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TEACHING TRANSPARENCY

The Ocean Basins

Features of the Ocean Floor

94

Continental shelf

Abyssal plain

Continental rise

Abyssal plain

Guyot Trench

Seamounts

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Mid-ocean ridge

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Features of the Ocean Floor

1. What are some main features of the ocean floor?

2. What are trenches and where do they form?

3. What is the difference between a continental shelf and a continental slope?

4. What forms a submarine canyon?

5. How are mid-ocean ridges and trenches similar, and how do they differ?

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Holt Earth Science

The Ocean Basins

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2. Seas are smaller than oceans and are

leaving behind some of the headland as a sea arch. 4. Wave terraces are cut when wave action erodes rock at the base of a cliff. Deposition of sediment by waves on top of the wave-cut terrace will build it up in to a wave-built terrace. 5. Beaches form where wave deposition of sediment is greater than wave erosion of sediment.

more enclosed by landmasses.

3. the Pacific Ocean 4. the Southern Ocean 5. the Mediterranean Sea

94 Features of the Ocean Floor

1. continental margins, which include the

91 Submergent Coastlines

1. when sea level rises or when land 2. 3.

4.

5.

sinks They become inlets or bays. A sea stack is the top of a peak that emerges through the water, though the rest of the land is submerged. A fjord is a U-shaped glacial valley that floods with ocean water as sea level rises. Fjords have narrow, deep bays with steep walls. an emergent coastline would have formed; it could have sea cliffs; narrow inlets; bays; wave cut terraces; headlands; or long, wide beaches

2.

3.

4.

5.

92 Coastal Erosion Near the Beaufort Sea

1. 11 2. Most areas show no detectable ero3.

continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise; and deep-ocean basins, which include abyssal plains, mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, and trenches Trenches are deep valleys in the ocean floor that form along subduction zones. A continental shelf is closer to the shoreline and is neither as deep nor as steep as the continental slope. Runoff from a river on land cuts through the continental shelf and slope, creating a submarine canyon. They are similar in that both occur at tectonic plate margins. They differ in that plates are pulling apart at midocean ridges (divergent plate boundary), while plates are colliding at the subduction zones where trenches form.

4. 5.

6.

sion. The estimated overall shoreline change shows a negative value, indicating erosion. The coastal area toward the south shows more erosion. The area appears to be more affected by waves along the shoreline than by dispositional actions of rivers entering the ocean. Many areas show moderate to rapid erosion. The areas of deposition are fewer, smaller, and located only in sheltered areas. Answers may vary. Sample answer: The islands would be eroded more drastically over time and may eventually disappear.

95 Total Sediment Thickness of Earth's Oceans

1. The approximate thickness is about 2.

3.

4.

93 The Global Ocean

1. because they are only partially sepa-

5.

rated by landmasses; they are joined together by large masses of open water

6.

2,000 m. Two areas with the thickest sediment are 25° N, 95° W (in the Gulf of Mexico), and 20° N, 90° E (off the coast of India and Banglasdesh). The amount of sediment in the middle of the ocean is less than the amount of sediment around the continental margins. near the middle of the oceans, sediment thickness is 500 m or less; near the continental margins, sediment thickness is 1,000 m or more. Major rivers empty into the Gulf of Mexico ( the Mississippi) and into the Bay of Bengal (the Ganges). The west coast is bordered by a trench. The sediment layer on the west coast is relatively thin all the way up the coastline. Areas denoted with white spots probably have no valid data on sediment

Answer Key

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