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Carbon Fiber in Wind Energy

Texas Supply Chain Workshop August 10 ­ 11, 2010 BNSF Ft. Worth, TX

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Agenda

Who is Zoltek? Zoltek's Carbon Fiber Products Why Carbon Fiber in Wind Turbine Blades

Carbon Fiber Products for Wind Energy

Summary / Questions

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Brief History of Zoltek

Zoltek Companies, Inc.

1975: Founded 1988: Entered Carbon fiber business via acquisition (Stackpole Carbon) 1992: IPO, ZOLT on Nasdaq 1992 ­ 1998: R&D Stage (developing carbon fiber technology) 1998: Launched Low Cost Carbon Fiber Concept Locations

­ ­ Headquarters: St. Louis, MO Production Sites:

­ Precursor & Carbon Fiber: Hungary, Mexico ­ Carbon Fiber: Texas, Missouri ­ "Value-Added" (Machinery, Prepreg): Utah

­ ­

Sales Offices globally R&D: Composites (St. Louis), Textiles (Hungary), Precursor (Mexico)

Manufacturing Carbon Fiber and "Intermediate" products

­ ­ ­ 50K carbon fiber for composite applications Oxidized PAN fiber for aircraft brake systems Intermediate Products; Prepreg, Fabrics, Pultruded Profiles

Design and Manufacture Composite Processing Solutions

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Entec

­

Zoltek Mission

Lead the Commercialization of Carbon Fiber for Industrial Applications

Target industrial markets (e.g. wind, automotive) Low cost/high throughput production Growing capacity with or ahead of market demand Independence from aerospace pricing cycles Supply/Pricing commitment via long term contracts

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How is Zoltek different?

Zoltek

Large Tow (50K) "Commercial Fiber"

Traditional

Small Tow (<24K) "Aerospace Fiber"

1. Lower-cost production

­ Textile type precursor ­ Low Capex ­ High Throughput ­ Stable pricing focused on cost reduction ­ Compete with other materials (e.g. glass fiber) ­ Maintain available capacity for growing applications ­ Add capacity in 6 months ­ Cost-effective approach for automated manufacturing

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­ Aerospace (SAF) precursor ­ Higher Capex ­ Lower throughput, no changes allowed ­ Market-driven pricing tied to aerospace cycles ­ Compete with other carbon fiber suppliers

­ Only expand capacity when demand far exceeds supply ­ Add capacity in18-36 months ­ Develop solutions with an "aerospace" mentality

2. Pricing

3. Supply commitment 4. Composite Solutions

Zoltek's Operations Footprint

Salt Lake City, UT · Entec Composite Machines · Prepreg Operations St. Louis, MO · Corporate Headquarters St. Charles, MO · Carbon Fiber · Technical Fiber · Aircraft Brake Fibers Nyergesujfalu, Hungary · Precursor · Carbon Fiber · Technical Fiber · Fabrics / Yarns

Abilene, TX · Carbon Fiber

Guadalajara, Mexico · Precursor · Carbon Fiber

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Our Manufacturing Operations

Nyergesújfalu, Hungary

Precursor Carbon Fiber

20,000 MT 8100 MT

Abilene, TX Abilene, TX

Carbon Fiber

2500 MT

Initial Project

Future Potential

Guadalajara, Mexico

Precursor

Carbon Fiber

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28,000 MT

2250 MT

60,000 MT

22,500 MT

Supply Availability is the most critical aspect of our commercialization strategy

In the last 6 years, we have demonstrated our ability to quickly ramp capacity to meet the commercial carbon fiber demands driven by Wind Energy industry requirements

Zoltek Growth in Production Capacity

14 12

13

Thousand MT

10

62% CAGR

6.5

10.5

8

6 4 2 0

2004 2005 2006

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3.5 2

2007

2008

Introduction to Zoltek's Carbon Fiber Products

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Panex® 35 ­ the commercial carbon fiber

50,000 filaments 7.2 micron diameter Strength = 4150 Mpa Modulus = 242 Gpa Density = 1.81 g/cc Yield = 270 m/kg Carbon Content = 95%

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Zoltek's carbon fiber

3 fiber categories

1. Standard Modulus 2. Intermediate Modulus 3. High Modulus

7000

6000

Tensile Strength (MPa)

5000

Standard Modulus most widely used due to balance of properties & lower cost Zoltek's Panex® 35 is a standard modulus material with excellent properties

4000

Intermediate + High Modulus

Standard Modulus

3000

2000

1000 100

80 ­ 90% of market

200 300 400

10 ­ 20% of market

500 600 700

Tensile Modulus (GPa)

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Further Division within "Standard Modulus" Carbon Fibers

Carbon Fiber has historically been used in aerospace and high-end sporting goods applications In the last decade, two major events forced a split in the carbon fiber industry....

Boeing and Airbus announced plans to significantly increase the amount of carbon fiber in their airplanes.

Wind energy was the first major industrial application to begin using carbon fibers in large volumes

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Carbon Fiber Value Chain

Carbon Fiber Production

Dry Process

Wetting Process

Composite Part Making

Customer Application

Filament Winding Pultrusion / Pull-winding

PANEX Tow

Prepreg Braiding Weaving UD Fabrics Multi-axial Composite Part Autoclave / Vacuum

Infusion/RTM

Wind turbine blade Auto body panel etc.

PANEX Milled/ Chopped

Compounding

Injection / Compression Molding

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Why Carbon Fiber in Wind Turbine Blades?

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Anatomy of a Wind Turbine Blade

Root Shear Web Core

Skin Spar Caps

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Benefits of Carbon Fiber in Wind Blades

Thinner and more efficient airfoils

­ Higher energy output per length of blade ­ Lower Cost of Energy

Stiffer blades

­ Less or no prebend for tower clearance ­ No shipping problems

Slender blades result in lower extreme loads on towers and WTG's Lower blade mass is easier to handle in production, shipping and mounting Carbon Fiber Blades have better fatigue performance

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Glass Fiber vs Carbon Fiber

Fiber Glass Tensile Strength (Mpa) Density (g/cc) Specific Strength 3500 2.67 1311 Fiber Glass Prepreg 1050 1.98 531 Carbon Fiber 4137 1.81 2286 Carbon Fiber Prepreg 1900 1.53 1242

Tensile Modulus (Gpa) Density (g/cc) Specific Modulus

73 2.67 27

43 1.98 21

242 1.81 134

130 1.53 84

Composite Strength: A carbon fiber composite is 2.3 times stronger than a glass fiber composite.

Composite Stiffness: A carbon fiber composite is 4 times more stiff than a glass fiber composite

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Blades with Carbon Fiber = Less Mass

All-glass blades 25000 Blade Weight (kg) 20000 Blades utilizing Carbon Fiber

15000

10000 5000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Blade Length (m)

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60

70

Does a Carbon Blade Cost More?

Glass Blade 1.2 m Prebend Blade Cost Spar Cost Glass Blade 5.4 m Prebend Spar Weight Total Weight

Carbon Blade 2 m Prebend

-

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

50,000

60,000

70,000

80,000

90,000

100,000

56 Meter Blade

· Glass Blades always heavier · Lowest Blade Cost has unacceptable prebend · Carbon Blade, cost effective and 25% to 35% less weight · Carbon Blade higher aerodynamic efficiency

$'s or kgs

No. Carbon Blades are Cost Competitive

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Carbon Fiber Structural Products in Wind Turbine Blades?

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Zoltek Products for Wind

FABRICS Unidirectional Fabrics (150 gsm ­ 1300+ gsm) Custom areal weight, stitching patterns available to improve infusion, drapability, handling. Up to 3 m wide 1,200 MT capacity PREPREG 150 gsm ­ 1000 gsm Typically 80 ­ 180 C cure temperature (able to do higher or lower) Vacuum pressure cure (no autoclaves required) Up to 1.25 m wide 8,200 MT capacity PULTRUDED PROFILES Standard rods: 6 mm (1/4"), 9.5 mm (3/8"), 13 mm (1/2") Standard plates: 1.4 mm x 10 mm (1/2"), 50 mm (2"), 100 mm (4") Custom profiles available

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Prepreg vs. Resin Infusion

Prepreg

­ Good option for carbon girders; low risk ­ Well established technology; currently used in production ­ Excellent performance / controlled fiber alignment ­ Moderate material cost ­ Can use automation

Resin Infusion of a Uni-Directional Carbon Fabric

­ Used less frequently than prepreg ­ Requires more material weight vs. prepreg ­ Lower material cost

­ Generally lower mechanical properties

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Prepreg Mechanical Properties

Zoltek Prepreg Products (Typical Laminate Properties) Vf (58%)

Width Carbon Fiber Areal Weight Laminate Density Tensile Strength Tensile Modulus Compression Strength Compression Modulus Germanischer Lloyd Approval

Up to 1.25 meters 300-600 gsm 1.54 g/cc 2040 MPa 136 GPa 1330 MPa 125 GPa Yes

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Resin Infused Mechanical Properties

Zoltek Uni-Directional Fabric Products (Typical Epoxy Infused Properties) Vf (55%) Fabric Width Areal Weight Laminate Density Tensile Strength Tensile Modulus Compression Strength Compression Modulus Up to 3 meters 300-900 gsm 1.52 g/cc 1600 MPa 125 GPa 950 MPa 115 GPa

Zoltek UD Fabrics are produced at Zoltek Carbon Fiber Operations in Hungary

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Direct Comparison of Prepreg to Infused Fabric

Prepreg Cured Laminate Physical Properties Fiber Volume Fraction, % Cured Laminate Mechanical Properties Tension - 0° Strength, MPa Modulus, GPa Compression - 0° Strength, MPa Modulus, GPa 1330 125 950 115 2040 136 1600 125 58% 55% Resin Infused Fabric

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Entec Composite Machines

Delivering Composite Solutions with Commercial Carbon Fiber

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Entec Composite Machines

Next Generation Composite

Automation

­ Molding processes ­ Low cost impregnation Pattern Generation Software

Filament Winding machines

Pultrusion Machines Fiber Placement systems

Computer Control Systems

Fiber Management Systems Impregnation Systems

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Zoltek in Wind Energy

Zoltek has sold Panex 35 into wind energy for over 5 years. NO BLADE FAILURES. Zoltek sells over 4,000 metric tons of carbon fiber every year into wind energy.

More than 20,000 metric tons of Zoltek Carbon Fiber Spinning in Blades today.

Zoltek Products are Germanischer Lloyd Approved.

Zoltek Provides Carbon Fiber and downstream products, prepreg and uni-directional fabric.

Entec Machine can provide wind energy processing solutions.

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COMMERCIALIZING CARBON FIBER

[email protected]

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