Read Discrepant Design: Exploring Levers in the Body text version

Name: Teacher:

ID: Class Period:

Circle Gender & Grade: Male or Female 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Subject: Date:

Discrepant Design: Exploring Levers in the Body Pre/Post Test

For each item, please follow your teacher's instructions to either circle the letter to the left that corresponds with the answer you choose or shade in the corresponding response circle on the answer sheet provided.

____________________

1. The fixed point of support on which a lever turns is called the ... A. arm. B. effort. C. fulcrum.

2. Which of the following line drawings illustrates a first class lever? A. __ E R _

B.

E _

_ R _

C.

E ___R __ _

3. Joint movement in the body occurs when skeletal muscles _____ the bones. A. pull B. push C. signal

4. In the body, a long bone (such as those in the arm or leg) would represent what part of a lever system? A. effort B. fulcrum C. rigid bar

Please turn page over to continue test.

Discrepant Design: Exploring Levers in the Body Activities 1. 2. 3 Pre/Post Test, Revised -- UTHSCSA, 2007

1

Use the information in the box below, along with Figure 1 and Table 1 to answer questions 5 to 10. Information Box 1 Students tested an arm model to explore the concept of "leverage" as it applies to the elbow joint. They examined the effect of distance from the fulcrum to the point of insertion on the joint's angular movement. A pre-measured string was pulled through at the biceps muscle origin during the experiment. A protractor was used to measure the angles. The data they collected are in the chart below. Figure 1: Arm Model

Table 1: Joint Angle at Various Insertion Points "Biceps" Length (cm) of String Pulled through Biceps Origin Point 1 2 3 4 5 (Total) Average Angular Movement per cm of String (Total÷5) 5. In this model, where is the fulcrum? A. shoulder B. elbow C. forearm 6. In this model, the "biceps" was represented by the ... A. brads. B. protractor. C. string. 7. As shown in Table 1, the average angular movement per cm of string at insertion point B ____ as compared with insertion point A. A. decreased B. increased C. remained the same 8. Which insertion point on the model best represents the actual insertion point of the biceps in the body? A. A B. B C. C

Discrepant Design: Exploring Levers in the Body Activities 1. 2. 3 Pre/Post Test, Revised -- UTHSCSA, 2007

Biceps Insertion Point A

(closest to elbow)

Joint Angle in Degrees Biceps Insertion Point B

(midway from elbow)

Biceps Insertion Point C

(furthest from elbow)

8 17 28 37 48 9.6

4 9 13 19 24 4.8

3 6 10 14 17 3.4

2

Use the Information Box 1, Figure 1, and Table 1 from the previous page to answer question 9-10. 9. Pulling the string caused the forearm in the model to move upward. This is similar to what happens when a muscle (in this case the biceps) ... A. extends. B. flexes. C. remains rigid. 10. Which graph best represents the data from Table 1: Joint Angle at Various Insertion Points?

Joint Angle at Various Insertion Points

60

50

Angular Movement (Degrees)

40

A.

30

Insertion A Insertion B Insertion C

20

10

0 1 2 3 4 5

Amount of String Pulled Through Biceps Muscle Origin (cm)

Joint Angles at Various Insertion Points

50 45 40

Angular Movemen

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C 1 cm 2 cm 3 cm 4 cm 5 cm

B.

Insertion Point

Joint Angle at Various Insertion Points (Degrees)

3.4

C.

9.6 4.8

Insertion Point A

Insertion Point B

Insertion Point C

Please turn page over to complete test.

Discrepant Design: Exploring Levers in the Body Activities 1. 2. 3 Pre/Post Test, Revised -- UTHSCSA, 2007

3

Use the information in Table 2, Information Box 2, and Figure 2 to answer questions 11-12. Information Box 2 Students used the arm model shown in Figure 1 to investigate the amount of force used to move the forearm. They recorded their findings in Table 2, above, and illustrated the data in the bar graph, Figure 2, to the right. Table 2: Measuring Forces (Biceps)

Trial Number Effort Force Insertion Point A (N) Effort Force Insertion Point B (N) Effort Force Insertion Point C (N)

1 2 Average

8 8.5 8.25

5 6 5.5

3 4 3.5

Figure 2: Effect of Distance from the Fulcrum on Average Force (Newtons) Required to Move the Forearm

Average Amount of Force Required to Move the Forearm (N)

11. Which of the statements below best describes the forces at each muscle insertion point? A. The force at each muscle insertion point is more than its distance from the fulcrum. B. The greater the force in Newtons, the less the elbow joint moves, but the higher the forearm is lifted. C. The closer the insertion point is to the elbow joint, the more force is required to move the forearm.

Insertion Point A

Insertion Point B

Insertion Point C

12. After the students thoroughly examined the force and angular movement with the arm model, they determined that it took more force to raise the forearm than expected. From their observation, it can be concluded that the arm lever system is designed to use ... A. less force to create more angular movement. B. more force to gain more angular movement. C. more force to produce less angular movement. Figure 3: Knee Lever System Use Figure 3 to respond to item 13. 13. Compare the arm model in Figure 1, with the leg diagram in Figure 3. The thigh muscle in the knee lever system must be strong enough to exert sufficient effort to ... A. move a greater resistance than the biceps. B. support the weight of the upper body. C. resist the movement of the hip.

Discrepant Design: Exploring Levers in the Body Activities 1. 2. 3 Pre/Post Test, Revised -- UTHSCSA, 2007

4

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