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Texas Ranger Dispatch

Issue 17, Summer 2005

Issue 17, Summer 2005

TM TM

Magazine of the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum Official museum, hall of fame, and repository of the Texas Rangers Law Enforcement Agency

Gary De Los Santos..............................................Gary De Los Santos Ector's Texas Brigade & the Army of Tennessee (bk. review)....Lonnie Maness Indian Fighting in Jack County-1870s...............................Eddie Matney Elisha Clapp.................................................................Stephen Moore Harrison Hamer ............................................................Robert Nieman Eleven Days in Hell: 1974 Prison Siege at Huntsville (bk. review)....Robert Nieman Rangers in the Field: Firing Range 2005..........................Robert Nieman Chinese Rangers?.........................................................Robert Nieman 2005 Texas Ranger Reunion...........................................Robert Nieman Grave of Ranger Mervyn B. Davis Finally Marked............Chuck Parsons Ask the Dispatch..........................................................................Staff Whitneyville Whitney Navy Revolver....................................David Stroud One Ranger: A Memoir [Joaquin Jackson] (book review)........Robert Utley Terminating Oklahoma's Smiling Killer .................................Robert Utley

Dispatch Production Team

This issue of the Texas Ranger Dispatch is funded in part by a grant from the Texas Ranger Association Foundation. Their generosity makes this publication possible.

Robert Nieman - Managing Editor (Volunteer, Museum Board) Pam S. Baird ­ Technical Editor, Layout, and Design Byron A. Johnson - Director, Texas Ranger Hall of Fame Sharon P. Johnson, Volunteer Web Designer, Baylor University Christina Stopka, Archivist, Texas Ranger Research Center

Founded in 1964, the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum is a nonprofit historical center owned by the people of Texas. It is hosted and professionally operated by the city of Waco, Texas, and sanctioned by the Texas Rangers, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the legislature of the State of Texas.

This file contains a complete copy of a back issue of the Texas Ranger Dispatch.The original issue was posted as a series of web pages. To simplify archiving them, these issues have been stored in Adobe Acrobat format. Links to other parts of the original web site appear but no longer function. There may also be some minor appearance and formatting issues with the individual pages. Newer issues of the Texas Ranger Dispatch are in magazine format in Adobe Acrobat.

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20th Century Shining Star:

Capt. Gary De Los Santos

My full name is Gerardo Javier De Los Santos. The nuns at the Catholic elementary school I attended could not pronounce Gerardo, however, so they called me Jerry. I did not like, Jerry so I changed it to Gary, and it has been that ever since.

I am the third of five children, and I was born on the Fourth of July, 1957, in Laredo, where my brothers and sisters still live. My older brother and sister are Frank Jr. and Sara. Frank is a supervisor with U.S. Customs Department and Sara is a registered nurse. My younger sister Norma is a fingerprint analyst with Border Patrol and younger brother George followed in Dad's footsteps and is an area manager for Borden's Milk. My father, Francisco "Frank" de los Santos Sr., was only sixty-six years old when he died in 1993. My mother, Olga, is eighty-one years of age and still lives in Laredo. My wife Leslie and I have been married twenty-five years. I am very proud of her. She recently earned her master's degree in business from Webster University in San Antonio. Our son Gary Jr. received his bachelor's degree in political science from the University of Texas at San Antonio and has been accepted to the Marine Corps Officer Candidate School at Quantico, Virginia. As for me, I graduated from United High School in Laredo in 1975 and got an associate degree from Central Texas College in Killeen in 197I. I am now working on my undergraduate degree at Wayland Baptist University in Lubbock. Hopefully, by next fall, we will be a family of graduates! I have always had an undying love of the great outdoors, and I have always wanted to be in law enforcement, though I have no explanation why. Today, I have a brother and sister in law enforcement, but in the mid-1970s, I had no relatives in the field.

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After earning my associate degree, I decided that if I could become a game warden, that would satisfy both my interests. But I had not done my homework. Only when I tried to apply did I learn that you had to be twenty-one to even submit an application. I had just turned twenty. I was really mad at myself for not making the necessary inquiries. Needing something to do until I turned twenty-one, I went to work for my father at Borden's Milk, where he was the distributor. About a month later, my life changed forever. Dad and I had worked a long day and were driving home when we met a black-and-white (Highway Patrol car). Of course, Dad knew I wanted to be an officer of the law, and he asked me, "Why don't you become one of them?" I remember telling him, "Hell, no! All they do is sit on their ass and drive around all day." But Dad's words must have struck a note somewhere. On December 7, 1977, I checked into the DPS Academy in Austin as a member of Class B-77. I weighed 235 pounds; eighteen weeks later, I graduated at 183 pounds. Those weeks are a blur. I kept thinking, "What in world am I doing here? All I wanted was to be a game warden, not a policeman." But I stuck it out and graduated on April 8, 1978. I was still twenty years old--not old enough to buy bullets for my weapons! My first duty station was Starr County, not the safest place in Texas. In 1978, Rio Grande City was one of the leading dope counties in the United States. It was a little bit chilling when several of my classmates offered me their bulletproof vests! But I did not pay any attention to their talk. I was single at the time and just looked forward to being the best Highway Patrolman possible. Talk about starting off with a bang--I did! On my second day, I got into a fight with the sheriff's brother. Normally, a rookie trooper will just observe for the first few weeks. Oh no, not me. My senior partner, Gene Falcon, had stopped the sheriff's brother and realized he was drunk. Gene told me to arrest him, so I did--and got an earful as he proceeded to tell me that he was the sheriff's brother and no @#$% was going to arrest him! I was greener than grass, but I had the foresight to know that sometimes politics will come into play during any incident. I ask Gene what he wanted me to do. He told me to go ahead and arrest him. Still trying to follow proper procedures, I told the man to turn around so I could search and cuff him. He refused. I then grabbed his arm to assist him in turning around, but he pulled away, so I grabbed him again. This time, I spun him around and applied a very light chokehold (not done anymore). I then felt the suspect trying to grab my weapon from my holster, and I applied the chokehold a bit harder. After only a few seconds, the suspect became very heavy--he had passed out. I felt panic and let go of him, causing him to fall face-first to the ground. Long story short, he was out of jail before we completed our paperwork. Sadly, our relationship with the sheriff became non-existent. Six months later, Gene and I received two rookies from the Academy to train. I was still a rookie myself, but I assumed that six months' experience was enough to instruct someone else. I was assigned Rolando Castaneda, now a Ranger sergeant stationed in Brownsville. We may have been the blind leading the blind, but we got by, and everything turned out okay. Even more importantly, the time I got to work with Roland is one of the best experiences I had during my uniform years. It seemed like we were always cutting up and laughing. We enjoyed working together and got into a lot of scrapes together.

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During my first year in Rio Grande City, I got to be good friends with the local game wardens and started thinking about leaving the Highway Patrol to pursue my original plans. I rode around with the wardens every chance I got. It was towards the end of the first year that I met my first Texas Ranger, Frank Holger. Frank was in Rio working a murder case. I knew of and had read about Texas Rangers, but never gave them much thought. To me, that was one of those careers that only a few lucky men get to have. I do not know what it was--maybe the badge, the name Texas Rangers, the western look--I do not know, but that's all I started thinking about. Before completing my first year, I set my goal to become a Texas Ranger. I knew that before I could even test, I had to the best job I could for the next eight years. (You have to have eight years with the DPS before you can test to be a Ranger.) That was only the first step. The competition for entrance into the Ranger force is fierce. Assuming you pass the written test, then you have to go before a board and pass an oral examination. If your combined test scores put you among the very few at the top, you are placed on the eligibility list. Once on the list, that sure does not mean you are going to become a Ranger. Unless a Ranger retires in the next twelve months, you fall off the list and have to start all over. I spent two years in Rio Grande City. The opportunity then arose to transfer to Laredo and be closer to my family. The only souvenir I left Rio with was my wife Leslie. In May of 1982, after three years in Laredo, I transferred to the uniformed DPS Narcotics Task Force as a Uniform Trooper (called CLE Troopers). We worked to intercept illegal drugs being transported on our highways. My lieutenant at the time was Ray Coffman, currently the assistant chief of the Rangers. I wanted to be a Texas Ranger and believed that the more investigative experiences I could gain would be a step in the right direction. I also knew that doing narcotics cases would help me. It did! Three years later, I tested and promoted to sergeant in the Narcotics Service. It is common when you promote within the DPS that your duty station changes. I was lucky and was able to remain in Laredo. Even though I had enough time at this point to test for the Rangers, I wanted to gain more investigative experiences. It was a right move because I hit the ground running when I became a Ranger. I had a great time as a narc, working undercover and participating in numerous wiretaps. The drug route into the United States usually started south of the Rio Grande and since most of the people we were monitoring spoke only Spanish, I spent most of my time monitoring the wiretaps. It was during this time that I became friends with Ranger Doyle Holdridge. He guided me and greatly assisted me in becoming a Ranger later on. In early 1987, I took my first Ranger promotional exam. Even though I scored a 458, which is very good, it was not high enough to make it to the oral board. I was so discouraged. I felt I could not compete and almost believed there was no use in even trying to promote again. But, deep down, I wanted to be a Ranger more than anything. In early 1988, I took my second Ranger promotional exam and made it to the oral board. My foot was in the door, but I

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still could not get in. I was only thirty years old. Six months later, the Rangers tested again, and I made it to the oral board and scored high enough to make the eligibility list. I recall one of the board members asking me if I was willing to go to Decatur. I said yes, but being from South Texas, I had no idea where Decatur was. I found out soon enough! Four of us eventually promoted into the Ranger Service. Earl Pearson was number one on the list. Today, he is Chief of the Rangers. I was number two and am currently the captain of Company C in Lubbock. Gary Henderson was number three and, after a very distinguished career as a field Ranger, retired in 2003. Today, he is the Gray County sheriff. Barry Caver was number four and is now the captain of Company E in Midland. This was a pretty good group and a great year for future captains! On March 1, 1989, I promoted to the Texas Rangers. I was assigned to Company C and stationed in Decatur, northwest of Fort Worth. Even though it would still be a couple of weeks before my promotional date, I proceeded to Decatur to look for a place for my wife, son, and me to live. While looking for a house, I was told a double homicide of two Mexican women had occurred prior to my arrival. Talk about hitting the ground running! The grand jury was meeting right then and the witnesses were all Mexicans. Only a couple of folks knew Spanish, so I was recruited to conduct interviews. The previous Ranger in Decatur, Phil Ryan (later the Sheriff for Wise County), had retired a few months earlier. He gave me his badge to wear since I would not get mine until the promotional ceremony in a couple of weeks. It turned out that I was one of only three officers who could speak Spanish in a three-county area, a skill which worked to my advantage many times. The others were a state trooper and a Decatur police officer. I continued working on that case well after promoting and eventually made an arrest. My family and I were in Decatur for two and a half years. I investigated many homicides, which I loved working, as morbid as it sounds. I cannot pick just one to talk about because they were equally important. All were victims and all had loved ones. The same amount of hard work was put into each and every one, no matter the victim or suspects. In the summer of 1992, I transferred to McAllen and Company D, but I only stayed there for a year and a half. It was during that time that I was one of the unfortunate (or fortunate) Rangers selected to work on the murders of the ATF agents in Waco during the Branch Davidian investigation. That is one investigation I will never forget. Every Ranger there worked very, very hard and put in many long hours every day. Even worse, we spent a long time away from our families. We were told to bring enough clothing for a week. Three and a half months later, all of us were still there. Nobody anticipated that David Koresh would hold out for so long and torch the compound, resulting in the deaths of so many people, including women and children. I recall being near the site when the FBI introduced gas into the compound. When I saw the first flames shoot out from an upstairs window and then several other areas, I looked at Ray Cano, now a retired Ranger lieutenant, and asked if he had seen what I had seen. I recall looking at my watch; the time was twelve noon. Thirty minutes later, the whole compound was burned to the ground.

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All of us were desperately looking to see people run or jump out, but only a few were spotted. We prayed that Koresh had the decency to have placed all the children in the underground bunkers, but he did not. However, we soon found out that the coward chose the easy way out for himself. We believe he had one of his lieutenants shoot him while many others burned to death. The Rangers did a tremendous job on the recovery of evidence, search of the crime scene, and interviewing of witnesses and suspects. I was never prouder to wear the famous star of a Ranger than during that investigation. In January of 1994, I transferred to San Antonio. Again, I got to work on some interesting homicide investigations, three of which have been aired on Dr. G: Medical Examiner, A & E's New Detectives, and Court TV. Two of the cases were made into books: Every Breath You Take and Blood Brother. The first book, by Ann Rule, is scheduled to be a TV movie. The second describes a case in Decatur involving a serial killer. I was not the only Ranger involved in that investigation. Many were instrumental in the eventual arrest of four individuals responsible for the murder, including Rangers John Martin, Ray Cano, Marrie Garcia, Joe Hudson, Sal Abreo, Ray Coffman, and Brooks Long. On October 1, 2001, I promoted to lieutenant and was assigned to the startup of the first-ever Texas Rangers Cold Case Squad, officially named the Unsolved Crimes Investigation Unit (UCIT). I was lucky enough to have the UCIT office located in San Antonio and did not have to move, as is the usual case with any promotion within DPS. During my two-and-a-half-year tenure there, the number of Rangers in the squad went from five to eight. During that time frame, we solved eight cases. Six ended by arrests and two concluded by exceptional means. In these cases, exceptional means referred to suicides that the families believed to be homicides, but eventually proved to be suicides, as first ruled. Suicides are very hard for any family to accept. Wrapping up a case brings closure to some families, and the relief is beyond words. Knowing at long last what happened and who was responsible is something that victims' families deserve. The UCIT unit still continues to solve crimes. It is now supervised by Lieutenant Tony Leal. On April 1, 2003, I promoted to captain, but since there was no field opening at the time, I was assigned to the office of Audit and Inspection. That first day, while nailing up the first picture frame in my office, I got a call from several Rangers. They told me I was lucky. Senior Ranger Captain C. J. Havrda was retiring and, therefore, I would soon be out of A & I and into a field command. Since this was April 1, I had to keep asking myself if I had fallen for an April Fool's trick. I walked into headquarters, looked at Chief Havrda, and just asked if it was true. He said yes, and the following month I was stationed in Lubbock as captain of Company C. Talk about lucky! I have been in Lubbock ever since. Even though I would love to go back to South Texas, just the thought of leaving here is heartbreaking. I have grown to love Company C and all the personnel in this unit. I owe my success to following the examples of many Rangers, past and present. Most of all, I owe it to God. My dad and mom are my heroes, who instilled in me the values that have guided me through life. Without that foundation, who knows where I would be? Thanks, Dad and Mom!

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Editor's note. Since Gary wrote this article, the Cold Case Unit has been placed under the command of a captain. Gary has transferred from Lubbock back to San Antonio to again assume the leadership of this special unit.

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Book Review: Ector's Texas Brigade and the Army of Tennessee

By David V. Stroud

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Review by Dr. Lonnie Maness Professor Emeritus of History, University of Tennessee at Martin

David V. Stroud, Ector's Texas Brigade and the Army of Tennessee: 1862-1865. Longview, Texas: Ranger Publishing, 2004. pp. i-xi, 276. maps, illustrations, notes, index.

Stroud Receives Book Award

The Texas Ranger Dispatch is proud to congratulate David Stroud, the regular columnist for "Guns of the Texas Rangers." David's book, Ector's Texas Brigade and the Army of Tennessee, 1862-1865, has won the Summerfield G. Roberts Award for "the best book written on Texas or Texans in the Confederacy published in 2004." It was presented on June 4, 2005, by the Sons of Confederate Veterans, Texas Division. During the early days of the war, Mathew Ector and his men served under Texas Ranger Hall of Famer Ben McCullough in Arkansas at the Battle of Pea Ridge. Ector's Texas Brigade and the Army of Tennessee: 1862-1865 can be purchased through the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum's bookstore.

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Ector's Texas Brigade and the Army of Tennessee is a well-researched and

written addition to the literature on the Army of Tennessee and the role Texas played in the War for Southern Independence. It is highly recommended reading for anyone interested in the Civil War and Texas history. Mathew Ector's immediate ancestors were Irish. Hugh Ector, his paternal grandfather, immigrated to America from Ireland in time to serve for Georgia during the Revolutionary War. Mathew's father, also named Hugh, married Dorothy Duncan on December 2, 1819. Mathew was born on February 28, 1822. He attended Center College in Danville, Kentucky. Later, he studied law, married Louisa Phillips, passed the Georgia bar examination, and began the practice of law. Like his father, Mathew entered politics and was elected to the state legislature. Everything was going well for the Ectors when Louisa suddenly died in 1846. When his term in the state legislature ended, Mathew left Georgia, first traveling to California. He soon returned to Georgia and talked his brother Wiley into going with him to Texas. By 1849, they were at home in the East Texas town of Henderson, the county seat of Rusk County. Mathew soon reentered the practice of law, aided in opening the Henderson Female College, and met Lettitia M. Graham. The couple was married in Henderson on August 6, 1851, the same year Mathew opened his law office. As his law practice flourished, Mathew returned to politics and was elected to the Texas legislature in 1855. Once again, tragedy struck when his second wife died. This time, however, Ector decided not to resettle. The winds of war were now in the air as the sectional struggle between the states became more bitter. After the presidential election of 1860, the South began seceding from the Union. Rusk County sent delegates to the Texas Secession Convention. Ector was not one of these delegates, but he must have agreed with them because the county cast 1,376 votes for secession while only 135 voted to remain in the Union. Companies of volunteers began forming. On May 7, 1861, Mathew Ector enlisted in Captain R. H. Cumby's cavalry as a private. As Cumby's Company organized, an election of officers took place. Mathew was elected as 1st lieutenant. Soon, the company was in Dallas to become part of Colonel Elkanah Brackin Greer's forces. Greer's Regiment was mustered into Confederate service on June 13, 1861, as the 3rd Texas Cavalry. Greer now

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called for the election of regimental officers. Walter Lane was elected lieutenant colonel, George W. Clinton was selected major, and Lieutenant Ector was appointed regimental adjutant. The next four weeks were spent training the troops. The command was soon on the road to the Choctaw Nation. They marched to Fort Smith, Arkansas, located on the south bank of the Arkansas River. Shortly after arriving, orders were received from General Benjamin McCulloch for the Texans to join his command in Southwest Missouri. By August 4, 1861, the 3rd Texas reached McCulloch's camp on Cane Creek, located about five miles from General Lyon's federal army at Dug Springs. The Battle of Wilson's Creek, located nine miles from Springfield, Missouri, was about to take place. The 3rd Texas performed meritoriously under the command of General McCulloch at Wilson's Creek and Pea Ridge. McCulloch was born in 1811 in Rutherford County, Tennessee. In 1835, he moved to Texas, where he fought for Texas independence at San Jacinto. After the war, he settled in Gonzales, working as a surveyor. He soon joined Jack Hays' company of Texas Rangers, and was elected 1st lieutenant in 1842. He fought many battles with the Indians. During the Mexican War, he raised a command that became Company A of Colonel Jack Hays' First Regiment, Texas Mounted Volunteers. Later he was named General Zachary Taylor's chief of scouts. He and his men rendered valuable service in the Battles of Monterey and Buena Vista. At the war's end, McCulloch was a major. When the War for Southern Independence began, he offered his services to the Confederacy. He was commissioned a brigadier general in May 1861 and ordered to Fort Smith, Arkansas. On August 10, 1861, General Lyon's army attacked the Confederates at Wilson's Creek. The Southern forces included Missouri militia under General Sterling Price and McCulloch's forces, both commanded by McCulloch. Things went well for Lyons at first, but the Confederates rallied, stabilized their lines, and attacked. Lyons was killed, and his army retreated to Springfield. The 3rd Texas played a small but important role in this Confederate victory. In Colonel Greer's report, he wrote, "Adjutant M. D. Ector and the balance of my staff . . . acted with great gallantry during the whole battle." General McCulloch's troops now controlled southwest Missouri. They remained there until late November when they returned to Arkansas and went into winter quarters. On January 10, 1862, the Trans-Mississippi Department was created, with General Earl Van Dorn in command. In early February, General Samuel Curtis and his 11,000 men began moving against General Price's 8,000-man force. Price retreated into Arkansas and called on General McCulloch for assistance. The 3rd Texas left its winter quarters to join McCulloch's Division enroute to Price's Army at Fayetteville. The divisions of Price and McCulloch were united in the Boston Mountains, occupying the road to Fayetteville. General Curtis's main force was located near Elkhorn Tavern. In the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern (Pea Ridge), Van Dorn's Army was successful at first, pushing the advance elements of Curtis's Army back to the main body of troops at the Elkhorn Tavern area. In the main battle that resulted, things began going wrong. When Price opened the battle, McCulloch heard the opening guns and went into action, pushing the enemy while capturing part of his artillery. Some of Pike's warriors scalped a few dead Union soldiers. Ector and the 3rd Texas held Round Mountain as McCulloch pursued the fleeing federals. While reconnoitering the enemy position, McCulloch and two companies from the 16th Arkansas went through a group of trees. Waiting on

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the other side of the woods were men of Company B, 36th Illinois. When McCulloch was within seventy yards, they opened fire and stopped the Confederate charge. A single bullet struck General McCulloch's heart, and the former Texas Ranger's life was ended. After considerably more fighting, Van Dorn concluded that victory was slipping from his grasp and ordered his army to retreat. This Union victory freed most of Missouri from Confederate control, even though there would be Confederate raids and guerrilla warfare in Missouri for the remainder of the war. Lieutenant Ector was soon promoted to colonel. He was given command of the 14th Texas Cavalry (dismounted) regiment. Van Dorn's Army arrived in Corinth, Mississippi, too late to participate in the Battle of Shiloh. The unit was involved in action around Corinth and went with Beauregard to Tupelo, Mississippi. Ector participated in General Braxton Bragg's invasion of Kentucky and fought in the Battle of Richmond. After the Confederate forces had been withdrawn from Kentucky, Colonel Ector learned that he had been promoted to Brigadier General on August 23, 1862. He was now given command of a brigade that is remembered in history as Ector's Texas Brigade, even though units from other states were sometimes part of it. Ector's Brigade, for most of the War for Southern Independence, served with the Army of Tennessee. As part of this army, it served with great honor and wrote an illustrious history upon the pages of American military history, fighting in some of the greatest battles in which the Army of Tennessee would be engaged, including the Battle of Stones River. During this time, Ector's Brigade served with Joseph E. Johnston in Mississippi in a fruitless effort to relieve Vicksburg. By September 1863, Ector and his men had returned to the Army of Tennessee and fought so gallantly in the Battle of Chickamauga that General Nathan Bedford Forrest was impressed by their heroic action. Following Chickamauga, Ector's Brigade returned to Mississippi, but the soldiers later participated in the Atlanta Campaign. There, General Ector was wounded on July 27, 1864, and had his left leg amputated. That took the general out of command, but his brigade fought on until the end of the war. After Atlanta fell, the unit saw action at Allatoona and Nashville before it was sent to Spanish Fort in defense of Mobile, Alabama. On April 11, 1865, Mobile was abandoned, and on May 4, General Richard Taylor surrendered all the troops of his command in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana. The War for Southern Independence was over, and Ector's Brigade had played a small but important role in this gallant struggle. Paroled on May 10, 1865, Brigadier General Ector and his wife Sallie Pinkerton Chew, whom he had married in 1864, went to Texas. There Mathew resumed the practice of law. In 1874, he was appointed to the Sixth District Court of Appeals, where he served until his death on October 29, 1879. In 1887, Ector County was created in West Texas and named in the general's honor. In Fannin County, Texas, in 1874, the town of Ector was established, possibly in honor of General Ector or of Ector Owens.

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Indian Fighting in Jack County - 1870s

By Eddie Matney

The early spring of 1875 began.

Citizens of the northwestern frontier counties of Texas happily started to emerge from twenty years of almost constant Indian raids, killings, and thievery. Several factors had led to this sense of hope and safety. In the year 1868, the United States government had adopted a peace plan whereby the Indian reservations would be administered by civilians. As long as the Indians stayed on the reservations, they would be protected and fed. This act caused a real hardship on the anguished citizens of Texas and the army stationed in Texas. The Indian raiders would come off the reservations into Texas for depredations and then retreat back to the badlands of West Texas or to the sanctuary of the reservations. According to the treaty, Texasbased cavalry units chasing Indian raiding parties had to stop along the Red River and could not legally advance onto the reservation unless requested by higher authority. Throughout the early months of 1874, the U.S. government had been seeing an ever-increasing unrest among the Indians on the reservations, especially among the Kiowa, Comanche, and Cheyenne. It was becoming apparent that civilian control was slipping. Some of the reservation Indians were leaving and going out to the Staked Plains of West Texas and others were making raids into the northwestern part of the state. It seemed that a general outbreak of Indian warfare was at hand. Stationed at Fort Richardson in Jack County, the Army had been doing its best to protect the homesteaders and ranchers, but the number of cavalry companies was never enough to give proper protection of such a large area. Through patrols, the soldiers found and had several fights with warriors, yet the Indian raids continued. The raids coming out of the western parts of the state, especially from the reservations in the Oklahoma Territory, were so numerous the citizens were begging the state government for extra protection. In answer to the pleas, the state legislature authorized Governor Coke in 1874 to organize six companies of Rangers for deployment across the west and northwestern frontier counties of the state. They were to be designated as Companies A through F and were to have full legal power to arrest "wrong doers" and especially to find and either kill or drive out Indian raiding parties. This contingent of men

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was to be known as the Frontier Battalion. Overall command of the Frontier Battalion was placed under John B. Jones, a Civil War veteran, and he was given the rank of major. Major Jones reported to State Adjutant General William Steele. John B. Jones G. W. Stevens of Wise County was commissioned captain and authorized to recruit men from the Wise County area for the new Company B, stationed west of Wise County. Enlistment was to be for one year or less. Stevens was the captain of a Wise County minuteman company and had always answered the call of neighbors to lead in chases and fights with Indians. In the last two or three years, he had been wounded in the hand and the hip in a fight with Indians just above Buffalo Springs, located in Clay County. Stevens recruited to the full compliment of seventy-five men. Several of the enlistees had lived in Wise County for years and had experience fighting with Indians. Company B moved out to the western part of Young County for duty. By early June, the unit was on station and riding on patrol over Young, Archer, and Jack Counties. The men soon got their first baptism of fire. On July 9, 1874, Corporal Newman and eight men were attacked by about 50 Indians while patrolling in western Archer County. The engagement lasted about four hours, with no lives lost on either side. After organizing the battalion, Major Jones had begun his first series of inspection tours up the line of his units in order to position the companies where he thought they would do the most good. He also set about whipping the battalion into the proper fighting force that he desired. At each company, he would take five or six men to provide an escort for protection as he traveled the dangerous frontier counties. While visiting with Company B on July 12, 1874, Major Jones, his escorts, and a portion of Company B had a major fight with approximately 125 Kiowa and Comanche Indians in Lost Valley, about sixteen miles west of Fort Richardson. The fight lasted for several hours and there were casualties on both sides. Recognizing that the Grant Peace Policy was a failure, the Army was finally authorized in late July to hunt down and drive into the reservations any Indians, wherever found. The Army then set in motion a devastating fivepronged attack throughout the west and northwestern part of Texas and the southwestern area of the Indian Territory. This became known as the Red River War. After several months of fighting and unrelenting tracking by the Army, almost all the pursued Indians began to see that their old way of life was gone. They started to come back to the reservations and surrender. In November, Adjutant General Steele informed Major Jones that the Frontier Battalion could not be sustained at its present level because the state

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treasury was low on cash flow. Steele, wishing to keep the battalion in force, cut the manpower of five companies in half, leaving each company with thirty Rangers commanded by one 1st lieutenant. Captain Stevens of Company B left the Ranger service with an honorable discharge and returned to his home in Decatur. In turn, 2nd Lieutenant Ira Long was promoted and placed in command of the company. By the spring of 1875, the Red River War was over and the northwestern part of Texas was, for once, almost free of Indian raids and depredations on its citizens. While the Army had been chasing the Indians, Company B had continued their patrols against the occasional horse-stealing party slipping across the Red River. Early May of 1875 found the little company of Rangers camped in the foothills just east of Lost Valley at a spring then known as Raines Spring. Location of the camp was three miles east of the present community of Jermyn, just north of present State Road 199. On May 5, 1875, Major Jones rode into the camp of Company B with his escort. He was perhaps surprised to find that the men there had a measles outbreak. The next day, after conferring with Lieutenant Long about the condition of the company and the Indian situation, Jones wrote a report to Adjutant General Steele: Sir I have the honor to report my arrival at this the camp of Co B yesterday. I find the measles in camp. Seven or eight men just recovering but not able for duty, six more down, and new cases breaking out every day. Consequently the Company is, and has been for several weeks, entirely unfit for service, and will not be able to do any scouting before the expiration of their time of service. I regret this much more, because the Indians have visited this immediate section three or four times already since the first of January, and will probably come frequently during the Spring and Summer. They have stolen horses twice this spring from Mr Loving whose ranch is five miles from this place. I have eleven men with me, some of whom have not had the measles, and have established a quarantine between my camp and Leuit Long's. Loving (James C. Loving) was a rancher who, in 1868, had moved his headquarters and ranching operations from Palo Pinto County up to the northwestern end of Lost Valley, located on the western edge of Jack County. Lost Valley was an area of flat land approximately three miles wide and about eight miles long, north to south. It was somewhat surrounded by rocky hills and low mountains and made for an excellent place for raising cattle and horses. The northern end of the valley was watered by two creeks, Cameron and Stewart. For several years, the Loving ranch had been almost constantly harassed by Indian raiding parties who either killed or stole the cattle and horses-- especially Loving's horses. Two of Loving's cowboys, Mr. Wright and Mr.

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Heath, had been killed by Indians in the last two years. Perhaps on the very day that Major Jones arrived at Lieutenant Long's campsite, a party of six Kiowa men and one squaw slipped away from their reservation in the Indian Territory for a short raid across the river into Texas. Arriving in the Lost Valley area on the night of May 7, they headed to Loving's ranch. There they stole some horses out of the corral and rode southwest down Cameron Creek. The next morning, after Loving and his men had left for the day's work on the ranch, two of the men who had stayed at the ranch house soon discovered that part of the fence was down and a few of the saddle horses kept in the corral were missing. Knowing that there was a Ranger company stationed southeast at Raines Spring, the boys saddled their horses and quickly rode to give the alert to the Rangers. Once informed, Major Jones gathered some of his men and rode towards the ranch to investigate the theft. When he arrived, he found the messengers to be correct. Following the trail south along Cameron Creek, the Ranger force lost the tracks left by the raiders and began a search along the western area of Lost Valley. Finally, several miles south of the ranch house, the Indians trail was found just north of Cox Mountain at the south end of the valley. Following the trail and riding at a fast rate, the Rangers overtook the raiding party close to Rock Creek, northeast of the present community of Bryson. One of the Indians was shot and killed immediately. A running gunfight then took place in which four more of the raiders were killed. Two Indians were able to make their escape. With the chase and fight over, the Rangers returned to their camp at Raines Spring. The next day, May 9, Major Jones sent a Western Union telegram from Jacksboro to Adjutant General Steele in Austin: With small detachment of my command I struck Indian trail in Lost Valley yesterday. Overtook them & killed five only one known to have escaped. One of my men slightly wounded. Lt. Long's horse killed another wounded Indians blankets marked U. S.I.D. As a follow-up, Major Jones wrote a report to Steele, giving a description of the fight: Headquarters Frontier Battalion Camp near Lost Valley Jack Co. Texas May 9th 1875 Gen Wm Steele Adjt genl Austin. Sir, I have the honor to report that information reached me yesterday morning about ten o-clock that some horses had been stolen from Mr. Lovings ranch, some five miles distance, the night

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before. I immediately started to the ranch accompanied by Dr. Nicholson, the Surgeon, Lt Long and ten men of Company B, five men of Company A and four men of Company D. From the ranch we searched through the western part of the valley; found some Indian sign, but no trail until we reached the south end of the valley, five or six miles from the ranch, when we struck a trail just where I entered the same valley last summer when in pursuit of Lone Wolf and his party. We followed the trail at a brisk gallop in a southeasterly direction three or four miles, when we overtook a party of seven Indians. Luit Long killed on the first fire. Then they took to flight and a running fight ensued for five or six miles in the woods and over rough and rocky hills and hollows, during which they changed their course and performed almost a complete circle, so that the fight ended within a mile of where we first struck their trail. We killed five; the other two evaded us in the woods and made their escape into the mountains. Private L. C. Garvey of Co. B received a very slight wound. Lt Long's horse was killed and two horses wounded. No other casualties on our side. The Indians were armed with breach loading shot guns, and six shooters and fought desperately, three of them continuing to fight after they were shot down. One of those killed was a squaw, but handled her six-shooter quite as dexterously as did the bucks. Another was a half-breed or quarter, spoke broken English, was quite fare and had auburn hair. They were well mounted, but had no horses but what they were riding. Four of those were killed in the fight. Some of them proved to be horses that were stolen from Mr. Loving about three weeks ago, the others were taken night before last. It is very evident that they had mounted themselves at the first ranch they came to, with the design of penetrating farther into the settlements, as there course lay in the exact direction of Keeche valley in the northeast corner of Palo Pinto, and northwest corner of Parker County, and if we had not overtaken them, would doubtless have reached the settlements yesterday evening. The fight took place in Jack County, about fifteen miles a little south of west from Jacksboro, on the head of rock creek. They were well clothed, and doubtless directly from the Reservation, as their blankets were marked U.S.I.D. One of them had the scalp of a white woman fastened to his shield. In this report, Major Jones went on to give special commendation to Lieutenant Long for his leadership, coolness, and courage in the fight. Lieutenant Long (later captain) penned a very interesting story of his part in the fight: We found some sigh at the ranch but no definite trail until we got about six miles south in the valley. Watching closely in order not

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to lose it and by any chance let them escape again, I sighted far ahead and saw a man standing under a tree. The very fact that he was alone roused my suspicions and speaking to the Major about it we turned our field-glasses on him and he ran into the timber. I hurried to investigate and when I reached the tree, was so intent on examining the footprints that I neither looked up, nor around, until I heard my men shout, "Indians!" and saw them turn in the direction that they had discovered them. Jumping my horse, which was a fine one, I was off at a dead run. Getting closer I saw there was but seven in the bunch. Outdistancing my men I gave them a hot chase for about three miles, pouring hot lead into them as I ran. The men overtaking me used their ammunition freely, as did the Major, with telling effect. I saw that one of the scoundrels had it in for me and I dodged more than one of his bullets. But seeing him draw his horse closer and draw a bead on me I let him have it between the eyes and when he doubled up and fell I resolved that I would come back that way and strip him of paraphernalia for he wore the trappings of a chief. Bullets were whizzing constantly around us, but we were doing some pretty fair shooting ourselves and seeing my shot had taken the horse from the chief I felt like we could at least report progress. I could not tell whether he was wounded or not, but he was shielding himself in the brush and trying to pick off my men one at a time, making every shot tell. It seemed to me the very next one took my horse in the center of the forehead and when I felt him tremble I knew that it had done its hellish work. When I hit the ground I was on my feet. Here came the old painted devil straight toward me, yelling and shooting like mad. I had emptied my pistol and having to reload gave him the advantage. But with a round in place I fed him melted bullets until both his and my guns were empty. Then it dawned on me in a flash that it was a game of tit for tat between us. I recall how thankful I was that I was big and brawny and strong and then we closed. I had never then, nor have I since, seen such strength and agility as that Indian possessed. When I threw him off in a grapple he bounced like a rubber ball. And he used his gunstock as skillfully as I did mine." My men had gone on with the remainder of the bunch, and we were both tired out. I knew I could expect no help from them, and that it was the best man for it. He was panting for breath, so was I, and I knew that neither of us could hold out much longer when, plunk! A shot took him in the knee. One of my company, fearing that I was in trouble, had ridden back, and taking in the situation, risking a bullet, although he said afterward he `didn't know whether it would take me or the chief, for it was nip and tuck as to who would be on top next.' That gave me a chance to reload my pistol and at such close range I felt like the ball I put into him did the work. But I didn't take time to see, for sure. Jumping a horse, I was off with my rescuer to try my hand on the rest of them. We got three of them after that and on the way back we went to see if the old chief was dead, and there he lay stretched full length.

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The state would have Indian troubles in the far western section of Texas for several more years. However, the raiding party of May 8, 1875, proved to be the last in the northwestern frontier counties.

Sources

Books Horton, Thomas F. History of Jack County (Reprint). Jacksboro: Gazette Print, 1933, 1975. McConnell, Joseph Carroll. The West Texas Frontier, vol. II. Palo Pinto, Texas: Texas Legal Bank and Book Company, 1939. McIntire, Jim. Early Days in Texas: A Trip to Hell and Heaven. Reprint, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992. Nye, W. S. Carbine & Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1937, 1957. Webb, Walter Prescott. The Texas Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1935, 1993.

Magazines Cross, Cora Melton. "Ira Long, Cowboy and Texas Ranger." Frontier Times, October 1930.

Copies of the following items may be obtained from Texas State Library and Archives Commission PO Box 12927, Austin, Texas 78711-2927: Jones to Steele, report, May 9, 1875. Follow-up report giving more detailed description of the chase and fight with the Indian party. Jones to Steele, telegram, Western Union, May 9, 1875. First report of fight with an Indian party. Major Jones to Adj. Gen. Steele, report, May 6, 1875. Report gives condition of Company B personnel on Jones' arrival at their campsite.

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19th CENTURY SHINING STAR:

Elisha Clapp By Stephen Moore

Painting of Elisha Clapp courtesy of his great-grandson Wilfred Clapp.

The modern Texas Ranger is as literate

as he is well versed in the handling of his firearms. For the Ranger of the 1830s, however, courage and natural leadership far outweighed book smarts. Such was the case with farmer, fighter, and tavern owner Elisha Clapp, who was unable to read or write but had a burning desire to fight foes of the Republic of Texas. Oddly enough, he helped organize and became one of the first eleven trustees of Trinity College in 1841. Born in 1792, Clapp first visited Texas in 1822. By 1834, he had secured an entrance certificate for his wife Rebecca Elizabeth (Robbins) and their first four children. He joined Captain Henry Wax Karnes' cavalry company on April 7, 1836, during the great Runaway Scrape. At the battle of San Jacinto, Clapp fought valiantly and helped pursue Mexican cavalrymen fleeing from the battleground. Fellow cavalryman William S. Taylor later wrote: Elisha Clapp, having a very fleet horse, started in pursuit of them, and soon coming up with them, fired his rifle, killing one of them. The others, seeing that his rifle was discharged, turned to give him battle, when Clapp was compelled to retreat, not being able to cope with three Mexicans with an empty gun. The one nearest to him discharged his escopet at him, but the ball missed him, though, judging from the whistling, Clapp afterward told me though it passed within six inches of his head. Following San Jacinto, Clapp left the Army on May 28, 1836. He returned to his home in present Houston County, Texas. (Clapp was among the petitioners who helped create Houston County from Nacogdoches County in 1837.) Under orders from President Sam Houston, Major James Smith was authorized to establish companies of Rangers for East Texas to help keep the Indians in check. The first of Smith's three companies to organize was that of Captain Elisha Clapp.

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Fifty-eight men gathered at Clapp's Blockhouse on September 10, 1836, and Clapp was duly elected as their commander. Each man was required to furnish his own provisions, arms, ammunition, and horse. Clapp's Rangers were authorized by Houston to "range from any point on the Brazos to Mr. Hall's Trading House on the Trinity." Clapp was also ordered to give eight of his Rangers to Daniel Parker Sr., who had been directed to oversee the construction of a new blockhouse on the Trinity River in the vicinity of Fort Houston. Clapp commanded his Rangers for three months, conducting expeditions to scout for Ioni Indians who had reportedly stolen from local settlers. His men also secured the upper crossing of the Trinity River with a new blockhouse. They built this structure at the Robbins' Ferry crossing of the Trinity where Highway 21 presently enters the western border of Houston County. Captain Clapp's new fort, southwest of his own fortified home, became known as the Trinity River Fort. Clapp's Rangers were disbanded at his "Headquarters, Mustang Prairie" on December 12, 1836. This was due to Sam Houston's limiting of service to three months. In 1837, a new regiment of Rangers was authorized by the Second Congress of the Republic of Texas to combat a rise in Indian violence. Houston nominated Elisha Clapp to command the Nacogdoches County company of Rangers. (In his instructions to the auditor, President Houston noted that Clapp was illiterate and that his muster roll must be monitored carefully.) There is little evidence, however, that Clapp's company ever found action during 1837. Increased depredations and the rise of the Cordova Rebellion in 1838 brought new prominence to the Texas Militia, ably led by Major General Thomas Jefferson Rusk. Although President Houston had allowed the Texas Rangers to lapse in early 1838, Rusk approved the use of regional "ranging companies" that continued to operate even when the militia was not in the field. Elisha Clapp was elected major of the Third Regiment of the Texas Militia. Major Clapp was key in recruiting men for the Ranger service. Rusk authorized him on October 1 to raise 150 men to protect the frontier and fight Indians. At San Augustine on October 5, Clapp had 36 out of 40 men present at his meeting to volunteer for service. Corresponding with Rusk this day via his adjutant, Clapp reported: I have no doubt that the Indians and Mexicans are embodied near Kickapoo Village and in all probability we can get a fight near home . . . Your order to raise men for our protection, I must inform you, met with universal hallelujahs and hurrahs, it being the first legal order of the kind ever sent forth officially to our country. Major Clapp's volunteers rendezvoused at Fort Houston with other Rangers and militiamen under Tom Rusk and General Kelsey Douglass. They marched to the old Kickapoo Village in present Anderson County and fought a heated battle on October 16, 1838. Many Texans had their horses and mules killed in this struggle. Clapp helped serve as an appraiser for their losses after the fight. Clapp continued to serve as a major for the militia's ranging corps into 1839.

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During the Cherokee War of 1839, he was major of Rusk's 2nd Regiment of the 3rd Militia Brigade staff. After peace negotiations crumbled with the Cherokee and their associated tribes, two days of battle ensued west of present Tyler on July 15-16, 1839. In this conflict, Cherokee leader Chief Bowles was slain, and the majority of the surviving Cherokees were driven from Texas into present Oklahoma. In the ensuing years, Clapp left his blockhouse behind and moved from Mustang Prairie to the little Houston County community of Alabama, where he helped organize Trinity College in 1841. He operated a tavern for some time, and in 1847, he acquired Robbins' Ferry at the Old San Antonio Road crossing of the Trinity River, where his 1836 Rangers had constructed the Trinity River Fort. By 1849, he had relocated to Leon County, where he died on March 1, leaving behind his wife and eight children. In his short life, Elisha Clapp never learned to read or write. He did, however, make his mark on Texas history as a soldier of the Texas Revolution, a Texas Ranger Captain, and a senior militia officer during the height of the Indian wars in East Texas.

Sources: Clapp, Wilfred to Stephen Moore, 2001. Wilfred is the great-grandson of Elisha Clapp. "Elisha Clapp." The New Handbook of Texas. http://www.tsha.utexas.edu. Ericson, Carolyn Reeves. Nacogdoches. Gateway to Texas. A Biographical Directory, 1773-1849. vol. 1. Nacogdoches: Ericson Books, 1991. Moore, Stephen L. Savage Frontier. Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas. vol. 1, 1835-1837; vol. 2, 1838-1839 (forthcoming). San Antonio: Republic of Texas Press, 2002. Taylor, William S. "Pursuit of Santa Anna and his Cavalry after They Had Commenced Their Flight from the Battlefield of San Jacinto." Texas Almanac: A Compendium of Texas History, 1857-1873. Waco, Texas: Texian Press, 1967.

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20th Century Shining Star: Harrison Hamer Today, only the most die-hard

Ranger enthusiast is familiar with Harrison Hamer. Even then, they mainly think of him as the brother of the man who led the posse that killed Bonnie and Clyde. Harrison may have been in the shadow of his brother as far as fame is concerned, but he more than held his own during his lifetime of law enforcement. F. A. and Lou Emma Hamer had five sons. Four of them became Texas Rangers: Estill [D. E.], Frank, Harrison, and Flavius L. Of those four, D. E. and Frank went on to be Senior Ranger Captains. The other son, Clint, was never a law enforcement officer. Harrison Hamer, the fourth son, was born on August 15, 1888, in Fairview, Texas. He grew to adulthood in San Saba County, where the family had moved when Harrison was very young. Harrison and Frank, who were very close, grew up in a rural countryside and honed their skills in tracking, shooting, and defending themselves in shootouts. Harrison was twelve and Frank sixteen when they shot it out with a neighboring farmer [click here]. D. E. and Frank were already Rangers when twenty-year-old Harrison joined them for the first time in 1918. Flavus was still a few years away from joining. As was common during those years, Harrison was in and out of the Rangers numerous times during his career. When not a Texas Ranger, he wore the badge of several law enforcement agencies: Mounted Customs Agent during the prohibition years, Special Ranger, Range Detective for the Cattleman's Association, and agent for the Sheep and Goat Raisers Association. His final position was working security at the Magnolia Refinery in Beaumont. One of Harrison's most noteworthy cases occurred when he was a Mounted Customs agent. The outlaws involved were Jess Newton and his brothers Joe, Dock, and Willis. These four men had robbed and burglarized banks in the

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United States and Canada for years before their career ended--at least officially--robbing a train near Chicago, Illinois. After this last heist, the brothers were hunted down and taken one by one. It was believed that several of the Newton brothers were living in Mexico across the Rio Grande River from Del Rio, Texas. Harrison knew that the boys loved rodeos and suspected that one or more of the them might not be able to resist as big an event as the July 4th rodeo in Del Rio. Keeping a close eye on the crowd, Harrison saw Jess and his wife enter the stands, and he patiently waited his chance. His persistence paid off when Jess left the stands and unsuspectingly walked past the former Ranger. Harrison grabbed Jess by the arm and, undoubtedly with the aid of his ever-present six-shooter, informed Newton that he was under arrest. Escorting Jess below the grandstand, Harrison asked one of the local cowboys to watch the ever-elusive bandit. He returned to the stands and sent word to Newton's wife that her husband needed to see her. As she walked past Harrison, he also arrested her.

Harrison Hamer in a Model T The movie The Newton Boys shows Jess Newton being captured by Texas Ranger Frank Hamer. In actuality, it was Harrison who captured Jess. During his years in law enforcement, Harrison participated in investigations involving homicide, narcotics, bank robbers, and prohibition violations, among many others. In the largest raid on illegal stills in Texas history up to that time, Harrison found and destroyed 2,500 gallons of whiskey in Big Lake County. Sadly, in the eyes of the public, Harrison is almost completely overshadowed by his legendary brother Frank. This did not interfere with the feelings the two had toward one another, however. They were close until their deaths-- something that cannot be said about Frank and D. E. [See http://www. texasranger.org/dispatch/13/pages/Hamer.htm] Harrison Hamer, a truly outstanding Texas Ranger, died on August 24, 1977, in Houston. He is buried in Del Rio, Texas.

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Book Review

Eleven Days In Hell: The 1974 Carrasco Prison Siege at Huntsville, Texas

by William T. Harper Review by Robert Nieman

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William T. Harper. Eleven Days in Hell: the 1974 Carrasco Prison Siege at Huntsville, Texas. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 2004. ISBN 1-57441-180-2; Hardback, 41 photos, 346 pages. $27.95.

Until now, no major work has been devoted to this, the longest prison siege

in American history. William T. Harper has filled this void. The author gives an exhaustive account of those eleven days in hell for the eleven civilian and four inmate hostages. They lived in a constant state of terror, not knowing when or what might set their captors off in a killing rage. From July 24 until August 3, 1974, Frederico Carrasco, Rudolfo Dominguez, and Ignacio Cuevas took over the Huntsville Prison library. Carrasco, serving a life sentence for attempted murder, was the head of a drug gang that reached from South America to Canada. Even though he had never met his cohorts until they entered Huntsville, his control over Dominguez and Cuevas was absolute. The takeover started just after the back-to-work whistle blew at one o'clock that Wednesday afternoon, July 24. Fifteen minutes before, the three terrorists had been casually thumbing through newspapers. The whistle was the signal for Carrasco to shatter the quiet with a blast from his .357 magnum into the ceiling. After the takeover, negotiations were started almost immediately by Director of the Texas Department of Corrections Jim Estelle and Prison Warden H. H. Husbands. Prison guards were quickly joined by the FBI, various Texas Department of Public Safety members, and the Texas Rangers (also a division of the DPS). From the start, it was obvious that Carrasco was playing for time. Harper explores possible motives for the delaying action, the most probable being that Carrasco was expecting outside help from his cronies in San Antonio. He waited in vain. As the author points out, it was likely that the Carrasco followers realized that, as long as Carrasco was in the picture, he was still the

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leader--even while behind prison walls. He was also taking an oversized chunk of the profits and power. Since Carrasco did not survive, this is merely speculation, but solid speculation. What is not conjecture is the terror of the hostages. It is here that the author stands out. Some of the captives were incredibly brave, others not so brave. Harper vividly puts you with the hostages as their hopes of freedom soar, only to be quickly dashed by an almost overpowering sense of hopelessness. Throughout the eleven days, many options were bantered back and forth between Carrasco and prison officials. Obviously never mentioned to the three abductors in the library was that there was no way Carrasco, Dominguez, and Cuevas were going to leave the prison walls. In the end, Carrasco lay dead by his own hand, but not before he murdered one of the hostages. Dominguez and another hostage also lay dead. Cuevas had fainted when the shooting started; later, he was executed. Another hostage, though in critical condition, would survive. Cal Thomas of Fox News, who at the time was an onsite reporter for Houston's KPRC-TV, wrote, "It is a tragedy that two hostages died. It is a miracle all the rest lived." The only negative of the book is omission of the earlier plan of Carrasco's gang to free him from the Bexar County (San Antonio) jail before he could be transferred to Huntsville. By pure chance, he was transferred twenty-four hours early, thus foiling the planned jailbreak from San Antonio but paving the way for a deadly siege at Huntsville. Other than this minor glitch, this book is an excellent work that has been extremely well researched and written. It is an important work in Texas Ranger and Department of Corrections history and is highly recommended by the Texas Ranger Dispatch.

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Rangers in the Field

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by Capts. Kirby Dendy, Barry Caver and Jim Miller with the Editorial Board

Company "F" Twice a year, every Ranger must qualify on the firing range. Company F

(Waco) traveled to Enchanted Rock for their qualifying. Enchanted Rock is deeply seeped into Ranger history. It was here that Captain Jack Hays made his legendary stands against a Comanche war party in 1841.

Front (L to R): Frank Malinak, Matt Cawthon, Tommy Ratliff, Kirby Dendy, Dino Henderson, Kyle Dean Row 2: Chris Love, Garth Davis, Marcus Hilton, Joe Hutson, George Turner, Matt Lindemann Rows 3 & 4: Rocky Wardlow, Jim Huggins, Jess Ramos, Rudy Flores, Mark Reinhardt, Sal Abreo, Joey Gordon, Trace McDonald, Matt Andrews Photo courtesy of Captain Kirby Dendy.

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Rangers Tommy Ratliff (left) and Joey Gordon (right) qualify on the pistol range. Photo courtesy of Captain Kirby Dendy. Sgt. Steve Foster firing a fully automatic Sig Sauer .223. Photo courtesy of Captain Kirby Dendy.

After completing live fire exercises, it is time to clean weapons. Capt. Kirby Dendy, Lt. Matt Lindemann, Sgt. Joey Gordon, Sgt. Chris Love, Sgt. Rocky Wardlow (face not visible; green, long-sleeved shirt), Sgt. Dino Henderson (face not completely visible; blue, short-sleeved shirt with arms up), and Sgt. Trace McDonald Photo courtesy of Captain Kirby Dendy.

Company "E"

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Company "E" (Midland) met at Texas Ranger Association Foundation board member Vern Foreman's ranch near Eastland.

David Hullum, Jess Malone, Trampas Gooding, Brian Burzynski, Johnny Billings, Bobby Smith, Jeremy Wallace, David Duncan and Nick Hanna Photo courtesy of Captain Barry Caver.

Draw and fire on the range. Photo courtesy of Captain Barry Caver.

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Rangers must also qualify with rifles and shotguns and pistols. Pictured: Trampas Gooding, Bobby Smith, Brooks Long Photo courtesy of Captain Barry Caver.

After qualifying, it is time for relaxation and enjoyment. Photo courtesy of Captain Barry Caver.

Company "A"

After spending the day at the firing range comes the time to relax and enjoy good food and friendship as shown by these pictures of Company "A" at Nacogdoches.

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Rangers Jeff Cook (Richmond) and Frank Duff (Liberty) Photo courtesy of Captain Jim Miller.

Texas Ranger Association Foundation members Les Littleton and Tony Hill visit with Rangers Freeman Martin (Houston), Drew Carter (Houston), and Brian Taylor (Bellville) Photo courtesy of Captain Jim Miller.

The best part of the evening was the company. Photo courtesy of Captain Jim Miller.

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Chinese Rangers ???

Summarized by Robert Nieman Adapted from work by Charles H. Harris III and Louis R. Sadler

In their book, The Texas Rangers and the

Mexican Revolution, Charles H. Harris III and Louis R. Sadler relate a strange but true story. In 1913, Texas Adjutant General Henry Hutchings, under whom the Rangers served, started receiving strange requests from several U.S. Army officers wanting to know such things as Texas Ranger tactics, organization, and training. Upon further investigation, Hutchings discovered the requests were originating from China! The Chinese government was seriously considering forming a Ranger-like organization to fight Mongolian bandits. They wanted to know if the Rangers would consider organizing and staffing a similar institution there. Hutchings did not give the requests much consideration, but then he received a letter from the College Division of the Army under the Secretary of War stating that they could not locate information about the strategy and field tactics employed by the Texas Rangers. They asked Hutchings if he would recommend documentation and experienced men to act as advisors to the Chinese government. It became even clearer that the Chinese were serious when the Adjutant General Hutchings received a request from Captain James Reeves, the former U.S. military attaché in China. He was writing on the bequest of his successor who wanted any information about the Texas Rangers that Hutchings could furnish. The driving force behind these requests was a man named Larson, a Chinese government advisor on Mongolian affairs. Captain Reeves explained that the situation on the Chinese-Mongolian border was similar the TexasMexico border. (The years 1910-1920 along the Rio Grande River were filled with violence and bloodshed.) Finally realizing that requests were in earnest, Hutchings forwarded to Larson General Order Number 5, October 2, 1911, which described the Ranger organization. He also sent various forms that Rangers used--at least what few there were. Furthermore, he informed the Chinese that indeed an efficient force of Rangers and Texas National Guardsmen could be send to Mongolia. In the end, nothing came of the Chinese Rangers. Nothing, that is except the confirmation of what all Texans already knew--the fame and respect for the Texas Rangers is worldwide.

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Texas Ranger Reunion 2005 Waco, Texas Every June, the Texas Ranger

Association Foundation and the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum host the annual Texas Ranger Reunion in Waco. Besides fellowship and good times, the Foundation sponsors retired Rangers and raises money for a scholarship fund.

The reunion started on Friday with a charity golf tournament held at Waco's Battle Lake Golf Course. The proceeds go toward the Foundation's scholarship fund.

Retired Texas Ranger Captains Bob Prince, Jack Dean, Bob Mitchell, and Foundation Board Member Joe York

Foundation Members Bobby Day, Charles Chamberlain, Byron Johnson, and Joe York

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Sgt. Matt Cawthon, Lieutenant George Turner, Sgt. Steve Foster. The reunion is a worthwhile cause, but some have to keep working. A few Company F Waco Rangers took off long enough to visit their fellow Rangers and eat some of the great food served by retired Captain Bob Prince.

Foundation board member and Dispatch managing editor Bobby Nieman with Company D Texas Ranger Sgt. Marrie Garcia Friday night, everyone had a wonderful time at the fish fry held at the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum's Knox Hall. Foundation Chairman Joel Jackson gives welcoming remarks.

Retired Ranger Joe Hunt gave the opening prayer.

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Senior Ranger Captain Earl Pearson and his fiancé Dee

DPS Commissioner Colleen McHugh

Saturday morning in the Hall of Fame's Rotunda is always moving as Rangers who have left us in the pass year are memorialized. This year, current and former Rangers eulogized the lives of Jerome Preiss, Glenn Krueger, L. T. Carpenter, and Clayton McKinney. [See http://www.texasranger.org/memorials/memorials.htm]

Memorial Service

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Chaplain George Frasier

Captain Dan North, Retired

Captain Gene Powell, Retired Assistant Chief of the Texas Rangers

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Captain Clete Buckaloo, Company "D"

The Saturday night banquet at Knox Hall is the grand finale. Foundation Chairman Joel Jackson presented emeritus plaques to former Foundation board members Bob Ross and Richard Harvey. Foundation Board Member Bob Ross receiving emeritus plaque from Joel Jackson

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Foundation Board Member Richard Harvey receiving emeritus plaque from Joel Jackson

Board director Constance White heads the Foundation's scholarship committee. She gave a report on the status of the scholarship fund. Largely because of her and her committee's efforts, scholarships for all Rangers who have children in a college or university were raised to $2,500 per year. Foundation Board Member Constance White

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Actor Barry Corbin (War Games, Urban Cowboy, Lonesome Dove, Northern Exposure, and many other roles) is a great friend of the Texas Rangers, the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum, and the Foundation. He kept everyone laughing with his wonderful stories, but he still took time to visit with audience members like Texas Ranger Sgt. A. P. Davidson (McKinney).

Actor Barry Corbin with Ranger Sgt. A. P. Davidson

The reunion came to an all-too-quick ending when Chairman Joel Jackson passed the gavel to the next Texas Ranger Association Foundation Chairman Benny Venecek.

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Outgoing Foundation Chairman Joel Jackson

Incoming Foundation Chairman Benny Venecek

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Grave of Ranger Mervyn B. Davis Finally Marked

by Chuck Parsons

On Saturday, May 21, about thirty people

attended a ceremony unveiling the headstone to mark the grave of Texas Ranger Mervyn B. Davis. Davis had served as a soldier in the Confederate Army and as a Ranger in Lieutenant N. O. Reynolds's Company E and in Captain Dan Roberts's Company D of the Frontier Battalion. While a Ranger, Davis contributed numerous letters to the Galveston Daily News describing daily life as a Ranger. Following his Ranger service, Davis found success in the field of journalism, working with papers in Dallas and Waco. Most significant, however, was Davis's efforts in wildlife preservation. He was instrumental in organizing numerous chapters of the National Audubon Society and was the secretary of the Texas Audubon Society for eight years. Davis died on June 18, 1912, in Waco and was buried in Waco's Oakwood Cemetery. The grave had remained unmarked until now. Participants in the ceremony included people from many fields. Texas Ranger Hall of Fame Director Byron Johnson and John A. Stovall of Tarleton State University unveiled the government marker. Scouts from Waco Troop #497 presented the colors, and Brother Joel Densman of Prairie Lea Baptist Church provided opening and closing prayers. Speakers included Johnson, Stovall, and Rick Miller, who spoke on Davis as a Ranger. Nada Wareham of Elm Mott told of Davis's achievements as a conservationist. For an earlier article dealing with Davis, see the Fall 2000 Texas Ranger Dispatch: "The Mervyn Mystery Solved!" click here http://www.texasranger. org/dispatch/1/Mervyn.htm

Speakers

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Byron Johnson, Dir. Texas Ranger Hall of Fame

Rick Miller Historian

John Stovall Tarleton State Univ.

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Ask the Dispatch Thanks for the alert to the new issue of the Dispatch. I am so touched by your

article on the NLSE. I read the stories and always wonder at the awesome strength of the parents and other family members who went through that horrible ordeal and the strength, too, of those who were involved in the recovery efforts. I sent the link to all my children. I don't want them to forget those who died at New London. Incidentally, I've always wondered why I read "London" in some places, while "New London" was the term I had heard all my life from our mother. Your explanation in the article solved the mystery for me. Thank you again. Ann Rempel [Editor's note: Ann's sister Helen Jones was killed in the explosion.] New London Explosion article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/16/pages/New_London/London_School. htm

I just finished reading your report in the Dispatch about the New London School. It is such a sad story but you wrote it just great. Leonie Coppers Weist Sonnsbeck, Germany

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I have been contacted by numerous people with favorable comments about the Shinning Star article you wrote about me. Thank you very much. [Joe] Haralson [Texas Rangers, Company A, Texas City] Joe Haralson article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/13/pages/Haralson.htm

Thanks for letting me know about the newest Texas Ranger Dispatch being online. I got word with only a few moments to spare, as I will be out of town for most of the day. I quickly scanned the spring edition and thoroughly enjoyed reading the Red Arnold story and especially the well-written spotlight of Jay Womack. I appreciate your friendship along with your contributions and expertise in publishing the Dispatch. Ralph [Wadsworth] [Company B, Texas Rangers, retired] Red Arnold article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/16/pages/Silk_Pajamas/Silk_PJs.htm Jay Womack article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/16/pages/Womack/Womack_Jay.htm

Recently, we came to Waco and visited the Museum and Hall of Fame. During this visit, we encountered Captain Buckaloo and several other Rangers. Needless to say, this was the highlight of our day and indeed the whole trip. Even though the captain was busy, he took the time to allow us to take pictures and to sign the book that we had purchased from the [museum] store there. I had met Rangers when my cousin was district commander [DPS] in Houston in the early 60s, but my young son had not. He was really impressed. Now when he says his prayers at night, he includes "Captain Buckaloo and his men." We found the Museum and the Texas Rangers to be the best of the best. May God bless and keep you safe and watch over your families. E. D. Modisett Thank you for sharing this email with the Public Information Office. It's really a fantastic account of the character/professionalism of the Rangers. I'm sure

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that little boy will always remember the experience. Thanks again, Lisa Block Texas Department of Public Safety Public Information Office This was nice. Thanks. Makes you glad you took the time. Clete Buckaloo (Captain, Company D, San Antonio)

Really enjoyed the issue Keep up the good work. Thanks, Russ Leavens Dispatch 16, Spring 2005: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/dispatch16.htm

Just checked out the Dispatch magazine. Gets better every issue. The Red Arnold story was a funny one for sure. I cannot, for the life of me, picture Charlie Miller in silk pjs. Randy Sillavan Red Arnold article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/16/pages/Silk_Pajamas/Silk_PJs.htm

I love your website and history. Great job. David "Smiley" Irvin Fort Worth, Texas

Greatly enjoyed the latest issue of the Dispatch, a good blend of early days and modern day. Charles Harvey El Paso, Texas

Do you know of any good articles on this feud around Snyder. I believe it started when Gladys Johnson (later Mrs. Frank Hamer) and her brother shot and killed her first husband, a Sims. I have heard the court records were

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destroyed. Hamer was escorting her back from court when he killed Gee McMeans. David Holbrook The only study of this feud involving Hamer is in my book, Pink Higgins. If Mr. Holbrook wants to find out about all of this, he needs this biography, which contains a full treatment of the subject. The book is $18.95, plus $3.00 shipping, and I'll send him an inscribed copy. Best regards, Bill O'Neal 1409 Success Street Cartage, Texas 75633

I have an ancestor named Lewis Gardner. He was born about 1810 in Kershaw, South Carolina, and lived in Georgia in the 1820s, 30s, 40s, and 50s. He then lived in Mississippi during the war, divorced his wife, and went to Texas about 1863. Family lore says that he died in a gunfight with horse thieves at Natchez, Texas, near Brownsville. Would you know where I would find records of gunfights in Texas between 1863-1880? Thank you. Corey Gardner Please check out our "Researching Texas Ranger Ancestors" section: http:// www.texasranger.org/ReCenter/resource1.htm

I have the option of purchasing an 1851 Navy Colt SN 163857. There is no "SN" on the cylinder. Does this make it less valuable or was there even a "SN" on the original cylinder? Marge & Bob No serial number on the cylinder does make the Navy less valuable. Yes, the `51 Navys did have numbers on the cylinder (large numbers such as 163857 would have the last four digits), and collectors prefer that ALL the serial numbers match. Can you tell if there was a number that has been worn off? Can you see any numbers with a magnifying glass that are 3, 8, 5, or 7? If there was never any number on the cylinder, the cylinder is a replacement ordered from the Colt factory. Were the Navy returned to Colt for a new cylinder, the factory would have stamped the new cylinder with the last four digests. From the photo, the Navy appears to be engraved. Even so, the serial number story remains the same. You might check my articles on the 1851 Navy Colt and 1849 Pocket Model for more information.

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I hope this helps some, David Stroud 1851 Navy Colt article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/4/ColtNavy.htm

1849 Pocket Model article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/15/pages/Colt_1849.htm

There is a comical error in the third paragraph of my great uncle's entry. It says, "In his autobiography, Trails and Tears of a Texas Ranger." The correct title of the book is Trails and Trials of a Texas Ranger. You might want to correct it. Regards, Ed Sterling When we mess up, we do it well, but it is now fixed. - Robert Nieman, Managing Editor William Sterling article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/15/pages/Shining_Star_Sterling.htm

Thanks for printing the Dix story. I'm sure it will be of importance to lots of pre-Civil War Ranger enthusiasts. I see you are interested in where old Rangers were buried. Dix died at San Antonio in 1910 and was laid to rest beside his wife Cynthia in the Catholic Cemetery in San Diego, according to his obituary. However, several interested family members, myself included, have been unable to locate a stone with his name on it. His father and mother are buried at the Old Bayview Cemetery in Corpus Christi. If anyone does find the John James Dix gravesite, I would appreciate an

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approximate location within the San Diego Cemetery grounds, and even better, a photograph. Sincerely, Dan R. Manning P.O. Box 115 Fair Grove, Missouri 65648 John James Dix article: http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/16/pages/Dix/ Dix_John.htm

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The Whitneyville Whitney Revolver

by David Stroud

Most Americans associate Eli Whitney[1] with the 1794 invention of the cotton gin (from the word engine), which used spiked teeth to pull the cotton fibers from the seed and did the work of fifty slaves.[2] However, many fail to recognize the New Haven citizen as a gun maker credited as the first to craft weapons with interchangeable parts in 1798[3]. Most are also not aware that the Whitney name appears on arms spanning from 1793 until 1888, a period unequaled by any other U.S. arms manufactory.[4] Eli Whitney Jr. entered the pistol-making venture in 1847. Famous inventor Sam Colt subcontracted with him to produced 1,100 Walkers at Eli's plant in Whtineyville, Connecticut.[5] Although the Walkers are considered Colts, Whitney actually made the famous handguns.[6] When Colt's revolving cylinder proved popular, a few American arms manufacturers jumped on the bandwagon before Sam's patent expired in 1857. These included the Whitneyville Armory, which produced its first revolvers,[7] the Hooded Cylinder Pocket Revolvers. There were 200 produced. With these guns, the shooter had to manually rotate the cylinder to keep from infringing on Colt's patent, and the nipples were changed from recessed to grooves.[8] Colt's revolving-cylinder patent finally did expire in 1854, and arms manufacturers had the green light to produce their own revolvers. The Whitneyville Amory manufactured a two-trigger Pocket Revolver, a Ring Trigger Pocket revolver, and a seven-shot Whitney Beals Patent Pocket Revolver. The Whitney Beals models were Colt 1851 Navy weapons that Whitney purchased as surplus goods, refinished, and offered to sell to the Army and Navy[9] before the Whitney Navy was produced in the late 1850s.[10] The Whitney Navy (.36 caliber) was a popular six-shot, solid, iron-frame revolver with 7 1/2" octagon barrel, overall length of 13 1/8", bronze or iron trigger guards, and oil-finished walnut grips. There were 33,000 produced in

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the late 1850s and early 1860s.[11] The so-called First Model has a noticeably thin top strap, and the top of the barrels are stamped "EAGLE CO" on most Whitneys above the serial numbers 500 to approximately number 1200. The First Model consisted of four distinctive types among the 1500 produced. [12] The differences in these types may seem insignificant, but Whitney considered each a necessary improvement, and collectors use them to more specifically identify their revolver. First Model, First Type has a light-constructed frame with a thin top strap and no loading lever assembly or barrel markings. There is an iron trigger guard with an eagle, shield, and lion cylinder scene. Only about 100 were made. First Model, Second Type is the same as the First Type, but with attached loading lever using a ball-type catch. There were 200 of these were manufactured. First Model, Third Type has a three-screw frame rather than four and a threepiece lading lever. These bear serial numbers 300-800. First Model, Fourth Type has grips that are rounded where they meet the frame, safety notches on the rear of cylinder, and barrels that usually bear the "EAGLE CO" stamp. A few are seen with "E. WHITNEY/ N. HAVEN." The serial numbers of these fourth types are 800-1500.[13] The Second Model is considered Whitney's basic revolver, with six distinctive types identified among the 34,000 produced.[14] The First Type is found in the serial number range 1-1200 and has only one safety notch at the rear of the cylinder. The Second Type ranges in serial numbers from 1200 to13000 and has six safety notches at the rear of the cylinders. The Third Type is found in the serial number range of 13000-15000, and the ball-loading lever catch is replaced with a Colt wedge type. The Fourth Type cylinder scene shield is stamped "WHITNEYVILLE" and ranges through serial numbers 15000-25000. The Fifth Type is the same as the Fourth but with a larger trigger guard and serial numbers 25000-29000. The rifling of the Sixth Type is reduced from seven groves to five and has a serial number range of 29000-34000.[15]

The Whitney pictured here is an example of the Second Model, Third Type. It has an octagon barrel marked "E. Whitney/N. Haven" on the top with a fourdigit serial number. A matching serial number is found on the bottom of the loading lever, the bottom of the brass trigger guard, and the bottom of the frame (revealed by removing the trigger guard).

Ball-lever latch The cylinder pin is held in place by a winged nut, and the lightly rolled cylinder scene has completely worn away without leaving a trace of the eagle, shield, and lion scene that once graced it. The loading lever is held under the barrel by a ball latch at the end. The well-worn walnut grips suggest a history

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with what appears to be "1861 Nov and 10 Ky" carved on the butt. The inside of the left grip is stamped with the same serial number found in the abovementioned places. The numbers on the inside of the right grip, however, are covered by a piece of cloth with what appears to be the block letters "CS" stamped on it.

Left grip is serial numbered to gun but nearly impossible to see in the photo. Right grip shows old paper glued to inside of grip with what appears to be the remains of blocked "CS." When Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as president on March 4, 1861, many Southern states had already begun arming themselves in case of war. One of the desired handguns was the Whitney revolver, and Governor Thomas H. Hicks of Maryland bought 1,000 of these guns in 1860. That same year, Virginia purchased 1,000 Whitneys before the Union states began buying them in 1862.[16] Since the Bluegrass State is not listed as a Whitney customer, and the 10th Kentucky Cavalry and 10th Partisan Rangers were not organized until 1863,[17] the carvings are clues indicating Johnnie Reb ownership, but the dotting of i's and crossing of t's are lost to history. As an aside and possible carving explanation, the first article I published was about a Confederate 1860 Army Colt owned by Henry Preston Rosser with "HPR" and "1862" carved into the grip's bottom. However, Henry did not enter the Army until 1864, after turning sixteen. The whittling mystery was solved by his son R. L. "Bob" Rosser, who told the author he had carved the date and his father's initials into the butt. The initials proved ownership and the date the year the pistol was made.[18]

Carving appears to read "1861 NV/ 8 KY." Although Colt and Winchester[19] are more often associated with Texas Rangers than lesser-known firearms, our Lone Star Lawmen actually carried a variety of weapons. One of the overlooked revolvers they certainly wore was the Whitneyville Whitney.

Notes

1. McAulay, Civil War Pistols, 153. Eli Whitney Sr. was born in 1765 and died in 1825. His armory was managed by two nephews until Eli Whitney Jr. came

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of age in 1842. 2. Rosenbaum, Penguin Encyclopedia of American History, 97. Through a chain of unfortunate events, Eli was unable to acquire a patent on his invention until it had been copied by a multitude of individuals, thus costing him his rightful financial reward. Because of this, he turned to weapon production and received his first government contract in 1798. The firm he established produced their last revolver in 1879 and last long arm in 1886. 3. Peterson, Encyclopedia of Firearms, 353. The popular myth identifies Whitney's 1798 Musket as the first American weapon to have interchangeable parts. The first bona fide, exchangeable-parts rifle was the 1819 Hall Breechloading flintlock. What Eli did was invent tools that could be used by armatures "...to make the same parts of different guns, as the locks for example, as much like each other as the successive impressions of a copperplate engraving." (Flayderman p.240). 4. Flayderman, Flayderman's Guide, 238. Simon North's 1813 flintlock-pistol contract was the first to require the weapon to have interchangeable parts (Flayderman, 285). 5. Stroud, "The Walker Colt." One thousand for the Army and one hundred for presentation. 6. Flayderman, 239. 7. Flayderman, 240. 8. Flayderman, 312. Colt won a patient-infringement lawsuit in 1851 against the Massachusetts Arms Company. 9. For photographs and descriptions of these revolvers, see Flayderman's Guide. The Whitney copy of Colt's 1851 Navy is not illustrated, but in a letter dated October 23, 1857, Whitney states that he was "ready to Contract to furnish, if desired, your Department with Colts Repeating pistols like Colts of the Navy or Belt size (or army) at $12 each for Navies--$10 ea. For Belt & $15 for Army size. I can supply better pistols of my own new model, but with Colts revolving attachment at the same prices." (McAulay, 153-154). 10. Flayderman, 257. Colt's Root Pocket Model of 1855, available in both 265 and .31 calibers, was the first solid-frame revolver. However, the inventor failed to patent the solid-frame. Therefore, Remington, Whitney, and others incorporated that feature on their revolvers in Navy and Army calibers. 11. The "Eagle Co." markings remain a mystery. The more famous solid-frame revolver is the Remington made in both Army and Navy calibers. 12. Flayderman, 257. 13. Flayderman, 257. 14. Carlson, Antique American Firearms Catalog. "Basic" is the word used by Carlson in his catalog, describing the civilian Whitney offered for sell. 15. Flayderman, 257.

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16. McAulay, 154, 155. Whitney's ad stated, "BELT PISTOLS.--Army or Navy, medium size, Plated mountings, six shots, 7 ½ inch Barrel, Caliber 36-100 of an inch, [50 elongated, or 80 round bullets to the pound,) with Bullet Mould, Nipple Wrench and Screw ­driver,--weight 2 ½ lbs.....$16.00." This was part of the price list sent to the U.S. Ordinance Department on January 2, 1860, and maybe the price Maryland and Virginia paid for the Whitney Navies. 17. Crute, Units of the Confederate Army, 135. 18. Stroud, "The Army Colt of Henry Preston Rosser," 72. Mr. Rosser also carved "RLR" and "1918" into the left grip of his 1911 Colt Automatic he brought home from World War I. 19. Stroud, "The Winchester."

Bibliography

Carlson, Douglas R. "Antique American Firearms 1848 to 1898," Catalog No. 118, September 20, 2004. Des Moines, IA. Crute, Joseph H. Jr. Units of the Confederate Army. Midlothian, Virginia, Derwent Books, 1987. Flayderman, Norm. Flayderman's Guide to Antique American Firearms...and Their Values, 8th ed. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2001. McAulay, John D., Civil War Pistols: A Survey of the Handguns of the American Civil War. Lincoln, RI: Andrew Mowbray, Inc., 1992. Rosenbaum, Robert A. and Douglas Brinkley, Penguin Encyclopedia of American History. Viking, 2003. Stroud, David V. "The Army Colt of Henry Preston Rosser, C.S.A." Gun Report, April 1980. Stroud, David V. "The Winchester." Texas Ranger Dispatch, Issue 7, Summer 2002. http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/7/Winchesters.htm. Stroud, David V. "The Walker Colt." Texas Ranger Dispatch, Issue 2, Winter 2000. http://www.texasranger.org/dispatch/9/ColtSingle.htm.

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Book Review One Ranger: A Memoir

By H. Joaquin Jackson and David Marion Wilkinson

Reviewed by Robert M. Utley

H. Joaquin Jackson and David Marion Wilkinson. One Ranger: A Memoir (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005).

Many Texans still recall that splendid image of Joaquin Jackson that appeared on the cover of the Texas Monthly in 1993, the year Jackson turned in his Texas Ranger badge. Fittingly, it also appears on the dust jacket of his memoir. It is a full-length portrait that personifies the oldtime Ranger: broad-brimmed hat, neckerchief, leather leggings, spurred boots, Model `94 Winchester .30-30, and a pistol on each hip. What are in the holsters cannot be seen, but he declares his preference for the 1911 Colt automatic. The celebrated circled-star badge of the Texas Rangers adorns his chest. He looks like he could have been one of the Rangers who followed such legends as Bill McDonald and John Hughes at the end of the nineteenth century. Jackson's appearance, however, is entirely appropriate to his time and place: 1966-93 in South and West Texas.

The Ranger Service was skillfully erected by the venerated Colonel Homer Garrison, head of the Department of Public Safety from 1938 until felled by cancer in 1968. By 1966, the Ranger organization had assumed two overlapping identities. Jackson and his peers policed country roads and contended with bad men resembling those of the frontier West of McDonald and Hughes. High-speed pursuit cars, aircraft, and radio communication vastly improved their capabilities, but they still trailed rustlers and smugglers like their predecessors, and the rugged land still demanded that they mount on horseback for many tasks. By contrast, urbanized East Texas called for a different man and different methods. Here--far more than in South and West Texas--homicide, burglary, bank robbery, kidnapping, rape, assault, and other crimes common to cities preoccupied the Rangers. When not diverted by strikes, gambling, or other such assignments, the East Texas contingent regarded their principal mission as solving major crimes. Sometimes they took to horseback, but mostly they worked with autos, aircraft, radios, and the superb scientific crime laboratory

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in Austin. Only when they wanted to appear conspicuous did they don the garb that marks Joaquin Jackson. Little interchange of personnel occurred between these Eastern and Western Rangers, and the drama of the battle against major crime has tended to obscure the role of the Rangers in the western part of the state. Here, one Ranger helps remedy that focus. In 1966, Joaquin Jackson was a member of the select few who beat the stiff competition for a Ranger appointment. Indeed, he was one of the last three men on whom Colonel Garrison himself pinned the distinctive Ranger badge. He drew assignment to Company D, the one western outfit that gained plenty of publicity in the following decade. The captain was Alfred Y. Allee, headquartered in Carrizo Springs. The publicity arose from the role of Allee's Rangers in the farm labor strikes in the lower Rio Grande Valley. As the U.S. Supreme Court ultimately decided, the Rangers deprived the Mexican-American workers of their constitutional rights. For almost a decade, the Ranger Service endured bad publicity and widespread calls for its abolition. Oddly, Jackson does not tell us anything about this significant episode in Ranger history. He does, however, recount in fascinating detail his role in the election crisis of 1972 in Crystal City, which pitted Mexican cannery workers against the entrenched Anglo establishment. Jackson also provides the best characterization of the controversial Captain Allee I have seen anywhere. Together with all the other Rangers of Company D, Jackson venerated Allee, a blocky, tough, cigar-chomping, old-time Ranger who took the heat for the civil rights abuses of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Jackson explains why the Rangers all worshiped him but also concedes his flaws. As Jackson observes, Texas changed but Allee didn't. Another Ranger adds: Allee just didn't know how to change. David Marion Wilkinson co-authors this book. He is a well-known, first-class writer, nd the text flows smoothly and readably. Jackson's blunt, forthright prose often interjects, but mainly we are reading Wilkinson. That the text is cast in first-person means that Jackson approved it, so it all may be taken as his words. For the most part, the chapters are stories out of Jackson's career involving interesting characters, drama, and action that illustrate who this Ranger is and how he matured. They reveal the unfolding of a fine Garrisonera Ranger, one who tells the truth as he remembers it and is candid in acknowledging his shortcomings and failures as well as his successes. I especially appreciate two frank observations. First, Jackson sees himself as part of a generation of Rangers that Colonel Garrison nurtured as individualists responsible for taking care of their problems as they saw fit, calling for help only when essential. By contrast, modern Rangers are computerized and bound by rule books. Nevertheless, Jackson states that they are good and "every bit as magnificent in their time as my generation was in ours. They aren't better or worse, they're just different." Second (and consistent with that reflection) Jackson retracts all the critical reasons attributed to him for quitting in 1993, especially the common complaint about unqualified women politically foisted on the all-male Ranger Service. In truth, he confesses--just like Captain Allee--that times had changed and he hadn't, and even if he knew how, he didn't want to. It was

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time to leave. This is a fine book, a good read, and a needed glimpse of an aspect of twentieth-century Rangering hitherto neglected. I have two criticisms. First, I think Jackson should have told us how he viewed and participated in the farm workers' strike of 1966 and its aftermath. Second, the book has no index, incredible for a press as prestigious as the University of Texas.

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Terminating Oklahoma's Smiling Killer

by Robert M. Utley

Since the 1935 formation of the Department of Public Safety, which combined the Highway Patrol and the Texas Rangers, Company B in Dallas had been one of the two most active Ranger units. First under Manuel "Lone Wolf" Gonzaullas and then under Robert Crowder, Company B vied with Company A in Houston as the new breed of "concrete Rangers" or "city Rangers." In fact, they strove to be more urban detectives than the old breed of frontier Rangers. In the spring of 1957, however, Company B met a daunting challenge at the same time as organizational uncertainty imposed a jarring daily tension. Ranger Jay Banks In the first nine months of 1957, Texas Rangers warily anticipated a major reorganization of the Department of Public Safety, which badly needed streamlining. The span of control had become too great for even the legendary director Homer Garrison. Beginning in 1955, the nonprofit Texas Research League worked with Garrison to devise a new organization structure. Officially submitted in January 1957 and immediately consigned to the legislature, the report suited the director, who so confidently expected its adoption that he began to put it into effect. One measure Garrison implemented was to move Captain Crowder to Austin as "acting chief, Texas Rangers." This is puzzling, for the Texas Research League's report made no provision for such a position. It may be speculated that Colonel Garrison negotiated it with the report's authors and was disappointed at its omission. When the legislature enacted the law based on the report in May 1957, therefore, Crowder's title vanished. Crowder then accepted the post of regional commander in Lubbock, effective September 1, whether by choice or pressure from Garrison is not evident. The regional innovation disturbed the Rangers. Under the new arrangement, Ranger captains would report to regional majors rather than to Director Garrison, as they had done before. The relationship proved unworkable and

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was abandoned by the end of 1957. In any event, Bob Crowder, even though a major, almost at once discovered that he preferred his old Ranger company.[1] Crowder had made an outstanding captain, treasured by Colonel Garrison, beloved by his men, and ideal for the top Ranger post Garrison had in mind. But in the spring of 1957, Crowder could not return to Company B. His sergeant, E. J. "Jay" Banks, had taken over as acting captain of Company B, a title he held until September 1, 1957, when he gained the permanent captaincy. Arthur Hill transferred from the Big Bend as Banks's sergeant. Having been nurtured by Crowder, Banks boasted a fine record as criminal investigator and tough lawman. A master of pistol and rifle, he had demonstrated more than once that he did not shrink from blasting any gangster inclined to resist. Also, as Glenn Elliott remembered, "Jay was a very high-profile type person. He was always on the cover of a magazine or newspaper." Banks even stood as the model for the statue of the ideal Texas Ranger that still graces the terminal lobby of Dallas's Love Field. Still, Banks was not Bob Crowder, and his men did not leave the record of praise they had heaped on Crowder. Nor did Sergeant Hill think highly of Banks.[2] Like Crowder, Jay Banks is mainly remembered for one bloody event, despite starring in a string of well-publicized cases. Banks faced this incident as an untested acting captain with a newly promoted sergeant who lacked experience as a "city Ranger." The foe was perhaps the most vicious gangster in the Southwest. Gene Paul Norris, the "Smiling Killer," was an Oklahoma mobster with a long record of murder, burglary, bank heists, and sadism. He seemed to enjoy killing, and the slightest provocation could trigger his revenge, which was often preceded by torture. Big-time criminals hired him as a hit man, and lawmen credited him with about fifty homicides. The FBI kept track of the comings and goings of Norris and his sidekick William Carl "Silent Bill" Humphrey. Outside Oklahoma, Fort Worth was Norris's principal area of operations, and he drove there in March 1957. Norris had conceived a scheme for robbing the payroll of the branch of the Fort Worth National Bank at Carswell Air Force Base. He knew that James E. Papworth, who ran a collection agency out of a Lake Worth office on the northwestern edge of the city, had served prison time with John W. Taylor. Taylor was the former manager of the branch bank and had been convicted of embezzlement. Norris and Papworth met late in March at the Beachcomber Tavern, located at the intersection of Meandering Road and the Jacksboro Highway, just north of the lake from which the suburb took its name. Norris demanded (or proposed) that Papworth get a floor plan and other inside information about the bank from Taylor. Papworth would later contend that he agreed to do this because Norris threatened to kill his wife and child if he didn't. However, Fort Worth Police Chief Cato Hightower believed Papworth was in on the scheme from the beginning. In any case, Papworth delivered. He handed over the floor plan and the name and address of the cashier, Mrs. Elizabeth Barles, who lived on Meandering Road near the Beachcomber Tavern. The plan was for Norris and Humphrey to take Mrs. Barles and her twelve-yearold son John hostage early on Tuesday April 30, 1957, the morning of the scheduled payroll delivery. Almost certainly, in view of Norris's style, the two

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were to be murdered at once. What he wanted was not hostages but Mrs. Barles's auto and bank keys. Her car, bearing a base-entry sticker, would get them into the base, and the keys would get them into the bank. There, they would wait for the payroll couriers to arrive with $500,000 in cash and tie them up. Then Norris and Humphrey would return to pick up their own car at Mrs. Barles's residence.[3] But first, Norris had unfinished business in Houston. The mission was to carry out a twenty-year-old vow: a revenge killing of gambler John Brannan, whose testimony in 1937 had sent Norris's brother to prison for ninety-nine years. On April 17, Norris and Humphrey entered the Brannan home, threw blankets over the heads of Brannan and his wife, and pounded their heads to a pulp with hammers. Police discovered the deed the same night. Before long, they and veteran Ranger Captain Johnny Klevenhagen, head of Company A, had enough evidence to support arrest warrants. Aside from pistols that linked the two to recent robberies, police had twice spotted Norris's souped-up, green, 1957 Chevrolet in Brannan's neighborhood and had once given chase, only to be outrun by the powerful Chevy. Ranger Johnny Klevenhagen The Carswell bank scheme had hardly been worked out before the FBI knew about it, alerted by a tipster whose identity was not officially revealed. Captain Banks later identified the informant as Papworth himself. In Fort Worth, the FBI, Texas Rangers, Fort Worth police, and Tarrant County sheriff met to work out a plan. They knew where Norris and Humphrey were holed up, and they arranged a listening device connected from their motel room to Norris and Humphreys's next door. Thus, they knew exactly what the two gangsters planned.[4] The law enforcement response to Norris's design exemplified the long-time Ranger policy of cooperation with other agencies. Company B's acting captain, Jay Banks, worked smoothly with Tarrant County Sheriff Harlon Wright, Fort Worth Chief of Police Cato Hightower, and FBI Special Agent in Charge W. A. "Bill" Murphy. The FBI tracked Norris and Humphrey from Houston to Fort Worth, where they arrived on Saturday, April 27. With the surveillance link in place, they learned that the two outlaws intended to make a dry run of escape routes on Monday afternoon. Officers laid plans to apprehend the two hoodlums then. Banks called Johnny Klevenhagen in Houston and invited him to take part. The captain grabbed his shotgun and arrest warrants and sped north to Fort Worth. On Monday afternoon, April 29, the local officers converged on the Lake Worth community in three cars. Captain Banks drove his new, high-powered Dodge with Captain Klevenhagen, Chief Hightower, Sheriff Wright, and city detective Captain O. R. Brown as passengers. Ranger Jim Ray was at the wheel of the second car with Arthur Hill (Banks's sergeant) and city Chief of Detectives Andy Fournier in tow. (Ray had been a Ranger for only two weeks but a Highway Patrolman for twelve years before that.) In the third vehicle were Ranger Ernest Daniels, City Detective George Brakefield (later a Ranger), and Sheriff's Deputy Bobby Morton.[5]

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Banks's car contained the top law officers because they would man the ambush. Posting Sergeant Hill and his two Rangers at Casino Beach, an amusement park a short distance up Meandering Road from the Jacksboro Highway, Banks and his carload of four other officers drove two miles southwest down Meandering Road to Mrs. Barles's home. She and her son had been moved to another house on Sunday. Banks and his companions lay in wait to spring the trap once Hill radioed that they had turned from Jacksboro Highway onto Meandering Road. The lawmen at the Barles house readied themselves. They hoped to take the gangsters alive but knew, in all probability, it could not be done.[6] The FBI spotted the two outlaws in Fort Worth and radioed, "Norris and Humphrey are stopped at the corner of Northwest 28th and Main. They are in a 1957 Chevrolet. Now Norris and Humphrey are driving down 28th." The FBI followed the men until Hill spotted the fugitives turning onto Meandering Road. He radioed that he had them in view. "Take over, Rangers, we are out of it, now," was the FBI reply. Hill swung in behind Norris and Humphrey at a distance, but he quickly warned the others that the scheme had gone awry. A Cadillac and the green Chevy had turned right off Meandering Road onto a residential street. Hill turned, too, maintaining a discreet distance. The officers sighted a man getting out of the front car and into the second, and they misinterpreted what they saw. Actually, the first car was Papworth's, and he was taking Norris to show him the location of the Barles house. Humphrey was following in the Chevrolet. Papworth, according to his confession, had second thoughts and deliberately took a wrong turn. An enraged Norris, hurling threats, got out of the car and ran back to get in the car with Humphrey. At this time, they spotted Hill's car behind them. Swiftly turning in a driveway and backing out, they sped back to Meandering Road and swerved northeast toward the Jacksboro Highway. Banks and his Dodge full of locals were on their tail. Suddenly, Humphrey veered left off Meandering Road and bumped across an open pasture toward the Jacksboro Highway, which here ran almost parallel and about one-fourth mile from Meandering Road. Banks followed. Humphrey smashed through a fence, bounced across a ditch, and headed up the fourlane Jacksboro Highway. Banks kept on his tail.[7] In the meantime, Sergeant Hill, with Jim Ray driving, raced back up Meandering Road to the Jacksboro Highway. At the left turn, Ray miscalculated and found himself speeding north in the southbound lanes of the Jacksboro Highway. Soon, he had pulled abreast of the two cars across the median, but he then slowed to cross into the northbound lanes and fell behind. The third car, monitoring the radio traffic, now joined the chase, close behind Ray. The pursuit reached speeds of 120 miles per hour, sirens wailing but no red lights flashing, thanks to budgetary stringency. Norris leaned out and exchanged fire with three officers hanging out the windows of Banks's car. The race slowed not at all as they streaked down the main street of Azle, scattering autos and pedestrians but avoiding collisions. A mile and a half south of Springtown, in Parker County, Humphrey swerved right onto a country road, spraying mud across the highway. This was probably not a sudden decision but part of the escape plan earlier mapped.

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Banks turned, too, but spun in two complete circles before recovering and heading in the right direction. A light rain fell, making the caliche-based road slick as it twisted along the banks of flood-swollen Walnut Creek. Bullets and blasts from Klevenhagen's shotgun continued to slice the space between the vehicles. Suddenly, Humphrey took a curve too fast, slid on the rain-slick road, plowed into a ditch, and smashed into two trees. He and Norris leaped from the car and ran toward the creek, firing pistols at Banks as he sought to bring his Dodge to a stop.

Rangers Banks & Klevenhagen With their car crossway on the road, the officers piled out, firing with all the weapons at their command. Klevehagen had his shotgun, and Banks grabbed his M-3 (an Army M-1, converted to fully automatic with a large clip), but the magazine fell out, and he had to run back to retrieve it. The two fugitives fired from behind the creek bank and then struggled to cross the raging water. Bullets downed Humphrey, whose body later washed up on a small, flood-made island.

Body of Silent Bill Humphrey and Unidentified Police Officer. Screaming laughter, Norris backed across the creek, firing at the lawmen, all

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of whom sprayed bullets from every weapon they had. Banks let go the entire clip of his rifle. As he later stated, "The bullets started stitching Norris, and he didn't have enough hands to stop up the holes. He died, screaming like a baby, on the banks of muddy Walnut Creek." Norris fell backward in the mud. All the officers later maintained that they did not know who had downed Norris, but the consensus awards the distinction to Banks and his automatic. [8] At this moment, Jim Ray topped a little hill at high speed and saw Banks's car broadside across the road. He hit the brakes, swung in a complete circle, and came to a stop three feet from the side of the other vehicle. As Ray rolled out, Klevehagen shouted, "I'm out of ammunition! He's getting away; give me a gun!" Ray pitched him his own shotgun. The third pursuit car rolled to a stop, but the firing had ended before Ray even got there. The bodies of both gangsters could be seen in and across the creek, about thirty yards apart. Norris had slipped back down the slope, his feet in the water. Fearing Norris would be swept away by the floodwaters, Sergeant Hill dragged the body back up the hillside.

Norris' Corpse on the Creek Bank Attendants at the Fort Worth funeral home where the corpses were taken told the press that Norris took sixteen hits, mostly in his chest and body. Humphrey had twenty-three wounds in his mouth, chest, and left leg. "He shot him to pieces," concluded Jim Ray of Banks's burst of automatic rifle fire. The furious chase of twenty-five miles had put many citizens at risk. Even the sheriff had urged Banks to call off the pursuit, to no avail. After years of work, Banks and his fellow officers had ended the rampage of two of the deadliest criminals in Texas history.[9] Chief Hightower declared that the death of Norris enabled him to clear nine murder cases from his books. The operation testified to the merit of agency cooperation and revealed the planning skills of the Rangers as well as their ability to push an auto chase to the limit and prevail in an exchange of gunfire. Jay Banks served three more years as captain of Company B. On March 2, 1960, Homer Garrison called Banks to Austin and informed him that he would have to be let go. According to Banks, Garrison offered neither explanation nor a hearing. Banks promptly submitted his application for retirement. When

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protests from law enforcement and judicial officials all over Texas began to inundate Garrison's desk, he released the explanation that Banks had failed to follow repeated orders to shut down gambling in Fort Worth. Whether true or not, this was merely a cover story. Banks's self-serving explanation may have contained a kernel of truth, but it was so suffused with bitterness that it aroused skepticism. Banks named no names, but he clearly blamed Homer Garrison, Assistant Director Joe Fletcher, and Public Safety Commission Chairman C. T. McLaughlin. Their motivation stemmed from the discontent of Bob Crowder in his post as major of the Lubbock region and his desire to return as the Company B captain. Banks also accused this "older Ranger," who had once led the company, of using his captaincy for personal gain and bribing federal Internal Revenue agents to ignore his misdeeds. "Anyone else would have been immediately fired from that position," Banks protested. Bob Crowder did, in fact, return to the captaincy of Company B. This was a move Garrison and Fletcher had surely favored and arranged after Banks's resignation. Despite widespread protests, Rangers themselves did not complain. They knew the real reason lay in personal misbehavior the director and the chairman of the Public Safety Commission believed would bring discredit to the service. The Ranger rumor mill throbbed with speculation, but the theories never become public. Bob Crowder captained Company B until his retirement in 1967. He served as effectively and commanded as much respect and affection of his men as before 1957. He died in 1972 at the age of seventy-one. Jay Banks went on to serve as chief of the Big Springs Police Department and head of public safety for Southern Methodist University. He died in 1987.[10]

Notes

1. Texas Research League, the Texas Department of Public Safety: Its Services and Organization (Austin, 1957). Company B's new sergeant, Arthur Hill, recorded in his weekly log that he conferred in Austin with Chief Crowder in October 1956; Hill Family Papers, courtesy Sharon Spinks; Lewis C. Rigler and Judyth W. Rigler, In the Line of Duty: Reflections of a Texas Ranger Private (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1995), 154. 2. Glenn Elliott with Robert Nieman, Glenn Elliott: A Ranger's Ranger (Waco: Texian Press, 1999), 73; Linda Jay Puckett, Cast a Long Shadow: A Casebook of the Law Enforcement Career of Texas Ranger Captain E. J. (Jay) Banks (Dallas: Ussery Printing, 1984), 102. Banks mentions his position as acting captain of Company B, although his memory of dates is faulty. 3. Papworth finally confessed his role, although in self-serving terms. He explained the content of the confession to a reporter, and that report appeared in the evening edition of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, May 1, 1957. 4. Accounts by participants differ in some major ways. At the time, all refused to identify the tipster. Banks later named Papworth when he talked to crime writer Stan Redding for a biographical article about Klevenhagen, "Top Gun of the Texas Rangers" for True Detectives magazine, February 1963. Contemporary sources in the newspapers claimed to have planted an informer as a third robber who kept them posted on what Norris and Humphrey were up to. The informer was not identified at the time. This seems less plausible to me than Papworth. Norris and Humphrey were cagey,

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cautious criminals. That they would have so readily accepted a third accomplice seems unlikely unless he were, in fact, Papworth, who was complicit in the scheme from the beginning. The surveillance between motel rooms is the recollection of Sergeant Hill in an interview by Andy and Sharon Spinks, December 30, 1986, for Hill Family Papers, courtesy Sharon Spinks. 5. Most sources have Hill, Ray, and Daniels in Hill's car and the three city detectives in the third car. However, Sergeant Hill's weekly activity notebook for April 29, penned that day, names Fournier as the third officer in his car. Hill Family Papers, courtesy Sharon Spinks. 6. Most sources have Hill at the intersection of Meandering Road and Jacksboro Highway, the location of the Beachcomber Tavern. Hill's daily log, however, names Casino Beach. Jim Ray's interview with Robert Nieman on October 18, 1999, identifies a small park up Meandering Highway from the intersection. 7. Most accounts have the chase occurring entirely on Meandering Road. This is Banks's account (Puckett, Shadow, 116). Banks has the two cars swerving onto a frontage road, headed the wrong direction. The chase sequence is difficult to work out plausibly, however, especially since the contemporary Fort Worth map shows the frontage road ending before it could have been accessed from a pasture. It seems unlikely to me that Banks could have invented the pasture story. 8. This seems plausible because Norris's wife, who appeared the next day, could have brought murder charges against a named lawman, and this was a simple way to avoid litigation. 9. This episode has been difficult to reconstruct. Vital sources are contemporary accounts of participants in both the morning and evening editions of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, April 30 and May 1, 1957, and the same dates of the evening paper, the Fort Worth Press. I am indebted to J'Nell Pate of Azle for researching these papers for me and also providing a copy of the relevant portion of a Fort Worth city map of 1957. In later accounts of participants, memories differed both on events and geography. The sources are Banks himself (Puckett, Shadow, chap. 19); Hill in an interview with Andy and Sharon Spinks, December 30, 1986; and Hill's weekly activity notebook for relevant dates, courtesy Sharon Spinks. Good if journalistically phrased detail is in Stan Redding, "Top Gun of the Texas Rangers," True Detectives Magazine, February 1963; Douglas V. Meed, Texas Ranger Johnny Klevenhagen (Plano: Republic of Texas Press, 2000), chap. 17; and Jim Ray, interview with Robert Nieman, October 18, 1997, copy provided by Nieman. Another version based on Ray's memory is contained in Nieman, "Capt. Johnny Klevenhagen," Texas Ranger Dispatch magazine, Issue 10 (Spring 2003), found online at Texas Ranger Hall of Fame Web site www.texasranger. org. Meed based his account on the Houston Post, May 1, 1957, but wrongly attributed the killing of Norris to Klevenhagen. The accounts of Banks, Hill, and Ray are much more plausible, especially since the crime-scene photograph of Norris's body (which I have seen) belies the notion that he was killed by a shotgun. These later recollections proved valuable in filling in details contained in the contemporary newspaper accounts, especially Banks's account. 10. Puckett, Shadow, chapters 23-24 contain Banks's self-justification.

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