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PIONEERS

A Simulation of Decision Making on a Wagon Train

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From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

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Hours of instruction: 15 or more Overview: A simulation of decision making on a wagon train. As members of four simulated wagon trains heading for Oregon in the mid-1800s, students face challenges forcing them to make decisions early pioneers had to make on the trek west. With completed work, students earn "travel points" which move their wagons westward. Your students will: · Assume family identities and select supplies · Keep a travel diary · Make individual and group decisions relating to their travels · Face challenges such as floods, droughts, blocked trails, snakes, and Native Americans · Work in cooperative groups to track their progress along the Hacker Trail · Use math and writing skills

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From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

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PIONEERS

A Simulation of Decision Making on a Wagon Train

Author JOHN WESLEY and his wife Diane currently live and work in Spokane, WA. Since writing his first Interact simulation, Discovery, John has authored or co-authored more than twenty additional Interact publications. Since 1981 John has held a number of positions at Spokane Community College, including Director of Learning Resources, Web Master, Director of Continuing Education, Director of Distance Learning and his current position as Director of Instructional Services. John also teaches a variety of classes and presents workshops related to various aspects of educational technology and distance learning. Before moving to Spokane, John taught elementary and Junior High in the Cajon School District in southern California for ten years.

Copyright © 1974, 2001 Interact 10200 Jefferson Boulevard P.O. Box 802 Culver City, CA 90232 800-359-0961 · www.teachinteract.com ISBN# 1-57336-111-9 Project Editor: Kristen Muir Graphics Editor: Joelyn Brickner Managing Editor: Stacy Yount All rights reserved. Only those pages of this simulation intended for student use as handouts may be reproduced by the teacher who has purchased this teaching unit from Interact. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means--electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording-- without prior written permission from the publisher.

Product Code: INT68

From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

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STANDARDS

P I O N E E R S

The nationwide movement for high standards has not only determined what students should learn, but also has mandated that students demonstrate what they know. PIONEERS is a standards-based program addressing National History and English Language Arts Standards. The content and skills presented in this unit are the targets of most state frameworks for language arts and American history. PIONEERS especially addresses Applied Learning Standards. In the simulation students, organized in wagon trains traveling in the mid-1800s, complete assignments and earn points that take them along a Westward Trail from Independence, Missouri to Oregon. Along the way students make trail decisions that affect their journey. Together they collect data about the problem, generate a list of solutions, and cooperatively decide their course of action. National Standards for History Standards in Historical Thinking Standard 2: The student comprehends a variety of historical sources The student is able to: · Read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into account what the narrative reveals of the humanity of the individuals and groups involved--their probable values, outlook, motives, hopes, fears, strengths, and weaknesses. Standard 3: The student engages in historical issues analysis and interpretation The student is able to: · Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past by demonstrating their differing motives, beliefs, interests, hopes, and fears. Standard 5: Historical issues analysis and decision making The student is able to: · Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation. United States History Standards Era 4 Expansion and Reform (1801­1861) Standard 1: United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans.

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From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

STANDARDS

PIONEERS Teacher Guide

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STANDARDS

P I O N E E R S

PIONEERS Teacher Guide

STANDARDS

NCSS Curriculum Standards for Social Studies Strand 5: Individuals, Groups, & Institutions The learner can: · Demonstrate an understanding of concepts such as role, status, and social class in describing the interactions of individuals and social groups. · Identify and analyze examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and group or institutional efforts to promote social conformity. Strand 6: Power, Authority, & Governance The learner can: · Analyze and explain the ideas and mechanism to meet needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, establish order and security, and balance competing concepts of a just society. · Examine conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations. NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts Standard 7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. Standard 8. Students use a variety of technological and informational resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. California Applied Learning Standards Standard 6. Students will understand how to apply communication skills and techniques. Students will demonstrate ability to communicate orally and in writing. Standard 8. Students will understand the importance of teamwork. Students will work on teams to achieve project objectives.

© 2001 Interact | www.teachinteract.com | INTERACT

From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

Sample pages from PIONEERS http://www.teachinteract.com/[email protected]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

P I O N E E R S

Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Setup Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Unit Time Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Daily Directions Day 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Day 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Day 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Day 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Day 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Day 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Day 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Day 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Day 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Day 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Day 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Day 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Day 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Day 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Day 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Reproducible Masters PIONEER TRAVEL TRIVIA (Pretest/Posttest). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 CHALLENGE PROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 COOPERATIVE GROUP WORK RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 AVAILABLE SUPPLIES LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 HACKER TRAIL MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 DIARY ENTRY RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 WAGON: Travel Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 WAGON MASTER'S LOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 TRAIL DECISION RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 TRAIL DECISIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 WRITING CONVENTIONS RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | © 2001 Interact

From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

CONTENTS

PIONEERS Teacher Guide

Sample pages from PIONEERS http://www.teachinteract.com/[email protected]

PURPOSE

P I O N E E R S

Specifically, your students will experience the following: Knowledge · Supplies that early pioneers took west · Reasons people went west · The effect of nature on pioneer life · Obstacles that pioneers faced · Possible fates that awaited early homesteaders along the trail · The 5 Ws of writing: who, what, where, when, and why Skills · Decision making · Outlining · Note taking · Developing a focus question · Writing a short research paper · Writing diary entries · Working with limited supervision Attitudes · Understanding the importance of the great migration west · Valuing the impact of the human spirit · Appreciating the settlers' rugged life · Valuing teamwork

INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | © 2001 Interact

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 1

From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

PURPOSE

In PIONEERS, students simulate situations and events similar to those experienced by pioneers who headed west in early wagon trains. As settlers heading west during the mid-1800s (1840­1870) the students face challenges such as floods, droughts, blocked trails, snakes, Native Americans, and lack of food. The would-be homesteaders must make numerous individual and smallgroup decisions (e.g., what to do about a lack of water, how to cross a flooded river, how to deal with others on the trail, and which trail to take). These decisions and the other events provide the students with a realistic view of what pioneer life was like, why people went west, and what happened to them along the trail. While learning about wagon trains and pioneer life, students learn how to take notes, how to outline material, and how to write a brief research paper.

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OVERVIEW

P I O N E E R S

2 PIONEERS Teacher Guide

OVERVIEW

PIONEERS starts when students, role-playing family identities on wagon trains, select supplies to take west. The wagon trains then begin the long journey along the Hacker Trail--an imaginative trail patterned after the Oregon and California trails. Along the trail students must make numerous decisions, write diary entries, research and write a paper, and experience various fates. The speed with which wagons move along the trail depends upon the points students earn for their class work. Each student writes four diary entries concerning why they are going west, what happens to them along the way, and how they cross a flooded river. In addition to these diary entries, students make a series of individual and group decisions concerning water rights, which trail to take, and how to handle daily problems that arise along the trail. Once students become involved in moving west they write a short research paper on a topic related to westward expansion in America. Finally, students experience "Fate" during Days 5­14. The Frontier Fates simulate events that might have occurred along the trail west. These fates also provide students with direct involvement in their journey and give them some feeling of the helplessness that early pioneers must have felt. The simulation concludes with the wagon trains either reaching or failing to reach their destination in Oregon. Like all Interact units, PIONEERS provides differentiated instruction through its various learning opportunities. Students learn and experience the knowledge, skills, and attitudes through kinesthetic, hands-on activities. Adjust the level of difficulty as best fits your students when assessing their work, and encourage special needs students to select activities which utilize their strengths and allow them to succeed. Work together with the Resource Specialist, Gifted and Talented Specialist, or other itinerant teacher to coordinate instruction.

© 2001 Interact | www.teachinteract.com | INTERACT

From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

Sample pages from PIONEERS http://www.teachinteract.com/[email protected]

SETUP DIRECTIONS

P I O N E E R S

1. Before You Begin Carefully read PIONEERS in its entirety to become familiar with its elements, lessons, and procedures. Study the Student Guide, which contains student materials and student directions. 2. Timing Options PIONEERS consists of 15 lessons. The Unit Time Chart suggests that you work with each lesson for approximately 60 minutes. This simulation is meant to be flexible. The lesson plans provide only one route to follow. The following suggestions are just a few ways this simulation can be modified. · Use only one or two of the trail decisions as a mini-unit or a decision-making lesson on frontier life. · Use only the diary entries as part of a social studies/language arts unit on frontier life. · Place the students in groups of three or four and use only the selection of supplies activity. This would be an introduction to frontier life and a very good exercise in group decision-making. · Spend additional time on the research skills and writing the research paper. Include expanded lessons on note-taking and the various requirements involved in writing a longer research paper. · Add additional Frontier Fates to portray events and situations you wish to emphasize. · Add additional diary entries or trail decisions to stress facts, events, and situations you deem important for your class. · Supplement the simulation with outside materials such as films, lectures, field trips, and internet resources. 3. Grouping Students Divide your students in advance into four heterogeneous groups (wagon trains). Strive to establish fair cooperative learning groups by including equal distribution of students abilities and personalities between groups. Each wagon train is set up to have a maximum of nine members. The number of students in each wagon train need not be equal, as the scoring procedure will even out any differences (See Setup Directions #10, Pioneer Progress on page 8 for more information). If you have more than 36 students, make five wagon trains and reuse the Wagon Train 1 identities (see page 4 in the Student Guide).

15+ hours Take time to carefully look at the schedule and adapt the unit to meet your students' needs. Take special notice of the short research project during Days 7­10. Additionally, note that the research papers are due back to students on Day 11. Schedule enough time between days 10 and 11 to read, correct, and score the research papers.

See Interact's FUNDAMENTAL STEPS or BASIC STEPS writing programs for complete lessons on writing skills.

Cooperative Groups

INTERACT | Order Direct: 800-359-0961 | © 2001 Interact

PIONEERS Teacher Guide 3

From 'Pioneers'. Product code INT68. Interact. (800) 359-0961. http://www.teachinteract.com/

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