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ISSN 1987-6890

saerTaSoriso samecniero-analitikuri Jurnali

International Scientific-Analytical Journal

5

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 UDC33 E e-49

paata guguSvilis ekonomikis instituti

ekonomisti

saerTaSoriso samecniero-analitikuri Jurnali gamodis 2009 wlis ianvridan

noemberi dekemberi

5

2009

mTavari redaqtori

ramaz abesaZe

samecniero-saredaqcio kolegia

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis wevr-korespondentebi:

vladimer papava, avTandil silagaZe, leo Ciqava

ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtorebi:

iuri ananiaSvili, roz eta asaTiani, klimenti aCelaSvili, Temur beriZe, giorgi berulava, vaxtang burduli, mixeil ToqmaziSvili, murman kvaracxelia, alfred kurataSvili, iakob mesxia, elguja meqvabiSvili, giorgi papava, uSangi samadaSvili, roland sarCimelia, avTandil sulaberiZe, Temur Sengelia, Tina CxeiZe, nodar WiTanava, mixeil jibuti.

akademiuri doqtorebi:

nanuli a revaZe, nana bibilaSvili, merab gvelesiani, lina daTunaSvili, lia ToTlaZe (pasuxismgebeli mdivani), eTer kakulia, nazira kakulia, Tea lazaraSvili (mTavari redaqtoris moadgile), iza naTelauri, nodar xaduri, mamuka xuskivaZe (mTavari redaqtoris moadgile), revaz javaxiSvili.

ucxoeli wevrebi:

eldar ismailovi (azerbaijani), daviT kurtaniZe (aSS), antanas maqstitusi (litva), vladimer menSikovi (latvia), mixeil roketliSvili (aSS), slavomir patricki (poloneTi), dimitri sorokini (ruseTi), andrei hermani (poloneTi). Jurnali xelmZRvanelobs Tavisufali presis principiT. redaqciis Sexeduleba SesaZloa ar emTxveodes avtoris azrs da igi pasuxs ar agebs informaciis sizusteze.

Tbilisi

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J. "ekonomisti", #5

Paata Gugushvili Institute of Economics

EKONOMIST I

International Scientific-analytical Journal Published from January 2009

November December

5

2009

Editor-in-chief

Ramaz Abesadze

SCIENTIFIC-EDITORIAL BOARD

CORRESP ONDING MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF GEORGIA:

Leo Chikava, Vl adi mer Papava, Avtandil Silagadze

DOCTORS OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES:

Kli menti Achelashvili, Iuri Ananiashvili, Roseta Asati ani, Temur Beri dze, Giorgi Berulava, Vakhtang Burduli, Nodar Chi tanava, Tina Chkhei dze, Mikhail Ji buti , Murman Kvaratskhelia, Alfred Kuratashvili, Jakob Meskhia, Elg uja Mek vabishvili, Gi orgi Papava, Ushangi Samadashvili, Roland Sarchi melia, Temur Shengelia, Avtandil Sulaberi dze, Mikhail Tok mazishvili.

ACADEMIC DOCTORS:

Nanuli Arevadze, Nana Bi bilashvili, Lina Datunashvili, Merab Gvelesiani, Revaz Javakhishvili, Nazira Kakulia, Eteri Kakulia, Tea Lazarashvili (deputy edi tor-in-chief), Iza Natelauri, Nodar Khaduri, Mamuka Khuskivadze (deputy editor-in-chief), Li a Totladze (executi ve secretary).

FOREIGN MEMSERS:

El dar Is mailov (Azerbai jan), Davi d Kurtani dze (USA), Antanas Mackstitus (Lithuani a), Vladi mir Menshikov (Latvi a), Slavomir Patritski (Poland), Mikhail Roketlishvili (USA), Dmitri Sorokin (Russia), Andrei Herman (Pol and)

The journal follows the principles of free press. The views of editorial board do not necessarily reflect author's option and it accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of information.

Tbilisi 2

J. "ekonomisti", #5

s a r C e v i intervi u postkomunisturi saqarTvelos ekon omika 5

ramaz abesaZe _ umuSevroba da misi mizezebi saqarTveloSi _ -

(2008.) _ ek onomikuri Teoria ­ , ­ ­ agraruli warmoeba

10 21 29

39 42

zurab reviSvili _ agraruli wesrigi s politikis aqtualuri sakiTxebi ek onomikur-soci aluri problemebi 46

roland sarCimelia, nan uli arevaZe ­ mosaxleobis Zlieri saSualo

fenis formirebi sTvis saqarTveloSi investiciebi 53

lina

daTun aSvili

_

ucxouri

investiciebi

saqarTveloSi 58

globalizaciis pirobebSi fi skaluri politika

TinaTin qurdaZe _ biujetis sagadasaxdo da arasagadasaxado Semosavlebis optimizaci a saqarTveloSi saerTaSori so urTierTobebi 63

revaz lorTqifaniZe _ ganviTarebuli qveynebis gavlen a msoflio

bazarze sabazro infrastruqtura 69

gi ga maisuraZe _ birJa ­ stabiluri ekonomiki s arsebobis garanti

mniSvnelovani mon ografiebi informacia

74 78 84

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J. "ekonomisti", #5

CO N T E N TS

INTERVIEW ECONOMY OF POSTCOMMUNIS T GEORGIA Ramaz Abesadze ­Unemploy ment and its Causes in Georgia Teimuraz Beridze ­ The Po lit ical Economy of the August (2008) Conflict in Georg ia Vakhtang Burduli ­ The Questions of Structural Reorganization of Georg ia's Economy and Increase of Emp loyment Level ECONOMIC THEORY Nata davlasheridze ­ Nobel Prize Winner in Economics Milton Fried man, his Opinion About the Unemploy ment Problem and the Ways of its Overoming Anzor Kuratashvili ­ Protection of Human Rights and Socially Oriented Market Economy ­ Display of Civ ilization of Relations AGRARIAN PRODUCTION Zurab Revishvili ­ Live Issues of Agricultural Order Po licy ECONOMIC-SOCIAL PROB LEMS Roland Sarchimelia, Nanuli Arevadze ­ Formation of Strong Midd le Class of Population in Georg ia INVES TMENTS Lina Datunashvili ­ Foreign Investments in Georg ia under Globalizat ion FISCAL POLICY Tinatin Kurdadze ­ The Necessity of Optimization of Tax and Nontax Income of the Budget INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Revaz Lordkipanidze ­ The Influence of Developed Countries on World Market MARKET INFRUS TRUCTURE Giga Maisuradze ­ The Stock Exchange ­ Guarantee of Econo mical Stability SIGNIFICANT MONOGRAPHS INFORMATION

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10 21 29

39 42

46

53

58

63

69

74 78 84

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 intervi u male Semoabijebs axali 2010 weli, amasTan dakavSirebiT, Jurn alis redaqciam kiTxviT mimarTa Cveni qveynis cn obil mecnierebs, Tu ras usurveben isini Jurnal "ekonomists" momaval axal w els da Tu rogoria maTi prognozebi saqarTvelos ekon omikis ganviTarebisa 2010 wlisTvis.

Lleo Ciqava saqarTvelos ekon omikur mecnierebaTa akademiis prezi denti, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis wevr-korespondenti, mecnierebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe.

qveynis socialur-ekon omikuri aRorZinebis uzrunvelyofaSi, cxadia, TvalsaCino wvlilis Setana SeuZlia Jurnal "ekonomistis" SemoqmedebiT saqmianobasac. vusurveb mas am fri ad sapatio, magram, amave dros, uaRresad sapasuxismgeblo misiis pirnaTlad Sesrulebas. amisaT vis aucilebelia man ekonomistTa maRalkvali ficiuri kadrebi Semoikribos Tavi s garSemo im aqtualuri ekonomi kuri problemebis Rrma mecnierul doneze dasamuSaveblad, romlebic dReisaTvis dgas Cveni qveynis winaSe da Sesabami s zemdgom organ oebs SesTavazos mecnierulad dasabuTebuli winadadebebi da rekomendaciebi praqtikaSi gansaxorcieblad. am organ oebsac vusurvebdi imas, rom hqondeT moTxovna aseT winadadebebsa da rekomen daciebze, rameTu mizan-amocanebis mxolod aseT erTianobas ZaluZs qveynisaTvis maqsimaluri sargeblobis motana. Cemi prognozuli gaTvlebiT, 2010 wels ver moxerxdeba ekonomikuri krizisis srulad daZleva saqarTveloSi, magram, kargad gaazrebuli ekon omikuri politikis gatarebiT, SesaZlebeli a misi daman greveli Zalis ramdenadme Seneleba. aseTi erTgvari optimizmis safuZvels, ri g sxva mniSvnelovan garemoebasTan erTad, oTxnaxevar miliard dolariani saerTaSoriso finansuri daxmarebis egidiT saxsrebis mimdinare welsac (2009 wlis analogi urad) Seuferxeblad Semosvlis gagrZeleba iZleva. am varaudis realobad gadaqcevas xelisuflebis organoebis didi Zalisxmeva dasWi rdeba. mxedvelobaSi maqvs, warsulis mw are gakveTi lebis Rrma mecnierulad gaanalizebis safuZvelze, yovelmxriv gaazrebuli samoqmedo programebis SemuSaveba-realizacia da investiciebi s upiratesad mewarmeobis ganviTarebisaTvis gamoyeneba.

vladimer papava ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis wevr-koresponden ti

2010 wels Jurnal "ekonomists" vusurveb asarCevad hqonodes bevri kargi statiidan saukeTso, rom mkiTxveli ufro metad dainteresdes. saqarTvelos ekonomi kur ganviTarebaSi raime, principulad axali, mosalodneli ar unda iyos. gagrZeldeba ekonomi kuri krizisi da ucxo-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 uri finansuri daxmarebis miReba. arc ekonomikur politi kaSia mosalodneli principuli cvlilebebi. SedarebiT gaizrdeba populisturi komponenti, radganac 2010 wels xelisuflebas dasWirdeba yvela resursis gamoyeneba adgilobrivi arCevnebis mosagebad.

avTan dil silagaZe ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis wevr-koresponden ti

pirveli nabijebi aris saqmiani da warmatebuli. Jurnal "ekonomisti"-s redaqcias 2010 wels minda vusurvo saqmi anobis gaZliereba am mimarTulebiT. 2010 wels, samwuxarod, ekonomi kuri progn ozi ar iqneba opti misturi, gagrZeldeba vardna ekonomikaSi. gansakuTrebiT es ekonomi kis realur seqtors Seexeba, rac gamoiwvevs ekon omikuri situaciis kidev ufro garTulebas. amas emateba isic, rom 2010 weli aris saarCevno w eli, romelic ki dev ufro daZabavs mdgomareobas. ase rom, 2010 wels si rTuleebi gvelis.

r ozeta asaTiani ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori Jurnal `ekonomistis~ redaqcias didi pativiscemiTa da saukeTeso survilebiT vulocav axal, 2010 wels. Jurnali s mTavar redaqtors prof. ramaz abesaZesa da saredaqcio kolegias vusurveb xangrZliv SemoqmedebiT saqmianobas. imeds vitoveb, es axlad daarsebuli saerTaSoriso samecniero-analitikuri Jurn ali gamorCeul wvlils Seitan s qarTuli ekonomikuri mecnierebisa da azrovnebis ganviTarebaSi. yoveli axali saqmis dasawyisi sirTuleebTanaa dakavSirebuli. `ekon omisti~, romelic jer mxolod 1 wlisaa, mravali rTuli prob lemis winaSe dgas, rasac, sxva mizezebTan erTad, saqarTveloSi arsebuli mZime socialur-ekonomi kuri mdgomareobac ganapi robebs. magram, vfiqrobT, Tu saTanado pasuxismgeblobiT moveki debiT am sapatio saqmes, erTsulovnebiT, urTierTmosmeniTa da urTierTgagebiT Zalian bevrs SevZlebT da, RvTis madliT, Jurnali `ekonomisti~ sapatio adgils daikavebs qarTuli ekonomi kuri azris istoriaSi. rac Seexeba 2010 wlis saqarTvelos ekon omikuri ganviTarebis prognozs, ra Tqma unda, arsebuli realobi dan gamomdinare, egzogenuri Tu en dogenuri faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, igi optimisturi ver iqneba. amis mravali obieqturi mizezi arsebobs. daviwyoT imiT, rom globalur finansur kriziss jerjerobiT sasi keTo piri ar uCans da msoflio ekonomikis ganviTarebi s prognozic ramdenadme pesimisturia. aseT rTul viTarebaSi globaluri problemebis wnexqveS romelime qveyanam nawilobriv mainc daZlios Siga ekonomikuri problemebi, miTumetes saqarTvelom, SeuZlebelia.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ratom miTumetes saqarTvelom? imitom, rom pi rveli , saqarTvelom ekonomikis reformi rebis 18-wlian peri odSi ver SeZlo mieRwi a mSp-i s warmoebis 1990 wlis donisaTvis. msoflio banki s da ssf-is eqspertuli SefasebiT igi mxolod 71,1%-s Seadgens, maSin rodesac es barieri daZlies azerbai janma (192,8%), somxeTma (171,6%), ruseTma (112,3%) da sxva postsabWoTa qveynebma; meore, dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi mosaxleobi s erT sulze modis 3 aTasi laris mSp, rac saSualo msoflio donis 35%s Seadgens. es meti rom ara vTqvaT, damafiqrebelia; mesame, saqarTvelos samomxmareblo bazris 70%-ze meti importuli produqciiTaa gajerebuli. aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTvelo ufro momxmarebeli qveyanaa, vidre mwarmoebeli da amiT sxva qveynebis samuSao Zalas asaqmebs, sakuTars ki an iZulebuls xdis sazRvargareT wavi des samuSaod, an kidev, umuSevrobisa da siRaribisTvis hyavs ganwiruli. amitomacaa, rom saqarTvelom Tavi ver daaRwia uaryofiT sagadasaxdelo balanss da amJamad importis eqsportiT dafarva mxolod 23,7%-s Seadgens. saqarTvelos mwvave ekonomikur problemebze dausruleblad SeiZleba laparaki, magram am sazeimo dReebSi ar msurs ganwyoba gavufuWo mkiTxvels, amitom minda Cemi interviu davasrulo sruliad saqarTvelos kaToli kos-patriarqis ilia II-is sityvebiT: `saqarTvelo ari s wilxvedri yovladwmindisa RvTi smSoblisa, igi taxtia wmidi sa samebisa~, rac did pasuxismgeblobasTan erTad, did imeds gvisaxavs. mTavaria qarTvelebs gviyvardes erTmaneTi, dedasamSoblo da yvelaferi gamoswordeba. sokrates uTqvams: ` yovel adami anSi aris mze, oRond mieciT saSualeba, anaToso~. amis saSualeba un da mieces saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqes, mis yvela kuTxesa da regions. ase SevZlebT socialurad orientirebuli sabazro ekonomikis aSenebasa da, merw muneT, saqarTvelo ayvavdeba....

mi xeil ToqmaziSvili ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

J. "ekonomists" vusurvebdi " gamravlebas'' da mravali axali mkiTxvelis SeZenas, Jurnalis TanamSromlebs ­ saintereso SemoqmedebiT saqmianobas, xolo Jurnalis mkiTxvelebs ki _ bednier axal wels. Mmomaval wels, Cveni azriT, gagrZeldeba ekonomi kis inerculi mdgomareoba da gaWi anurdeba gamococxlebis fazaSi gadasvla, ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi dabali iqneba, inflacia _ zomieri, investiciebi s dabandeba da saban ko saqmian oba kvlav maRal riskebTan iqneba dakavSirebuli, xolo samSeneblo seqtorSi ki, uZravi qonebis gaWi anurebuli realizaciis Sedegad, kvlav gagrZeldeba krizi suli viTareba.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5

elguja meqvabiSvili ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

Jurnal "ekonomi sts" axal wels vusurveb bevri maRali donis statias, Cveni qveynisa da msoflio ekonomikis aqtualur problemebze. vfiqrob, rom momavali weli msofli o ekon omikis krizisidan gamosvlis daw yebis etapi iqneba. saerTaSoriso ekon omikuri koniunqturi s gaumjobeseba dadebiT zegavlenas moaxdens saqarTvelos ekonomikaze. Sesabamisad, moveli qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis garkveul gaumjobesebas.

iaSa mesxi a ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

Jurnal "ekon omisti s" aRorZineba gulw rfelad mixaria da darwmunebuli var, rom igi Rirseulad gaagrZelebs im erovn ul tradiciebs, romelsac safuZveli Cauyares Cvenma didma maswavleblebma da cnobilma qarTvelma mecnier-ekonomistebma. Jurn als vusurvebdi momaval 2010 wels ufro met gambedaobas da si Rrmi seulobas qveyanaSi mimdinare ekonomikuri reformebis analizsa da SefasebaSi, Jurnalis dagegmvaSi miznobriv-Tematuri mi dgomis danergvasa da im prioritetebze orientacias, romelTa irgvliv gamarTuli mecnieruli diskusiebi xels Seuwyobs qveynis ekonomikis winaSe mdgari urTulesi socialur-ekonomi kuri problemebis mimarTulebiT winadadebebisa da rekomendaciebis SemuSavebas. Jurnali unda gaxdes ara mxolod miRebul gadawyvetilebaTa monitori da Semfasebeli, aramed man un da uzrunvelyos xelisufleba mecnierulad argumentirebuli prognozebiT, Teoriuli da gamoyenebiTi xasiaTis mignebebiT, romelTa praqtikuli realizacia daaCqarebs qveynis ekonomikur winsvlas da krizisis daZlevas. Jurnals gaaCnia sakmarisi potenci ali, rom gaxdes xelisuflebis mecnier-konsultanti da Rirseuli partniori. rac Seexeba ekonomikur prognozebs 2010 wlisaTvis, igi umniSvnelod, magram mainc ukeTesi iqneba wina welTan SedarebiT, ris garantias iZleva is didZali ucxouri daxmarebebi da sesxebi, romelTa nawilis miReba dagegmilia am wels. ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis mxriv kvlavac mosalodneli a Cavardnebi, rameTu 2010 wels ar aris mosalodneli politikuri xasiTis pozitiuri garRveva da sazogadoebi s gamTlianeba, rac ekonomi kis erT-erT damamuxruWebel faqtors warmoadgens. arsebiTi xasiaTis Zvrebi ar aris mosalodneli dasaqmebis donis amaRlebis mxriv. mosaxleobis soci aluri mdgomareoba umniSvnelod gaumjobesdeba, rasac ganapi robebs adgilobrivi xelisuflebi s arCevnebTan dakavSi rebiT socialur programebze sabi ujeto xarjebi s zrda.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5

nodar xaduri ekon omikis akademiuri doqtori, Tsu sruli profesori

aRdgenili Jurn ali "ekonomisti" 2010 wels erTi wlis gaxdeba. vulocav mas pirvel axal wels, vusurveb qarTuli samecniero (da ara mxolod ekon omikuri) peri oduli gamocemebis flagmani gamxdariyos da Rirseuli adgili daikavebinos msofli os cnobil samecniero Jurnalebs Soris. amasTan, mis redaqcias, avtorebs da mkiTxvelebs vusurveb warmatebul wels, janmrTelobas, pirad bednierebasa da ayvavebul saqarTveloSi cxovrebas. rac Seexeba 2010 wels, samw uxarod, rogorc Cans, jer ver moxerxdeba ekon omikuri krizisis Sedegebisagan Tavi s srulad daRweva. 2010 wels swori ekon omikuri politikis gatarebis, sagareo da saSinao safrTxeebis ganeitralebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli gaxdeba ekonomiki s dacemis sabolood SeCereba. cxadia, kvlav maRali darCeba umuSevrobi s done, ver moxerxdeba investiciebis moculobis mkveTri zrda. wlis ganmavlobaSi mTavroba, 2009 wlis msgavsad, bi ujetis Semcirebi s aucileblobis winaSe dadgeba. amasTan, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom 2010 wlis gazafxulis miwuruls qveyan as adgilobrivi arCevnebi elis, ar aris gamoricxuli, gazafxulze xelisuflebam soci aluri xarjebi gazardos. zogadad, populisturi qmedebebiT SesaZloa, ekonomi kis krizisidan gamoyvanis procesi Seferxdes.

mi xeil jibuti ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

2009 w els ekonomikis ganviTarebis done saqarT veloSi daeca winaswari monacemebiT 4%-iT. Aman gadafara ekon omikis donis 2%-iani zrda 2008 wels da qveynis ekonomi kuri done 2007 wlis maCveneblebs daubrun da. amdenad astron omiuli 2010 weli ki dadga saqarTveloSi, magram ganviTarebis ekonomikur kalen darze qveynisaTvis 2007 weli a. 2010 wels qveynisaTvis uzogadesi ekonomikuri amocan aa miaRwi os 2008 wli s ekon omikur dones. Ees urTulesi amocanaa, arsebul garemoSi ufro Seusrulebadi (miT umetes, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobis programaSi "ZiriTadi monacemebi da mimarTulebebi 201-2013 wlebisaTvis" am amocanis misaRw evad arasakmarisi _ ekonomikis 3%-iani zrdaa miznad dasaxuli), Tumca, sasurveli da mec vusurveb Cven s qveyanas mis miRwevas da Jurnal "ekonomi sts" ki am saqmeSi qveynisaTvis qmediT inteleqtualur damxmareblad gadaqcevas.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 postkomunisturi saqarTvelos ekon omika

ramaz abesaZe emd, prof.

umuSevroba da misi mizezebi saqarTveloSi postkomunisturi transformacia umetes qveynebSi ekonomi kuri daqveiTebiT daiwyo. igi saqarTveloSi yvelaze aSkarad da mZafrad gamoixata. bunebrivia, am procesebs Tan sdevda umuSevrobis Zlier maRali done. bevrma postkomunisturma qveyan am SeZlo gadaelaxa siZneleebi, aeSenebina metad Tu naklebad srulyofili sabazro ekon omika. TiTqmis bunebrivamde Seemcirebina umuSevrobis done. zogma ki, romelTa Sorisaa saqarTvelo, reformebis ganxorcielebis dros daSvebuli Secdomebisa da sxva obieqturi Tu subieqturi mizezebis gamo, am amocanis Sesruleba ver SeZlo. amitom am qveynebSi gvaqvs umuSevrobis maRali done, amasTan, umuSevrobis saxeobebmac transformaci a ganicada. Tu Tavdapirvelad samuSao adgilebi iyo da saWiro iyo mxolod maTi aTviseba, amJamad am samuSao adgilTa di di nawili faqtobrivad gan adgurebulia da umuSevarTa dasasaqmeblad saWiroa axali adgilebis aTviseba, romelTagan umetesi profesiis Secvlas an kvali fikaciis amaRlebas moiTxovs. gaCnda umuSevarTa axali formac _ umuSevari asakis gamo, an u umuSevari, romelsac survili aqvs imuSaos, aqvs Sesabami si kvali fikaci ac, magram samuSaos ver poulobs, vinaidan SedarebiT di di asakisaa, Tumca ara sapen sio asakis. maSasadame, amJamad saqme gvaqvs umuSevarTa axal saxeobebTan _ transformaci ul, struqturul, friqci ul, ciklur da asakobriv umuSevrobasTan. miuxedavad imisa, rom oficialuri mon acemebi umuSevrobasTan dakavSirebiT saqarTveloSi, obieqturi Tu subieqturi mizezebis gamo, xSi rad damaxinjebulia, maTi analizi mainc sainteresoa. 1-li cxrilis mon acemebi gviCvenebs, rom dasaqmebulTa raodenobas klebis tendenci a aqvs. dasaqmebul Ta raodenoba mcirdeba maSinac, rodesac ekon omikuri zrdi s tempebi sakmaod maRali a. amas ganapirobebs is, rom CvenTan ekonomi kuri zrdis tempebi CamorCeba Sromis nayofierebis zrdis tempebs. imisaTvis, rom dasaqmebis done gaizardos, anu umuSevrobis done Semcirdes, saWroa ekonomi kuri zrdis tempebi win uswrebdes Sromis nayofierebis zrdi s tempebs (winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi struqturuli umuSevrobis done gaizrdeba). maSasadame, ekonomi kuri zrda saqarTveloSi umTavresad inten siuri faqtorebis xarjze mimdinareobs. 1990 wlidan (rodesac umuSevroba saerTod ar iyo, Tumca Ffaruli umuSevrobis done sakmaod maRali iyo) 2008 wlamde, dasaqmebulTa raodenoba naxevrdeba (magram ara aqti uri umuSevrebis xarjze, aramed, al baT, pasi uri umuSevrebis xarjze da, ufro metad, mosaxleobi s migraciis xarjze). amasTan, niSandoblivia, rom daqiravebulTa raodenoba iklebs (TiTqmis 4-jer), xolo TviTdasaqmebulTa raodenoba ki izrdeba (4-jer da metad). saerTod, TviTdasaqmebulTa raoden oba gacilebiT metia, vidre daqiravebulebisa (1,8-jer), rac erTxel kidev metyvelebs Cveni ekonomikis ganviTarebis dabal donesa da deformirebulobaze.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5

cxrili 1

ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleoba saqarTveloSi 1 (aTasi kaci) 1990 2763,3 2763,3 2502,6 260,7 127,2 1995 1780,9 1730,1 802,1 928,0 118,2 2000 1858,0 1748,8 684,5 1064,3 235,6 2003 2050,4 1814,5 618,5 1195,2 235,9 2005 2023,9 1744,6 600,5 1143,3 279,3 2008 1917,8 1601,9 572,6 1028,5 315,8

ekon omikurad aqtiuri leoba ­ sul dasaqmebulebi daqi ravebulebi TviTdasaqmebulebi umuSevrebi

mosax-

procentobiT ekon omikurad aqtiuri leoba ­ sul dasaqmebulebi daqi ravebulebi TviTdasaqmebulebi umuSevrobis done mosax100 100 90,6 9,4 _ 100 97,1 45,0 52,1 2,9 100 94,5 37,0 57,5 5,5 100 88,5 30,2 58,3 11,5 100 86,2 29,7 56,5 13,8 100 83,5 29,8 53,6 16,5

ofici aluri monacemebis mixedviT umuSevrobis done 1992-2003 wlebSi Zalian dabalia, rac odnavadac ar Seesabameba sinamdviles. am wlebSi araTu didi iyo umuSevrobi s done, aramed dRes arsebuli umuSevrobac, maSin arsebuli totaluri umuSevrobi s Sedegi a. aseTi maCveneblebis arseboba gamowveulia faqtobrivi monacemebis damaxinjebiT da faruli umuSevrobis arsebobiT (sawarmoebi arsebobda, magram ar muSaobda da xelfasebs ar gascemda, iq dasaqmebulebi ki umuSevrebad ar iTvlebodnen). umuSevrobis done 2008 wels oficialurad 16,5%-ia. eqspertTa azriT umuSevrobis realuri done saqarTveloSi gacilebiT meti a (30%-ze meti). SesaZlebelia es ci fri cota gadaWarbebuli iyos, magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom saqarT veloSi, dasaqmebis samsaxuris faqtobrivad ararsebobis gamo, umuSevarTa raodenoba Semcirebulia da aseve farul umuSevrobas aqvs adgili, SesaZlebeli a, umuSevroba saqarTveloSi marTlac oficialur maCvenebelze sagrZn oblad meti iyos. ekon omikis seqtorebis mixedviT dasaqmebulebis ganawileba gvi Cvenebs (cxrili 2), rom CvenTan sakmaod masStaburi privatizebis procesi ganxorcielda. Tanafardoba, kerZo seqtoris ganviTarebis kvalobaze, saxelmwifo da arasaxelmwi fo seqtorebs Sori s misaRebia.

cxrilebi gaangariSebulia statistikuri krebulis "saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli 2008" da "saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli 2009" mixedviT.

1

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J. "ekonomisti", #5

cxrili 2

dasaqmebulebi s gan awileba ekon omikis seqtorebis mi xedviT (aTasi kaci) 1990 dasaqmebulia ekon omikaSi sul 2763 saxelmwifo seqtorSi 2087 arasaxelmwifo seqtorSi 676 procentobiT dasaqmebulia ekon omikaSi 100 saxelmwifo seqtorSi 75,5 arasaxelmwifo seqtorSi 24,5 1995 1730 734 996 100 42,4 57,6 2000 1839 476 1363 100 25,9 74,1 2005 1745 401 1344 100 23,0 77,0 2006 1747 360,3 1387 100 20,6 79,4

sainteresoa umuSevarTa ganaTlebi s donis mixedviT ganawilebis suraTi (cxrili 3), romelic gviCvenebs, rom bolo wlebSi umuSevarTa absoluturad udidesi nawili Sedgeba sruli saSualo da umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebisagan. es, albaT, imiT unda aixsnas, rom ufro maRali kvalifikaciis Sesabamis samuSao adgilebzea meti moTxovna.

cxrili 3

ganawileba gan aTlebis donis mixedviT (saSualo wliuri; aTasi kaci) 2000 2003 umuSevari ­ sul 100,6 42,9 arasruli saSualo ganaTlebiT 26,8 0,2 sruli saSualo ganaTlebiT 44,7 28,2 umaRlesi ganaTlebiT 29,1 14,5 umuSevrebis

2005 34,3 0,7 21,7 11,8

2006 32,3 0,7 19,5 11,9

Cveni qveynis ekonomiki s araprogresul struqturaze miuTiTebs aseve dasaqmebulTa ganawileba ekonomikuri saqmianobis saxeebis mixedviT (cxrili 4). momuSaveTa naxevarze meti dasaqmebulia soflis meurneobaSi, maSin rodesac sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebis moculobas mTlian Sida produqtSi mxolod 11 procenti ukavia. saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis araerTi mizezi arsebobs rogorc ekonomikuri, ise araekonomi kuri xasiaTisa. ekon omikuri xasi aTis mizezebidan SeiZleba gamovyoT: ekonomiki s transformaci a. saqarTvelo damouki deblobis aRdgenis Semdeg, bunebrivi a, daadga sabazro ekonomi kis mSeneblobis gzas, romelic moiTxovda sruliad axal wyobilebaze gadasvlas, romlis drosac ingreva Zveli instituciebi da Sen deba axali. rasakvi rvelia, es cvlilebebi dakavSirebulia organizaciebis gardaqmnasTan, zogi erTis saerTod gauqmebasTan da a.S. sawarmoebs sruliad axal pirobebSi uwevT saqmianoba, adre Tu maT saxelmwifo mfarvelobda, axla mZafr kon kuren cias un da gauZlon, ris gamo zogierTis gamoSveba mci rdeba, zogierTi wyvets kidevac saqmianobas. axali institutebisaTvis saWi ro kadrebis momzadebas sWirdeba sakmaod didi dro da sxv. bunebrivi a, aseT pirobebSi auci leblad gveqneboda saqme umuSevrobasTan.

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cxrili 4

dasaqmebulebi ekon omikuri saqmianobis saxeebis mi xedviT (procentobiT jamTan) 2000 52,1 0,4 5,9 1,7 1,8 10 0,9 4,1 0,5 2,2 6,1 6,5 4,9 2,6 2003 54,9 0,2 4,9 1,1 2,2 10,9 0,9 4,2 0,5 1,8 5,0 7,5 2,7 2,5 2005 54,3 0,3 5,1 1,3 2,5 10,8 0,9 4,0 0,8 1,5 4,7 7,5 3,3 2,2 2007 53,4 0,3 4,9 1,1 4,2 9,9 1,1 4,2 1,0 2,0 3,8 7,3 3,5 2

soflis meurneoba, nadiroba da satyeo meurneoba samTomopovebiTi mrewveloba damamuSavebeli mrewveloba eleqtroenergiis, ai risa da wylis w armoeba da ganawileba mSenebloba vaWroba; remonti sastumroebi da restornebi tran sporti da kavSirgabmuloba safinanso saqmi anoba operaciebi uZravi qonebiT, ijara saxelmwifo mmarTveloba ganaTleba janmrTelobis dacva, soc. daxmareba komunaluri, socialuri momsaxureba

ekonomiki s sawyisi mdgomareoba da Zveli ekon omikuri kavSirebis moSla. ekonomikuri damoukideblobi saTvis garkveuli mzadeba saqarTveloSi winasw ar daiwyo, magram i gi zogad gancxadebebsa da mecnierul mosazrebebs (gansxvavebiT baltiispireTis qveynebisagan) ver gascda. piriqiT, zogi erTi arafris momcemi aqciebis gamo (gzebis gadaketva, sawarmoebis gaCereba da a.S.) qveynis ekonomika kidev ufro dasustda. mas daemata is, rom sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg Zveli ekon omikuri kavSirebi, romelic saqarTvelos ZiriTadad sabWoTa kavSirSi Semaval qveynebTan, gansakuTrebiT, ruseTTan hqonda, moiSala. axali kavSirebis damyarebas ki (radganac es winaswar ar iyo momzadebuli) didi dro sWirdeboda. dResac ki es kavSi rebi sakmaod sustia qveynis ekon omikis konkurentunarianobis dabali donis gamo. bunebrivia, aseT pi robebSi sawarmoTa didi nawili muSaobas Sewyvetda an Sekvecavda, rac, rasakvirvelia, umuSevrobis zrdasTanaa dakavSirebuli. wina wyobilebaSi arsebuli F faruli umuSevroba da in flacia. sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis bolo wlebSi ekonomikaSi Tavi iCina farulma umuSevrobam. imis gamo, rom qveyanaSi umuSevroba ar yofiliyo, TiTqmis yvela saw armosa da dawesebulebaSi Statebi gaberili iyo da muSaobda saWiro raodenobaze meti. es xdeboda saxelmwifos xarjze, anu, ufro sworad, Semosavlebis gadanawilebis xarjze. sabazro ekonomikisaTvis ki aseTi mdgomareoba SeuTavsebelia, rac iwvevs zedmeti muSaxelis gamoTavisuflebas. sabWoTa ekonomi kisaTvis aseve damaxasiaTebeli iyo faruli inflacia. mosaxleobaSi iyo gacilebiT meti fulis raodenoba, vi dre Sesabamisi produqciis moculoba. fasebi ki wonasworulze gacilebiT dabali, vinaidan mas saxelmwifo adgenda. fasebis gaTavisuflebis Semdeg ki, bunebrivia, igi sw rafad gaizrdeboda da superinflaciaSi gadaizrdeboda, ramac umuSevrobis zrdas Seuwyo xeli.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ekonomikuri daqveiTeba. ekonomi kuri daqveiTeba, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT gamovlinda. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia 1991_1994 wlebi, rodesac obieqturad arsebul ekon omikur sirTuleebs Sina omebi da SeiaraRebuli kon fliqtebi aZlierebda. mSp-m 1994 wels 1990 wlis maCveneblis mxolod 27,5 procenti Seadgina. samrewvelo produqciis moculoba 1990 wlis mxolod 16 procentis toli iyo. aRniSnul wlebSi TiTqmis naxevrdeba sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebi s moculoba, katastrofulad mcirdeba mSeneblobis masStabebi. mkveTrad daeca qveynis energouzrunvelyofis done. eleqtroenergiis gamomuSaveba orjer Semcirda, TiTqmi s Sewyda qvanaxSi ris warmoeba, kriti kul donemde daeca navTobis mopovebis moculoba, aragadaxdisunarianobis gamo qveyanas Seuw yda bunebrivi ai ris mowodeba. ekonomikur daqveiTebas aZlierebda wina wlebSi faruli inflaciiT da umuSevrobiT gamowveuli inflaciis maRali tempebi. e.i. adgili hqonda stagflacias, rasac Tan axlda farTomasStabiani cikluri umuSevroba, romelsac SeiZleba trasformaciuli stagflaciuri cikluri umuSevroba vuwodoT da romli s aRmofxvrac SeuZlebelia Tu ar aRmoifxvra misi warmomSobi mizezebi. ekonomikuri reformebi da misi ganxorcielebis dros daSvebuli Secdomebi. im negatiuri movlenebis aRmofxvra, romelmac saqarTveloSi axal ekonomikur wyobaze gadasvli s dros iCina Tavi, Sesabamisi reformebis gatarebis Sedegad sw rafad unda aRmofxvriliyo. rasakvi rvelia, aseTi reformebis gamocdileba araTu saqarTveloSi, aramed mTel msoflioSi ar arsebobda, rac mdgomareobas arTulebda, magram arsebobda msoflioSi sabazro urTierTobaTa mraval wliani gamocdileba da saerTaSoriso organizaciebi da sazRvargareT is qveynebi, romlebic rogorc meTodologiur, ise materialur daxmarebas uwevdnen postkomunistur qveynebs. amdenad, arsebobda yvela pi roba imisaTvis, rom Sesabamisi swori ekon omikuri politikis gatarebis SemTxvevaSi reformebi swrafad damTavrebuliyo. samw uxarod, reformebis gzaze araerTi Secdoma iqna daSvebuli, ris Sedegadac dReisaTvis qveyanaSi gvaqvs dabal ganviTarebuli deformi rebuli ekonomi ka umuSevrobis maRali doniT. 2 globalizacia. globalizaciis procesebi gansakuTrebiT gasuli saukunis 50-iani wlebidan Zlierdeba da dRemde grZeldeba. msofli o meurneoba yalibdeba saqonlis, momsaxurebis, kapitalis, samuSao Zalisa da codnis erTian bazrad: saerTaSoriso ekonomikur urTierTobebSi mag., abesaZe r. ekonomikuri reformebis ganxorcielebis ZiriTadi Sedegebi da momavlis amocanebi saqarTveloSi. wignSi: sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebis problemebi saqarTveloSi. Tb., "mecniereba," 2002; abesaZe r. saqarTvelos ekonomika XX- XXI saukuneebis mijnaze; asaTiani r. saqarTvelos ekonomika arasabazro ekonomikis CixSi. J. "ekonomisti", 2009, #1.; mesxia i., murjikneli m. ekonomikuri reforma saqarTveloSi. Tb., "Tsu gamomcemloba", 1996; papava v. postkomunisturi kapitalizmis politikuri ekonomia da saqarTvelos ekonomika, Tb., "pdp", 2002; sanTelaZe n. saqarTveloSi administraciuli reformis SuqCrdilebi da msoflio gamocdileba. wignSi: "saqarTvelos ekonomikur mecnierebaTa akademiis Sromebi", t. 4.öTb., 2004; Ciqava l. saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis prioritetuli mimarTulebebi. wignSi: gardamavali ekonomikis socialur-ekonomikuri prioritetebi. Tbilisi, "Tsu gamomcemloba", 2002; WiTanava n. gardamavali periodis socialur-ekonomikuri problemebi. Tb., 1997 da sxv.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 dominirebs ara saerTaSoriso vaWroba, aramed warmoebisa da gasaRebi s organizeba uSualod sazRvargareT; xorcieldeba msoflio safinanso bazrebis formi reba da maTi arn axuli diversifikacia. Zli erdeba unifikaciis tendencia teqnologiis, ekologiis, sabuRaltro da statistikuri aRricxvis, ganaTlebis, kulturisa da sxva sferoebSi; axali sainformacio teqnologiebis, eleqtron uli sistemebis danergvis meSveobiT xorcieldeba msoflio sakomunikacio qseli s di versifi kacia; yalibdeba mZlavri saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri organizaciebi, romlebic mTel msoflioSi nergaven makroekonomikuri politikis erTi an kriteri umebs da TandaTan axdenen globalizaciis instituci ur gaformebas. maTi gadawyveti lebebi sul ufro xSirad xdeba iuri diulad aucilebeli nominalurad suverenuli saxelmwifoebi saTvis; globalizacia Sei Wra Sidasaxelmwifoebriv sferoSic da TandaTan xdeba Siga cxovrebis erTerTi ganmsazRvreli faqtori, romlis siZliere bevrad aWarbebs erovnuli saxelmwi fos SesaZleblobebs; Zlierdeba saerTaSoriso kon kuren cia iseT subieqtebs Sori s, romelTac ar aqvT gan sazRvruli saxelmwifoebrivi warmoSoba da romlebic konkurencias uweven erovnul kompaniebs, devnian ra maT sakuTari bazrebidan; sul ufro da ufro meti saxelmwifo ebmeba globalizaciis procesebSi, yalibdeba globaluri civilizaciis Sesabamisi saerTo Cvevebi, gemovnebebi, faseulobebi, Sexedulebebi, azrovneba da a.S. miuxedavad imisa, rom globalizaciis procesSi yvela qveyana iRebs garkveul sargebels, mas Tan axlavs naklovanebebic. magram gasaTvaliswi nebelia, rom globalizacia realuri procesia, romlis gauqmebac arc erT calke aRebul qveyan as ar SeuZlia. swored aseTi midgomi s konteqstSi un da SeZlos ekonomikurma mecnierebam, SeimuSaos saxelmwi fo regulirebis iseTi meqanizmi, romelic qveyanas miscems SesaZ leblobas, i sargeblos globalizaciis dadebiTi mxareebiT da Tavidan agvaSoros uaryofiTi Sedegebi. 3 axal gaazrebas moiTxovs saerTaSoriso vaWrobis Teoriebi. magaliTad fardobiT danaxarjTa Teori a (d. ri kardo), romelic gveubneba, rom qveynisaTvis sasargebloa Semoitanos is saqoneli, romlis w armoebis danaxarjebi SedarebiT ufro maRalia, vi dre eqsportirebuli saqonlisa. jer erTi, dan axajebis struqtura gamudmebiT icvleba (garda bunebrivi resursebisa) da, meorec, kidevac rom ar icvlebodes, damoukideblobis interesebidan gamomdinare, ar SeiZleba qveyan am ar awarmoos is produqti, romlis fardobiTi danaxarjebi maRali a, vi dre sxva qveyanaSi (davuSvaT, soflis meurneobis produqcia). axleburad un da iqnes gaazrebuli samuSao Zalis Tavi sufali migraciis, Tavisufali (mcuravi) savaluto kursis, kapitali s Tavisufali moZraobis erovnul ekonomikaze gavlenis problemebi. mcocavi savaluto kursis arseboba mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens eqsportis moculobaze. savaluto kursma rom fasis roli Seasrulos, igi unda dgindebodes saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saerTaSoriso bazarze moTxovna-miw odebis safuZvelze. sinamdvileSi masze aseve gavlenas axdens kapitalis bazaric, ramac SesaZlebeli a zogierTi qveyana upirates mdgomareobaSi Caayen os. aseve seriozuli negati uri Sedegebi mosdevs spekulaciebs savaluto bazarze. amitom aucilebeli xdeba savaluto kursis saerTaSoriso regulirebis ganxorcieleba, rac mxolod Sesabamisi organ oebis arsebobiT iqneba SesaZlebeli.

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abesaZe r. ekonomikuri ganviTareba. Tb., "meridiani", 2006.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ar SeiZleba uari vTqvaT proteqcionistur politikaze da kari gavuRoT nebismier movardnil qars, gamowveuls globalizaciis procesebiT. qveynisaTvis saWiroa preferenciebi, zomebi, romeli c qveyanas aniWebs garkveul ekonomikur upi ratesobas. 4 saerTaSoriso daxmarebebi. saqarTvelos ekonomika damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg swored saerTaSori so daxmarebebis xarjze inarCunebda stabilizacias. Tumca, mi Rebuli daxmarebebi rom realur seqtorSi gamoyenebuliyo da sawarmoebis aRdgena-gadai araRebas da axali simZlavreebis Seqmnas moxmareboda, maSin dReisaTvi s principulad gansxvavebuli mdgomareoba gveqneboda, ekonomikis ganviTarebi s gacilebiT maRali da umuSevrobis gacilebiT dabali doniT. demografi uli situaci a saqarTveloSi ar aris mimarTuli umuSevrobis donis gazrdisaken, vinaidan mosaxleobis zrdis tempebi TiTqmi s nulovani an uaryofiTia da D didi SromiTi emigraci ac umuSevrobis dones mniSvnelovnad amcirebs. Tumca, orive es movlena, ver vityviT, rom qveynis ekonomi kaze dadebiTad moqmedebdes, piriqiT, igi amci rebs ekonomikuri zrdis tempebs da saerTod qveynis siZlieres. inovaciebi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, warmoSobs ra struqturul umuSevrobas, zrdis umuSevrobis dones Tu Sromis nayofiereba izrdeba da produqciis zrdis tempebi ki CamorCeba Sromis nayofierebis zrdi s tempebs. saqarTveloSi sw ored amgvar situaciasTan gvaqvs saqme. msofli o ekon omikuri krizisebi globalizaciis pirobebSi, bunebivia, met-naklebad nebi smieri qveynis ekon omikaze axdens negati ur gavlenas. saqarTvelos ekonomikaze di di gavlena iqonia 1998 wlis ekonomikurma krizisma ruseTSi da dRevandelma msoflio finansurma krizisma, Tumca didi saerTaSori so daxmarebebis meSveobiT saqarTvelos ekonomika Rrma ekonomikur kriziss ar moucavs, miuxedavad imisa, rom ekonomikuri recesia saxezea. rasac, bunebrivia, mohyva umuSevrobis zrda, ZiriTadad samSeneblo da sabanko seqtorebSi. korufcia erT-erT yvelaze mZlavr gavlenas axdens ekon omikur gan viTarebaze. korufciuli mmarTvelobis dros saxelmwifo resursebi miedineba ara qveynis ekonomi kis moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad, aramed iq, sadac ufro mosaxerxebeli iqneba misi moparva. SeiZleba gamoiyos korufciis waroSobis sxvadasxva mizezi. maTgan umTavresia arasrulyofili instituciebi s (umTavresad formaluris, magram aseve araformaluri sac),Uupirveles yovlisa, saxelmwi fo marTvis arasrulyofili sistemis arseboba. arasrulyofil instituciebSi igulisxmeba: ganuviTarebeli saxelmwi fo daw esebulebebi; arasrulyofili sabazro infrastruqtura; konservatuli sakan onmdeblo normebis arseboba; axladmi Rebuli kanonebis arasrulyofileba; kanonebis, normatiuli aqtebi s, dadgenilebebisa da a.S. Sesrulebis dabali xarisxi; sazogadoebaSi i seTi Cvevebisa da tradi ciebis arseboba, romlebic xels uwyobs korufciis gaZlierebas; saxelmwifo seqtorSi xelfasebi s dabali done, kerZo seqtorTan SedarebiT; bi urokratiuli elitis mowyveta xalxisagan; makroekonomikuri arastabiluroba da sxv. saqarTveloSi umuSevrobi s araekon omikuri xasi aTis mizezebidan SeiZleba gamovyoT:

4

. : . ., , 2003.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 geografiuli mdebareoba saqarTvelos, erTi mxriv (w armoadgens ra igi msoflio satranzito derefans), aZlevs ganviTarebis di d SesaZleblobebs, meore mxriv (xvdeba ra di di saxelmwi foebis interesTa sferoSi) warmoadgen s Semaferxebel faqtors. am viTarebas Seesabameba dRevandeli mdgomareoba. saqarTveloze gadis (da momavalSic mosalodnelia maTi raodenobis zrda) saerTaSoriso satranzito marSrutebi, iRebs didi raodenobis saerTaSoriso daxmarebebs, magram, amave dros, uxdeba brZola teritoriuli mTli anobisaTvis. aTasobiT ltolvilTa arseboba, omebi, ruseTis bazris dakargva, bunebrivia, di d negatiur gavlenas axdens ekon omikaze da zrdis umuSevrobis dones. saxelmwi foebrivi damoukideblobis mopovebisaTvis brZola da saxelmwi foebri obis aRdgen a saqarTvelosaTvis (gasxvavebiT ruseTis, polon eTis, rumineTis da a.S.) damatebiT sazrunavs warmoadgenda ekonomikuri transformaciis amocanis ganxorcielebasTan erTad, ramac, rasakvirvelia, Tavisi negati uri gavlena iqonia reformebis xarisxsa da vadebze. kriminogen uri situacia saqarTveloSi damouki deblobis mopovebis Semdeg ukiduresad daZabuli iyo (gansakuTrebiT 1995 wlamde, Tumca igi daZabuli rCeboda 2004 wlamde). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ekonomika faqtobrivad calkeuli kriminaluri dajgufebebis xelSi iyo. amJamad kriminogen uri situaci a damakmayofilebelia da ekonomi kis ganviTarebisaTvis am mimarTulebiT saSiSroeba ar arsebobs. umuSevrobis donis SemcirebisaTvis aucilebelia qveyan aSi arsebobdes Sesabamisi ekonomi kuri meqanizmi, romelic orientirebuli unda iyos umuSevrobis donis zrdis Tavidan acilebasa da dasaqmebis donis zrdis, anu umuSevrobis donis Semci rebaze. e.i. aRniSnulma meqanizmma unda SeZlos gamoavlinos umuSevrobis axali kerebi, SeimuSaos da ganaxorcielos RonisZiebebi, romlebic xels Seuwyobs am kerebis aRmofxvras, dasaxos arsebuli umuSevrobis donis Semci rebis gzebi da uzrunvelyos maTi cxovrebaSi gatareba. meqanizmi unda moicavdes i uridi ul bazas, regulirebi s instrumentebs, indi katorTa sistemas, reguli rebis RonisZiebaTa sistemas, Sesabamis maregulirebel organoebs. iuridi uli baza emyareba arsebul kanonebs, debulebebs, wesebsa da definiciebs. reguli rebis instrumentebi SesaZlebelia erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvavoT sxvadasxva niSnis mixedviT. magram nebismieri instrumenti, romelic ekonomi kis sferoSi moqmedebs, Tavi s SedegiT ekon omikuria. Tumca mainc ZiriTadad Sei Zleba erTmaneTi sgan ganvasxvavoT administraciulsakanonmdeblo, ekon omikuri da organizaci uli xasiaTis instrumentebi. administraciul-sakan onmdeblo xasiaTis instrumentebia magaliTad, standartebi, normebi, normativebi, kvotebi da sxva saxelmwifo reglamentaciis zomebi. ekon omikur instrumen tebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT sabiujeto-sagadasaxado, fulad-sakredito da sxva berketebi, romlebic moicavs sxvadasxva saxis mastimuli rebel Tu sajarimo RonisZiebebs. organizaciuli xasiaTis instrumentebs ki miekuTvneba saxel mwifo organ oebis mier miRebuli gadaw yvetilebebi ama Tu im sferos reorganizaciis Tu instituciuri mowyobis Sesaxeb da a.S. reguli rebis ganxorcielebisaTvis udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs agreTve indikatorTa (maCvenebelTa) sistemas, romelic unda eyrdnobodes mecnierulad SemuSavebul sabazro ekon omi kisaTvis Sesabamis aRricxvi-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 sa da stati stikuri angari Sgebis si stemas da mi Rweuli donis Semafasebel parametrTa erTobli obas. reguli rebis RonisZiebebs arsebuli situaciis Sesabamisad SeimuSaveben da axorcieleben maregulirebeli organoebi. es RonisZiebebi, bunebrivia, exeba Sromi s bazris instituci ur mow yobasa da misi funqcionirebis efeqtianobis amaRlebas. makroekonomikuri reguli rebis organoebi un da moicavdes xelisuflebis yvela Stos:Lsakanonmdeblos (parlamenti), aRmasrulebels (prezidenti, mTavroba) da sasamarTlos. dReisaTvi s saqarTveloSi SeiZleba gamovyoT umuSevrobis donis Semcirebis Semdegi ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi: 1. saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis regulirebis upirveles RonisZiebas warmoadgens Sromis bazris instituciuri mow yoba. dReisaTvis Sromi s bazari saqarTveloSi ukiduresad stiqiuria: ar arsebobs Sromis birJa, dasaqmebis saxelmwifo samsaxuri da infrastruqtura, romelic maT funqcionirebasTan aa dakavSirebuli. aseT pi robebSi, ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebelia, araTu regulirebis ganxorcieleba, aramed, ubralod, realuri suraTis daxatva umuSevrobis mdgomareobaze qveyanaSi. unda Seiqmn as dasaqmebisa da migraciis saxelmwifo samsaxuri, romelic Seasrulebs Sromis birJis rols. mis movaleobaSi unda Sevides: Tavi sufali samuSao adgilebis (vakan siebis) da umuSevarTa (pasiur da aqti ur) aRricxva; konsultaciebis gaw eva umuSevarTaTvis samsaxurSi mowyobasTan dakavSirebiT; umuSevrebisaTvis daxmarebebis gacema; moqalaqeTa profesi uli momzadeba da gadamzadeba; Sromis bazarze mdgomareobi s Sefaseba (ekonomi kuri da araekonomi kuri, ekon omikurad aqtiuri da ekonomikurad araaqti uri mosaxleobis raodenobis dadgena da a.S.) da saTanado informaciis momzadeba; saqarTveloSi SromiT emi grantTa da imigrantTa aRricxva, Sesabamisi informaciis momzadeba da sxv. sasurveli a aseve Seiqmnas dasaqmebi s fondi , romlis Semosavlebis wyaro iqneba centraluri da adgilobrivi biujetebi, savaldebulo gadasaxdelebi biznesidan da nebayoflobiTi Senatanebi. fondi daafi nansebs saxelmwifos mier ganxorcielebul RonisZiebebs dasaqmebi s sferoSi. 2. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis donis Semcireba ZiriTadad dakavSirebulia axali samuSao adgilebis SeqmnasTan, e.i. axali kapitaldaban debebis ganxorcielebasTan. Ggarda ami sa, inovaciebis ganxorcielebas, romelsac Tan axlavs Sromis mwarmoeblurobi s zrda, umuSevrobis donis zrda rom ar mohyves, aucilebelia warmoebi s gafarToeba Sromis mw armoeblurobis zrdis proporci ulad. e.i. saqarTveloSi, vinaidan adgi li aqvs umuSevrobis maRal dones da warmoebaSi inergeba siaxleebi, umuSevrobis arsebuli donis Semcireba SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi win gauswrebs Sromi s mwarmoeblurobis zrdis tempebs. umuSevrobis donis Semcirebas arTulebs aseve SromiTi emi grantebis dabruneba. maSasadame, ekonomikis Tvisebriv srul yofasTan erTad, moiTxoveba ekonomiki s masStabebis mniSvnelovani zrda, risTvisac saWiroa axali didi moculobi s dabandebebis ganxorcieleba. es ki SesaZlebelia rogorc Si ga, ise gare investiciebis xarjze. Siga investi ciebis SezRudulobis gamo kvlav didi yuradReba unda mieqces ucxour investiciebs _ rogorc SeRavaTian kreditebs, ise daxmarebebs da pirdapir investiciebs. amasTan, saxelmwifo kreditebi da daxmarebebi gamoyenebuli unda iqnes rogorc realur warmoebaSi, ise momsaxurebaSi, vinaidan inovaciis pirobebSi mxolod

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 realuri seqtori ver aiTvisebs SromiT resursebs. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba un da mieqces turizmis ganviTarebas, vinaidan saqarTveloSi amis Sesani Snavi SesaZlebloba arsebobs. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis ganxorci elebisas unda moiTxovebodes adgilobrivi muSaxelis dasaqmeba, amitom un da ganxorcieldes maTi winaswari gadamzadeba. 3. adgilobrivi investiciebis mobilizaciisaTvis aucilebelia adgilobriv biznesmenebze saxel mwifo moxeleTa yovelgvari zegavlenis minimumamde dayvan a, anu korufciis aRmofxvra. danaxarjebi korufciis mTlianad aRmosafxvrelad Zlier mniSvnelovania da i gi moicavs ara mxolod Sesabamis RonisZiebebze gaweul materialur danaxarjebs, aramed sazogadoebis Tavisuflebis SezRudviT gamowveul dan axarjebsac. amasTan, rac ufro Zlierdeba saxel mwifos mxri dan korufciis winaaRmdeg brZola, miT ufro izrdeba korufciuli SesaZleblobebi s potenciali. Ee.i. korufciis aRmofxvris gzaze danaxarjebis sidide TandaTan izrdeba da ar mcirdeba. miuxedavad amisa, korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolas SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovani Sedegebi mohyves (amaze metyvelebs portugaliis, Sveciis, singapuri sa da sxvaTa Sedegebi). ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, korufciis aRmosafxvrelad danaxarjebis gaReba unda gagrZeldes man am, sanam mi si aRmofxvris ekonomikuri Sedegebi meti iqneba danaxarjebze. e.i. korufciis optimaluri done miiReba maSin, rodesac danaxarjebi, gaweuli misi aRmofxvri saTvi s, gautoldeba miRebul Sedegs, vinaidan ami s Semdeg dan axarjebi gadaaWarbebs Sedegs. korufciis Semcirebi s makroekonomikuri xasiaTis RonisZiebebidan umTavresia iseTi makro- da mikroekonomi kuri klimatis Seqmna, romelic aRmofxvris korufciis warmomSob mizezebs, upirveles yovlisa, gaaumjobesebs arsebul insti tuciebs. garda amisa, SeiZleba gamovyoT korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolis Semdegi ZiriTadi meTodebi: 5 kanonebisa da maTi Sesrulebis gamkacreba, rasac Sedegad mohyveba korufciaze wasvlis riskis amaRleba; sabazro Zalebis gaZliereba; CinovnikTa xelfasebi s gazrda; finansuri kontroli (auditi); damoukidebeli sasamarTlo xelisufleba da sxv. 4. dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis Semcirebis udi desi rezervi aris mcire biznesi. saqarTveloSi mcire biznesis ganviTarebis done dabalia, romlis aRmofxvra SeuZlebelia saxelmwifo mxardaWeris gareSe. sazRvargareTis TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi arsebobs mci re biznesis saxelmwifo mxardaWeri s ganviTarebuli infrastruqtura. saqarTveloSi ki mci re biznesis saxel mwifo regulireba TiTqmis ar xdeba. aucilebelia, Cven s qveyanaSi mcire biznesis ganviTarebisaTvis Seiqmnas mi si saxelmwifo mxardaWeris infrastruqtura. 6 5. saerTod, rogorc ekonomi kis ganviTarebis, i se umuSevrobis donis SemcirebisaTvis aucilebeli pirobaa srulyofili sabazro ekonomikis Camoyalibeba. dReisaTvis Cveni ekonomi ka deformirebuli a, vinaidan sabazro infrastruqtura Camouyalibebelia da misi struqtura ara .., . : . ., , . .. , 2009.

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saqarTveloSi mcire biznesis ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiT ixileT wigni: abesaZe r., kakulia e. mcire biznesis makroekonomikuri regulirebis meqanizmi saqarTveloSi. Tb., "paata guguSvilis ekonomikis institutis gamomcemloba", 2008.

6

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 srulyofili. mdgomareobis gamosasw oreblad aucilebilia ekonomikuri reformebis sworad warmarTva, risTvisac: · saWi roa mTavrobis araekonomikuri qcevebis aRmofxvra; · sakuTrebis xelSeuxeblobis moTxovnis dacva; · konkurenciis gaZliereba, risTvisac aucilebelia antimon opoliuri samsaxuris realurad amoqmedeba. · sakuTari samecniero-teqnikuri potenci alis gamoyeneba da gaZliereba; · efeqtiani privatizebis ganxorcieleba. 6. sakanonmdeblo da normatiuli baza saqarveloSi, ZiriTadad, ar aris mimarTuli umuSevrebs donis gazrdisaken, vinaidan kanoniT ar aris dadgenili nominaluri xelfasis done. iafi muSaxelis arsebobac umuSevrobis donis Semcirebis xelSemw yobi pirobaa. profkavSirebis ganuviTareblobac umuSevrobis donis Semci rebis erT-erT faqtorad SeiZleba miviCnioT. 7. saxelmwifom, mis xelT arsebuli yvela instrumentis (maT Soris preferenciebis SemoRebiT) gamoyenebiT, unda w aaxalisos saeqsporto da importSemcvleli warmoeba. AamisaTvis aucilebeli a Sesabamisi samecniero-teqnikuri da inovaciuri programebis ganxorcieleba. 8. perspeqtivaSi, soflad fermeruli meurneobebis ganviTarebis (igulisxmeba Sesabamisi teqnologiebis danergva) kvalobaze, warmoiSveba didi raodenobis Warbi muSaxeli, romelTa dasaqmebisaTvis mizanSewonili iqneba mcire mrewvelobis ganviTareba sofel adgilebSi. 9. umuSevrobis donis Semcirebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan mimarTulebas warmoadgens sazogadoebrivi samuSao adgilebi s organizeba, risTvisac saxelmwifos SeuZlia gamoiyenos bi ujetis saxsrebi, ucxouri kreditebi da daxmarebebi. Ramaz Abeasadze Doctor of Economics, professor UNEMPLOYMENT AND ITS CAUS ES IN GEORGIA Summary In most countries postcommunist transformat ion began with economic decrease. In Georgia it was expressesd most evidently. These processes were fo llo wed by very high level o f unemploy ment. Many postcommunist countries could overcome the difficulties and build mo re or less perfect market economy; decrease the unemployment almost to natural level. So me of them including Georgia could not solve this problem in the process of reform implementation because of mistakes and other objective or subjective causes. Hence, as a result, we have a high level of unemploy ment in these counties. The article analyzes the situation and causes of unemployment in Georg ia, there are mapped out measures to decrease the unemployment level.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , (.) - (2008) 2008 - , ­ ( -), ( , , ), ( , , ). , ( , ), , . ( ) , . , , , , , , , . , , ( , - ). , , , , , , , , , . « » «» , , , , . ( , ). , , , « , », « ­ ». , , ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , , . , [1] ( , ). , , , ­ - , ­ . , . ( 1991 , , , 1988 , , « ()»; , () , , 1953 - ) () ­ ( , ) , , , , . , , , , «» , - . . , , . , - ( , ­ « », , ). - , . , , , , , , , ( , ), , . , (the clash of civ ilizations). , - : ­

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ( , ), ­ ( « ()». ­ ( ). : - , ? ­ , ­ . - , , , . , , 21- . , , (, ), - [2] «». , . , , - , . ( ) (, , ). ­ , , , , . , , , , . , . . , ( - ), , . , , . ( ), ? , , . 18-19 ­ ( , ) ( ­ ­ ). « » - ( , ). . ­ « », , .

23

J. "ekonomisti", #5 ( ) ­ . , . ( , ), . ( , , 80 , , , ). , «» 2008 . [3]. , . ­ , . 2008 . «» ­ ( ) , «» , ( 2009 ). - , , , , . , - ? , ( , ), - . , , , , , , . . , , , ( ). , . , , . .

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , , . , . . , . , , ( «»). , , . ­ , , , , . ­ ( ), . , . . , . , , , , - , [4]. , , . , , , ( , - ). -- ( ) (, ) ­ , , () - ­ . - ­ ( ) , , ( , ) ­ ; , , , , - ( ), , .. ­ . . - ( ), , , -

25

J. "ekonomisti", #5 , . . , , , ( , )., ­ , , ( ­ 160 ), - . [4], , , ( , ). , 2009 30-35 , 2-3 ( 1%). , , , , , ( , ). , - . ? , . () , . , . ( , , .). : - «» , -, 90- . , . , , - , , , , . [5] ( « », ), . ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ( ) . - , . , , ( ), , , , , « ». , , ­ , , . , , , , , , : , . -, , [6], ­ . , . , , , . , , , - , . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . VIII . . , 2006 ( . .). . : //EurAsianet. 2008. .. : . .: 1995. . . ?// « ­ », 40, 2008. . : // . 2. 4. 2008, .26-36. Gegeshidze A., Papava V. Post-war Georg ia's Economic Challenges. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute (01/ 14/ 2009 issue of the CACI Analyst); Papava V. Post-war Georgia's Economic Challenges. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute (11/26/2008 issue of the CACI Analyst).

6.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 Teimuraz Beridze Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, International Black Sea University,(Tbilisi) THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE AUGUS T (2008) CONFLICT IN GEORGIA Summary The article pays specific attention to the analysis of objective and subjective factors of the august (2008 y.) conflict in Georg ia. Is studied the anatomy of Geo rgia-Russian relations of the last two decades. It is given the analysis of political and economical results of the conflict in Georgia and the author's recommendations for the solving the problem in a short,-mid and long-run period of developments.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , , , : ; , ; - . , ( ) , , , , ( , , , , - , , . .). , , , - . , . , ( ) 1991 , - , . , , , ­ , ­ . . , () , , , , , ­ 7 , . , . , « , , «-» , , .

7

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 . , » [7, .59]. , , , - . - , ( ) . , ( , ), - , ­ - [5, c.31]. , , - ( ), , - 8 . , ( ) () ( ) . , , , . , , (, ), . , . 2008 . . , 2008 . 96.4% 2007 ., ­ 97.9%. : ­ ­ 93.8 96.4%, , ­ 88,2 84,8%, ­ 96.8 89.4%, ­ 68.3 89.6%, ­ 81,6 74, 4%, , ­ 102.1 94.2% [2, c. 11-13]. , , () , .

8

, . ., .: [9, c.6; 10, c. 31-33; 13, c. 100].

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ( ) , . . «» , , « » (. . ­ , ­ 2007 . 5.21 . 1.23 . [1, c. 271]­ ). «» - , . . ( ) , . , « » . , , . ( 2007 . ­ 13.3% [1, c. 43]) , , . - - (c., ., [5]), - , . - , , ( ), . . ( [5]) . ( ) . ( 2001. ­ 1877.7, 2004 ­ 1783.3, 2007 ­ 1704.3 . .) . : 2001 ­ 52.1%, 2007 ­ 53.4%. ( ) . . 0,2 0,4% . 2001 . 5.4% , 2007 . ­ 4.9%. , , .

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 1.6% 2001. 4.2% 2007 . , ( ), . , ­ 9.7% 2001 ., 2004 ­ 11.0%, 2007 ­ 9.9%. . 4.2% [1, c.44-45]. ( 2008 . 16516.6 9 ) 2008 .. : , , , ­ 10.3% ; ­ 0.8%; ­ 9,5%; ­ 2.8%; ­ 6,1%; , ­ 16.1%; ­ 2.4%; ­ 7.6%; ­ 4.0%; ­ 2.4%; , ­ 4.0%; , ­ 4.2% 10 . ( ) ( ), (, , ), (). 2007 . 3524.8 1549.9 2003 . ­ 7.9%. , , , : 2003 . ­ 30.48%, 2007 ­ 20.4% ( , ­ ) [1, c.169171]. () 61.25% 2003 . 71.8% 2007 . ( ). ­ 29.2% 40.7% . 1991 . , , . , , , ., , , , . , ( ), 0.11% 1.65 1.67 1 . , 2009, 1, . 8-10.

9 10

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , 0.15% . - ( ), 0.2%, ­ 0,5% , . , . . , , , - , . ( «») ­ 5.8% . 10.5% , . , ( ). , , , , , , , , .. ­ 1.8% [1, c169-171]. , , () , , . 2007 ­ 268,1 , : , ­ 184,9 ; ­ 168,8 ; ­ 657,7 ; ­ 357.7 , , ­ 533,8 ; ­ 494,5 ; , , ­ 355,5 ; ­ 258,4 ; ­ 492,3 ; ­ 1014,5 ; , ­ 405,8 ; ­ 585,4 ; ­ 153,0 ; ­ 206,4 , , ­ 260,6 [1, c.51]. . , , - , [4]. , , . , , , , ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , , ( - ) . , , , 4 , , , . - (, , .). , , , -, , -, , , . ­ . - , , , , . , . ( , ) - , , . , .. () , , ( ), . (, ). , , , . , - - , . , , , , ( , , .), (, , , , , , - ­ -, -, -, - ). , (.. , ) , .. ( , ), , , ..

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , - . , ( , [8, c.134] ), - 2008 . , , ­ « , » [14, c. 103]. 2003 . (« ­ 2010») . « : 1) , , ; 2) 11 ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) » [14, c.106]. , . , , , ­ , , , . , [11; 15]. . . «4+9» ( , ), , , « ». « » [3, c. 60]. 2004. , , «4+9» [3, c.57-60]. . , , : , ( , , ), .. , ,

11

- , .

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , . « ­ 2010» «4+9», (ENDS), 1989 . « : ; ; , ; » [15, c. 85]. « "Vision 2023 ­ Sciense and technology", » [12, c. 101-103]. , , « ­ 2020», « ( ) , - , » [9, c. 6]. () (): - , ; - , ; - , , , « » [4, c. 84]. - . ( ), , .. « « () ­ ­ ­ ­ » [6, c. 47]; - ( , , ); - (-, , - - ) ; - (, , ) , ; ; - , , ­ ;

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 - ( ) ; - ( ) , . , , . , . 1. saqarTvelos stati stikuri weliwdeuli. saqarTvelos ekonomi kuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamenti. Tbilisi 2008. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikuri departamentis kvartaluri biuleteni. Tbilisi 2009. I. . . ­ , 2009, 1. . . _ ekon omisti, 2009, #1. . . ­ , 2009, 3. . - . ­ , 2008, 1. . : . ­ , 2008, 3. . : , . ­ , 1993, 9. . . ­ , 2009, 3. . . ­ , 2008, 9. . ( ). ­ , 2006, #9; . . ­ , 2006. . . ­ , 2006, 3. . . ­ , 2008, 3. : Deuchland ­ was nun? ZIMMERMA NN Klaus. (Hrsg) Munchen. DTV, 2006. . . ­ , 2009, 2.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 Vakhtang Burduli Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor THE QUES TIONS OF STRUCTURAL REORGANIZATION OF GEORGIA'S ECONOMY AND INCREAS E OF EMPLOYMENT LEVEL Summary In the article is shown that to ensure increase of employment level in Georg ia it is necessary to conduct gradual restructuring of the economy. Contemporary structure of the economy was formed, particularly, under impact of some, still not overcame, consequences of post soviet collapse of the economy. The necessity of restructuring of the economy is also induced by signals of world financial-economic crisis. In the article are investigated statistical data by structure of economic, such as: structure of employment and structure of gross value added by kind of economic activit ies; the dynamics of sectoral structure of industry. It is shown that contemporary structure of the economy does not comply with modern technological structure and therefore conditions existence of high level of unemploy ment. The experience of some developed countries in program realization of measures in perfection of economic structure is systematized. Necessity of elaboration of conceptual program of Geo rgia's economic develop ment is grounded and are formu lated a number of basic requirements that should be follo wed wh ile its elaboration.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ek onomikuri Teoria

, - , , . , , , ­ . , , . - "". . , ? ? "" ? . - . - . , - "" . « , » (1936) . -- , , , .. : , , , . , , , , . (M ilton Fried man - 1976.) , . . , ­ ­ , . 1976 . « , , ». , 1967 . , ­ . , . ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 . , , , , (, , ). , 70- . , «» «» . , . . , 1971 . 1966 . «» ("News-week"), « » ("Capitalism and Freedo m", 1962). « » ("Free to Choose", 1980) . , . (« ») . , , , , . . . - , . , , , . , - , , . «» , , , , . , « », , . - . , , , . ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 - , . - . (), , , . . - ( , ) , . « », 3--5% . , , ,

1. 2.

www.econlib.org/library/ Enc/bios/Fried man.html http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1976/ fried manautobio.html

Nata Davlasheridze Candidate of Economic Sciences

NOB EL PRIZE WINNER IN ECONOMICS MILTON FRIDMEN, HIS OPTION ABOUT THE UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM AND THE WAYS OF ITS OVEROMING Summary The article underlines that the unemploy ment problem is one of the actual subject of economic theory and the indices of population employment and unemploy ment are used as key indices of macroeconomics (which are used for the assessment of efficiency and exposure of main tendencies of functioning and development of market relat ions with regard for general situation of country economy). This mentioned problem is the subject of many economists' researches ­ beginning with Keynes and including modern scientists. According to this the Melton Fried mn's (Nobel prize winner on economy 1976) ideas on unemployment problem and the ways of its overcoming are of a great interest.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ­ , , , , . , , , , , , .. . , , . , , , , . , ­ , , , - , . , , , , , , , , , , ­ , . , ­ , . , - , , , , , , . . , , , - , . . , [1, . 5]. , , , , , , . , , , , , . , ­ ", , - , , " [2, . 530], ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , ­ , , , ­ , , , , , ­ . , , , , . , , , , . , , .. . , - [3, . 108-109]. , . , , : ­ ; ­ ; ­ ; ­ ­ ­ . , ­ . , - [4]. , - . , - , , , ,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 , , - . , , - . , , . , , , , .. , [5, . 30]. , , ( ) - , , , , , , , , . , , , - . , - , , , , . 1. 2. 3. . . ­ .: - , 1991. / . . . , . . : . 3- . ­ : . , . " ", 1999. . . "",1999, 3 (6). : "", 1999. . ( ). : «», 2008. . . , 80- (18-19.11.2008).: "", 2008.

4.

5.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 Anzor Kuratashvili Academical Doctor of Economics PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND SOCIALLY ORIENTED MARKET ECONOMY ­ DISPLAY OF CIVILIZATION OF MARKET RELATIONS Summary In scientific work the intrinsic nature of socially oriented market relations is revealed and its qualitative difference fro m tradit ionally understood market econo my is shown. As a result of the scientific analysis of socially oriented market-economic system the author comes to a logic conclusion that protection of human rights and socially oriented market economy, to be exact, its social orientation is a display of civilization of market relations.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 agraruli warmoeba

zurab reviSvili ekon omikis akademiuri doqtori

agraruli wesrigis politikis aqtualuri sakiTxebi wesri gis politi kas "Tvisebrivi cvlilebebis ganmsazRvrel politikasac" uwodeben, misi umniSvnelovanesi mizania "Tvisebrivi CarCo-pirobebis formireba", saTanado sakan onmdeblo CarCoebis uzrunvel yofa, romelic ganapirobebs seqtoris ganviTarebis arCeuli modelis formirebasa da mis efeqtur funqcionirebas [1, gv. 15,44]. agraruli wesrigis politikis mniSvnelovan elementebs Seadgens: miwis bazris regulireba, sasoflo-sameurneo miwebi s ganawileba, sakuTrebisa Tu flobis formebis gansazRvra, sasoflo meurneobebis kuTvnili savargulebis minimaluri da maqsimaluri zomebis dadgen a [2, gv.109-195]. miwis bazari ganisazRvreba da moicavs miwis sakuTrebi s, memkvidreobiT miReba-gadacemis, saijaro da saziaro urTierTobebi s formebs da warmoadgens arasrul ekon omikur da iuridi ul kategori as. igi agraruli politikis umniSvnelovanesi instrumenti a da asaxavs ama Tu im qveynis miwiT, sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebiT uzrunvelyofis xarisxs, miwis sakuTrebisadmi istoriulad Camoyalibebuli cnobierebisa da meurneobrivi yofis Taviseburebebs, erovn uli interesebis realizaciisa da ekonomikis liberalizaciis tradiciebs. istoriulad, arsebiT cvlilebebs ganicdida miwis sakuTrebiTi urTierTobani, masStabebi, sai jaro Tu saziaro garigebani, rentis si dide da formebi. ganviTarebul qveynebSi miwis ganawilebisa da sargeb lobis sakiTxebi met sazogadoebriv gaazrebas iZen da da metad iziarebda saerTo saxelmwifo politikis miznebsa Tu globalur problemebs. Sedegad w armoiqmna miwis bazris, yidva-gayi dvis, ijaris, miwis sakuTrebi s STamomavlobiT Tu sxva formebiT gadacemis saxelmwi fo regulirebi s ganviTarebuli sistema. dasavleT evropis yvela qveyana axorcielebs miwis bazris kon trols. maT Soris arian qveynebi miwis bazris liberaluri reJimiT, ufro gaadvilebuli miwis yidva-gayi dviTa da saijaro urTierTobebiT, Tumca am qveynebSic aris SezRudvebi. dasavleT evropuli qveynebis kanonmdeblobiT, ZiriTadad, uaryofiTi damoki debulebaa iuridi ul pirebze miwis gayidvi s sakiTxisadmi. umetes qveynebSi miwis yidva SeuZliaT mxolod fizikur pirebs, romlebic akmayofileben mkacr moTxovnebs. es moTxovnebi gansakuTrebiT exeba speci alur sasoflo-sameurneo ganaTlebas, SromiT gamocdilebas, soflad cxovrebas, soflis meurneobi s gan xorcielebisaTvis saTan ado kapitali s flobas. umravles qveynebSi ar aris dapiri spireba miwaze sakuTrebisa da ijaris formebs Soris. qveynebis gamocdileba cxadyofs, rom miwaTsargeblobis efeqturad ganxorcieleba SesaZlebeli a rogorc erTi, ise meore formiT da, ekon omikurad Tu i uri diulad, ar unda izRudebodes romelime maTgani. TiToeul qveyanaSi es sakiTxi unda wydebodes erovnuli pirobebi dan da meurneobrivi mizanSew onilobidan gamomdinare. Tanamedrove etapze mTlianad miwa, da gansakuTrebiT sasoflo-sameurneo savarguli, warmoadgens ara mxolod mocemuli qveynis saarsebo areals, aramed kacobri obis sasicocxlo resurss. msofli om am resursebis dacvisa da efeqturad gamoyenebis warmatebuli gamocdileba

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 daagrova. miwaTsargeblobis sistemi sa da miwis bazris CamoyalibebaSi saxelmwifo regulireba gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgens. urbanizaciis da industrializaciis pirobebSi, metad mniSvnelovani gansxvavebani soflismeurneobrivi savargulebis fasebsa da sabinao da samrewvelo obieqtebis mSeneblobisaTvis gamoyofili miwebis fasebs Soris ganapi robebs saxelmwifos mxri dan miwebi s funqci onaluri gadanawilebis umkacresi wesebis SemoRebisa da gatarebis aucileblobas. administraciul RonisZiebebTan erTad, mniSvnelovania ekon omikuri berketebis gamoyenebac, kerZod, miwebis funqci onaluri gamoyenebi s Secvlisa da sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis arasasoflo-sameurneo miwebis kategoriaSi gadayvanisas, sakompensacio Tan xa unda iyos metad maRali da realur bariers unda qmnides sasoflo-sameureno miwis resursis dacvisaTvis. sasoflo-sameurneo miwiT uzrunvelyofis dabali maCveneblebis mqone ri gi qveynebis agrarul politi kaSi aSkarad SeimCneva msxvili miwaTmflobeluri sistemebis daSlis ten dencia, calkeuli pirebis xelSi rom ar moxvdes miwis di di masivebi. xSirad, miwis yidvis an i jaris uflebis misaRebad, myidveli an moijare un da iyos adgilobrivi mcxovrebi, mas unda hqondes profesiuli ganaTleba, am sferoSi muSaobis gamocdileba. ase, magaliTad, daniaSi, aren datorisgan miwis SeZenisas, myidveli iRebs sasoflo-sameurneo miwis profilis SenarCunebisa da garemos dacvis pasuxismgeblobas. daniis miwis kanonmdebloba moiTxovs, rom pirebi, romlebic ewevian soflis meurneobas sakuTar an saijaro miwebze, mudmivad unda cxovrobdnen mocemul fermaSi. daniaSi gan sazRvrulia miwaTsargeblobis zeda zRvari, sakuTari da aren direbuli maqsimaluri miwis farTobi ar unda aRematebodes 150 ha-s. gamon aklisi daiSveba im SemTxvevaS, Tu fermeri daasabuTebs rom, mi si meurneobis specifikis gamo, mas esaWiroeba meti farTobi da mezobeli fermerebidan aravin iqneba amis winaaRmdegi. kanonmdebloba aseve gansazRvravs man Zilebs fermebSi mimaval gzebs Soris (2km-mde), nakveTebis maqsimalur raodenobas (araumetes 5-sa) da maT urTierTdacilebulobis zRvrebs (10-25km). kan oni uSvebs gamonakliss, rodesac fermers esaWiroeba damatebiTi nakveTi nakelis gasatan ad da Sesanaxad. moijare an myidveli unda cxovrobdes sasofl o adgilze aranakleb 8 weli; Tu fermis zoma ametebs 30 ha-s, man unda daasabuTos Tavi si profesiuli kvalifi kaci a, mas unda hqon des SromiTi gamocdileba soflis meurneobaSi da saTanado ganaTleba; man unda dados piroba, rom imuSavebs fermaSi aranakleb 8 wlisa, e.i. am peri odis ganmavlobaSi mas ar SeuZlia am miwis gayidva an ijariTa Tu qvei jariT gacema. miwis yidva akrZaluli a, Tu esaa kapi talis daban debis operacia an fasi miwaze ar Seesabameba realur Rirebulebas. miwis yidvi sas upiratesoba eZleva mezobels, romelic cxovrobs 1 km-ze axlos am nakveTidan. iuridi ul pi rebs daniaSi arc sasoflosameurneo miwis SeZenis da arc misi ijariT aRebis ufleba ar aqvT. aseTi ufleba aqvT mxolod fizikur pirebs [aq da Semdeg ix. 3]. amrigad, daniis kanonmdebloba xels uw yobs am qveynisaTvis optimaluri ojaxuri meurneobebis SenarCunebas, i gi ar uSvebs arc latifundiebis Seqmnas an miwebiT spekulacias da arc maT araracionalur dan awevrebas. amgvari politika mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs daniis soflis meurneobi s efeqtian funqci onirebas. SveicariaSi miRebuli "kan oni miwis sakuTrebis Sesaxeb" (1994) gansazRvravs, rom miwa SeiZleba ekuTvnodes mxolod mas, vinc amuSavebs, adgens erTi meurneobis minimalur da maqsimalur sazRvrebs. minimalu-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 rma zomam unda uzrunvelyos erTi adamianis dasaqmeba 75%-iT, an u 2100 saaTiT wlis ganmavlobaSi. maqsimalurad iTvleba nakveTi, romelic uzrunvelyofs normaluri Semosavlebis dones 2,5_3 dasaqmebulisTvis. dablob, vake adgilebSi minimaluri farTobis zomaa 5_ 7,5 ha. ijariT aRebi sas miwis minimaluri zoma unda uzrunvelyofdes 1,5 momuSavis dasaqmebas. italiaSi, portugaliasa da espaneTSi sasoflo-sameurneo miwis kanonmdeblobebSi gansazRvrulia fermeruli meurneobebis miwis farTobebis qveda zRvrebi, raTa, soflis mosaxleobis siWarbis gamo, Tavidan iqnes acilebuli nakveTebis gadametebuli daqucmaceba da fragmenti zacia. maTi kanonebi gansazRvravs cnebas _ "minimalurad arsebobis unariani meurneoba" da krZalavs nebismier gayidvas Tu saijaro garigebas, romliTac irRveva es minimaluri zoma. gansxvavebuli bunebrivi da ekonomikuri pirobebis gamo, aseTi minimaluri zoma dgindeba regionul doneze. amasTan erTad, espaneTis miwis kanonmdebloba zRudavs ijari s zeda zRvarsac, romlis mizania, ar dauSvas msxvili mamulebis warmoqmna. iaponiaSi miwis kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis SezRudulobas da qalaqebis di d daw olas sasoflo raionebze. aq saxelmwi fo axorcielebs mkacr politikas sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis SenarCunebis mimarTulebiT. nebismieri sakuTrebiTi Tu saijaro cvlileba miwaze moiTxovs samTavrobo Tanxmobas, romelic iTvaliswinebs Semdeg pirobebs: mesakuTre TviTon unda amuSavebdes miwas, romelic mas ekuTvnis an ijariT aqvs aRebuli; glexi an mi si ojaxi s wevri mudmivad un da iyos dasaqmebuli sasoflo-sameurneo w armoebiT; saerTo farTobi SeZenis an ijariT aRebis Semdgom ar unda iyos 0,5 haze naklebi (xokai doze _ 2 ha) an meti; mTavroba miwis SeZenisas gamonakliss uSvebs, Tu es exeba gansakuTrebiT intensiuri tipis meurneobebs. glexs unda hqon des saTanado kvali fikacia, finansuri da sxva SesaZleblobani warmoebis efeqtianad ganxorcielebisaTvis meurneobis mTel farTobze da igi mudmivad unda cxovrobdes am meurneobaSi. sasoflosameurneo miwis yidvis an ijariT aRebis ufleba aqvs mxolod "fizikur sasoflo-sameurneo pirs". norvegiaSi agraruli politi kis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizania mcire meurneobebis SenarCuneba da qveynis soflis meurneobis w armoebi saTvi s mZime pirobebis mqone regionebis (gansakuTrebiT CrdiloeTis da centraluri sasoflo adgilebis) mosaxleobisgan daclis Seferxeba. politika Zi riTadad orienti rebulia socialur da ekologiur miznebze, raTa ar gaukacrieldes aRniSnuli teritoriebi; orien taci a aRebulia mesakuTre fermeris Sen arCunebisaken, kanonmdebloba zRudavs nakveTebi s danaw evrebas, xolo ijara reglamenti rebulia kanoniT da adgilobrivi xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebiT. niderlandebSi daSrobili miwebis mniSvnelovani nawili ekuTvnis saxelmwifos da gaicema xan grZlivi ijarebis safuZvelze. ijariT gaicema aseve sxva sasoflo-sameurneo miwebic. mTlianad 30% mTliani miwebisa saijaro miwebia, sasoflo meurneobebi s TiTqmis naxevari mTli anad an nawilobriv saqmian obs saijaro miwebze. saxelmwifos mxridan saijaro urTierTobebis regulirebi sas, orientacia aRebulia meurneobebi s danawevrebis SezRudvi saken, amave dros, izRudeba miwis gadaWarbebuli koncen tracia da calkeuli pirebis xelSi di di farTobebis moqceva. aseTi principebi vrceldeba rogorc ijaris, ise miwis gayidvis SemT xvevaSi. amave dros, mxedvelobaSi miiReba sasoflo-sameurneo warmoebi s

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 tipi, saWiro nakveTebi s zomebi, raTa warmatebiT ganxorcieldes maTi komerciuli saqmianoba. meurneobis efeqtiani saqmian oba aris safuZveli saxelmwifos mxridan ijari s sakontraqto pirobebis Secvlis, gagrZelebis Tu Sew yvetisa. irlandiaSi, gamomdinare istori uli dapi rispirebiT inglisel "lend-lordebsa" da arendator irlandielebs Soris, miwis ijara erovnuli sulis sapirispiro movlenadaa miCneuli. agraruli politika aq orientirebulia mesakuTre fermerze. ijaris miRebis uflebas esaWiroeba mTavrobis gansakuTrebuli ufleba. safrangeTSi bolo 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi miwis bazarze rTuli kon troli s sistema xorcieldeba. kanoni miwis yoveli yidva-gayidvi sas an ijariT gacemi sas gansakuTrebul samTavrobo nebarTvas moiTxovs. aqcenti keTdeba faqtobriv miwaTmosargebleze. Tu miwis mesakuTre icvleba da moijare igive rCeba, amisaTvis nebarTva ar ari s saWi ro, xolo Tu icvleba moijare, xolo mesakuTre igive rCeba, am SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia nebarTvis miReba. aseTi nebarTvisaTvi s saWiroa minimaluri miwis farTobi, romelic gansazRvrulia kanoniT. meurneoba unda uzrunvelyofdes minimum ori adami anis dasaqmebas da maT mier saTanado Semosavlis mi Rebas. amJamad amgvar minimalur zomad miCneulia 25 ha. germaniaSi mudmivi kontroli xorcieldeba sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis sakuTrebis cvlilebisa Tu ijariT gacemisas. Tu ramdenime pirs unda miwis SeZena an ijariT aReba, upiratesoba eniWeba mas, vinc ukve eweva soflis meurneobas. miwis fragmentaciis aRkveTis mizniT, gasayi di an ijariT gasacemi nakveTi ar un da iyos 1 ha-ze naklebi; maqsimalur zomad miCneulia 400-500 ha. miwis bazrisadmi ufro liberaluri damokidebuleba gansazRvrulia qveynis sasoflo-sameurneo resursebiT, erovn uli da istori uli tradiciebiT. aseT qveynebsYupi rvelesad miakuTvneben aSS-s, avstrali asa da kanadas. SedarebiT n akleb kontrols axorcielebs didi britaneTi, belgia da saberZneTi. Tumca am qveynebSic saxelmwifo itovebs Carevi s uflebas, magaliTad, ekologiuri problemis w armoqmnisas. avstraliaSi, sadac miwis udidesi nawili ekuTvnis saxelmwifos, sargeblobis uflebisYan ijariT gacemisas, fermerebs ekisrebaT miwaTsargeblobis saTanado wesebis dacvis pasuxismgebloba. aSS-s sofli s meurneobis mxriv mniSvnelovan 13 StatSi akrZaluli a savargulebis SeZena iuridi uli pirebis da ara fermerebis mier, sasoflo-sameurneo miwebs profili rom ar Seecvalos. ssrk-s daSlis Semdgom, saqarTvelos, ise, rogorc sxva respublikebs, unda gadaewyvita sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis ganawilebis, reformirebis sakiTxi, romlis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis gamo, politikosTa da mecnierTa Soris arsebobda gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi, rac im periodisaTvis moiTxovda am sakiTxis mecnierul ganxilvas, poziciaTa Sejerebas da qveynis interesis momcveli saTanado agraruli wesrigis politikis SemuSavebas. samwuxarod, es ar moxda da 1992 wels sasoflosameurneo miwebis ganawileba daiwyo yovelgvari konceptualuri Tu strategiuli gaazrebi s gareSe. miwebis ganawilebis, maTi privatizebis sakiTxebis gan xilvisas, Cveni azriT, metad yuradsaRebi dasavlel mecnier ekonomi stTa jgufi s (30-mde profesori, samecniero centrebi s xelmZRvaneli da cnobili wamyvani ekon omistebi; maT Soris arian nobelis premiis laureatebi _ franko modiliani, jeims tobini da robert solou, romelTac 1996 wels SeuerTda kidev erTi nobelis laureati _ uiliam vikri) mier Se-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 moTavazebuli pozici aa m. gorbaCovisadmi 1991 wels gagzavnil Ria werilSi. cnobil ekonomistTa jgufi, ssrk-s daSlis Semdgom realobebs rom iTvaliswinebs, iZleva rCevebs, rom msoflio gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, umjobesi a miwaze SenarCun des saxelmwi fo sakuTreba da saxelmwi fo Semosavlebis mniSvnelovani nawili Camoyalibdes miwis rentis formiT, rom dasavleTis qveynebis ukeT ganviTarebas didad aferxebs miwis kerZo sakuTreba, vinaidan kerZo seqtori iTvisebs miwis rentis di d nawils. maTi azriT, "miwis renta w armoadgen s koleqtiuri Sromis Sedegs da is unda gamoiyenebodes yvela moqalaqis interesebSi", "efeqturobis da samarTlianobis uzrunvelsayofad yvela miwaTmosargeble un da yovelwli urad uxdides miwis ren tas adgilobriv xelisuflebas, maT mier gamoyenebuli miwis saTanado sarento Ri rebulebis sidides"; "saxelmwifo un da gansazRvravdes periodulad sarento gadasaxadebis nixrebs da ar SeiZleba am uflebis gadacema miwaTmosargebleebisaTvis"[4]. miwis SezRuduli resursebis mqone qveynebis gamocdilebaTa gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze vfiqrobT, rom saqarTvelos agraruli politika mimarTuli un da iyos, erTi mxriv, SinameurneobaTa saSualo zomi s opti malurad gadi debisaken, xolo meore mxriv, igi unda zRudavdes optimalur meurneobaze ufro di di meurneobebis da, Sesabami sad, msxvili miwaTmflobelobis w armoqmnasa da funqci onirebas. savargulebis pri vatizebisa Tu yidvi sas, upiratesoba unda mieniWos soflad mcxovreb da soflismeurneobrivi gamocdilebis mqone fizikur pirebs. saqarTvelos kanonis _ "sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis sakuTrebis Sesaxeb" (1996) _ pirvel variantSi (muxli-4) saadgilmamulo (fermerul) meurneobis cnebaSi Setanilia " sakomlo (glexuri, fermeruli) meurneobebi" da "sasoflo-sameurneo i uri diuli piri"; "iuri diuli piri, romelic eweva Sereuli saxi s saqmi anobas, CaiTvleba saadgilmamulo (fermerul) meurneobad, Tu i gi Semosavli s Nnaxevarze mets i Rebs sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobiT" (punqti 3,6). 2000 wlis cvlilebebiT ganisazRvra, rom "sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis sakuT rebis ufleba aqvs fizikur pirs, komls" da "saqarTveloSi registri rebul iuridi ul pirs" (punqti-2). 2007 wlis damatebebiT, sasoflo-sameurneo miwa SeiZleba sakuTrebis uflebiT hqondes aseve ucxoels da sazRvargareT registrirebul i uri diul pirs saTanado SeniSvniT, rom: "ucxoeli da sazRvargareT registrirebuli iuridi uli pirebi valdebulni arian, TavianT sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sasoflo-sameurneo miwis n akveTi maTze sakuTrebis uflebi s warmoqmnidan 6 Tvi s ganmavlobaSi gaasxvison saqarTvelos moqalaqeze, komlze an/da saqarTvelos kanon mdeblobis Sesabamisad registri rebul iuri diul pirze" [5, gv. 6, 7; 6, gv. 25, 26]. vfiqrobT, saqarTveloSi ucxoel fizikur Tu iuridiul pirs advilad SeuZlia daafuZnos SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobi s, saaqcio Tu sxva tipi s sazogadoeba, romelSic mas eqneba sakontrolo paketi da ar eqneba SezRudva sasoflo-sameurneo Tu arasasoflo-sameurneo miwebi s SeZenasa da flobaSi. "sasoflo-sameurneo daniSn ulebis miwis arasasoflo-sameurneo mizniT gamoyofis sanacvalgebo miwis aTvi sebis Ri rebulebisa da miyenebuli zianis an azRaurebis Sesaxeb" (1997) kan onis 2007 wlis damatebebiT, arsebiTad advildeba sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis arasasoflo-sameurneo miwebad gadaqcevis meqanizmi. ase, magaliTad, qalaq Tbilisisa da baTumis, aseve qobuleTis sazRvrebSi moqceuli sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis 1 ha miwisaTvi s sanacvlo sakompensacio Tan xa Seadgen da 34001

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 lars, borjomisaTvis _ 19857 lars, yazbegisaTvi s ­ 14286 lars da a.S. [6, gv. 35-37]. vfiqrobT, rom sakompen saci o Tanxebi ar aris saTan adod maRali da didi qalaqebisa Tu sarekreacio adgilebi s mimdebare sasoflo-sameurneo miwebs advilad SeecvlebaT kategoria da amgvari viTareba sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis Semcirebis di d safrTxes qmnis. 2003 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis erT sulze (2002 wlis aRw eris monacemebi) modioda 0,69 ha sasoflo-sameurneo savarguli, xolo soflis mosaxlebis erT sulze gaangariSebiT es maCvenebeli Seadgenda 1,4 ha-s. amave wlis 1 aprilis mdgomareobiT, saqarTveloSi sasoflo-sameurneo miwa sakuTrebaSi gaunawilda 1110,8 aTasA komls (ojaxs), maT Soris soflad mcxovreb 772,5 aTas komls gadaeca 690,1 aTasi ha, e.i. 0,89 ha da qalaqad mcxovreb 338,3 aTas ojaxs gadaeca 72,9 aTasi ha, e.i. saSualod 0,22 ha. sakuTrebis uflebiT sul ganawilda 763 aTasi ha, an u mTliani savargulebis 25,2%. amave periodisTvis, fizikur da iuri diul pirebze ijariT gaica 905,1 aTasi ha, an u mTeli savargulebis 29,9%. maT Soris 40,2 aTasma fizikurma pirma ijariT miiRo 473,1 aTasi ha, anu saSualod erTma fizikurma pi rma miiRo 11,8 ha; xolo 4,2 aTasma iuridiulma pi rma ijariT miiRo 432,0 aTasi ha savarguli, anu saSualod erTma iuri diulma pirma miiRo 102,9 ha. saxelmwi fos gankargulebaSi, am dros, rCeboda 1355,7 aTasi ha, anu mTeli savargulebis 44,8% [7, gv. 1-4]. 2004 wlis sasoflo-sameurneo aRw eram aCvena, rom sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis mqone (sakuTreba da ijara) Sinameurneobebis 43,2%-s hqonda 0,5 ha-ze naklebi; 0,5-0,99 ha miwa hqon da meurneobebis 32%-s; 1-1,99 ha-mde hqon da mxolod meurneobebis 18,3%-s; 2_2,99 ha _ 3%-s da 3-4 ha hqonda Sinameurneobebis 1,4 %-s; saSualod erT sasoflo Sinameurneobaze gaangariSebiT 2004 wels modioda 1,21 ha sasoflo-sameurneo savarguli. aRsaniSnavia, rom Sinameurneobebis sargeblobaSi arsebuli mcire zomis farTobebi dan awevrebulia: 2-3 nakveTiani meurneoba hqonda meurenobebis 48,8%-s, 4-5 nakveTiani _ 13%-s, 6-9 nakveTiani 3,9%-s da erTnakveTiani meurneobebi Seadgenda 33,9%-s; nakveTebi mniSvnelovani manZiliT arian erTmaneTs dacilebulni, rac maTi damuSavebi s damatebiT problemebs qmnis [8, gv. 3, 55, 84]. amrigad, Sinameurneobebis 75,2% flobda 1 ha-ze naklebi zomis savarguls da es mcire farTobebic danawevrebuli da gafantulia. Sinameurneobebis mdgradi ganviTarebis aucilebloba miwebis gadanawilebis iseTi wesrigis politikis ganxorcielebas saWiroebs, romelic xels Seuwyobs meurneobaTa saSualo zomebis optimalur gadi debas da nakveTebis gamTlianebas. vfiqrobT, SinameurneobebisTvis, arsebuli viTarebidan gamomdinare, optimaluria 2-3 ha savargulis floba. amave dros, adgilobrivi miwis resursebidan gamomdinare, regi onebisaTvis diferenci rebulad un da ganisazRvros meurneobebis saSualo, maqsimaluri Tu minimaluri zoma, dadgindes ijariT gasacemi miwis zRvruli sidide. "saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sasoflo-sameureno daniSnulebis miwis privatizaciis Sesaxeb" (2005) da "fizikuri da kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis mflobelobaSi (sargeblobaSi) arsebuli miwis nakveTebze sakuTrebis aRi arebis Sesaxeb" (2007) kanonebma mniSvnelovnad gaafarTova sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis privatizebis formebi (specialuri auqcioni, Ria auqcioni, pirdapiri miyidva da konkurentuli SerCeva) da xeli Seuwyo fizi kuri da iuridi uli pirebis mi er

51

J. "ekonomisti", #5 TviTneburad dakavebuli saxelmwi fo miwebis sakuTrebis uflebaTa aRiarebasa da maT privatizebas. unda aRiniSnos, rom "miwis marTvis saxelmwifo departamentis" reformirebam da miwebis privatizaciisa da yi dva-gayidvis sajaro reestrSi registri rebam, erTi mxriv, gaaadvila miwebis sakuTrebiTi Tu maTi ipoTekiT datvirTvis sakiTxebis mogvareba, xolo, meore mxriv, garTul da sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis ganawilebisa da gadanawilebis, sakuTrebiTi Tu saijaro formebi s cvlilebebis amsaxveli statistikuri informaciis mokvleva. Cveni azriT, statistikis saxelmwifo departamentma un da ganaxorcielos saTanado statisti kuri kvlevebi rogorc sasoflo Sinameurneobebze, ise miwis mesakuTre Tu moijare iuridiul pirebze, sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis ganawilebis, sakuTrebiTi, saijaro urTierTobebis cvlilebebis, maT mier miwebis efeqturad gamoyenebi s Taobaze. es informacia metad mniSvnelovania meurneobaTa funqcionirebis, efeqturi zomebis dadgenisa da sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis gadanawilebis saTan ado sakanonmdeblo CarCoebis SemuSavebisaTvis. agraruli seqtoris wesri gis politi kam saqarTveloSi, SemoqmedebiTad un da gaiTvaliswinos ganxiluli qveynebis warmatebuli gamocdilebebi da sasoflo-sameurneo miwebis saxelmwi fo regulirebaSi aRiarebuli, progresuli principebi un da daamkvidros. gamoyenebuli literatura 1. r. gvelesiani, i. gogoriSvili, ekonomikuri politi ka, wigni I, saxelmZRvanelo, "universali", Tb., 2008 (wignSi vrcladaa ganxi luli valter oikenis "ekonomi kuri politikis safuZvlebSi" mocemuli wesrigi s politikis Zi riTadi principebi; ix.: 1, gv. 48-51). Roger D. No rton. Agricultural Develop ment Policy : Concepts and Experiences, Published: John Willey &Sons Ltd, West Sussex, England, 2004; Cop.: FAO o f the UN, 2004. http://www.antax.ru/doc/articles/zarubejnii_opit.htm HA .. . . ", , , ", 8, 2003. miwis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaTa krebuli, saqarT velos miwis marTvis sax. departamenti, Tb., 2001. saqarTvelos miwis kan onmdebloba, Tb., gam.-ba "RISE", 2009. saqarTveloSi sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis miwis privatizebisa da ijariT gacemis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb 01.04.2003w. mdgomareobiT, miwis saxelmwifo departamenti, Tb., 2004. saqarTvelos 2004 wlis sasoflo-sameurneo aRw era. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebi s saministros statistiki s departamenti, Tb., 2005. Zurab Revishvili Academic Doctor of Economics LIVE ISS UES OF AGRICULTURAL ORDER POLICY Summary There are examined some developing and developed countries experience in the formation of land market; princip les of the governmental land regulations, tendencies of regulations plots and farm sizes in s mall land countries; regulative laws of land distribution. There are offered some ideas, helping the efficient land distribution in Georgia; also are proposed principles of pro moting governmental regulations of agricu ltural land in the country.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ek onomikur-soci aluri problemebi

roland sarCimelia ekon omikis mecnierebaTa doqtori nan uli arevaZe ekon omikis akademiuri doqtori

mosaxleobis Zlieri saSualo fenis formirebi saTvis saqarTveloSi mosaxleobi s fenebad dayofi s safuZvlad miCneulia simdidre an Semosavali, rac Semdgom ganaTlebisa da kulturis doneebiT SeiZleba dazustdes. mosaxleobaSi saSualo fenis procentuli Semadgenlobi s zrda da mcire mewarmeobis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTarebi saTvi s mniSvnelovani winapirobaa. ganviTarebul qveynebSi `mudam mSfoTvare~ [1, gv. 563] mosaxleobis sSualo fenaze mTeli mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 60-75% modis, postkomunistur saqarTveloSi ki i s 15-20%-mde varirebiT SeiZleba daxasiaTdes da mis optimalur mniSvnelobaze mxolod miniSnebiT SeiZleba saubari. mdidrad iTvleba fena, romelic flobs saukeTeso ekonomikur pirobebs da gaaCnia maRali Semosavali, zogjer zrun avs sxva fenebis keTildReobis amaRlebazec. mosaxleobis Rarib fenas Tavi Zlivs gaaqvs da mxolod fiziologiuri moTxovnilebebi s doneze arsebobi s SenarCunebas cdilobs. ganviTarebul qveynebSi maTze mTeli mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 20% modis, 3-5%-is cdomilebiT. mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis pi robebis Seqmn a yvelgan da m.S. saqarTveloSic gulisxmobs mosaxleobis saSualo fenis ricxovnobis zrdas, SefasebisaTvis kriteriumebis dadgenas da misi mixedviT mosaxleobi s struqturis optimizacias, romlis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos ara mxolod ucxouri investiciebi, aramed qveynis Sinagani resursebiT saqmiani aqtivobis dafinansebis SesaZleblobebi da maTi Tavisufali moqmedebisa da sinergiuli efeqtis miRebisaTvis saTan ado pirobebis Seqmna. es, umuSevrobis SemcirebasTan erTad, saSualo fenis gaZlierebas gamoiwvevs, xolo dazRvevis sxvadasxva formi s gamoyenebis moSvelieba mniSvnelovnad Seamcirebs yovelgvar mosalodnel risks. unda iTqvas imazec, rom muSaoba am mimarTulebiT saqarTveloSi ukve dawyebulia, magram mosaxleobas bolomde jerac ar aqvs gacnobierebuli dazRvevis arc arsi da arc mosalodneli Sedegebi. SevniSnavT, rom postkomunisturi saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi 90-iani wlebis meore naxevri dan saxelmwifom aSkarad daiwyo zrunva mosaxleobis mdidari fenis Sesaqmnelad, ramac, faqtobrivad, saSualo fenis gaRaribebis xarjze gamdi drebuli partokratiisa da teqn okratiis di di nawili gaaZliera, saSualo fena ki Zalze daasusta. amis analogad SeiZleba CaiTvalos sabWoTa xelisuflebis dros wina planze proletariatis hegemoniis wamoweva. mosaxleobi s saSualo fenaSi vgulisxmobT cxovrebis saSualo doneze SesanarCuneblad `moRvawe~ adami anTa erTobli obas, romlebic umuSevrebi ar arian, aqvT saSualo Semosavali, gan aTlebisa da kulturis maRali done da saarsebo saSualebebze, anu a. maslous mixedviT, fiziologi uri moTxovnilebebis garda, bevri sxva moTxovnilebac, iqneba es usafrTxoebisa Tu momavlis saimedobis, socialuri, pativiscemi s Tu TviTgamoxatvis da maTi dakmayofilebis SesaZlebloba. TiTqmis yve-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 la ganviTarebul qveyanaSi sw ored mosaxleobis saSualo fenaa xelisuflebis dasayrdeni, sazogadoebrivi azris Semqmneli da cxovrebaSi misi ganmaxorcielebeli, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis damcveli, jansaRi momavali Taobis aRmzrdeli da a.S. saSualo fenaSi moxvedril adami anTa umravlesoba gamoi rCeva maRali inteleqtiT, saxelmwi fos aRmSeneblobaSi monawileobis unariT, ganaTlebis maRali doniT, patri otizmiT, SromiTi saqmian obis gaaqti urebisaken misw rafebiT da a.S. mosaxleobis saSualo fen aSi moiazrebian menejerebi, eqimebi, inJinrebi, pedagogebi, ekon omistebi, mecnierebi da sxva. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi saSualo fenis mosaxleobi s ricxovnobis dasadgenad gamoyenebuli zogadi kriteriumebi principSi erTmaneTis msgavsia, magram miRebuli Sedegebi erTmaneTi sagan aSkarad gansxvavdeba, ramden adac didi roli eqspertul Sefasebebs eniWeba, romelSic upirvelesad gaiTvaliswineba konkretul qveyanaSi arsebuli realoba, romlis indikatorebi SeiZleba iyos politikuri aqtivoba, simdidrisa da ganaTlebis done, kulturuli faseulobebi da a.S. amitom is, vinc erT qveyanaSi mdidrad iTvleba, meoreSi SeiZleba Raribad iqnes miCneuli da piriqiT. saqarTveloSi Zalze garTulebulia mosaxleobi s fenebis mixedviT zusti stati stikuri informaciis mopoveba. aseTi maCveneblebi s gaurkvevlobis gamo, siZneleebi iqmneba da iZulebuli vxdebiT, visargebloT mxolod eqspertuli SefasebebiT, romelic erTmaneTisagan sakmaod gansxvavebuli SeiZleba iyos da, amdenad, zusti ver iqneba. amasTan dakavSi rebiT, vfiqrobT, sakmaod sainteresoa akad. a. gunias statiaSi [2, gv. 7] moyvanili monacemebi, romelic asaxavs saqarTveloSi sabazro urTierTobebze gadasvlis dasawyisSi mosaxleobis samive fenis qonebrivi diferenciaciis maCveneblebs (i x. cxrili). amave cxri lSi CavrTeT Cveni, rogorc eqspertebis savaraudo monacemebi da monacemebi, romelic T. aqubardias statiidan [3. gv. 411] aris moyvanili.

cxrili

mosaxleobis fen ebad dayofis saorientaci o maCveneblebi procentebSi

a. gunias SefasebiT 1992-1993 ww. Cveni TvalsazrisiT 2000 w. T. aqubardias mixedviT 2003 w. Cveni TvalsazrisiT 2005-2008 ww.

mdidrebi

8

2-5

5-8

saSualo fena Raribebi

15 77

5-8 93-87

20-25 75-67

8-10 m.S. elita 3-5 15-20 77-70

warmodgenili monacemebiT sayuradReboa is, rom mosaxleobis saSualo fenis procentuli Sefaseba, saorientacio progn oziTac ki, 1520%-s ar aRemateba, rac, Cveni TvalsazrisiT, saeWvo ar un da iyos, Tumca, samw uxarod, Zalze dabalia. amis mizezad miCneuli a is, rom mecniermuSakebis, pedagogebis, inJinrebis, eqimebis da a.S. didi nawili, mcire xelfasebis an sulac umuSevrobis gamo, CaTvlilia Raribi mosaxleobi s SemadgenlobaSi, rac, SesaZloa, jer kidev ar iyos sagangaSo, Tu mas

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 mxolod droebiTi xasiaTi eqneba, Tumca namdvilad sagangaSoa is faqti, rom Cvens sinamdvileSi, sruliad dakninebuli da ugulebelyofilia samecniero sazogadoebis da saerTod mecnierebis wamyvani roli rogorc mosaxleobi s saSualo fenis CamoyalibebaSi, ise qveynis aRmSeneblobi s saqmeSi. maSin, roca swored mecnierebaa yvelgan miCneuli da aRiarebuli ara mxolod inovaciuri, aramed ukve axali superkompiuteruli teqnologiebis SemmuSavebel da ekon omikaSi mis damnergav Zalad, rac axla, Cven s pirobebSi, SeuZlebelia mecnieruli gamokvlevebis Zalze SezRuduli sabi ujeto dafinansebis gamo, da roca katastrofulad ecema mecnier-muSakTa ricxovnoba. saWi roa imis gaTvaliswinebac, rom aTeul wlobiT Wkviani adamianebis gonebiT Seqmnili mecnieruli mi Rwevebi s dan greva ramdenime dReSi SeiZleba, mis momaval aSenebas ki aTeuli wlebi aRar eyofa. yuradRebas iqcevs prof. u. samadaSvilis sakmaod mimzidveli da saintereso msjeloba saqarTveloSi Zlieri saSualo fenis Semdgomi ganviTarebis aucileblobasTan dakavSirebiT, romelsac di di mniSvneloba eniWeba `namdvilad demokrati uli sazogadoebis, kon kurentunariani erovnuli ekonomikisa da efeqti ani saxelmwifos CamoyalibebisaTvis~ [4, gv. 37]. magram samw uxaroa, rom statiaSi saSualo fenis ricxovnobis Sefasebis Tun dac saorientaci o maCveneblebi moyvanili ar aris. unda aRiniSnos, rom mosaxleobi s saSualo fenis ricxovnoba Zlier Semcirda bevri Cveni Tanamemamulis sazRvargareT samuSaod gamgzavrebis gamo, ramdenadac maT qveynis SigniT verc samuSao iSoves da verc saarsebo saSualebebi. wasulTa umravlesoba sw ored maRali donis axalgazrda specialistebi: mecnierebi, eqimebi, inJinrebi, maRalkvali ficiuri muSebi ­ saSualo fenis warmomadgenlebi arian. sagangaSoa, rom wamsvlelTa raodenoba ar mcirdeba, SesaZlebeli a izrdeba kidec. zogierTi eqspertis azriT, sazRvargareT, oficialurad, milionze meti Cveni Tanamemamule imyofeba, araoficialurad ramdenia aravin icis, romelTa erTi nawili, SesaZloa, CvenTvis sabolood dakargulic iyos Tu ukan aRar dabrundeba. Tumca, am process Tavisi dadebiTi mxarec aqvs. jer erTi, qveyanaSi mci rdeba umuSevarTa raoden oba da meorec, maT mier samSobloSi gamogzavnili milionobiT dolariT bevri Cveni Tanamemamule arsebobas inarCunebs, gansakuTrebiT axlan deli globaluri finansuri krizisis pi robebSi. Tu xelisufleba SeZlebs ucxoeTSi samuSaod wamsvlelTa SesaCerebeli RonisZiebebi s SemuSavebas da mis reali zacias qveyanaSi axali samuSao adgilebis SeqmniT, amiT bevrad Seuwyobs xels rogorc w amsvlelTa raodenobis Semcirebas, ise wasulTa ukan dabrunebis zrdas, rac SeiZleba, mosaxleobis saSualo fenis ricxovnobis mkveTri matebis safuZveli gaxdes. mosaxleobi s saSualo fenis formirebaze garkveuli gavlenis moxdena privatizaciis processac SeuZlia, Tumca im procesma, romelic 90ian wlebSi daiwyo da axlac grZeldeba, es ver SeZlo. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom privatizacia dasaw yisSi TiTqmis TviTdinebaze iyo miSvebuli mTlianad postsabWoTa sivrceSi da, kerZod, saqarTveloSi. `masiuri privatizaciis procesSi saxel mwifo sakuTreba Zal ze Semcirebuli fasebiT gaiyida. aSkarad da farulad mieyida is yofil partokratias, xelisuflebasa da masTan daaxloebul pirebs, saxel mwifo moxeleebs. gaiyida yvelaferi, risi gayi dvac SeiZl eboda TiTqosda im principiT, rom aRebuli TanxebiT gaCerebul sawarmoTa amoqmedeba un da ganxorci elebuliyo, magram araferi amis msgavsi ar momxdara... yvelaferi Zi riTadad calkeuli ojaxuri klanebis xelSi moxvda, maSin, roca mSromelebs,

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 mecnierebis da inteli genciis warmomadgenlebs araferi SexvedriaT 5 lariani vauCerisa da, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, sakuTari (sabWoTa xeli suflebis dros miRebuli an aSenebuli) binebis garda~ [5, gv. 105]. erovnuli akademiis wevr-korespondent, prof. vl. papavas azriT, `privatizaciis mizani bevri fuli s amoReba ki ar unda iyos, aramed is, rom privatizebulma obieqtebma momavalSi ukeT imuSaos~ [6, gv. 35]. rogorc vxedavT, es udavod WeSmariti mosazreba privatizaciis procesi s gamtarebelTa mxri dan jerac ar aris bolomde gaziarebuli da amitom saqarTveloSi mimdinare privatizaciis process dadebiTi zegavlen a arc saSualo fenis formirebasa da gaCerebul saw armoTa amoqmedebaze da arc axali samuSao adgilebi s Seqmnaze ar mouxdenia. man mxolod xeli Seuwyo qveyanaSi ekonomikuri uTan asw orobis gamwvavebas da qonebriv polarizacias, rac imiT gamoixata, rom mdi drebi ufro gamdi drdnen, saSualo da Raribi fena kidev ufro gaRaribda. amasTan, mdgomareobam garkveuli gaumjobeseba TiTqosda daiwyo `vardebis revoluciis~ Semdeg, magram investiciebis simci ris gamo, viTareba arsebiTad ar gaumjobesebula. miT umetes, rom mas gasul wels agvistos movlenebi da globaluri safinanso krizisic daemata. Seqmnil viTarebaSi mdgomareobidan gamosavali, mewarmeobis ganviTarebis istoriis analogiiT, SeiZleba moiZebn os mci re mew armeobis ganviTarebiT, romliTac xeli Seewyoba saSualo fenis ricxobriv zrdas da gaZlierebas, sazogadoebaSi mewarmoebrivi niWis gamovlenas, umuSevrobis donis Semci rebas, inovaciuri ekonomiki s Camoyalibebas [7]. amasTan dakavSirebiT, sainteresod gveCveneba jon meinard keinzis cnobili debuleba, romelsac emk n. bibilaSvilma mi aqcia yuradReba, romli s Tanaxmad, mTavrobam warmoebi s stimulirebisa da umuSevarTa samuSao adgilebze dasabruneblad un da gazardos saxelmwifo xarjebi, Tun dac igi iwvevdes biujetis deficitis zrdas [8, gv. 160-161], rasac mohyveba mcire mew armeobi s ganviTareba mosaxleobis saSualo fenis gaZlierebasTan erTad. amas unda daematos ucxouri daxmarebis nawilis am mizniT gamoyeneba da, rac mTavaria, mosaxleobis mdidari fenis keTilsasurveli damoki debuleba saSualo fenis gaZlierebis mimarTulebiT. gamoyenebuli literatura 1. 2. g. menqiu. ekonomikis principebi. Tbilisi. `diogene~. 2000. Targmnili inglisuri dan. gunia. mosaxleobis cxovrebis done ­ ekonomikuri ganviTarebis amsaxveli faqtori. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis `macne~. ekon omikis seri a, t. 1. #1, 1993. gv. 5-17. T. aqubardia. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado sistemi s sakan onmdeblo srulyofi s gzebi. saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis `macne~. ekon omikis seri a, t. 11. #4, 2003. 407-418. u. samadaSvili. saSualo klasis formirebis problemebi saqarTveloSi. p. guguSvilis ekonomiki s institutis 65-e wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili samecniero-praqti kuli konferenciis masalebis krebuli. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ten denciebi Tanamedrove etapze. Tb., 2 ivlisi, 2009, gv. 37-43. r. abesaZe, r. sarCimelia, n. arevaZe, m. melaSvili. ekonomi kuri gan viTarebisa da progn ozirebis problemebi. Tb., `universali~, 2004.

3.

4.

5.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 6. 7. v. papava. oTxi weli `vardisfer~ parlamentSi. Tb., `siaxle~, 2009. r. abesaZe. `srulyofili sabazro ekonomika jerjerobiT ar gvaqvs~. `saxelmwifo daxmarebis gareSe mcire mewarmeoba ver ganviTardeba~. gazeTi `bankebi da finansebi~, 12 agvisto, 2009. n. bibilaSvili. dasaqmebis Zi riTadi principebi ekonomi kis keinzianur TeoriaSi. p. guguSvilis ekonomiki s institutis samecniero Sromebi s krebuli. t. I, Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 158-163.

8.

Roland Sarchimelia Doctor of Economic Sciences Nanuli Arevadze Academic Doctor of Economics FORMATION OF STRONG MIDDLE CLASS OF POPULATION IN GEORGIA Summary The article analyses the changes of middle class quantity and percentage in total amount of population and possibilities of its growth especially in connection with small production development. There are exposed difficult ies connected with determination of middle class quantity because of less reliability of official statistics and for lack of precise criteria. Are emphasized the role of middle class in the formation of conditions for sustainable economic develop ment in Georgia and the necessity of its further strengthening. Are noticed some mistakes done in the process of transition from command to market economy, connected with bringing to the forefront the format ion of rich class of population, wrongly realized privatizat ion, large scale of population migration, wrong distribution of means of money without taking into account the possibilities to strengthen middle class and decrease the unemploy ment.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 investiciebi

lina daTunaSvili ekon omikis akademiuri doqtori

globalizaciis pi robebSi investiciebi s dabandebis SesaZleblobebi saqarTveloSi globalizacia erovnul ekon omikaTa ganviTarebi s procesis realuri Sedegia, rasac Semdegi ZiriTadi mizezebi ganapirobebs: 1. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Sinagani moTxovnebi amaRldes adami anTa cxovrebi s realuri done, riTac dainteresebulia msoflios yvela qveyana; 2. adamianTa piradi interesebis dakmayofilebis motivacia, miiRos rac SeiZleba meti mogeba; 3. msoflioSi gadauWreli globaluri problemebi s arseboba, romelTa gadawyvetac calkeul qveynebs ar SeuZliaT [1]. globalizacia Tanamedrove msoflios erT-erTi ZiriTadi Taviseburebaa. igi Tavisi arsiT universaluria da misi Zlieri tendenciebi s gavlena dRes gardauvalia. globalizaci a erTmaneTTan aaxloebs da urTierTdamokidebuls xdis qveynebs. igi xels uwyobs msoflio masStabiT resursebis efeqtian gamoyenebas, mecnierebis miRwevebis mokle vadaSi danergvas, resursdamzogveli da naklebnarCenebiani teqnologiebis farTod gavrcelebas, kapitalis Tavisufal moZraobas, gan sakuT rebiT finansuri kapitalis mobilurobis zrdas da a.S... globalizaciis pirobebSi izrdeba qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebi. am procesSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba adgilobrivi da ucxouri kapitali s Tavisufal moZraobas, mis xelmisawvdomobas, misTvis sasurveli garemos Seqmn as da masTan dakavSirebul makroekonomikur stabilurobas. saqarTvelo nela, magram mainc viTardeba da administraciulmbrZanebluri ekon omikuri urTierTobi dan sabazro urTi erTobaze gadadis. saqarTvelom, romelic msoflio globalizaciis nawilia, unda SeZlos, dRes mimdinare procesebidan aiRos misTvis dadebiTi ise, rom Tavi aaridos am procesebi dan gamomdinare sxvadasxva saxis safrTxeebs. msoflio ekonomi kaSi Zlierdeba internacion alizaciisa da globalizaciis tendenciebi. aRniSnuli procesebi, ucxouri investiciebi s zrdis kvalobaze, sul ufro mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs sxvadasxva qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi. investicia _ esaa finansuri, materialuri da inteleqtualuri faseulobebis yvela saxeoba, romelic SeiZleba Caidos nebismieri saqmianobis sferoSi, qveynis SigniT da sazRvargareT, maRali mogebis miRebi s mizniT. am procesSi ori ZiriTadi komponentia gasaTvaliswinebeli: danaxarjebi, anu sainvestici o daban debebi da Sedegebi, an u is Semosavlebi, rasac investori sainvesticio proeqtis ganxorcielebi s Semdeg iRebs. investiciebis mozidva qveynis ekon omikis krizisidan gamoyvanis saSualebaa. es nabiji aucilebelia rigi mizezis gamo: gardamavali ekonomiki s mqone qveyan aSi, iseTi, rogorc saqarTveloa, nela viTardeba mcire da saSualo biznesi, privatizebulia saw armoTa umravlesoba, romlebic TavianTi pirvandeli daniSnulebiT aRar funqcionireben, maRalia umuSevrobis done, dabali a Sromis mwarmoeblurobis maCvenebeli da Sesabamisad Sromis anazRaureba, rac ganapirobebs mosaxleobi s danazogebis simcires da qveyan aSi mwir adgilobrivi

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 kapitaldabandebis SesaZleblobas. amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebeli a is faqti, rom Cveni qveynis ekonomikis zogierTi dargi rekonstruqcias da modernizacias, zogic mTlianad ganaxlebas saWiroebs, rac msxvili kapitaldabandebebis mozidvi s aucileblobas iwvevs. amave dros, dRes mimdinare kapitalis moZraobis saerTaSoriso procesi mWi dro kavSirSi a mowinave teqnologiebis, sxvadasxva dargSi mecnieruli miRwevebis gavrcelebasa da danergvasTan, rac, garkveulwilad, aucilebelia saqarTvelos ekon omikis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis. investicia ara mxolod kapitalis globaluri dabandebis wyaroa, aramed ekon omikaSi marTvisa da marketingis mowinave meTodebis danergvacaa, mrewvelobisa da agraruli sferos gamococxlebiT axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis, eqsportis zrdi s kvalobaze sagareo vaWrobi s gafarToebisa da sabolood msoflio ekon omikaSi erovn uli ekonomiki s efeqturad integrirebis saSualebaa. qveyanaSi dRes mimdinare procesebidan gamomdinare, axlo perspeqtivaSi msxvili kapitaldaban debebis gareSe saqarTvelos ekonomikis gamococxleba, ganviTareba da Semdgomi aRorZineba albaT gaZneldeba, arada msofli oSi dRes mimdinare globalizacia xels uw yobs calkeuli qveynis am procesSi sxvadasxva saSualebiT CarTvas. aseTi saSualeba investiciebia, romelic qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebis stimulad unda iqces da saqarTvelom, ganviTarebuli ekonomikiT, myari adgili un da daimkvidros msoflio TanamegobrobaSi da mtkiced CaerTos Sromis saerTaSoriso dan awilebaSi. investiciebis mozi dvis saqmeSi udidesi roli eniWeba sainvesticio klimats, romelic di di Sinaarsobrivi tevadobisaa. igi politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da i uridi uli pirobebis erTobliobaa, romelic xelsayrelia sainvesticio procesisaTvis. esaa sxvadasxva faqtorTa erToblioba, romelic damaxasiaTebelia konkretuli qveynisaTvis. masSi Tavs iyri s yvelaferi, rasac investori iRebs mxedvelobaSi, roca afasebs, Tu ramden ad keTilsasurveli an arakeTilsasurveli pirobebi a ama Tu im qveyanaSi kapitalis dasaban deblad. investors ainteresebs am qveynis kultura, ekonomi ka, i deologia, politika, stabiluroba. situaciis analizis dros investori Seiswavlis erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebul am parametrebs saerTo ganzomilebaSi, romelic moicavs da gamoxatavs sainvesticio ri skis maCvenebels. rac ufro cudi sainvesticio klimati a qveyanaSi, miT ufro afasebs Tavisi saqmian obis risks investori [2]. sainvesticio klimatis Sinaarsi rTuli da kompleqsuria, amitom SeiZleba misi ganxilva sxvadasxva doneze: makrodoneze ganxilvis dros yuradReba eqceva iseT faqtorebs, rogoricaa investiciebis mimReb qveyanaSi arsebuli realuri politikuri da ekonomikuri situaciebi, agreT ve socialuri klimati, amasTan, gadamw yvet rols TamaSobs iseTi parametrebi, rogoricaa: saxelmwifo politika sazRvargareTul investiciebTan damokidebulebaSi, saerTaSori so SeTanxmebaTa dacvis tradicia, sazRvargareTuli qveynebis qonebis naci onalizaciisaken sw rafva, myari saxelmwifo institutebi, pragmatizmi ekonomi kur politikaSi. ekonomikaSi saxelmwifoebrivi Carevis xarisxi da sxva. mikrodoneze sainvesticio klimati mJRavndeba ormxriv urTierTobaSi investor firmebsa da saxelmwifos konkretul organoebs, sameurneo subieqtebs Soris, mimw odebels, myidvels, bankebsa da agreTve investiciebis mimRebi qveynis SromiT koleqtivebs Soris. am doneze xdeba sainvesticio klimatis ganzogadebuli Sefasebis konkretizacia qveynis realuri ekonomikuri, i uri diuli da socialur-kulturuli mdgomareobis Sesabamisad.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 kapitalis miRebis si stemi s optimaluri Ziebi s procesi mimdinareobs rogorc ekonomikurad maRalganviTarebul, ise ganviTarebad qveynebSi. es sistema Tavisi elementebis gavleniT klasifici rdeba ori mimarTulebiT: pirveli (dadebiTi), romelsac miekuTvneba sagadasaxado da sabaJo SeRavaTebi ucxour kapitalze, keTilsasurveli pirobebi mogebi s gatanisaTvis, garantiebi qonebis CamorTmevis winaaRmdeg, registraciis gamartivebuli procedura, Tavisufali zonebis Seqmna da a.S. meores (uaryofiTi) miekuTvneba ucxour kapitalze saeqsporto kvotebis aucilebeli dadgena, fasebze kontroli, SidasavaWro operaciebi s licenzireba da sxva. investori did mniSvnelobas aniWebs investiciis mimReb qveyanaSi bazris sididesa da tevadobas. es maCvenebeli, sxva maxasiaTebelTan erTad, erT-erT ZiriTads warmoadgens, rodesac igi Tavisi saqmian obisaTvis ama Tu im regions irCevs da qmnis Tavis sawarmos an sxva saxiT aban debs kapitals. amasTan, investori swavlobs da aanalizebs am qveynis an regionis politikur da ekonomikur situacias, Tavisi saqmian obisaTvis sasurvel saxelmwifo regulirebis aparatsa da sakan onmdeblo aqtebisa da kanonebi s mTel speqtrs. qveynis SigniT arsebuli politikuri, socialuri da kriminogen uli situaciebis stabiluroba stimuls aZlevs investors, monawileba miiRos axali sawarmoebis SeqmnaSi. awarmoos produqcia da gaitanos bazarze. amdenad, investoris saboloo mizania regionSi bazris ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba [3]. adgilobrivi da ucxoeli investori, sagadasaxado SeRavaTebTan erTad gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs imas, Tu rogori garemoa Seqmnili qveyanaSi mewarmeobis ganviTarebisaTvis. kerZod, arsebobs Tu ara keTilsasurveli probebi am procesis gaaqtiurebisaTvis; aris Tu ara es situacia stabiluri da xom ar icvleba mokle periodis ganmavlobaSi erTmaneTis gamomricxavi kanonebiTa da sxva samarTlebrivi aqtebiT; agreTve, aris Tu ara saxelmwifos mier daculi investiciebi da aqvs Tu ara investors myari garanti a saqmianobi saTvis. miuxedavad imisa, rom ucxouri investiciebis mozi dviT dainteresebulia gardamavali ekonomi kis mqone mravali qveyana, miRw euli Sedegebi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTi sagan. am qveyn ebis gamocdilebi s Seswavlam gviCvena, rom aRniSnuli procesis mimarT qveynebs ori taqtikuri mi dgoma aqvT _ ri gi qveynebi ucxouri investiciebis xelSewyobas SeRavaTebis miniWebis gziT cdiloben (mag., gadasaxadebidan gaTavi sufleba, ri gi priviligiebi da socialuri uflebebi), _ sxva qveynebi ki iseTi biznesgaremosa da sainvesticio klimatis Seqmnas cdiloben, romlebic xelsayreli aRmoCndeba rogorc Si da, ise ucxouri investiciebisaTvis. jansaRi sainvesticio politika sabazro urTierTobis aucilebeli atributia. igi dRis wesri gSi ayenebs adgilobrivi da ucxoeli investorebisaTvis Tanabari xelSemwyobi pirobebis Seqmnis aucileblobas, risTvisac kargi foni unda Seqmnas yovelmxriv dasabuTebulma sakan onmdeblo aqtebma. sainvestici o politikis gatarebis dros gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes: SromiTi, nedleul-resursuli, inovaciuri, sawarmoosafinanso, samomxmareblo, infrastruqturuli da sxva SesaZleblobebi. pirdapir ucxour investiciebs SeuZlia saqarTvelos ekonomikis zrdis daCqareba iseT seqtorebSi, rogoricaa energeti ka, satransporto infrastruqtura, turizmi, soflis meurneobis da kvebis produqtebi s warmoeba da sxva. saqarTvelom, ekon omikurad ganviTarebuli qveynebis _ samxreT aRmosavleT aziis axali industri uli qveynebi: hon-kongi, samx-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 reT korea, singapuri, taivani _ msgavsad, ZiriTadad pirdapi ri ucxouri investiciebis gamoyenebiT, eqsportze orienti rebuli ekonomikuri politika un da gaataros. rogorc cn obilia, am qveynebis warmatebebis safuZveli Zlieri saxelmwi fo ekonomikuri politi ka iyo, romelic stabiluri da mimzidveli sainvestici o garemos uzrunvelyofas gulisxmobda. amasTan erTad, didi yuradReba eqceoda qveynis ekonomi kis ganviTarebisaTvis sxva aucilebel faqtorebsac, rogori caa: ganaTleba, socialuri politika, sakomunikacio infrastruqtura da sxva. sainvesticio saqmi anoba, romlis Zi riTadi Sedegi am saqmi anobidan miRebuli Semosavlis gadidebaa, ar aris dazRveuli riskisagan, romelic, Tavis mxriv, finansuri dan akargebis w armoqmnis albaTobaa da sabolood, investorisaTvis sainvesticio saqmianobi s pirobebis gaurkvevlobis Sedegad, kapitalis Semcirebis an Semosavlis da mogebis dakargvis safrTxes Seicavs. sainvesticio saqmi anobas SeiZleba daemuqros socialur-politi kuri, ekologiuri, saxelmwi foebrivi regulirebis RonisZiebebTan dakavSirebuli koniunqturuli, inflaciuri da sxva saxis riski. es is riskebia, romlebic erTnairia sainvestici o saqmi anobis yvela monawilisa da investirebis yvela formi saTvis, romlebzedac investors ar SeuZlia gavlenis moxdena investirebis obieqtis SerCevi s dros. amave dros, am saxis riskebi, romlebic seriozul safrTxes warmoadgens investorebisTvi s, aucilebelia gaTvaliswinebul iqnes investirebis yvela formisa da subieqtis mier. cxrili 2004-2009 wlebSi investiciebis Semodineba saqarTveloSi (mln aSS dolari) 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 I kvartali 449.8 1190.4 2014.8 1564.3 124.7 maT Soris evrokavSi ris qveynebidan 243.7 407.1 1132.7 476.6 81.6

2004 499.1

2008 wlis agvistos movlenebma (ruseT-saqarTvelos omi) mniSvnelovnad Seamci ra investici ebis Semosvla saqarTveloSi. saqarTveloSi 2009 wlis II kvartalSi mxolod 92,179 mln aSS dolaris investicia Semovida, rac wina wlis amave periodTan SedarebiT 6,5-jer aris Semcirebuli. uZravi qonebis seqtoris bazris wili mTlian investiciebSi 62,6%-i a da 57,75 mld dolars Seadgens. meore adgilze sabanko seqtoria 24,57 mln aSS dolaris investiciiT. I kvartalSi sabanko seqtoridan investiciebis gadineba SeiniSneboda da es maCvenebeli 5,527 mln aSS dolars Seadgenda. mesame adgili, 3,649 mln aSS dolaris investiciiT, mSeneblobas ukavia. soflis meurneobasa da TevzWeraSi investiciebi s moculoba mxolod 413,3 aTasi aSS dolaria. wina wels ki 10,938 mln aSS dolars aRemateboda. meore kvartalSi Semosuli investiciis 79,8% arabeTis gaerTianebul saemiroebze modis. qveyanaSi politikuri da samxedro arastabiluroba nebismier SemTxvevaSi biznesi s warmatebiT ganxorcielebis xelis SemSleli faqtoria da, bunebrivia, aseT pi robebSi investors naklebad uCndeba survili, fuli daabandos iseT qveyan aSi, sadac aseTi situaciaa da maRali a kapitalis dakargvis riski.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 dReisaTvi s qveynis ekon omikuri krizi sidan gamoyvanis erT-erT saSualebad, adgilobrivTan erTad, ucxouri investiciebi gvesaxeba. vfiqrobT, axlo perspeqtivaSi ki dev ufro unda gaaaqti uron TanamSromloba da erToblivi saqmianoba konsorciumebma, sainvesticio fondebma, bankeb ma, Tavisufalma ekonomikurma zonebma da sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebma qveyanaSi investiciebis dasabandeblad. qveyanaSi aucilebelia ara marto investiciebis mozidvis xelSewyoba, aramed saqarTvelos ekon omikuri politi kis mTlian strategiaSi ufro konkretulad ganisazRvros pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi ekonomikis romel dargsa da romel regionSi a yvelaze metad saWiro. investiciebis dabandebis SesaZleblobebis gaaqtiurebis mizniT, pirvel rigSi, aucilebelia msofli o arenaze saqarTvelos imi jis gaumjobeseba, efeqtiani partnioruli urTierTobebi s damyareba, investorTa momsaxurebis amaRleba, sainformacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebis xelSewyoba, qveynis ekonomikuri da politi kuri stabiluroba da sxva.

gamoyenebuli literatura 1. 2. r. abesaZe. ekonomi kuri ganviTareba. "meri diani", Tbilisi, 2006. l. daTunaSvili. sainvesticio klimati saqarTveloSi. wignSi: `sabazro ekon omikis ganviTarebis problemebi saqarTveloSi~, Tbilisi `mecniereba~, 2000, t. I. l. daTunaSvili. xelsayreli sainvesticio garemo ­ qveynis ekonomikis aRorZinebis safuZveli. wignSi `ekonomikuri ganviTarebis aqtualuri problemebi Tanamedrove etapze~. Tbilisi, paata guguSvilis ekonomi kis instituti s gamomcemloba, 2008. l. qoqiauri, n. bebiaSvili. sainvestici o poeqtebi, Teoria, analizi, marTva. Tbilisi, 2009.

3.

4.

Lina Datunashvili Junior Scientific Worker of P. Gugushvili Institute of Economics FOREIGN INVES TMENTS IN GEORGIA UNDER GLOB ALIZATION Summary The article analy zes the possibilit ies of swift growth and development of national economy with the help of local and foreign investments. With this regard the article discusses the role of investments under globalization conditions directed at the revival of national economy. The article emphasizes the reasons which stipulated the necessity of investment attraction, for the country with transitional economy such as Georgia. In addition there is characterized investment climate and its role on macro and micro levels.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 fi skaluri politika

TinaTin qurdaZe ekon omikis akademiuri doqtori

bi ujetis sagadasaxad o da arasagadasaxad o Semosavlebis optimi zaci a saq arTveloSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujeti uaxloes warsulSi xasiaTdeboda Semosavlebis ukmarisobiT. es ganpirobebuli iyo qveyanaSi gazrdili `Crdilovani ekonomi kiT~, romelsac stati stikosebi `daukvirvebad ekonomikas~ uw odeben da dabali socialur-ekonomi kuri ganviTarebis doniT. saerTod, saxelmwi fo erovn uli Semosavlis da erovn uli simdidri s rac ufro did nawils iTvisebs, miT ufro metad Tan abrad aris ganawilebuli da gadanawilebuli aTvi sebuli Semosavali da simdidre. saqarT veloSi araTanabari iyo erovnuli Semosavlebisa da erovnuli simdidris ganawilebis maCveneblebi da qveyanaSi `samarTli anobis~ principi faqtobrivad ar moqmedebda. sagadasaxado Semosavlebis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom maTi struqturuli maCveneblebis Semcireba dakavSirebuli iyo problemebTan, romelic, Tavis mxriv, sagadasaxado administrirebisa da sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis problemebs ukavSirdeba. es problema TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi dgas, magram saqarTveloSi korufciam, sagadasaxado valdebulebebisadmi gansxvavebuli pasuxismgeblobis arsebobam, gadasaxadebis amkrefTa arakompetenturobam TavianT saqmian obaSi, sagadasaxado kan onmdeblobi s arasrulyofilebam da araxelsayrelma sainvesticio garemom mdgomareoba am mxriv ufro gaamZafra da qveyana umZimesi safinanso-ekonomi kuri krizisis winaSe daayena. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujetSi sagadasaxado Semosavlebis dabali maCveneblebi pirvel yovlisa ganpirobebuli iyo korufciiT. korufciam saqarTveloSi moicva sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sfero. saxelmwifo un da ebrZolos korufciis nebismieri saxiT gamovlinebas, aRmofxvras misi gamomwvevi mizezebi, rac rTuli da mravalaspeqtiani problemaa, romlis gadaWrac gansxvavebul mi dgomasa da kompleqsur RonisZiebaTa gatarebas moiTxovs. axlac aqti urad grZeldeba prevenciuli RonisZiebebi am problebis aRmosafxvrelad, riTac, saboloo jamSi, sazogadoeba aucleblad unda daadges im gzas da cxovrebis wess, rasac hqvia "kanoni", imitom rom, kanonis enis garda sxva ena ar arsebobs am problemis Tavi dan asacileblad. saqarTveloSi sagadasaxado valdebulebebisadmi pasuximgeblobis mxriv jer kidev ar aris mi Rweuli Tanasw oroba. xSirad mew armeTa erTi nawili ibegreba srulad, meore nawili ki _ arasrulad, ramac Tavi anTi valdebulebebisadmi nihilisturi damoki debuleba warmoSva. amdenad, sagadasaxado sistemis srulyofilebis winapiroba unda iyos Tanasworoba ara marto konkretuli gadasaxadis, aramed gadamxdelTa interesebis TvalsazrisiTac. Tanasworoba met-naklebad darRveulia saSemosavlo gadasaxadis kuTxiT imitom, rom dabegvris wyaros Seadgens Semosavlebi, romelsac iRebs aqtiuri samuSao Zala. gasul periodSi saSemosavlo gadasaxadma moimata 12%-dan 25%-mde da Semdeg Semcirda 20%-mde, Tumca tvirTi mZimea. bibliidan Zvel aRTqmas Tu gadavavlebT Tvals, abraami RmerTs swiravda Tavi si monagebis meaTeds, Cvens enaze rom vTqvaT 10%-s. ase rom, dResdReobiT es iqneba i dealuri ganakveTi, riTac Cven winap-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 rebis magaliTs gamoviyenebT saxelmZRvanelod am metad mtkivneuli sakiTxis mosagvareblad da sazogadoebis mniSvnelovani nawilis interesebis dasakmayofileblad. sagadasaxado Semosavlebis mobilizebis problema dakavSi rebulia agreTve gadasaxadebis amkrefTa dabal saSemsruleblo disciplinasTan, vinaidan, xSi r SemTxvevaSi, gadasaxadis gadamxdels sagadasaxado agenti TviTon ubiZgebs, damalos Semosavlebi da Sevides masTan garigebaSi. amas Tan erTvis gadasaxadis amkrefis arakompetenturoba, vinaidan igi ver erkveva srulyofilad sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobaSi. amasTanave, didi mniSvneloba aqvs sagadasaxado inspeqtoris Sromis anazRaurebas. xelfasi unda iyos im odenobis, rom pi rveladi moTxovnilebebi da saWiroebebi mainc dakmayofildes. gadasaxadebis mobilizaciis maCvenebelTa gaumjobeseba mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli gadamxdelTa saqmianobis zustad aRricxvasa da kon trolze. SerCeviTi gamokvlevebi mow mobs, rom sawarmoTa da organizaciaTa umravlesobaSi adgili aqvs Semosavlebis gadamalvis faqtebs. es aisaxeba sagadasaxado Semosavlebis SemcirebaSi, riTac bi ujetSi Cndeba mniSvnelovani danakargebi. xelisuflebam, mkacri kontrolis mizniT, daavaldebula mewarmeebi, SeeZinaT salaro-aparatebi da ise ewarmoebinaT salaros operaciebi. salaro-aparatiT mew armes ar Seswevs unari Sida TaRliTobisaTvis. aseve mkacri sanqciebi daawesa imaTTvis, vinc arRvevs salaro-meurneobas. aman gamoiwvia gare movaWreebis protesti, amitom xelisufleba iZulebulia, 1 wliT gadauvados maT es procesi. saxelmwifo amiT ar Semoifargleba, da, imedia, gaagrZelebs im mzard tendenciebs, romlis veqtoric mimarTuli iqneba kontrolis gaumjobesebisaken. dReisaTvi s saSemosavlo gadasaxadis ganakveTia 20%. xeli sufleba unda cdilobdes saSemosavlo gadasaxadis Semcirebis gziT pi rdapiri gadasaxadebis gazrdas. es Teori uli procesia, Tumca, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT iseT dabal sagadasaxado kulturas, rogoric saqarTveloSia, gadasaxadis gadamxdeli akeTebs yvelafers, rom maqsimalurad ar gamoaaSkaraos Tavisi saqmianoba da amiT aicilos Tavi dan dakisrebuli gadasaxadis gadaxda. Tumca gadasaxadis gadaxdis savaldebulooba aris ZiriTadi principi, romelsac icavs sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba. es gamoi xateba imiT, rom saSemosavlo gadasaxadis saxiT miRebuli Semosavlebis xvedriTi wili aris minimaluri biujetis mTli an SemosavlebSi (saSualod 13%-is odenobiT). analogi uri suraTia mogebis gadasaxadis mxriv, romlis saxiT miRebuli Semosavlebi bi ujetSi daaxloebiT 8%-s Seadgens. rac Seexeba damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxads, i gi, viciT rom Semcirda 20-dan 18%-mde. saxelmwifo biujeti ZiriTadad formirdeba arapirdapi ri gadasaxadebiT, romelTa Soris upi ratesoba ukavia dRg-s. misi Semcirebuli ganakveTi aucileblad aisaxeba saxelmwifo biujetis mTlian SemosavlebSi da di d dan akargebs moitans. am gadasaxadis Semcireba Teori ulad aranai r dadebiT tendencias ar moitans. Tu Cven moviSveliebT mSp-is komponentebs, yvelaze di di maCvenebliT gamoi rCeva samomxmareblo Sesyidva, anu damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxads momxmarebeli gadaixdis nebismier pirobebSi. sagadasaxado kan onmdeblobaSi dRg-is gadamxdelad iTvleba saqonlis mimwodebeli, Tumca am gadasaxads Tavis mxriv akisrebs momxmarebels, riTac es ukanaskneli xdeba realuri gadamxdeli.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 gaizarda agreTve sagadasaxado ganakveTebi aqcizur saqonelze, amis konkretuli magaliTia samamulo da ucxouri warmoebis si garetebze aqcizebis odenobis gaTanabrebis procesi. zogierTi amaSi uaryofiT gamovlinebebs xedavs, bunebrivia, amis Sesabamisad gaizrdeba aqcizuri saqonlis fasi. magram, realurad, es dadebiTi tendenciaa, rasac ori dadebiTi mxare aqvs: · Tu momxmarebeli SeiZens aqcizur saqonels maRali fasis pi robebSi (es oRond im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom fasi aqcizur saqonels moemata mxolod aqcizis xarjze, gansakuTrebiT iseT arasasargeblo produqtze, rogoricaa Tambaqo), maSin biujets Sevsebis realuri Sansebi eqneba; · Tu momxmarebeli ar SeiZens gaZvirebul aqcizur saqonels, maSin mis janmrTelobas safrTxe aRar daemuqreba, rac mi si sicocxlis xangrZlivobisa da dRegrZelobis sawindaria. ra Tqma unda, es kargi mimarTulebaa, Tumca meti srulyofilebisaTvis saWiroa meti sifrTxilis gamoCen a. xelisufleba am reformiT ar Semoifargleba da kvlavac agrZelebs muSaobas am sakiTxis garSemo. ar SeiZleba sagadasaxado ganakveTebis gansazRvra fiskaluri midgomiT, anu sxva qveynis gamocdilebis gadmotana erovnul interesTa da TaviseburebaTa gauTvali swineblad. gadasaxadebis gadaxda mewarmes ar un da ujdebodes imdeni, rom darCenili wminda mogeba ver moaxmaros warmoebis Semdgom kapitalizaciasa da diversi fikacias. umjobesia, sagadasaxado ganakveTebi iyos mcire da gadasaxadebis gadamxdelTa raodenoba meti, vidre maRali sagadasaxado ganakveTebis pi robebSi naklebi gadamxdeli. 2004 wlis dasawyi sSi prezi dentma sajarod gaaTavisufla individualuri mew armeebi gadasaxadebisagan. TiTqos es kargi faqtia, magram am dadebiT efeqts Tan axlavs negatiuri gamoZaxili _ dairRva Tanasw orobis principi da Sesabamisad biujetsac hqonda danakargebi Semosavlebis mxriv. ase rom, arsebuli sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba moiTxovs ufro safuZvlian cvlilebebs. igi gadaWriT ver pasuxobs mew armeTa da biznesmenTa interesebs. saWiroa, sagadasaxado sistema eyrdnobodes imgvar meqanizmebs, romelic xels Seuwyobs mi kroekonomikis ganviTarebas, mewarmeobisa da biznesi s regulirebas, raTa qveyanaSi ara marto momgebianobiT ganisazRvros gadasaxadebis gadamxdelTa gadaxdisunarianoba, aramed biujets hqon des damatebiTi Semosavlebis wyaroebi da stimuli mieces qveyanaSi axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas. swored amas un da emsaxurebodes is axali ekonomikuri aqti, romelic prezidentma SemogvTavaza, magram, erTia mizani, meore, miRebuli Sedegi. rogorc cn obilia, xelisuflebam gaamartiva dabegvris reJimi, Seamcira ra gadasaxadebis rogorc raodenoba, ise odenobac. aseve gaauqma viTomda araefeqturi sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi. araefeqturi sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis gauqmebas un da gaeZlierebina samarTliani kon kuren cia biznesSi, magram moxda piriqiT. amitom, sasurveli iqneba am SeRavaTebis aRdgena ufro daxvewili da civilizebuli formiT, rogorc es miRebulia evrokavSiris qveynebSi, Cven xom sw ored aqeTken mivdivarT. xelisufleba jer ki dev 2007 wlisaTvis gegmavda saqarTvelos kan onmdeblobis, maT Soris sagadasaxado kan onmdeblobi s, evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanas. 2008 wlis 1 ianvridan mTavrobam aamoqmeda mniSvnelovani iniciativa sagadasaxado ganakveTebis Semdgomi Semcirebis mimarTulebiT, rac, pirvel ri gSi, qveyanaSi saSemosavlo gadasaxadis 25%-iani dabegvris reJimi s SemoRebas exeba (nacvlad manamde arsebuli 20%-iani socialuri da 12%-iani saSemosavlo gadasaxadisa);

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 mTavroba isev cvli s saSemosavlo gadasaxadis ganakveTs 20%-mde. 2009 wlis 1 dekembri dan biznesmenebi Tavisufldebian damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadisagan (dRg), xolo visac gadaxdili aqvs, ukan daubrundebaT. es procesebi kvlavac gaRrmavdeba da SemdgomSic gagrZeldeba. es iniciativa prezidentidan wamovida Tavisufali ekonomikuri aqtis saxiT, romelic referendumebi s Catarebis gziT unda dareguli rdes. yovelive es mniSvnelovani SeRavaTi a Cveni TanamoqalaqeebisaTvis, romlebic dasaqmebulebi arian rogorc saxelmwi fo, i se kerZo seqtorSi. mTavrobis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba maTTvis sagadasaxado tvirTi s Semsubuqebis Taobaze Sesabami sad, maTi ojaxebis Semosavlebis gazrdi s mTavari winapi robaa ­ radgan xelisuflebis mTavari mizania _ dabali gadasaxadebis xarjze gadasaxadi s gadamxdels, yovel ri giT adamians, dabegvris pirobebSi xelze asaRebad darCes ufro meti Tanxa, anu maTi Semosavlebi dan (mag. xelfasebi dan) saxelmwifom sul ufro mcire Tanxa dabegros. yovelive es ki dasaqmebis donis amRlebis sawindari a rogorc kerZo struqturebSi, ise sajaro seqtorSi, meore mxriv, saxelmwifos mxri dan dabegvris aseTi pirobebis SemoTavazebi s mizani ekonomi kuri zrdisa da biznesis xelSewyobacaa. cvlilebebis ZiriTad mizan s samewarmeo garemos gaumjobeseba da investiciebis zrdis xeli s Sewyob a warmoadgens. sagadasaxado Semosavlebis gaumjobesebaSi gan sakuTrebuli roli ekuTvnis sainvesticio politi kas, romelic miznad isaxavs xelsayreli sainvesticio garemos Seqmnas. am ukan asknelisaTvis saWi roa, arsebobdes makroekonomikuri da politikuri stabiluroba, investorTaTvis momgebiani fiskaluri da monetaruli sistema. xelsayreli sainvestici o garemos formirebis sakiTxi uSualod ukavSi rdeba sakan onmdeblo bazis srulyofasa da kanonmdeblobis dacvas. magaliTad, 1995 wlis 30 ivniss miRebul iqna `saqarTvelos kanoni ucxouri investiciebis Sesaxeb~, romelic iTvaliswinebda xelsayreli sainvesticio garemos Seqmnas, magram amiT ar dainteresdnen ucxoeli investorebi garTulebuli politikuri, ekon omikuri da kriminogen uri situaciis gamo. samwuxarod, es kanoni ugulebelyofda adgilobriv investorTa interesebs da saerTod, adgilobriv investorTa interesebi ignorirebuli iyo ucxoel investorebTan SedarebiT. meore problema is iyo, rom sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi mianiWes im sawarmoebs, romlebic mxolod vaWrobiT iyvnen dakavebulni. aRniSnuli dan gamomdinare, 1996 wlis 12 noembers miRebul iqna `saqarTvelos kanoni sainvesticio saqmianobis xelSewyobisa da garantiebi s Sesaxeb~. am kanonSi prioriteti miniWebuli hqonda erovnul investiciebs da is gaxda ucxouri investiciebis ganxorcielebis, stimulirebis, reguli rebisa da dacvis ganmsazRvreli. ami tom, ucxouri investiciebi s mozi dvis TvalsazrisiT, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba stabilur makroekonomikur garemos, radgan ac igi warmatebuli samew armeo saqmianobisa da biznesis realizaciis sawindaria. saqarTvelosadmi investorTa dainteresebam Tavi iCina postrevoluciuri tran sformaciis etapze, Tumca 2008 wels daiwyo msofli o ekonomikuri krizi si, romelmac mZime dartyma mi ayena msofli os ganvi Tarebul qveynebs. saqarTvelom, rogorc am qveynebis mniSvnelovanma partniorma, mZime dan akargebi ganicada. es danakargebi ki ufro metad gaizarda gasuli wlis agvistos TveSi arsebuli saomari mdgomareobis gamo. cnobilia, rom sainvesticio garemos sijansaRe moiTxovs ara marto ekon omikur mdgradobas, aramed qveynis teritori ul mTlianobas da stabilur politikur garemos. sw ored am periodSi daikarga ndobis faqto-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ri investorTa mxri dan. gansakuTrebuli dartyma miadga sakredito organizaciebs, rogorc qveyan aSi yvelaze mdgrad da stabilur safi nanso institutebs. sakredito dawesebulebebidan moxda danazogebis gadineba da bankebma dakarges mniSvnelovani sakredito da sadepozito resursebi. gaZvirda "iafi fuli". aRniSnuli mdgomareobi s reabilitaciisaTvi s sabanko dawesebulebebma mraval TanamSromels Seumcira Sromis anazRaureba da mravali gaaTavisufla kidec. Tumca, saqarTvelo, Tavisi geopolitikuri mdgomareobis gamo, interess ar kargavs da ganviTarebuli qveynebis Tvalsawieridan ar qreba, risTvisac igi ekonomikurad yvelaze moqnili gamodga saerTaSoriso TanamegobrobaSi gawevrianebisaTvis pretendent qveynebs Soris. ekonomikur eqspertTa bolo SefasebebiT, saqarTvelo axla imyofeba ganviTarebis im etapze, romelic iyo agvistos movlenebis win. amrigad, rom ar yofiliyo es mZime tragedi a, saqarTvelo ufro advilad gadaitanda am krizisul mdgomareobas. Tu, magaliTad, amerika an evropi s romelime ganviTarebuli qveyana sakuTari ekonomikuri ganviTarebis donis sazomad iyenebs periods "2008 wli s msoflio ekon omikuri krizisis win" da "Semdgom", saqarTvelosaTvis es aris periodi "2008 wlis agvi stos omis win" da "Semdgom". yovelive zemoaRniSnuli dan gamomdinare, aucilebelia kontrolis efeqturi sistemis danergva, riTac moxdeba gadasaxadebi s arakeTilsindisieri gadamxdelebis i dentifi kaci a. es adaminebi arakeTilsindi sierad eki debian ara marto saxelmwifos finansur interesebs, aramed sazogadoebriv interesebs, romelSic Sedi s erovnuli, soci aluri da sulieri interesebi. zaral deba sazogadoebis uamravi wevri, romelTa socialur usafrTxoebas bzari uCn deba, rac did napralad iqceva zogierTisaTvis. martivad rom vTqvaT, saxelmwifom unda aamoqmedos Tavisi administraciuli berketebi da mkacri reagireba unda moaxdinos yovel arakeTilsindisier gamovlinebasa da pasuxismgeblobis Tavidan acilebaze. unda daw esdes maRali finansuri sanqciebi imaTTvis, vinc Tavs aaridebs saxelmwi fo valdebulebebs, nebismier SemTxvevaSi biujeti s Semosavlebi gaizrdeba aseTi sanqciebis xarjze da Sesabamisad dakmayofildeba sazogadoebrivi da socialuri moTxovnilebebi. oRond es efeqti Sedegs gamoiRebs im pirobebSi, rodesac saSemosavlo gadasaxadi gaxdeba minimaluri da Sromis anazRaureba sakmarisi da msyi dvel unariani.

gamoyenebuli literatura 1. 2. 3. v. papava, postkomunisturi gardamavali periodis makroekonomika (Teoria da politika), Tbilisi, 2005. g. gamsaxurdia, finansebis roli saqarTvelos gardamaval ekonomikaSi, Tbilisi, 1997. T. gamsaxurdia, saqarTvelos sagadasaxado-sabiujeto sistemis funqcionirebis problemebi Tanamedrove etapze, Tbilisi, 2003. l. qoqiauri, investirebis safuZvlebi, Tbilisi, 2001. z. rogava, gadasaxadebi. sagadasaxado si stema da sagadasaxado samarTali, Tbilisi, 2002. T. basilia, a. silagaZe, T. CikvaiZe, postkomunisturi transformacia: saqarTvelos ekon omika XXI saukunis mi jnaze, Tbilisi, 2001.

4. 5. 6.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 saqarTvelos kanoni `sabiujeto sistemebis Sesaxeb~. saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. .. , . . , - . . «», 1 2007. 10. , . , , ., .., ., 2005. 11. . . , . . , , ., 2006. 7. 8. 9.

Tinatin Kurdadze Academic doctor of Economics THE NEC ESS ITY OF OPTIMIZATION OF TAX AND NONTAX INCOME OF THE B UDGET IN GEORGIA Summary For the formation of budget it is necessary to keep balance between tasx income. It is ideal fo r the society when budget is main ly built by nontax income which is a high indicator of purchasing capacity of population. But the improvement of investment enviroment should be preferencial because this should promote the realizat ion and international investment interests. Just this is the source of national income and wealth. Georgian people is very gifty and wise, spiritually and physically heilthy. Thise potentialit ies should be taken into account and the prerequisite of it must be their employ ment.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 saerTaSori so urTierTobebi

revaz lorTqi faniZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, niu-iorkis politikur mecnierebaTa akademiis wevri

ganviTarebuli qveynebis gavlena msofli o bazarze msoflio bazris srulyofili konturebis Camoyalibebis umniSvnelovanesi safuZvlebia me-20 saukunis kompiuterul -manqanuri warmoeba aSS-Si (aTaswleulebis mijnaze aqve fexadgmuli interneti s globalur qselTan erTad) da manqan ur-samrew velo revolucia Sua saukuneebis evropaSi (didi bri taneTi). aRniSnulma erTgvarad daamarcxa ameriki s aRmoCenamde afrikisa da aziis uZveles qveynebSi warmoqmnili lokaluri bazrebis dakavSi rebis problema. sw ored kompi uterul-manqanuri industriaa dRes mTavari faqtori msoflioSi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis stimulirebisa da adamianebi s cxovrebis polarulad diferencirebuli doneebis SesaZlo daaxloebisaTvis. elementarulad, internetis globaluri qseliT monitorigis (kontrolis) gareSe meti iyo albaToba, rom zogierT reaqci ul mcire feodal-monarqi ul Tu di d imperiul Zalebs, diqtatorul saxelmwifo reJimebsa da maT momsaxure bizneselitas, romlebsac didi Semosavlebi ugrovdebodaT, ar SeesminaT xalxis, zogjer, uadvilesi sasicocxlo problemebi. swored amitom, axalgazrda qarTul bizness dRes gansakuTrebiT esaWiroeba iseTi saxelganTqmuli saerTaSoriso kompaniebis partnioroba, rogorebicaa korporacia maikrosofti, jeneral motorsi, ai-bi-emi, boingi, ford motori, simensi, toi ota da sxv. xsenebuli saxelganTqmuli amerikuli maikrosofti TiTqmis ukve 3 aTeuli welia gvevlineba kompi uteruli teqnologiebis programuli uzrunvelyofis warmoebis msoflio flagmanad da, saerTod, biznesi s umdidres kompaniebs Sori s erTpi rovn ul lideradac ki, bolo wlebSi mis winaaRmdeg agorebuli antimonopoliuri bumi sa da Sesabamisi prob lemebis miuxedavad. msoflios avtomwarmoeblebs Soris ki (saerTo saqonelbrunvis maCvenebliT) aseve ameri kuli jeneral motorsi liderobs, romelsac mxolod sxvadasxva parametrebSi ecilebi an cnobili evropuli da iaponuri kompaniebi. teqnikis sw rafi ganviTarebis epoqaSi aqtualuri da niSandoblivia, rom "axali sazogadoebis mSeneblobis procesSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba civilizebuli qveynebis kulturuli da sameurneo-mmarTvelobiTi gamocdilebis gaanalizebas da sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebi s praqtikaSi Sesabamis gavrceleba-danergvas" [1. gv. 543-547]. msoflio bazris Camoyalibebasa da kulturul-sameurneo TanamSromlobis gafarToebasTan erTad, kanonzomieri xasiaTi miiRo teqnikis Semdgomi gansazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos rolis ganuxreli matebi s ekonomikurma procesebmac. magram, aRniSnuli, Cemi azriT, ar unda niSnavdes saxelmwi fos usasrulod gaZlierebas kerZo seqtoris dakninebis xarjze. me SevimuSave ekonomi kuri konkurenciis Zalis kan onisa da wonasworuli realizmis principul -maTematikuri modeli [2], romelic, denis Zalis kan onis msgavsad, gansazRvravs ekon omikuri konkurenciis Zalis di d mniSvnelobas, rac SeuT avsebeli a saxelmwifo seqtoris mono-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 poliasTan da aramudmiv, magram periodul won asw orobas guli sxmobs saxelmwifo da kerZo seqtorebs Soris. teqnikuri donis TvalsazrisiTac ki, rac ar unda ganviTarebuli iyos bazari, Tu konkurencia ar aris srulyofilebasTan miaxloebuli, ekon omikuri efeqtian obis nacvlad, SesaZloa, did danakargebTan gvqondes saqme. gansakuTrebiT savalaloa Sedegi, roca bazars Tavis sasargeblod "erTmmarTveli" akontrolebs an ekonomikuri subieqtebis ricxvi SezRudulia da xsenebul subieqtebs SesaZlebloba eZlevaT, farul SeTanxmebaSi Sevi dnen. Cemi azriT, sakmaod gaazrebuli antimonopoli uri politikis Sedegad, teqnikis wamoebis Zvi radRi rebul individualur proeqtebSi aSS-s xarisxobriv parametrebSi bevri ver ecileba, masobriv, e.w. "saxalxo" produqci aSi ki jer ki dev metad aqtiurobs evropuli da aRmosavluri mwarmoebeli, romelic amerikul bazarzec farTovdeba. Tavad aSS mravlad iyenebs msoflio saukeTeso gamocdilebas manqanur w armoebaSi da ekonomikurad uZlieres am qveyanaSi bazarze pirvelobis yovelgvari politikuri ambiciis gareSe iwarmoeba iseTi cn obili evropuli da iaponuri brendebis produqcia, rogorebicaa mersedesi, bmv, folcvageni, toiota da sxva [3; 4; 5]. saqarTveloc, imedia, uxvad gamoiyenebs amerikul da sruliad msoflio gamocdilebas saukeTeso samamulo gamoTvliTi maTematikisa da sainJinro skoli s pirobebSi da gaCndeba, pirvel etapze, mowinave amerikul da sxva sazRvargareTul kompaniebTan erToblivi, Semdgom ki damoukidebeli qarTuli kon kurentunariani kompiuteruli, saavtomobilo da sxva manqanuri teqnika-teqn ologiebi. saqarTvelos ltolva maRalganviTarebuli ekonomikuri kavSi rebisken, ueWvelad, progresuli da jansaRia, rasac Cveni ekon omikuri politika yovelmxriv dasabuTebulad unda moiazrebdes. saerTod, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis safuZvels, bunebrivia, Tan amedrove politikur-religiuri da istori ulad Camoyalibebuli eTnikur-geografiuli xasi aTis urTierTobani qmnis. urTierTobebSi arsebul winaaRmdegobaTa (gansxvavebaTa) ignorireba SeuZlebeli a: verc maT srul aRmofxvras movaxerxebT da arc maT gamwvavebas un da vecadoT. isini, TavisTavad, obi eqtur Tu, zogjer, subieqtur mizezTa gamo, periodul gamoxatulebas iZenen. miuxedavad teritoriuli siSorisa da mravali gansxvavebisa, saqarTvelos ekon omikis reformi reba SeuZlebelia srulfasovani iyos aSS-s, evrokavSiris qveynebsa da Soreuli aRmosavleTis "teqnokratebTan" TanamSromlobi s gareSe. mniSvnelovanwilad amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis ZalisxmeviT mzardi msoflio bazris masStabebi, rac msxvili mravalerovnuli kompaniebis gamravlebis processa da, saerTo jamSi, globalizaciis kan onzomierebaSic vlindeba, saqarTvelos, globalizaciis sikeTeebis myisier gamoyenebasTan erTad, mravali problemis daZ levas avalebs, m.S. ekonomikuri problemebis speqtri erT-erTi umTavresia. reformebis Tanamedrove epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia aSS-s aqti uri gavlen a reaqci uli reJimebis demokratiuli marTviT revoluciur CanacvlebaSi, rac sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli da dadasturda kidec Cvens postsabWoTa sinamdvileSi. strategiuli miznebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos ganviTarebadi ekonomikis reformi rebis marTvi s procesSi yoveldRi uri zrunvis sferoebs un da warmoadgendes:

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 1) sakanonmdeblo bazis harmonizeba aSS-s, evrokavSiri sa da sxva civiluri qveynebis CvenTvis misaRebEnormebTan, maTi Sesrulebis kontroli; 2) mwarmoeblurobis donis TandaTanobiTi (2015 wlamde) miaxloeba saSualo msofli o maCvenebelTan, Sromis nayofierebis sxvadasxva indikatorebis sistemuri da zusti monitoringi; 3) mcire mew armeobis realuri mxardaWera, Sesabamisad, dasaqmebis problemaTa gadaw yveta da msxvili investici ebis mozidvi saTvi s saWiro garemos arsebiTi gaumjobeseba. savaraudoa, rom saerTo interesebidan gamomdinare, aSS da sxva gan viTarebuli qveynebi metad iTanamSromleben geopoliti kurad mniSvnelovan saqarTvelosTan aRniSn ul amocanaTa maqsimalurad SesaZlo operati uli gadawyvetisaTvis. aqamde, qveyanaSi korufciisa da Crdilovani ekon omikis masStabebi sa Tu saomari moqmedebebis miuxedavad, daxmarebebis seriebi saqarTvelosaTvis urTules gardamaval periodSi ar Sewyvetila. msoflio bazris formirebi s procesze xazgasasmelia aSS-s gansakuTrebuli roli. marTlac, Tavisi arsebobis arcTu ise xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi, aSS-s istoriuli kvali kacobriobis sayovelTao progresSi STambeWdavi a. kerZod: 1) qveyanam araerTxel daamtkica Tavisuflebisa da demokratiis ideebisadmi erTguleba, m.S. anti faSisturi koaliciis organizebasa da gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis daarsebaSi monawileobisas; 2) Tavisufali sabazro ekon omikis monetaristuli modeliTa da minimaluri Carevis filosofiiT miRweul iqna mosaxleobis cxovrebi s maRali done da erT-erTi samagaliTo pirobebi; 3) udidesia kosmosis aTvisebisa da saerTod teqnika-teqn ologiebis srulyofaSi gaweuli wvlili, rac saxelmwi fos gaazrebuli inovaciuri politi kiT kerZo iniciativis stimulirebis Sedegia; 4) mniSvnelovani finansur-inteleqtualuri daxmarebebiT mraval ganviTarebad qveyanaSi iqna daZleuli siRaribis urTulesi problemebi; 5) Rrmavdeba TanamSromloba janmrTelobis dacvis, ganaTlebis, kurortebisa da sportis saerTaSoriso proeqtebis realizebi saTvis, msoflio bazris ganviTarebis obieqtur procesSi urTierTxelsayreli ekon omikuri kavSirebis ganmtkicebi saTvi s; 6) mimdinareobs muSaoba usafrTxoebi s sayovelTao TavdacviTi sistemis SeqmnisaTvis, masobrivi ganadgurebi s iaraRis Semci rebisa da gavrcelebis aRkveTis efeqturi kontrolisaTvis; 7) sxvadasxva reJimebiT, terorizmiTa da stiqi uri ubedurebebiT dazaralebul qveynebs saWiro Tanadgoma gaewevaT. saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mxriv, aSS-Tan da maRali teqnikuri donis sxva saxelmwifoebTan Tan amSromlobis meti efeqtianobi saTvis, mizanSew onilad migvaCnia: 1) ekon omikuri proeqtebis SemuSavebisa da realizebisas maqsimalurad gaviTvaliswinoT adgilobrivi specifi ka. SemoTavazebuli winadadebebis `brmad~ gaziareba arc SemomTavazebeli mxaris interesebSi Sedis _ proeqtis sponsori xom srulyofilad ver erkveva Cveni ekonomikisaTvis saxasiaTo niuansebSi, ris gamoc SesaZlebelia saboloo Sedegma izaralos; 2) zustad (yovelmxriv dasabuTebulad) ganisazRvros Tan amSromlobis prioritetebi. mxolod momgebi anobis kriteriumiT Sefasebam Se-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 saZlebelia, strategiaSi seri ozuli ziani miayenos qveynis ekon omikur usafrTxoebasa da ekonomikis struqturul simwi fes. 3) Crdilovani ekon omikis winaaRmdeg agorebuli uaRresad saWiro sayovelTao politika Semdgomac unda gaZlierdes misi gamovlenisa da minimizebis meqanizmebis srulyofis safuZvelze, riTac msxvili amerikeli investorebis met n dobasac davimsaxurebT da CvenTan ekon omikur TanamSromlobasac met mimzi dvelobas mivaniWebT. Cemi azriT, ekonomikis mimzi dvelobisa da zomieri liberalizebis saqmeSic TvalsaCinod samagaliTo qveyan aa aSS. sagadasaxado poli tikis uaxlesi istori a gviCvenebs, rom gadasaxadebis didi ganakveTebi gan sakuTrebiT amaxinjebs Sromi sa da dazogvis stimulebs [6. gv. 341, 739]. aSS maqsimalurad iyenebs sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis SesaZleblobas saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom mis preferenci ul savaWro reJimSi moqceuli saqoneli xSir SemTxvevaSi mTlianad Tavisufldeba sabaJo gadasaxadisagan, rac, am qveynis sabaJo-satari fo ganakveTebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sakmaod Zlieri SeRavaTia. axali sqemis mixedviT, Zalze gafarTovda preferenciebiT moculi saqonlis CamonaTvali. aRniSnuli saqonlis nomen klatura gansakuTrebiT gaizarda saharis udabnos raionSi mdebare yvelaze dabalganviTarebuli afrikuli qveynebisaTvis [7. gv. 11], e.i. visac es yvelaze metad esaWi roeba. amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan da, saerTod, msofli o bazarTan TanamSromlobis SesaZlo idealuri (sasurveli) varianti, aucilebelia, Soreul strategi aSic moviazroT: 1) Tavisufali ekonomikuri urTierTobebis sivrcis gafarToebis kvalobaze, gaTan abrdeba cxovrebis done, siRaribis daZlevaze qveynebi erToblivad ifiqreben; 2) umuSevroba droebiTi seni iqneba nebismieri moqalaqi saTvis ­ saerTo ZalisxmeviT misi mogvareba ramdenime kviraSi (maqsimum TveSi) moxerxdeba; 3) gaerTianebuli ZalisxmeviT iw armoebs saxelmwi foebrivi brZola sxvadasxva kriminalur gamovlinebaTa (terorizmi, narkomafia, prostituci a, qurdoba Tu sxva) winaaRmdeg. idealuri variantis sruli uzrunvelyofi s SesaZlebloba da vadebis dazusteba momavlis perspeqtivaa. Cveni mxriv, aSS-Tan, ekonomikurad maRalganviTarebul sxva qveynebTan erTad, maqsimalurad un da vecadoT vimoqmedoT xsenebuli da sxva aqtualuri mimarTulebebiT. rogorc ameri keli marTlmadi debeli diakvani devid jeimsi marTebulad qadagebs, yvelas kargad unda gvaxsovdes, rom `Zireul cxovrebiseul sakiTxebze amomw uravi pasuxis gacema mxolod eklesias ZaluZs. es, ra Tqma un da, fulTan, qonebasTan da mis moxmarebasTan dakavSi rebul sakiTxebsac exeba~ [8. gv. 5]. amasTan, xazgasasmelia saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia meoris sityvebi: "globalizacia aris gardauvali movlena da igi ukavSi rdeba mecnierul-teqnikuri progresis ganviTarebas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mTeli msoflio gaxda globaluri. magram es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom didma qveynebma unda STanTqan mcire qveynebis kulturebi, sulieri Tu erovnuli faseulobani, raTa Seiqmnas erTiani da usaxo kultura. zogs hgonia, TiTqos mcire erebis sulieri Tu erovnuli faseulobani qmnis konfliqts da dapi rispirebas, rac, SesaZloa, mtrobasa da SuRlSi gadaizardos. sinamdvileSi es sulac ar aris ase. es faseulobani, maTi mravalferovneba, pi riqiT amdidrebs msoflios... civilizaciaTa Sori s dialogi aucilebeli a da saqarTveloc aqti urad uWers mxars mas" [9. gv. 55].

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 gamoyenebuli literatura SixaSvili giorgi, SixaSvili mamuka, qarTuli amerikismcodneobis ekon omikuri aspeqtebi. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwi fo universiteti, amerikis Sesw avlis sakiTxebi, V, Tbilisi, 2008. lorTqifaniZe revaz, ekon omikuri zrdis qristianuli, poli tikuri da Teoriuli safuZvlebis Sesaxeb. Tbilisi, 2005. PSQ, The Journal of Public and International Affairs, NY, 2008-2009. . , , 1998. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis, msoflio bankisa da sxva saerTaSoriso ekon omikuri organizaciebis statisti kuri krebulebi, enciklopediebi da sainformacio-an alitikuri sai tebi (http://www.g m.co m, http://ms.com,http://www.gatesfoundation.org, http://www.boeing.com, http://www.ib m.co m/us/en, UTX agreed to acquire General Electric Co.'s (GE) electronic security systems and fire safety operations for $1.82 billion). menqiu gregori, ekonomi kis principebi. Tbilisi, diogene, 2000. preferenciaTa ganzogadebuli sistema GSP. saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministro, saqarTvelos savaWro politi kisa da samarTlis centri, 2000. jeimsi devi d, guluxvobis Sesaxeb (qristiani da fuli). Tbilisi, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos sasw avlo komiteti, 2003. saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia meore mecnierebis, ganaTlebisa da xelovnebis Sesaxeb (Semdgenel-gamomcemeli ­ giorgi SixaSvili). Tbilisi, geokeria, 2004. Revez Lordkipanidze Doctor of Economics, Member of the APS (NY, USA) THE INFLUENCE OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ON WORLD MARKET Summary Discovery of the America, the computers and machines of The USA and UK are significant base of creation of World market. The USA Internet concludes this significant process. The technique and technology developments are the basis of the production generalization. They stimulate (with Internet) and will stimulate economic develop ment and liv ing level in Eu rope and all Nat ions. Without Global Internet Control, so me hellish tyrant kings of empires and small countries, state dictators and their servile business had big incomes, but they did not want to see easy problems of people. We hope, that Great American International Co mpanies (Microsoft Corporation, IBM, Boeing, General Motors and Ford Motor...) will be partners of young Georg ian business. The historical merit of The United States of America in the co mmon progress are: 1) the true for the ideas of the freedom and democracy, the very active participation in the creation of the UN and antiterro r coalition; 2) the achievement of the high living standards through monetary free market model; 3) the financial ­ intellectual supports of the poor developing countries. The contemporaneous anticorruption reforms in the Georgia economy and their precise engaging methods are necessary for the reinforcement American state and private investments. For practice of optimal stimu lation Intermoney system and Macroeconomic structure marginal efficiency, I define The Forse of economic co mpetition appro ximately as The Forse of electrical cu rrent. The less are output of monopoly and excess (disquality or needless) production, the more is the force of competition. My conception of Real equilibriu m also intends objective nonmonopoly equilibriu m among state and private parts of the free market.

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 sabazro infrastruqtura

giga mai suraZe ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori

bi rJa _ stabiluri ekon omikis arsebobi s garanti birJa bazris organizebuli formaa, sadac saqonliT sabiTumo vaWroba imis mixedviT xdeba, Tu ra saxeobis saqoneli mimoiqceva birJaze, gvaqvs sasaqonlo, safon do, savaluto, Sromi s birJebi. birJis warmoSobas win uZRoda didi bazrobebi, romlebic regularulad imarTeboda savaWro gzebis Sesayarze, moxerxebul geografi ul adgilas. birJebi s garkveuli formebi XII saukunidan Cndeba, safrangeTi erT-erTi pirveli qveyana iyo, sadac 1540 wels lionis birJa Seiqmna, Tumca Tanamedrove tipis birJebis daarseba XVIII saukunidan iwyeba. birJa brokerebis, dilerebi s da trei derebis saqmian obis adgilia. Wall Street-ad wodebuli niu-iorkis birJa e.w. Yourk Street Exchange, mniSvnelobiT Tu ara, Tavisi masStabebiT msoflioSi nomer pirveli birJaa. igi 1792 wels dafuZnda, rodesac kedlis quCis 68-70 n omerSi didi Wadris qveS Sekrebilma 24 maklerma (brokerma) yvelanairi fasiani qaRaldis gayi dvaze sakomisio procentis damatebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba miiRo. es faqti ki ukve niSnavda fasiani qaRaldebis pirveli savaWro moednis Seqmnas. 1817 wlis 8 marts organizaciis qarti a oficialurad Seadgines, romliTac niu-iorkis birJas e.w. Yourk Stock Exchange ewoda. birJi s pirveli prezidenti antoni stokholmi gaxda. msoflios pirvel finansur adgilad w odebul Wall Street-is, arsebobis manZilze, warmatebebTan erTad, mZime periodic araerTxel dasdgomia, kerZod _ 1929 w. 24 oqtomberi _ ,,Savi xuTSabaTi"_ niu-iorkis bi rJa gakotrda! da ramdenime aTwleulis Semdeg, 1987 w., kvlav oqtombris TveSi, ,,dou jonsis" indeqsma 22,6%-iT daiwia, ramac, Tavis mxriv, saerTaSoriso fi nansur bazrebze di d kraxi gamoiwvia. toki os bi rJa Tokyo Stock Exchange msoflioSi mniSvnelovani aqciebis rigiT meore bazaria, Kabutoko-od (ubnis saxeli, sadac birJaa ganTavsebuli) wodebul birJaze 2371 kompania fi gurirebs. igi 1878 w. 15 maiss dafuZnda. 1999 wlidan moyolebuli, tokios birJaze yvelanai ri gacvla eleqtronuli formiT xdeba, Tumca transaqciebis marTva mxolod informatikuli sistemiT imden ad rTuli a, rom zogjer birJis xelmZRvaneloba iZulebulia, transaqciebi SeaCeros, ris gamoc birJa araerTxel gamxdara kritiki s sagani da marTvis sust sistemaSi mxilebuli. tokios birJa Tavis indeqs Nikkei-sTan asoci rdeba. indeqsi 1949 w. gaCnda. misi mizani Tavidanve iaponuri bazris sabirJo referensad gadaqceva iyo. londonis birJa (LSE) planetis erT-erTi yvelaze di di da mniSvnelovani sabi rJo bazari a, romelzec britanuli da ameri kuli mravali sawarmos aqciebi gamodis. 1801 wels daarsebuli londonis birJa im tradiciebi dan aRmocenda, romelic 1697 wlidan iRebs saTaves, rodesac Jonathan's Coffee-House-Si momuSave jon kastenma fasebis sia gamoaqveyna saxelwodebiT ,,gacvlis fasebi da sxva raRaceebi." Tanamedrove birJi s dabadebamde ,,brokerad" wodebuli maklerebi swored aRniSnul saxlSi ikribebodnen. Tavdapirvelad mxolod 500-mde xelismomweri da Tamasuqis gamcemi iyrida Tavs. maTma pirvelma transaqciebma daudo dasabami londonis Tanamedrove birJas.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 parizis birJa 1724 wlis 24 seqtembers mefis karTan arsebuli saxelmwifo sabWos dadgenilebis safuZvelze Seiqmna. birJa Tavdapirvelad Neverse-is sastumroSi iyo ganTavsebuli, mkacr reglaments emorCileboda da qals iq muSaobis ufleba ar hqon da. 1808 wels ki napoleonis iniciativiT, arqiteqtor a. bron gniaris xelmZRvanelobiT, birJisaTvis specialuri Sen obis, ,,brongniaris sasaxlis" mSenebloba daiwyes. mSenebloba 1826 wels dasrulda da sasaxle XIX saukunis mTavari finansuri aqtivobebi s gansaxorcielebel adgilad gadaiqca. 1980-iani wlebidan pirdapir daisva parizis birJis modernizaciis sakiTxi, romelic manamde sajaro vaWrobis formiT funqcionirebda. indeqs CAC-is gamoCenam 1986 wlidan, Zalian male gaxada SesaZlebeli kvotirebis damkvidreba da bazris sicocxlisunari anobis ganmtkiceba. amas Semdgom sxva instituci uri reformis ganxorcieleba mohyva axali sabi rJo asociaciebis damkvi drebiTa da gadamcvleli agentebis statusis SecvliT. 1990iani wlebidan kvotirebis axali sistemis SemoRebiT, parizi s birJa axali iniciativiT gamodis sxvadasxva evropuli birJis gaerTianebis Sesaxeb, romlis Sedegs 2000 wels Euronext-is (parizis, amsterdamis, bri uselis, lisabonis da portugaliis birJebi) daarseba warmoadgens. 2007 wels jgufma Euronext-ma sabolood daadastura NYSE (sabirJo centrebi s msoflio jgufi)-Tan gaerTi aneba, riTac, praqtikulad, pirveli msoflio birJa NYSE Eu ronext-i daibada. frankfurtis, an u germaniis birJa sakmaod gvian, 1992 w els dafuZnda. dRes is evropis mniSvnelovan sabi rJo bazarsa da msofli os rigiT mesame (niu-i orki da tokio) birJas warmoadgens. transaqciebis didi wili _ 65% qveynis SigniT, xolo 35% mis gareT xvdeba. birJis win ori qandakeba dgas. daTvi kursis dawevis simboloa, xari ki kursis awevisa. birJis mTavari indeqsi DAX-i 1994 wels Seiqmn a. samxreT koreis birJa (Ko rea Exchage, KRK) msoflioSi derivativebiT garigebis mniSvnelovani safondo birJaa, is umsxvilesi kapitalizaciis birJebis oceulSi Sedis. igi vaWrobs aqciebiT, obli gaci ebiT, valutiTa da savaluto fi uCersebiT. birJa sabrokero kompaniebs ekuTvnis. vaWrobis moculobam, 2007 w. monacemebiT, $ 1,521 trln-s mi aRwia, li stingi 821 kompania, kapitalizacia $768 mlrd, ZiriTadi indeqsia KOSPI, romelic asaxavs birJaze movaWre yvela kompaniis mdgomareobas. kontinentTaSorisi birJa (ICE) w amyvani saerTaSoriso fiuCersuli birJaa. awarmoebs navTobiT, navTobproduqtebiT, bun ebrivi ai riT da sxvadasxva erTgvarovani saqonliT vaWrobis operaciebs. birJis saTavo ofisi aris atlantaSi, filialebi _ niu-iorkSi, CikagoSi, hiustonSi, kalgariSi, lon donsa da singapurSi, daarsda 2000 wels. vaWrobi s moculoba, bolo sami wlis monacemebiT, 50-60 mlrd dolaris farglebSia. ZiriTadi indeqsia BINDEX. birJa nebismieri qveynisaTvi s ekon omikis ganviTarebis erT-erTi aqselatoria. es ari s moqnili arxi, romelic axdens kapitalis perspeqtiul sferoebSi gadadinebas. Cvens qveyanaSi 1999 wlis ianvarSi daarsda ,,saqarTvelos safon do bi rJa," romlis ZiriTadi mizani fasiani qaRaldebis gamWvi rvale da li kviduri organizebuli bazris Camoyalibeba iyo. Tumca misi saqmianoba dRemde dabali aqtivobiT xasi aTdeba, adgili aqvs savaWro sesiebis Cavardn as da Zi riTadad erTi emitentis (ss saqarTvelos ban ki) aqciebze dgeba garigebebi. misma winamorbedma sasaqon lo birJebmac (xorblisa da n avTobproduqtebi s) dabali aqtivobiT daasrules arseboba.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 msoflio finansuri krizisi saqarTvelos safon do birJazec aisaxa. 2008 wlis monacemebiT, sul Sedga 3200-mde garigeba, rac, 2007 welTan SedarebiT, ganaxevrebulia. gaiyida 257 mln laris Rirebulebis 85 150 156 aqcia. aqciebis raoden obam iklo, xolo misi fasi TiTqmis 2,5-jer gaizarda, rac ganapiroba aqciebis e.w. ,,fiqsingis" (garigeba bi rJaze da mis gareT sabrokero kompaniebis monawileobiT an maT gareSe) gziT realizebam. arsebuli monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi 20-ze meti sabrokero kompania operi rebs. maT Soris lideri ,,galT en d Tagart kapitali"-a, romelic ss ,,saqarTvelos ban kis" Svilobili kompaniaa. misi SuamavlobiT SesaZloa msoflio birJebze fasiani qaRaldebiT vaWroba, romlis winapirobaa sabrokero angariSis gaxsna im qveyanaSi, sadac birJa funqcionirebs. kompaniis wili saqarTvelos safon do bazarze gan xorcielebul garigebaTa moculobaSi yovelwliurad matulobs. mis mier aris daarsebuli sabi rJo indeqsi G. and T. index (GEL). aq Tavs iyris safon do bazarze daregistrirebuli umsxvilesi kompaniebis (,,saqarTvelos banki", ,,Teliani veli", ,,viTibi banki", ,,Telasi", ,,gaerTianebuli telekomi" da sxva) aqciebi. indeqsi warmodgenas gviqmnis fasebis donezec, romlis formirebis safuZvelia ,,aqciebis kalaTis" struqtura. is kviris ganmavlobaSi orjer fiqsirdeba da kvartlis ganmavlobaSi xdeba misi kontroli. globaluri ekon omikuri krizi sis gamo, rogorc msofli o safinanso bazarze moqmedi indeqsebi, CvenTanac indeqsi klebadi tendenciiT xasiaT deba. saSualod, msoflio safon do indeqsebTan SedarebiT, saqarTvelos safon do bazris indeqsi 18-22%-iTaa daweuli, rac cud maCveneblad iTvleba. miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelos safon do bazris Sesyidvis ramdenime bizneswinadadeba iyo. sabirJo biznesis Taviseburebebidan gamomdinare, es aprobi rebuli faqtia. mag., Nasdaq-ma mTlian ad Seisyi da Sveduri birJa, romelic, Tavis mxriv, skandinaviisa da baltiispi reTis fasiani qaRaldebis bazris did wils akontrolebda (70-80%). Cveni azriT, saqarTvelos safondo bazriT daintereseba misaRebia, investorebis mozidvaSemosvla xels Seuwyobs birJis, rogorc bazri s, organizebuli formis normalur operi rebas da, saerTod, safinanso bazris swraf gan viTarebas. saqarTvelos safondo bazari aramdgradia da saerTo arasaxarbielo mdgomareobaa. aSkaraa sabirJo aqtivebi s deficiti, mci rea savaWro garigebebi, sabi rJo indeqsi yovelwliurad ecema, iklebs fasiani qaRal debis kursi, sabazro fasi, kotrdebian sabrokero agentebi da sxva. aRniSnulis erT-erT ZiriTad mizezad migvaCnia bi rJebis qaosuri formireba, sakan onmdeblo sistemis xSiri cvalebadoba, dabali ekonomikuri aqtivoba, globaluri ekonomikuri krizisi da cnobili 2008 wlis agvistos movlenebi. birJebis roli da mniSvneloba bazri s infrastruqturaSi gan uzomelia. vfiqrobT, Cvens qveyan aSi am mxriv arsebuli mdgomareoba gamosworebadia. amisaTvis ki mizanSew onilad migvaCnia Semdegi RonisZiebebi s gatareba: 1. 2. 3. biznesis aqtivobis zrda da ekon omikis realuri seqtoris gamococxleba; sainvesticio bazris ganviTareba, sainvestici o garemos swrafi gaumjobeseba da investorebis daintereseba; safon do aqtivebis gamravalferovneba;

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 4. 5. 6. 7. ,,SuamavalTa instituti"-s xelSewyoba da misi gadaqceva safon do bazri s atributad; emitentebi saTvis pirobebi s Seqmna, rac maTi warmatebis garanti iqneba; e.w. ,,fiqsingis" gauqmeba; sagadasaxado kodeqsis daxvew a da am procesSi mecnierebis, praqtikosebis da yvela dainteresebuli fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piris erToblivi Zalisxmevis gamoyeneba; gamoyenebuli literatura 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. jibuti m. saqarTvelos fasiani qaRaldebis bazari, BTb. 2003. kakuli a r., xelaia g. fulis mimoqcevis da kreditis zogadi Teoria, Tb., 2000. statistikis departamentisa da avtori s mier mopovebuli monacemebi. .. , ., 2005 Ralph T. Byrns, Gerald W. stone Jr. Econo mies, 5th edition H.C.P, 1995

Giga Maisuradze Doctor of Economics Sciences THE S TOCK EXCHANGE ­ GUARANTEE OF ECONOMICAL STAB ILITY Summary The main place among market economic infrastructures occupies the stock exchange. It is one of the main guarantees of stable market in the country and the existence of stable economy. Unfortunately, the Georg ian stock exchange is in init ial stage of development, there are observed lots of reasons. The article investigates the world experience and the formation problems ­ stock exchange in Georgia. It studies negative sides of the process and outlines adequate means of further develop ment of stock exchange in Georg ia.

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 mniSvnelovani mon ografiebi (gamoxmaureba ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtoris, profesor elguja meqvabiSvilis monografiaze "ekonomikis globalizacia: mimarTulebebi, gamowvevebi, perspeqtivebi". Tbilisi, sagamomcemlo saxli "inovaci a", 2009, 224 gv.) mkiTxvelis samsjavroze gamotanili monografia warmoadgens ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtoris, profesor elguja meqvabiSvilis mravalwliani kvlevebis Sedegs da eZRvneba metad aqtualur problematikas ­ ekonomi kis globalizaciis sakiTxebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflio ekonomi kur literaturaSi mravali gamokvlevaa Sesrulebuli am Temaze (da, bunebrivia, naSromebis umetesi nawili inglisur enazea), avtorma, erTi mxriv, SeZlo sakuTari wvlili Seetana am metad rTuli problemis gadawyvetis saqmeSi, da, meore mxriv, aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom monografia dawerilia qarTul enaze, rac bevrad gauadvilebs saqarTveloSi moRvaw e profesor-masw avleblebs da studentobas mocemuli problemati kis gacnobas. problemis kvlevis meTodologia (kvlevis obieqtis gansazRvra) da meTodika (kvlevis xerxebi, instrumentari) savsebiT pasuxobs kvlevi s mizans da mas sistemur xasiaTs aniWebs. ekonomi kis globalizaciis fenomenis axsnis safuZvelze avtori iZleva misi mimarTulebebi s da perspeqtivebis analizs. kvlevis mTeli RerZi, Cveni azriT, eyrdnoba avtoriseul gagebas, rom globalizaciis procesma ar unda moSalos qveynebs Sori s specifikuri gansxvavebebi, rom es gan sxvavebebi bunebrivia da kacobriobi s monapovaria. friad produqti ulia finansuri krizisebis da globalizaciis retrospeqtuli analizi, problemisadmi aseTi istoriul-ekonomi kuri mi dgoma swori daskvnebis saSualebas iZleva. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom savsebiT veTanxmebiT avtori s im mosazrebas, rom globalizacia sazogadoebis Tanamedrove istoriis ganviTarebis fenomenia (gv. 22). vfiqrobT, avtori sruliad marTebulad Tvlis teqnologiur Zvrebs ekonomiki s globalizaciis safuZvlad, rac logikur kavSirSi a mis zemoT moyvanil mosazrebasTan. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia informaciuli revolucia, romelmac, Cveni azriT, xeli Seuwyo ekonomiki s mwarmoeblurobis zrdas, xolo internetis Seqmnam SesaZlebeli gaxada ekon omikuri transaqciebis (transactions) (eleqtron uli vaWroba eleqtronuli fulis gamoyenebiT) ganxorcieleba w uTebSi, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcira biznesis warmoebis xarjebi. ekon omikuri transaqciebis problemis gadaw yvetisaTvi s amerikel ekonomists ronald kouzs nobeli s premiac ki mianiWes (1991). monografiaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba ekonomikis globalizaciis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs da subieqtebs. avtori aRniSnavs globalizaciis mravalw axnagovan bunebas, mis sxvadasxva aspeqtebs. rac Seexeba ekonomi kis globalizacias, aq avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs uSualod finansur globalizaciaze, vinaidan igi ekonomikis globalizaciis safuZvels warmoadgens. sakuTriv ki finansuri globali zaci a "ramdenime mimarTulebiT xorcieldeba: a) sasesxo kapitalis, b) pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi s, g) portfeluri investiciebis da d) valuti s bazris giganturi zrdiT" (gv. 39). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom 1997-98 ww. msoflio finansuri krizisis (realurad savalo krizisis) ZiriTadi mizezi

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 swored finansuri globalizaciis Sedegi gaxldaT ­ rodesac aRmosavleT aziis ri g qveynebSi moxda uzomod didi sesxebis gacema kerZo seqtorze, an u sasesxo kapi talis, finansuri derivativebis (meoradi instrumentebi) moculobis mkveTri zrda da realuri ekonomikisagan mow yveta. avtori finansuri globalizaciis mimarTulebebis, globali zaciis epoqis finansuri krizisebis da globaluri finansuri krizisis saqarTveloze zegavlenis detalur analizs iZleva. niSandoblivi a avtoriseuli daskvnebi finansuri resursebis alokaciis Sesaxeb. kerZod: "finansuri resursebis realur ekonomikaSi gadatana... bazarSi saxelmwi fo insti tutebis "CaSeneba", dazogvis, investiciebis da likvidobis harmonizacia... safondo birJebze globaluri kontrolis daweseba" (gv. 71). am sakiTxis aqtualobas cxadyofs Tanamedrove ekonomi kuri da safinanso msoflio krizisic, romlisgan Tavi s daRwevas cdiloben samTavrobo saxelmwifo struqturebis da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri da safinanso organizaciebis rolis gaZlierebiT. saqarTveloze globaluri finansuri krizisis gavlen a, avtoris SexedulebiT, gamovlinda " fuladi gzavnilebis (remittances) SemcirebiT saqarTveloSi, uaryofiT savaWro balansSi, sagareo valis zrdaSi", sabolood ki, Cveni azriT, am krizi sma kidev ufro gaaZliera saqarTvelos ekonomikis araoptimaluri, araefeqtiani struqtura. am mosazrebis sasargeblod mianiSnebs is garemoebac, rom "importma 4-jer gadaaWarba eqsports... da amJamad saqarTveloSi mTliani Sida produqtis (mSp-s) 6070% importirebulia" (gv. 73-75). calke sakiTxs warmoadgens krizisis zegavlena saban ko seqtorze, bankebma mniSvnelovnad Seamci res an saerTod Sewyvites realuri ekonomikis dakrediteba. "sabanko sistemi s depozitebsa da sesxebs Soris uaryofiTi balansi 2008 wlis bolos mSp-s daaxloebiT 13% Seadgenda" ­ marTebulad aRniSnavs avtori (gv. 76). an u "saxezea sistemuri krizisis aSkara niSnebi" (gv. 77). aqve mocemulia rekomendaciebi, Tu rogor unda iqnes daZleuli Seqmnili viTareba ­ "myari politi kuri nebis gamoCena xeli suflebi s mxridan... mkacri da arapopularuli nabijebis gadadgma... SerCeviTi daxmarebi s gaw eva... grZelvadiani ganviTarebi s meqnizmebis amoqmedeba... monopolizmTan brZola... bankebisadmi garkveuli daxmarebis gaweva... sagadasaxado amnistiis gamocxadeba... ekonomikis importSemcvleli ganviTarebis modelze gadasvla... axali teqnologi uri wyobis dasanergad RonisZiebebis gatareba" (gv. 7780). avtori, exeba ra msoflio finansuri sistemis reformi rebis zogierT aspeqts, aRniSnavs, rom "aucilebeli a saerTaSoriso finansur urTierTobebze demokrati uli kontrolis daw eseba" (gv.80). aseTi kontrolis dawesebas miiCnevs saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri da finansuri institutebis refomirebis ZiriTad mimarTulebad. gansakuTrebuli roli ekonomi kis globalizaciaSi Seaqvs msoflio savaWro organizacias (mso), romlis Zi riTadi mizania Tavisufali vaWrobi s miRweva yovelgvari gadasaxadebis, tarifebis da kvotebis minimizaciis an saerTod gauqmebis gziT. avtori SeniSnavs am sferoSi damkvidrebul Semdeg saintereso ten dencias: msoflio vaWrobis zrdis tempi sistematurad aRemateba msofli o warmoebis zrdis temps, da warmoebis globalizacia ufro dabali tempiT mimdinareobs, vidre saerTaSoriso vaWrobis globalizacia. es ukan askneli ki CamorCeba finansuri sferos globalizaciis temps (gv. 83-84).

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 ekon omikis globalizaciis erT-erTi maxasiaTebelia "axali ekon omiki s" fenomenis warmoSoba, romelsac avtori axasiaTebs, rogorc "Tanamedrove teqnologi ur-meurneobriv wyobas, romlis sistemaSemqmneli elementebia codna, informacia da inovaciebi" (gv. 96). ekon omikis globalizaciis subieqtebs Soris avtori gansakuTrebiT gamoyofs aSS-s, transerovnuli korporaciebis, saerTaSoriso safi-

nanso-ekon omikuri organizaciebi s msoflio banki) rols (gv. 108-140).

(saerTaSoriso

savaluto

fon di,

bunebrivia, am sakiTxTa gan xilvis Semdeg avtori msjelobs erovnuli saxelmwifos ekon omikur rolze ekonomikis globalizaciis pirobebSi da samarTlianad dasZens, rom "Tan amedrove saxelmwifo imyo-

feba ara bazris miRma an bazris zeviT, aramed organuladaa CaSenebuli bazarSi da warmoadgens bazris umniSvnelovanes moTamaSes, romelic pasuxi smgebeli a mTeli sazogadoebis interesebis realizebaze" (gv.144).

ekon omikis globalizaciis modelebis gan xilvisas avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs wamyvan - neoliberalur modelze ("vaSingtonis kon sensusis" doqtrina, "sabazro fundamentalizmi") da socialurad orientirebul (alterglobalizmi) modelze (gv. 151-170). aq friad sayuradRebod migvaCnia avtoris azri, rom " amJamad erTmaneTs daupi rispirda ori ten-

den cia: erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv doneze ekonomikis deregulireba da zesaxelmwifo doneze reguli rebis gaZliereba, rac imis maCvenebelia, rom ekonomiki s globalizacia marTul procesad gadaiqca" (gv. 153).

aanalizebs ra "anti globalizmis" fenomens, avtori marTebulad Tvlis, rom dResdReobiT saubari un da mimdinareobdes globalizaciis ara uaryofaze, aramed misi Sinaarsis socialur orientaciaze, "rodesac wina planze gamodis ara mogebis kriteriumi, aramed erovnuli da saerTaSoriso masStabebiT sw rafva sayovelTao keTildRebisaken, Seqmnili materialuri da sulieri dovlaTis samarTli ani gan awilebisaken" da amas is uw odebs "alternati ul gl obalizacias" (alterglobalizmi) (gv. 166-170). aqve ismis kiTxva, rogori ekonomikuri meqanizmi unda daedos safuZvlad dovlaTis aseT w armoebas da ganawilebas? es Zalze rTuli sakiTxia da elis Tavis gadawyvetas. speci fikur da sruliad gansxvavebul fenomens warmoadgens ekon omikis globalizaciis gavlena postkomunistur qveynebze, romlebic tran sformaciis pirobebSi imyofebian. Aam problemati kas avtori exeba monografiis mexuTe TavSi da aRniSnavs, rom "transformacia globalizaciis aucilebeli pirobaa, meore mxriv ki, globalizacia TviTon gvevlineba transformaciis faqtorad" (gv. 171). aq avtori "sistemuri paradigmis" originalur axsn as iZleva, romelic, Cveni azriT, zogadad sakmaod produqtiuli a socialur-ekon omikuri movlenebis axsnisas da kerZod, postkomunisturi transformaciis SemTxvevaSi. aseTi mi dgomis safuZvelze, avtori sainteresod xsnis ukve sakuTriv postindustri uli tran sformaciis fenomens (gv. 176-183), romelic socializaciisa da samarTlianobis gzas adgas. Tumca aqve aRniSnavs, rom kapitalizmis amosavali maxasiaTeblebi dominantur faqtorebad rCebian, da aqedan akeTebs Sors mimaval da sakmaod Tamam daskvnas, rom "socializmi (ra

Tqma unda, ara mi si damaxinjebuli sabWouri modeli) aris mTeli kacobriobis perspeqtiva" (gv. 183). Tamams imitom, rom DdRes saqarTveloSi, da ara marto saqarTveloSi, ekon omikis neoliberalur models ukavia gabatonebuli adgili rogorc azrovnebaSi, aseve sameurneo praqtikaSi. ekonomika mindobilia stiqi uri faqtorebis moqmedebas da yvelaferi es keTdeba ekonomikaSi liberalizmis da demokrati uli faseulo-

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 bebis dacvi s lozun gis qveS, riTac knindeba sakuTriv idea normaluri sabazro ekonomikis SesaZlo formirebis da arsebobis Sesaxeb. monografiis daskvniTi meeqvse Tavi eZRvneba globalizaciis problemebis da perspeqtivebis analizs saqarTveloSi (gv. 184-205). aq avtori gvafrTxilebs: "yovelTvis un da gvaxsovdes, rom arsebobs socialurekonomikuri ganviTarebisa da Sesabamisi politikuri sistemis rogorc zogadi niSnebi, ise yoveli xalxis (qveynis) unikaluri Tvisebebi, tradiciebi, yofa, kultura, cxovrebis w esi da fsiqologia"(gv. 187). sayuradReboa avtoriseuli Sexedulebebi, rom "ufro efeqtiania saqarTvelos globalizaciaSi CarTva romelime msxvil struqturaSi monawileobi s gziT" da "yvelaze progresulad SeiZleba CaiTvalos is gza, romelic evrokavSirSi Segviyvans" (gv. 188). magram amisaTvis saqarTvelom unda daakmayofilos rigi kriteriumebi, rac arcTu ise xanmokle perspeqtivis saqmea. calke sakiTxad avtori ganixilavs mecnierebi sa da ganaTlebis mdgomareobas Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi da am sferoSi dagrovili problemebis gadawyvetis gzebs (gv. 195-199), aqve igi iZleva inovaciur ekonomikaze gadasvlis SesaZlo mimarTulebebis Camon aTvals (gv. 202205). monografiis bolo nawils Seadgens "ZiriTadi daskvnebi"(gv. 206213) sadac mkafiod ari s Camoyalibebuli avtoriseuli ZiriTadi mosazrebebi da rekomendaciebi zogadad ekonomi kis globalizaciaze da mi s speci fikaze saqarTveloSi. maT Soris gamovyofdiT Semdegs: - globalizacia da regionalizacia Tanmdevi procesebia (gv. 206); - "ekon omikis globalizaciis gabatonebuli modelis Secvla". kerZod, "globalizaciis neoliberalur models unda daupirspirdes globalizaciis demokratiuli modeli, anu socialurad orienti rebuli globalizacia" (gv. 210-211); - "soci alizmis i dea, romelic saukuneTa manZilze utopia i yo da

misi praqtikuli ganxorcielebis cda warumatebeli aRmoCnda, SesaZlebelia garkveuli drois Semdeg kacobriobis realuri cxovrebis wesi gaxdes" (gv. 212). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom, Cveni azriT, es perspeqtiva

bevrad aris damokidebuli iseTi faqtorebis amoqmedebaze, rogorebicaa mravalpolusiani samyaros Camoyalibeba, ekonomikis Tan daTanobiTi socializacia, ekonomi kaSi saxelmwifos rolis swori gansazRvra da sxv. sasurvelobis saxiT gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom mon ografiaSi SedarebiT naklebiYyuradReba daeTmo globalizaciis socialur aspeqtebs. vfi qrobT, am problemis siRrmiseuli analizi gaxdeba avtoris momavali kvlevebis sagani. kargi iqneboda, avtors ZiriTadi daskvnebi moeca inglisur da rusul enebzec, rac mniSvnelovnad gazrdi da mocemuli problematikiT dainteresebul pirTa raodenobas. dasasrul, vamTavrebT ra recenzi as profesor elguja meqvabiSvilis monografiaze, ki dev erTxel xazs vusvamT mis mniSvnelobas ekonomikis globalizaciis problemebis gadawyveti s saqmeSi da srulad vuWerT mxars im mosazrebas, rom is di dad daainteresebs "Tanamedrove ekon omikuri problemebiT dainteresebul pi rebs, ekon omikuri profilis studentebsa da profesor-maswavleblebs". ekon omikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

Teimuraz beriZe

81

J. "ekonomisti", #5 - , « » , , . -. , . - . ( - «»), , , , . . , « ». 12 , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , - , . , «» . , , . ( , ) , .. , , . , , - . , . . , (, ) , .. , . , .

12

.., .. ( ). , « », 1976 ( . 287).

82

J. "ekonomisti", #5 , , . , . « ». «» , - , , « », . , , . , .. . , . , . , , , , . , ( ). , . , . , , , , , , , . , - «» , , , «» . , , , , . . , , . , - . . . , , .

83

J. "ekonomisti", #5 informacia 2008 wlidan daarsda paata guguSvilis ekonomiki s institutis samecniero Sromebi s krebuli, romelic gamodis periodulad. Sromebis krebulSi dai beWdeba mecnier ekonomi stTa (mecnierebaTa doqtorebi, akademi uri doqtorebi) Sromebi, aseve, bakalavrebis, magistrebis, doqtorantebis da praqtikos ekon omistTa saTanado mecnieruli donis statiebi. avtorTaTvis krebulSi statiebis gamosaqveyneblad moqmedebs Semdegi wesebi: 1. krebulSi gamosaqveyneblad gankuTvnili samecniero naSromebi unda iyos damouki debeli kvlevis Sedegi. naSromi ar unda arRvevdes saavtoro uflebebs da ar unda iyos gamoqveynebuli romelime sxva organ oSi. 2. redaqciaSi warmodgenili statiis originali xelmowerili unda iyos avtoris, xolo Tanaavtorobis SemTxvevaSi yvela Tanaavtoris mier saxelis, gvaris, samuSao adgilis, samecniero xarisxisa da wodebis, sruli safosto misamarTis, telefonis, faqsis, eleqtronuli fostis miTiTebiT. 3. statia dabeWdili unda iyos 1,5 intervaliT, A4 formatze, 12 fontiT. redaqciaSi statiebis w armodgena auci lebelia or nabeWd egzemplarad, eleqtronul versiasTan erTad (MS WORD, qarTuli teqsti Sri ftiT ACADNUSX, xolo inglisuri _ TIM ES NEW ROMAN). erTi gverdis Ri rebulebaa 5 lari. naSromebi s gamogzavna SegiZliaT eleqtronuli fostiT misamarTze: [email protected] ler.ru, [email protected] ler.ru Semdeg

institutis xelmZRvaneloba da krebulis redaqcia mzadaa TanamSromlobisaTvis. damatebiTi cn obebi saTvis dagvikavSi rdiT Semdeg misamarTze: q. Tbilisi, qiqoZis q. #14, oTaxi 13, t.: 99-66-46; 99-74-09.

paata guguSvili s ekon omikis institutis gamomcemloba qarTul, rusul da inglisur enebze SeRavaTian fasebSi gTavazobT nebismier sagamomcemlo saqmianobas: · masalis akrefa, dakabadoneba, redaqtireba gamoicema: · · samecniero wignebi da naSromebi, enci klopediebi, leqsikonebi, cnobarebi perioduli gamocemebi (samecniero SromaTa krebuli, samecniero Jurnalebi, kon ferenciis masalebi)

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J. "ekonomisti", #5 · · originaluri da naTargmni mxatvruli literatura, saxelmZRvaneloebi, sabavSvo wignebi, albomebi da gzamkvlevebi eleqtronuli dargobrivi Jurnalebi

misamarTi: Tbilisi, geronti qiqoZis q. #14 36 94 77; 93 22 60; 99 66 46; 8(55) 33 01 38. el.fosta: [email protected]

Jurnal ekonomistSi statiebis warmod genis 1.

wesebi

2.

3.

4.

5.

JurnalSi gamosaqveyneblad gankuTvnili samecniero naSromebi unda iyos damouki debeli kvlevis Sedegi. naSromi ar unda arRvevdes saavtoro uflebebs da ar unda iyos gamoqveynebuli romelime sxva organ oSi. redaqciaSi warmodgenili statiis originali xelmowerili unda iyos avtoris, xolo Tanaavtorobis SemTxvevaSi yvela Tanaavtori s mier saxelis, gvaris, samuSao adgilis, samecniero xarisxisa da wodebis, sruli safosto mi samarTi s, telefonis, faqsis, eleqtron uli fostis miTiTebiT. statia dabeWdili unda iyos 1,5 intervaliT, A4 formatze, 12 fontiT. redaqciaSi statiebis warmodgena auci lebelia or nabeWd egzemplarad, eleqtronul versiasTan erTad (MS W ORD, qarTuli teqsti SriftiT ACADNUSX, xolo inglisuri TIM ES NEW ROMAN). JurnalSi statiebi gamoqveyndeba redaqciaSi maTi Semosvlis rigi s mixedviT. redaqciis mier statiis w armodgenis TariRad CaiTvleba redaqciis mier saboloo teqstis miRebis TariRi. statia, romelic srulad ar pasuxobs zemoT moyvanil moTxovnebs, redaqciis mier ar miiReba. erTi gverdis Rirebulebaa 5 lari. naSromebi s gamogzavna SegiZliaT eleqtronuli fostiT misamarTze: [email protected] ler.ru, [email protected] ler.ru Semdeg

institutis xelmZRvaneloba da Jurnalis redaqcia mzadaa TanamSromlobisaTvis. damatebiTi cn obebi saTvis dagvikavSi rdiT Semdeg misamarTze: q. Tbilisi, qiqoZis q. #14, oTaxi 13, t. 99-66-46, 99-74-09. ss "saqarTvelos bankSi"klientis angari Sze Tan xebis erovnul valutaSi (lari) CaricxvisaTvis aucilebeli sabanko rekvizitebi mimRebis banki: saaqcio sazogadoeba "saqarTvelos banki" centraluri filiali (kodi) 220101502 mimRebis dasaxeleba: ssip paata guguSvilis ekonomi kis instituti mimRebis angariSis nomeri: 247786300 tel: +995-32-444444-7842 faqsi: 444176 el.fosta: [email protected]

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