blue- 11 oC Purple- 8 & 9 oC 2. Color the land dark green.

1. List 3 variables, other than water temperature that could be measured to determine if upwelling is occurring. _____________________, ______________________, ________________________. 2. Find Pt. Ano Nuevo. Describe the shape & direction of the cold water (8°-11°) that extends from this point. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. The cold, upwelled water is moving in 2 directions: Westward out to sea & South across the bay toward Monterey. Why does it move in 2 directions (hint: READ THE GREEN SHEET)? 4. Why is the cold, upwelled water concentrated at the points? (i.e. Pt. Ano Nuevo & Pt. Sur? (hint: READ

THE GREEN SHEET)

5. Why do fishermen like fishing near Monterrey Bay? 6. There is a large power plant at Moss Landing that releases warm water, used for cooling its turbines, into Monterey Bay. Does this warm water show up on the map?_________ Would you expect to find this warm water near the surface or on the bottom? _____________Why?(think density of warm water)

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Name: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________ Per: ______ Teacher: ____________________ GRAPHING Plot the Water Temperature in blue and the Wind Speed in red for May23-July 8!! REMEMBER: Wind direction is the direction the wind is blowing from. Negative numbers indicate winds from the south.

Sea Surface Temperature & Wind Date Water Wind (1989) Temp. oC Direction 10 N May 23 10 N May 25 May 27 9 N May 29 9 N May 31 9 N June 2 10 S June 4 12 S 13 S June 6 June 8 12 N 11 N June 10 June 12 10 N 10 N June 14 Wind Speed 3 8 10 8 4 -1 -4 -3 7 5 8 7 Sea Surface & Wind ---CONTIUNED Wind Date Water Direction (1989) Temp. oC 10 N June 16 9 N June 18 June 20 9 N June 22 11 N June 24 12 S June 26 13 S June 28 13 14 S June 30 July 2 13 N 11 N July 4 July 6 9 N 9 N July 8 Wind Speed 7 9 11 4 -4 -4 0 -1 6 9 10 10

23

25

27

29

31

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

2

4

6

8

May June July S Questions 1. What is the wind direction & speed during the times of coldest water (max. upwelling)? ______________ 2. What is the wind direction & speed during the times of warmest water (min. upwelling)? _____________ Conclusion Questions-Answer using your Map and Graph. 1. John Steinbeck wrote about the sardine canneries in Monterey in his book Cannery Row. The book describes the fishermen that netted these small plankton-eating fish by the hundreds of tons yearly until they were almost fished out. Sardines eat plankton & plankton is abundant 2 days after the start of upwelling. Wind from the North or South causes upwelling. Using the graph list the days you would fish for sardines_______________________ 2. Squid are netted as they swarm in southern Monterey Bay to reproduce when the water is warmer than average. Fishermen turn on bright lights to attract and net them from midnight to six a.m. Based on your data which nights in June 1989 would you have picked to go squid fishing? June:____________________ 3. Suppose you were offering bay tours to the public and wanted your patrons to see the large, plankton-eating basking sharks that visit Monterey Bay. Plankton need the cold, nutrient rich upwelling water to grow, so where would you go to find the cold water near Moss Landing? Latitude______& Longitude_____ (use your map on reverse) 4. The Monterey Bay Aquarium has a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that can go down into the Monterey Submarine Canyon to a depth of 4,000 m. The video shows "marine snow" (tiny particles of decaying organisms, feces, and plankton) drifting to the bottom. Marine snow starts to fall 2 to 3 days after upwelling. If you sent the ROV down at 37.0° N, 122.5° W during which days in June 1989 would you see the most marine snow? _____Why?

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