Read Strategic Vocabulary Selection 2008 Workshop Presentation text version

Strategic Vocabulary Selection: Choosing Words From Narrative & Informational Texts

Elfrieda H. Hiebert University of California, Berkeley www.textproject.org

A vision of classrooms where students receive the gift of words*

Scott, J.A., Skobel, B.J., & Wells, J. (2008). The word-conscious classroom. NY: Scholastic.

1.Opportunities for scaffolded silent reading

That include forms of vocabulary logs

2. Rich language by teachers through read-alouds

and...everyday routines

Today we're going to saunter to lunch. It's time to commence cleaning off your desks. Our way of speaking today is to murmur. We will need to strain to discern what people are saying. Be certain to enunciate clearly. Your task is to get your desk into shipshape form. I need to verify if anyone is absent today. I inadvertently left the door ajar. Can someone please close it? Please add your name to those who will be receiving accolades at the end of the week. What highlights of our day will you impart to your family tonight? I notice that many of you are quite lethargic after lunch.

Receiving the gift of words involves direct instruction as well.

3. Direct instruction of thematic groups of words from informational text 4. Direct instruction of semantic clusters of words from literary/narrative texts

Words in American Schoolbooks

6 5 4 3

WordZonesTM

0-2

Zeno et al., 1995

Narrative Text 1 (of 3)

Far out at sea, a great Russian icebreaker named the Moskva picked up the faint signal. "We read you," the captain radioed back. "We're on our way, but it may take us several weeks to reach you. Can you keep the whales alive until then? Some of the people from Glashka's village started setting up a base camp near the whales. Others set out by dogsled to alert the surrounding settlements.

Narrative Text 2 (of 3)

The cracks in a rock in the tomato patch say, Dear Lily, Today I touched dew and a spider's web. Now I look for stars. Very truly yours, the Rock. I copy the words onto my pad, put it in my backpack, and walk on. The fireflies switch on their flashing lights, and if I watch without blinking,

Narrative Text 3 (of 3)

When they reached the tepee on top of the mountain, Coyote told Bear to wait in the shadows until he heard Coyote call "Aooo!" Then Bear must make a big, loud rumpus. Coyote crept up to the tepee. He gave a soft bark, and one of the Fire Beings opened the flap and looked out.

Informational Text 1 (of 3)

Even after stirring, sugar sometimes drops to the bottom. This is evidence that not all of the sugar is dissolved. When all the sugar dissolves, you can't see it. If the sugar isn't all dissolved, you can try stirring some more. You can also try adding more water. Sometimes you can make all the sugar dissolve. Sometimes you can't.

Informational Text 2 (of 3)

We added real lemon juice, and tried to think of other uses for it. We thought it might be a good cleaner if it had an abrasive in it-something with hard and sharp edges that can scrape off dirt. We felt the flour and the salt with our fingers.

Informational Text 3 (of 3)

There are many kinds of flours. Flour is always a powder. It might be white, brown, or yellow. Flour is a mixture. It contains starch, sugar, fat, and some other substances. Flour does not dissolve well in water. A little bit of the flour will dissolve in water, but mostly it doesn't dissolve.

Aims of Today's Presentation

1. Background on English vocabulary 2. How the words in informational & narrative texts are the same and different 3. What to teach & how to teach it: Informational vocabulary 4. What to teach & how to teach it: Literary vocabulary 5. Putting it all together: A vocabulary program

Summary of Key Points

1. Background on English vocabulary (Summary: size, discrepancy, lack of curricular definition, & historical layers) 2. Similarities/Differences Narrative & Informational Vocabulary (Summary: share 5, 586 words; differ in need for, conceptual complexity, & repetition of rare words) 3. Curriculum & Instruction: Informational Vocabulary (Summary: derived from topics identified in state standards; thematic networks & experiences) 4. Curriculum & Instruction: Literary Vocabulary (Summary: synonyms that pertain to story elements and common conceptual megaclusters) 5. Putting it all together: A vocabulary program (Summary: strategies during reading, teacher reading & language, direct instruction of literary words, direct instruction of thematic words)

1.

Background on English Vocabulary:

a. English vocabulary is huge: 290,500 entries in the OED; with variant spellings, obsolete forms, combinations and derivatives over 616,500 words. b. Gap in students' vocabularies on school entry is extensive (Hart & Risley, 1994) c. Content of Vocabulary Curricula in English/Language Arts is ill-defined as evident in:

State Standards Core Reading Programs Assessments

Standard Documents

Content Area Civics Sample Words abuse of power, campaign, elected representative, geographical representation, individual liberty, Labor Day, national origin, patriotism, school board, Uncle Sam, welfare abbreviation, capitalization, e-mail, genre, illustration, learning log, paragraph, reading strategy, table, verb billboards, discovery, fall line, harbor, Japan, land clearing, national capital, Pacific rim, rain forest, technology, vegetation region addend, capacity, equation, gram, improbability, mass, obtuse angle, quotient, sample, unit conversion bedrock, Earth's axis, gases, inherited characteristic, magnetic attraction, ocean currents, recycle, technology, water capacity

From Marzano (2004)

English Language Arts Geography

Mathematics Science

Targeted Vocabulary from 3 stories in a Mid-2nd Grade Unit of a Core Reading Program

Story 1 apartment delivery handcarts restaurant market celebrations tai chi graceful cobbler arrive favorite medicinal herbal musty herbs seafood sizzles crackle woks clang barely furious kung fu develop

Story 2 bushy costume disguise handsome mirror mustache sarape sword sombrero soldiers tough grown-up kindergartner hola disappeared bigote apron retraced discovered polish smeared creation solve cereal buenos días fist gracias grinned Story 3 booth plaque station subway token mayor worry halfway tile blending collection swoosh

Assessment

40 30 20 10 0 PPVT: Gr. 4

Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6

Zones 0-2

d. All is not lost, however: Sources of English

Greek/Latin Specialized words used mostly in science EX: thermometer, geography

Romance 1066 (Norman Conquest)-1399 (Henry IV, a native Anglo-Saxon speaker assumes throne): French is spoken by upper classes; English by lower-classes. French loan words remain. EX: frigid, perspiration, soil

Anglo-Saxon Common, everyday, down-to-earth words EX: cold, sweat, dirt

(from Calfee & Drum, 1981)

2. What's the same?

·The fluency curriculum (i.e., the 5,586 most-frequent words in written English)

Words in American Schoolbooks

6 5 4 3

WordZonesTM

0-2

Zeno et al., 1995

A

300 most-frequent words; short and long vowels 500 most-frequent words; short, long, r-controlled vowels 1,000 most-frequent words; all monosyllabic words 1,000 most-frequent words; all morphological "derivatives" 2,500 most-frequent words 5,000 most-frequent words

B C D E F

Level B

Making Movies You've probably seen many movies, so you know that movies can be about many different things. Sometimes writers create an idea for a movie. At other times, ideas for movies come from books. Any kind of book can be used the make a movie. Some books may tell stories the writer created. Others may be about real people and places. When a movie is based on a book, movie-makers decide how closely to follow the book. They decide how the people and places in the book will look and which parts of the story they will show.

Making fantasy real Some movies are based on fantasy books. In fantasy books, writers imagine a world of people and places that are not real. It is the job of the movie-makers to show the world that the writer imagined. When the three Lord of the Rings books were made into movies, it took about 300 different sets to show the fantasy world the writer had imagined. Although the books were more that 1000 pages long, the three movies ran for about 11 hours. That means that the movie-makers had to show only the most important parts of the books.

Technology changes the arts New technologies, or new ways of doing things, have changed the world. Today, we can ride in planes instead of riding on horses. That's because of new technology. We can send mail through computers instead of through the post office. New technologies have changed art and music, too. Although artists still use paint and musicians still play pianos, new technologies allow artists and musicians to create their work in new ways. Perhaps the most exciting part of these new technologies is that they have created new ways to create art works. Just as people still send letters through the post office, people still use paint and pianos without speakers. Today, however, artists can paint with beams of light. Musicians can write music with computers. Technology adds richness to the ways people can create and experience the arts.

Level D

Digital photography At first, many people thought that photography was not really one of the arts. A photograph, after all, was nothing more than a picture of something that existed in life. Early in the 20th century, though, people began to think of photographs as art. They understood that photographers chose their subjects and arranged them just as painters did. Today, photography is an accepted art form. Although photography was once a new technology, digital photography has become an even newer technology. Digital cameras store photos on memory chips, not on film. Photographers using this new technology do not need a darkroom. Instead, they load their images on a computer and print them on a printer. Artists can easily change the colors, sizes, and shapes of their subjects on a computer screen. Digital photographers can also create photographs that look like paintings.

What does the nervous system do? Level F Although your body's systems work together, each one has a special job. The job of the nervous system is to manage the other system. Your nervous system is made up of your brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Your brain is the control center of your body. Your spinal cord joins your brain to your nerves. Your nerves receive information from inside and outside your body and carry it to your brain. They also carry information from your brain to your muscles so that you can respond. Your body has two types of responses. One is a conscious response. You think before making conscious responses, like answering a question. The other type of response is an unconscious response. You do not think before making unconscious responses. Jerking your hand away from a flame is an unconscious response. Your muscles respond before your brain tells you the flame is hot.

The control center The human brain, which weighs about 3 pounds, is not the largest brain on earth. However, it is the largest when it is compared to the size of the body it is in. The human brain is also the most complex brain on earth. It thinks about what is going on around it, and it plans what to do in response. Thinking is a complex process. It allows humans to decide how to respond to things. It allows humans to change themselves and the world around them. It also lets humans create things. The three main parts of the brain are the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brainstem. Thinking and learning take place in the cerebrum. The cerebrum also stores memories. The cerebellum controls muscle movement. It also controls balance, keeping the body steady and stable. The brainstem manages basic life jobs, such as breathing and blood pressure.

2. What's different? a. Ratio of difficult to familiar

He lay on his side for a moment, then pulled a rasping breath and held it, listening for the attacker to return. When it was apparent that the shadow wasn't coming back he felt the calf of his leg, where the pain was centered and spreading to fill the whole leg. His fingers gingerly touched a group of needles that had been driven through his pants and into the fleshy part of his calf.

Gr. 6 Narrative

He lay on his side for a moment, then pulled a rasping breath and held it, listening for the attacker to return. When it was apparent that the shadow wasn't coming back he felt the calf of his leg, where the pain was centered and spreading to fill the whole leg. His fingers gingerly touched a group of needles that had been driven through his pants and into the fleshy part of his calf.

Gr. 6 Informational

All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane and contain cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm of most cells can be found mitochondria, vacuoles, and a nucleus that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane and contains chromosomes. Although there are differences between the cells of different organisms, all living things must carry out similar life processes. Therefore, it should not be surprising that all cells are somewhat similar.

Gr. 6 Informational

All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane and contain cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm of most cells can be found mitochondria, vacuoles, and a nucleus that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane and contains chromosomes. Although there are differences between the cells of different organisms, all living things must carry out similar life processes. Therefore, it should not be surprising that all cells are somewhat similar.

2. What's different? a. Ratio of difficult to familiar

The ratio of difficult to familiar vocabulary needed to be "high" (i.e., one substance word in three) before reliable effects on comprehension were evident (Freebody & Anderson, 1983)

2. What's different? b. Conceptual difficulty of words

Of numerous factors, only conceptual difficulty was significantly related to learning from context (with conceptually difficult words less likely to be known than words with known concepts) (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987) 1. Known concepts with one-word synonym (e.g., altercation=fight) 2. Known concepts that can be expressed in a familiar phrase (e.g., apologize=to say you're sorry) 3. Unknown concept that can be learned from available experiences & information (e.g., naïve) 4. Unknown concept that is based on new factual information or a related system of concepts (e.g., divide as "boundary between drainage basins" requires knowing about river systems)

Conceptually Complex of Words from Grade 6 Narrative & Science Texts

Categories 1-3 Narrative 100% (slithering, wincing, kindling, gestures) 64% (absorb, microscope) Category 4

Science

36% (e.g.: fermentation, cytoplasm)

2.

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

What's different

c. Rare words are repeated more frequently in informational than narrative texts Reading/Language Arts

HM2-HM4

HM4-HM6

SF2-SF4

SF4-SF6

Across HM & SF

35 30 25 20

Science

15 10 5 0

HM2-HM4 HM4-HM6 SF2-SF4 SF4-SF6 ALL HM-SF

3. Informational Vocabulary: What to teach

a. Content-specific b. General academic--words such as system, process, form

3. Informational Vocabulary (i.e., Content-specific words): What to teach

a. Many words have Romance-based morphology (e.g., combine/combination; solution/dissolve) b. Many compound words and phrases are present in informational texts.

Layers of English: How new words are made Greek/Latin

Specialized words used mostly in science EX: thermometer, geography New Words through compounding of word parts: thermosphere, geopolitical Romance 1066 (Norman Conquest)-1399 (Henry IV, a native Anglo-Saxon speaker assumes throne): French is spoken by upper classes; English by lower-classes. French loan words remain. EX: frigid, perspiration, soil New Words through derivations: frigidity, frigidness, refrigerator Anglo-Saxon Common, everyday, down-to-earth words EX: cold, sweat, dirt New Words through compounding: cold-blooded, cold-natured, cold-drink, cold-running

(from Calfee & Drum, 1981)

3a. Rich in Morphological Word Families

ingredient(s)

Designing Mixtures

substance mixture pure

solution

chemical

substances substanceless substantial(ly substantiation substantiate (ed, ing, s)

mixtures mix (ed, er, es, ing) admixture chemosynthesis chemotherapy/ therapeutic chemoreceptors chemoreception chemoautotrophic chemiluminescence chemotropism

ingredient(s)

Designing Mixtures

solventthinned

substance mixture pure chemicals chemically chemistry chemist

solutions soluble solubility(itiies) solve (d, s, ing) solvent(s) solvency dissolve(s)

solution

chemical

purebreds purehearted pure-in-heart pure-tissued

chemicalusing chemicalsupply chemicallyinactive chemicalmessenger

purer/purest purely purity purify (purified, purifying, purifies. purifier) purification (s) purist(s) impure impurity(ities)

3b. Compounding in Informational Texts

Examples of Compound Words:

Baking soda Acid-changer Citric acid Crystal cubes Soda water Human-made Calcium carbonate Natural oils Carbon dioxide

Examples of Compound Phrases:

Earth's features Solar system Air movement Air pressure Surface temperatures Science process Scientific method Digestive system Senses of touch Nervous system

3. What to teach: Vocabulary for core concepts

dissolve

property

Designing Mixtures

substance

absorb

combine

dissolve ingredient property

Designing Mixtures

substance mixture pure

soluble

odor

acid abrasive solution chemical

3. What to teach: Content-Specific Science Vocabulary: Grade 2

·pole ·attracts ·repels ·magnetic field ·magnetic ·nonmagnetic ·compass

Magnets

Grades 2 & 4

·electrical discharge ·negatively charged ·atoms

·electric charges ·static electricity

·electric current ·conductors ·electric cell ·electric circuit ·insulators ·parallel circuit ·series circuit ·simple circuit ·switch ·circuit breaker ·fuse

·magnetic poles ·temporary magnet ·permanent magnetic ·electromagnet ·generator ·motor

·pole ·attracts ·repels ·magnetic field ·magnetic ·nonmagnetic ·compass

Electricity & Magnets

Grades 2, 4, & 6

·electrical discharge ·negatively charged ·atoms ·volt ·amperes ·voltage ·alternating current (AC) ·direct current (DC) ·circuit breakers

·electric charges ·static electricity

·electric current ·conductors ·electric cell ·electric circuit ·insulators ·parallel circuit ·series circuit ·simple circuit ·switch ·circuit breaker ·fuse

·magnetic poles ·temporary magnet ·permanent magnetic ·electromagnet ·generator ·motor

·pole ·attracts ·repels ·magnetic field ·magnetic ·nonmagnetic ·compass

Electricity & Magnets

·armature ·commutator ·cathode ray tube ·negative terminal ·electrons ·phosphor ·steering coils ·pixels ·positive terminal ·anode ·magnetic data storage ·magnetic dipoles ·magneto-optical disks

3. Informational Vocabulary: How to teach it

·Indepth experiences with concepts

[illustrated with the sequence in Lawrence Hall of Science Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading Program]

Do it

Students test ingredients and mixtures to learn more about possible glue ingredients and to select those that are stickiest

www.seedsofscience.org

Talk it

Students evaluate results and decide which ingredients to use to make glue

www.seedsofscience.org

Read it

Students read a book that models the design process

www.seedsofscience.org

Write it

Students use their records from first and secondhand sources to decide what combination of ingredients best meets their design goals.

www.seedsofscience.org

4. Literary vocabulary: What to teach

a. Synonyms (remember the AngloSaxon/French alternatives) b. Compound words/collocations c. Idiomatic use of language

a. Synonyms

Greek/Latin Specialized words used mostly in science EX: thermometer, geography

Romance 1066 (Norman Conquest)-1399 (Henry IV, a native Anglo-Saxon speaker assumes throne): French is spoken by upper classes; English by lower-classes. French loan words remain. EX: enemy, perspiration, soil

Anglo-Saxon Common, everyday, down-to-earth words EX: foe, sweat, dirt

(from Calfee & Drum, 1981)

stir hue and cry

hullabaloo noise racket hubbub din uproar clamor

to-do bother

furor ruckus rumpus commotion turmoil upheaval

tumult mayhem chaos turbulence disturbance trouble riot fracas disorder brouhaha brawl free-for-all melee

fuss excitement argument protest ado bustle

tentatively: hesitantly uncertainly timidly shyly sheepishly

carefully: suspiciously charily circumspectly

delicately: precisely skillfully dexterously deftly adroitly

gingerly

gently: quietly softly lightly kindly smoothly soothingly tenderly

cautiously: guardedly watchfully vigilantly warily with care

LIKE/DON"T LIKE *perfect *wonderful *favorite

FEELINGS *happy *excited *pleased *scared *worried WORDS THAT DESCRIBE *cross *angry *furious *frowning

OTHER GROUPS: *crowded *flat *steep *graceful *bushy *strong *tough *barely

*noisy

NOISES

*whisper *whisper *clomping *clomping *sizzles *sizzles *swoosh *swooch *swooch *crackle *crackle *clang

WORD GROUPS FOOD *cereal *seafood CLOTHES *costume *apron *sombrero *sarape

BODY *fist JOBS *mayor *guard *cobbler

PLACES *apartment *subway *restaurant *station *booth

PEOPLE *gentleman *master *grown-up *kindergartner

Category Name NAMES FOR PEOPLE & ANIMALS PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES FEELINGS & VALUES BODY & HEALTH MACHINES & TOOLS EARTH & SUN

Description General names having to do with gender, age, occupations, group membership Features of objects and living things, including size, shape, texture, color Human emotions, traits, values, and attitudes Health, body, clothing, and food of humans Mechanical and electrical devices, tools, & vehicles and actions involved in use of machines and tools Aspects of the physical universe, including water, soil, landscape, vegetation, weather, temperature, fire, light Places where people live and do business, including rooms and their furnishings and materials used to make/build these places/dwellings Actions or motion that are typically human but, sometimes, can be made by animals Cognitive, affective, social, and perceptual actions of humans Oral communication, including language and noises/sounds. Human endeavors that include literature, arts, and sports Terminology on specialized topics, including mathematics and domains of science (chemistry, electricity)

PLACES & DWELLINGS PHYSICAL ACTIONS & MOTION COGNITIVE/ PERCEPTUAL ACTIONS COMMUNICATION ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT SPECIALIZED CONTENT AREAS

Examples of Clusters Names related to age: baby, child, grown-up Military groups: army, marines, navy, air force Scientists: engineer, astronaut, astronomer Large land animals: deer, elk, gazelle, horse Small/Large: little, tiny, huge, enormous, massive Depth: deep, shallow, thin, wide Texture: hard, soft, rough, bumpy, furry, spongy Feelings: Fear, worry, anger, fierceness Importance/Value: essential, supreme, desirable Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction: delight, regret Difficulty/Ease: Easy, comfortable, convenient Disease/Health: sickness, illness, wellness, health Head: face, cheek, chin, forehead, skull Kinds of clothing: suit, uniform, costume, outfit Prepared foods: noodles, cereal, bread, tortilla General Tools: drill, lever, hammer, saw, shovel Engines: motor, gear, brake, turbine Vehicles: car, truck, bus, train, tractor, airplane Actions in using vehicles: fly, row, drive, sail Forms of water: rain, snow, ice Land/terrain: valleys, mountains, forests Vegetation: trees, flowers, moss, vine Storms: blizzard, rainstorm, tornado, thunder Town: city, village, settlement, suburb, inner city Dwellings where people live: house, apartment Parts of dwellings: room, kitchen, bedroom Wooden building material: lumber, wood, timber Harming/fighting: injure, attack, harm, stun Owning: lose, discard, abandon, acquire Running/walking: stroll, saunter, limp, shuffle Choosing: pick, decide, select, judge Looking: look, see, watch, behind, glance, gaze Mouth/Nose: smell, sniff, sneeze, choke, spit Money-related: earn, pay, spend, owe, bet, sell General human: talk, speak, converse, discuss Informing: show, explain, describe, mention Human noises: snore, yell, giggle, cry, whisper Animal noises: gobble, croak, cluck Types of books: textbook, catalogue, novel Specific sports: football, baseball, basketball Musical instruments: piano, drum, trumpet Plays/movies: cartoon, movie, scene, stage Mathematics: equation, formula, denominator Chemicals: Oxygen, helium, nitrogen, phosphate Molecules/Atoms: ion, electron, neutron, proton

© Hiebert, 2007

Category Name

NAMES FOR PEOPLE & ANIMALS PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES FEELINGS & VALUES BODY & HEALTH MACHINES & TOOLS EARTH & SUN PLACES & DWELLINGS PHYSICAL ACTIONS & MOTION COGNITIVE/PERCEPTUAL ACTIONS COMMUNICATION ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT

© Hiebert, 2007

4b. Compound words & phrases

Emergency radio Radio transmitter Icebreaker Beluga whales Distress call Base camp Sealskins Dogsled Sled dogs

Open water Main channel Rock and roll Classical music String basses Electric guitars Winter cold

High-pitched Pathway Folk music waterproof

4c. Idioms

Old ones Near tears Long is the time The time has come Going home Hard times to come Earliest time Made good time

4.Literary vocabulary: How to teach

Names for People & Animals Body & Health

Communication Physical Attributes

Glashka elders beluga whales crew Narna

whine eerie moans ancient sounds

Physical Actions & Motions

Cognitive/Perceptual Actions

gnaw distress signal emergency call chipped

Feelings & Values

Earth & Sun TITLE of TEXT:

A Symphony of Whales

Places & Dwellings Arts & Entertainment

blizzard

Machines & Tools

bay channel

icebreaker Moskva radio transmitter

symphony melodies solo violin

4. Literary vocabulary: How to teach Story Elements: A Symphony of Whales

Setting far north with long, dark winters full of blizzards village is close to a bay surrounded by ice Characters Glashka & her family old ones of village (elders) & other villagers beluga whales crew of icebreaker (the Moskva)

The Problem Glashka has heard songs for a long time (voice of Narna, the whale; memories gnaw at her); on a trip for supplies, she and family find a bay with thousands of stranded beluga whales who will die when water freezes

Events/Plot eerie moans & whistles get dogs' attention (they whine and paw anxiously) They make emergency call (distress signal) to an icebreaker that can clear a channel for whales

Events/Plot Icebreaker takes several weeks to come In meantime: Surrounding settlements are alerted; edges of ice are chipped Icebreaker plays songs of whales (ancient sounds) Whales don't follow icebreaker

The Solution Glashka hears music of Narna in dream (new melodies); Glashka tells captain on radio transmitter to try other music, none of which works. When whales hear solo violin, they follow icebreaker to ocean Glashka says that she hears a symphony of whales now, not just Narna

Word Lines

How happy would you be if: 1. you heard a bear prowling outside your classroom? 2. you were pursued by a pack of laughing monkeys? 3. you were given an award for your courage in rescuing a lost pet?

Least Most Happy________________________Happy

Sentence Stems

The newspaper called Jim courageous because.... The police pursued the person running out of the bank because.... The girl became melancholy because....

5. Putting it together: A Vocabulary Program

INSTRUCTIONAL CONTEXT

SOURCES FOR VOCABULARY

5a. Strategies during Reading ·Basal anthology ·Students' choices for classroom and home reading

5b. Teacher reading & language

·Books used in teacher read-alouds ·Focus concepts (from direct instruction of literary words)

5c. Direct Instruction: Literary words (story elements/concepts)

·Instructional texts but words chosen to exemplify story elements and/or concept "megaclusters"

5d. Direct Instruction: Thematic groups of words (typically content-area words)

·Content-area standard ·Content-area programs (including but not limited to texts)

5a. Opportunities for scaffolded silent reading with instruction in context use strategies ·Use paragraphs from texts that students are going to read ·Begin with the sentence that has the target word, asking students to describe the meaning of the word. ·Add sentences from the surrounding text to verify or establish meaning.

Using Context How could I be such a mensa? She scolded herself as she sat cross-legged, the telephone cradled in one hand and a cookie in the other. She blamed her biology teacher for her problem. If he hadn't made them dissect frogs, she wouldn't have been so absentminded.

(from Gary Soto's The Challenge)

Using Context How could I be such a mensa? She scolded herself as she sat cross-legged, the telephone cradled in one hand and a cookie in the other. She blamed her biology teacher for her problem. If he hadn't made them dissect frogs, she wouldn't have been so absentminded.

(from Gary Soto's The Challenge)

Using Context How could I be such a mensa? She scolded herself as she sat cross-legged, the telephone cradled in one hand and a cookie in the other. She blamed her biology teacher for her problem. If he hadn't made them dissect frogs, she wouldn't have been so absentminded.

(from Gary Soto's The Challenge)

Using Context How could I be such a mensa? She scolded herself as she sat cross-legged, the telephone cradled in one hand and a cookie in the other. She blamed her biology teacher for her problem. If he hadn't made them dissect frogs, she wouldn't have been so absentminded.

(from Gary Soto's The Challenge)

5a. Vocabulary Logs

5a. Vocabulary Logs

5a. Vocabulary Logs

5b.

Teacher Talk in Daily Routines

Example: Rather than reminding a student that he didn't quite close the door, the teacher might tell the child to close the door because it is ajar. Example: Rather than asking a student to water a drooping plant, the teacher might say that the plant is becoming dehydrated. Example: Rather than telling students to line up faster, the teacher might ask them to stop dawdling.

(from Lehr, Osborn, & Hiebert, 2005)

5b.

Teacher Read-Alouds

Lizzie Nonsense: A story of pioneer days (Jan Ormerod)

nonsense playing, pretending, dreaming afloat in a boat tends the garden beautiful bouquet party dress with frills, lace, and bows imagination, imaginary baby in carriage dingoes howling harnesses jangling make haste run helter-skelter

Josepha: A Prairie Boy's Story (Jim McGugan)

Wind ruffled Sun flickered Windbreak poplars Wheels groaned and whined Gravel track Drumming, churning Hummed the tune

Reeled around Smacking the land Twine suspenders Mock quivered Hushed and muffled Blushing bull

INSTRUCTIONAL CONTEXT

SOURCES FOR VOCABULARY

5a. Strategies duringReading ·Basal anthology ·Students' choices for classroom and home reading

5b, Teacher reading & language

·Books used in teacher read-alouds ·Focus concepts (from direct instruction of literary words)

5c.

Direct Instruction: Literary words (story elements/concepts)

·Instructional texts but words chosen to exemplify story elements and/or concept "megaclusters"

5d

Direct Instruction: Thematic groups of words (typically content-area words)

·Content-area standards ·Content-area programs (including but not limited to texts)

Aims of Today's Presentation

1. Background on English vocabulary 2. How the words in informational & narrative texts are the same and different 3. What to teach & how to teach it: Informational vocabulary 4. What to teach & how to teach it: Literary vocabulary 5. Putting it all together: A vocabulary program

Summary of Key Points

1. Background on English vocabulary (Summary: size, discrepancy, lack of curricular definition, & historical layers) 2. Similarities/Differences Narrative & Informational Vocabulary (Summary: share 5, 586 words; differ in need for, conceptual complexity, & repetition of rare words) 3. Curriculum & Instruction: Informational Vocabulary (Summary: derived from topics identified in state standards; thematic networks & experiences) 4. Curriculum & Instruction: Literary Vocabulary (Summary: synonyms that pertain to story elements and common conceptual megaclusters) 5. Putting it all together: A vocabulary program (Summary: strategies during reading, teacher reading & language, direct instruction of literary words, direct instruction of thematic words)

References

Badders, W., Bethel, L.J., Fu, V., Peck, D., Sumners, C., & Valentino, C. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Science DiscoveryWorks (Gr.4). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades: Vocabulary instruction needed. In J. F. Baumann & E. J. Kame'enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28­40). New York: Guilford. Cooper, J.D., Pikulski, J.J., Ackerman, P.A., Au, K.H., Chard, D.J., Garcia, G.G., Goldenberg, C.N., Lipson, M.Y., Page, S.E., Templeton, S., Valencia, S.W., & Vogt, M. (2003). Houghton Mifflin Reading (Gr. 4). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2) 213-238. Dale, E., & O'Rourke, J. (1981). Living word vocabulary. Chicago: World Book/Childcraft. Dorph, R., Goldstein, D., Lee, S., Lepori, K., Schneider, S., & Venkatesan, S. (2007). The status of science education in the Bay Area. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of Science, UC-Berkeley. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. American Educator, 22, 4­9. Hiebert, E. H. (2005). In pursuit of an effective, efficient vocabulary curriculum for elementary students. In E. H. Hiebert & M. L. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning: Bringing research to practice (pp. 243­263). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hiebert, E.H. (May 2007). A core academic word list for the middle grades. Paper presented at the International Reading Association, Toronto, ON. Pearson, P.D., Cervetti, G., Bravo, M., Hiebert, E.H., & Arya, D.J. (August 16, 2005). Reading and writing in the service of acquiring scientific knowledge and dispositions: From synergy to identity. Paper presented at Edmonton Regional Learning Consortium, Edmonton, AB. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J., & Marzano, J.S. (198). A cluster approach to elementary vocabulary instruction. Newark, DE: IRA. Nagy, W.E., & Anderson, R.C. (1984). How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304-330. Zeno, S. M., Ivens, S. H., Millard, R. T., & Duvvuri, R. (1995). The educator's word frequency guide. NY: TASA.

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