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```BackPrintScience Puzzlers, Twisters &amp; TeasersTo jump to a location in this book 1. Click a bookmark on the left. To print a part of the book 1. Click the Print button. 2. When the Print window opens, type in a range of pages to print. The page numbers are displayed in the bar at the bottom of the document. In the example below, &quot;1 of 151&quot; means that the current page is page 1 in a file of 151 pages.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe World of Life ScienceListening In1. Figure out what step in the scientific method the scientists are practicing. Write the name of the step in the blank. a. &quot;Wow! I can't believe how green the grass is over there. Why isn't it brown like on our side of the mountain?&quot;b. &quot;All right, Nan, flip that switch and cross your fingers.&quot;c. &quot;And that concludes my presentation on the effects of music on mollusk reproduction rates. Are there any questions?&quot;Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. &quot;Hmmmm . . . If television viewing is important to weasel growth, then weasels who watch less television will not grow as much.&quot;e. &quot;Interesting. My graph of weasel weights shows that weasels that watch sitcoms weigh about 2 kg more!&quot;f. &quot;The soil is richer where the grass is green. Shall we conclude that the soil is always richer on the other side?&quot;SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS1BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe World of Life Science, continuedPlaying Pool2. Each of these balls represents a different tool for looking at the world. Draw a line from the ball to the correct pocket on the table.1Above all, you want a 3-dimensional view of a flea's leg.2You want to be able to see that cool DNA strand.3You want to see how fast sperm can swim.4You think you broke your toes. How can you know?5You are curious about who has a cooler-looking brain: you or your friend.6You want to count the number of ladybugs on your tomato plants.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.X rayCT ScanScanning electron microscope531624Transmission electron microscopeNaked eyeCompound light microscope2HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSIt's Alive!! Or Is It?Blocks of Life1. Sean borrowed his baby sister's blocks to help him prepare for a vocabulary test in biology. He arranged them so that each row of blocks below spells the name of a substance that is a building block of cells. But while he wasn't looking, his sister rotated some of the blocks so that the wrong side is facing toward the front. Choose one letter from each of the blocks in a row to spell the names of some important compounds that are found in cells. Record the names of the compounds on the blanks provided.LS RO DU IP NR OIA EN DSa.CAT LP TG LRV AI NS DP IR EINIL OE OC YG RV TD Sb.CD AB CH PUA EH LO ID TN LM PB TSCc.DA EIS EYM AE LC LO NN LC TS NEEI SC RD BSd.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.R UO PIL AW IT MLife: Finding the Right Combination2. Six words related to the six characteristics of living organisms are hidden in the circle below. Rotate each ring of the circle so that each pie-shaped section of the circle spells one of the words as you read from the outside ring and move toward the inside ring. Write the words on the spaces provided.CTABHOUCTMEOWT SMTYERELL TA H IONREP OS ME EDISRODGSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSOLISISRH3BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintIt's Alive!! Or Is It?, continuedThe Pathway of Life3. TULO (The Unidentified Living Organism) has hidden several clues about his identity in a series of true or false questions. Begin with the first statement and decide if it is true or false. If it is true, circle the directions under the True column for that statement. If the statement is false, circle the directions under the False column for that statement. When you have answered all of the questions, follow the directions you have circled and move along the game board. At the end of the game, circle the type of organism that TULO is. Clues a. Plants are decomposers. b. Almost all living organisms are approximately 70 percent water. c. Some animals can get all of the water they need from the food they eat. d. Consumers break down dead organisms and animal waste. e. Oxygen is the only gas found in air. f. Producers make food from carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun. g. All organisms require the same amount of space in which to live. h. Most chemical reactions involved in metabolism require water.Mov e th to Hume anshMu om roTrue forward 6 back 5 forward 10 back 4 forward 8 back 6 forward 5 back 3False forward 8 back 1 forward 4 back 2Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.forward 9 back 3 forward 2 back 7Su flownerTULO starts hereM fo o 2 rw ve sp ard ac esHuOctopusm anMove back 3 spacesE w arth or mBearAlgae4HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYMov e the to Mos sMossDogrm TeiteMi Soil to cro e be ov he om s M t ro sh u MFishve Mo ard forw aces 2 spBirdass GrBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class ______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSCells: The Basic Units of LifeEndosymbiotic Simulation City1. Imagine that you are a recognized world expert on cells. Baron Von Dukenheimer is the leader of a medieval walled city, and he needs your help. It seems that someone has told him that his city is about 600 years behind the times. The Baron knows that one of the most spectacular systems in nature is the cell, and he hopes to learn something about organization and production from you, the cell expert. You tell him that the cell is a lot like a city. Help him understand how the parts of a cell work by writing in the appropriate space something you'd find in a city that performs the same function in the cell. Example: endoplasmic reticulum a. vacuole b. nucleuspostal system   c. lysosomes d. ribosomesWord ConnectionsCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Each of the following sentences includes at least one hidden word from the chapter. These words can be found by looking at part of one word and connecting it to the beginning of the next word. For example, the word dog could be hidden in the words Judo games. Circle the hidden words below. a. She speaks to the flock, though neither goose nor gander understand her. b. I love the glockenspiel, though I must say that the organ is my favorite instrument. c. Once llamas have moved in to your neighborhood, it is very difficult to get rid of them. d. Desi's Uncle Otis sued for damages in a court of law.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS5BackPrintCells: The Basic Units of Life, continuedName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________Cell Break3. Harvey Hoodrini is the town's most talented escape artist. For the state fair, Perry Mecium has created a cell that he thinks even Harvey can't break out of. Four walls of the cell use a special combination of letters and numbers to release the locks. Once all four locks are released, they will reveal a message that explains how to get out of the cell. Unscramble the chapter terms surrounding Harvey's cell and write them in the boxes. Vertical words should be written from top to bottom. Then use the letters from the numbered squares to decode the secret message.h m o b r o s e s i12 10 5i8moon2ri13d4cat m y17s a p c lCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.9o t6113pixelgolomcgPhrase: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 136HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Cell in ActionFractured Frames1. Each frame represents a word from the chapter, if you read it in just the right way. Decipher each puzzle and write the answer in the space provided.Fusion FusiontaFIRMshuna. ________________________b. ________________________Re +2. Unravel these symbols to find a word from the chapter.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Solution:Daffy Definitions3. The warped definitions below describe some words and/or concepts from the chapter. Place the correct answer in the blank. a. inactive conveyance b. mere in the middle c. the former wife of Mr. O'Cytosis d. the &quot;tation&quot; of hairy males? e. in favor of karyotic corpuscles?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS7BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Cell in Action, continuedChromosome Conundrum4. The chromosomes below are arranged in a specific pattern. Which of the labeled chromosomes is needed to complete the pattern? Circle the correct choice.a.b.c.d.Riddle Poem5. Which word is described by this riddle poem? The poem describes the word's letters. (Hint: jails and phones) My first is in cars but isn't in bars; My second's in dance, but not in pants; My third is in lame, my fourth is the same. What word could I possibly be?8HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSHeredityPut on Your Rhyming Genes1. Fill in the blanks in each of the following rhymes to complete these catchy jingles about heredity. a. With an &quot;X&quot; from my mom Gail And a &quot;Y&quot; from my dad Dale It should be clear that I'm a b. As you surely know from your reading, A pair of dominant or recessive alleles Makes you c. Your genes, indeed, would be tough to steal; Those thieves would be very aggressive They may grab a dominant Though some thieves steal onlyThe PUNnett Square2. These puns are bound to make you groan. Fill in the blanks with words from the chapter.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. If you have blue , does that mean that you're bound to be sad?b. Ouch! You just stepped on !SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS9BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintHeredity, continuedWill She Get Your Goat?3. Your goat is about to have a kid. If it is a male, you will randomly select one of these three names to give the kid: Billy, Willy, or Philly. Then you'll ship it off to your aunt Lily. Aunt Lily wants to know how likely it is that she will be sent a Willy. Calculate the probability and fill in the blank with the answer.Re +4. Decide what term from the chapter this picture puzzle represents.Wordy NumbersCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.5. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out as easy-to-remember words using the letters on a telephone keypad. For instance, the number 878-6738 can spell the word TRUMPET. What term from the chapter could this number represent?1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*#739-2355 (Hint: They're not like the others.)10HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSGenes and DNAGreen Gene1. On the planet Dyejob, green hair is a recessive trait. Great Grandma and Great Grandpa Berg both have green hair. So do their three children. They were surprised to find that three of their greatgrandchildren have green hair too, even though all of their grandchildren have black hair. The Bergs concluded that their grandson Bobby must be a carrier of the green hair gene. Shown below is the pedigree of the Berg family. The solid shapes represent the family members with green hair. The pedigree does not show who is a carrier of the gene. Using the pedigree, answer the following questions.The BergsGreat Grandma . . . . . . . . .? . . . . . . . . . Great GrandpaBunnyBilboBettyBuffyBeckyBillyCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BifBabsBiancaBessBubbaBrookeBarnieBobbyBethBuddyBertaBeatriceBasilBonnie BlaireBellea. Which, if any, of Bobby's three sisters are carriers of the gene for green hair as well?b. Beth does not have green hair. Is Beth a carrier? Explain.c. Bunny, who has blond hair, is a carrier of the green hair gene. She claims to be the long lost child of Great Grandma and Great Grandpa Berg. Should they include her as a daughter in their will? Explain.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS11BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintGenes and DNA, continuedMutations2. The original DNA sequence below has undergone 16 substitution mutations. In the spaces below, write the letters of the original bases that have been replaced. Write the letters in the order in which they occur from left to right. Your work will reveal the answer to the question below. original sequence: ACTTTATTCACACTGTCACCTCTATATGCGAAGTG sequence with mutations: ACCTTCGTGTCACGGTGTCCCGTTAATGTGCGGAG What did Ian's mother say when she saw the rat running past Whiskers?H RNHWord Connections3. Each of the following sentences contains a hidden word from the chapter. These words can be found by looking at the end of one word somewhere in the sentence and connecting it to the beginning of the next word. Circle the hidden words in each sentence. Example: &quot;Undo&quot; is hidden between the words Run, dog. a. Lulu drinks lemonade nineteen times a week. b. Her version was lengthy; mine was short. c. Sheila buys nothing but brand name clothing.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. My mother hoped I greeted the visiting scholar properly.Crack the Code4. Use the clues to help you decode the secret message. By substituting the correct word for the coded word in each clue, you will find what each code letter stands for in the secret message. Each letter represents a different letter in the code. Each coded letter represents the same letter throughout the message. You may want to write each word below the code to help you break the code. a. YTDLWE and HKQHB discovered the PWRGOZ helix. b. TPZEQEZ always pairs with DSUAQEZ. Secret message: PET QL DSZ HWPZ WM OQMZ12HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Evolution of Living ThingsDouble Trouble1. Unscramble each of the words below and write it in the blanks. Then rearrange the boxed letters to solve the puzzle. a. Charlie's canine ship b. Breeds only with its own kind c. Left over from a former life d. Distinguishing quality e. Dead, gone, and turned to stone f. The cells' messenger g. An unexpected changeCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.ABEEGL CEEISSP AEGIILSTV AIRTT FILOSS ADN AIMNOTTU AALNRTU AAADINOPTTh. Selection done by nature i. Response to changeAnswer: (Hint: the theory that holds modern biology together)Word Circles2. What is the word coiled inside each of these circles? Words can be spelled clockwise or counterclockwise.O N E I R A Ta. b.E G NE L ESN O IC TSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS13BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Evolution of Living Things, continuedR S N A O I Tc. d.E P AL A VSU R VIWordy Numbers3. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words using the letters on a telephone keypad. For example, 878-6738 can spell TRUMPET. Use the keypad and the company mottoes below to decide which word from the chapter each company uses for its phone number.1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRSTUVWXY*#a. (837) 844-4251 &quot;A home for unneeded organs&quot;b. 346-2437 &quot;Your one stop shop for beaks of all kinds&quot;c. (735) 328-4661 &quot;We'll clean out your gene pool&quot;d. (773) 242-8466 &quot;Home of the independent response to separation&quot;14HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.7BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe History of Life on EarthScientific Sleuthing1. Each of the statements below was made by an organism during the era in which it evolved. Write the correct era in the space provided. The organisms evolved during the following eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic. a. I've seen the greatest swimmers of my generation destroyed.b. People often accuse me of monkeying around.c. Oxygen? What is that?d. Smoke and flames have frightened me ever since the day a large meteorite came crashing into my backyard.e. My mother had to settle for a potted plant instead of flowers for her birthday.f. I couldn't find clams on the menu anywhere.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Consonant Tectonics2. The following sentences about plate tectonics were put through a &quot;word filter&quot; in which all their spaces and vowels were filtered out. What did the sentences say before they were filtered? bt245mllnyrsg,thcntnntswrngntlndmssclldPng.bt180mllnyrsg, Pngbgntdvdnttwpcs.WcllthstwcntnntsLrsndGndwnlnd.rprsntdycntnntsrstllmvng.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS15BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe History of Life on Earth, continuedBe a Scientific Shakespeare3. Fill in the blanks below to find out how the world got to be where it is today. If the statement rhymes, it's true. a. The force called evolution began its fateful march when sunlight was changed into carbohydrates and b. Carbon dioxide is expelled by women and men while cyanobacteria give offtext text..textc. This O2 gas filled, then bubbled out of the sea and made a layer of ozone, also known as O d. This armor of ozone, like an umbrella on a rainy day, made dry land safe for cells'text..Wordy Numbers4. Vanity phone numbers are phone numbers that can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words. For example, a car dealer might choose the number 289-2277, which can be spelled as BUY CARS. What words from the chapter could the phone numbers below represent? The words in parentheses are clues.1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*a. 367-7457 (Rockin'!) b. 398-4628 (It's forever.) c. 726-4232 (Massive!) d. (776) 527-9683 (Simple.)#e. 774-6283 (Bananas, anyone?) f. 466-4643 (What we are.)16HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSClassificationClassification Riddles1. You have learned that living things are classified into groups based on genetic similarity. Try to solve the following riddles about real organisms that aren't so easy to classify. a. I have a beak like a bird, And my arms are like snakes. I have more ink than a pen, But I write to confuse. What am I?b. I have a bill like a duck, But the hair of a mammal. I lay eggs like a bird, But I nurse my young. What am I?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. Some take me for a plant, But I don't like the sun. I'm sure not an animal For I'm not on the run. I make bread fuzzy, And I make bread rise. Try to guess my kingdom-- It's quite a surprise. What am I?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS17BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintClassification, continuedPlanet of Confusion2. On the imaginary planet of Molyrhenium, there are four types of life: Gollyhoots, Trungfleppers, Zamzums, and Nelvos. All Gollyhoots are Trungfleppers. Some Trungfleppers are Zamzums. All Zamzums are Nelvos. Which of the following statements must be true? Circle all that apply. (Hint: Try drawing a diagram.) a. Some Gollyhoots are Nelvos. b. Some Zamzums are Gollyhoots. c. All Zamzums are Trungfleppers. d. Some Nelvos are Trungfleppers. e. All Nelvos are Gollyhoots. f. Some Gollyhoots are Zamzums.Complete the Sequence3. Find the next two terms in each of the following sequences. a. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, b. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, d. S, G, F, O, C,text text,texttext,text texttextc. J, F, M, A, M, J, J, A, S, O, ,,text4. Which word is described by this riddle poem? The poem describes the word's letters. (Hint: But who is the king?) My first is in Austin but isn't in Boston, My second's in pond and also in frond. My third's in the city but not in the street, My fourth's not in steak, but it is found in meat. My fifth and eighth are one and the same, (They're found in the park, the ball, and the game). My sixth is on a flea; my seventh's not in glee, What word could I possibly be?18HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Riddle PoemBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSBacteria and VirusesParallel Puzzles1. What do all the words in the left column have in common that is not shared by any of the words in the right column? Lyme disease strep throat leprosy tuberculosis a. AIDS flu common cold polioyogurt cheese buttermilk sour cream b.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.milk pudding cereal orange juiceRiddle Poem2. Which word is described by the following riddle poem? The lines of the poem describe the word's letters. (Hint: It's a favorite pastime of bacteria.) My first letter's in France, but it's not found in Spain. My second is in delight, though it's also in pain. My third and fourth are not in trouble, but can be found in prison; My fifth is not in fallen, but is certainly in risen. My sixth is in a hole, my seventh in a knoll; What word could I possibly be?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS19BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintBacteria and Viruses, continuedWord Circles3. What is the word coiled inside each of these circles? Words can be spelled clockwise or counterclockwise.C A BTE R S IA IRA P EAtextTtexta.c.O H TGE N M PI MYT I NAtextUtextb.d.Word Connections4. Each of the following sentences contains a hidden word from the chapter. These words can be found by looking at the end of one word somewhere in the sentence and connecting it to the beginning of the next word. Circle the word hidden in each sentence. Example: The word undo is hidden between the words fun dogs. a. While shopping on Soho Street, Leigh Ann caught a bus. b. The only place in town to see foreign movies is the Morivac cinema.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.20HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSProtists and FungiRiddles1. Try to solve the following riddles based on what you have learned about protists and fungi. a. I sometimes have structures that look like antennae, but I am not an alien. I like to eat, but then again I don't have to. I'm most comfortable among the dead. What am I?b. I can convert the sun's energy into food, but I am not a plant. Even if you are not mad, I make you see red. I can poison you without ever touching you. What am I?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. You have seen me on a pizza, taken me when you are sick, cleaned me off your shower wall, and I've made you scratch your feet. What am I?The Scientist2. You are conducting a study on animal-like protists. At the beginning of the study there are 6 amoebas, but 4 die, so 12 more are purchased. Halfway through the study, 3 disappear and 8 more are purchased. Three-quarters of the way through the study, 6 of the amoebas split in half. At the end of the project, the scientist looks in the mirror and lets out a sigh of relief. a. What color are the scientist's eyes?b. How do you know?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS21BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintProtists and Fungi, continuedAlgal Bloom3. There are 21 swimmers in the ocean, where there are red algae, brown algae, and green algae. Each swimmer sees only one color of algae. Six more swimmers have seen brown algae than have seen red algae. Twice as many swimmers have seen red algae as have seen green algae. Eighteen swimmers have not seen green algae. a. How many swimmers saw red algae? b. How many swimmers saw brown algae? c. How many swimmers saw green algae?Odd One Out4. For each group of terms, circle the one that doesn't belong and explain why it doesn't. a. green algae, diatoms, euglenoids, ciliatesb. cilia, pseudopodia, contractile vacuole, flagellac. mold, water mold, yeast, mushroomd. malaria, chestnut blight, athlete's foot, Dutch elm disease22HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSIntroduction to Plants&quot;Plant&quot;asy Puzzler1. Each of the statements below represents the fantasy of a member of one of the main groups of plants. Which of the following types of plants would have each fantasy--an angiosperm, a gymnosperm, or a horsetail? Each plant type can be used only once. a. &quot;I'd like to live in a wet, marshy area. Having a job in the abrasives industry would be suited to my natural gifts.&quot;b. &quot;I want to be the most successful plant in the kingdom. I'd also like to be very colorful so all of the animals will find me attractive.&quot;c. &quot;I'd love to have a large, extended family with a lot of relatives, old and young alike, living all over the world. Pollen is important to me, but I can do without fruit.&quot;Petal PuzzleCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Each petal contains a word associated with angiosperms. The letters of each word have been scrambled, and the same letter is missing from each word. Identify the missing letter, and then unscramble the word E P in each petal. TAE P S A I I O R F PSMissing letter: Word 1:text text text text text textO E L PN?E WT SWord 2: Word 3: Word 4: Word 5:SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS23BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintIntroduction to Plants, continuedHiding in the Tree3. Five four-letter words associated with trees are hidden in this tree. For each, choose a letter from the ground, then add a letter from each section, in the direction water would flow through the tree. Each letter is used only once. Word 1: Word 2: Word 3: Word 4: Word 5:text text text text textF E M N A O S L E O O T S E EDTE CRDoes Your Plant Knowledge Add Up?4. Choose a number between 0 and 21 and write it in the first box. Read each statement in order down the list and decide if the statement is true or false. Circle the appropriate mathematical operation for each statement and perform that operation on your number. Place the new value in the box and repeat the procedure with the next statement. After the last statement, you should have your original number. If not, check your math and your plant knowledge! My chosen number: TRUE a. Nonvascular plants tend to be small and live in moist environments. b. Phloem is a vascular tissue that transports water and minerals through a plant. c. The energy that plants use during photosynthesis comes from the sun. d. Guard cells and stomata can be found in the epidermis of leaves. e. Conifers and cycads are two important groups of angiosperms. f. Ancient green algae that lived in the ocean was the ancestor of modern plants. g. Tiny structures known as cotyledons increase the surface area of roots dramatically. h. The stigma, style, and ovary are part of the female reproductive structures of a plant. 9 5 30 2 7 21 8 11 FALSE 7 6 20 3 4 16 3 9Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.24HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSPlant ProcessesGreg's Gravitropic Greenhouse Gremlins1. Greg's greenhouse is visited every night by gremlins. These gremlins rearrange his plant pots, either turning them on their right or left sides, or standing them in their normal, upright position. Greg's plants are negatively gravitropic--they grow up. In addition, each day they sprout two leaf buds near the tip. Today is Sunday. Greg sets the plants upright but wonders how the pots were arranged during the past week. Figure out how the pots were lying each day to produce the plant shown. Write right side, upright, or left side in the appropriate spaces. (Hint: the most recent growth is near the tip of the plant.) a. Mon. b. Tues. c. Wed. d. Thurs. e. Fri. f. Sat.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Lg. Mon. h. Tues. i. Wed. j. Thurs. k. Fri. l. Sat.RLRSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS25BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintPlant Processes, continuedHarold's Hothouse Hormones2. Just down the road from Greg's Greenhouse is Harold's Hothouse. Harold has just received a shipment of plant hormones--auxin and gibberelin. When applied to one side of a plant stem, auxin causes the cells on that side to grow longer. Gibberelin simply causes the entire stem segment to grow longer. He applied these hormones to two of his plants, as shown below. He placed gibberelin on the stem segments labeled G. He placed auxin on the right or left sides of other stem segments as indicated by an A and an arrow. Sketch what his plants will look like after the hormones take effect. a.G ACopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b.A A26HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSAnimals and BehaviorComplements1. Unscramble the words in the wheel below. Words opposite each other on the wheel are complementary terms.b. ______________________ I N T I B O T V ET R P EN A h. ______________________ c. ______________________ E R I R R E R N E N A R T O O g. ______________________ d. ______________________ R V I E A E R V T A I T E T S E f. ______________________ e. ______________________a. ______________________NEAAEHBDDYPEBAnalogies2. Give the animal-world equivalent to the human items below.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Aa. perfume b. wearing a suit to the office or the team colors to a football game c. house or bedroom d. compass e. the big red house on the corner or the oak tree across town f. winking, frowning, or nodding your headtexttext text texttexttextSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSIELT RNTN27BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintAnimals and Behavior, continuedCrazy 8's3. Below are vocabulary words from the chapter that all end with the sound eight. Use the following clues to help you figure out each word. a. &quot;Country lodging&quot;b. Not low buttext+c. French for green +d. Not yeah, buttext+e. Not your, buttext+ tiger soundStrange BirdsCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Almost all rules have exceptions. If the rule has any exceptions, list them in the blanks. If there are no exceptions, write &quot;no exceptions.&quot; a. All animals start life as an embryo. b. No animals have cell walls. c. No plants are consumers. d. All animals are active. e. All animals have nuclei.text text text text text28HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSInvertebratesOdd One Out1. For each group of terms, circle the one that doesn't belong and explain why not. a. earthworm, bristle worm, roundworm, leechb. dog, sponge, planarian, humanc. lobster, squid, crab, pillbugd. hydra, clam, sea urchin, centipedeCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.e. spineless, asymmetrical, invertebrate, without backboneAnalogies2. In the analogies below, the first word is related to the second word in the same way that the third word is related to a fourth. For instance, the example below can be read, &quot;Lemon is to yellow as lime is to green.&quot; Lemons are yellow in color, while limes are green. Fill in the blanks to complete the following analogies. green Example: lemon : yellow :: lime : a. blood vessels : cats :: b. skin : echinoderm :: c. ladybug : 6 :: tarantula : d. ganglia : nervous :: coelom :text text text text: mollusks : arthropodSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS29BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintInvertebrates, continuedCrack the Code3. Use the clues to help you decode the secret message. By substituting the correct word for the coded word in each clue, you will find what each code letter stands for in the secret message. Each letter represents a different letter in the code. Each coded letter represents the same letter throughout the message. You may want to write each word below the code to help you break the code. a. Sponges have no LNZZFCWN and no MFKI. b. Slugs and snails eat with a WKIYOK. c. Centipedes and millipedes have a single pair of KBCFBBKF, jaws called ZKBIAEOFL, and a hard MFKI RKVLYOF. d. Roundworms are also called BFZKCSIFL. e. Annelid worms and arthropods have LFJZFBCFI bodies. Secret message: Don't be alarmed, but . . . ABLFRCL KWF FTFWNHMFWF (KOZSLC)Wordy Numbers4. Vanity phone numbers are phone numbers that can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words. For example, a car dealer might choose the number 289-2277, which can be spelled as BUY CARS. What word from the chapter could each of these phone numbers represent? The words in parentheses are clues.1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*a. 467-3287 (Creepy!) b. 665-5875 (Slimy!) c. 776-6437 (Bath buddies.)#30HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSFishes, Amphibians, and ReptilesChordate Code1. Use the clue that is given to help you find several terms found in this chapter. Write your answers in the spaces provided. If the phrase: V E R T E B R A T E S A R E C H O R D A T E S is represented as: 3 8 1 6 8 10 1 5 6 8 4 5 1 8 2 20 9 1 7 5 6 8 4 what are the following vertebrate-related terms? a. 18 9 6 9 2 20 9 1 7 b. 6 5 12 14 c. 2 5 1 6 12 14 5 11 8 d. 8 2 6 9 6 20 8 1 15 e. 10 5 2 22 10 9 18 8 f. 4 19 12 18 5 14 2 9 1 7Scrambled Eggs2. Below you will find several different reptilian eggs. The reptiles have begun to hatch, so all of the eggs have cracked open. The same letter has been lost out of each one. Unscramble the letters found within each egg and combine them with the missing letter to find what type of reptile is hatching from each egg. Write the names of the reptiles in the spaces provided. The missing letter is: ________Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.La.U E T T T O I S O T Ec. b.OL TG L A A IA L Dd.IZe.L I D C E O O CSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS31BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintFishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles, continuedWho's Who3. For each lettered statement below, decide if the statement best describes fishes, amphibians, or reptiles. If the statement describes fishes, place the capital letter in the box labeled Fishes. If the statement best describes amphibians, place the capital letter in the Amphibians box, and so on. Then unscramble the letters in each box to find the name of a reptile, fish, or amphibian. Write the name of the animal on the line beneath the box. a. first vertebrates on Earth (K) b. have a thick dry skin which helps them live on land (E) c. obtain oxygen by gulping air into their lungs or by absorbing it through their skin (D) d. all use lungs to breathe air (U) e. most have a lateral line (A) f. live part of their life in the water and part on land (O) g. thought to be the ancestors of modern birds and mammals (T) h. have three classes: jawless, cartilaginous, and bony (R) i. undergo metamorphosis to change from larval to adult form (T) j. lay eggs surrounded by a shell to protect them from drying out (T) k. most use gills to breathe throughout their life (S) l. live in almost every water environment (H) m. often called ecological indicators due to their sensitivity to air and water pollution (A) n. have stronger, more vertical legs (R) o. eggs contain an amniotic sac filled with amniotic fluid (L) Fishes Amphibians Reptilesx.y.z.32HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSBirds and MammalsFlying Without a Spare1. You've borrowed your next-door neighbor's space cruiser to visit a cousin who lives on Mars. But on the way there, one of your engines blows out. The contraption won't fly without all six engines, and now only five work. Your neighbor never keeps a spare and the escape pod appears to be out of whack. Being your resourceful self, you tinker about until you get the escape pod in semi-decent shape. Have you ever driven a rickety old escape pod? Well, it's difficult to steer. You land on various continents on Earth in your search for home. Looking out the porthole, determine-- by what you see--where you've landed. a. 1st landing: You see a large animal--a huge rodent. It must weigh over 70 kg! What is it, and where have you landed?b. 2nd landing: Immediately after landing, you spot a smaller furry animal. It seems to have small copies of itself hugging onto its belly. The mammal sees you too, and it stops moving. Perhaps it died of fright. What is this creature, and where are you?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. 3rd landing: This time you see a flat-nosed, large-eared mammal. You pry open your portal and stick your head out. This animal's breath smells of eucalyptus, like a cough drop. What is it? Where are you?d. 4th landing: Now something strikes at the glass of the porthole. It's the beak of a large (almost 125 kg!), bad-tempered bird. Its feet look like hooves! What is it?e. 5th landing: Another bird! This time it's a shy one with soft, hairy feathers and a long, pointed beak. It doesn't look like it does much flying. What bird is this? Where are you?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS33BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintBirds and Mammals, continuedThe Wedding Reception2. Many animals will attend Elephant's wedding reception. His mother is trying to arrange the guests so that each sits next to another animal with whom it shares something in common. In particular, there are four guests who are giving Elephant's mom a headache. Who will sit next to whom? The guests in question are: Spider Monkey--Mrs. Elephant remembers how Spider Monkey embarrassed everyone at Ostrich's picnic last year by insisting on shaking hands. Really, hands! Good gracious! Bat--With all his talk of moving around in the dark, and how those of us with good eyesight are supposedly &quot;missing out,&quot; Bat can be such an awful bore! Mole--He means well, Elephant's mom admits, but it is kind of creepy having Mole always smelling you and touching you with his nose. Archaeopteryx--Frankly, everyone is tired of Archaeopteryx's talk of the &quot;good old days.&quot; Here are the guests that Elephant's mother can choose from: Swordfish, Manatee, Therapsids, Whale, Platypus, Orangutan. Match one of these guests up with each of our &quot;problem&quot; guests, and explain your choice. a. Spider Monkey:Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b. Bat:c. Mole:d. Archaeopteryx:34HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSInteractions of Living ThingsNature's Philosophers1. A group of astronauts has discovered amazing new life-forms on a distant moon. Each life-form was asked to describe its philosophy of life in a sentence or two. Help the astronauts categorize each as a producer, carnivore, omnivore, scavenger, or decomposer by writing the appropriate term in the space provided. a. &quot;To kill is wrong. To let food go to waste is worse.&quot;b. &quot;The swift receive the most satisfying reward.&quot;c. &quot;One must lead a balanced life.&quot;d. &quot;Self-reliance is the path to contentment. Always seek the light of truth.&quot;e. &quot;Ashes to ashes; dust to dust.&quot;Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Find the Oddball2. In each group of terms below, three terms are related. Circle the term that doesn't belong and explain why. a. grass, wind, rain, soilb. salamander, water lily, humidity, bacteriac. population, community, organism, predatorSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS35BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintInteractions of Living Things, continuedSoap Opera Symbiosis3. A new soap opera called Days of Our Life Science is soon to be released worldwide. In this program, the relationships between the characters mirror the interactions of organisms in nature. Close examination of these clips from the first episode will reveal the type of symbiosis each relationship displays. Classify each relationship as mutualism, commensalism, or parasitism. a. Zander: &quot;Before I met you, I was adrift in a sea of despair. And my shoes were always untied. I don't know what I'd do without you.&quot; Ashley: &quot;If I didn't have you, my appliances would all still be broken and I would eat only fast food. I love you.&quot; Zander and Ashley display .b. Rodolfo: &quot;I think Suzette is just using me. But, for some reason, I don't really mind.&quot; Rodolfo and Suzette display .c. Rafiq: &quot;When will Sonya realize that I'm not in love with her anymore? And when will she stop borrowing my lawnmower without asking? My lawn is a mess.&quot; Rafiq and Sonya display .Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. Pablo: &quot;Darling, you are everything to me; my sun, my moon, and my stars. You are like a glimmering diamond, shining from a pit of murky ooze. Though I don't know you, all I desire of this world is the chance to gaze upon your angelic face for five minutes.&quot; Molly: &quot;Well, okay, as long as I don't have to talk to you.&quot; Pablo and Molly display .Anagram4. Rearrange the letters from the following words to reveal a fact about a niche. I CAN SAY IF I FLEW A HOE36HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSCycles in NatureNature is A&quot;maze&quot;ing1. Six words associated with cycles in nature are hidden in the maze below. Each word contains at least 10 letters. Locate the words by tracing one of the six different paths that lead into and out of the maze. The letters of all of the words occur in order along each path, none of the paths cross one another, and all of the letters are used once and only once to spell the six words. List the words on the lines provided.M N P C O S E I C D T I T NCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.E O N V O O A T MCP R O E P I A O P U II B S E R I T P S I C R O O U C SI O T S A A E O T IIN S NNRSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS37BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintCycles in Nature, continuedPyramidal Puzzles2. In each of the pyramids below, only three of the four sides are visible. A set of four related words can be found on each pyramid, one word written at each level. The words are spelled in order as you circle the pyramid, but one letter of each word is hidden on the back side. On the lines provided, list the four words found on each pyramid. List the words in order from top to bottom.OM N T SL IV P AMASREREOSFDGRREb. &quot;RE3. A Tom Swifty is a sentence in which the adverb modifying the word said relates to the information in the sentence. An example would be: &quot;My clothes are in tatters,&quot; said Tom raggedly. The following are several Tom Swifty sentences related to the cycles of matter. Each is missing a term from the chapter. Write the missing term on the line provided. text a. &quot;Plants use CO2 to make ,&quot; said Tom sweetly.textis essential to life,&quot; said Tom fluidly.c. &quot;Matter occupies space and hastext,&quot; said Tom heavily.d. &quot;Coal, oil, and natural gas aretext,&quot; said Tom heatedly.38HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Tom SwiftiesSBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Earth's EcosystemsEco Tourism1. You've wandered into a travel agency that offers trips to any ecosystem worth visiting. Inside, you pick up a brochure. Identify the ecosystems described below. a. You'll love the lush growth and busy chatter of countless plants and animals. A must-see for the bug fan in you, and a great winter getaway!b. Many have described it as a &quot;sea of grass&quot; peppered with wildflowers. Said one visitor, &quot;I hardly even missed the trees!&quot;c. Fall is paradise here! The colors peak in September and October, so make your reservations before the last leaf drops!d. Lakes, ponds, and wide open spaces! Come in the summer to see the birds, and remember your boots--it gets soggy!Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.e. The breeze through the trees will bring the fresh scent of pine to your tent as you prepare for the morning's hike.f. Work on your tan while enjoying the beautiful, stark scenery. And don't forget to bring plenty of water along.Gently Down the Stream2. Below are what's left of three words that have been mixed up in a raging river. Each word came out of the water as two or more different words. Rearrange the letters to find the original words, which are all features of a river. a. BURY IT RAT b. LET FAR LAW c. READ MENSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS39BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Earth's Ecosystems, continuedUnder the Sea3. Rearrange the letters found in each of the forms of marine life below to form words related to marine ecosystems. Write your answers in the blanks. c. a.d. b.e.a. b. e.c. d.4. Each clue below will lead you to a word. Sound out the words to find the hidden terms used in the study of land ecosystems. Write the terms in the blanks below. when ice crystals form at nighta.artificially curly haira nickname for motherb.to trick or &quot;swindle&quot; someoneWhat _______? Or: Darned _________ I do, darned _________ I don't.the oppposite of himc.undersea SCUBA explorersLos Angeles or Dallas, for exampled.2,000 pounds a. b. c. d.What kids do with crayons40HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Sound-AlikesBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class ______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSEnvironmental Problems and SolutionsRe +1. Unravel these symbols to reveal words from the chapter.a.b.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c.Riddle Poem2. Which word is described by this riddle poem? The poem describes the word's letters. (Hint: Once is not enough!) My My My My My first is in Russia and also Peru. second's in me, but it isn't in you. third is in clay; my fourth one is too. fifth cannot be found in the zoo. sixth and my seventh are both in blue.Which word am I? I ask you:SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS41BackPrintEnvironmental Problems and Solutions, continuedName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________Eye Spy3. Below is a typical school scene. How many good environmental practices can you find? List them below.42HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSBody Organization and StructureFind the Oddballs and Decode the Message1. Each group of terms below contains an unrelated oddball. Circle the term that doesn't belong, and explain why it doesn't. Then take out the third letter of each oddball. Rearrange these letters to find the secret code word. a. skin hair nails teethb. smoothflexorcardiacskeletalc. tendonjointligamentcartilaged. blood formationCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.movementstoragedigestionThe Code Within the Code:texttexttexttextThink Again2. The answers to the following riddles all have a second &quot;body conscious&quot; meaning. a. You might hear one at a baseball game or a wedding. b. A seafood sound-alike c. To tease someone d. You hit these right on the head. e. Prisoners live in them.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS43BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintBody Organization and Structure, continuedA Body of Work3. The figure below was supposed to be labeled with several of the body's organ systems. Unfortunately, the person hired to do the labeling has never heard of an organ system--he just took a wild guess at the placement of the letters. Please help straighten out the mess. Write the correct terms in the blanks.a.b.sc lar ara. uvornseb.c. d. e. f.lateelskdia e.vcuof. setgiveidc.d.m int guruls cumBuild a Better Robot4. Imagine you have been asked to build a robot that uses many of the same &quot;organ&quot; systems as the human body. You have the following parts available to you. Which system could each part be used for? a. metal pipes b. computer c. various hinges d. rip-proof material e. bungee cords f. electrical wire44HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.ny re ateaBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSCirculation and RespirationThe Rat Workout1. Scientists in the cardiovascular research lab at a local university have built two boxes they call the &quot;Rat Workout Boxes.&quot; By releasing rewards from small chutes along the sides of the boxes, they encourage the rodents to race from station to station. The rewards are only given if the rats follow the proper sequence from station to station (1­9 for the circulatory workout, 1­7 for the pulmonary workout). The scientists are so familiar with the cardiovascular systems that they have nicknamed each station with one of your vocabulary words. The box called &quot;The Circulatory Workout&quot; begins with the right atrium, then follows the course of a blood cell from there. The box called &quot;The Pulmonary Workout&quot; begins with the nose and follows the course of a molecule of oxygen from there. Your job is to number the stations, then draw lines between them following the sequence. a. The Circulatory Workout right atrium text left atrium text left ventricle textCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.text lungs text right ventricle text arteries text capillariescells text veins textb. The Pulmonary Workout nose text bronchi text larynx text bloodstream texttext trachea text bronchioles text pharynxc. Which workout is the most strenuous for the rats? In other words, which sequence demands that the rats completely cross the box the most times?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS45BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintCirculation and Respiration, continuedBobby Bebembop's Blood Bank2. Bobby Bebembop has developed a machine, called the Bloodomatic 3000, that will make 29 L of synthetic blood using 26 L of water and just 3 L of real blood. He is convinced that his new device will put an end to the town's blood shortage. A local hospital has an urgent order for 29 L of synthetic blood that is compatible with blood from type O recipients. He needs 3 L to make a new batch, but there are not 3 L of type O blood. The next blood delivery is not until tomorrow evening, but he still wants to make the urgent batch tonight. He decides to try mixing together at least two varieties of blood, but he has to be sure that the mixture is compatible with type O blood. Bobby found 2 L of type A blood, 2 L of type B, 2 L of type AB, and 1 L of type O. Can he make a batch of synthetic blood compatible with type O blood with what he has now? Explain your answer.46HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Digestive and Urinary SystemsDigestive Disorder1. In order to study the digestive tract of a 14-year-old human, Professor Martinez shrunk a crew and their vessel to bite size and disguised them as a grape. The ship, however, lost video contact with the professor as soon as it was swallowed. The crew members don't know where they are, but they can use E-mail to describe what they see. Using these E-mail clues, help Professor Martinez track the ship's progress. Message from crew captain: The trip started a bit rough. The crew was a little shaken. We traveled through a long passageway and ended up in a very sloshy room. Right now we are stuck between some sort of door and another long hall.a. Where are they?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.After the doorway opened more, a big wave of fluid hit us from behind and thrust us forward.b. What was the fluid?We are traveling through another hall, longer than the first, but this hall is different. The wall is covered with a hairlike substance. We keep getting squeezed forward. It feels like a boa constrictor keeps squeezing us and then letting us go.c. Where is the crew now?d. On a separate sheet of paper, write three more messages the professor might receive from his brave crew, and explain where the crew was when they sent them.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS47BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Digestive and Urinary Systems, continuedAnagramsSolve these anagrams about the digestive and urinary systems. Answers may consist of any number of words. 2. Rearrange the letters from the following words to reveal a fact about saliva. TINY SALMON SEIZE CANVAS3. Rearrange the letters from the following words to reveal a fact about the gallbladder. DODGE BASEBALL TREE THRILLSOdd One Out4. For each group of terms, circle the one that doesn't belong and explain why it doesn't. a. tongue, salivary glands, stomach, kidneysb. pancreas, molars, incisors, caninesCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. peristalsis, constipation, colon cancer, gastric ulcerd. urethra, nephron, gastric ulcer, ureter48HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSCommunication and ControlWell, If You Put It That Way . . .1. Which part of the nervous system is described by each of these alternative definitions? Write the term in the blank. a. Armor of the spinal cord b. Percussion instrument in your head c. Goosebumps of your ice-cream licker d. Electrical wiring of the bodyNeuronal Decoding2. Decode the following neuronal message. The first word is decoded for you as a hint. Jnqvmtft Impulses bsf fmfdusjdbmCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.nfttbhftuibu usbwfm bmpohofvspot.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS49BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintCommunication and Control, continuedIf Neurons Could Talk . . .3. You've probably heard the phrases below several times. If these phrases were uttered by neurons, what type of neuron--motor or sensory--would each phrase be spoken by? a. &quot;Hey, don't sweat it.&quot; b. &quot;You are so cool!&quot; c. &quot;Shall we dance?&quot; d. &quot;I feel your pain.&quot; e. &quot;Go jump in a lake.&quot; f. &quot;Here comes the sun.&quot;Wordy Numbers4. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out as easy-to-remember words using the letters on a telephone keypad. For instance, the number 878-6738 can spell the word TRUMPET. What term from the chapter could each of these numbers represent? Hints are provided.1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*a. 633-8552 (auto-pilot) c. 467-8573 (e-message)#b. 467-6663 (message for you, sir . . .)50HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSReproduction and DevelopmentCrossing Words1. The following is a list of first generation words. As they are, the words are nonsense. If you find the right mate for each word, however, they will produce offspring that are vocabulary words from the chapter. Consider the letters in each word to be genetic material. As you have learned from the chapter, parent organisms each contribute one-half of their genes to the offspring. Match each of these words with another from the list that can be divided and recombined in such a way as to produce two vocabulary words. Example: infertation infertile + + menstruile menstruation produceThe Vocabulary Gene Poolbuddidymis fragg pethra egmentation implanenta plactation urenis a.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.embus marsemeepiding monotrupial spote zygermfetryo overty testumpubaries utina + + + + + + + + + + + +scrotesvagerustext text text text text text text text text text text textspotetextproduceb.monotrupialtextproducec.fetryotextproduced.epidingtextproducee.scrotestextproducef.pubariestextproduceSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS51BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintReproduction and Development, continuedg.implanentatext+ + + + + + + +text text text text text text text textproduceh.egmentationtextproducei.vagerustextproducej.urenistextproduceReproduction Riddles2. Solve the following riddles about reproduction and development. a. For his diet, Jack gave up all ectothermic animals, poultry, and their products, but he did not give up eggs. What kinds of nests could he have chosen from if he wanted to make an omelet?c. There is one type of animal that reproduces asexually and cannot survive outside of sea water, yet if you encounter one, it will usually be in fresh water. What is this primitive animal?Word Connections3. Each of the following sentences includes at least one hidden word from the chapter. These words can be found by looking at part of one word and connecting it to the beginning of the next word. For example, the word dog could be hidden in the words Judo games. Circle the hidden words below. a. This pen isn't writing very well; maybe it's out of ink. b. Hey bud--dingy whites got you down? Try new Leech Bleach. It sucks the stains right out! c. You want to shake Mars up? I already did that!52HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b. Rita feeds her child, though he doesn't yet eat. He moves all around and she feels his heart beat. His eyes are still closed, so he probably can't see. He listens to music. How old can he be?BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSBody Defenses and DiseaseTyphoid Larry1. Imagine that you are a pathogen. Your goal in life is to reach the Pathogen Hall of Fame. Starting with Larry's discovery that he is sick, draw a line connecting the infectious opportunities that you could take advantage of. When you reach the Pathogen Hall of Fame, you've succeeded! Movements can only be made vertically or horizontally, not diagonally. END HERE Sharon goes to school. Martha chews on a tennis ball. PATHOGEN HALL OF FAME Martha the sheepdog licks Peter's face. Jan writes in her journal. Ingela writes a letter to John. Scott coughs near Ingela. The coach cancels soccer practice. Peter meets Dan at soccer practice. Dan goes to soccer practice. John sends an E-mail to Dan. Clarice practices the piano.Patrick sends an E-mail Jan sneezes near her to Sharon. sheepdog, Martha. Jan phones Patrick. Louise reads a book. Louise shares a soda with Jan. Clayton cuts himself and gets blood on Louise.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Ingela boards a plane Ingela cooks dinner for Stockholm. for Clayton, but doesn't wash her hands first. Angie calls Sabrina on the phone. Kevin calls Angie on the phone. Larry takes a nap.Kevin does his Karen shares her homework with Scott. water bottle with Scott. Larry shakes hands with Kevin. LARRY IS SICK. Kevin sneezes near Karen. Larry takes a shower.Scott sends an E-mail to Clarice. Karen calls Tim on the phone. Tim eats lunch.START HERESCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS53BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintBody Defenses and Disease, continuedInfection at Trifecta High2. Imagine you are a scientist at the Centers for Disease Control. The principal from Trifecta High School calls and says a student has come to school on Monday with Triples Disease. She asks how many students will be sick by Friday if nothing is done. Read the entry for Triples Disease from your medical book below and fill in the worksheet to answer the principal's question. Each blank stands for the number of people infected. Triples disease (from Stupendicus Medicus Compendius) This is a disease caused by the Threecillus bacterium, spread by sneezing. Victims become infectious the day after they are infected by the bacteria--after that they can no longer pass on the disease. Each Triples victim will pass the bacteria to three people on the day he or she is infectious. Monday newly infected sick (infectious) sick (post-infectious) Wednesday newly infected sick (infectious) sick (post-infectious) Friday newly infected sick (infectious) sick (post-infectious) j. k. l. d. e. f.3 1 0Tuesday newly infected sick (infectious) sick (post-infectious) Thursday newly infected sick (infectious) sick (post-infectious) g.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.a. b. c.h. i.Total Number of Sick Students: m.54HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSStaying HealthyMixed-up Inside1. Each of these puzzles contains two scrambled terms from the chapter. In each case, one of the things can be found in the other. The terms can consist of up to three words. Fill in the blanks with the correct terms. a.o a c I o T O E C I N bis inb.c N ts c e x y e d U o p G R c S r a S o A t a m r l b hare inc.o R A O E oare ind.r i p y o Ie Po O U M t la p n pis in theCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.fLI CSde.l m i t pa A U J An A R I ah M n ef.t e i n M S N I I s o O A D A C pare inrn iN p dis in theSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS55BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintStaying Healthy, continuedVitamin Riddles2. Write the answers to these vitamin riddles in the blanks provided. Each answer is the name of a vitamin. Then arrange the answers to solve the bonus riddle. a. I protect blood cells that are red And without me some enzymes would be dead. b. Healthy are your blood and nerves 'Til I decide to throw some curves. c. Bones and teeth, skin and eyes I help so much I deserve a prize! d. I help the blood when it needs to clot Without me you might bleed a lot. Bonus: Like a mouth But does not speak On squids and birds, It's called aWordy Numbers3. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out using the letters on a telephone keypad. For example, the number 378-6637 can be spelled as DRUMMER. What word from the chapter could each of these numbers represent?1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*b. 862-2226 (Just avoid it.)#a. 623-7489 (Exercise to avoid it.)56HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintAnswer KeyMany of the questions in this workbook are open-ended and thus are intended to elicit thoughtful, creative responses. Therefore, in many cases a variety of correct answers are possible and any reasonable answer should be accepted. Suggested answers are provided below for open-ended questions as well as for questions that prompt students for morespecific responses.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.It's Alive!! Or Is It?, p. 3 1. a. proteins b. carbohydrates c. lipids d. nucleic acids 2. reproduction, heredity, metabolism, cells, homeostasis, growth 3. a. F b. T c. T d. F e. F f. T g. F h. T TULO is an earthworm. Cells: The Basic Units of Life, p. 5 1. Sample Answers: a. warehouses or water tower b. Town Hall or library c. police force or junkyard d. factories 2. a. nor gander = organ b. organ is my = organism c. Once llamas = cell d. Otis sued = tissue 3. top: mitochondria, left: ribosomes, right: cytoplasm, bottom: Golgi complex, phrase: The door is open.Heredity, p. 9 1. a. male c. allele, recessive 2. a. genes 3. 1/2 1/3 1/6 4. Punnett square 5. sex cellb. true breeding b. mitosis 16.7%Genes and DNA, p. 11 1. a. Bianca, Bess, and Brooke are carriers. b. Yes, because her children have green hair. c. No, she cannot be a child of theirs, because she does not have green hair. 2. That cat can't catch a rat. 3. a. lemonade nineteen adenine b. lengthy; mine thymine c. brand name DNA d. hoped I greeted pedigree 4. Watson, Crick, double, Adenine, thymine DNA is the code of life. The Evolution of Living Things, p. 13 1. a. Beagle b. species c. vestigial d. traitSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS57ANSWER KEYThe World of Life Science, p. 1 1. a. Ask a question. b. Test the hypothesis. c. Communicate results. d. Form a hypothesis. e. Analyze the results. f. Draw conclusions. 2. 1 - scanning electron microscope 2 - transmission electron microscope 3 - compound light microscope 4 - X ray, 5 - CT scan, 6 - naked eyeThe Cell in Action, p. 7 1. a. diffusion b. fermentation 2. centromere 3. a. passive transport b. centromere c. exocytosis d. fermentation e. prokaryotic cells 4. d. Each pair appears in each row and appears right side up, sideways, and upside down. 5. cellBacke. fossil f. DNA g. mutation h. natural i. adaptation code word evolution 2. a. generation b. selection c. separation d. survival 3. a. vestigial b. finches c. selection d. speciationPrint2. a. the color of your eyes b. You are the scientist. 3. a. 6 b. 12 c. 3 4. a. All but ciliates are plant-like protists. b. All but contractile vacuole are things that protists use to move. c. All but water mold are fungi. d. All but malaria are diseases caused by fungi. Introduction to Plants, p. 23 1. a. horsetail b. angiosperm c. gymnosperm 2. missing letter: L sepal, pistil, flower, pollen, petals 3. cone, leaf, root, seed, stem 4. a. T b. F c. T d. T e. F f. T g. F h. T Plant Processes, p. 25 1. a. U b. R c. U d. L e. U f. L g. U h. U i. L j. U k. R l. U 2. a. The plant is bent to the left and has a long stem. b. The plant bends first to the right and then upwards. Animals and Behavior, p. 27 1. a. hibernation b. invertebrate c. prey d. innate e. estivation f. vertebrate g. predator h. learned 2. a. pheromones b. camouflage c. territory d. sun/stars; magnetism e. landmark f. communication 3. a. innate b. hibernate c. vertebrate d. navigate e. migrate 4. a. sponge b. no exception c. Venus' flytrap d. sample answer: clam e. no exception Invertebrates, p. 29 1. a. All but roundworms are annelid worms. b. All but sponges have bilateral symmetry. c. All but squids are specific types of crustaceans. d. All but centipedes live in water. e. All but asymmetrical describe lack of a backbone.The History of Life on Earth, p. 15 1. a. Paleozoic b. Cenozoic c. Precambrian d. Mesozoic e. Paleozoic f. Precambrian 2. About 245 million years ago, the continents were one giant land mass called Pangaea. About 180 million years ago, Pangaea began to divide into two pieces. We call these two continents Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Our present-day continents are still moving. 3. a. starch b. oxygen c. 3 d. DNA 4. a. fossils b. extinct c. Pangaea d. prokaryote e. primate f. hominid Classification, p. 17 1. a. a squid b. a platypus c. a fungus 2. d. 3. a. 36, 49 (perfect squares) b. 21, 34 (Fibonacci sequence) c. N, D (months) d. P, K (levels of classification) 4. animalia Bacteria and Viruses, p. 19 1. a. The terms on the left are all diseases caused by bacteria. b. The foods on the left are all made with bacteria. 2. fission 3. a. bacteria b. pathogen c. parasite d. immunity 4. a. Soho Street host b. Morivac cinema vaccine Protists and Fungi, p. 21 1. a. a slime mold c. a fungusb. a dinoflagellate58HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrint2. a. sinuses b. foot c. 8 d. digestive 3. a. symmetry, head b. radula c. antennae, mandibles, head capsule d. nematodes e. segmented message: Insects are everywhere (almost). 4. a. insects b. mollusk c. sponges3. a. mutualism b. commensalism c. parasitism d. commensalism 4. A niche is a way of life. Cycles in Nature, p. 37 1. combustion, evaporation, succession, precipitation, respiration, decomposition 2. moss, fern, tree, grass, lake, river, pond, stream 3. a. sugar b. water c. mass d. fuels The Earth's Ecosystems, p. 39 1. a. tropical rain forest b. grassland c. temperate deciduous forest d. tundra e. coniferous forest f. desert 2. a. tributary b. waterfall c. meander 3. a. estuary b. sargassum c. marine d. coral reef e. benthic zone 4. a. permafrost b. conifer c. diversity d. tundra Environmental Problems and Solutions, p. 41 1. a. deforestation b. pollution c. biodiversity 2. recycle 3. containers bearing recycling symbols; a bicycle, skateboard, and roller blades instead of cars; a paper recycling bin; a place marked to collect aluminum cans; metal lunch boxes instead of paper bags; cactus uses less water than grass Body Organization and Structure, p. 43 1. a. Teeth is the only term that is not a part of the integumentary system. b. Flexor is the only term that is not a muscle fiber type. c. Tendon is the only term that is associated with the muscular system. d. Digestion is the only term that is not a function of the skeletal system. A code within the code : gene 2. a. organ b. muscle c. rib d. nail e. cellsCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Birds and Mammals, p. 33 1. a. capybara, South America b. opossum, North America c. koala; Australia, New Guinea, or South America d. ostrich, (Africa) e. kiwi, New Zealand 2. a. orangutan, because they both have hands b. whale, because they both use sonar to navigate c. platypus, because it uses its sensitive nose to find food d. therapsids, because they are both extinct Interactions of Living Things, p. 35 1. a. scavenger b. carnivore c. omnivore d. producer e. decomposer 2. a. Grass is the only term that is not an abiotic part of the environment. b. Humidity is the only term that is not a biotic part of the environment. c. Predator is the only term that is not a level of organization in the environment.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS59ANSWER KEYFishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles, p. 31 1. a. notochord b. tail c. cartilage d. ectotherm e. backbone f. spinal cord 2. a. turtle b. alligator c. tortoise d. lizard e. crocodile The missing letter is R. 3. a. fishes b. reptiles c. amphibians d. reptiles e. fishes f. amphibians g. reptiles h. fishes i. amphibians j. reptiles k. fishes l. fishes m. amphibians n. reptiles o. reptiles x. shark y. toad z. turtleBack3. a. nervous c. integumentary e. cardiovascular 4. a. skeletal c. skeletal e. muscular or skeletalPrintb. skeletal d. muscular f. digestive b. nervous d. integumentary f. nervous4. a. medulla c. impulseb. hormoneCirculation and Respiration, p. 45 1. a. r. atrium, r. ventricle, lungs, l. atrium, l. ventricle, arteries, capillaries, cells, veins b. nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, bloodstream The Pulmonary Workout requires the rat to cross six times; the circulatory only requires four complete crosses. Therefore, the pulmonary workout is more strenuous. 2. Bobby B. will have to wait until tomorrow's delivery to make more blood. Type O recipients produce antibodies to both A, B, and AB red blood cells, so type O blood cannot be mixed with any other blood to be given to a type O recipient. The Digestive and Urinary Systems, p. 47 1. a. They are stuck in the pyloric valve, between the stomach and small intestine. b. The fluid was chyme. c. They are in the small intestine. d. Sample answer Message: We are in a very sloshy, baglike room. The room keeps on squeezing us and we are bathing in two different juices. Answer: They are in the stomach. 2. Saliva contains enzymes. 3. The gallbladder stores bile. 4. a. Kidneys are the only organ not involved in digestion. b. The pancreas is not a tooth like the others. c. They are all problems in the digestive and urinary systems, except peristalsis. d. Gastric ulcer is the only one that is not a tube in the urinary system. Communication and Control, p. 49 1. a. vertebrae b. eardrum c. papillae d. nerves 2. Impulses are electrical messages that travel along neurons. 3. a. motor or sensory b. sensory c. motor d. sensory e. motor f. sensoryReproduction and Development, p. 51 1. a. spote zygerm produce sperm and zygote b. monotrupial marseme produce monotreme and marsupial c. fetryo embus produce fetus and embryo d. epiding buddidymis produce epididymis and budding e. scrotes testum produce scrotum and testes f. pubaries overty produce puberty and ovaries g. implanenta plactation produce implantation and placenta h. egmentation fragg produce egg and fragmentation i. vagerus utina produce vagina and uterus j. urenis pethra produce urethra and penis 2. a. Jack would have to locate the nest of an echidna or a platypus in order to make an omelet. b. He is a fetus approximately 17 to 25 weeks old. c. The primitive animal is a sponge. 3. a. pen isn't penis b. bud--dingy buddingCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. Mars up? I alreadymarsupialBody Defenses and Disease, p. 53 1. up 1, right 1, up 2, left 1, up 3, right 1, up 1 2. a. 9 b. 3 c. 1 d. 27 e. 9 f. 4 g. 81 h. 27 i. 13 j. 243 k. 81 l. 40 m. 364 Staying Healthy, p. 55 1. a. Nicotine is in tobacco. b. Sugars are in complex carbohydrates. c. Calories are in food. d. Opium is in the oriental poppy. e. Marijuana is in the Indian hemp plant. f. Amino acids are in proteins. 2. a. E b. B12 c. A d. K beak 3. a. obesity b. tobacco60HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe World of Earth ScienceRe +1. Decide what term from the chapter this picture puzzle represents.Solution:Daffy Definitions2. The warped definitions below describe different types of Earth scientists. Write the type of scientist to the right of the clue. (Each type can be used more than once.) a. The best are real rock stars. b. These are really deep thinkers.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. Their ideas are over most people's heads. d. Their favorite song is &quot;If I Had a Hammer.&quot; e. They like it when skateboarders &quot;get some air.&quot; f. Cloudy vision is not a problem for them. g. Some of their ideas seem pretty fishy. h. To them, the movie Titanic is a preview. i. They always choose the night shift. j. They are experts on &quot;A galaxy long ago and far away . . .&quot; k. Everyone says these scientists are always wrong.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS1BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe World of Earth Science, continuedDouble Trouble3. Unscramble each of the words below and write it in the blanks. Then rearrange the boxed letters to solve the puzzle. amount of matter in an object (AMSS) used to measure fluids (second word) (CDEIYLNR) used to measure fluids (first word) (AADDEGRTU) first step of the scientific method (EINOQSTU) what you do with data (AAELNZY) scientific guess (EHHIOPSSTY) last step in the scientific method (ACCEIMMNOTU) used to represent physical things (EDLMO) amount of space something takes up (ELMOUV)Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.the first word in the laboratory (AEFSTY) length in SI (EEMRT) (Hint: This is a very large topic in the chapter.)Paths of Knowledge4. Starting at one letter, draw a line between it and each of the other letters to spell a word that affects us all. Each letter is used only once.m E t e s2HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYoc s yBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSMaps as Models of the EarthCardinal Directions1. Winter is coming. Leah and her sister Amber, a pair of North American cardinals, live in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and have decided to spend their winter in Savannah, Georgia. This is their first year to migrate, so both could use your help. A translator has written some of the birds' questions for you to answer. a. Leah: I'm holding the compass in front of me with the N facing out, away from me, and the needle is pointing to it. This is magnetic north. I am facing 5 W of what direction?b. What is the 5 difference called?c. Leah: I'm holding the compass in front of me with the N facing out, away from me, and the S closest to me. Which letter should the arrow point to--N, S, E, or W--if I want to look south?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. Amber: On the map there are horizontal reference lines and vertical reference lines. I know we should be crossing some of these while flying south. What are they called?e. Leah: I can't hold the compass with my wing while I'm flying. So how can I know that I'm not veering off course or flying in circles?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS3BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintMaps as Models of the Earth, continuedAnd/Or2. When the following statements contain an and, combine the answers to the clues to form a term from the chapter. When they contain an or, they describe homonyms, one of which is a term from the chapter. Which term is described? a. someone whose adventures are larger than life, or a list of symbols used in a mapUSEFUL TERMS homonyms two words that sound alike but have different meaningsb. When instructions are spoken, they are said to be this, and this is used to weigh pork chops in a meat market.c. the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points of the area being mapped, or what you feel after doing well on a testd. an instrument used to determine direction, and a thornstemmed flowerBut Is It Art?3. As an art project, Amy mapped out her friend Camille's face. To do this, she covered Camille's head with paint and &quot;projected&quot; it onto the inside of a paper cone, with her nose touching the center of the paper. She then opened the cone. Tell what kind of projection she was using, and describe in detail what the print must have looked like.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSMinerals of the Earth's CrustGem Search1. The names of six common gemstones are scrambled in the gems below. All of the letters spelling a particular gemstone can be found on gems having the same cut. Unscramble the letters on the similar gems to identify the six gemstones and list them on the spaces provided.ZIIMAHPDAENERGeode Search2. On a trip to the desert Jermaine and Marissa spend an afternoon hunting for geodes. A geode is a hollow, ball-shaped rock containing an inner cavity lined with crystals. The geodes that contain quartz sell for a dollar, those that contain calcite sell for two dollars, and geodes containing amethyst sell for five dollars. Below are six word-geodes that have a silicate mineral imbedded in them. Use the clues below to &quot;crack open&quot; the geodes and find out who will make the most money when they sell their findings. The first one has been done for you. Marissa a. Where cupid aims his dart . . . b. You'll suffer much guilt if you ruin text your mother'sCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved..c. When corn goes &quot;pop&quot; it makes a yummy smell. When this goes &quot;pop&quot; I hope you studied well. Jermaine d. Green is the broccoli flower, while white is the .RTOAOHQUEARARTTZCALQUICILTTECQUAILCZITECAULQUIFLAROWTZERSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSDEBOPDMPAASLRLYPUheartquartz (\$1)5BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________ Minerals of the Earth's Crust, continuedPrinte. Jack be nimble. Jack be.AQUIMETHYCSKT AQUARPTPLEZSf. It's like comparing and oranges.g. Who had the most profitable day?Mohs Knows3. Each of the ten numbers on the Mohs' scale has a characteristic mineral associated with it. Likewise, the names of the minerals can be used to represent the numbers. In this puzzle, you use these numbers to do simple math problems and find the mineral names. In the example below, you must find a seven-letter mineral whose rating on the Mohs' scale, when added to the rating of a four-letter mineral, yields the rating of an eight-letter mineral. The only possible combination is the one shown. For each of the &quot;equations,&quot; find the names of the minerals from the Mohs' scale that make the statement correct, and enter these names (one letter per blank) on the lines provided. Example: a. b. 11 c.C A L C (3) I T E T A L (1) C F L O U R (4) I T E17Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. 30 e.f. 24g.166HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSRocks: Mineral MixturesCooking Up Classifications1. You've entered your geological kitchen. Now you are ready to whip up some recipes involving rocks. Along with the more &quot;usual&quot; ingredients, your cupboards hold the following: calcite, quartz, and feldspar. Decide which recipes you have the proper ingredients for. If you can't make something, explain why not. Can you make . . . a. limestone pie?b. granite casserole?c. quartz cookies?Name that Rock Star2. Read the biographical sketches of the rock stars in the band below. They have changed a lot through their musical careers. Make up new names for them based on what type of rock they have become.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Sedimentary Sam the String Strummer I melted and cooled. That was so cool I did it some more. Then I weathered and eroded until the heat and pressure got to me. For now, I cannot quite get out of the heat and pressure cycle. a. Matilda the Metamorphic Musician I was a pretty hot rock, but the pressure got to me. So, I melted and cooled for a while in between stints of weathering and eroding. Then I went into a long heat and pressure cycle. But today, I am content just melting and cooling. b. Sonya the Silly Sedimentary Singer I wasn't sure whether or not I liked eroding. So, I went into melting and cooling mode. It was cool being igneous for a while. But since I had never been heated and pressured, I figured I'd give that a try. I'm not sick of it yet. c.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS7BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintRocks: Mineral Mixtures, continuedRocky Riddles3. Solve the following riddles about rocks. a. Finer than conglomerate Coarser than siltstone I amb. After phyllite Before gneiss I am c. Coarse-grained igneous But not granite I amd. Farther down than chlorite Heated to temperatures less than garnet I amExcuse the Interruption4. Rock formations are hidden in the letters below. Can you unearth them? Fill in the blanks with the hidden terms. (Hint: They cut through rock formations.) RDOICKKEFPOLRUMTAOTNIOBNARTOHCOKLFIOTRHMATION8HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSEnergy ResourcesFractured Frames1. Each frame represents a word from the chapter, if you read it in just the right way. What word or phrase does each puzzle represent?UbitumSLLLa.b.FOsmokeGkrypt 91c.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d.fish poweredw r e t ae.f.Daffy Definitions2. The warped definitions below describe some words from the chapter. Write the correct words to the right of the clues. a. air-powered rotary generator b. ribbon diggings c. relic combustible materials d. crude fumesSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS9BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintEnergy Resources, continuedCrypto-Math3. In this puzzle, each digit from 0 to 9 has been assigned a letter based on a word or words from the chapter. Each letter stands for only one digit. Assign the first 10 non-repeated letters of the code word(s), in order, to the digits 0­9. The letters then take the place of digits in arithmetic problems. It is up to you to decipher each problem and find the code word(s). (Hint: Try working backwards; start by unscrambling the code word from the answers to the letter math.) An example: The words WATER POLLUTION are used, with the second T, O, and L dropped. (Any time a letter is repeated, it is dropped.) In this case, the key is now: W 0 A 1 T 2 E 3 R 4 P 5 O 6 L 7 U 8 I 9 I = AWThe simple addition 19 = 10 now becomes ANow for the real problem: A different code word from the chapter has been used to assign letters to the digits. Use the math problems below to find the code word. A I TC Letter Digit I I O OC C N S NN E R R R N R V V S V SV NR OOtext text text text text text text text text text0123456789Re +4. Decipher these symbols to find a word from the chapter.Solution:10HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Rock and Fossil RecordAnagrams1. Unscramble the following headlines from a ridiculous newspaper to form terms from the chapter. a. DIRT ROAD ENIGMATIC (Clue: A daughter looks similar to her mother.) R Db. MICE GET IGLOO (Clue: Slow and steady wins the race.) G Tc. ICE CAVE RAID TODAY (Clue: Reach a stable age.) R Dd. CIA LOST SERF (Clue: It's left behind.) T FComplete the Sequence2. Find the next two numbers or letters in each of the following sequences. a. 1, 3, 6, 10, 15,Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved., ,b. Q, T, C, J, T, P, P, M, D, S,Riddle3. You may know a girl named after me; Without me stoplights would be tricky. I like to catch bugs, But I have no mouth, arms, or net. I am sometimes terribly sticky. What am I?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS11BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Rock and Fossil Record, continuedThe Relative Dating Game4. Jolene and Cletus were looking for cans in their backyard when they found a large hole in the ground. Inside it was a mixed-up pile of fossils that had been excavated by geologists several years ago. Naturally, Jolene and Cletus wanted to find out which fossils were the oldest and which were the most recent. The fossils consisted of a dinosaur, a bumblebee, a passenger pigeon, a giant sloth, and an elephant. The geologists, who apparently liked to play games, left this note in the pile: We have divided our hole into five layers, with layer 1 being the oldest and layer 5 the most recent. In the hole is a pile of five fossils, each of which came from one of the five layers. If you wish to know which fossil belongs to which layer, you must follow these clues: a. The bumblebee was found below layer 3. b. The dinosaur came from an even-numbered level. c. The elephant was found above all the other fossils. d. The pigeon was found in the layer directly above the sloth. e. The sloth was found below level 4 but above the dinosaur.Use the chart below to help you match each fossil with its layer.Fossil Order1 Dinosaur Bumblebee Pigeon Sloth Elephant 2 3 4 512HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSPlate TectonicsTectonic Rhyme Time1. Professor Bankston, an inventor/architect, has made some creations. Some sound more useful than others. Each of the clues below indicates a two-word rhyming answer that describes one of professor Bankston's creations. Write the words in the blank. a. the amount of force put on a given material, and a machine for applying that forceb. the outermost layer of earth, and oxidation particles that cover the iron portion of itc. the surface along which rocks break and slide past each other, and an impenetrable room in which to store itd. extends from the bottom of the mantle to the center of the earth, and the place where you can buy parts of itCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The Blame Game--Whose Fault Is It?2. Amanda blames others for everything. Below are some questions her teacher has asked her about faults, and the jumbled responses she gave in return. Write the correct responses below. Teacher: Amanda, why did the hanging wall move up relative to the footwall? Amanda: It was Reeser V.'s fault! a. Teacher: O.K. Amanda, let's try again. Why did the hanging wall move down relative to the footwall? Amanda: It was Ron Lam's fault! b.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS13BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintPlate Tectonics, continuedTeacher: One more try, Amanda. This occurred when opposing forces caused rock to break and move horizontally. Amanda: It's not my fault! Petrik Sils did it! c.Oceanic Plates vs. Continental Plates3. Little Denny has always wanted to be a sports announcer. Right now, his California neighborhood is experiencing an earthquake and Denny needs a partner to announce the 'quake play-by-play. Fill in the blanks to help Denny. Continental plate and oceanic plate are lined up head to head. Oceanic plate takes the snap. The fields rumble as the crowds go wild. Oceanic plate drops back, away from continental plate. Looks like a pass! Looks like oceanic plate is trying to create a (a.) .Wait! Continental plate is rushing in. Continental plate has collided with oceanic plate and they are pushing on one another. Continental plate has definitely created a (b.) Oceanic plate isn't finished yet. Oceanic plate moves to the side. Oceanic plate slides past continental plate to create aCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved..(c.).Oceanic plate ducks underneath. Has oceanic plate . . . I think Ocea . . . Yes! Oceanic plate has made it to the asthenosphere and into the (d.) .Word Connections4. The following sentence contains a hidden word from the chapter. The word can be found by looking at part (or all) of one word and connecting it to the beginning of the next word(s). Circle the hidden word. For example, the word undo is hidden between the words run, dogs. When Billy goes to the bank, he always gets his money in fives and tens. I, on the other hand, prefer twenties and fifties.14HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSEarthquakesWordquake1. Professor Punjabi's office has just been shaken by a mighty earthquake. Ironically, he had just finished assembling his six favorite words from the chapter on earthquakes. Now his words are broken into pieces. Can you put them back together? The letters in each cluster cannot be rearranged or broken into pieces.SE DIV VI HAN GIST U ONQMOLO SHIN AKE MO ERG KING MOENTHOISCode BreakerCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Use the clues to help you decode the secret message. By substituting the correct word for the coded word in each clue, you will find what each code letter stands for in the secret message. Each letter represents a different letter in the code. Each coded letter represents the same letter throughout the message. You may want to write each word below the code to help you break the code. a. The QDFVJ is always below the PBEFPIGPK. b. JPEJLDYKRBOJ create JPEJLDYKRLJ. c. The YRB OZBDGOPJEJ has nothing to do with teeth or generations. d. Thanks to the RFGESP GPICDI JZJGPL, the building didn't fall to pieces. Secret message: During an earthquake, Bill Haley and the Comets expect things to. . . JORUP, KRGGAP, RIC KDAA!SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS15BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintEarthquakes, continuedThe Seismic Gap Hypothesis3. The seismic gap hypothesis can help you determine the probability that an earthquake will occur in a specific region of a fault system. Determine whether each statement below is true or false, and write T or F in the corresponding box in the fault system below. Use this information to determine where along the fault system the next earthquake will be. If you discover a section with three or more &quot;False&quot; answers in a row, you have located a seismic gap! a. Most earthquakes can be felt by humans. b. Earthquakes tend to occur far from plate boundaries. c. Most transform faults produce moderate, shallow quakes. d. Convergent motion occurs where two plates push together. e. Divergent motion creates reverse faults. f. S waves shear rock back and forth. g. The focus is the point on the surface above the epicenter. h. Rigid pipes are less likely to burst than flexible pipes during an earthquake. i. Perishable food is the best thing to pack in an earthquake survival kit. j. The Earth's core is part liquid and part solid. k. Seismic waves last longer on the Earth than on the moon.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Fault Systema. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k.Between what letters are earthquakes most likely to occur?16HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSVolcanoesFind the Oddballs and Decode the Message1. Each group of terms below contains an unrelated oddball. Circle the term that doesn't belong and explain why it doesn't. Then correctly arrange the first letters of all the oddballs to discover a bit of sound advice. a. lapilli aa rock debrisb. pahoehoepillow lavaaasilicac. volcanic bombslapillipahoehoevolcanic ashd. shieldCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.cratercompositecinderWhat you would hope to do if you were on a volcanic island that was about to erupt: e ____ ____ ____ ____ eThink Again2. The answers to the following clues all have a second &quot;volcanic&quot; meaning. Fill in the correct term. a. Dick and Jane's panting dog. (2 words) b. A grade of eggs. (1 word) c. Circus animals leap through one of these. (3 words)SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS17BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintVolcanoes, continuedEruption!3. Rearrange the letters found in the erupting volcano below to form words related to volcanoes. Note that one letter has been blown clear of the area and is missing from every one of the jumbled words. Be careful--the missing letter may be used more than once in each word. Write the words in the blanks to the right. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.Will the Volcano Erupt?4. Decide whether the following statements are true or false, and put your answers into the prediction chart. If there are three &quot;trues&quot; in a row, you can expect an eruption. a. Eruptions can eject debris and gases at supersonic speeds. b. Some of our largest mountains formed from lava flows. c. Lava that flows onto the Earth's surface is called magma. d. Magma and rock are both pyroclastic materials. e. Silica rich magma is thick and stiff. f. Ash can cause global temperatures to rise. g. A caldera forms when a magma chamber's roof collapses. h. Cinder cone volcanoes erode quickly. i. The Ring of Fire contains nearly 75% of the world's active land volcanoes. Will there be an eruption?text18HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.PREDICTION CHARTBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSWeathering and Soil FormationParallel Puzzle1. What do all of the words in the right column have in common that is not shared by any of the words in the left column? amber contour plowing abrasion sediment air wind water gravitySoil Anagrams2. Solve these anagrams about weathering and soil formation. Remember, the answer may consist of any number of words. a. Rearrange the letters in the following words to reveal a fact about topsoil near the equator. SHIP TRIP TOILS LOCATIONCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b. Rearrange the letters in the following words to reveal a fact about soil in mild climates. MOIST FIRE REEL TIES PLATEDecode the Message3. Decode the following secret message to find out how rocks get worn out. The first two letters are provided as clues. Deudvlrq lv wkh julqglqj ri urfnv wr zhdu grzq hasrvhg vxuidfhv.AbSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS19BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintWeathering and Soil Formation, continuedWordy Numbers4. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words. For example, a car dealer might choose the number 289-2277, which can be spelled as BUY CARS. What word from the chapter could each of the numbers below represent? Hints are provided.1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*#a. (423) 933-4464 (Hint: It's a chilly type of mechanical weathering.)c. 264-6257 (Hint: They contribute to mechanical and chemical weathering.)d. 542-4367 (Hint: These contribute to chemical weathering.)e. (699) 436-4766 (Hint: When these two react, chemical weathering occurs.)20HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b. 472-8489 (Hint: It's an agent of mechanical weathering.)BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Flow of Fresh WaterMap to a MessageFollow the instructions on this worksheet to uncover a hidden message. 1. Use the following clues to fill in the blanks with terms from the chapter. a. Where aeration and saturation zones meet b. When rain rolls into a stream c. A stream follows this d. A measure of the change in elevation over a certain distance e. The downward movement of water through spaces in soil due to gravity f. Basin served by a river system g. Water falling from the skyCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.h. How rain gets back up i. Water down under j. Delta on dry land k. Process that can renew the soil l. A rock sandwich with water m. Small contributors to a big river n. When water vapor cools in a cloudSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS21BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Flow of Fresh Water, continuedo. Underground erosion causes a circular depression p. When cap rock is cracked q. Eventually levels mountains r. Amount of space between rock particles 2. Each of the boxes above should now contain either an N, an S, an E or a W. Use these cardinal directions, in the order in which they appear above, to navigate the grid below. For example, if the first direction is W, you will move one block to the left. If the next direction is N, you will then move one block up, and so on. The letters you connect in this way will reveal a secret message. S I J R T A U N C S K B Y U C I D R G Z O D M V F N Z U M B F E T A H P K U O Y H R N W D E E N P Start Message: C T W L G K B T D O L O L I V E O H A Y P G L M S E W E X U Q E Z B J R U F L Q T A X Q Y X Y I J WN W SCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.ERe +3. Which terms from the chapter are these picture puzzles trying to express? Write the term in the blank.a.textb.text22HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSAgents of Erosion and DepositionShoreline Charades1. Wave erosion can produce many shoreline features. Use the clues below to identify five of these common features, and list them on the lines provided.a.CS+ +L+ ­b.+c.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.S+ ­H­N+T ­Nd.S+Sand Scramble2. Particles of sand blown by the wind can collide with rock surfaces and cause erosion. Each sand particle below is about to hit the rock surface. When it does, it will cause one letter to break off the surface. The letter that breaks off, when combined with the letters in the sand particle, will spell a word associated with wind erosion. Find the four words in the sand grains and write them on the lines provided. a. b. c. d. F N T B S b. a. S L O E c. I O N A S R AN I L SOT A Ad.O L I T E N A DSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS23BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintAgents of Erosion and Deposition, continuedA Whopper of a Wave!3. In real life, the size of a wave depends on how hard the wind is blowing. In this puzzle, however, the size of the wave will depend on whether the given statements are true or false. Begin with the first statement and decide if it is true or false. If it is true, circle the mathematical expression under the True column and if it is false, circle the mathematical expression under the False column. Then follow the directions that you have circled. When you have finished, the value that you have calculated will be the height of the wave. True a. Desert pavement is commonly formed by water erosion. b. The side of a sand dune facing the wind generally has a steeper slope than the side away from the wind. c. If the angle of a slope is less than the angle of repose, materials on the slope will slide downslope. d. Water, plant roots, and burrowing animals can all contribute to creep. start with 1 meter add 5 False start with 2 meters multiply by 7subtract 4add 6divide by 2divide by 3Letter Perfect4. Each of the following clues describes a letter of the alphabet. When put together, they form a word that can sink great ships. The The The The The The The first is in till and also in drift. second's in cirques but not kettles. third is in shelf and also in sheet. fourth is in base, but it's not found in peak. fifth's in the Andes but not in the Alps. sixth is in horns and in the aretes. seventh is in melting and in calving as well.What is the word that these letters now spell? Secret word:24HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The wave will bemeters tall.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSExploring the OceansFish Out of Water1. Before you marches a parade of sea life: cold fish, old fish, odd fish, codfish. They've stormed the steps of our nation's Capitol, demanding an end to the pollution that's killing their ecosystems. Some of them display pictures of loved ones killed by pollution. Generally, it's a non-violent protest. Only occasionally do you see a fish (usually a shark) turn to his neighbor and eat him. The group in front of you suddenly collapses onto the pavement--the land lungs strapped over their wetsuits have given out. Now you must return each to its natural environment, and quickly. Use the clues given to determine which ecological zone each creature calls home. a. Creature #1: It's hard to imagine that this fish is able to see through its small, clouded eyes. The ice packs it wears all over its body may be protecting it from the heat.b. Creature #2: This odd creature isn't even wearing a land lung. It isn't talking much, because its hard shell is closed tight.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. Creature #3: You thought the previous creature was odd, but look at this guy! He looks like eight bullwhips hanging off a balloon. When you get close, he squirts a blue liquid that leaves a stain on your pant leg.d. Creature #4: Now here's a second fellow without a land lung. His rear fin runs parallel to the ground, rather than perpendicular, and he has a hole at the top of his back. He seems to be trying to say something to you.e. Creature #5: There's a group of these creatures huddled together. They look like slimy little drinking straws.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS25BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintExploring the Oceans, continuedDare to Compare2. Below you will find paired relationships, or analogies. Use the first pair to deduce the relationship and fill in the blanks. a. Canals are to Mars as ocean floor. b. Plant cells are to trees as clouds. c. Pearls are to oysters as ocean floor. are to the is to are to theUp on the Scales3. On the scales of the fish below are letters, and hidden among them are seven terms from the chapter. These terms are spelled out on scales which touch one another, and the same scale can be used more than once. Using the clues provided, trace the paths of the terms. a. they feed from the bottom b. the environment below all others c. they swim freely d. surface floaters e. valley type f. all but the floor g. gave rise to HawaiiCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.26HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Movement of Ocean WaterCrossed-Up Words1. The answer to each of the definitions is already in the right place in this crossword puzzle. Unfortunately, the order of the letters is scrambled. Unscramble the words and write the correct term in the space provided.1L2I T3E S4TFFI N SCL TO5EREOCI CSR F G7PNWGIL O UELU6I I N9A Y8M N S M A U UN I S D WTHR R I N R A A FOUGT KCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.K OACROSS3. worldwide current turner 5. brings nutrients to the surface 8. as low as you can go on a wave 9. shake, rattle, and drownC N E T4. keeps the coast &quot;cool&quot;DOWN1. saltiness 2. this is why Iceland isn't 6. saved Thor the price of a flight 7. a cause of surface currentsSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS27BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Movement of Ocean Water, continuedDaffy Definitions2. The definitions below describe some words and concepts from the chapter. Some are trick definitions, while others come from a scientific dictionary. Place the correct word being defind in the blanks to the right. a. unexciting ebb and flood b. superficial maritime flow c. a disturbance in a medium that propagates from one point in a medium to other points without giving the medium as a whole any permanent displacement d. brackishness quotient e. maximum positive displacement of a periodic surfacial disturbance f. abyssal maritime circulation g. a subsurface seaward movement carried up a sloping beach by waves or breakers that is caused by the gravity flow of waterCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Fractured Frames3. Each frame represents a word or concept from the chapter if you read it in just the right way. What word or phrase does each puzzle represent? g n i l l e w tide a. c.surf'stide b.28HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe AtmosphereSome Like It Hot1. Andrea likes school, but she loves the summer even more. Over the summer, she observed many processes that reminded her of energy concepts she learned about in school. Fill in the energy concepts she has observed in the space provided. Choose from radiation, conduction, convection, greenhouse effect, and global warming. a. Doesn't it seem like lately every summer is the hottest on record?b. Ouch! The sand is burning my feet! Why didn't I bring my sandals?c. Ugh! Roll down the window! Next time we should park in the shade. I'm melting back here.d. This is my favorite part of making soup. See how the spices come up in the middle of the pot then go shooting out to the side and back down? Over and over. That's so cool.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.e. I love to be outside. The sun makes me feel warm all over.Blow Wind Blow2. Identify the different types of winds from the clues given below. a. When these winds failed, early traders would give just about anything to get them back.b. They will take you back home if you're European.c. They ruffle the penguin's feathers and the polar bear's fur.d. Airline pilots use these high winds to go with the flow whenever they can.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS29BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Atmosphere, continuedDouble Puzzle3. Answer the clues below by filling in the open boxes provided. Then arrange the letters from the highlighted boxes to answer the final riddle. n a. The sun supplies this. b. It's the Earth's sunblock. c. How low (or high) can you go? d. A must for kites. e. It spews from cars and trucks. We wouldn't be here without it: z l i tWe Need a Pollution Solution4. Rearrange the letters found in the belching smokestack below to form words related to air pollution. Note that one letter--the same letter--is missing from each of the words.a. b. c.d. e. f.HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY30Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSUnderstanding WeatherMicroclimates1. Decide which two-letter air mass symbol best represents each of the &quot;microclimates&quot; below. The symbols are mP, cP, mT, &amp; cT. Write the appropriate symbol in the space provided. The air mass over . . . a. a steaming cup of tomato soup b. a glass of iced tea c. a hot bubble bath d. a lamp e. an ice cube trayPoetic Fronts2. Use the Poetic Precipitation Reporter's poems to classify the following fronts. Assume the air is moving from the left to the right. a. Warm air on the right Cold air on the left There should have been a rainstorm But a cold front caused a theftCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b. Warm air on the left Cold air on the right Brought a little rain And it was warm all nightc. To the right was warm air To the left was cold When I went outside An umbrella I did holdSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS31BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintUnderstanding Weather, continuedTools of the Trade3. Connect the dots below to both spell and draw tools of weather science. The first letter is starred. a. b.*RE*W I NO S DNGAIUAG CKc.d.T *A O E*T O M M ERMM NEHERTE ERe.MEER S *P R Y COTH32HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSClimatePostcards From ????1. Your far-traveling friend has been sending you postcards from all over the world. Unfortunately, she bought them all in one country, and mailed them all from another. You'll have to identify each biome she visited based on her descriptions. a. I saw my first kangaroo today! You can see them from the car, hopping across the wide open spaces.b. It's wet and cool now, but this past summer there were a lot of fires around here. I guess that's normal--the shrubby vegetation is already growing back!c. Will it ever stop raining?! At least everything is green and lush. And the monkeys are sooooo cute! Miss U!d. I can't wait to get home. It's muddy here, and the mosquitoes are terrible! Our highlight was a glimpse of a caribou herd.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.e. It's beautiful here. But I made the mistake of touching a cactus, just to see how prickly it was. Doh!By the Numbers2. The following &quot;equations&quot; are numbers and phrases important to the study of climate. The letters stand for words. For example, &quot;7 D. of the W.&quot; would mean 7 days of the week. What do each of these &quot;equations&quot; mean? a. 0 b. 90 c. 23.5 d. 23.5 L. at the E. L. at the N. and S. P. A. of the E. T. L. of the T. Z.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS33BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintClimate, continuedIt's Not the World as We Know It3. The world, as you know, can be a mixed-up place. On the left, the climates and biomes of the world are scrambled and scattered. Unscramble the terms and write each one on the blank that corresponds to its proper place on the globe.b. coprilat e. ratiprofectnailors a. eretepmat d. igaat c. rolapa. b. c. d. e. f.f. arlachparRead Between the LinesCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Each of the following short paragraphs hides a word or words associated with climate change. The words have not been scrambled. For example, the word undo is hidden in the words Run, dog. Circle the hidden terms below. a. As you get older, you become more sensitive to the cold. For an older person, a cool shower might feel like ice. Age also slows the body's ability to warm up. b. We are remodeling the upstairs bedroom. The wall surface currently has a rough texture, but we plan to smooth it out with sandpaper. c. We worked out of Grande Fore Station, which overlooked the Saginaw State Forest. For three long, hot, dry months, we scanned the horizon for smoke. d. Traveling can enhance many of the things that you have learned from a book, especially the way things sound or taste or feel. And the further from home you go, the more exotic sensations you will find. So go global. Warm in glowing deserts. Cool in Arctic islands. Taste salt in the ocean air.34HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSStudying SpaceSky Spy1. Hidden in the puzzle below are six words associated with finding stars in the night sky. Locate the words by beginning in the middle of the puzzle and working toward the outside. The letters of each word occur in order as you circle clockwise in the puzzle. However, there are many unused letters in the puzzle as well. List the six words on the lines provided.ZDRZEEAOCNLTANACopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.LLTEMCDWord Connections2. Each of the following sentences includes a hidden vocabulary word from the chapter. These words can be found by looking at part of one word and connecting it to the beginning of the next word. For example, dog could be hidden in Judo games. Circle the hidden words below. a. How many dozens in a gross? A dozen I think. b. After peeling the lemon, the lime, and the orange, her hands smelled strongly of citrus. c. In the past Ron O., my partner, never left work undone. d. My winking eye articulated what I could not say aloud.ONILCEREDSHTROPITICSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSQE MLLANOIRUOUTPOIRHTOATLTLASPGTRDONAENOALUTI35BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintStudying Space, continuedConfiguring a Constellation3. In this puzzle, you will create and identify a common constellation. Begin with the first statement and decide if it is true or false. If it is true, circle the directions under the true column, and vice-versa. When you have completed the statements, follow the directions you have circled and connect the dots in the diagram below. On the line provided, write the name of the constellation you have drawn. TRUE a. A month is the time required for the Earth to revolve once around the sun. start at 5 b. The United States uses the Gregorian calendar. c. The summer solstice is the longest day of the year. d. Our galaxy is referred to as the Milky Way. e. The Hubble Galaxy is the closest major galaxy to our own. f. Most of the stars in a constellation are not near each other in space. g. Most of the stars we see in the night sky are much smaller than the Earth. h. Circumpolar stars can be seen at all times of the year and at all times of night. move to 11 move to 12 move to 9 move to 6 move to 5 move to 4 move to 1FALSE start at 8 move to 10 move to 4 move to 7 move to 8 move to 3 move to 2 move to 9Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.1 32 57 10 8 11 9 126 4What constellation have you drawn?36HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSStars, Galaxies, and the UniverseFractured Frames1. Each frame represents a word from the chapter or the name of a star, if you read it in just the right way. What word or phrase does the puzzle represent?LACK LACKProcy Ba.b.tauALPHAALPHAriprot starc.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d.knee gaswhite white white white white whitee.f.Re +2. Decipher these symbols to find a star name from the chapter.Solution:textSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS37BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintStars, Galaxies, and the Universe, continuedDaffy Definitions3. The warped definitions below describe some words from the chapter. Write the correct words to the right of the clues. a. ebony void b. the conjecture of a vast blast c. chromatic range d. outstandingly new e. ruby jumbo f. two people's astral body maturation plotDouble Trouble4. Unscramble each word in parentheses and write the resulting chapter term in the blanks provided. Then rearrange the boxed letters to solve the puzzle. a. The universal study: (CGLMOOOSY) b. Most common &quot;star stuff&quot; (DEGHNORY)Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. A dusty cloud with a case of gas (ABELNU) d. Daystar's name (LOS) e. A color &quot;signature&quot; (CEMPRSTU) f. A blast from the past (ABBEGGHINT) g. It doesn't get any brighter than this (AAQRSU) h. The &quot;real&quot; bright (ABELOSTU) i. Shape of one Milky Way (AILPRS) j. The densest star &quot;stuff&quot; (ENNORTU) k. The color of 4,000 degrees (AEGNOR) Hint: A star's road to maturity:text38HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSFormation of the Solar SystemFind the Oddballs and Decode the Message1. Each group of terms below contains an unrelated oddball. Circle the term that doesn't belong and explain why it doesn't. Then arrange the first letters of the oddballs to discover something central to the study of stars and planets. a. mantle orbit crustcoreb. radiative zonephotospherecrustsunspotc. dustplanetesimalradiative zoneplanetd. ellipsechromospherecoronaradiative zoneIt's at the center of it all: ____ ____ ____ ____Sound-AlikesCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Each clue below will lead you to a short word. Put the short words together to find the hidden terms, which are used in the study of our solar system. Write the correct terms in the blanks below. a. The shiny metal on the bumper of a cartext &quot; see...&quot;say can youThe shape of a rubber ballb. You do this before starting a major project.text You study for and hope you score well.text You go to to shop because it has lots of stores.c. You need one to row a boat.She was so nervous she fingernails.texthera.b.c.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS39BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________ Formation of the Solar System, continuedPrintIt's All Sort of Nebulous3. Rearrange the letters found in various parts of the nebula cloud below to form words related to solar system formation. Gravity has pulled some of the letters toward the cloud's center; you may need to use some of these letters to complete each word.a.sg x d j alocus te.f.a. b.uv g y i r t b.c.c. d. e. f.e u n b ld.k i sCompute Your Solar System Knowledge4. Choose a number between 0 and 21 and write it in the first box. Then read each statement, in order, and decide if it is true or false. Circle the appropriate mathematical operation for each statement and perform that operation on your number. Place the new value in the box and repeat the procedure with the next statement. After the last statement, you should have your original number. If not, check your math and your solar system knowledge! My chosen number: a. Particles in a nebula are attracted to one another because of gravity. b. Temperature measures how fast the particles of a substances are moving around. c. Gravity is stronger when objects are far apart. d. 10 million years is pretty fast on a cosmic time scale. e. The motion of the Earth spinning on its axis is called an orbit. f. The motion of the Earth's travel around the sun is called a rotation. g. The gas giants consist of so much gas because of their strong gravity. h. The sun is similar to most of the other stars in our galaxy. TRUE 9 6 20 2 5 12 3 11 FALSE 8 4 30 3 4 21 9 7Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.40HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSA Family of PlanetsPlanetary Omission Puzzles1. When combined and rearranged, the missing letters from the alphabets below will spell a word from the chapter. What are the words? BCFGHJKLMNPQUVWXYZ a. ABDFGHIJKLNPQRSUVWXYZ b.Dr. Emma Nint2. Dr. Emma Nint has a dream of renaming the planets of our solar system with a more rational, scientific system. She has devised a numerical system for naming the planets, but has not given you a complete list or an explanation of her naming system. Figure out what each set of numbers represents and complete her list. (You'll probably need to refer to your book for help.) The three listed planets are: 1/39.53/2320/p 8/30.06/49528/nCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.21/19.19/51118/u Write the names of the other planets in the solar system using the doctor's system.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS41BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintA Family of Planets, continuedDr. Moonunit3. Dr. Moonunit sent three exhibits to an astronomy conference. Each arrived in a large truck. The Doctor sent word ahead that one truck would contain an asteroid, one would contain a comet, and one would contain a meteorite. When the trucks arrived, however, they were not labeled. Organizers decided to open the trucks and ask you to identify the contents. On opening the first truck, however, the assembled scientists gasped. The exhibit had apparently been stolen, for the truck contained nothing but a huge puddle of dirty water. The second truck yielded a 7 kilogram rock with a label that read, &quot;Recovered by Antarctic Expedition, 8/11/99.&quot; Everyone looked puzzled, except for you. You declared that you did not even need for the third truck to be opened in order to label the three exhibits. How did you label the first, second, and third shipments? Explain.The Doctors' DebateCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Dr. Crudley attended the same conference, and she brought evidence of a newly discovered comet. She had two photographs of what she hoped to name Crudley's Comet. Dr. Arbogast was an orthodontist, not an astronomer, but he was jealous that Crudley's name might be forever associated with a celestial body. Arbogast examined the photographs and declared that Crudley was a fraud. &quot;These aren't even the same comet!&quot; he exclaimed, holding the two photographs up together. Sure enough, the photos revealed one comet with a long, streaming tail and what appeared to be a completely different comet with a short, stubby tail. But, of course, you and the astronomers had a perfectly sound explanation for this. What was your explanation?42HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackPrintName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSExploring SpaceUp There in the Sky1. There are some important terms orbiting the chapter. Unfortunately, they are so far away that they all seem to blend together. We know that there are three terms with a total of seven words, and thanks to radar we know where the spacing should be. Moving from left to right, stick the following clusters of letters together to discover which terms are orbiting. (Hint: All the letters will be used.) ar ge lo ti os we fi yn ar ci ch th al ro or sa no bi te us t ll or it bi e t a. b. c.text text text text text text textSpace Probes2. The Space Probe Hall of Fame has been infiltrated by space probe impersonators. The manager of the hall needs your help catching the impostors. Circle the names of the real space probes below. Galileo LeonardoCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Deep Space 1 Viking I Lunar I Huygens Luna 9 Mars Pathfinder Moondust Hijinks Pioneer 10Copernicus Venera 9 Cassini ClementineStardust S. Grant Lamentine Voyager 1Mars Range Rover Marinara 10Keep Probing3. From the list in puzzle 2, identify the 7 probes that have gone or will go to the outer planets of our solar system.text text text textSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERStext text text43BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintExploring Space, continuedSpace Rhyme Time4. The following clues come in two parts. The first part describes a space exploration term, and the second part describes a word that rhymes with it. a. to break away from a planet's gravitational pull, and a curtain for it to hide behindb. the force that accelerates a rocket, and the tiny particles that get blown around in the processc. a machine that uses escaping gas to move, and a pouch to carry it inThe Laws of Physics5. Professor Morris has some ideas for launching a rocket. One of her ideas is trying to break the laws of physics. In the spaces, identify each good idea with a chapter term. Beneath any bad ideas, write Breaking the Law. a. Fill a chamber with hot gases that are under very high pressure with no opening for the gases to escape. Make the walls of the chamber exert the same pressure inward that the gases are exerting outward.b. Release hot gas through a small valve above the exhaust nozzle. Release the gas in one direction out the tail end of the rocket.c. Attach a chute to the tail of the rocket just below the exhaust nozzle. With the chute, channel the escaping hot gases up the rocket and through an input valve back into the combustion chamber.d. What law is the bad idea trying to break?44HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrintAnswer KeyMany of the questions in this workbook are open-ended and thus are intended to elicit thoughtful, creative responses. Therefore, in many cases a variety of correct answers are possible and any reasonable answer should be accepted. Suggested answers are provided below for open-ended questions as well as for questions that prompt students for morespecific responses.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The World of Earth Science, p. 1 1. dinosaur 2. a. geologists b. oceanographers c. astronomers d. geologists e. meteorologists f. meteorologists g. oceanographers h. oceanographers i. astronomers j. astronomers k. meteorologists 3. a. mass; b. cylinder; c. graduated; d. question; e. analyze; f. hypothesis; g. communicate; h. model; i. volume; j. safety; k. meter; seismosaurus 4. Ecosystem Maps as Models of the Earth, p. 3 1. a. true north b. magnetic declination c. S d. latitude e. by identifying and flying to a reference point 2. a. legend b. verbal scale c. relief d. compass rose 3. Amy used a conic projection. Camille's chin would be at the bottom of the paper, her ears would be on the sides, and her hairline would be at the top. Camille's chin would bevery broad. There would be an arc of no distortion through the middle of her face. Her forehead would be very narrow. Minerals of the Earth's Crust, p. 5 1. diamond, emerald, opal, ruby, sapphire, topaz 2. b. quilt calcite (\$2) c. quiz calcite (\$2) d. cauliflower quartz (\$1) e. quick amethyst (\$5) f. apples quartz (\$1) Jermaine made more money (\$7). 3. a. topaz corundum 17 b. 11 diamond talc c. diamond quartz calcite (or apatite gypsum calcite) d. apatite orthoclase 30 e. topaz / fluorite gypsum f. 24 / fluorite orthoclase g. talc quartz topaz 16 Rocks: Mineral Mixtures, p. 7 1. a. no (need aragonite) b. no (need biotite mica) c. yes 2. a. sample answer: Metamorphic Mike b. sample answer: Igneous Inez c. sample answer: May the Melodious Metamorphic 3. a. sandstone b. schist c. gabbro d. muscovite mica 4. dike, pluton, batholithSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS45ANSWER KEYBackEnergy Resources, p. 9 1. a. bitum in US Bituminous b. few ells Fuels c. smoke in FOG smog d. krypt on 91 krypton-91 e. fish on powered fission powered f. water wheel 2. a. windmill b. strip mines c. fossil fuels d. natural gas 3. conservati[on] 79 99 23 1 1 22 80 100 45 5 6 36 5 6 25 25 36 11 4. lignite The Rock and Fossil Record, p. 11 1. a. radiometric dating b. geologic time c. radioactive decay d. trace fossil 2. a. 21, 28 (Add the number of the position in the sequence to the previous value.) b. O, C (geologic periods) 3. amber 4. Dinosaur: 2 Bumblebee: 1 Pigeon: 4 Sloth: 3 Elephant: 5 Plate Tectonics, p. 13 1. a. stress press b. crust rust c. fault vault d. core store 2. a. reverse fault b. normal fault c. strike-strip fault 3. a. divergent boundary b. convergent boundaryPrintc. transform boundary d. subduction zone 4. tens. I, on tension Earthquakes, p. 15 1. Hanshin, divergent, seismologist, Moho, moonquake, Viking, 2. a. focus, epicenter b. seismographs, seismograms c. gap hypothesis d. active tendon system Shake, rattle, and roll! 3. a. F b. F c. T d. T e. F f. T g. F h. F i. F j. T k. F They are most likely to occur between g and i. Volcanoes, p. 17 1. a. Aa is the only term that is not thrown from an explosive eruption. b. Silica is the only term that is not a form of lava. c. Pahoehoe is the only term that is not a pyroclastic material. d. Crater is the only term that is not a type of volcano. You would hope to escape. 2. a. hot spot b. AA c. Ring of Fire 3. a. lava b. crater c. magma d. lapilli e. caldera f. fallout g. ash 4. a. T b. T c. F d. T e. T f. F g. T h. T i. T The volcano will erupt, based on answers to g, h, i. Weathering and Soil Formation, p. 19 1. The words on the right all name agents of weathering; none of the words on the left do. 2. a. Tropical topsoil is thin. b. Temperate soil is fertile.46HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackPrint3. Abrasion is the grinding of rocks to wear down exposed surfaces. (The alphabet is transposed by three letters.) 4. a. ice wedging b. gravity c. animals d. lichens e. oxygen &amp; ironCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.The Flow of Fresh Water, p. 21 1.a. water table b. runoff c. channel d. gradient e. percolation f. drainage basin g. precipitation h. evaporation i. groundwater j. alluvial fan k. deposition l. aquifer m. tributaries n. condensation o. sinkhole p. artesian q. erosion r. porosity 2. You need water to live. 3. a. porosity b. artesian spring Agents of Erosion and Deposition, p. 23 1. a. sea stacks b. headland c. barrier spit d. sandbar 2. a. loess b. saltation c. abrasion d. deflation 3. a. F b. F c. F d. T The wave will be 10 m tall. 4. icebergExploring the Oceans, p. 25 1. a. oceanic zone (anglerfish) b. intertidal or hadal zone (clam) c. bathyal zone (octopus) d. neritic zone (dolphin) e. abyssal zone (tube worms) 2. a. trenches b. water vapor c. nodules 3. a. benthos b. benthic c. nekton d. plankton e. rift f. pelagic g. seamount The Movement of Ocean Water, p. 27 1. 3 across: Coriolis effect 5 across: upwelling 8 across: trough 9 across: tsunami 1 down: salinity 2 down: gulf stream 4 down: California current 6 down: kontiki 7 down: winds 2. a. tidal bore b. surface current c. wave d. salinity e. wave crest f. deep current g. undertow 3. a. surf's up b. high and low tides c. upwelling The Atmosphere, p. 29 1. a. global warming b. conduction c. greenhouse effect d. convection e. radiationSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS47ANSWER KEYBack2. a. trade winds b. westerlies c. polar easterlies d. jet streams 3. a. energy b. ozone c. altitude d. wind e. exhaust We couldn't be here without it: oxygen 4. a. smog b. soot c. ozone d. smoke e. sulfur oxides f. carbon monoxidePrintd. taiga (move tropical rainforest here) e. tropical rainforest (move temperate here) f. chaparral (move polar here) 4. a. ice. Age ice age b. surface currently surface current c. Grande Fore Station deforestation d. global. Warm in glowing global warming Studying Space, p. 35 1. equator, pole, zenith, altitude, declination, horizon 2. a. dozen I think zenith b. lemon, the month c. past Ron O., my astronomy d. eye articulated year 3. a. false b. true c. true d. true e. false f. true g. false h. true The constellation is the Big Dipper. Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe, p. 37 1. a. pair of LACKs parallax b. Procy on B Procyon B c. ALPHAs in tauri Alpha Centauri d. prot on star proton star e. knee on gas neon gas f. white dwarves 2. Alpha Centauri 3. a. black hole b. big bang theory c. spectrum d. super nova e. red giant f. H-R diagram 4. a. cosmology b. hydrogen c. nebula d. Sol e. spectrumClimate, p. 33 1. a. temperate grassland b. chaparral c. tropical rain forest d. tundra e. desert 2. a. 0° latitude at the Equator b. 90° latitude at the North and South Poles c. 23.5° angle of the Earth's tilt d. 23.5° latitude of the Tropical Zone 3. a. temperate (move tropical here) b. tropical (move taiga here) c. polar (move chaparral here)48HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Understanding Weather, p. 31 1. a. mT b. mP c. mT d. cT e. cP 2. a. occluded b. warm front c. cold front 3. a. rain gauge b. wind sock c. thermometer d. anemometer e. psychrometerBackPrintf. the big bang g. quasar h. absolute i. spiral j. neutron k. orange main sequenceFormation of the Solar System, p. 39 1. a. Orbit is the only term that is not a part of the Earth. b. Crust is the only term that is not an part of the sun. c. Radiative zone is the only term that is not part of a planet's formation. d. Ellipse is the only term that is not part of the sun. code word: core 2. a. chromosphere (chrome oh sphere) b. planetesimal (plan a test a mall) c. orbit (oar bit) 3. a. gas b. gravity c. nebula d. disk e. dust f. cloud 4. a. T b. T c. F d. T e. F f. F g. T h. TCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.0/.72/12104/v 0/.39/4878/m *The numbers are three different facts about each planet, separated by slash marks. The first number is the number of natural satellites the planet has. The second number represents the planet's distance from the sun in AU. The third is each planet's diameter in kilometers. The letter at the end of each sequence is merely the initial letter of the planet's traditional name. 3. The first shipment was a comet. The second was a meteorite, the third, an asteroid. *The third truck revealed a 5 meter-long chunk of metallic rock. 4. The picture of the long-tailed comet was a picture of what would later be known as Crudley's Comet, taken when the comet was close to the sun. The short-tailed comet was the same comet farther from the sun. Exploring Space, p. 43 1. a. artificial satellite b. geosynchronous orbit c. low Earth orbit 2. circled names: Galileo, Deep Space 1, Viking I, Venera 9, Stardust, Cassini, Huygens, Pioneer 10, Clementine, Luna 9, Voyager 1, Mars Pathfinder, 3. Pioneer 10, Voyager 1, Galileo, Cassini, Huygens 4. a. escape drape b. thrust dust c. rocket pocket 5. a. Newton's third law of motion b. pressure c. breaking the law d. Newton's third law of motionA Family of Planets, p. 41 1. a. asteroid b. comet 2. 18/9.54/120536/s 16/5.20/142984/j 2/1.52/6794/m 1/1.00/12756/eSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS49ANSWER KEYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe World of Physical ScienceFractured Frames1. Each frame represents a word from the chapter, if you read it in just the right way. Write the answer to the puzzle in the blank.cylinderb.metera.texttextWordy Numbers2. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words using the letters on a telephone keypad. For example, 878-6738 can spell TRUMPET. Use the keypad and the following company mottoes to decide which word from the chapter each company uses for its phone number.1Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.ABC2DEF3 6 9GHI4JKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*#a. (266) 258-7466 &quot;For the scientist in need of decisions&quot;b. (497) 684-3747 &quot;Guesses Unlimited&quot;c. 336-7489 &quot;High or low, we're in the business of matter&quot;SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS1BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe World of Physical Science, continuedThe Inside Story3. Max E. Mumwords and his wife, Minnie, are both scientists at Blah Labs. Max always uses the definition of a word instead of the word itself, a confusing way of speaking that only his wife understands. Nat, who writes the gossip column in the lab newsletter, overhears one of their conversations and wants to write a story about it. Minnie speaks so softly, though, that Nat cannot hear all that she is saying. Help Nat get the scoop by filling in the blanks below with a vocabulary word from the chapter. Max: I read in an amount of space that something occupies of Bell Jar Weekly that only 10% of scientists think green walls make them feel blue. I wonder if that statistic applies to our laboratory? a. Minnie: Thattextis outdated.Max: Well, even so, it's an interesting unifying explanation for a broad range of hypotheses and observations supported by testing. Our lab has green walls, and I'm blue. b. Minnie: My of your job.textis that you are tiredMax: There is no summary of many experimental results and observations that says that you have to like your job. c. Minnie: True, no suchtextexists.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Max: I've thought about quitting the lab and going into the fashion industry. I hear that Socks for Jocks is looking for a sock representation of an object or system. I do have particularly nice ankles. Don't you think? d. Minnie: A job.text, now that's a brainyMax: Well, it happens to be the only job posting in the entire measure of how much surface an object has. e. Minnie: No, Max, there are plenty more jobs in ourtext.Max: The measure of how hot or cold something is in here seems particularly uncomfortable. I wonder if the AC works. f. Minnie: Yes, the leave.textis high. Let'sMax: Yes, let's. The parking basic unit of length in the SI system is running out and we can't afford to get a ticket. g. Minnie: True. I'd hate to run up thetext.2HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Properties of MatterLet's Go Bowling1. The 7­10 Splits, a bowling team, won their Tuesday night league championship. To celebrate, they threw a party. Here are some events that occurred during the party. a. Randy, the captain of the bowling team, set up the ten pins in his basement bowling lane and got out his two favorite bowling balls. After a quick spit-polish, his teammate, Nigel, rolled the purple ball down the lane toward the pins. Nigel knocked down all ten pins. He then tossed the green ball to his friend Basil, who tossed it back, declaring, &quot;I never use a green ball on a full moon. It's bad luck.&quot; So Nigel tossed him the purple ball. Nigel noted that the green ball was more difficult to throw than the purple ball. Basil noticed that the green ball was more difficult to stop than the purple ball. Both balls are exactly the same size. Why might the purple ball be easier to set into motion and stop moving than the green ball?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.b. For the party, Basil baked a victory cake shaped like a huge bowling ball. On the cake he placed 10 candles, one for each team victory in the championship tournament. The candles burned for 15 minutes before the team blew them out, leaving puddles of wax on top of the cake. What kind of change did the wax undergo?c. What kind of change occurred with the wick?d. Basil's enormous cat Binkie ate three large pieces of cake. Bud's tiny dog Booboo ate two. Binkie became sleepy from overeating, so he lay down on the floor to take a nap. Booboo ran laps around the basement at a constant speed, yapping loudly. Booboo had run four laps before he tripped over Binkie and landed on the floor. What stopped Booboo? (circle one) a. Binkie's inertia b. Binkie's momentum c. Booboo's inertia d. Booboo's momentumSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS3BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Properties of Matter, continuedWeight Is . . .2. Professor Anastasio has written some statements for his students to help them understand weight. Unfortunately, the statements are more confusing than they need to be. What is each phrase really trying to say about weight? a. a calculation of the attractional pressure on a directive.b. varied depending on where the object is in relation to the third stone from the sun (or any other corpulent headless mass in the universe).c. calculated with a rainy season's fish armor.d. spoken in fig cookies.Mass Is . . .3. Professor Anastasio's student Jon has tried to help his poor teacher. Regrettably, Jon is more mixed up than his professor. He has mistakenly replaced some of the key words in these statements about mass with words that sound similar but make the statements gibberish. Provide the correct terms in the blanks below the statements. a. a pleasure of the amount of clutter in an inject.b. always consent for a reject no matter where the reject is in the poetic verse.c. espresso in kilography, graham crackers, and minigraham crackers.4HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSStates of MatterMystery Jars1. The labels have fallen off three jars in the chemistry lab. Jill, Jess, and Juan are each holding a jar. One jar contains a solid, another jar contains a liquid, and the third jar contains a gas. They know that the substances contained in the jars are nitrogen monoxide, silicon dioxide, and hydrogen hydroxide. Use the clues provided below to match the jars with their contents and the students holding them. Then, in the space provided below, write the new label that describes the contents and identifies who last handled the jar. The grid provided below may help you organize the information and solve the puzzle. Clues: · Juan is not holding jar C, nor does he have the solid. · Silicon dioxide is not a liquid, and it is not in jar B. · Nitrogen monoxide is a gas. · Jar A does not contain a gas, and it is not being held by Jill. · The jar Jess is holding is not marked with a C, nor does it contain hydrogen hydroxide. · The liquid is not in jar A. · Neither Jess nor Jill have the gas. Place an X in the box if the descriptions belong to the same jar. Place an O in the box if the descriptions belong to different jars. A nitrogen monoxide silicon dioxide hydrogen hydroxide solid liquid gas Jill Jess Juan Labels: a. Jar A b. Jar B c. Jar CSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BCJillJessJuansolid liquidgas5BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintStates of Matter, continuedWhat's The Matter?2. Four words associated with matter will fill the boxes below. The letter for each individual box is one of two choices, indicated by the codes above and below the boxes. The codes lead you to a letter in the 5 5 grid below. For example, the first letter could be either T or P. Circle the appropriate letter in each box to spell four matter-related words.C3 A3 E2 D4 C3 E2 C5 C2 A2 D2 C2 A3 B1 A1 B3 A2 C2 E4 B2 B3E4 A1 C2 A2 A5 D5C3 E2 C4A3 E1 D3 E3 E1 C5A5 E2 A3 E1 C1A 1 2 3 4 5BCDER U Y F I S E O J A L D T Q H C Z N W P M V G B KVenn Diagram ScramblersCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.3. Each Venn diagram contains three words associated with states of matter. The letters of the words have been scrambled, and some of the letters are common between more than one word. Unscramble the letters of each word, being sure to include the letters that are also common to one or both of the other words. Write the names of the three words for each Venn diagram in the space provided.O D N L N E E T M O V R Z P A I M E O I N A T S B UO I G Z F R IBC N Ltext text texttext text text6HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSElements, Compounds, and MixturesI Am Not a Metalloid1. Professor Medeski, the mad scientist, wants to create an army of metalloids to take over the world. He has made a number of prototypes and named them after his friends. Professor Medeski must now test the prototypes. Based on each test result, help Professor Medeski identify (in the spaces below) his creations as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid. a. Carrie is difficult to shape, and when struck with an anvil she shatters.b. Tom is shiny and easy to shape, but when dropped into water he rusts.c. Lydia is shiny and may by hammered into a thin sheet or drawn into a small wire, but when thrown in the fire she gets hot too quickly.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. Pete is dull in appearance, but when mixed with silicon he becomes a working computer chip.e. Molly fills whatever container she occupies, but when thrown in the fire she is slow to react.f. Chia has a shiny surface, and when mixed with others she becomes a good conductor.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS7BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintElements, Compounds, and Mixtures, continuedAlloys or Allies2. The words on the left are all descriptive terms for one of the words on the right. Circle the word that makes the best ally. concentrated dilute saturated solution compound elementOrdered Squares3. Each of the three squares below contains an eight-letter word related to the periodic table. The letters of each word are arranged in order in the square when you move either clockwise or counterclockwise. Write the words on the lines beneath the squares. P O U a. N M O C D b. N O N L M E T A c. U R E S T X I MMixturesCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.4. Each of the following clues contains an anagram for a process or tool used to separate mixtures. The letters of the anagrams are in italics. Rearrange the letters in italics and write the answer in the blank. a. To attract them with one of these, you may need heavy iron plates to tag men. (tool)b. You may need to relift a component with a beaker or a wheelbarrow, depending on how much compound you pass through one of these. (tool)c. After doing this to purify water at the Bunsen burner station, some people like to add dill for flavor--I know I do. (process)8HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSMatter and MotionDaffy Definitions1. Below are some really silly definitions for words found in the chapter. The number after each word shows the number of letters in the answer. See how many you can solve! a. A very weighty subject (7) b. Opposite of a lubrican (9) c. Web propulsion (8) d. Roman &quot;five,&quot; low metropolis (8) e. Presently falling forward, also forces (10) f. The weight of 2,000 frics (8) g. Playground pastime; type of friction (7) h. 2000 pounds never seen before (6)A-maze-ingCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.2. Follow the maze below in the proper order to spell out a word from the chapter.StartFinishword:SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS9BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintMatter and Motion, continuedRiddles3. Solve the following riddles about terms from the chapter. a. When the reference point looks for me, I'm not where I used to be. I'm fast and I'm slow, I'm there whenever you go. What am I?b. On just two things I depend: How long I took and where I've been; Some confuse me with velocity, Though it is not the same as me (Well, not exactly). What am I?d. I'm often quite strong (I do rhyme with horse); The unit I use Is Newtons, of course! What am I?10HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.c. From dirt on the road To water in the ocean, I'm a force that opposes motion. What am I?BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSForces in MotionLetter Comet1. Commander Eileen Collins was playing Scrabble® with her fourman crew on board the KC-135. In this game, new words are formed by adding wooden tiles, each with a letter and a point value, to a board. Each word must share at least one letter with the word it crosses. The numbers on the tiles are added to find the score for each word. When the crew of the KC-135 play, they use only words from their favorite chapter, &quot;Forces in Motion.&quot; Just after Commander Collins spelled centripetal on the board, the KC-135 tipped downward, throwing many of the tiles into free fall. Only the tiles that were sticky from yesterday's orange-juice spill didn't fly off. Help them figure out where the other tiles belong. (Each tile is used only once.) Write the correct letters on the board.O N1O T1E U1T N1R F1M R3R E1A S1E P1W A41111411131S1MCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.3I N C E31 1 1N T O1 11M A31C E31I1T1L1Pilot Jeffrey Ashby remembered that his score was 10 but forgot the word he'd spelled during his only turn. Which word did he spell?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS11BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintForces in Motion, continuedNature Poems2. Below are four poems that represent four terms from the chapter. Read the poem and decide which word it best represents, then write the correct term under the poem that describes it. Terms: momentum, orbit, action/reaction forces, projectile motion golf ball desiring the air still you fall quickly loving the Earth a. for the quarterback the tackle's only gift waits unwanted c. the universe offers itself the moon's face hides from what it cannot have b. the man pushes a cart pushing the man the mountain sleeps d.Can't We All Just Get Along?3. Five types of forces in motion have applied to rent one house. Two of them, however, refuse to live in the same room. Which two refuse to share a room? Explain.12HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSForces in FluidsUnder Pressure1. Becky Beaker has a very adventurous robot. To keep track of her roaming robot, she has attached a device that will measure atmospheric pressure. The table at the bottom of this page indicates the approximate pressure of air at various locations where her robot might be found. Using the questions below, you can determine the atmospheric pressure where Becky's robot is currently located. Begin with the first statement and decide if it is true or false. Then circle the mathematical expression under the correct column. Then follow the directions that you have circled. The atmospheric pressure you end up with will guide you to the robot. True a. Liquids are fluids, but gases are not. b. Liquids generally cannot be compressed as much as gases, making liquids ideal in hydraulic systems. c. Water exerts greater pressure than air.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.False start with 2 kPa add 6start with 3 kPa multiply by 12add 3 subtract 8 add 1divide by 3 multiply by 11 divide by 9d. The upward force on an airplane is called thrust. e. Objects that are less dense than water tend to sink when placed in water. LocationAtmospheric pressure 0 kPa 20 kPa 33 kPa 51 kPa 101 kPaorbiting the Earth in a space shuttle flying a jet plane hiking at the top of Mt. Everest driving through downtown La Paz, Bolivia making sand castles at the beach Where is Becky's robot?SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS13BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintForces in Fluids, continuedSpilled Shipment!2. Three crates of balls from Ball, Inc. were accidentally dropped into a lake near the factory. Fortunately, Ball, Inc. packages all of its products in water-tight crates so none of the goods will be damaged. However, the company doesn't keep very good records, so the following information is all that is available. Of the crates that were dropped in the lake, one was blue, one was red, and one was tan. They were also labeled A, B, and C. The crates had different densities (0.5 g/cm3, 1.0 g/cm3, and 1.5 g/cm3) and contained different equipment (soccer balls, golf balls, and tennis balls). You must use the clues provided below to match the crates with their contents and densities. The grid provided may help you to organize the information and solve the puzzle. Clues: · · · · · · · · Crate A does not have the greatest density, nor is it red. The soccer balls are not in crate B. The density of crate B is less than the density of crate C. The crate containing golf balls is not blue. The crate with the greatest density does not contain soccer balls. Crate A is tan, but there are no tennis balls in it. Crate B is not red. The crate having the lowest density contains the tennis balls.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Place an X in the box if the descriptions belong to the same crate. Place an O in the box if the descriptions belong to different crates. A 0.5 g/cm 1.0 g/cm3 1.5 g/cm3 soccer golf tennis blue red tan3BCblueredtansoccergolftennisa. Crate A b. Crate B c. Crate C14HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSWork and MachinesParallel Puzzle1. What do all the words in the left column have in common that is not shared by any of the words in the right column? ramp screw chisel doorstop hammer faucet axle hingeWheel Puzzle2. The wheels of this machine are identical. They all have an outer circumference of 10 cm and an inner shaft circumference of 5 cm. If the crank is rotated one quarter turn counterclockwise, where will the clock's hand point?Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.11 12 1 2 10 9 3 4 8 7 6 5SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS15BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintWork and Machines, continuedWordy Numbers3. Vanity phone numbers are numbers which can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words. For example, a car dealer might choose the number 289-2277, which can be spelled as BUY CARS. What word from the chapter could each of the numbers below represent?1 4ABC2DEF3 6 9GHIJKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*#a. 785-5397 (the wheel deal)b. 639-8667 (apple dodger)c. 622-4463 (let it do the work)Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.d. 385-2786 (an important point)e. (333) 424-3629 (friction gets in its way)Anagrams4. Rearrange the letters from the following words to reveal a fact about force. FOX ENTERS PINE DEN CROSSWISE5. Rearrange these letters to reveal a fact about work. DOMESTIC RICE SKIN SOFTWARE16HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSEnergy and Energy ResourcesWhen They Were in the 8th Grade (Tall Tales)1. When they were in the 8th grade, some famous scientists and inventors had some strange ideas about various types of energy. From the clues, identify the types of energy and write them in the blanks. a. Sir Isaac Newton wanted to invent an air conditioner for birds. He constructed a fanlike device and pointed it at the apple tree where his favorite birds perched. The fan converted the energy of the apples in the tree into energy, and they fell on Newton's head. And now we have a theory of gravity. b. Robert Oppenheimer wanted to make water lighter so that his pack would weigh less when he went hiking. He decided to do this by splitting the hydrogen atom (of which there are two per each water molecule) in half. The result was a large explosion caused by a chain reaction. The energy produced was energy. c. Albert Einstein wanted to measure the intensity of the light from Alpha Centauri, the star closest to the Earth after our sun. He knew that once the vibrations of electrically charged particles left Alpha Centauri it would take the energy about four years to reach his telescope. His anticipation made each year seem like a decade. From this he developed the theory of relativity.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Word Connections2. Each of the following sentences contains a hidden word from the chapter. These words can be found by looking at part of one word somewhere in the sentence and connecting it to the beginning of the next word(s). For example, the word undo could be hidden between the words run, dogs. Circle the hidden word in each example. a. Don't ask me, Chan. I calibrated the other sphygmomanometers. b. Man, these peppers are potent! I already can't feel my tongue! c. These are sour celery drops, a fabulous candy I just invented.SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS17BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintEnergy and Energy Resources, continuedRenewable Alphabet3. Some energy resources can be used and then replaced in nature over a short period of time. Below is a list of letters. Beside each letter is a number designating the amount of times you can use the letter resource before it is depleted. Use the letters to identify the type of renewable energy resource described by the clues. a-4 n-1 b-1 o-3 d-1 r-3 e-3 s-3 g-1 t-2 h-1 w-2 i-2 l-2 m-2a. Organic matter that can be burned to release energy.b. It is caused by the sun's uneven heating of the Earth's surface.c. It falls from the sky and flows downhill to empty into large bodies.d. Energy resulting from the heating of the Earth's crust.e. It is converted into electrical energy through cells on rooftops.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.What a Mess4. Kristi dropped her backpack on her way to class. As a result, some important chapter terms got scrambled in with her lunch. Each term has combined with one lunch item. Help her unscramble them. Chapter Term a. pfeosasniult bufutetlers b. fjerictlilyon c. nobrunresneswelsable spresroouurtcess Lunch Item18HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSHeat and Heat TechnologyFractured Frames1. Solve these puzzles to reveal words from the chapter.Absolute 0Convect Heata.textb.textWordy Numbers2. Vanity phone numbers are numbers that can be spelled out in easy-to-remember words using the letters on a telephone keypad. For example, 878-6738 can spell TRUMPET. Use the keypad and these company mottoes to decide which word from the chapter each company uses for its number.1Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.ABC2DEF3 6 9GHI4JKL5 8 0MNOPRS7TUVWXY*#a. (324) 736-4348 &quot;The oldest name in thermometers&quot;b. (467) 852-8466 &quot;The heat stops here&quot;c. (266) 832-8466 &quot;The best forced-air heating on the planet&quot;SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS19BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintHeat and Heat Technology, continuedA Problem of Scale3. The thermometers in Miss Messy's science class are not in very good shape. On some of them, the units have been rubbed off from use, while on others the scale marks are missing entirely. The school can't afford new thermometers, so her class has to make do with what they have. Melba and Mona are using thermometers with scale marks, but they do not know what units they designate. Malik found one that has readable degree markings, but the numbers have worn off, so he arbitrarily writes in new numbers with a marker. Manuel is using a thermometer that has no markings at all, so he has drawn degree markings randomly with a marker and chosen values for them. They all use the thermometers and obtain the following measurements.Boiling water Melba Mona Malik Manuel 212 373 220 200 Ice water 32 273 40 0 Room temperature 68 293 76 40Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Body temperaturea. What kind of thermometer is Melba using?b. What kind of thermometer is Mona using?c. Before the numbers had worn off and Malik wrote in his own numbering system, what scale do you think this thermometer displayed?d. What equation would you use to convert &quot;degrees Manuel&quot; into degrees Celsius?e. If the class were allowed to use the thermometers to determine their normal body temperature, what would each thermometer read? Write your answers in the chart.20HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYBackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSIntroduction to AtomsMystery Guests1. The three particles of an atom appeared recently on a talk show, and they stood behind a screen to hide their identities. (Not that you could see them anyway.) Identify their statements below, based on what you know about their characteristics. a. I don't mean to be negative all the time, but, well, I'm always on the go.b. Me? I stay positive. It's the only way I know how to be.c. I have almost no mass--no weight to throw around. And just once I'd like to be at the center of things.d. I stay neutral on most nuclear issues.e. When we (other particles just like me) outnumber the electrons, the whole atom has a more positive energy.Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Sound Alikes2. Each clue below will lead you to one or two short words. Combine the syllables to find the hidden terms, which are used in the study of atoms. a. Frozen water A breakfast grain A famous comedian named Bob; A TV hospital show: Chicagob. A long skinny fish; one is electricWhen the teacher speaks in classThe opposite of &quot;offs&quot;SCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERS21BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintIntroduction to Atoms, continuedDouble Puzzle3. Use the clues below to fill in the blanks and boxes provided. Then arrange the letters from the boxes to answer the final riddle. a. Thompson's negative discovery b. a model English dessert c. Dalton knew oxygen and hydrogen were both these. d. Protons and electrons have this. e. a well tested, unifying explanation It's a central theme of this chapter:Where's the Electron?4. The exact position of an electron cannot be predicted by modern atomic theory. But you can make a guess. Find three true statements in a row, and you are in the electron's neighborhood! Place your answers (true or false) in the ring and circle the electron's neighborhood. b. a. All substances are made of atoms. b. Aristotle did not believe there was such a a. thing as an &quot;atom.&quot; c. The idea of an &quot;atom&quot; has been around for only about 200 years. d. The negatively charged particles withj. in the atom are called electrons. e. A model is a representation of an object or a system. f. Rutherford proposed the center of the i. atom was a negatively charged nucleus. g. The positively charged particles within the nucleus are called protons. h. h. The particles in the nucleus that have no charge are called neutrons. g. i. The electrons contain most of the atom's mass. j. The diameter of the nucleus is about 1/100,000 the diameter of the atom.c.d.e.f.22HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSThe Periodic TablePeriodic Crime1. This is an eyewitness account of a crime recently committed. Which element committed the crime? &quot;He was definitely a metal, but really soft, like you could cut him with a knife. As he ran past us, we squirted him with a water gun. He burst into flame! It was unbelievable. We almost had him cornered, but he pulled out a vial of chlorine gas and in the blink of an eye, he disappeared. All that was left was a pile of table salt.&quot;Elements in the Round2. Moving from the outside of the circle to the center of the circle, choose one letter from each ring to find the names of eight common elements. Write the names of the elements on the lines provided. Each letter will be used only once.IHLOCPASCopyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.EGLIONFOMNUORIUREXIRPCLECSDSCIENCE PUZZLERS, TWISTERS &amp; TEASERSEYIVENLRKUNBE23BackName _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________PrintThe Periodic Table, continuedElemental E-mail3. A secret society of chemists has formed in order to discuss controversial chemistry issues over the Internet. To conceal their identities, the members use code names in their e-mail addresses. In the example below, Dr. Nancy Ann Fisher, who has the initials NAF, uses sodium fluoride, or NaF, for her e-mail address. (NOTE: When compounds are formed between two elements, the usual ending of the second element is replaced with &quot;-ide.&quot;) For each e-mail address in the left column, write the appropriate chemical symbol in the right column. Then draw a line from the chemical symbol to the name of the person who would have that e-mail address. Email address Ex: [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ a. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ b. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ c. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ d. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ e. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ f. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ g. [email protected]
/* <![CDATA[ */!function(){try{var t="currentScript"in document?document.currentScript:function(){for(var t=document.getElementsByTagName("script"),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute("data-cfhash"))return t[e]}();if(t&&t.previousSibling){var e,r,n,i,c=t.previousSibling,a=c.getAttribute("data-cfemail");if(a){for(e="",r=parseInt(a.substr(0,2),16),n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)i=parseInt(a.substr(n,2),16)^r,e+=String.fromCharCode(i);e=document.createTextNode(e),c.parentNode.replaceChild(e,c)}t.parentNode.removeChild(t);}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */ h. [email protected]

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