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Portafill H 5. Functional filler for application in paints, colours and paper.

Water-based Paints

Portafill H 5 Economic pigments for water based interior paints

The products Based on the minerals huntite and hydromagnesite, which were formed in primeval lakes, Ankerpoort makes products with a high fineness, a high whiteness and a high aspect ratio: Portafill H 5. Portafill H 5 is produced using both, a controlled processing with modern grinding & classifying equipment and specific surface treatments. The next picture gives an impression of the raw material with its purity and whiteness.

Figure 1: Huntite/Hydromagnesite-Mine in Greece Portafill H 5 consists mainly of the mineral Huntite. By selective mining and controlled processing it is ensured that the characteristic properties of Portafill H 5 are consistent. The composition, whiteness and particle size distribution are specified and tested regularly during the production.

The chemical formula of the two minerals is as follows:

Huntite

: Mg3Ca(CO3)4 3H2O

Hydromagnesite : Mg4(OH)2(CO3)3

The huntite particles got their high aspects ratio as well as their extraordinary fineness during the precipitation process in primeval times. The scanning electron microscope picture is given in Figure 2. The typical properties of Portafill H 5 are listed below.

Portafill H 5 Chemical Analysis: MgO CaO SiO2 Fe2O3 Moisture Whiteness Y Spec. Surface (BET) Medium Particle Size (Sedigraph 5000D) Mohs Hardness pH Density Bulk Density 2-3 10 2,5 0,25 g/cm g/cm

3 3

33 14 0.4 < 0.1 < 1,0 > 93 18 0,4

% % % % % % m²/g µm

Figure 2: SEM-picture of Huntite The following data are the first results of our laboratory tests, and they should demonstrate the general suitability of huntite minerals as titanium dioxide extender in modern formulations.

Table 1: Typical Data of Portafill H 5

Interior dispersion paints Huntite as white pigment

People of the ancient world already used this white, plate-shaped material because of its earthy nature, its fineness, its opacity and its easy dispersability in water. Huntite could be found at cold painted ceramics of the 11th dynasty of Thebes and on Nubic terracottes. Lumps of this mineral were also found in a shipwreck of the 2nd or 3rd century, northwest of Elba, where is was probably used as a pigment. Also in other parts of the world people make use of the advantageous properties; to this day aboriginals of western Australia still use white earth, which contains huntite1. The fineness, the opacity and the good dispersability - properties that were already appreciated by the ancient Egyptians ­ make Portafill H 5 attractive for modern paints, too. Particularly, if we're looking for a compromise between good optical paint properties and minimum costs for raw materials. Basic tests in the interior paint formulations have shown that it is possible to partly substitute titanium dioxide with Portafill H 5. As shown below, Portafill H 5 can replace up to 30% of titanium dioxide used in the typical interior dispersion paint formulation without affecting the opacity. Starting formulations for the water based interior paints used in these tests were taken from the information provided by different producers of dispersion resins. Portafill H 5 was used to substitute a part of the titanium dioxide in these formulations and the effects on optical properties were measured.

Preparation The dispersion paints were prepared using the generally used high shear mixing equipment, e.g. Dissolver. Opacity / Contrast ratio The effect of Portafill H 5 as a TiO2-extender was measured in terms of contrast ratios of the dry paints. The measurements were carried out according to DIN 53778, part 3. To determine the contrast ratio, the paints were generally applied with spiral applicator at the wet thickness of 150 µm on a black & white contrast card. After drying for 24 hours, the value of whiteness Y is measured above the white (Yw) and the black background (YB) using the

1 W. Noll: Zur Kenntnis altägyptischer Pigmente und Binedmittel; N. Jb. Miner. Mh., Jg. 1981, H9., S416-432

spectrophotometer analyser . The contrast ratio (CR) is then calculated as follows. CR = (YB / YW)*100 Shelf life The paints were stored in 250 ml cans for fourteen days at 50°C to test the shelf life. After cooling down for six hours, the shelf life is rated according to the following criteria: · · · · · · Settling Redispersability Viscosity before and after storage (Brookfield). None or very low increase of viscosity occurs Clear solution of maximum 3mm above the suspension is formed The paint is easily redispersable.

2

At a very thin film-thickness (75 µm) a slight decrease of the contrast ratio can be seen with increasing amount of Portafill H5. Thicker films with a wet thickness of 150 µm have such a high opacity, that the contrast ratio is up to the substitution level of 30% independent from the amount of TiO2 replaced (Figure 3).

100% 98% 96% 94%

75 µm

150µm

Contrast ratio

92% 90% 88% 86% 84% 82% 80% R e f. 10% H5 20% H5 30% H5

The shelf life is rated as good, if:

All paints tested here fulfil these criteria have a good or sufficient shelf life. Formulations and results The first formulation contains 5,8% titanium dioxide and 7% binder, the pigment volume concentration (PVC) is about 84%. Portafill H 5 replaced in these experiments 10%, 20% and 30% of the used TiO2 (Table 2).

Figure 3: Partial substitution of Portafill H5 for TiO2 From comparison of Portafill H 5 with other highgrade mineral products, such as aluminium silicates or calcined clays, it follows that the efficiency of these products is comparable. However, the advantage of Portafill H 5 over the calcined clay is its higher brightness. When compared to precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), the use of Portafill H 5 results in a higher contrast ratio of the paint (Figure 4).

Ref. Water Natrosol 250 HHR Calgon N Pigment Disperser A Parmetol A26 Agitan 281 White Spirit (180-210°C) Lusolvan FBH KRONOS 2043 Portafill H 5 Millicarb OG Luzenac 10 MOOS Durcal 5 Agitan 281 Acronal 290 D Total 374.0 5.0 6.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 12.0 13.0 58.0 112.0 60.0 280.0 1.0 70.0 1000

10% 20% 30% replaced by Portafill H 5 374.0 374.0 374.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 52,2 46.4 40.6 5,8 11,6 17,4 112.0 112.0 112.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 280.0 280.0 280.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 1000 1000 1000

150µm 96.5% 96.3% Contrast ratio 150µm 96.0% 95.8% 95.5% 95.3% 95.0% 94.8%

75 µm 100.0% 98.0% 96.0% 94.0% 92.0% 90.0% 88.0% 86.0% 84.0% Contrast ratio 75µm

Re f. Po rta fill H5

Table 2: Formulation based on Acronal 290 D (5,8 % TiO2, 7,0 % binder)

Figure 4: Comparison of different minerals used as extender (30% TiO2 replaced) Comparable results with Portafill H 5, e.g. nearly constant opacity up to a replacement of about 30% of TiO2 and extender efficiency comparable to aluminium silicates and calcined clays, are also found in various other formulations of water based

Standard colour value Y at diffuse illuminance and vertical or nearly vertical observation with gloss (DIN 53236, procedure A)

2

PC C Al -S ili c at e Ca lc. Cl ay

interior paints. Portafill H 5 was tested in formulation containing more TiO2 and more binder than the first one (PVC ca. 76,3%, Table 3). The results are summarized in Figure 5.

The higher TiO2-content of this formulation results in a higher contrast ratio. The level of TiO2 that can be substituted by some extender in such higher quality formulation is apparently lower. As can be seen in Figure 5, the opacity was not affected up to the Portafill level of 20%. Substitution of 30 % TiO2 results only in very slight decrease of opacity.

Ref. Water Calgon, 10% Lupon 894 Tylose H 6000 yp Na(OH), 10% Agitan 310 KRONOS 2065 Portafill H 5 Microtalc AT1 Calcidar 2 Calcidar 5 Socal P2 Actizid SPX Agitan 310 Mowilith LDM 1871 Total 314,4 5,6 2,0 6,0 2,0 1,0 70.0 56.0 160.0 120.0 150.0 2,0 1,0 110,0 1000.0

10% 20% 30% TiO2 replaced by Portafill H 5 314,4 314,4 314,4 5,6 5,6 5,6 2,0 2,0 2,0 6,0 6,0 6,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 63.0 56.0 49.0 7.0 14.0 21.0 56.0 56.0 56.0 160.0 160.0 160.0 120.0 120.0 120.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 2,0 2,0 2,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 110,0 110,0 110,0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0

Cutting costs with Portafill H 5 Partial replacement of titanium dioxide by Portafill H 5 results in a noticeable cost saving effect. At the replacement of 30% titanium dioxide with Portafill H 5 in the last formulation (Table 3), the total cost reduction is about 7 %.

Summary These basic tests prove the efficiency of Portafill H 5 as TiO2 extender. Compared to paint formulations, which contain precipitated calcium carbonate, calcined clay or aluminium-silicate, recipes with Portafill H 5 have a similar or better opacity. However, a higher brightness results with use of Portafill H 5 as compared with the calcined clay. With Portafill H 5, a natural product is available that, because of its purity and specific properties, makes a reduction of titanium dioxide in dispersion paint possible and contributes therefore significantly to the cost optimization of such products.

Table 3: Formulation based on Mowilith LDM 1871 (7,0 % TiO2, 11 % binder)

P a r ts o f T iO 2 s u b s t itu t e d 10% 20% 30% 100% 98% 96% 94% Contrast ratio 92% 90% 88% 86% 84% 82% 80%

. ef R f il lH P or ta 5

Figure 5: Partial substitution of Portafill H 5 for TiO2

All data in this Technical Information are meant as orientation and were given according to our best knowledge. Because properties of compounds and products are widely subject to variations with formulation details, we cannot take responsibility for deviations that might occur in your specific application. We feel committed to our customers needs and would like to give you as much support and help as possible. In order to arrive at quick and satisfying problem solutions detailed discussions with you could be helpful. Therefore we would be glad, if you contact us again for further information. Ankerpoort N.V. Op de Bos 300 NL 6200 AG Maastricht Telefon: +31 (0) 43 3663755 Telefax: +31 (0) 43 3650364 e-mail: [email protected]

AP.08.2005

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