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DANCE MACABRE: suini

agonisti,

Aanu aristofanuli melodramis framentebi"

sabolood, saSineleba da sicili SeiZleba gaerTiandnen... potenciuri komedia iseve moipoveba sofoklesTan, rogorc potenciuri tragedia ­ aristofanesTan. tomas elioti, "sargebeli poeziisa da sargebeli kritikis"

"1920 wlis leqsebis" Semdeg, suinis saxes elioti pirvelad "unayofo miwaSi" ubrundeba, jon deis "futkarTa parlamentis" cnobil parodiaSi, sadac aqteonisa da dianas Sexvedris nacvlad, swored suini estumreba kaxpas, misis porters: But at my back from time to time I hear The sound of horns and motors, which shall bring Sweeney to Mrs. Porter in the Spring. magram suini "unayofo miwis" mxolod erT epizodSi gvxvdeba, rogorc parodiuli aqteoni da mTavari "moqmedi piris", tiresias erT-erTi "avatari", anu rogorc erTi konteqstidan morigi saxe sxva uamrav asociaciur saxeTa rigSi. "unayofo miwa" "amoglejiT", suinis saxeze calke msjeloba marTebuli ar imdenad rTulsa da daxvewil mxatvrul struqturas Seadgens, rom misi erTiani

iqneboda.

Aam

saxesTan "suini

eliotis

axleburi

midgomis

dasaxasiaTeblad,

ufro

sainteresoa mimarTa

agonistis,

anu

aristofanuli formas:

melodramis

fragmentebis" wamoadgens

mxatvruli specifikis garkveva, miT ufro, rom am nawarmoebSi poetma pirvelad misTvis sruliad axal, uCveulo "fragmentebi" vodevilis stilSi daweril, komikur-ironiuli elementebis Semcvelsa da, amave dros, pirquSi simbolikiT datvirTul, daumTavrebel "melodra-mas". "leqsebi 1920", sadac suini pirvelad gvxvdeba, 1915-1919 wlebSi iqmneboda. radgan "aristofanuli melodramis frag-mentebi" Seiqmna, unda vivaraudoT, rom "unayofo miwis" Semdeg (1923-25 ww.) suinis saxe mTeli aTi wlis eliotisaTvis

manZilze inarCunebda SemoqmedebiT aqtualobas. rogorc eliotis biografi piter ekroidi aRniSnavs, im periodSi poeti yvela Rones xmarobda, raTa "unayofo miwis" usasrulod pirquS samyaros emociurad gascloda. meore mxriv, "suini agonisti", faqtobrivad, "kacis fitulebTan" (1925) erTdroulad daiwera da amitom, pesimisturi ganwyobilebebisagan gaqceva ar unda yofiliyo misi Seqmnis ZiriTadi mizezi. groteskis, karikaturis, ironiuli intonaciisa da sagangebod

vulgaruli iumoris saSua-lebiT,Y "suini agonisti" imave "sasowarkveTilebis filosofias" gamoxatavs, rac "kacis fitulebis" poetur esqatologias udevs safuZvlad. Tavdapirvelad, 1926 da 1927 wlebSi, piesa or nawilad gamoqveynda Jurnal "kraiterionSi", saTauriT "Sin xom ar ginda wasvla, Wirime?" ("Wanna Go Home, Baby?"). 1932 wls, ukve saboloo saTauriT, is calke wignad gamoica da sul cota xanSi, ramdenjerme daidga kidec scenaze. am droisaTvis eliotis amaRlebulad seriozuli, principulad antibohemuri da elitaruli xateba literaturul cnobierbaSi ukve sabolood damkvidrebuli inglisureno-van iyo: misgan civi

RimiliTa da pirquSi ironiiT aRsavse leqsebs ufro moelodnen, vidre "msubuqi Janris" nawarmoebTa Seqmnas. magram piter ekroidisa da lindal gordonis dawvrilebiTi biografiebi1 cxadyofs, rom "gasarTobi" xasiaTis SemoqmedebiTi interesebi eliotisaTvis ucxo arasodes yofila. mas yovelTvis erT izidavda dros is kinematografis megobar gavrcelebamde arsebuli garTobis industria, bevrs

aRtacebulic iyo miuzik-holis msaxiobebiT, megobrobda kidec maTTan da maT londonel demimondenebTan. mxiaruli da poeti, romelic rom dResac "maRali modernizmis" warbSekrul qurumad warmoudgenia, realur cxovrebaSi ise yofila gatacebuli recenziac ki miuzik-holis JanriT, ramdenime warmodgenaze meri loidis gamouqveynebia popularuli Semsruleblis,

gardacvalebaze nekrologic

dauweria.

elioti

TviTonac

werda

TavSesaqcev,

saxumaro leqsebs ­ misi "moxuci posumis wigni praqtikul katebze", mravali wlis Semdeg, endru loid ueberis cnobil miuzikls, "katebs" daedo safuZvlad. SesaZloa, swored amgvarma da msgavsma interesebma ganapiroba is, rom suinis dramaturgiuli xorcSesxmisaTvis eliotma vodevilis forma airCia. "melodrama" nawarmobs TanxlebiT siuJetiT warmoadgens, warmosTqvamen. iseve, rogorc "1920 wlis leqsebSi", suini am piesaSic axali, gansxvavebuli saxea, Tumca unda iTqvas, rom gansxvavebasTan erTad, eliotis "yvela" suini saerTo niSanTvisebebsac Seicavs. is yvelgan vulgarulia da agresiuli, masSi cxoveluri sawyisi Warbobs. sagangebo, uxeSi primitiulobiT, Zaladobisa da mruSobisaken Tavisufalia: personaJs midrekilebiT, magram socialur is TiTqos sazogadoebis amgvari umdables poets mdabal fenas unda ar ganasaxierebdes, eliotis tipaJTa poezia kritikuli yoveli snobizmisagan sruliad pirobiTad daerqva ­ im azriT, rom is ki unda yofiliyo musikis martivi simReriT Sesrulebuli gaerTianebul, romlebsac warmodgena. miuzik-holSi msaxiobebi faqtiurad "fragmentebi" vodevilis da

Sesasrulebel

kupletebs

cekva_TamaSiTa

warmosaxva CvenTaganis

arasodes

dausaxavs miznad. arsebiTad, "fragmentebSi", iseve rogorc sxvagan, elioti Tavis saerTod adamianis, instinqtTa persinifikaciad warmosaxavs. rogorc JuJa rolinsoni aRniSnavs, esaa "erTi xepre, Jins ayolili da urwmuno, deboSebis moyvaruli, znedacemuli subieqti, anu saxe imisa, Tu ra degradacia gaincada, saboloo jamSi, kacobriobam".2 Mmeore mxriv, rogorc asociaciuri saxe, rogorc eliotis poetikuri samyaros elementi, suini bevrad ufro rTuli da araerTniSnadia, vidre es rolinsons warmoudgenia. sxvadasxva leqsSi is xan parodiul qristed ("b-n eliotis sakvirao wirva"), xan edgar pos orangutangad ("suini bulbulTa Soris"), xan sasunTq marilad qceul dionised ("suini ereqtusi") da xanac, - rogorc "aristofanuli melodramis fragmentebSi" - parodiul samsonad warmogvidgeba ("fragmente-bis" saTauri jon miltonis cnobili tragediis, "mebrZoli samsonis" ("Samson Agonistes") saTauris parodias warmoadgens). "fragmentebSi" warmodgenilia sxva saxeebic, romlebic pirvelad "1920 wlis leqsebsa" da "unayofo miwaSi" gvxvdeba. dorisis mier naxseneb misis porterSi advilad Seicnoba rogorc "suini ereqtusis" misis terneri, ise "unayofo miwis" misis porteric. TviT dorisic asociaciurad erwymis misis porters (mis

qaliSvils?): rodesac suinis stumrobis win, binaSi vinme pereira rekavs, mas pasuxoben, rom dorisi "mdogvian wyalSi ibans fexsebs" (She's got her feet in mustard and water..."). sodian wyalSi ibanen fexebs "unayofo miwis" misis porteri da misi qaliSvilic, Tanac maSin, rodesac maT suini unda estumroT. saerTod, abazanis miReba, fexis dabanva da a.S. eliotis adreul poeziaSi parodiuli ganwmendis simboloa, romelic RvTaebis mosalodnel (xSirad ­ arSemdgar) gamocxadebas da qveynierebis xsnas (agreTve arSemdgars) win uZRvis: "suini ereqtusSi", dioni-ses gamocxaderbisas, abazanidan gamodis pirsaxocSemoxveuli dorisi; abazanaSi uSnod bajbajebs qristes parodiuli analogia suini da iqve, naTlisRebisas, iordanis wyalSi moCans macxovris "umanko terfebi" ("b-n eliotis sakvirao wirva"). abazanaSi "inaxavs" "suini agonistis" mkvleli Tavisi mijnuris gvams, xolo eqstrateqstualuri asociaciiT, is iqve saWmelsac Seeqceva, rac ukve ziarebis parodiuli miniSnebaa. am motivebTan erTad, nacnobia "suini agonistis" interie-ric (gaurkvevlad, bordeli, an msubuqi yofaqcevis qalis bina, an orive erTad) - pirobiTi sivrce, sadac maspinZlad dorisi gvevlineba. Ddorisi kartze marCielobs (mis marCielobas piesis pirveli nawili lamis mTlianad eTmoba), riTac is "unayofo miwis" madam sozostrisTan asocirdeba. Mmadam sozostrisi gaci-vebulia ("...has a bad cold") da kartis gaSlisas "saSinlad gacivebu-lia" dorisic ("...Doris came home with a terrible chill"). azrobrivad daaxloebulia madam sozostrisis da dorisis replikebic: Tell her I bring the horoscope myself: One must be so careful these days, ambobs madam sozostrisi. Ddorisic piesaSi orjer imeorebs: A A woman runs a terrible risk, anu qals didi sifrTxile marTebso, rac erTi mxriv, madam sozostrisis

asociaciaa, xolo meore mxriv, msubuqi yofaqcevis qalis tradiciuli mokekluco frazaa, yalbi SeSfoTebis gamomxatveli. yovelive es ­ msgavsi, "monaTesave", an erTmaneTSi asociaciuri gardamavali kavSiri, personaJebi, simbolikis da siaxlove, situaciuri mravalmxrivi analogiebi, analogiuri interierebi

adreuli eliotis poeturi samyaros mTlianobaze, mis mis erTian azrobrivemociur konteqstze metyvelebs. nawarmoebis an nawarmoebTa erTobliobis amgvar

"esTetikur rodesac

mTlianobas" aRniSnavda,

elioti

Teoriuladac

did

mniSvnelobas bolomde

aniWebda, gageba

rom

Seqspiris

romelime

piesis

SeuZlebelia, Tu ar vicnobT mTlianad mis Semoqmedebas. dorisTan erTad, binaSi cxovrobs misi megobari dastic, da imis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, rom telefons, telefonis zarsa da karze kakuns aq mniSvnelovani simboluri datvirTva eniWeba, unda vivaraudoT, rom eseni arian, romle-bic, zogjer, Sinac epatiJebian da xolme avismauwyebeli molodinis, mruSobisa mkvlelobis "gamoZaxebis gogoebi" "stumrebs". simboluri Zrwolvis, motivebi

nawarmoebis Tematur qsovils aqac gansazRvravs. maTi safuZveli ­ miTosuri da ritualuri sqematika - aqac poetikis RerZad gvevlineba, xolo masze dafuZnebuli personaJTa moqmedebis parodiul-ritualuri Semkvrel sawyiss qceva asociaciuri A"suini elementebisa SeqmniT, da mTeli Seadgens. agonistis" eliotis magram

adreuli poeziis zogadesTetikuri konteqsti TiTqos "Sekrul" saxes iRebs: is TiTqos mTlianad tradiciulsa da nacad poetikur xerxebs efuZneba. Secvlilia sxva, metad mniSvnelovani ram. Secvlilia TviT suini, romelic Tavis vulgarul habitussa da Sokismomgvrel qcevebs inarCunebs, magram poetis xelSi "morCil", "munj" da mxolod simboluri funqciebis matarebel asociaciur xatad ukve aRar aRiqmeba. dramatul funqciasTan erTad, is erTgvar scenur individuallobasac iZens da pirveli piriT metyvelebas iwyebs, "Teatralur xasiaTad" gardaiqmneba. cxadia, mxolod im zomiT, ra zomiTac vodevilis personaJsa da parodiul modernistul saxes saerTod SeiZleba scenuri xasiaTi ewodos. Nnawarmoebis siuJeti pirobiTia, xasiaTebi ­ sagangebod sqema-turi da

organzomilebiani. Ddorisi da dasTi mkiTxvels pir-veli wakiTxvisas advilad aereva erTmaneTSi, aseve usaxurni da lamis urTierTCanacvlebadni arian snou, suorTsi, uoCoupi, horsfoli, krampekeri da klipstaini. Ppiesis pirvel nawilSi suini saerTod ar Cans. dorisi da dasti sxedan binaSi da dros imiT hklaven, usiamovno gancda, romelic maT vinme rom karts Slian da megobrebze Woraoben.

pereiras satelefono zarisa da kartSi amosuli "kubos" gamo euflebaT ("kubos" dorisis marCielobaSi yvavis oriani ganasaxierebs), ifanteba maTTan mxiaruli kompaniis stumrobiT. Semodian gogonebis megobari sem uoCoupi da misi yofili fronteli krampekeri. Mmeore nawilSi sazogadoebas emateba suini, romelic SemosvlisTanave iwyebs megobrebi, kanadeli samxedroebi horsfoli, klipstaini da

dorisTan arSiys. maT uerTdebian snou da suortsi - rogorc Cans, mowveuli profesionali konferan-sieebi, romelTa mizans damswreTa garToba da situaciis gaxaliseba Sesanslavs. miirTmevs Seadgens. is iqneba suinis TiTqosda dorisi mxiarul ki ­ xumrobebs da SiSismomgvreli is siamovnebiT elferi dahkravs: is eubneba doriss, rom moitacebs mas da "kaciWamiaTa kunZulze" kanibali, misioneri misionerisagan damzadebul CaSuSuls: I'll gobble you up. I'll be the cannibal.... Yes I'd eat you! In a nice little, white little, soft little, tender little, Juicy little, right little, missionary stew. cocxlad SeWmis perspeqtiva, Tundac xumrobiT gamoTqmuli, dorisSi usiamo SegrZnebas aRZravs: marTla SemWamo? ­ ekiTxeba is suinis. kunZulze, romelsac suini "niangTa kunZulsac" uwodebs, cxovreba martivia da pirvelyofili idiliiT aRsavese: iq arc telefonebia, arc gramofonebi, arc sitroenebi, arc rols-roisebi ­ arc orkariani, arc oTxkariani. verafers SeWam xeze mosuli nayofis garda, verc rames dainaxav zRvis da palmebis iqiT da verc talRis mxolod: That's all the facts when you come to brass tacks: Birth, and copulation, and death. xmauris garda gaigoneb rameso. cxovreba iq sami ram aris

suini ixsebnebs nacnobs, romelmac saSineli danaSauli Caidina ­ "gaasaRa" gogona, da misi gvami lizoliT savse abazanaSi "gaalRvo". is SeZrwunebuli Cans Tavisive mogonebiT (iqneb TviTon iyo mkvleli?), doriss ki misi monayoli da kartSi amosuli "kubo" Tavis sakuTar SesaZlebel sikvdilze daafiqrebs. Tanac suini ramdenjerme imeorebs, rom yvela mamakacs surs, "cxovrebaSi erTxel mainc gaasaRos vinme gogo"-o, rac TiTqos saxumaro, lamis sacekvao-jazuri intonaciiT iTqmis, magram amave dros, Semzarav STabeWdilebas axdens dorisze. I knew a man once did a girl in Any man might do a girl in Any man has to, needs to, wants to Once in a lifetime, do a girl in,

saerTo-pirquS (TumcaRa iumoristulsa da karikaturul) ganwyobilebas amZafrebs isic, rom suini rac ramdenjerme "msubuqi", imeorebs, "qira viRacam da aucileblad unda gadaixadoso", sasubro intonaciisa situaciis garegnuli sakadrisi

mxiarulebis miuxedavad, avismauwyeblad JRers. fraza aSkarad "yvelas

miezRveba"-s, an "yvelas adre Tu gvian vali moekiTxeba"-s qveteqsts Seicavs da lamis muqarad aRiqmeba. dialogi piesaSi isea agebuli, romFfaqtiurad,D"qira" Zaladobrivi sikvdilis evfemizmad, an ufro mis metaforad aRiqmeba. Bbolos, rodesac dorisi ambobs, rom ar icis vin gadaixdis qiras ("iqneb Ppereira?"), mamakacTa gundi SemosZaxebs simReras, romelic martosulis Rameul koSmarebsa da sulis Zrwolvas asaxavs. finalSi ismis kakuni Semosasvlel karze. kakunis motivi amgvar konteqstSi ambivalenturia da niSnavs rogorc bedis kakuns, ise sikvdilis mokakunebas, "CamoxrCo-bilis" stumrobas, an "qiris amkrefis" (miqelgabrielis?) mosvlas, rac leqsis simbolur planSi erTi da igivea. karikaturisa da Savi iumoris, mxiarulebisa da Zrwolvis, komikurisa da saSinelis es "jojoxeTuri" kakafonia erTi mxriv SemaZrwunebelia, xolo meore mxriv, agebulia 20-iani wlebis jazis sinkopirebul ritmsa da TiTqos udardel, mxiarul into-naciaze; Cafiqrebuli da mTeli moqmedeba (gansakuTrebiT meore nawili) aqvs, rogorc cekva-TamaSis, eliots da ganxorcielebuli simReris

sasaubro teqstis ritmuli erTianoba. komikuri da koSmaruli sawyisebi piesaSi isea mowodebuli, rom am ormxriv emociur datvirTvas nawarmoebis yvela saxe Tu asociaciuri detali TiTqmis Tanabrad Seicavs, Tumca Seumzadebeli mkiTxve-li xSirad ver xvdeba, rom saxumarosa da gasarTobs miRma Zalze seriozuli, xSirad ­sakamod pirquSi azri imaleba. "misi piesebis TxrobiTi elementebi, - wers grover smiti, - imgvarad miewodeba Cveulebriv mkiTxvels, rom is, rac maTSi mistikuri an ritualisturia, sul sxvagan Zevs, martivi realizmisagan

gansxvavebiT, romelic zedapirze advilad aRiqmeba"3 TviT im istorias, rom suinis nacnobma qali "gaasaRa" da misi gvami lizoliT (antiseptikuri sarecxi saSualebaa) savse abazanaSi "Caalbo", suini pirquSi anekdotiviT hyveba:

Well he kept her there in a bath With the gallon of Lysol in a bath...

xoda iq inaxavda mas, abazanaSi lizolSi Cambals, abazanaSi...

sainteresoa, rom mkvlelobis es istoria realurad momxdar ambavs eyrdnoba. 1923 wels vinme sesil moltbim,4 galoTebulma TerZma, romelsac londonSi eliotis maxloblad eWira bina ("is modioda CemTan, me viskis vudgamdi da vamSvidebdio" ­ ambobs suini), mohkla Tavisi sayvareli da Semdeg mis cxedars TiTqmis naxevari weli abazanaSi "inaxavda". mTeli dro, mkvlelobidan danaSaulis gaxsnamde (piesaSi ­ ori Tve), moltbim srul martoobaSi, binidan gamousvlelad, cxedarTan erTad gaatara. abazanis niJaraze moltbis ficrebi hqonda gadafarebuli am improvizebul "magidaze" is saWmels Seeqceoda. rodesac danaSauli gamoaSkaravda, moltbim Tavi moikla, qalis sxeuli ki ise iyo CaSlili xsnarSi, rom policielebma gvami ver amoiRes da ganyofilebaSi mTeli abazanis gadatana mouxdaT. DTavis droze es istoria didad gaxmaurda "taimsis" furclebze; brita-nuli kriminalistikaSi mas dResac moixsenieben, rogorc borot-moqmedebis fsiqologiis qresTomatiul magaliTs. rogorc es saerTod xdeba did literaturaSi, erosi da tanatosi "suini

agonistSic" ganuyofelia, magram siyvaruli aq mruSobad iqceva, sikvdili ki ­ mkvlelobad. elioti am motivs mkafio tragikomikur JReradobasa da rTul simbolur upirveles datvirTvas yovlisa aniWebs. "gogonas gasaReba" nawarmoebis Temas azrobriv struqturaSi mxolod Zaladobasa da mkvlelobas ki ar gamoxa-tavs, aramed adamianis yovlismomcveli martoobis ukavSirdeba. mkvleloba warmoCenilia, rogorc rutinuli movlena, yoveldRiurobis nawili (ra moxda mere, amqveynad yvela kacs unda, cxovrebaSi erTxel mainc gaasaRos vinme gogoo, ambobs suini!), magram TviT mkvlelisTvis is cxovrebis ararealurobis SegrZnebis wyarod iqceva. This went on for a couple of months Nobody came and nobody went But he took in the milk and he paid the rent. epizodi adamianis metafizikur Aamgvari da martoobas, martoobisas alogikur iSleba da samyaroSi zRvari koSmarul mis srul da

gaucxoebas sicocxles,

gamoxatavs. realursa

sikvdilsa

irrealurs,

cxovrebasa

zmanebas,

"amqveyniur" da "imqveyniur" samyaros Soris. "suini agonistSi" amgvar saxes iRebs jer kidev "unayofo miwisaTvis" (1922) centraluri da misi Tematuri struqturis ganmsazRvreli "cocxlad kvdomis", anu "sicocxle-Si sikvdilis" motivi (death-in-

life motif). gogonas "gamsaRebelma" ukve aRar icoda, is TviTon iyo mkvdari Tu mkvdari iyo misi msxverpli. is qirasac ixdida da merZevis boTlebic Sin Semohqonda, magram He did not know if he was alive and the girl was dead He didn't know if the girl was alive and he was dead He did not know if they were both alive or both were dead If he was alive then the milkman wasn't and the rent-collector wasn't And if they were alive then he was dead.

mas ver gaego, TviTon iyo cocxali, Tu is gogo mkvdari verc is gaego, gogo iyo cocxali, Tu is TviTon mkvdari isic ver gaego, cocxlebi iyvnen orive, Tu oriveni mkvdari da Tu is cocxali iyo, maSin merZeve iyo mkvdari da qiris amkrefic - mkvdari. da Tu yvelani cocxlebi iyvnen, maSin is TviTon iyo mkvdari.

mTlianobaSi, "suini agonistis" es epizodi koncentrirebuli saxiT gamoxatavs 20iani-30-iani wlebis mijnis evropul inteleqtualur wreebSi gamefebul ganwyobilebebs:

oci weli uazrod momspari, L'entre deux guerres gaCxerili wlebi,

- werda am drois Sesaxeb elioti "oTx kvartetSi". DdaaxloebiT imave periodSi (1938 wels) poeti aRniSnavda, rom "kaci SeiZleba gaanadguros imis Secnobam, Tu ramdenad aris is izolirebuli sxva adamianebisagan, ramdenad aris darCenili matrodmarto RvTisganac sakuTar TavTan, Tavis egoizmTan da usargeblobasTan, Tanamedrove, TviT

marotdmarto

mitovebuli."5

eliotis

qristiani

egzistencialsti paul tilixi (1886-1965) werda, rom imJamad "... britaneTidan italiamde mTeli evropis sulieri cxovreba warmoadgenda daSlisa da ngrevis erT uSvelebel suraTs.... gamefebuli iyo yovlismomcveli SiSi da raRac

gaurkveveli qaosis

Zrwolva.... ­

daucvelobis individuumis

am

gancdas is

ukavSirdeboda

kulturuli romelic

maxasiaTebeli

metafizikuri

martooba,

harmonul sistemaSi mkafiod warmoaCens erTi "monadi-dan" meorisken gamavali "kar-fanjris" ar arsebobas. yovelive arsebuli Caketili iyo sakuTar TavSi, moSlili iyo yovelgvari kavSiri.... kulturis ngrevis mTavari maxasiaTebeli iyo yofierebis uazrobis gancda da misgan gamomdinare cinizmi..."6 epoqis am ZiriTad ganwyobilebebs, lamis uSualod dekla-rirebuli debulebebis saxiT, elioti Zalze efeqturad iyenebs, magram rogorc poeti, Tavis mxatvrul saTqmels is "uSualod gamoTqmuli azris" doneze arasodes ar gamoxatavs. eliotisaTvis arc sulieri degradaciis gamomxatvel azrTa deklarireba, arc gogonas mkvlelobis istoriis "moyola" da arc am istoriis "filosofiuri" ganzogadeba mTavari ar aris (niSandoblivia, rom swored suini "ganazogadebs" momxdar ambavs da lamis "egzistencialist moazrovned" warmogvidgeba, rac ukve TavisTavad parodiaa). eliotisaTvis umTavresia poetika ­ mTeli am Tematuri masalis iseTi dalageba, saxeTa kombinirebis iseTi gzisa Tu meTodis migneba, romelic mkiTxvelSi misTvis sasurvel gancdiT efeqts aRZravs. "me iZulebuli var sityvebi vixmaro, rom gelaparakoo", eubneba suini doriss da amiT TiTqos martoobisa Caqsovili: erTad da arakomunikabelobis TviTonac daZlevas cdilobs. Tavisi misi magram drois pirquSi, aqac ironiaa poeti "iZulebulia" daZabuloba, filosofiuri, parodiuli da

fsiqologiuri da sxva ideebi moixmos, raTa gamoxatos Tavisi leqsis (da masTan Tavisi epoqis) emociuri ironiuli muxti. Umeore mxriv, cxadia, poeti gulgrili ver iqneboda im azrTa mimarT, romelTac misi nawarmoebi Tundac uSualod gamoTqvams. unda vivaraudoT, rom maT gamoxatvas TviT eliotis imJamindelma, arc Tu mxiarulma ganwyobilebebma Seuwyo xeli. "suini agonistis" Rirsebac da misi SezRudolobac, imaSi mdgomareobs, - wers stiven spenderi, - rom mTeli piesa warmoadgens pirquSi iumoriT gadmocemuli, Semazrzeni da gamouvali situaciis xilvas... kaci wamiTac ver ifiqreb, rogorc, vTqvaT, "praqtikuli katebis wignis", an eliotis komediebis kiTxvisas, rom aq poeti xumroba unda. amgvari iumoris saxiT, raRac Zalian pirquSi, Rrmad sardoniuli gadmoinTxa misi bunebudan."7 Tumca Janrobrivad elioti Tavis piesas ukve qvesaTaurSi gansazvravs, rogorc melodramas (rac isev da isev parodiuli ileTia, imitom, rom arsebiTad, melodramasTan "suini agonists" araviTari kavSiri ara aqvs), mxatvrul qsovilSi asaxuli avtoriseuli xedviT is ufro pirquSi da geslieni iumoriT aRsavse

tragikomediaa, romelic farss uaxlovdeba da drodadro klounadaSi gadadis. formalurad, piesa vodevilia, magram tragikomikuria masSi asaxuli samyaros xedva, tragikomikuria TviT suini da is moqmedebac, romelSic sxva personaJebi arian CarTulni. magram tradiciuli tragikome-diisagan "suini agonisti" ukve imiT gansxvavdeba, rom is "hepi endiT" ar mTavrdeba. piesis finalSi, suinis mier moyolili da mis megobarTa mier namReri koSmarebis Semdeg, karze sabedis-wero kakuni gismis: KNOCK KNOCK KCNOCK KNOCK KNOCK KCNOCK KNOCK KNOCK KNOCK M formalurad vodevili, saTauriT ­ melodrama, arsebiTad ki pirquSi ironiiT aRsavse tragikomedia, "suini agonisti" ramde-nime sasceno Janris sinTezs Seicavs. farsis, burleskisa da bufonadis ekleqtikaze, varietesa da miuzik-holze rom araferi vTqvaT, piesaSi ikiTxeba "pirquSi komediis" Zveli inglisuri tradiciis qveteqstic. Tu pereiras, romelic doriss urekavs, magram "kadrSi" ar Cans, asakovan mamakacad warmovidgenT, Zneli misaxvedri ar iqneba, rom piesa balaganuri Commedia dell'Arte-s formalur asociaciasac Seicavs. Eam reminiscencias yvela perso-naJi TiTqmis Tanabrad inawilebs: Ppereira (pantalone) - "Sugar-Daddy", romelic qiras ixdis da "sponsorobs" lamazmans; suini (arlekini), romelic am lamazmans ukacriel kunZulze motacebas upirebs; dorisi (kolombina), romelsac pereira ar uyvars da suinis earSiyeba. maT mxars ubams tragikul jambazTa (piero) sevdian-karikaturuli qoro, romelic uoCoupis, horsfolis, krampakeris, klifstainis, suorTsisa da snousgan Sedgeba da koSmarnarev sasacilo simRerebs asrulebs dairisa da kastanietebis TanxlebiT. erTi sityviT, daaxloebiT,

situacia poloniusis aRwerilsa hgavs:"magaT qveyanazed aqtiori vera sjobs: verc tragediaSi, verc komediaSi, verc istorikul warmo-dgenaSi, verc idiliaSi, verc idilikur-komikurSi, verc verc istori-kul-idilikurSi, verc tragikulda

istorikulSi,

tragikul-komikur-istorikul-idilikurSi... oxunjobasa

Tavisufal la-parakSi kidev magaT veravin Seedreba." (hamleti, moqm. II sur. 2). kidev erTi da albaT yvelaze mniSvnelovani Janrobrivi asociacia, romelic eliotma Tavis daumTavrebel piesaSi Semoitana, aris e.w. "minstrel Sou", romelic jer kidev me-19 s. Suawlebidan iyo gavrcelebuli amerikaSi da eliotis

droisaTvis ukve miviwyebas eZleoda. mogvianebiT, "minstrel Sous" warmodgenebi eTikuri mizeziTac aRikveTa, radgan mas, ZiriTadad, zangebad gadaRebili TeTrkanianebi asrulebdnen, xolo tradiciuli teqsti uxvad Seicavda SavkanianTa gaqilikebis, maTi aqcentis masxarad agdebis, maTi gonebrivi CamorCenilobis mtkicebisa ramdenime Semdeg da sxva arakoreqtul msaxiobi da motivebs. tradiciulad, romlebic svlas "minstrel Sous" mamakaci asrulebda, dasawyisSi, mayurebelTa ritmuli Soris.

instrumentebis TanxlebiT, dialoguri formiT warmoTqvamdnen xumrobebs, xolo simReriTa cekva-TamaSiT iwyebdnen Cveulebriv, am msvlelobas win miuZRoda dairis, an dolis damkvreli (TviT Sous personaJs, tradiciulad, "Tambo"- "daira" erqva), xolo bolos mihyveboda msaxiobi kastanietebiT (romelsac Sesabamisad, erqva "Bones" - "Zvlebi", anu "kastanie-tebi"). "suini agonistSi" daira snous uWiravs, "Zvlebi" ki ­ suorTs: avtoriseul remarkaSi pirdapir aris xazgasmuli, rom snou "dairis" rols asrulebs, xolo suorTsi - "kastanietebi-sas". TviT personaJTa gvarebic ­ suorTsi (germ. Schwartz, "Savi") da snou ­ ("Snow", Tovli, anu TeTri), "minstrel Sous" mimniSne-beli personaJTa saxelebia. snous, suorTsis, krampakerisa da klipsatinis simRera, piesis garemomcvel Tanaxmad, koSmarSi sxva maTi komikuri pirebic msvleloba, unda romelmac, Sous tradiciis moqmedi aiyolios, "sikvdilis

msvlelobis", anu Zvelevropuli DANCE MACABRE-is mZafr asociacias aRZravs. igive asociacias da iwvevs piesis finalSi mamakacTa gundis erTdroulad Ho ha ha / Ho ha ha / Hoo Hoo

SiSismomgvreli Hoo".

parodiuli

SeZaxilebic:

sikvdili piesaSi Tavidanve mTeli moqmedebis damswrea da misi Tanaziari. faqtobrivad, is pereiras msgavsi uxilavi perso-naJia, Tumca mas bevrad ufro mniSvnelovani azrobriv-emociuri da simboluri datvirTva ekisreba. amas mowmobs piesis teqstis TiTqmis yvela detali, mTeli misi erTdroulad pirquSi da "saxumaro" ganwyobileba: sikvdili aq yvelgan sufevs da yvela wvrilmanidan gamosWvivis. paradoqsulad, is TviT sicocxlesTan aris gaigivebuli: DORIS: What is? What's that life is? SWEENEY: Life is death. radgan sicocxle sikvdilia, mkvdrebi arian piesis cocxali per-sonaJebic. isini "arian kidec da arc arian" am qveynad, im ymawvilis Mmsgavsad, Tavisi sayvareli rom "gaasaRa" da aRar icoda, TviTon mkvdari iyo, Tu cocxali:

For when you're alone When you're alone like he was alone You're either or neither...

radganac roca xar marto roca ise marto xar, rogorc is iyo, maSin an xar da an kidev arc xar...

igives mReris mamakacTa finaluri qoro: And perhaps you're alive And perhaps you're dead

da iqneb cocxali xar da iqneb kidec ­ mkvdari

igives (ukve meramdened!) imeorebs suinic: Death or life or life or death Death is life and life is death.

sikvdili Tu sicocxle, sicocxle Tu sikvdili sikvdilia sicocxle da sicocxle ­ sikvdili

suorTsis, uoCoupis, horsfolisa da snous komikuri manWva-grexva, maTi pirquSi da amave dros karikaturuli paradi, dairisa da kastanietebis TanxlebiT maTi Semzaravi, parodiuli msvleloba, maTi simRera kunZulze, romelic axla ukve aRiqmeba ­ yovelive es uamrav Suasaukuneobriv graviuraze imqveyniurobad

gamoxatuli da popularul teqstSi aRwerili "sikvdilis msvlelobis", anu "sikvdilis cekvis" parodiuli analogiaa. FSuasaukuneobriv religiur tradiciaSi sivdilis saxeba - mocekvave ConCxi mxolod celiT ki ara, xSirad dairiT, an doliT, an Zvlebis CxrialiT ("kastanietebiT") warmoudgeboda xolme misi xilviT SeZrwunebul RvTismosav xalxs. Mmxiaruli da mocekvave sikvdili gvxvdeba hans holbainisa mocekvaves, da albreht diureris komikursa graviurebSi, da aseTivea is germaniis da da safrangeTis didebuli taZrebis interierTa moxatulobaSic. erTdroulad tragikuls, mas, damkvrelsa da pirquSs,

mxiarulsa

masxarasa da mbrZanebels, mefeebi da imperatorebi, aznaurebi da glexebi, vaWrebi da raindebi, mevaxSeebi da mijnurebi, qalebi da kacebi erTnairad mihyavs iq, saidanac dabruneba SeuZlebela. xSirad es "wayvanis" procesic wamodgenilia, rogorc msvleloba, romelsac win mocekvave da momRimari, Tanac instrumentze

damkvreli sikvdili miuZRvis. piesis finalSi, swored uoCoupis, horsfolis, klipstainisa da krampekeris koSmaruli zmanebebiT aRsavse "minstrel Sous" Semdeg ismis is Semohyves. sabediswero kakuni, romelsac, wesiT, Semzaravi stumari unda da araferi aRar mohyveba, warmosaxviT magram karze kakuns aravin

scenaze aRaravin aRar Semodis, radgan is, vinc momsvleli iyo, arsebiTad, mTeli piesis ganmavlobaSi iRebda moqmedebaSi monawileobas. DANCE MACABRE-is gaSlili asociacia piesis mxatvrul qsovilze mxolod Tematursa da simbolur gavlenas ar axdens - is mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs mis poetikasac. "pirquSi mxiarulebisa" da "koSmaruli cekva-TamaSis" ganwyobileba, romelic piesaSi sufevs, didwilad swored mocekvave ConCxis orsaxovnebiTaa nakarnaxevi: komikuri manWva-grexviT, lamis karikaturuli habitusiTa da vulgaruli manerebiT, sikvdilis es saxeba tradiciulad, usasrulo koSmars gamoxatavs. eliotsac ise aqvs dalagebuli Tavisi dramis poetika, rom yofierebis koSmari mkiTxvels pirquS klounadad warmoudgeba, romelic cocxali ritmisa da mxiaruli melodiis TanxlebiT sruldeba. Aar aris gamoricxuli, rom uamrav ferwerul, grafikulsa da musikalur nawarmoebTan erTad, sadac "sikvdi-lis cekvaa" warmosaxuli, konkretuli gavlena eliotze moax-dina bodleris cnobilma leqsma "Dance Macabre" ("borotebis yvavilebidan"), sadac sikvdilis tragikomikuri aRqma msgavs gan-wyobilebas gamoxatavs.8 usazRvrod cnobil STambeWdavi "sikvdilis rokvaa" warmosaxuli sadac ukve piter broigelis xelovnebis

tilozec

("sikvdilis

triumfi"),

saxviTi

saSualebebiTaa gadmocemuli am Semzaravi rokvis wriuli, ganmeorebadi ritmic da is parodiuli msoflaRqmasac, rac eliotis tragikomikuri farsis safuZvels Seadgens. Elioti leqsSi ferwerul asociaciaTa Semotanis didostati iyo: bosxisa da broigelisagan "nasesxebi" saxeebi mis sxva nawarmoebebSic gvxvdeba. rac Seexeba broigelis am konkretul suraTs, misi ZiriTadi fragmenti imdenad axlos dgas "suini agonistTan," rom dakvirvebulma mkiTxvelma SesaZloa, masSi am piesis erTgvari "ilustraciac" Seicnos.

gamomsaxvel saSualebaTa sistemaSi "minstrel Soudan" nasesxebi asociaciuri struqturis SemotaniT, elioti mianiSnebs piesaSi mimdinare moqmedebis ritualur xasiaTs. cxadia, igive mizans emsaxureba "dans makabris" vrceli asociaciac. iq, sadac mxolod sikvdili, Zaladoba da mruSoba sufevs, rituali, rogorc minimum, halucinaciaTa mimsgavsebulma, mTlianobis mosawesrigeblad zneobrivad iluzia aris saWiro, da imisTvis raTa Tundac, fsiqopatis pirquSma rom sizmars samyarom nivelire-bulma usazRvrod

SeinarCunos:

mxatvruli

xorcSesxmisaTvis SesaZlebeli gaxdes. amdenad, rituali eliotisaTvis dramaturgiuli masalis mxatvrul mTlianobad gardasaxvis funqcias asrulebs. ritualuri formaTqmnadoba piesis mxatvruli struqturis umniSvnelovanes funqcionalur elementSi vlindeba. esaa ganmeo-rebadi ritmi, romelic piesis mTel mxatvrul qsovils msWvalavs, ritmuli dialogiT dawyebuli da specifiuri, miuzik-holisa Tu "minstrel SousaTvis" damaxasiaTebeli cekviTi moZraobebiT damTavrebuli (eseni teqstSi mxolod igulisxmeba, magram piesis Sesrulebisas ritualuri cekvebis parodiad unda aRiqmebodes). dialogi piesaSi intonaciurad isea agebuli, rom is advilad iwvevs mkiTxvelSi martivi jazuri melodiis sinko-pirebuli ritmis asociacias:

DUSTY: How about Pereira? DORIS: What about Pereira? I don't care. DUSTY: You don't care! Who pays the rent? DORIS: Yes he pays the rent DUSTY: Well some men don't and some men do Some men don't and you know who TviT uoCoupis, horsfolis, suorTsisa da snous simRera, deivid jounzis

cnobiT,9 nasesxebia 1905 wels bob koulis da rozamund jonsonis popularuli ritmuli melodiidan "Under the Bamboo" ("bambukis xis qveS"). Eeliots popularuli lirika Seucvlia, magram ritmi, "bambukis xe" da teqstis dasasruli ucvlelad dautovebia. mTeli piesis manZilze leqsikursa Tu sintaqsur doneze dialogis calkeuli elementebis ganmeorebadi monacvleoba ciklurobis, wrismagvari moZraobis STabeWdilebas axdens. donezec, romelic rogorc, ritmis ganmeorebadobis, misi ciklurobisa da Sesabamisad, dabadeba-gardacvalebis borblis" asociacias usasrulo iwvevs da wrebrunva, romelsac

Tematuri masalis "wrebrunvis" es xerxi teqstSi Tavs iCens uSualo-azrobriv magaliTad, "samsaras induisturi

gardacva-leba-mkvdreTiT aRdgomis miTologema udevs safuZvlead. suini ambobs, rom kunZulze cxovreba sxva araferia, Tu ara "sami ram mxolod": Birth, and copulation and death. That's all, that's all, that's all, that's all, Birth and copulation, and death. teqnikuri wamosaCenad "mankier TvalsazrisiT, sWirdeba mis es ritmuli rom da wrebrunva, igive "sawuTros Carxis" es

ganmeorebadi, ritmuli triali, eliots cocxal dialogSi Teatraluri dinamikis (miTume-tes, datyvevebasa ritmze agebulia msaxibTa mis moZraobebic), magram amave dros is adamianis arsebobis ucvlelobas, erTgvar wreSi" qronikulad negatiur situaciaSi maradiul "gaWedilobas" gamoxatavs. Gganmeorebadi ritmi piesaSi ara mxolos leqsikur da sintaqsur, aramed

simbolur garda,

donezec masze

gamoixateba, gadakruli

ritmuli

instrumentebis apkisganac avliT",

-

dairisa

da

kastanietebis xsenebiT. garda amisa, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT, rom JinJilakebis daira dasartymeli "gverdis Sedgeba, sruliad marTebulad warmogvidgeba dolis, rogorc mTavari dasartymeli instrumentis asociacia, adamianze, romlis mis xmac melodiis da uSualod masSi zemoqmedebs miviwyebul, bioritmsa aracnobierze, aRviZebs

pirvelyofil, ritualur impulsebs. tyuilad ar upirebs suni doriss ukacriel kunZulze SeWmas da amasTan, sakuTar Tavs kanibalad warmosaxavs ­ esec erTgvari siuJeturi miniSnebaa parodiul ritualizmze. NniSandoblivia isic, rom Samanistur ritualebSi dairisa da dolis gamoyeneba farTod gavrcelebul praqtikas warmoadgens. "Tavdapirvelad, - aRniSnavs elioti eseiSi "The Beating of

the Drum" (1923), - drama sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara rituali. xolo rituali, romelic ganmeorbad moZraobaTa Tanmimdevrobisagan Sedgeba, arsebiTad, iyo cekva... Cven savsebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom pirvelyofili adamiani jer garkveuli wesiT iqceoda da ukve Semdeg eZiebda am Tavisi qcevis mizezs. moclil kacs, Tu is dols ipovis, SeiZleba gauCndes am dolze dakvris dauokebeli survili. magram Tu is imbecili ar aris, is ver SesZlebs survili imiT ikmayofilos, rom am dolze gauTaveblad ukras ise, rom mas sxva ram mizezi ar amoZra-vebdes.... mizezi ki SeiZleba iyos, vTqvaT, xangrZlivi, gauTave-beli gvalva. Semdegi Taoba, an Semdegi civilizacia ipovis kidev ufro damajerebel mizezebs, raTa dolze imanac daukras... dRes es mizezebi SeiZleba davyoT tragediad da komediad. anu SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cven dResac iseTive mizezebi gvamoZravebs, magram doli ki dakarguli gvaqvs..."

10

doli...

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tavis sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi eliotma es "doli" jazuri melodiisa da misi ritmikis poeturi imitaciis saxiT, "Tavidan aRmoaCina". me-20 saukunis dasawyisis jazuri intonacia "suini-agonistSi" warmodgenilia, rogorc ritualuri ritmis parodiuli analogia, romelmac ritualsa Tanamedrove da maradiul samyaroSi miTosur ritualuri dolis xma Secvala. miTologiuri datvirTva, amave dros, sacekvao ritms obieqturad aqvs

pirvelyofil

wrebrunvas is obieqturad ukavSirdeba. rogorc mirCa eliade aRniSnavs, "sacekvao ritmebi adamianis amqveyniuri yofis miRma iReben dasabams, ganurCevlad imisa, ganasaxiereben isini totemuri, an simboluri cxovelis moZraobebs, varskvlavTa gadanacvlebas, Tu TavisTavad warmoadgenen rituals... cekva yovelTvis etalonur, anu miTosur qmedebas ganasaxierebs. erTi sityviT, is warmoadgens

miTologiuri drois xorcSesxmas da, aqedan gamomdinare, mis reaqtualizacias."11 eliotis parodiuli personaJebi ver acnobiereben, Tu maT trivialur yofaSi, maT sagangebod banalursa da vulgarul qcevaSi raoden didi adgili uWiravs rudimentalur, sekularizebul, moqmedebis Cveul sqemad qceul rituals. cxadia, rogorc modernisti poeti, elioti savsebiT gacnobierebulad iyenebs mxatvruli nawarmoebis ritualiza-ciisa da misi drois miTologizaciis xerxs. suini, dorisi, uoCoupi da sxvani misTvis londonis iaffasiani ubnis erT-erT binaSi maincdamainc "dRes" Sekrebili demimondenebi miTosuri da ar arian: maT mier drois gaTamaSebuli pirquSi tragikomedia ritualuri

reaqtualizacias axdens da am TvalsazrisiT, "maradiulia". Deliotis udavo SemoqmedebiT miRwevad unda CaiTvalos is, rom am urTules mxatvrul efeqts is SedarebiT martivi poetikuri xerxiT ­ dialogSi ganmeorebadi ritmuli intonaciis SemotaniT aRwevs. unda iTqvas, rom am konkretul SemTxvevaSi elioti garkveulwilad

davalebulia misi Tanamedrove amerikeli mwerlis, f. skot ficjeraldisagan, romlis krebuli "jazis epoqis zRaprebi" da gansakuTrebiT, romani "didi getsbi" dResac jazuri intonaciebis literaturuli adaptaciis nimuSad aris cnobili. ficjeraldma civilizaciis Tavadac simbolod ganicada "Tavisi" eliotis unayofo gavlena, miwa rodesac Tanadrouli veli" ukidegano "Slakis

warmosaxa, romelsac mis romanSi "eqim j. eklbergis saTvaleebis" uSvelebeli sareklamo fari dahyurebs. Egr. smitis cnobiT,12 eliots samjer zedized

gadaukiTxavs ficjeraldis mier saCuqrad gamogzavnili "getsbi" da sapasuxo Jestad, "suini agonistSi" am romanis ramdenime aluzia Seutania (misi klipstaini waagavs ficjeraldis klipspringers, mamakacTa gundis "diminuendo" faqtobrivad, "di-di getsbis" me-5 TavSi moyvanili baladis parodiuli dubli-katia da a.S). magram unda vivaraudoT, rom ZiriTadi, rac eliot-ma ficjeraldisgan "isesxa", jazuri ritmikis literaturuli adaptacia iyo, romelic man asociaciurad rituals daukavSira da ganmeorebadi ritmi Tavis nawarmoebSi swored am gziT Semoitana. verc "plagiatze" msjeloba aq uadgiloa, radgan "didi getsbis" avtori rom SesaZlebeli iqneboda misi originaluri mignebis warmoidgenda,

ritualemad gamoyeneba, misTvis miTosuri-zedrouli ganzomilebis miniWeba da "suini agonistis" rTuli asociaciuri poetikis RerZad gardaqmna. sainteresoa, rom miTologizmi "suini agonistSi" ar aris ritulaze uSualod

"mibmuli", Tumca cnobilia, rom TviT rituali sxva araferia, Tu ara adamisnis ganmeorebad koleqtiur qcevaSi ganxorcielebuli Tandayolili mentaluri struqtura, anu igive arqetipi: amas naTlad mowmobs karl gustav iungisa da jeimz jorj freizeris ukve qrestomatiebad qceuli naSromebi. "suini agonistSi" eliots Semoaqvs mniSvnelovani simboluri saxe, romelic faqtobrivad, mTeli nawarmoebis miTopoetikur birTvs Seadgens, magram, rogorc asociaciuri xati, ritmis asociacias ar Seicavs (cxadia, Tu ar CavTvliT, rom TviT misi xSiri xseneba nawarmoebis ritmuli qsovilis nawils Seadgens). esaa "suini agonistis" miTopo-etikuri qronotopi, is "Sededebuli" sivrce-dro, romelsac piesaSi "niangTa kunZuli" ganasaxierebs. am kunZulis Sesaxeb mRerian uoCoupi, horsfoli, suorTsi da snou, swored iq itacebs suini doriss. "kanibalebis kunZulze" bamukisa da palmebis meti araferi izrdeba, iq sivrce Semofarglulia, dro ki isea usaSvelodaa gawelili, rom lamis SeCerebulia. Tanac, es mdore da zanti dro cikluria, is wriulad miedineba: We'll gather hibiscus flowers For it won't be minutes but hours For it won't be hours but years And the morning And the evening And noontide And night... drois Sesabamisad, am kunZulze cxovrebac biologiuri dabadeba-Sejvareba-sikvdilis da yovelgvari zneobrivi

gauTavebeli

wrebrunvaa, pirwmindad

momentisagan Tavisufali ("Birth, and copulation, and death"). kunZuli parodiul imqveqniur samyaros ganasaxierebs. Sesabamisad, suinis

teqstSic religiuri terminologiis parodia Cndeba: is "xumrobs", rom kunZulze misionerad qceul doriss "moaqcevs", magram ara romelime axali religiis adeptad, kunZuli aramed "moaqcevs" mas CaSuSul aris xorcad. is, rom kanibali-suini msgavsi "gamisionerebul" doriss Rormucela cocxlad Sesansvlas upirebs da isic, rom niangTa dasaxle-buli, jojxeTis

reptiliebiT

jurRmulis asociacias iwvevs. Mmagram snou, suotsi da sxvani TavianT simReraSi piriqiT, am kunZuls "gancxromis kunZulad" da parodiul samoTxed saxaven, sadac yvela problema moxsnilia. iq "gogenis qalwulebi palmis foTlebiT imosebian"

da mosiyvarule wyvilebisaTvis idealuri pirobebia Seqmnili: Tell me, in what part of the wood Do you want to flirt with me? Under the breadfruit, banyan, palmleaf Or under the bamboo tree? "imqveyniuri" kunZuli iseTive orsaxovania, rogorc piesis moqmedebis uSualosasceno "TeTris" negatiur, aqvs: I don't like life on your crocodile isle... That's not life, that's no life Why I'd just as soon be dead. marTalia, mas "kubo" gamouvida kartSi, magram sikvdili sxva araferi. "imqveyniuri" gansxvavebiT, kunZuli amqveyniuri procesebi realobis "iq" koncentrire-buli intensiurad aslia, im mainc ar unda, razedac plani: koSmaris da mxiarulebis, suorTsis da snous, "Savis" da diqotomias nawarmoe-bis mTeli simbolika eyrdnoba. sagulisxmoa, rom ise pozitiur xsenebaze doriss erTnairad uaryofiTi reaqcia

rogorc suinis sityvebze, ise mamakacTa gundis simReraze, anu kunZulis rogorc

suini "damajereblad" pasuxobs, rom cxovreba nebismier SemTxvevaSi sikvdilia da

rom

"aqauri"

ufro

mimdinareobs.

"amqveynad", suinis nacnobma gogona "gaasaRa" da Tveebis manZilze inaxavda mis cxedars xsnarSi, imqveynad ki TviT suini maleve mouRebs bolos "CaSuSulad moqceul" doriss. "dorisi msxverplis gansaxierebaa, - aRniSnavs stiven spenderi, - suinisTan misi urTierToba aris Sesasanslis urTierToba SemsansvlelTan, romelic masze Tavis seqsualur fantaziebs axorcielebs...".13 amave dros, piesis personaJTagan dorisi erTaderTia, romeliic arsebul situaciasTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqvams Tumca umweo, magram mkafiod gamoxatul protests. Mmeore mxriv, masac, rogorc "tipiur msxverpls", kartSi kubo amosdis, rac simbolurad, igive abazanaa, sadac sxva msxverpli ­ "gasaRebuli" gogo aris Casvenebuli. Amagram abazana lizoliTaa savse da ara nakurTxi wyliT, kubo ki mxolod kartSi amodis. "suni agonistSi" xsna ver Sedgeba - verc sikvdilis, verc ganbanvis, verc msverplSewirvis gziT, verc "imqveyniur" da verc "amqveyniur" doneze, radgan

TviT

"imqveyniuroba"

"amqveyniurobis"

parodiuli

aslia,

gesliani

da

enaWyartala masxarebis mier moyolili. sainteresoa, gvxvdeba, iqac sadac rom "kunZuli", rogorc asociaciuri xati, "suini ereqtusSic" is analogiur bordelTan, datvirTvas an msgavs atarebs: mruSoba sadac da mkvleloba, mTeli

martooba da Zrwolva iqac ZiriTad Tematikas Seadgens. rac mTavaria, kunZuli asocirebulia vertepTan, leqsis "moqmedeba" xdeba. suinis "niangTa kunZulze" ar moipoveba saSualo klasis keTildReobis yvelafers gogonas amas Cveuli atributebi TvaliT romelic ("rols-roisebi, uyurebs). veRar sitroenebi, gramofonebi, ganicdis da telefonebi"), iqac martooba, mruSoba da mkvleloba sufevs (Tumca TviT suini mxiaruli ukidegano martoobas "gamsaRebelic", grZnobs sxvaobas sicocxlesa

sikvdils Soris da romlisTvisac realursa da irrealurs, awmyosa da warsuls Soris zRvari waSlilia. Tu dorisis umniSvnelo protests ar CavTvliT, es zRvari piesis yvela sxva personaJisTvisac ar arsebobs: "imqveyniuri" kunZulis yofa amqveyniur yofad iqceva da piriqiT. saerTo koSmars amZafrebs isic, rom simRera "gancxromis kunZulis" siamtkbilo-baTa Sesaxeb, romelsac mamakacTa gundi asrulebs, faqtobrivad, nawilia "sikvdilis cekvis" metaforis: "mxiaruli" simReriT, dairisa da Zvlebis CxrialiT, aq TviT sikvdili xatavs "imqveyniurobis" macdur suraTs da axal msxverplebs epatiJeba.Mmagram Tu sicocxle sikvdilia, maSin droiss da mis stumrebs gind "imqveyniuri" kunZulisaken gauweviaT da gind dorisis "amqvey-niur" binaSi darCenilan drois gasatareblad: faseulobebi Tavdayira dgas, zneoba nivelirebulia, yvelgan sikvdili sufevs, xsna arsaidan ar Cans. "suini agonisti" eliots daumTavrebeli darCa. Uunda vifiqroT, rom amas ramdenime mizezi hqonda: jer erTi, rogorc Cans, weris procesSi Tavi iCina avtoriseuli saTqmelis mzardma Seusabamobam im mxatvrul formasTan, romelSic piesa Tavidanve iyo Cafiqrebuli. AaRmoCnda, rom vodevilis Tundac pirobiTi Janri bolomde ver daitevda eliotis mxatvrul saTqmels, mis rTul asociaciur poetikas da im globaluri xasiaTis kulturfilosofiur Tematikas, romelic poets imJamad aitere-sebda. sabolood, didi formis dramaturgiul tiloSi (rogorc Cans, "suini agonisti" swored aseTad iyo Cafiqrebuli), SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda imis ganxorcieleba, rac SedarebiT kompaq-turi zomis "fragmentebSi" moxerxda: seriozuli poetikaSi jorj uiliamsonis TqmiT, da da esaa "vulgaruli idiomis saSualebiT "TamaSisebr" arsiT

Temebis

gadmocema"14 farsma

krizisuli

ganwyobilebebis Tavisi

ganxorcieleba.

miuzik-holma

Janrobrivi

gamoricxa is gancdiTi da inteleqtualuri siRme, romlis Catevasac elioti am JanrSi cdilobda. magram ukve im saxiT, ra saxiTac is Cven xelT gvaqvs, eliotis mwignobruli da aluziebiT aRsavse "vodevili", misi mwerluri ostatobis nimuSs Seadgens. rogorc ketrin uorTi aRniSnavs, "suini agonistma"... imdenad win gauswro Tavisi drois orTodoqsalur Teatralur praqtikas, rom wlebis ganmavlobaSi mas leqsad ufro aRiqvamdnen, vidre imad, rac is sinamdvileSi aris: ganscvifrebeli (Tumc daumTavrebeli) piesa TeatrisaTvis, momavlis avangardistuli dramebis STagonebuli winaswarmeteyve-leba da maTi winamorbedi".15 eJen ioneskos, semiuel beketis, harold pinteris da sxvaTa dialogebis

Sedareba "suini agonistTan" marTlac moulodnelad amdidrebs Cvens warmodgenas im literaturul tradiciaze, rom-lis niadagzec aRmocenda absurdis Teatri. Tematuri da msofl-mxedvelobrivi siaxlovis garda, xSirad yuradRebas ipyrobs pir-wmindad "teqnikuri" xasiaTis msgavsebebic. MmagaliTisaTvis, saku-Tar saxelTa sxvaoba rom ara, albaT gaZneldeboda eliotis teqstisagan ("How about Pereira? / What about Pereira...") pinteris "dabadebis dRis wveulebis" (1958) am fragmentis garCeva: GOLDBERG: Don't worry yourself, McCann. Take a seat. McCANN: McCANN: What about you? Are you going to take a seat? GOLDBERG: What about me? GOLDBERG: We'll both take a seat. Semdgomi Taobebis ingilsur (da ara marto inglisur) dramaSi "suini

agonistTan" analogia sxvac moipoveba. cxadia, saqme uSua-lo gavlenas imdenad ar exeba, ramdenadac gasuli saukunis Suawlebis im zogadkulturul, gancdiTsa da inteleqtualur konteqsts, romelic eliotma Zalian adre, jer kidev 20-ian wlebSi aRiqva da dramaturgiulad ganaxorciela. ukve meore msoflio omis Semdeg aRmocenebulAabsurdis Teatrs, kidev ufro "cinikurs", "mSralsa" da "SavTeTrs" (semiuel beketis "godos molodini" "suini agonistis" Seqmnidan ociode wlis Semdeg gamoqveynda) mtkivneulad daaklda is, rac eliotis piesaSi jer kidev naTlad aris warmosaxuli: Tumc imTaviTve parodiuli da sabolood arSemdgari, magram mainc xsnis SesaZlebloba da am SesaZleblobisaken dorisis gaucnobie-rebeli swrafva.

SeniSvnebi

1 ix. Ackroyd, Peter. T. S. Eliot. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin Books, © 1984,

p.105, p.145; Gordon, Lyndall. T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life. London, Vintage, © 1998

2 Rawlinson, Zsuzsa. A Dawn Miraculous: T.S. Eliot's Sweeney Agonistes.

URL: http://www.c3.hu/~prophil/profi004/SWEENEY2.html

3 Smith, Grover. T. S. Eliot's Poetry and Plays. A Study in Sources and Meaning.

Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 1956, p.111

4 Smith, Grover, Op.cit., p. 118;

ix. agr. URL: http://www.real-crime.co.uk/Murder1/docm.htm#Maltby,%20Cecil

5 T. S. Eliot, "Literature in the Modern World," America through the Essay, ed. A.T.

Johnson and A.Tate, New York, 1938, p. 382

6 Tillich, Paul. The Protestant Era. Chapter 16: Storms of Our Times.

URL: http://www.religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?title=380&C=103

7 Spender, Steven. T. S. Eliot. Penguin Modern Masters ed. By Frank Kermode.

Harmodsworth, Middlesex, © 1975, p. 189

8 rogorc Cans, eliotis erT-erTi wyaro iyo jozef konradis

"wyvdiadis gulic", sadac agreTve "sikvdilis cekvis" simbolikaa gamoyenebuli. ix.: Sundelson, David.Dance Macabre.Conradiana: A Journal of Joseph Conrad Studies 1981 v13(1) pp 41-44; ix. agr.: Introduction to the Danse Macabre: Conrad's Heart of Darkness ; Case Study in Contemp. Crit. 123-136 IN Murfin, Ross C. (ed.) Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. New York: St. Martin's; 1989.

9 Jones, David E., The Plays of T.S.Eliot. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1960, p. 28

10 Eliot T. S.,The Beating of a Drum: Nation & Athenaeum, XXXIV (October 6,1923)pp11-12

11 , . . . URL: http://nz-biblio.narod.ru/html/eliadel/predisl.htm

12 Smith, Grover. Op. cit., p. 114

13 Spender, Steven. Op. cit., p. 188

14 Williamson, George. A Reader's Guide to T. S. Eliot. New York, The Noonday Press, ©

1949, p. 195

15 Worth, Katharine J., 'Precursor and Model', 1972, in T.S. Eliot: Plays, ed. by Arnold P

1980, p. 60 .

Hinchcliffe, Macmillan,

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